ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
1
ɉɪɟɞɝɨɜɨɪ ɨɜɨɦ ɛɪɨʁɭ
ɉɨɲɬɨɜɚɧɢ ɱɢɬɚɨɰɢ,
ɉɪɟɞ ɜɚɦɚ ʁɟ ɧɨɜɢ ɛɪɨʁ, 1/2012, ɜɚɲɟɝ ɢ ɧɚɲɟɝ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɫɬɪɭɱɧɨɝ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢ ɠɭɪɧɚɥ
Ɋɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɟ ɋɪɩɫɤɟ.
ɍ ɨɜɨɦ ɛɪɨʁɭ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɨɜɢ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɨɜɚɧɢ ɧɚ ɝɨɞɢɲʃɟɦ ɫɚɜʁɟɬɨɜɚʃɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɚ
Ɋɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɟ ɋɪɩɫɤɟ ɭ Ɍɟɫɥɢʄɭ. ɇɚɪɚɜɧɨ, ɬɨ ʁɟ ɫɚɦɨ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɞɢɨ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ. Ⱦɢɨ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ ʁɟ ɧɚ ɪɟɰɟɧɡɢʁɢ ɩɚ ɧɢʁɟ
ɩɪɢɫɬɢɝɚɨ ɡɚ ɨɜɚʁ ɛɪɨʁ, ɚɥɢ ʄɟɦɨ ɫɜɚɤɚɤɨ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚɬɢ ɞɚ ɢɯ ɭɜɪɫɬɢɦɨ ɭ ɫʂɟɞɟʄɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ.
Ȼɢɥɨ ɛɢ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɞɚ ɭ ɧɚɪɟɞɧɨɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɭ ɢɦɚɦɨ ɜɢɲɟ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɛɢ ɛɢɥɢ ɢɡ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ
ɜɟɨɦɚ ɚɤɬɭɟɥɧɟ, ɚ ɬɨ ʁɟ, ɩɪɢʁɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ, ɭɫɜɚʁɚʃɟ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɢɯ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɞɚ ɡɚ ɭɥɚɡɚɤ ɭ ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɭ ɭɧɢʁɭ ɢɡ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ.
ȳɟɞɧɚ ɨɞ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɩɨɦɢʃɚɧɢɯ ɬɟɦɚ ɫɭ ɢ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɤɟ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɟ. Ɉɧɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ
ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɨ ʁɟ ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɩɨɫʂɟɞʃɟ ɜɪɢʁɟɦɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɚ ɨɩɪɟɞʁɟʂɭʁɟ ɡɚ ɭɜɨɻɟʃɟ
ɚɤɪɟɞɢɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɤɚɨ ʁɟɞɢɧɨɝ ɦɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɬɨɝ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢʁɭɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɞɚ ɡɚ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɟ.
ȳɍ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ Ɋɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɟ ɋɪɩɫɤɟ „Ⱦɪ ȼɚɫɨ Ȼɭɬɨɡɚɧ“ Ȼɚʃɚ Ʌɭɤɚ ɭ ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦɚɦɚ ʁɟ ɡɚ
ɩɪɨɲɢɪɟʃɟ ɚɤɪɟɞɢɬɚɰɢʁɟ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɛɢɬɢ ɭ ɫɥɭɠɛɢ ɝɪɚɻɚɧɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɟ. ɂɦɚʁɭʄɢ ɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɜɚ ɞɚɬɭɦ ɭɥɚɫɤɚ ɏɪɜɚɬɫɤɟ ɭ ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɭ ɭɧɢʁɭ, ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɲɬɨ ɛɨʂɟ ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦɢɦɨ ɡɚ ɬɭ
ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢʁɭ. ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɫɥɭɠɛɚ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢ ɦʁɟɪɟ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɟɧɭ, ɚ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɧɚɦɚ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɢɦ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ,
ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨ-ɟɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɲɤɚ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢʁɚ ʁɟ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɧɚ.
ɇɚɞɥɟɠɧɨ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɩɨʂɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɟ ɧɚʁɚɜʂɭʁɟ ɞɨɧɨɲɟʃɟ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚ ɤɚɨ ɢ ɪɟɜɢɡɢʁɭ ɢ
ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɯ ɨɛʁɟɤɚɬɚ.
ɋɜɢ ɪɚɞɨɜɢ ɫɭ ɥɟɤɬɨɪɢɫɚɧɢ ɢ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɢɪɚɧɢ.
Ɂɚɯɜɚʂɭʁɟɦɨ ɫɟ ɚɭɬɨɪɢɦɚ ɪɟɮɟɪɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɨɞɚɛɢɪ ɨɜɨɝ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ ɡɚ ɨɛʁɚɜɭ ʃɢɯɨɜɢɯ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɢ ɩɨɡɢɜɚɦɨ
ɢɯ ɧɚ ɞɚʂɭ ɫɚɪɚɞʃɭ.
ȽɅȺȼɇɂ ɂ ɈȾȽɈȼɈɊɇɂ ɍɊȿȾɇɂɄ
ɉɪɨɮ. ɞɪ Ⱦɪɚɝɨ ɇ. ɇɟɞɢʄ
2
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɋȺȾɊɀȺȳ/CONTENTS
1.
Ɇ. ɀ. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ, ȼ. Ɍɟɨɞɨɪɨɜɢʄ, Ⱦ. ɇ. ɇɟɞɢʄ, Ɇ. Ⱦɢɦɢɬɪɢʁɟɜɢʄ, ɇ. Ʉɚɪɚɛɚɫɢɥ, ȳ. ȭɭɪɢʄ
ɂɋɌɈɊɂȳɋɄɂ ɈɋȼɊɌ ɇȺ ɏɂȽɂȳȿɇɍ ɂ ɌȿɏɇɈɅɈȽɂȳɍ ɆȿɋȺ
M. Ž. Baltiü, V. Teodoroviü, D. N. Nediü, M. Dimitrijeviü, N. Karabasil, J. Ĉuriü
HISTORICAL REVIEW ON MEAT HYGIENE AND TECHNOLOGY........................................ 5
2.
Ȼɢʂɚɧɚ Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, Ɇ. ɋɬɟɩɚɧɨɜ, Ɇɚʁɚ Ȼɭɤɜɢʄ
ɌȿɊȺɉɂȳɋɄɂ ȿɎȿɄȺɌ ɉɊɂɆȿɇȿ ɊȺɁɅɂɑɂɌɂɏ ȺɇɌɂɆɂɄɊɈȻɇɂɏ ɋɊȿȾɋɌȺȼȺ
ɍ Ʌȿɑȿȵɍ ɄɈɆɉɅȿɄɋȺ ɊȿɋɉɂɊȺɌɈɊɇɂɏ ɈȻɈȴȿȵȺ ɋȼɂȵȺ (PRDC)
Ȼɢʂɚɧɚ Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, Ɇ. ɋɬɟɩɚɧɨɜ, Ɇɚʁɚ Ȼɭɤɜɢʄ
THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
IN TREATMENT PORCINE RESPIRATORY DISEASE COMPLEX (PRDC).......................... 11
3.
Ljiljana Jankoviü, Brana Radenkoviü-Damnjanoviü, Marijana Vuþiniü, Milutin Ĉorÿeviü
KARAKTERIZACIJA ýESTICA PRAŠINE U VAZDUHU SMEŠTAJNIH
OBJEKATA ZA KONJE
Ljiljana Jankoviü, Brana Radenkoviü-Damnjanoviü, Marijana Vuþiniü, Milutin Ĉorÿeviü
CHARACTERISATION OF AIRBORNE DUST PARTICLES IN HORSE STALLS ................. 17
4.
Ɇɚɪɢʁɚɧɚ ȼɭɱɢɧɢʄ, Ʉɚɬɚɪɢɧɚ Ɋɚɞɢɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ
ȳȺȼɇɈ ɁȾɊȺȼȴȿ ɂ ȾɈȻɊɈȻɂɌ ɀɂȼɈɌɂȵȺ
Marijana Vuþiniü, Katarina Radisavljeviü
PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE OF ANIMALS...................................................................... 25
5.
ɋɚʃɚ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɢʄ-Ʉɨɜɚɱɟɜɢʄ, Ⱦ. Ɇɚɪɢɧɤɨɜɢʄ ɢ ɂɜɚɧɚ ȼɭɱɢʄɟɜɢʄ
ɆȺɊɄȿɊɂ ɁɇȺɑȺȳɇɂ ɁȺ ɉɊɈȽɇɈɁɍ ɂ ɌȿɊȺɉɂȳɍ ɌɍɆɈɊȺ ɉȺɋȺ
Sanja Aleksiü-Kovaþeviü, D. Marinkoviü i Ivana Vuþiüeviü
PROGNOSTIC MARKERS SIGNIFICANT FOR THERAPY
OF TUMOURS IN DOGS ................................................................................................................... 34
6.
A. M. ȼɚɥɱɢʄ, ɋɨʃɚ Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, Ⱦ. Ȼɚɰɢʄ ɢ ɋɨʃɚ Ɉɛɪɟɧɨɜɢʄ
ɊȿɁɂɋɌȿɇɐɂȳȺ ɇȺ ȺɇɌɂȼɂɊɍɋɇȿ ɅȿɄɈȼȿ ɂ ȵȿɇ ɁɇȺɑȺȳ
ɁȺ ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɍ ɆȿȾɂɐɂɇɍ
A. M. Valþiü, Sonja Radojiþiü, D. Baciü and Sonja Obrenoviü
ANTIVIRAL DRUGS RESISTANCE – IMPORTANCE
FOR VETERINARY MEDICINE ..................................................................................................... 39
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
7.
3
ȼ. Ɋɚɤɟɬɢʄ, ɋ. Ƚɚɬɚɪɢʄ, Ⱦ. ɍɪɨɲɟɜɢʄ
ɍɉɈɌɊȿȻȺ ɋɍɇȭȿɊȺɋɌɈȽ ȳȺɋɌɍɑȿɌȺ ɍ ɌȿɊȺɉɂȳɂ ɏȿɆȺɌɈɆȺ ɍɒɇȿ
ɒɄɈȴɄȿ ɉȺɋȺ ɂ ɆȺɑȺɄȺ
V. Rɚkɟtiü, S. Gɚtɚriü, D. Urɨšɟviü
USE A FOAM PAD IN THE TREATMENT OF AURICULAR HEMATOMA
DOGS AND CATS ............................................................................................................................... 47
8.
M. Stevanþeviü, B. Toholj, J. Spasojeviü, M. Cincoviü, Ksenija Barjaktareviü
PRIKAZ SLUýAJA KARPALNOG HIGROMA KOD KONJA
M. Stevanþeviü, B. Toholj, J. Spasojeviü, Marko Cincoviü, Ksenija Barjaktareviü
CASE REPORT í CARPAL HYGROMA AT HORSE................................................................... 55
9.
Ɋɚɞɦɢɥɚ Ɇɚɪɤɨɜɢʄ, Ɇ. ɀ. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ, Ⱦ. ȼɪɚɧɢʄ, ȼ. ȭɨɪɻɟɜɢʄ, ɋ. Ɋɚɞɭɥɨɜɢʄ, Ⱦ. ɒɟɮɟɪ
ɉɈɌɊȿȻȿ ɋȺɅɆɈɇɂȾɇɂɏ ȼɊɋɌȺ ɊɂȻȺ ɍ ɏɊȺɇȴɂȼɂɆ ɆȺɌȿɊɂȳȺɆȺ
Rɚdmilɚ Ɇɚrkɨviü, Ɇ. Ž. Bɚltiü, D. Vrɚniü, V. Ĉɨrÿɟviü, S. Rɚdulɨviü, D. Šɟfɟr
NEEDS OF SALMONID SPECIES OF FISH IN NUTRIENTS ..................................................... 60
10.
Stamen Raduloviü, Dragan Šefer, Radmila Markoviü, Dobrila Jakiü-Dimiü, Svetlana Grdoviü
EFEKTI UPOTREBE KREATINA KAO STIMULATORA RASTA U ISHRANI ŽIVINE
Stamen Raduloviü, Dragan Šefer, Radmila Markoviü, Dobrila Jakiü-Dimiü, Svetlana Grdoviü
THE EFFECTS OF USING CREATINE AS A GROWTH PROMOTER
IN POULTRY NUTRITION .............................................................................................................. 66
11.
ȼ. ȼɢɞɨɜɢʄ, Ɇ. ɋɬɭɩɚɪ, Ⱦ. Ʌɭɤɚɱ, ȴ. ɒɬɪɛɚɰ
ȽȿɇȿɌɂɑɄɂ ɂɇɀȿȵȿɊɂɇȽ ɍ ɋɌɈɑȺɊɋɌȼɍ ɂ ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇɂ
V. Vidoviü, M. Stupar, D. Lukaþ, Lj. Štrbac
GENETIC ENGINEERING IN LIVESTOCK AND VETERINARY MEDICINE ....................... 74
12.
ȳ. Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ, Ȼ. ɋɚɜɢʄ, Ⱦ. Ɋɨɝɨɠɚɪɫɤɢ, ɇ. Ⱦɟɥɢʄ, Ɍ. ɉɟɬɪɭʁɤɢʄ
ɉɊȿȽɅȿȾ ɈȻɈȴȿȵȺ ɉɊȺɋȺȾɂ ɇȺ ɋɂɋɂ
J. Bojkovski, B. Saviü, D. Rogožarski, N. Deliü, T. Petrujkiü
REIVEW DISEASE OF SUCKLING PIGLETS .............................................................................. 82
ɍɉɍɌɋɌȼɈ ȺɍɌɈɊɂɆȺ
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS ................................................................................................... 89
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
5
UDK 637.5.03(091)
Ɇ. ɀ. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ, ȼ. Ɍɟɨɞɨɪɨɜɢʄ, Ⱦ. ɇ. ɇɟɞɢʄ, Ɇ. Ⱦɢɦɢɬɪɢʁɟɜɢʄ, ɇ. Ʉɚɪɚɛɚɫɢɥ, ȳ. ȭɭɪɢʄ1
ɂɋɌɈɊɂȳɋɄɂ ɈɋȼɊɌ ɇȺ ɏɂȽɂȳȿɇɍ ɂ ɌȿɏɇɈɅɈȽɂȳɍ ɆȿɋȺ
Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ȼɟɬeɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ʁɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɫɚɡɧɚʃɚ ɡɚ ɤɨʁɭ ɫɭ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɢ ɭɦɟʄɟ ɢɥɢ ɜɟɲɬɢɧɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ
ɧɚɞɚɯɧɭɬɨɫɬ, ɢɧɬɭɢɰɢʁɚ, ɬʁ. ɭɦɟɬɧɨɫɬ. Ɉɧɚ ɫɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɩɨɞɟɥɢɬɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɧɚɱɢɧɟ. ɍ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɫɟ ɢɡɞɜɚʁɚʁɭ ɛɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɢ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ (ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ
ɯɪɚɧɟ). ɉɨɱɟɰɢ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɟ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɦɟɫɚ ɜɟɡɭʁɭ ɫɟ ɡɚ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɩɪɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟ ɞɨɤ ʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɛɢɨ ɫɚɦɨ ɥɨɜɚɰ ɢ ɞɨɤ ɧɢʁɟ ɛɢɥɨ ɞɨɦɟɫɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ɂɚ ɪɚɧɟ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ
ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɞɨɤɚɡɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɤɚ ɜɟɡɚɧɢɯ ɡɚ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ
ɦɟɫɚ. ɍ ɫɪɟɞʃɟɦ ɜɟɤɭ ɭɱɢʃɟɧ ʁɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚɧ ɧɚɩɪɟɞɚɤ ɭ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɦ ɧɚɭɤɚɦɚ, ɩɚ ɢ ɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ. Ɉɞ 12. ɜɟɤɚ ɭ ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɦ ɡɟɦʂɚɦɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɛɚɜɟɡɚ ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɦɟɫɚ. Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɚ
ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɞɚɬɢɪɚ ɨɞ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɟ 19. ɜɟɤɚ, ɚ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɫɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɨ ʃɟɧɨʁ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɢ.
Ʉʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ.
M. Ž. Baltiü, V. Teodoroviü, D. N. Nediü, M. Dimitrijeviü, N. Karabasil, J. Ĉuriü2
HISTORICAL REVIEW ON MEAT HYGIENE AND TECHNOLOGY
Abstract
Veterinary medicine is system of scientific knowledge for which is essential ability or skills, and
inspiration, intuition, I.E. art. It can be divided in various ways. In veterinary medicine, the most important
are biotechnology and food hygiene and technology (food safety). Beginnings of meat hygiene and
technology are related to time before civilization beginnings, when man was only a hunter, while animals
were not domesticated. There are evidence related to implementation of certain procedures related to meat
hygiene and technology in early civilizations. In the middle Ages there has been significant progress in
medical science, and in veterinary medicine. Since 12 Century in European countries inspection of meat is
mandatory. Traditional meat inspection has dated from the 19th Century, and until today increasing
importance of its modernization.
Key words: history, veterinary medicine, meat hygiene.
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Ⱦɪ Ɇɢɥɚɧ ɀ. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ; ɞɪ ȼɥɚɞɨ Ɍɟɨɞɨɪɨɜɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ; ɞɪ Ⱦɪɚɝɨ ɇɟɞɢʄ, ɜɚɧɪɟɞɧɢ
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ; ɞɪ Ɇɢɪʁɚɧɚ Ⱦɢɦɢɬɪɢʁɟɜɢʄ, ɞɨɰɟɧɬ; ɞɪ ɇɟɻɟʂɤɨ Ʉɚɪɚɛɚɫɢɥ, ɞɨɰɟɧɬ; ȳɟɥɟɧɚ ȭɭɪɢʄ, ɞɪ ɜɟɬ. ɦɟɞ.,
Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, ɍɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ.
PhD Milan Ž. Baltiü, professor, PhD Vlado Teodoroviü, professor, PhD Drago Nediü, professor, PhD Mirjana
Dimitrijeviü, assistant professor, PhD Neÿeljko Karabasil, assistant professor, Jelena Ĉuriü, DVM, Faculty of
veterinary medicine, University of Belgrade.
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɍȼɈȾ
Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ (ɥɚɬ. medicina – ɥɟɤ; ɟɧɝɥ. medicine; ɮɪɚɧ. medecine; ɢɬɚɥ. medicina; ɧɟɦ.
Medizin; ɪɭɫ. ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ) ɭ ɲɢɪɟɦ ɫɦɢɫɥɭ
ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɥɟɱɟʃɟ ɢ ɱɭɜɚʃɟ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɠɢɜɢɯ
ɛɢʄɚ. Ⱦɟɥɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɯɭɦɚɧɭ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɭ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɭ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɭ ɢ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɭ ɛɢʂɚɤɚ (ɮɢɬɨɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ).
Ɋɟɱ „ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚ“ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ ɫɚɦɚ
ɡɚ ɫɟɛɟ ɭ ɫɦɢɫɥɭ ɞɚ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɜɚ ɧɟɤɭ ɧɚɭɤɭ ɢɥɢ ɜɟɲɬɢɧɭ. ȵɨʁ ɫɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɨɞɚɬɢ ɢ ɪɟɱ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, ɩɚ
ɬɚɤɨ ɩɨʁɚɦ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɜɚ ɧɚɭɤɭ ɨ ɥɟɱɟʃɭ, ɧɟɝɨɜɚʃɭ ɢ, ɭɨɩɲɬɟ, ɛɪɢɝɭ ɨ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ. ɇɟɫɩɨɪɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ
ɢɦɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɭ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɢ ɞɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɫɚɡɧɚʃɚ. ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɧɢʁɟ,
ɦɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɱɢɫɬɚ ɧɚɭɤɚ, ɜɟʄ ʁɟ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɦ ɞɟɥɨɦ
ɭɦɟʄɟ ɢɥɢ ɜɟɲɬɢɧɚ, ɬʁ. ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɚ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɯ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɡɧɚʃɚ. ɍ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ɧɢʁɟ ɞɨɜɨʂɧɨ ɧɢ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ
ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɚ ɧɢ ɜɟɲɬɢɧɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɭɦɟʄɟ, ɜɟʄ ʁɟ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɚ ɢ ɥɢɱɧɚ ɧɚɞɚɯɧɭɬɨɫɬ, ɢɧɬɭɢɰɢʁɚ, ɬʁ.
ɭɦɟɬɧɨɫɬ (ars medici). ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ʁɟ
ɬɚɤɨ ɞɟɥɨɦ ɧɚɭɤɚ, ɞɟɥɨɦ ɭɦɟʄɟ (ɜɟɲɬɢɧɚ), ɚ
ɞɟɥɨɦ ɢ ɭɦɟɬɧɨɫɬ.
ɂɋɌɈɊɂȳȺ ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄȿ
ɆȿȾɂɐɂɇȿ
ɉɪɢɩɢɬɨɦʂɚɜɚʃɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɝɚʁɟʃɟ, ɛɢɥɨ ɡɛɨɝ ɢɡɜɨɪɚ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɢɥɢ ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɚ
ɭ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɫɜɪɯɟ (ɪɚɞ, ɥɨɜ, ɨɞɟɜɚʃɟ, ɪɚɬ), ɢɦɚɥɨ ʁɟ
ɧɟɦɢɧɨɜɧɨ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɭ ɛɪɢɝɭ ɨ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ, ɩɚ
ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ ɩɪɭɠɚʃɚ ɩɨɦɨʄɢ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ. ɂ ɦɟɻɭ ɩɪɜɢɦ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɢɦɚ ɫɢɝɭɪɧɨ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɢɡɞɜɚʁɚɥɢ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɰɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɨ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ, ʃɢɯɨɜɢɦ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚɦɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢɦɚ ɡɧɚɥɢ ɜɢɲɟ ɨɞ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ.
Ɍɚɤɜɢ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɰɢ ɫɭ ɫɜɨʁɚ ɟɦɩɢɪɢʁɫɤɢ ɫɬɟɱɟɧɚ
ɡɧɚʃɚ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɬɨɦɤɟ ɢɡ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɭ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɭ. ɉɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɡɚ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɛɨʂɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɥɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɪɚɫɥɚ ʁɟ ɫɚ ɩɨɪɚɫɬɨɦ ɛɪɨʁɚ ɫɬɨɤɟ. Ʉɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɯ ʂɭɞɢ ɛɢɥɨ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ ɞɚ
ɡɚɲɬɢɬɢ ɤɨɩɢɬɚ ɫɬɨɬɢɧɟ ɯɢʂɚɞɚ ɤɨʃɚ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɚ Ɇɚɤɟɞɨɧɫɤɨɝ, ɫɚ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɢ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ
ɫɬɨɬɢɧɚ ɯɢʂɚɞɚ ɤɨʃɚ Ⱦɚɪɢʁɚ, ɫɚ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ?
Ʉɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɬɤɢɜɚɱɚ ɛɢɥɨ ɭ Ⱦɭɲɚɧɨɜɨɦ ɰɚɪɫɬɜɭ,
ɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɬɤɢɜɚɱɚ ɛɢɥɨ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ ɡɚ ɤɨʃɢɰɭ
ɰɚɪɚ Ʌɚɡɚɪɚ? Ⱥ ɩɨɬɤɢɜɚɱɢ ɫɭ ɛɢɥɢ ɬɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ
ɛɪɢɧɭɥɢ ɨ ɫɢɝɭɪɧɨ ɧɚʁɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɢʁɟɦ ɞɟɥɭ ɬɟɥɚ
ɤɨʃɚ – ɤɨɩɢɬɭ.
Ɉɧɨ ɲɬɨ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɫɦɚɬɪɚɦɨ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɨɦ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɞ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɞɨɦɟɫɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ɉɢɫɚɧɢ ɬɪɚɝɨɜɢ ɭ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɦɢʃɭ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʃɚ, ɝɨɜɟɞɚ ɢ ɛɢɜɨɥɚ ɫɬɚɪɢ ɫɭ ɨɤɨ 4.500
ɝɨɞɢɧɚ (Ʉɢɧɚ). ɂɧɞɢʁɫɤɢ ɰɪɬɟɠɢ ɫɬɚɪɢ ɨɤɨ 4.000
ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɩɪɢɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɦɭɲɤɚɪɰɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɱɭɜɚʁɭ ɤɨʃɟ ɢ
ɫɥɨɧɨɜɟ. ɂ ɞɪɟɜɧɚ ɟɝɢɩɚɬɫɤɚ ɭɦɟɬɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɢɤɚɡɭʁɟ
ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɟɝɢɩʄɚɧɢ ɛɪɢɧɭɥɢ ɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɭ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ɉɪɜɢ ɡɚɩɢɫɢ ɢɡ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɩɨɦɢʃɭ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɟɝɢɩɚɬɫɤɨɦ ɩɚɩɢɪɭɫɭ ɢɡ
Ʉɚɯɭɧɚ (1900 ɩ.ɧ.ɟ.), ɤɚɨ ɢ ɭ ɜɟɞɫɤɨʁ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɢ
ɞɪɟɜɧɟ ɂɧɞɢʁɟ. ɉɪɟɦɚ ɫɬɚɪɨɝɪɱɤɢɦ ɥɟɝɟɧɞɚɦɚ,
ɫɬɨɤɭ ʁɟ ɧɚʁɛɨʂɟ ɭɦɟɨ ɞɚ ɥɟɱɢ ɤɟɧɬɚɭɪ ɏɢɪɨɧ,
ɋɚɬɭɪɧɨɜ ɫɢɧ ɢ ɭɱɢɬɟʂ ȿɫɤɭɥɚɩɚ.
ɋɬɚɪɨɝɪɱɤɢ ɮɢɥɨɡɨɮ Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥ ɢɡɜɪɲɢɨ ʁɟ
ɤɥɚɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɭ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢʁɭ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɢ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɩɨɧɟɤɚɞ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ.
ɍ ɫɬɚɪɨɦ Ɋɢɦɭ (753í600 ɩ.ɧ.ɟ.), ɧɚɭɱɧɢɤ
Ʉɨɥɭɦɟɥɚ ɧɚɩɢɫɚɨ ʁɟ 12 ɬɨɦɨɜɚ ɤʃɢɝɚ ɨ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ. ɂɡɦɟɻɭ ɨɫɬɚɥɨɝ, ɩɢɫɚɨ ʁɟ ɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɭ ɢ ɥɟɱɟʃɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɩɪɜɢ ʁɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɨ ɬɟɪɦɢɧ
veterinɚrius ɡɚ ɥɢɰɟ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɥɟɱɢɥɨ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ. Ɋɟɱ
veterinarii ɨɡɧɚɱɚɜɚ ʂɭɞɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɛɚɜɟ ɫɬɨɤɨɦ, ɚ
ɩɪɟɦɚ Ʉɨɥɭɦɟɥɢ ɩɨɬɢɱɟ ɨɞ ɥɚɬɢɧɫɤɟ ɪɟɱɢ
„vetus“, ɲɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ „ɫɬɚɪ“, ʁɟɪ ɫɭ ɧɚʁɫɬɚɪɢʁɢ ɱɭɜɚɪɢ ɫɬɨɤɟ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɢɥɢ ɦɥɚɻɢɦɚ ɜɟɲɬɢɧɭ
ɨɩɯɨɻɟʃɚ ɫɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ, ɩɚ ɢ ɥɟɱɟʃɚ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɬɟɪɦɢɧ ɩɨɱɟɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɧɨɜɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɭ 17. ɢ 18.
ɜɟɤɭ. ɍ ɞɪɭɝɨʁ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɢ ɩɟɬɨɝ ɜɟɤɚ ɧ.ɟ. ɧɚɩɢɫɚɨ
ʁɟ Pubije Vegetius Renatus ɤʃɢɝɭ ɩɨɞ ɧɚɫɥɨɜɨɦ
„Artis veterinariae“. Ɍɟɤ 1000 ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɤɚɫɧɢʁɟ
(1598), ɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɚ ʁɟ ɞɪɭɝɚ ɤʃɢɝɚ ɢɡ ɨɜɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɇɚɢɦɟ, ɢɬɚɥɢʁɚɧ Ʉɚɪɥɨ Ɋɭɢɧɢ ɧɚɩɢɫɚɨ ʁɟ ɤʃɢɝɭ
ɩɨɞ ɧɚɡɢɜɨɦ „Ⱥɧɚɬɨɦɢʁɚ ɤɨʃɚ“.
ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɤɚɨ ɧɚɭɤɚ ɩɨɱɢʃɟ ɞɚ
ɫɟ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚ ɤɪɚʁɟɦ 18. ɜɟɤɚ ɨɫɧɢɜɚʃɟɦ ɩɪɜɟ ȼɢɫɨɤɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɲɤɨɥɟ 1761. ɭ Ʌɢɨɧɭ, ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ
1763. ɩɪɟɦɟɲɬɟɧɚ ɭ ɉɚɪɢɡ (Ⱥɥɮɨɪɬ). Ⱦɨ 1800.
ɛɢʄɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɟ ɜɢɫɨɤɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɲɤɨɥɟ ɭ ɜɢɲɟ ɝɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɭ ȿɜɪɨɩɢ (Ɍɨɪɢɧɨ, Ƚɟɬɢɧɝɟɧ, Ȼɟɱ,
ɏɚɧɨɜɟɪ, Ⱦɪɟɡɞɟɧ, Ɏɪɚʁɛɭɪɝ, Ɇɚɪɛɭɪɝ, Ɇɢɥɚɧɨ,
Ȼɟɪɥɢɧ, Ɇɢɧɯɟɧ, Ʌɨɧɞɨɧ, Ɇɚɞɪɢɞ, Ʉɨɩɟɧɯɚɝɟɧ,
ɢɬɞ.). Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɢ ɭ ȿɜɪɨɩɢ ɨɫɧɢɜɚɧɢ
ɫɭ ɤɪɚʁɟɦ 12. ɜɟɤɚ, ɞɚɤɥɟ, ɱɢɬɚɜɢɯ ɲɟɫɬ ɜɟɤɨɜɚ
ɩɪɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɚ, ɢɚɤɨ ɯɭɦɚɧɚ ɢ
ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɬɨɥɢɤɨ ɬɨɝɚ
ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɨɝ.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄȺ ɆȿȾɂɐɂɇȺ
ȾȺɇȺɋ
ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɫɟ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɯɭɦɚɧɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, ɦɨɠɟ ɩɨɞɟɥɢɬɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɧɚɱɢɧɟ.
ɇɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɫɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɞɟɥɢ ɧɚ
ɬɟɨɪɟɬɫɤɭ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɭ. ɉɪɜɨɦ ɫɟ ɫɬɢɱɭ ɧɚɭɱɧɚ
ɡɜɚʃɚ, ɚ ɞɪɭɝɨʁ ʁɟ ɫɜɪɯɚ ɞɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɢ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢ ɫɬɟɱɟɧɚ ɡɧɚʃɚ. Ɍɟɨɪɟɬɫɤɨɦ ɞɟɥɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɩɪɢɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɚɧɚɬɨɦɢʁɚ, ɯɢɫɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɟɦɛɪɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɮɚɪɦɚɤɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ
ɢɬɞ. ɉɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɟ ɫɟ ɛɚɜɟ ɢɥɢ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢɦɚ
ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɫɤɨɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ (ɧɩɪ. ɤɨɩɢɬɚɪɢ,
ɩɚɩɤɚɪɢ, ɩɬɢɰɟ, ɦɟɫɨʁɟɞɢ) ɢɥɢ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢɦɚ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ ɞɟɥɨɜɚ ɬɟɥɚ (ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, ɨɮɬɚɥɦɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ) ɢɥɢ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɢɦ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢɦɚ (ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɫɤɟ, ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ, ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɫɤɟ) ɢɥɢ ɜɪɫɬɚɦɚ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ
ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɤɚ (ɪɟɧɞɝɟɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ). ɉɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨ ɭɧɭɬɚɪ
ɫɜɚɤɨɝ ɨɞ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɢɯ ɞɟɥɨɜɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɧɨɫɬɢ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɢɡɪɚɠɟɧɨ ɤɨɞ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨɝ ɞɟɥɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ. Ɍɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɭ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ɩɪɟɩɨɡɧɚʁɟ ɤɚɪɞɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɯɟɦɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɧɟɮɪɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɢɬɞ., ɚ ɭ ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢʁɢ ɨɪɬɨɩɟɞɢʁɚ, ɬɨɪɚɤɚɥɧɚ ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢʁɚ, ɚɛɞɨɦɢɧɚɥɧɚ ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢʁɚ ɢɬɞ. ɍ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɫɟ
ɢɡɞɜɚʁɚ ɩɨɪɨɞɢʂɫɬɜɨ, ɫɬɟɪɢɥɢɬɟɬ ɢ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɨ
ɨɫɟɦɟʃɚɜɚʃɟ. Ɍɚɤɨɻɟ, ɩɨɫɟɛɧɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ɫɭ ɡɨɨɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɢ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɚ, ɤɨʁɟ
ɱɢɧɟ ɨɫɧɨɜ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɬɢɜɧɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ.
Ɂɧɚɱɚʁɚɧ ɞɟɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ
ɜɟɡɭʁɟ ɫɟ ɡɚ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ
ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ (ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɯɪɚɧɟ). ɋɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ
ɭɱɟɲʄɟ ɞɨɤɬɨɪɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɭ ɫɜɢɦ
ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬɢɦɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ
ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ („ɨɞ ʃɢɜɟ ɞɨ ɬɪɩɟɡɟ“), ɪɚɡɭɦɟ ɫɟ, ɭ ɫɚɪɚɞʃɢ ɫɚ ɫɬɪɭɱʃɚɰɢɦɚ ɢɡ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
(ɚɝɪɨɧɨɦɢ,
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɡɢ,
ɥɟɤɚɪɢ,
ɛɢɨɥɨɡɢ,
ɮɚɪɦɚɰɟɭɬɢ). ɉɨɫɥɟɞʃɢɯ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɛɚɜɢ ɫɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɟɦ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɨɦ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɨɦ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɟ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɟ. Ⱦɟɥɚɬɧɨɫɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɦɟʃɚɥɚ ɫɟ ɤɪɨɡ ɜɪɟɦɟ. ɍ ɚɧɬɢɱɤɨ ɞɨɛɚ
ɢ ɭ ɫɪɟɞʃɟɦ ɜɟɤɭ, ɩɚ ɫɜɟ ɞɨ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ 20. ɜɟɤɚ,
ɝɥɚɜɧɢ ɞɟɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ
ɛɢɨ ʁɟ ɜɟɡɚɧ ɡɚ ɛɪɢɝɭ ɨ ɧɟɡɢ ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɭ ɤɨʃɚ, ɚ
ɩɨɫɟɛɧɚ ɩɚɠʃɚ ɩɨɫɜɟʄɢɜɚɥɚ ɫɟ ɫɢɝɭɪɧɨ
ɧɚʁɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɢʁɟɦ ɞɟɥɭ ɬɟɥɚ ɤɨʃɚ – ɤɨɩɢɬɭ. Ɉɜɨ ʁɟ
ɫɚɫɜɢɦ ɪɚɡɭɦʂɢɜɨ ʁɟɪ ʁɟ ɤɨʃɢɰɚ ɛɢɥɚ ɨɫɧɨɜ
ɜɨʁɧɟ ɦɨʄɢ ɫɜɚɤɟ ɞɪɠɚɜɟ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ʁɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ
7
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɩɨɫɜɟʄɟɧɚ ɧɚʁɜɟʄɢɦ ɞɟɥɨɦ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɨɦ ɫɬɚʃɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ
ɦɟɫɚ, ɦɥɟɤɚ, ʁɚʁɚ), ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɪɚɧɟ, ɡɚɲɬɢɬɢ
ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɢ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɛɪɨʁɧɢɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (ɤɭʄɧɢ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢ, ɦɚɥɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ,
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɭ ɡɨɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ ɜɪɬɨɜɢɦɚ, ɞɢɜʂɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ, ɭɝɪɨɠɟɧɢɦ ɜɪɫɬɚɦɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ). Ɇɨɠɟ ɫɟ
ɪɟʄɢ ɞɚ ɫɭ, ɢ ɩɨɪɟɞ ɪɚɡɧɨɜɪɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɟɥɚɬɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɩɪɟɞ ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɨɦ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɨɦ ɬɪɢ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚ ɡɚɞɚɬɤɚ: 1) ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʃɟ ɢ ɫɭɡɛɢʁɚʃɟ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɨɧɢɯ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɡɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ
ɢ ʂɭɞɟ – ɡɨɨɧɨɡɟ (ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɲɬɢɬɢ ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ
ʂɭɞɢ), 2) ɥɟɱɟʃɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ 3) ɛɪɢɝɚ ɨ
ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ, ɢ ɬɢɦɟ
ɛɪɢɝɚ ɢ ɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɭ ʂɭɞɢ. Ɋɚɡɧɨɜɪɫɧɨɫɬ ɞɟɥɚɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɟ ɩɪɚɤɫɟ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚ ɢ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɜɢɞɨɜɟ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɍɚɤɨ ɭ ɋȺȾ-ɭ
Ⱥɦɟɪɢɱɤɨ ɭɞɪɭɠɟʃɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚʁɟ 20 ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ.
ɋɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɨʁ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɟ ɫɭ
ɛɪɨʁɧɟ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɟ (ɭɥɬɪɚɡɜɭɤ, ɫɤɟɧɟɪ, ɦɚɝɧɟɬɧɚ ɪɟɡɨɧɚɧɰɚ) ɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɟɭɬɫɤɟ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɢ ɭ ɯɭɦɚɧɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ (ɡɚɦɟɧɚ ɤɭɤɚ, ɫɬɨɦɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɟɫɬɟɬɫɤɚ ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢʁɚ, ɭɤɥɚʃɚʃɟ ɤɚɬɚɪɚɤɬɟ, ɭɝɪɚɞʃɚ ɩɟʁɫɦɟʁɤɟɪɚ, ɢɧɫɭɥɢɧɫɤɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ). Ⱦɨɤɬɨɪɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɭ ɭɥɨɝɭ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɭ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɦ, ɧɟɝɨ ɢ ɭ
ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ, ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢɦ, ɩɨʂɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɧɢɦ, ɮɚɪɦɚɰɟɭɬɫɤɢɦ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɢɦɚ.
ɏɂȽɂȳȿɇȺ ɂ ɌȿɏɇɈɅɈȽɂȳȺ
ɆȿɋȺ
Ȼɪɢɝɚ ɨ ɩɪɢɩɢɬɨɦʂɟɧɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ, ɤɚɨ
ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɜɟʄ ɪɟɱɟɧɨ, ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɥɚ ʁɟ ɢ ɩɨɦɨʄ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ. Ⱦɚ ɥɢ ɫɭ ɬɨ ɩɨɱɟɰɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ? ɂɦɚ ɥɢ ɫɬɚɪɢʁɢɯ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢɯ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚ ɨɞ ɥɟɱɟʃɚ ɫɬɨɤɟ? ɇɢʁɟ ɥɢ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚɥɚ ɢ ɞɨɤ ʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɛɢɨ ɢɫɤʂɭɱɢɜɨ ɥɨɜɚɰ? Ⱦɚ ɥɢ ʁɟ ɥɨɜɚɰ ɭɦɟɨ ɞɚ ɭɨɱɢ
ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɩɪɨɦɟʃɟɧɚ ɬɤɢɜɚ? Ⱦɚ ɥɢ ʁɟ ɦɨɝɚɨ ɞɚ
ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭʁɟ ɫɜɟɠɟ ɨɞ ɩɨɤɜɚɪɟɧɨɝ ɦɟɫɚ? Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɫɟ ɫɚ
ɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɲʄɭ ɦɨɠɟ ɪɟʄɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ, ʁɨɲ ɞɨɤ ʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ
ɛɢɨ ɫɚɦɨ ɥɨɜɚɰ, ɩɨɱɟɥɨ ɨɞɜɚʁɚʃɟ ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ
ɝɪɭɩɚ ʂɭɞɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɛɢɥɟ ɜɢɱɧɢʁɟ ɥɨɜɭ, ɝɪɭɩɚ ɤɨʁɟ
ɫɭ ɛɨʂɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɥɟ ɨɛɪɚɞɭ ɬɪɭɩɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɝɪɭɩɚ ɱɢʁɚ
ʁɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ ɛɢɥɚ ɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɧɟɤɟ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɟ ɤɨɧɡɟɪɜɢɫɚʃɚ ɦɟɫɚ.
ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɦɟɫɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɧɟɤɢ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɰɢ ɫɚ ɦɟɫɨɦ (ɨɛɪɚɞɚ ɦɟɫɚ,
ɯɥɚɻɟʃɟ, ɡɚɦɪɡɚɜɚʃɟ, ɞɢɦʂɟʃɟ), ɞɚɬɢɪɚʁɭ ɨɞ ɜɪɟ-
8
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɦɟɧɚ ɩɪɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ, ɞɚɤɥɟ, ʁɨɲ ɢɡ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɞɨɤ ʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɛɢɨ ɫɚɦɨ ɥɨɜɚɰ ɢ ɫɚɤɭɩʂɚɱ
ɩɥɨɞɨɜɚ ɡɟɦʂɟ. Ɉ ɬɨɦɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɟ ɚɪɬɟɮɚɤɬɢ ɧɚɻɟɧɢ
ɧɚ ɛɪɨʁɧɢɦ ɥɨɤɚɥɢɬɟɬɢɦɚ ɲɢɪɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɚ. Ʉɚɦɟɧɚ
ɫɟɱɢɜɚ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢɨ ɭ ɥɨɜɭ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɞɢ
ɬɪɭɩɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɧɚʁɜɪɟɞɧɢʁɢ ɫɭ ɫɜɟɞɨɰɢ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɦɟɫɚ ɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɢ ʂɭɞɢ. ɂɡɪɚɞɚ ɤɚɦɟɧɨɝ ɨɪɭɠʁɚ
ɢ ɨɪɭɻɚ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚɥɚ ʁɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɫɚɧɭ ɩɚɠʃɭ, ɲɬɨ
ʁɟ ɢɦɚɥɨ ɨɝɪɨɦɚɧ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɡɚ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ɝɨɜɨɪɧɟ
ɤɨɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ. Ɇɨɠɞɚ ɫɟ ɦɟɻɭ ɧɚʁɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɟ
ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɝɨɜɨɪɟ ɨ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ ɦɟɫɚ ɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɢ
ʂɭɞɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɫɜɪɫɬɚɬɢ ɩɟʄɢɧɫɤɢ ɰɪɬɟɠɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
(ɛɢɡɨɧɚ, ɧɨɫɨɪɨɝɚ, ɤɨʃɚ) Ⱥɥɬɚɦɢɪɟ (ɒɩɚɧɢʁɚ) ɢ
Ʌɚɫɤɚ (Ɏɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɚ), ɤɚɨ ɢ ɨɧɢɯ ɧɚʁɧɨɜɢʁɢɯ,
ɨɬɤɪɢɜɟɧɢɯ ɭ ɩɟʄɢɧɢ ɒɨɜɟ (Ɏɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɚ), ɱɢʁɚ ʁɟ
ɫɬɚɪɨɫɬ ɩɪɨɰɟʃɟɧɚ ɧɚ 30.000 ɝɨɞɢɧɚ.
ɉɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɦɟɫɚ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚɨ ɫɟ ɢɡɜɨɪɧɨ ɧɚ ɟɦɩɢɪɢʁɫɤɢ ɩɪɟɩɨɡɧɚɬɨʁ ɜɟɡɢ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɛɨɥɟɫɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɤɨɪɢɲɬɟɧɟ ɡɚ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɭ ʂɭɞɢ ɢ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ʂɭɞɢ. Ɇɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɨɜɨ ɞɚɜɧɨ ɩɪɟɩɨɡɧɚɬɨ,
ɩɢɫɚɧɟ ɩɨɞɚɬɤɟ ɨ ɨɜɨʁ ɜɟɡɢ ɧɚɥɚɡɢɦɨ ɧɚ ɰɪɬɟɠɢɦɚ ɢ ɫɩɨɦɟɧɢɰɢɦɚ, ɚ ɡɚɬɢɦ ɭ ɡɚɩɢɫɢɦɚ
Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɚ, ȼɟɪɝɢɥɢʁɚ ɢ ɏɢɩɨɤɪɚɬɚ. ɇɚ ɫɩɨɦɟɧɢɰɢɦɚ ɢɡ 5.000. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɩ.ɧ.ɟ. ɧɚɥɚɡɢɦɨ ɰɪɬɟɠɟ ɝɨɜɟɞɚ, ɤɨɡɚ, ɝɭɫɚɤɚ, ɚ ɢɡ ɤɚɫɧɢʁɟɝ ɞɨɛɚ
(3.500í2.500 ɝɨɞɢɧɚ) ɧɚɥɚɡɢɦɨ ɤɨʃɟ, ɫɜɢʃɟ ɢ
ɨɜɰɟ. ɍ Ʉɢɧɢ ʁɟ 3.468. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɩ.ɧ.ɟ. ɰɚɪ Ɏɭ ɏɢ
ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɨ ɞɚ ɱɨɜɟɤ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɝɚʁɢ ɤɨʃɟ, ɝɨɜɟɞɚ,
ɫɜɢʃɟ, ɨɜɰɟ, ɩɫɟ ɢ ɤɨɤɨɲɢ. ɍ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɚɧɬɢɱɤɨɦ
ɫɜɟɬɭ 2.000 ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɩ.ɧ.ɟ. ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɨ
ɞɨɛɪɨ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɨ. ɋɚɫɜɢɦ ʁɟ ɪɚɡɭɦʂɢɜɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ
ɛɪɨʁɧɨɫɬ ɫɬɨɤɟ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚɥɚ ɢ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɤɚ
ɤɥɚʃɚ ɫɬɨɤɟ, ɨɛɪɚɞɟ ɬɪɭɩɚ, ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɤɚ ɤɨɧɡɟɪɜɢɫɚʃɚ ɦɟɫɚ, ɩɚ ɢ ɢɡɪɚɞɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ ɨɞ ɦɟɫɚ.
Ʉɥɚʃɟ ɫɬɨɤɟ ɦɨɝɥɚ ɫɭ ɞɚ ɨɛɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɫɚɦɨ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ
ɨɛɭɱɟɧɚ ɥɢɰɚ. Ʉɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɤɥɚʃɟ ɫɬɨɤɟ ɫɦɚɬɪɚɥɨ
ɤɭɥɬɧɢɦ ɱɢɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɧɨɲɟʃɚ ɠɪɬɜɟ ɛɨɝɨɜɢɦɚ, ɬɨ
ɫɭ ɩɪɜɚ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɤɥɚʃɚ ɫɬɨɤɟ ɛɢɥɢ ɯɪɚɦɨɜɢ (ɩɪɜɟ
ɤɥɚɨɧɢɰɟ) ɫɬɚɪɢɯ ȿɝɢɩʄɚɧɚ, ɋɢɪɢʁɚɰɚ ɢ
Ɏɟɧɢɱɚɧɚ. ɋɜɟɲɬɟɧɢɰɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɨɛɚɜʂɚɥɢ ɨɜɚʁ
ɪɟɥɢɝɢɨɡɧɢ ɤɭɥɬ ɛɢɥɢ ɫɭ ɩɪɜɢ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚɱɢ ɦɟɫɚ.
Ʉɚɫɧɢʁɟ ɫɭ Ɋɢɦʂɚɧɢ ɢ Ƚɪɰɢ ɢɡɦɟɫɬɢɥɢ ɦɟɫɬɚ
ɤɥɚʃɚ ɭ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɟ ɞɟɥɨɜɟ ɝɪɚɞɚ, ɚ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɦɟɫɚ
ɨɛɚɜʂɚɥɢ ɫɭ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɢ ɱɢɧɨɜɧɢɰɢ. ɍ
Ɋɢɦɭ ʁɟ 3311. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɩ.ɧ.ɟ. ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚɥɚ ɬɪɠɧɚ
ɩɨɥɢɰɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɞɚʁɭ ɦɟɫɚ,
ɢɡɪɢɰɚɥɚ ɧɨɜɱɚɧɟ ɤɚɡɧɟ ɢ ɤɨɧɮɢɫɤɨɜɚɥɚ ɦɟɫɨ
ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ, ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ, ɛɚɰɚɥɚ ɭ Ɍɢɛɚɪ. Ʉɚɫɧɢʁɟ,
ɧɚɩɪɟɞɚɤ ɭ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɦ ɧɚɭɤɚɦɚ ɢ ɛɨʂɟ
ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɜɟɡɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ʂɭɞɢ
ɞɨɜɟɥɢ ɫɭ ɞɨ ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɟ (ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚ) ɦɟɫɚ. Ɉɧɚ ʁɟ
ɤɚɨ ɨɛɚɜɟɡɧɚ ɭɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɩɪɜɨ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɨɦ 12. ɜɟɤɚ ɭ
Ɏɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɨʁ, ɭ ȿɧɝɥɟɫɤɨʁ ɭ ɪɚɧɨɦ 14. ɜɟɤɭ, ɚ ɭ
ɇɟɦɚɱɤɨʁ ɧɚ ɤɪɚʁɭ ɬɨɝɚ ɜɟɤɚ. ɉɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɨ, ɨɛɚɜɟɡɚ
ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɨɲɢɪɢɥɚ ɢ
ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚɥɚ ɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɟ ɪɟʄɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɚ
ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɛɢɥɚ ɭ ɩɭɧɨʁ ɦɟɪɢ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɚ
ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɨɦ 19. ɜɟɤɚ, ɨɞɚɤɥɟ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɧɟɬɚ ɭ ɜɟʄɢɧɭ
ɟɜɪɨɩɫɤɢɯ ɡɟɦɚʂɚ. ɍ ɞɟɤɚɞɚɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɫɥɟɞɢɥɟ,
ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɦɟɫɚ ʁɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɟɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢ
ɲɢɪɟʃɚ ɤɥɚɫɢɱɧɢɯ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ ɢ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɰɢʁɢ
ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɚ ɧɚ ʂɭɞɟ. ɉɨɫɬɭɩɚɤ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚ
ɦɟɫɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɫɟ ɨɞ ɬɨɝ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɧɨ ɦɟʃɚɨ ɢ
ɨɧ ʁɟ ɡɚɫɧɨɜɚɧ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɭɬɟɦɟʂɢɨ
Robert von Ostertag (1864í1940), ɡɚ ɤɨɝɚ ɫɟ, ɛɟɡ
ɛɨʁɚɡɧɢ, ɦɨɠɟ ɪɟʄɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ „ɨɬɚɰ ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɦɟɫɚ“.
Von Ostertag ʁɟ 1892. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɧɚɩɢɫɚɨ ɤʃɢɝɭ
„Handbuch der fleischbeschau“, ɤoja je oɞ ɬɚɞɚ
ɢɦɚɥɚ ɜɢɲɟ ɢɡɞɚʃɚ ɧɚ ɧɟɦɚɱɤɨɦ ɢ ɟɧɝɥɟɫɤɨɦ
ʁɟɡɢɤɭ.
Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɚ ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɫɟ
ɧɚ ɩɪɟɦɨɪɬɚɥɧɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɦɨɪɬɚɥɧɨɦ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɭ.
ɉɪɟɦɨɪɬɚɥɧɢ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞ ʁɟ ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɞɨɤɬɨɪɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ. ɇɟɤɚɞ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɦɨɪɬɚɥɧɢɦ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɞɨɤɬɨɪ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ
ɫɭɫɪɟɬɚɨ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɫɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɦ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚɦɚ, ɢ ɢɦɚɨ
ʁɟ ɦɚʃɟ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɨ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ʁɟ
ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɨɫɬ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɦɚʃɚ, ɚ ɨ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɭ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɞɟɬɚʂɧɢ ɩɨɞɚɰɢ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɬɨɝɚ,
ɞɚɧɚɫ ɫɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ɩɚɠʃɚ ɩɨɤɥɚʃɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɩɪɟ ɤɥɚʃɚ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɨɞ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ
ɢ ɫɚ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɦɟɫɚ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɢ ɩɨɫɬɦɨɪɬɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚʁɭ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɚɞɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɢ,
ɩɚɥɩɚɰɢʁɢ ɢ ɢɧɰɢɡɢʁɢ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɨɛɚɜʂɚʁɭ
ɞɨɤɬɨɪɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɢɥɢ ɨɛɭɱɟɧɢ
ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚɱɢ ɦɟɫɚ. ɉɪɢ ɬɨɦ, ɡɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚɱɚ
ɦɟɫɚ ʁɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɩɚɬɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ
ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ, ɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɨɤɬɨɪɚ
ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ. Ⱦɨɤɬɨɪɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɢɦɚɥɢ ɫɭ ɩɪɢɥɢɤɟ ɧɟɤɚɞ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɫɭɫɪɟʄɭ
ɫɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɦ ɛɪɨʁɟɦ ɩɚɬɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ,
ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɛɢɥɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɯ ɭɡɪɨɤɚ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ
ɫɭ ɩɚɬɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɟ ɡɧɚɬɧɨ ɪɟɻɟ, ɚ
ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɦɟɫɚ ɛɚɡɢɪɚ ɫɟ ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ ɧɚ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢ
ɪɢɡɢɤɚ ɨɞ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ, ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢɯ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɂɚ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɦɟɫɚ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɫɭ ɨɞ
ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ ɞɨɛɪɟ ɩɪɚɤɫɟ (GMP, GHP, SOP)
ɢ HACCP ɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
ɉɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɦɟɫɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛʂɢɜɨɫɬɢ
ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚʁɭ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ, ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ, ɩɚɬɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɦɚ ɢ ɬɤɢɜɢɦɚ, ɩɚ ʁɟ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɨɬɭɞɚ, ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨ, ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɡɚ
ɩɚɬɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ (ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ). Ɂɛɨɝ ɬɨɝɚ ɧɢʁɟ
ɱɭɞɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɩɪɜɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪɢ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɟ ɦɟɫɚ ɧɚ
ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɢɦɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɪɟɝɪɭɬɨɜɚɥɢ ɢɡ ɪɟɞɨɜɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɚ. ȳɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɬɚɤɜɢɯ ʁɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ ȳɨɜɚɧ ɑɨɤɨɪ, ɋɪɛɢɧ ɢɡ Ȼɚʁɟ, ɢɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɢ
ɥɟɤɚɪ ɢ ɞɨɤɬɨɪ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, ɚ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ,
ɢɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ ɧɚ Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɨɦ
ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ ɭ Ȼɟɱɭ ɢ ɛɟɱɤɨɦ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ
ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝ, ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝ,
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ ɫɭɞɫɤɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, ɟɪɭɞɢɬɚ ɭ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɦ ɧɚɭɤɚɦɚ, ɛɢɨ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɧɨ ɜɪɟɦɟ
ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɧɢɤ ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɡɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɧɚ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ ɭ Ȼɟɱɭ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɋɭɞɫɤɟ ɜɟɬɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, ɧɚ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ
ɭ Ȼɟɱɭ ɩɪɟɞɚɜɚɨ ʁɟ ɢ ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɦɟɫɚ. Ɉɜɨ ɧɢʁɟ
ɭɫɚɦʂɟɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɨ ɱɟɦɭ ɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɢ ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɚ ɞɚ ʁɟ
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ ȼɟɪɝɟ, ɢɧɚɱɟ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝ, ɩɪɟɞɚɜɚɨ ɧɚ
Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɭ Ⱥɥɮɨɪɭ
ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɦɟɫɚ. ɉɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ Ⱥɧɬɨɧɢʁɟ ȼɭɤɨɜɢʄ,
ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɩɪɜɟ ɬɪɨʁɢɰɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɜɧɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɧɨɜɨɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ,
ɩɪɟɞɚɜɚɨ ʁɟ, ɩɨɪɟɞ ɉɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ, ɢ ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɦɟɫɚ.
ɂɧɚɱɟ, ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ ȼɭɤɨɜɢʄ ʁɟ ɭ Ȼɟɱɭ, ɢ ɤɚɨ ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬ, ɚ ɤɚɫɧɢʁɟ ɢ ɤɚɨ ɚɫɢɫɬɟɧɬ, ɪɚɞɢɨ ɫɚ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪɨɦ ɑɨɤɨɪɨɦ. ɉɪɟ ɞɨɥɚɫɤɚ ɧɚ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢ
ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪɭ ȼɭɤɨɜɢʄɭ ʁɟ ɭ
ɜɢɲɟ ɧɚɜɪɚɬɚ ɧɭɻɟɧɨ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɢɡɚɛɪɚɧ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɭ ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɢ ɦɥɟɤɚ ɧɚ
ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ ɭ Ɂɚɝɪɟɛɭ ɧɚ ɤɨɦɟ ʁɟ,
ɢɧɚɱɟ, ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɩɪɜɟ ɬɪɨʁɢɰɟ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɢɦɚɨ ɩɨɱɚɫɧɢ
ɞɨɤɬɨɪɚɬ (doctor honoric causa). ɉɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ
ȼɭɤɨɜɢʄ ʁɟ ɜɟʄ 1938. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ, ɞɚɤɥɟ, ɡɚ ɩɪɜɭ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɫɬɭɞɟɧɚɬɚ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɝ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɚ ɭ
Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, ɧɚɩɢɫɚɨ ɭʇɛɟɧɢɤ „Ɉɩɲɬɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ“
(1938), ɚ ɩɪɟ ɬɨɝɚ, ɢ ɩɪɟ ɨɫɧɢɜɚʃɚ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɝ
ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɚ, ɧɚɩɢɫɚɨ ʁɟ ɭʇɛɟɧɢɤ „ɉɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɦɟɫɚ“
(1935). ɇɚ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɩɪɟɞɚɜɚɨ ʁɟ ɞɨɤɬɨɪ
Ɇɢɥɢɜɨʁɟ ɑɨɩɨɪɞɚ, ɤɚɫɧɢʁɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɜɧɢɤ ɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɭ ɋɭɞɫɤɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ
ɭ Ɂɚɝɪɟɛɭ ɧɚ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɭ
ɞɨɤɬɨɪɢɪɚɨ ɢɡ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ. Ɉɞ ɨɫɧɢɜɚʃɚ
ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɝ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɚ ɭ Ɂɚɝɪɟɛɭ ɛɢɥɨ ʁɟ ɜɢɲɟ
ɩɨɤɭɲɚʁɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɢɡɚɛɟɪɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɜɧɢɤ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ
ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ. Ʉɚɤɨ ɬɨ ɧɢɫɭ ɩɪɢɯɜɚɬɢɥɢ ɧɢ
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ ȼɭɤɨɜɢʄ, ɧɢ ɞɨɤɬɨɪ Ɍɢɯɨɦɢɢɪ ɋɚɜɢʄ,
ɬɨ ʁɟ 1930. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɡɚ ɞɨɰɟɧɬɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɭ
ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɢ ɦɥɟɤɚ ɢɡɚɛɪɚɧ ɞɨɤɬɨɪ ɒɢɦɭɧ
Ⱦɟɛɟɥɢʄ, ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɞɨɤɬɨɪɢɪɚɨ ɧɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ. Ɉ
ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨʁ ɜɟɡɢ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɢ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɟ ɦɟɫɚ
9
ɦɨɠɟɦɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɜɟɪɢɦɨ ɢ ɢɡ ɭʇɛɟɧɢɤɚ „ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ
ɦɟɫɚ“ (1951), ɩɪɨɮ. ɞɪ Ɍɢɯɨɦɢɪɚ ɋɚɜɢʄɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ,
ɭ ɨɧɨ ɜɪɟɦɟ, ɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɟ ɪɟʄɢ ɢ ɞɚɧɚɫ, ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɧɨ
ɞɟɥɨ ɡɚ ɨɜɚʁ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ. ɍ ɨɜɨɦ ɭʇɛɟɧɢɤɭ ʃɟɝɨɜɚ
ʁɟɞɧɚ
ɬɪɟʄɢɧɚ
ɨɞɧɨɫɢ
ɫɟ
ɧɚ
ɨɩɢɫ
ɩɚɬɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ
ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɧɢʁɟ, ɦɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɫɚɦɨ ɡɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɡɚ ɞɪɭɝɟ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɟ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ Ɇɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, ɂɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɂɫɯɪɚɧɚ, ɋɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ, Ɏɚɪɦɚɤɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ, Ɂɨɨɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ, Ⱦɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ɉɜɨ ɩɨɬɜɪɻɭʁɭ ɢ ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɟ ɨ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚɦɚ ɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɢ ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɝ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɚ
ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ. ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɚ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɢɯ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ ɢ ʂɭɞɫɤɭ ɯɪɚɧɭ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧ ʁɟ 1939.
ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. ɍ ɩɪɜɨʁ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɚ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ
ɭɫɥɟɞɢɥɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ Ⱦɪɭɝɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɫɤɨɝ ɪɚɬɚ (1948.
ɝɨɞɢɧɟ), ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɭɤʂɭɱɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɭ Ʉɚɬɟɞɪɭ ɡɚ
ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ, ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɭɤʂɭɱɢɜɚɥɚ Ɂɨɨɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ, ɋɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɂɫɯɪɚɧɭ. ɍ ɫɥɟɞɟʄɨʁ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɢ
(1951), ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ɛɢɥɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɨɤɜɢɪɭ Ʉɚɬɟɞɪɟ ɡɚ
ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɢɯ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ ɢ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɭ
ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ, ɚ ɧɚɤɨɧ ɬɨɝɚ (1956) ɭ Ʉɚɬɟɞɪɢ ɡɚ ɡɚɪɚɡɟ ɢ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɢɯ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ
ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ. Ʉɚɨ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɚɥɧɚ ɤɚɬɟɞɪɚ ɡɚ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɢ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɞ 1966. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ,
ɫɚ ɞɜɚ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ (ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɚ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɦɟɫɚ ɢ ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɚ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɦɥɟɤɚ).
ɏɢɝɢʁɟɧɚ ɦɟɫɚ ʄɟ ɫɟ ɭ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɨɜɚɬɢ, ɨ ɱɟɦɭ ɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤ ɞɚ ʁɟ EFSA (ȿɜɪɨɩɫɤɚ ɚɝɟɧɰɢʁɚ ɡɚ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɯɪɚɧɟ) ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦɢɥɚ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɝ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɦɟɫɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ,
ɩɪɢ ɱɟɦɭ ɫɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɚɤɰɟɧɚɬ ɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚ
ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɚɥɦɨɧɟɥɟ,
ʁɟɪɫɢɧɢʁɭ, ɬɨɤɫɨɩɥɚɡɦɨɡɭ ɢ ɬɪɢɯɢɧɟɥɨɡɭ. ɇɚɤɨɧ
ɨɜɨɝ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚ, ɫɥɟɞɢʄɟ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ
ɨɞɧɨɫɟ ɧɚ ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɭ ɦɟɫɚ ɝɨɜɟɞɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɫɤɢɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ.
ɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊȺ
1. Anon., Scientific Opinion on the public health
hazards to be covered by inspection of meat
(swine), 2011, EFSA Journal, 9 (10): 2351.
2. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ ɀ. Ɇ., 2009, ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ,
ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɢ ɨɫɜɪɬ ɧɚ ɲɤɨɥɨɜɚʃɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢɯ ɤɚɞɪɨɜɚ ɭ ɋɪɛɢʁɢ, Ɂɛɨɪɧɢɤ ɫɚ VIII
ɤɨɝɪɟɫɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɚ ɋɪɛɢʁɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
10
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
3. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ ɀ. Ɇ. (ɭɪ.), 2009, ȼɭɤɨɜɢʄ Ⱥɧɬɨɧɢʁɟ,
Ɂɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɟ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ
ɋɪɛɢʁɟ I, ɋȼȾ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
4. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ ɀ. Ɇ. (ɭɪ.), 2009, ɑɨɤɨɪ ȳɨɜɚɧ, Ɂɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɟ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ
ɋɪɛɢʁɟ I, ɋȼȾ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
5. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ ɀ. Ɇ. (ɭɪ.), 2009, ɋɚɜɢʄ Ɍɢɯɨɦɢɪ,
Ɂɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɟ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ
ɋɪɛɢʁɟ I, ɋȼȾ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
8. ɂɜɚɧɨɜɢʄ ɋɧɟɠɚɧɚ, Ɍɟɨɞɨɪɨɜɢʄ ȼ., Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ
ɀ. Ɇ., 2012, Ʉɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɦɟɫɚ í ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɢ
ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɟ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ, ɇɚɭɱɧɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɚ
ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɋɪɛɢʁɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, ɇɚɭɱɧɚ ɄɆȾ,
Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
9. Ʉɚɪɥɨɜɢʄ Ɇ., ɀɢɜɤɨɜɢʄ ȳ., 1998, Ȼɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɚ – 75 ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɡɚɜɨɞɚ ɡɚ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɢɯ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ (1922í1997),
ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɋɜɟɭɱɢɥɢɲɬɚ ɭ
Ɂɚɝɪɟɛɭ.
6. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ ɀ. Ɇ. (ɭɪ.), 2009, ɑɨɩɨɪɞɚ Ɇɢɥɢɜɨʁɟ,
Ɂɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɟ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ
ɋɪɛɢʁɟ I, ɋȼȾ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
10. Ʌɚɡɚɪɟɜɢʄ Ɇ., Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ ɀ. Ɇ., 2011, 75 ɝɨɞɢɧɚ
Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, ɍɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬɚ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, ɇɚɭɱɧɚ ɄɆȾ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
7. von Ostertag, R., 1892, Handbuch der Fleischbeschau für Tieräzte, Ärzte und Richter. Editor.
F. Enke, Stuttgard, Germany.
11. ɋɢɦɢʄ ȼ., 1982, ɇɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɢ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɢ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɢ ɢɡ ɞɨɦɟɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ,
ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢ ɝɥɚɫɧɢɤ, Ȼeoɝɪɚɞ.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
11
UDK 619:616.2:636.4
Ȼɢʂɚɧɚ Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, Ɇ. ɋɬɟɩɚɧɨɜ, Ɇɚʁɚ Ȼɭɤɜɢʄ1
ɌȿɊȺɉɂȳɋɄɂ ȿɎȿɄȺɌ ɉɊɂɆȿɇȿ ɊȺɁɅɂɑɂɌɂɏ ȺɇɌɂɆɂɄɊɈȻɇɂɏ
ɋɊȿȾɋɌȺȼȺ ɍ Ʌȿɑȿȵɍ ɄɈɆɉɅȿɄɋȺ ɊȿɋɉɂɊȺɌɈɊɇɂɏ
ɈȻɈȴȿȵȺ ɋȼɂȵȺ (PRDC)
Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ɀɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɟ ɨɞ PRDC ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɮɚɪɦɟ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɫɭ ɩɨɞɟʂɟɧɟ ɭ ɬɪɢ ɝɪɭɩɟ ɫɚ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɚɦɚ
(ɩɪɨɥɟʄɟíʁɟɫɟɧ), ɫɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɦ ɛɪɨʁɟɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (n=12; n=13; n =10; n=8; n= 10; n=14) ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɢ 1. ɤɚɨ
ɢ (n=8; n=10; n=8; n=9; n=6; n=7) ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɢ 2. ɍ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧɭ ɫɭ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧɚ ɬɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ:
ɥɢɧɤɨɦɢɰɢɧ-ɫɩɟɤɬɢɧɨɦɢɰɢɧ, ɮɥɭɨɪɨɮɟɧɢɤɨɥ (Floron) ɢ ɬɭɥɚɬɪɨɦɢɰɢɧ (Draxxin). ɋɜɟ ɜɪɟɦɟ ʁɟ ɫɬɚɥɧɢɦ
ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢɦ ɧɚɞɡɨɪɨɦ ɩɪɚʄɟɧɚ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɚ ɫɥɢɤɚ (ɦɟɪɟʃɟ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ, ɞɢɫɚʁɧɢ ɩɨɤɪɟɬɢ ɢ ɚɩɟɬɢɬ), ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ
ɩɪɚʄɟɧɨ ʁɟ ɢ ɛɟɥɟɠɟɧɨ ɢɲɱɟɡɚɜɚʃɟ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ ɢ ɩɚɞ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ. Ʌɟɤɨɜɢ ɫɭ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɢɜɚɧɢ
ɩɪɟɦɚ ɩɪɟɫɤɪɢɩɰɢʁɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɻɚɱɚ ɭ ɞɨɡɢ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɭ ɩɨɧɚɜʂɚʃɚ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɡɚ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɢ ɥɟɤ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɚ.
Ʌɢɧɤɨɦɢɰɢɧ-ɫɩɟɤɬɢɧɨɦɢɰɢɧ ɚɩɥɢɤɨɜɚɧ je 4í7 ɞɚɧɚ ɭ ɪɚɡɦɚɤɭ ɨɞ 24 ɱɚɫɚ, ɢɧɬɪɚɦɭɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɨ, ɭ ɞɨɡɢ ɨɞ 1 ml
na 10 kg ɬ. ɦ.; ɮɥɭɨɪɨɮɟɧɢɤɨɥ ʁɟ ɞɚɜɚɧ ɞɜɚ ɩɭɬɚ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧɚ (ɞɪɭɝɢ ɩɭɬ ɧɚɤɨɧ 48 ɫɚɬɢ)
ɢɧɬɪɚɦɭɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɨ, ɭ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɨʁ ɞɨɡɢ ɨɞ 1 ml na 20 kg ɬ. ɦ., ɞɨɤ ʁɟ ɬɭɥɚɬɪɨɦɢɰɢɧ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɢɜɚɧ ɭ ɜɢɞɭ
ʁɟɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɞɚɬɟ ɢɧʁɟɤɰɢʁɟ, ɢɧɬɪɚɦɭɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɨ ɭ ɞɨɡɢ ɨɞ 1 ml ɧɚ 40 kg ɬ. ɦ.
ɉɨɪɟɻɟʃɟɦ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɟ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɟɧɨɝ ɥɢɧɤɨɦɢɰɢɧ-ɫɩɟɤɬɢɧɨɦɢɰɢɧɚ, ɮɥɭɨɪɨɮɟɧɢɤɨɥɚ ɢ
ɬɭɥɚɬɪɨɦɢɰɢɧɚ, ɛɪɠɟ ɢɲɱɟɡɚɜɚʃɟ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ ɛɟɡ ɪɟɰɢɞɢɜɚ ʁɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜʂɟɧɨ ɩɨɫɥɟ ʁɟɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ
ɬɭɥɚɬɪɨɦɢɰɢɧɚ ɭ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɨʁ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɨʁ ɞɨɡɢ (2,5 mg/kg ɬ. ɦ.).
Ʉʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: PRDC, ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɚ ɚɧɬɢɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ.
Ȼɢʂɚɧɚ Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, Ɇ. ɋɬɟɩɚɧɨɜ, Ɇɚʁɚ Ȼɭɤɜɢʄ
THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT
ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN TREATMENT PORCINE RESPIRATORY
DISEASE COMPLEX (PRDC)
Abstract
Diseased animals from the PRDC two pig farms were divided into three groups with subgroups of the
spring-autumn, with a different number of animals (n =12, n =13, n = 10, n = 8, n = 10, n = 14) farm first and
(n = 8, n = 10, n = 8, n = 9, n = 6, n = 7) at the second farm The treatment we used three different
antimicrobial drugs (Linkomycin-spectinomycin, Floron and Draxxin). All the time constant veterinary
supervision accompanied by clinical (measurement of temperature, respiratory movements and appetite), or is
accompanied by and written down expired respiratory symptoms and decrease in temperature. Drugs were
1
Ⱦɪ Ȼɢʂɚɧɚ Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ, ɍɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, ɎȼɆ; ɞɪ ɜɟɬ. ɦɟɞ. Ɇɚɪɤɨ ɋɬɟɩɚɧɨɜ, ɜɟɬ.
ɫɩɟɰ., ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɚ Ʌɚʄɚɪɚɤ; ɞɪ ɜɟɬ. ɦɟɞ. Ɇɚʁɚ Ȼɭɤɜɢʄ, ɍɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, ɎȼɆ, ɞɨɤɬɨɪɫɤɟ
ɫɬɭɞɢʁɟ.
12
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
applied according to manufacturer's prescriptions in a dose and time of recurrence, which is a drug
prescribed. Lincomycin-spectinomycin administered 4 to 7 days, at intervals of 24 hours, intramuscularly at a
dose of 1 ml per 10 kg body weight; Floron was administered twice during the treatment (the second time
after 48 hours) intramuscularly, in the prescribed dose of 1 ml per 20 kg bw, while Draxxin (tulatromicin)
applied as a one-time date of injection, intramuscular injection, at a dose of 1 ml per 40 kg body weight.
Comparing the therapeutic efficacy of lincomycin-spectinomicin, and fluorophenicol, tulatromicin, faster
expired symptoms without recurrence was found after a single application tulatromicin, in the prescribed
therapeutic dose (2.5 mg / kg bw.).
Key words: PRDC, effect of treatment, different antimicrobial drugs
ɍȼɈȾ
Ɉɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɞɢɫɚʃɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ
ɧɚʁɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɢ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɭ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨʁ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɢ ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɤɨɞ ɧɚɫ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɭ
ɜɟɥɢɤɨɦ ɛɪɨʁɭ ɡɟɦɚʂɚ ɲɢɪɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɚ. Ɉɧɚ ɧɚɧɨɫɟ
ɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɟ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɟ ɲɬɟɬɟ, ɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɢɯ
ɝɭɛɢɬɚɤɚ, ɡɛɨɝ ɭɝɢɧɭʄɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɭɞɧɢɯ ɤɥɚʃɚ, ɚ
ɩɨɪɟɞ ɬɨɝɚ ɞɨɜɨɞɟ ɢ ɞɨ ɫɦɚʃɟɧɨɝ ɞɧɟɜɧɨɝ
ɩɪɢɪɚɫɬɚ, ɩɪɨɞɭɠɟɧɨɝ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɬɨɜɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ
ɜɟɥɢɤɢɯ ɬɪɨɲɤɨɜɚ ɥɟɱɟʃɚ ɢ ɢɦɭɧɨɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɟ,
ɲɬɨ ɫɩɚɞɚ ɭ ɢɧɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɟ ɲɬɟɬɟ. ɍ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɚʃɭ
ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɞɢɫɚʃɟ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɭʁɟ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɛɪɨʁ
ɟɬɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɱɢɧɢɥɚɰɚ, ɨɞ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢ
ɚɝɟɧɫɢ (ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɟ, ɜɢɪɭɫɢ ɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢ) ɢɦɚʁɭ
ɜɨɞɟʄɭ ɭɥɨɝɭ. Ɉɜɢ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɰɢ ɤɨɞ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɱɢɜɢɯ
ʁɟɞɢɧɤɢ
ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚʁɭ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ
ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɟ
ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɭ ɨɤɜɢɪɭ ɬɚɤɨɡɜɚɧɨɝ
ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ Porcine
Respiratory Disease Complex ɢɥɢ, ɫɤɪɚʄɟɧɨ,
PRDC. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɠɢɜɢɯ ɚɝɟɧɚɫɚ ɭ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɭ
ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ, ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɫɟ
ɩɪɢɞɚʁɟ
ɢ
ɧɟɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɦ,
ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ
ɩɪɟɞɢɫɩɨɧɢɪɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɢɦɚ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ, ɥɨɲɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɫɤɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢ (ɦɚɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬ ɢ
ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬ), ɩɪɟɧɚɬɪɩɚɧɨɫɬ ɭ ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɦɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ
ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɨ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɟ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ, ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɢɧɚɱɟ ɨɛɢɥɭʁɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɞɪɠɚʃɚ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ
ɭ ɩɨɪɚɫɬɭ ɢ ɬɨɜʂɟɧɢɤɚ ɭ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨɦ ɭɡɝɨʁɭ
(ɫɯɟɦɚ 1). Ɂɧɚɱɚʁɧɭ ɭɥɨɝɭ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɢ ɧɟɤɢ ɝɚɫɨɜɢ
ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɚɦɨɧɢʁɚɤ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɧɢɤ ɫɭɥɮɢɞ, ɤɨʁɢ
ɫɜɨʁɟ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɨ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɟ ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚʁɭ ɭ ɜɢɫɨɤɢɦ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ (ɞɨ ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ ɧɚɝɨɦɢɥɚɜɚʃɚ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɭ ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɦɚ ɫɚ ɥɨɲɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɨɦ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɚɰɢʁɨɦ
ɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɦ ɢɠɻɭɛɪɚɜɚʃɚ).
Infection
Animal
Microorganism
Disease
Stress
Contamination
Environment
ɋɯɟɦɚ 1. ɂɫɩɪɟɩɥɟɬɟɧɨɫɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɯ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɚ ɭ
ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɭ PRDC
ɂɩɚɤ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ɢ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɢ ɠɢɜɢ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɰɢ
PRDC ɫɭ í ɨɞ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ í PRRSV, PCV2, ɜɢɪɭɫ
influence, a oɞ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁa í Mycoplasma
hyopneumoniae ɢ Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
ɂɫɩɨʂɚɜɚʃɟ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ ɫɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ
ɭɜɟɤ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɬɢ ɩɨɞ ɩɪɟɩɨɡɧɚɬʂɢɜɭ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɭ
ɫɥɢɤɭ (ɛɢɥɨ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɩɢɬɚʃɭ), ɚɥɢ
ɢɩɚɤ ɫɟ ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ ɦɨɠɟ ɪɟʄɢ ɞɚ ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚʃɟ
ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ ɢɦɚ ɧɟɤɢ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɢ ɪɟɞɨɫɥɟɞ
(Radojiþiü ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2002). ɇɚɤɨɧ ɢɧɤɭɛɚɰɢɨɧɨɝ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɬɪɚʁɟ 2í7 ɞɚɧɚ ɚɤɨ ɫɭ
ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɨ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ, ɤɚɨ ɧɩɪ. ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ
PRRS ɭ ɩɢɬɚʃɭ, ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɢ ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ
ɜɢɫɨɤɚ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɚ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ, ɤɨɧʁɭɧɤɬɢɜɢɬɢɫ,
ɨɬɟɠɚɧɨ ɢ ɭɛɪɡɚɧɨ ɞɢɫɚʃɟ, ɫɥɚɛɢʁɟ ɢɥɢ ʁɚɱɟ
ɢɡɪɚɠɟɧ ɤɚɲɚʂ, ɫɦɚʃɟʃɟ ɚɩɟɬɢɬɚ ɢ ɝɭɛɢɬɚɤ ɬɟ-
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɥɟɫɧɟ ɦɚɫɟ (Radojiþiü ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2003: Radojiþiü ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 2007).
ɍ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɭ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ
(PRDC), ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɜɢɲɟ
ɟɥɟɦɟɧɚɬɚ: ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɟ ɫɥɢɤɟ, ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɨ-ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɧɚɥɚɡɚ, ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɦ
(ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ), ɤɚɨ ɢ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɦ ɫɟɪɨɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɫɭ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɟ ɢ ɭ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɻɟɧɟ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɟ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɟ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ polimerasis chaine reaction (PCR) ɤɚɨ ɢ ɫɟɪɨɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɟ (ELISA ɢ IIF), ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɢ ɭ ɪɭɬɢɧɫɤɨʁ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɰɢ, ʁɟɪ ʁɟ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɞɟɥɢɤɚɬɧɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɚ. ɇɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ʁɟ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɚ ɦɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɢ ɨɜɚɤɜɢɦ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɢɦ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɦ
ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚ ɤɚɤɚɜ ʁɟ PCR ɡɚ ɭɬɜɪɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɚ
ɝɟɧɨɦɫɤɟ DNK ɦɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɢ ɭ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɨɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɭ. ɍ ɩɨɪɟɻɟʃɭ ɫɚ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɧɚ ɱɜɪɫɬɢɦ ɢ
ɬɟɱɧɢɦ ɩɨɞɥɨɝɚɦɚ, ɩɪɟɞɧɨɫɬ PCR ɦɟɬɨɞɟ ʁɟ ɭ
ɬɨɦɟ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɨɧɚ ɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɢʁɚ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɛɪɠɚ. Ɉɜɨɦ
ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɟɬɟɤɬɨɜɚɬɢ ɢ ɭɡɨɪɰɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɢɫɭ
ɩɨɝɨɞɧɢ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɡɚɝɚɻɟɧɢ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ
ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɚɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɢɦɚ ɭ ɨɲɬɟʄɟɧɨɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɭ (Stepanov, 2007).
Ɍɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ PRDC ɫɟ ɫɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ ɨɞ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɢ ɯɟɦɨɬɟɪɚɩɟɭɬɢɤɚ, ɢ ɱɟɫɬɨ ʁɟ
ɢ ɛɟɡɭɫɩɟɲɧɚ, ɲɬɨ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɧɚʁɜɢɲɟ ɨɞ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɢ
ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɚɦɨɝ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ. Ɍɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ʁɟ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ɨɬɩɨɱɟɬɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɭ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɨʁ ɞɨɡɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɨɝ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɫɤɨɝ ɩɨɧɚɜʂɚʃɚ ɚɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɥɟɤɚ,
ɨɧɨɥɢɤɨ ɞɚɧɚ ɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɨ (ɧɩɪ. ɡɚ Linkomycin-spectinomycin ɬɨ ʁɟ 5í7 ɞɚɧɚ, ɧɚ ɫɜɚɤɢɯ 24
ɱɚɫɚ). Ȼɨɥɟɫɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɢɡɨɥɨɜɚɬɢ ɢ
ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɢɬɢ ɢɦ ɞɨɛɪɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɟ ɞɪɠɚʃɚ, ɢɫɯɪɚɧɟ ɢ
ɧɟɝɟ. ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɧɟ ɪɟɝɚɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ, ɪɚɡɥɨɡɢ
ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɫɥɟɞɟʄɢ: ɭɡɧɚɩɪɟɞɨɜɚɥɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬ, ɪɚɡɜɨʁ
ɩɥɟɭɪɢɬɚ ɢ ɚɩɫɰɟɫɚ, ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ
ɩɪɟɦɚ
ɥɟɤɨɜɢɦɚ,
ɧɟɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨ
ɞɨɡɢɪɚʃɟ
(ɫɭɛɞɨɡɢɪɚʃɟ). ɂɧɚɱɟ, ɫɜɚɤɢ ɥɟɤ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢɬɢ
ɩɪɟɦɚ ɩɪɟɫɤɪɢɩɰɢʁɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɻɚɱɚ (Radojiþiü ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 2007).
ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɧɬɧɟ ɭ
PRDC, ɬɪɟɛɚ ɫɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɭ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɨɧɢɯ
ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɢɦɚ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɢɯ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚ ɧɚ
ɬɪɠɢɲɬɭ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɤɪɚʁʃɢ ɟɮɟɤɬɢ ɦɟɪɚ ɢɦɭɧɨɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɟ ɫɭ ɜɪɥɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢ.
13
ȼɚɠɧɨ ʁɟ ɢɫɬɚʄɢ ɞɚ ɤɨɞ ɧɨɜɨɧɚɛɚɜʂɟɧɢɯ ɝɪɥɚ
(ɩɨɝɨɬɨɜɨ ɧɚɡɢɦɢɰɚ ɢ ɧɟɪɚɫɬɨɜɚ) ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɫɩɪɨɜɟɞɭ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɲɬɭʁɭ ɦɟɪɟ ɤɚɪɚɧɬɢɧɚ ɢ ɢɡɜɪɲɟ
ɧɚʁɦɚʃɟ ɞɜɚ ɫɟɪɨɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ
ɭɧɭɬɚɪ ɤɚɪɚɧɬɢɧɚ, ɩɚ, ɭɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɞɚʁɭ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɚɧ
ɧɚɥɚɡ, ɬɟɤ ɨɧɞɚ ɧɚɡɢɦɢɰɟ ɢ ɧɟɪɚɫɬɨɜɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ
ɢɞɭ ɭ ɩɪɢɩɥɨɞ (ɤɚɨ ɧɩɪ. ɤɨɞ PRRS). ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɟ
ɧɚɻɟ ɫɟɪɨɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ, ɤɚɪɚɧɬɢɧ ɫɟ ɭ ɬɢɦ
ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɩɪɨɞɭɠɚɜɚ ɛɚɪ ɡɚ ɧɟɞɟʂɭ ɞɚɧɚ ɜɢɲɟ
ɫ ɨɛɡɢɪɨɦ ɧɚ ɚɬɢɩɢɱɧɨ ɞɭɝɭ ɚɤɭɬɧɭ ɮɚɡɭ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ
PRRS, ɤɨʁɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɬɪɚʁɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɤɨ ɱɟɬɢɪɢ ɧɟɞɟʂɟ
(Radojiþiü ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2003; Rogan, 1997).
Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ
PRRS, ɦɨɪɚ ɫɟ ɜɨɞɢɬɢ ɪɚɱɭɧɚ ɨ ɬɨɦɟ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɫɨʁ
PRRSV ɩɪɢɫɭɬɚɧ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɢ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɞɚ ɥɢ ɫɟ
ɩɪɢɦɟʃɭʁɟ ɠɢɜɚ ɢɥɢ ɦɪɬɜɚ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚ, ɢ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɨʁ
ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢʁɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ʁɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɢ
(Radojiþiü ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2003).
ɉɪɨɬɢɜ ɦɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɢ ɧɚ ɬɪɠɢɲɬɭ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ
ɫɨɥɢɞɧɟ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɟ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɞɚʁɭ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢɦɚ 7. ɢ 21.
ɞɚɧɚ ɩɨ ɩɪɚɲɟʃɭ, ɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞʃɢɯ ɦɟɫɟɰɢ ʁɟ ɭ
ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨʁ ɩɪɨɦɨɰɢʁɢ ɢ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚ ɡɚ ʁɟɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ
ɞɚɜɚʃɟ (ɫɚɦɨ 7. ɞɚɧɚ ɩɨ ɩɪɚɲɟʃɭ). ɉɪɨɬɢɜ ɚɤɬɢɧɨɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɧɟ ɩɥɟɭɪɨɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɟ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ
ɜɚɤɰɢɧɟ, ɚɥɢ ʃɢɯɨɜ ɤɪɚʁʃɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ɭ ɩɪɚɤɫɢ ʁɟ
ɜɟɨɦɚ ɞɢɫɤɭɬɚɛɢɥɚɧ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɧɚɥɚɡɚ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɨɝ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚ, ɬɪɚʁɚʃɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɢ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɚ
ɢɡɥɟɱɟʃɚ PRDC, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢ ɢ ɭɩɨɪɟɞɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɚ
ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɟɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ
(Radojiþiü ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2007).
ɆȺɌȿɊɂȳȺɅ ɂ ɆȿɌɈȾȿ ɊȺȾȺ
ɇɚ ɞɜɟ ɮɚɪɦɟ (ɜɟɥɢɤɨʁ ɮɚɪɦɢ ɡɚɬɜɨɪɟɧɨɝ ɬɢɩɚ
ɢ ɧɚ ɦɢɧɢ ɮɚɪɦɢ ɨɬɜɨɪɟɧɨɝ ɬɢɩɚ), ʁɟɞɧɭ
ɤɚɥɟɧɞɚɪɫɤɭ ɝɨɞɢɧɭ, ɭ ɞɜɚ ɝɨɞɢɲʃɚ ɞɨɛɚ
(ɩɪɨɥɟʄɟ ɢ ʁɟɫɟɧ) ɩɪɚʄɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɮɪɟɤɜɟɧɰɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ
ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɭ ɬɨɜɭ, ɭ ɲɢɪɟɦ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɭ ɋɪɟɦɫɤɟ Ɇɢɬɪɨɜɢɰɟ. Ⱥɧɚɦɧɟɫɬɢɱɤɢɦ
ɩɨɞɚɰɢɦɚ ɢ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢɦ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ,
ɢɡɜɪɲɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɬɪɢʁɚɠɚ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ
ɩɨɞɟʂɟɧɟ ɧɚ ɫɜɚɤɨʁ ɮɚɪɦɢ ɭ ɬɪɢ ɝɪɭɩɟ ɢ ɬɪɢ
ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɟ (ɩɪɨɥɟʄɟíʁɟɫɟɧ) ɢ ɥɟɱɟɧɟ ɫɚ ɬɪɢ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ. ɍ ɬɨɤɭ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɝɨɞɢɧɟ, ɚ
ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɭ ɞɜɚ ɝɨɞɢɲʃɚ ɞɨɛɚ (ɩɪɨɥɟʄɟ ɢ ʁɟɫɟɧ)
ɩɪɢɤɭɩʂɟɧɢ ɫɭ ɩɨɞɚɰɢ ɢɡ ɏɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ
ɡɚɜɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɋɪɟɦɫɤɟ Ɇɢɬɪɨɜɢɰɟ, ɤɚɤɨ ɛɢɫɦɨ
ɟɜɢɞɟɧɬɢɪɚɥɢ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ PRDC ɭ ɡɚɜɢɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɞ
ɦɚɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɚ.
14
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
Ɍɚɤɨɻɟ, ɜɨɻɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɟɜɢɞɟɧɰɢʁɚ ɨ ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɫɤɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɭ ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɦɚ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚɧɢɯ ɮɚɪɦɢ, ɭ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɭ ɫɩɪɨɜɨɻɟʃɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɮɪɟɤɜɟɧɰɟ PRDC.
Ʉɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɭɝɢɧɭɥɟ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ
ɟɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚ, ɭɡɟɬ ʁɟ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥ (ɩɥɭʄɧɨ ɬɤɢɜɨ ɢ
ɬɨɧɡɢɥɟ) ɡɚ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɚɬ ɭ NIV-NS, ɝɞɟ ʁɟ
ɜɪɲɟɧɚ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɬɢɩɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ, ɞɨɤ ʁɟ
ɨɞ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɨɝ ɛɪɨʁɚ ɠɢɜɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɭɡɢɦɚɧɚ
ɤɪɜ, ɨɞɜɚʁɚɧ ɫɟɪɭɦ ɡɚ ɫɟɪɨɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ, ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ PRRSV ɢ PCV2.
ɉɨɪɟɞ ELISA ɬɟɫɬɚ, ɤɨʁɢɦ ɫɟ ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ ɭ
ɫɟɪɭɦɭ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɚ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ
ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɢɯ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ PRDC, ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧ ʁɟ PCR.
ɇɚɤɨɧ ɭɝɢɧɭʄɚ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɨɝ ɛɪɨʁɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ,
ɜɪɲɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɨɛɞɭɤɰɢʁɚ ɭ ɰɢʂɭ ɞɨɛɢʁɚʃɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɨ-ɚɧɚɬɨɦɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɥɚɡɚ ɩɥɭʄɚ ɢ ɝɪɭɞɧɟ ɞɭɩʂɟ.
ɀɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɟ ɨɞ PRDC ɫɭ ɩɨɞɟʂɟɧɟ ɭ ɬɪɢ
ɝɪɭɩɟ ɫɚ ɩɨɞɝɪɭɩɚɦɚ ɩɪɨɥɟʄɟíʁɟɫɟɧ ɫɚ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɦ ɛɪɨʁɟɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (n=12; n=13; n =10;
n=8; n= 10; n=14 ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɢ 1, ɬɟ n=8; n=10; n=8;
n=9; n=6; n=7 ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɢ 2). Ʌɟɱɟɧɟ ɫɭ ɫɚ ɬɪɢ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɚ
ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ,
ɥɢɧɤɨɦɢɰɢɧɫɩɟɤɬɢɧɨɦɢɰɢɧ ɚɩɥɢɤɨɜɚɧ je 4í7 ɞɚɧɚ ɭ ɪɚɡɦɚɤɭ
ɨɞ 24 ɱɚɫɚ, ɢɧɬɪɚɦɭɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɨ, ɭ ɞɨɡɢ ɨɞ 1 ml na
10 kg ɬ. ɦ.; ɮɥɭɨɪɨɮɟɧɢɤɨɥ ʁɟ ɞɚɜɚɧ ɞɜɚ ɩɭɬɚ ɭ
ɬɨɤɭ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧɚ (ɞɪɭɝɢ ɩɭɬ ɧɚɤɨɧ 48 ɫɚɬɢ)
ɢɧɬɪɚɦɭɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɨ, ɭ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɨʁ ɞɨɡɢ ɨɞ 1 ml na
20 kg ɬ. ɦ., ɞɨɤ ʁɟ ɬɭɥɚɬɪɨɦɢɰɢɧ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɢɜɚɧ ɭ
ɜɢɞɭ
ʁɟɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ
ɞɚɬɟ
ɢɧʁɟɤɰɢʁɟ,
ɢɧɬɪɚɦɭɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɨ ɭ ɞɨɡɢ ɨɞ 1 ml ɧɚ 40 kg ɬ. ɦ.,
(ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ 2,5 mg ɧɚ kg ɬ. ɦ.). ɋɜɟ ɜɪɟɦɟ ʁɟ
ɫɬɚɥɧɢɦ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢɦ ɧɚɞɡɨɪɨɦ ɩɪɚʄɟɧɚ
ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɚ ɫɥɢɤɚ (ɦɟɪɟʃɟ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɟ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɢ
ɛɪɡɢɧɚ ɩɨɜɥɚɱɟʃɚ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ).
ɊȿɁɍɅɌȺɌɂ ɋȺ ȾɂɋɄɍɋɂȳɈɆ
ɇɚɤɨɧ ɫɜɢɯ ɡɚɩɚɠɚʃɚ ɢ ɫɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ
ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɢ ɫɭ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɢ ɭ ɧɚɫɬɚɜɤɭ.
Ɍɚɛɟɥɚ 1. ɍɱɟɫɬɚɥɨɫɬ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɧɚ ɨɛɟ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚɧɟ ɮɚɪɦɟ ɫɜɢʃɚ
Ɏɚɪɦɚ 1
Ɏɚɪɦɚ 2
(n=100)
(n=100)
Ⱥɤɬɢɧɨɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɧɚ ɩɥɟɭɪɨɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɚ
34
37
Ɇɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɚɬɫɤɚ ɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɚ
22
25
ɉɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɟ ɟɧɬɟɪɨɩɚɬɢʁɟ (PE)
12
10
Ⱦɢɡɟɧɬɟɪɢʁɚ
14
20
ȿɡɨɮɚɝɨɝɚɫɬɪɢɱɧɢ ɭɥɤɭɫ
8
2
Ɉɫɬɚɥɨ
10
6
Ȼɨɥɟɫɬɢ
PRCD ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚʁɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɢ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɢ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɢ ɧɚɡɢɦɚɞɢ. Ʉɨɞ ɨɜɢɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢʁɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɞɢɫɚʃɟ ɫɭ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɜɚɧɚ ɭ 56 ɩɨɫɬɨ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɨɞ ɭɤɭɩɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ (ɬɚɛɟɥɚ 1).
Ɉɞ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɧɚʁɡɚɫɬɭɩʂɟɧɢʁɟ ɫɭ ɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɟ ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɧɟ ɦɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɚɦɚ ɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɨɦ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɢ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɫɢɧɞɪɨɦɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ (PRRSV), ɬɟ ɚɤɬɢɧɨɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɧɚ ɩɥɟɭɪɨɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɚ (ɬɚɛɟɥɚ 3).
Ȼɚɤɬɟɪɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɟɦ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɢɡɨɥɨɜɚɧɟ ɫɭ Mycoplasma hyopneumo-
niae ɢ Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, ɚ ɫɟɪɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜʂɟɧɟ ɫɭ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɫɚ PRRSV ɢ ɰɢɪɤɨɜɢɪɭɫɨɦ ɬɢɩɚ 2
(PCV2).
Ʉɨɞ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɡɚɛɟɥɟɠɟɧɢ ɫɭ ɩɪɟɩɨɡɧɚɬʂɢɜɢ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɧɚ ɚɤɬɢɧɨɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɧɭ ɢ/ɢɥɢ
ɦɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɚɬɫɤɭ ɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɭ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɨɜɚɧɭ ɫɚ
PRRSV, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɢɧɚɱɟ ɩɨɬɜɪɻɟɧɟ ɢ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɢɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɦɚ ɭ ɇɚɭɱɧɨɦ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɭ ɡɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɭ ɇɨɜɨɦ ɋɚɞɭ (NIV-NS).
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
15
Ɍɚɛɟɥɚ 2. Ɉɛɨʂɟɥɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬ ɭɝɢɧɭɥɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ od PRDC ɭ ɬɨɤɭ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɤɚɥɟɧɞɚɪɫɤɟ ɝɨɞɢɧɟ
Ȼɪɨʁ ɨɛɨʂɟɥɟ
ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɭ ɬɨɜɭ
ɉɪɨɰɟɧɚɬ ɭɝɢɧɭʄɚ
ɉɪɨɰɟɧɚɬ ɭɝɢɧɭʄɚ (ʁɟɫɟɧ)
(ɩɪɨɥɟʄɟ)
ɉɪɨɥɟʄɟ
ȳɟɫɟɧ
30
35
8%
12%
22
26
10%
12%
Ɏɚɪɦɚ 1
ɍɤɭɩɧɨ
ɨɛɨʂɟɥɢɯ (n=65)
Ɏɚɪɦɚ 2
ɍɤɭɩɧɨ
ɨɛɨʂɟɥɢɯ (n=
48)
ɍ ʁɟɫɟɧ ʁɟ ɡɚɛɟɥɟɠɟɧɨ ɜɢɲɟ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ PRDC,
ɤɚɨ ɢ ɜɟʄɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɭɝɢɧɭʄɚ, ɚɥɢ ʁɟ ɬɚʁ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬ ɛɢɨ
ɜɟʄɢ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɢ 2 (ɤɨɞ ɧɟɜɚɤɰɢɧɢɫɚɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ)
ɢ ɭ ɩɪɨɥɟʄɟ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɭ ɫɚɝɥɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɚ ɧɚɜɨɞɢɦɚ
Ivetiü ɢ ɫɚɪ. (2004) ɢ Radojiþiü ɢ ɫɚɪ. (2007)
(ɬɚɛɟɥɚ 2).
Ɍɚɛɟɥɚ 3. Ɂɚɫɬɭɩʂɟɧɨɫɬ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ PRDC ɧɚ ɨɛɟ ɮɚɪɦɟ ɫɜɢʃɚ
Ɍɨɜʂɟɧɢɰɢ
Ɇɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɚɬɫɤɚ
ɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɚ
Ⱥɤɬɢɧɨɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɧɚ
ɩɥɟɭɪɨɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɚ
Ɇɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦa ɫɚ
PRRS
Ɇɟɲɚɧɟ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ
Ɏɚɪɦɚ 1
16
11
23
9
Ɏɚɪɦɚ 2
13
12
15
3
ɇɚʁɜɟʄu ɡɚɫɬɭɩʂɟɧɨɫɬ ɭ ɨɤɜɢɪɭ PRDC, ɢ ɬɨ
ɧɚ ɨɛɟ ɮɚɪɦɟ, ɢɦɚɥɟ ɫɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɦɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɟ ɢ
PRRSV, a ɧɚʁɦɚʃɟ í ɦɟɲɚɧɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɧɟɤɢɦ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɤɚɨ ɧɩɪ. ɦɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɚ ɫɚ
ɰɢɪɤɨɜɢɪɭɫɢɦɚ (ɬɚɛɟɥɚ 3).
Ɍɚɛɟɥɚ 4. Ȼɪɡɢɧɚ ɩɨɜɥɚɱɟʃɚ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ ɧɚɤɨɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɬɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɭ ɥɟɱɟʃɭ PRDC
ɫɜɢʃɚ
ɇɚɡɢɜ ɥɟɤɚ
Ɏɚɪɦɚ 1
Ɏɚɪɦɚ 2
Draxxin
2 ɞɚɧɚ
3 ɞɚɧɚ
Floron
5 ɞɚɧɚ
7 ɞɚɧɚ
Lincomycin-spectinomycin
4 ɞɚɧɚ
7 ɞɚɧɚ
ɇɚɤɨɧ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɟɧɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɭ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɦ
ɞɨɡɚɦɚ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɭ ɩɨɧɚɜʂɚʃɚ, ɧɚʁɛɨʂɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬ ɧɚɤɨɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɬɭɥɚɬɪɨɦɢɰɢɧɚ (Draxxin), ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɞɨɲɥɨ ɞɨ ɩɨɜɥɚɱɟʃɚ
ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ ɡɚ ɞɜɚ ɞɨ ɬɪɢ ɞɚɧɚ ɨɞ ɚɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɥɟɤɚ, ɡɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭ ɨɞ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɤɨɞ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɫɭ
ɩɪɢɦɟʃɟɧɢ ɥɢɧɤɨɦɢɰɢɧ ɫɩɟɤɬɢɧɨɦɢɰɢɧ ɢ ɮɥɭɨɪɨɮɟɧɢɤɨɥ, ɤɨɞ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɞɨɲɥɨ ɞɨ ɩɨɜɥɚɱɟʃɚ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ ɡɚ ɱɟɬɢɪɢ ɞɨ ɫɟɞɚɦ ɞɚɧɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɩɟɬ ɞɨ
ɫɟɞɚɦ ɞɚɧɚ ɧɚɤɨɧ ʃɢɯɨɜɟ ɩɪɜɟ ɚɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ (ɬɚɛɟɥɚ 4).
16
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɁȺɄȴɍɑȺɄ
Ɉɞ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɟɧɚ ɬɪɢ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɭ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧɭ
PRDC, ɬɭɥɚɬɪɨɦɢɰɢɧ (Draxxin) ɭ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɨʁ
ɞɨɡɢ ɨɞ 1 ml ɧɚ 40 ɤɝ ɬ. ɦ., ɢɧɬɪɚɦɭɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɨ, ʁɟɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɞɚɬ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɨ ʁɟ ɧɚʁɛɨʂɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɦɢɤɨɩɥɚɡɦɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɚ
ɦɟɲɚɧɢɯ ɫɚ PRRSV, ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɢɫɩɨʂɢɥɨ ɭ ɛɪɠɟɦ
ɩɨɜɥɚɱɟʃɭ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ (ɩɚɞɚ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɟ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ
ɢ ɩɨɜɥɚɱɟʃɚ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɦɚɧɢɮɟɫɬɚɰɢʁɚ ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ
ɫɭ ɬɚɯɢɩɧɨɚ ɢ ɤɚɲɚʂ), ɜɟʄ ɡɚ ɞɜɚ ɞɨ ɬɪɢ ɞɚɧɚ.
Ɍɪɟɛɚ ɧɚɝɥɚɫɬɢ ɞɚ ʁɟɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɞɚɬɚ ɢɧʁɟɤɰɢʁɚ
ɬɭɥɚɬɪɨɦɢɰɢɧɚ ɢɦɚ ɩɪɟɞɧɨɫɬ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɞɚ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɭ
ɞɚɜɚʃɚ ɧɢɫɭ ɡɚɩɚɠɟɧɢ ɧɟɠɟʂɟɧɢ ɟɮɟɤɬɢ ɭ ɜɢɞɭ
ɰɪɜɟɧɢɥɚ ɢɥɢ ɨɬɨɤɚ.
ɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊȺ
1. Gagrþin M., Došen R. (2004): Kompleks respiratornih bolesti svinja í strategija kontrole u
svetlu aktuelnih saznanja. Veterinarski glasnik
58 (dodatak 3-4), 409í418.
2. Ivetiü V., Saviü B., Radɚnoviü B. (2004): Kompleks respiratorne bolesti svinja (PRDC). Zbornik kratkih sadržaja 10. savetovanja veterinara
Republike Srpske, Tesliü, Banja Vruüica, 2í5.
juni 2004.
3. Stepanov M. (2007): Kompleks resipratornih
oboljenja svinja u intenzivnom uzgoju.
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet veterinarske
medicine, Specijalistiþki rad
4. Radojiþiü Biljana, Bojkovski J., Jankoviü D.
(2002): Aktuelni pristup u promovisanju dobrog
zdravlja svinja u intenzivnom uzgoju. Zbornik
radova i kratkih sadržaja 14. savetovanja veterinara Srbije, Zlatibor, 10í14. septembar 2002,
59í68.
5. Radojiþiü Biljana, Bosiljka Ĉuriþiü i M. Gagrþin
(2003): Epizootiolosko-dijagnostiþki znaþaj
kontrole PRRS u našoj zemlji. Veterinarski glasnik, 52, 2í4, 13í23. (pregledni rad).
6. Radojiþiü Biljana, Stepanov M., Avakumoviü Ĉ.
(2007): Profilaksa i terapija kompleksa respiratornih oboljenja svinja u tovu. 19. savetovanje
veterinara Srbije sa meÿunarodnim uþešüem,
26í29. septembar 2007, Vrnjaþka Banja, 3í8.
7. Rogan D. (1997): Reproduktivni i respiratorni
sindrom svinja (PRRS). Zbornik radova 10.
savetovanja veterinara Srbije, Zlatibor, 16í20.
septembar 1997, 9í13.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
17
UDK 636.083.312:63-492.2:636.1
Ljiljana Jankoviü, Brana Radenkoviü-Damnjanoviü, Marijana Vuþiniü, Milutin Ĉorÿeviü1
KARAKTERIZACIJA ýESTICA PRAŠINE U VAZDUHU SMEŠTAJNIH
OBJEKATA ZA KONjE
Kratak sadržaj
U radu su ispitivane kvantitativne i kvalitativne osobine þestica prašine u vazduhu 30 štala za konje u
selima u okolini Beograda i Požarevca. Ispitivanja su obavljana u zimskoj i letnjoj sezoni. Sva merenja su
ponovljena tri puta. Kvantitativna i kvalitativna analiza uzorkovane prašine obavljena je koniometrijskim
metodom. Vazduh je uzorkovan na visini od 80 cm (zona disanja konja). Takoÿe je uzorkovan 15 minuta pre
radnih aktivnosti u štalama, kao što su ižÿubravanje i hranjenje konja, u toku radnih aktivnosti i 15 i 30
minuta posle radnih aktivnosti. Istraživanjima su ustanovljene znatno veüe koncentracije prašine u zimskoj
nego u letnjoj sezoni. Koncentracija þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije je takoÿe bila veüa u zimskim nego u
letnjim mesecima. Najviše su bile zastupljene þestice prašine nepravilnog i sferiþnog oblika.
Kljuþne reþi: prašina, vazduh, konj, štala.
Ljiljana Jankoviü, Brana Radenkoviü-Damnjanoviü, Marijana Vuþiniü, Milutin Ĉorÿeviü2
CHARACTERISATION OF AIRBORNE DUST PARTICLES IN HORSE STALLS
Abstract
In the study qualitative and quantitative properties of airborne dust particles in 30 horse stalls were
examined during winter and summer months in villages near Belgrade and Požarevac in Serbia. All measures
were repeated three times in each stall. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of sampled dust particles were
performet by coniometric method. Air were sampled 80 cm (horse breathing area).. Also, air were sampled 15
minutes before custom daily working activities, such as waste removal from stalls and horse feeding , during
these activities, 15 and 30 minutes after these activities. The investigation disclosed the statistically higher
level of airborne dust particles in winter months than in summer months. The level of respiratory fraction in
airborne dust samples was also higher during winter than summer months. Dust particles of irregular and
spherical shape dominated.
Key words: dust, air, horse, stall.
1
2
Dr Ljiljana Jankoviü, red. prof.; dr Brana Radenkoviü-Damnjanoviü, red. prof.; dr Marijana Vuþiniü, docent; dr Milutin
Ĉorÿeviü, docent; Katedra za zoohigijenu, Fakultet veterinarske medicine, Univerzitet u Beogradu.
Prof. Ljiljana Jankoviü, PhD, Prof. Brana Radenkoviü-Damnjanoviü, PhD, Docent Marijana Vuþiniü, PhD, Docent
Milutin Ĉorÿeviü, PhD, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade
18
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
UVOD
Zagaÿivaþi vazduha kojima se pridaje najveüi
znaþaj sa zdravstvenog aspekta jesu štetni gasovi i
prašina. U zavisnosti od koliþine, fiziþkih osobina
(veliþina i oblik þestica) i hemijskog sastava, prašina
na živi svet ispoljava razliþite štetne uticaje. Ovo negativno delovanje na živi svet može biti neposredno
i posredno. Neposredno na þoveka i životinje prašina
deluje mehaniþkom iritacijom kože i sluzokože
disajnih organa, kao aerosolni alergen, a respiratornom frakcijom nepovoljnog hemijskog sastava
izaziva razliþite poremeüaje organa za disanje. Ovo
posebno važi za industrijsku prašinu, koja je glavni
etiološki þinilac razliþitih pneumokonioza þoveka i
životinja (silikoza, antrakoza, azbestoza i sl.).
ýestice prašine predstavljaju i epizootološkoepidemiološki problem jer na svojoj površini mogu
nositi razliþite mikroorganizme (bioaerosol) i zato
imaju funkciju mehaniþkog vektora.
U zavisnosti od koliþine i hemijskog sastava,
prašina u vazduhu može predstavljati i potencijalnu
opasnost za nastanak eksplozija i požara.
Velike koliþine prašine u vazduhu smanjuju
njegovu transparentnost, što otežava razliþite aktivnosti þoveka i životinja, stvara oseüaj neprijatnosti i
nesigurnosti. Transparentnost vazduha je smanjena i
usled taloženja prašine na prozorska stakla. Na ovaj
naþin veüe koliþine prašine u vazduhu smanjuju i
intenzitet osvetljenja i vidljivost u objektima za
smeštaj životinja.
Svojim prisustvom u vazduhu i taloženjem, prašina predstavlja i estetski problem zatvorenih prostorija, iz kojeg se lako može doneti zakljuþak i o higijensko-sanitarnim uslovima u odreÿenom prostoru.
ýestice prašine se talože na horizontalne površine
koje oneþišüavaju. Vazdušna strujanja istaloženu
prašinu ponovo podižu na veüe visine i distribuiraju
þestice prašine na manje ili veüe udaljenosti od
mesta taloženja.
Danas se kao sinonim za prašinu vazduha
pretežno sastavljenu od þestica u þvrstom stanju i
sitnih kapljica teþnosti organskog porekla koristi
termin „bioaerosol“. U bioaerosolu su manjim delom
zastupljene þestice prašine, kapljice teþnosti neorganskog porekla, þestice poreklom od izumrlih üelija
epidermisa, epitela sluzokoža prirodnih otvora,
sasušenih ekskreta i sekreta (feces, urin, iskašljica i
sl.), þestice hrane, prostirke i mikroorganizama, kao
i onih koji su strujanjem vazdušnih masa, odnosno
razmenom gasova sa spoljašnjom sredinom, dospeli
u unutrašnjost objekta (Jankoviü i sar., 2011).
U objektima za smeštaj životinja koncentracije
prašine su razliþite. One þesto prelaze granice
preporuþenih, dozvoljenih vrednosti za odreÿenu
vrstu životinja i radno osoblje.
Proseþna veliþina þestica bioaerosola varira od
0,001 do 100 µm. Pored toga što rizik za zdravstveno stanje životinja i þoveka predstavlja ukupna
inhalatorna frakcija (þestice bioaerosola manje od 10
µm), veoma je bitno istaüi þinjenicu da do alveola
dopiru samo þestice prašine preþnika manjeg od 5
µm, koje predstavljju takozvanu respiratornu
frakciju (Airaksinen i sar., 2005; Butera i sar., 1991;
Clements i sar., 2007b). Kako je veü istaknuto,
pored mehaniþke iritacije kože i sluzokoža
konjunktiva i gornjih partija respiratornog trakta,
þestice respiratorne frakcije mogu biti i glavni uzrok
kako pneumokonioza, tako i bakterijskih, virusnih i
gljiviþnih infekcija (Berndt i sar., 2008).
Oblik þestica prašine u vazduhu objekata za
smeštaj životinja je raznovrstan, poþev od þestica
sferiþnog oblika, pa sve do þestica igliþastog oblika,
oštrih i nazubljenih ivica. Najveüi potencijal mehaniþke iritacije kože i sluzokoža poseduju þestice
igliþastog oblika. Usled potencijala mehaniþke iritacije kože i sluzokoža, ove þestice bioaerosola mogu biti uzrok ekcema, alergijskih dermatitisa, konjunktivitisa, rinitisa, laringitisa i traheitisa neinfektivne
etiologije (Mohd Azam Khan i sar., 2005).
Ukupan broj þestica prašine i mikroorganizama
u vazduhu objekata u kojima borave životinje uslovljen je naþinom smeštaja životinja, gustinom naseljenosti, naþinom ishrane, uzrastom životinja, funkcionisanjem ventilacionog sistema, naþinom ižÿubravanja, mikroklimatskim uslovima, a na prvom mestu
temperaturom i relativnom vlažnosti vazduha, depozicijom þestica prašine na površinama objekta i
brzinom strujanja vazdušnih masa (Ĉorÿeviü i sar.,
2001). Kvantitet i kvalitet prašine u vazduhu objekata za smeštaj životinja uslovljen je i dnevnim variranjima aktivnosti životinja i tehnoloških operacija
koje se sprovode unutar objekta (ishrana, napajanje,
ižÿubravanje i dr.).
Veliki broj konja provede veüi deo svog životnog veka u zatvorenim smeštajnim objektima, u štalama, u kojima su izloženi negativnom uticaju zaga-
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ÿivaþa vazduha u gasovitom i þvrstom obliku. Jedan
od takvih zagaÿivaþa je prašina u vazduhu štala.
Brojni su þinioci koji utiþu na koncentraciju þestica
prašine u vazduhu smeštajnih objekata za konje, a na
prvom mestu su to vrsta, kvalitet i oblik hraniva i
vrsta i kvalitet prostirke. Meÿutim, kako je zona
disanja konja približno ekvivalentna zoni ishrane
konja, to vrsta, kvalitet i oblik hraniva imaju jaþi
uticaj na koliþinu prašine u vazduhu od prostirke.
Kvalitet vazduha u štalama je od presudnog znaþaja
za zdravlje i upotrebnu vrednost konja, jer je
respiratorni trakt konja osetljiviji na zagaÿivaþe u
vazduhu od ostalih domaüih životinja. Kod konja je
nekoliko oboljenja respiratornih organa dovedeno u
direktnu vezu sa kvalitetom vazduha, a meÿu njima
je najþešüa rekurentna opstrukcija disajnih puteva,
ranije poznata kao hroniþna opstruktivna bolest
pluüa i zapaljenje disajnih puteva (Robinson, 2000;
Art i sar., 2002; Ainsworth i sar., 2003; Robinson,
2003; Robinson i sar., 2006; Couetil i sar., 2005;
2007). Kod starijih konja, prašina u vazduhu obiþno
prouzrokuje zapaljenje donjih disajnih puteva, dok je
kod mlaÿih konja uþestalije zapaljenje gornjih
disajnih puteva. Takoÿe, stalno udisanje þestica
prašine znatno pogoršava akutna infektivna
zapaljenja disajnih puteva konja. Holcombe i sar.
(2001) su ustanovili da je štalsko držanje u direktnoj
vezi sa inflamacijom donjih i gornjih disajnih puteva
mlaÿih konja. Utvrÿeno je da je kod velikog broja
kliniþki zdravih konja sa odliþnim radnim i
sportskim osobinama þesto prisutno zapaljenje
disajnih puteva prouzrokovano prisustvom prašine u
vazduhu (Couëtil i sar., 2005, 2007; Ainsworth i
sar., 2003; Woods i sar., 2003). Pored štetnog uticaja
na zdravstveno stanje konja, prašina u vazduhu štala
negativno utiþe i na zdravlje radnika koji
svakodnevno u njima borave. Zato je od znaþaja
ispitivanja koliþine i osobina þestica prašine u
vazduhu smeštajnih objekata za konje.
Prašina u vazduhu štala ispoljava negativan
uticaj na zdravlje konja i radnika. Negativan uticaj je
direktno proporcionalan koliþini prašine, i to
respiratorne frakcije preþnika ispod 5 µm u obliku
þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije, pri þemu þestice
ovalnog i izduženog oblika poseduju sposobnost da
penetriraju kroz zid alveola (Riihimäki i sar., 2008).
Cilj ovih istraživanja je odreÿivanje koliþine i
kvaliteta prašine u štalama za konje u zavisnosti od
godišnjeg doba (leto/zima), prostorne (vertikalne)
distribucije i radnih aktivnosti u štalama (ižÿubrava-
19
nje i hranjenje), kao i procena rizika, na osnovu
ustanovljenih kvantitativnih i kvalitativnih pokazatelja, koji prašina predstavlja za zdravlje konja i
þoveka.
MATERIJAL I METODE RADA
Materijal za ova istraživanja bio je vazduh smeštajnih objekata za konje na privatnim gazdinstvima
Beograda i Požarevca.
Za istraživanja je odabrano 30 privatnih gazdinstava koja poseduju konje i smeštajne objekte za
konje konvencionalnog tipa.
Uzorkovanje vazduha je obavljeno u zimskoj i
letnjoj sezoni. U svakoj štali vazduh je uzorkovan u
tri nezavisna ciklusa, što znaþi da je za analizu
ukupno uzeto 90 uzoraka vazduha u zimskoj i 90
uzoraka vazduha u letnjoj sezoni. Uzorkovanje vazduha u letnjoj sezoni obavljeno je u periodu od 25.
juna do 18. avgusta 2008. godine. Uzorkovanje
vazduha u zimskoj sezoni obavljeno je u periodu od
11. januara 2009. do 04. marta 2009. godine.
Vazduh je uzorkovan na visini od 80 cm (zona
disanja konja) i to u periodu 15 minuta pre poþetka
radnih aktivnosti (hranjenje i ižÿubravanje), u toku
samih aktivnosti i 15 minuta i 30 minuta posle
prestanka radnih aktivnosti.
Uzorkovanje vazduha, kao i kvantitatitvna i kvalitativna analiza þestica prašine u vazduhu obavljena
je koniometrijskom metodom (WHO, 1995).
Koristio se koniometar proizvoÿaþa Carl Zeiss,
Jena, koji poseduje ureÿaj za uzorkovanje vazduha i
optiþki ureÿaj za kvantitativnu i kvalitativnu analizu
þestica prašine.
Koniometrijskom analizom su utvrÿivani sledeüi
pokazatelji kvaliteta štalskog vazduha: ukupna koncentracija prašine (broj þestica/ m3 vazduha), koncentracija respiratorne frakcije (broj þestica
<5µm/m3 vazduha), zastupljenost i odnos þestica
sferiþnog, ovalnog, izduženog i nepravilnog oblika u
respiratornoj frakciji (< 5µm).
Statistiþka obrada podataka uraÿena je u programima Vassar Stats (©Richard Lowry 1998í2007,
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA) i
MedCalc.
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
REZULTATI ISTRAŽIVANJA
I DISKUSIJA
U tabelama 1. i 2. su dati rezultati statistiþke
analize razlika izmeÿu ukupnog broja þestica prašine
u zimskom i letnjem periodu (tabela 1) i statistiþke
analize razlika izmeÿu apsolutnog broja þestica
prašine respiratorne frakcije, takoÿe u zimskom i
letnjem periodu (tabela 2) za nivo zone disanja konja
od 80 cm.
Tabela 1. Razlika u ukupnom broju þestica prašine u vazduhu smeštajnih objekata za konje izmeÿu
zimskog i letnjeg perioda (N = 90; nh10-6m3)
Vreme merenja
Visina uzorkovanja vazduha
(cm)
80
Zima
Leto
Statistiþki pokazatelji znaþajnosti razlika
Razlika = -12,72
95% CI = -14,135 do -11,305
25,08±5,12
12,36±4,48
t = -17,737 DF = 178
P < 0,0001
Razlika = -10,96
U toku dnevnih
95% CI = -13,073 do -8,847
33,34±9,21
22,38±4,28
operacija
t = -10,238 DF = 178
P < 0,0001
Razlika = -10,2
15 minuta posle
95% CI = -11,84 do -8,56
29,45±7,12
19,25±3,39
dnevnih operacija
t = -12,271 DF = 178
P < 0,0001
Razlika = -12,84
30 minuta posle
95% CI = -13,998 do -11,682
27,26±4,62
14,42±3,11
dnevnih operacija
t = -21,872 DF = 178
P < 0,0001
Tabela 2. Razlika u broju þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije (< 5 Pm) u vazduhu smeštajnih objekata za
konje izmeÿu zimskog i letnjeg perioda (N = 90; nh10-6m3)
15 minuta pre
dnevnih operacija
Vreme merenja
Visina uzorkovanja vazduha
(cm)
80
Zima
Leto
15 minuta pre
dnevnih operacija
10,33±3,76
7,78±3,03
U toku dnevnih
operacija
17,08±3,16
11,89±3,18
15 minuta posle
dnevnih operacija
16,66±3,77
10,12±2,48
30 minuta posle
dnevnih operacija
13,89±3,26
8,29±3,08
Statistiþki pokazatelji znaþajnosti razlika
Razlika = -2,55
95% CI = -3,554 do -1,546
t = -5,010 DF = 178
P < 0,0001
Razlika = -5,19
95% CI = -6,123 do -4,257
t = -10,983 DF = 178
P < 0,0001
Razlika = -6,54
95% CI = -7,479 do -5,601
t = -13,749 DF = 178
P < 0,0001
Razlika = -5,6
95% CI = -6,533 do -4,667
t = -11,846 DF = 178
P < 0,0001
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
Iz tabele 1. se uoþava da je ukupan broj þestica
prašine u vazduhu štala za konje, u zimskoj sezoni,
statistiþki znaþajno veüi od ukupnog broja þestica
prašine u letnjoj sezoni u zoni disanja konja, u svim
vremenskim intervalima merenja za nivo
verovatnoüe od P < 0.0001.
Iz tabele 2. se uoþava da je broj þestica prašine
respiratorne frakcije u vazduhu štala za konje, u
21
zimskoj sezoni, statistiþki znaþajno veüi od broja
þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije u letnjoj sezoni
u zoni disanja konja, u svim vremenskim intervalima
merenja za nivo verovatnoüe od P < 0.0001.
U tabeli 3. dati su rezultati statistiþke analize
razlika izmeÿu relativnog broja þestica prašine
respiratorne frakcije u zimskom i letnjem periodu za
nivo zone disanja konja od 80 cm.
Tabela 3. Razlika relativnog broja þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije (< 5 Pm) u vazduhu smeštajnih
objekata za konje izmeÿu zimskog i letnjeg perioda (%)
Vreme merenja
Visina uzorkovanja vazduha
(cm)
80
Zima
Leto
15 minuta pre
dnevnih operacija
41,19
62,94
U toku dnevnih
operacija
51,23
53,13
15 minuta posle
dnevnih operacija
56,57
52,57
30 minuta posle
dnevnih operacija
50,95
57,49
Iz priložene tabele jasno se uoþava da je
procentualni udeo þestica prašine respiratorne
frakcije, u letnjoj sezoni, u nivou disanja konja,
statistiþko znaþajno veüi od procentualnog udela
þestica prašine iste frakcije u zimskom periodu, 15
minuta pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti, za nivo
verovatnoüe od P = 0.0056.
Statistiþki pokazatelji znaþajnosti razlika
Razlika = 21,75%
95% CI= 7,504 do 35,996
h2 = 7,680
DF = 1
P = 0,0056
Razlika = 1,90%
95% CI= -12,69 do 16,49
h2 = 0,011
DF = 1
P = 0,9156
Razlika = 4,00%
95% CI= -10,536 do 18,536
h2 = 0,15
DF = 1
P = 0,6971
Razlika = 6,54%
95% CI= -7,985 do 21,065
h2 = 0,534
DF = 1
P = 0,4648
U tabeli 4. prikazana je procentualna
zastupljenost þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije u
zimskoj i letnjoj sezoni u odnosu na njihov oblik, i
to u zoni disanja konja na visini od 80 cm iznad
poda.
22
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
Tabela 4. Procentualna zastupljenost þestica prašine razliþitih oblika u respiratornoj frakciji (%), u zoni
disanja konja (80 cm)
Vreme merenja
15 minuta pre
dnevnih operacija
U toku dnevnih
operacija
15 minuta posle
dnevnih operacija
30 minuta posle
dnevnih operacija
Oblik þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije u zoni disanja konja
Sferiþan
Ovalan
Izdužen
Nepravilan
Zima
Leto
Zima
Leto
Zima
Leto
Zima
Leto
22,18
45,02
10,13
6,54
7,59
5,18
60,01
43,26
3,23
27,13
19,31
7,41
9,22
7,09
68,24
58,37
11,52
32,01
15,42
7,13
8,28
6,63
64,78
54,23
18,92
36,93
11,86
6,89
7,87
6,07
61,35
50,11
Kako se može uoþiti, i u zimskoj i u letnjoj sezoni, najviše su zastupljene þestice nepravilnog
oblika, kako 15 minuta pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti, tako i u toku samih radnih aktivnosti i 15 i 30
minuta po njihovom prestanku. U zimskom periodu,
pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti, procentualni udeo
þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije nepravilnog
oblika iznosi 60,01%, a u letnjem periodu 43,26%.
U toku radnih aktivnosti, njihova procentualna
zastupljenost se poveüava na 68,24% u zimskoj
sezoni i na 58,37% u letnjoj sezoni. Na drugom
mestu po procentualnoj zastupljenosti su þestice
prašine respiratorne frakcije sferiþnog oblika, koje
su 15 minuta pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti u
zimskom periodu zastupljene sa 22,18%, a u letnjem
periodu sa 45,02%. Meÿutim, i u letnjoj i u zimskoj
sezoni, u toku radnih aktivnosti, dolazi do smanjenja
procentualne zastupljenosti þestica sferiþnog oblika,
tako da su u zimskoj sezoni zastupljene sa 3,23%, a
u letnjoj sa 27,13% u odnosu na period pre poþetka
radnih aktivnosti. Na treüem mestu po procentualnoj
zastupljenosti su þestice ovalnog oblika, a zatim
þestice izduženog oblika. U zimskoj sezoni, pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti, þestice ovalnog oblika su
zastupljene sa 10,13%, a njihov procentualni udeo se
poveüava u toku radnih aktivnosti na 19,31%. I u
letnjoj sezoni se njihov procentualni udeo poveüava
sa 6,54% pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti na 7,41% u
toku radnih aktivnosti. Na þetvrtom mestu po
zastupljenosti su þestice izduženog oblika. I njihov
procentualni udeo se poveüava u toku radnih aktivnosti, i to sa 7,59% pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti na
9,22% u toku radnih aktivnosti u zimskom periodu i
sa 5,18% pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti na 7,09% u
toku njihovog izvoÿenja u letnjem periodu. Dinamika promene procentualne zastupljenosti þestica razli-
þitih oblika u zoni disanja konja, u zimskom i letnjem periodu, u zavisnosti je od vremena uzorkovanja (pre, u toku i posle radnih aktivnosti).
DISKUSIJA
Proseþan apsolutni broj svih þestica prašine u
vazduhu 30 štala za konje u ovim istraživanjima
ispoljio je variranja u zavisnosti od sezone i vremena
uzorkovanja vazduha.
Pokazalo se da je u toku zimske sezone ukupan
broj þestica prašine veüi od ukupnog broja þestica
prašine u letnjoj sezoni i da u zoni disanja konja 15
minuta pre poþetka ižÿubaravanja i hranjenja konja
iznosi 25,08±5,12h10-6m3 u zimskoj i 12,36±
4,48h10-6m3 u letnjoj sezoni.
Radne aktivnosti kao što su ižÿubravanje i
hranjenje konja dovode do poveüanja ukupnog broja
þestica prašine, kako u zimskoj (33,34±9,21h106m3)
tako i u letnjoj (22,38±4,28h10-6m3) sezoni u odnosu
na njihov broj pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti.
Utvrÿeno je da je ovo poveüanje statistiþki znaþajno
(zimska sezona: t = 7,436, P < 0.0001 i letnja
sezona: t = 15,342; P < 0.0001), kao i da je ukupan
broj þestica prašine u vazduhu štala, u zimskoj
sezoni, statistiþki znaþajno veüi od ukupnog broja
þestica prašine u vazduhu štala, u letnjoj sezoni (t =
17,737; DF = 178; P < 0.0001). Do potpunog
smanjenja ukupnog broja þestica prašine na nivo
ustanovljen pre zapoþinjanja radnih aktivnosti ne
dolazi ni 30 minuta posle njihovog prestanka. Pola
sata posle prestanka radnih aktivnosti, ukupan broj
þestica prašine u zoni disanja konja, u zimskoj
sezoni, iznosi 27,26±4,62h10-6m3, a u letnjoj sezoni
iznosi 14,42±3,11h10-6m3. Ukupan broj þestica
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
prašine pre je pokazatelj higijenskog statusa štale
nego zdravstvenog rizika za konje i radno osoblje.
Za procenu zdravstvenog rizika koristi se apsolutni i
relativni broj þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije,
þiji je preþnik manji od 5 Pm, kao i oblik þestica
prašine respiratorne frakcije. Prema rezultatima drugih istraživaþa, koji su koristili koniometrijski metod
(Art i sar., 2002) za kvantitativnu i kvalitativnu
karakterizaciju þestica prašine u vazduhu štala,
apsolutni broj þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije
može da varira od 2,28 do 166,28/cm3 vazduha. U
ovim istraživanjima apsolutni broj þestica prašine
respiratorne frakcije, u zoni disanja konja, iznosio je
10,33±3,76/cm3 vazduha u zimskoj sezoni (41,19%),
15 minuta pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti i u letnjoj
sezoni 7,78±3,03/cm3 (62,94%). Rezultati za apsolutni i relativni broj þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije u saglasnosti su sa rezultatima koje su dobili Art
i sar. (2002). Mada je ukupan broj þestica prašine
veüi u zimskoj sezoni i mada je veüi apsolutni broj
þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije, takoÿe, u
zimskoj sezoni, ipak su þestice respiratorne frakcije,
u vazduhu štala, procentualno zastupljenije u zoni
disanja konja u letnjoj sezoni i ova razlika je
statistiþki znaþajna (zima : leto = 41,19% : 62,94%;
h2 = 7.680, P = 0.0056).
Ispitivanja oblika þestica u respiratornoj frakciji
prašine, u zoni disanja konja, otkrila su da su
procentualno najzastupljenije þestice nepravilnog
oblika, kojih 15 minuta pre poþetka radnih aktivnosti
ima 60,01% u zimskoj sezoni i 43,26% u letnjoj sezoni. Na drugom mestu po zastupljenosti su þestice
sferiþnog oblika (zimska sezona: 22,18% i letnja
sezona: 45,02%), a zatim þestice ovalnog (zimska
sezona: 10,13% i letnja sezona: 6,54%) i izduženog
oblika (zimska sezona: 7,59% i letnja sezona:
5,18%). Prema navodima Mohd Azam Khan i sar.
(2005), samo þestice ovalnog i izduženog oblika þiji
je preþnik manji od 5 µm poseduju sposobnost da
dopru do alveola i penetriraju alveolarni epitel, tako
da one predstavljuju zdravstveni rizik za konje, a
posebno u zimskoj sezoni, kada konji sve vreme
provode u zatvorenim štalama pri niskom obimu
ventilacije. U istraživanjima ovih autora, þestice
prašine ovalnog i izduženog oblika bile su zastupljene sa 15,11%, i to 15 minuta pre poþetka radnih
aktivnosti. U ovim istraživanjima, u zimskoj sezoni,
u zoni disanja konja, zbir procentualnog udela
þestica ovalnog i izduženog oblika iznosi 17,62%,
dok u letnjoj sezoni iznosi 11,72%. U odnosu na
rezultate Mohd Azam Khan i sar. (2005), u
23
istraživanjima koja su bila predmet ovog rada, u
zimskoj sezoni, ustanovljena je veüa procentualna
zastupljenost þestica ovalnog i izduženog oblika, a u
letnjoj sezoni manja. Ovakav nalaz predstavlja još
jedan dokaz da su konji u toku zimskih meseci
izloženi veüem zdravstvenom riziku od negativnog
uticaja prašine nego u letnjim mesecima, kada veüi
deo vremena provode izvan štala. U toku radnih
aktivnosti poveüava se procentualni udeo þestica
ovalnog i izduženog oblika, tako da i radne
aktivnosti, kao što su ižÿubravanje i hranjenje,
predstavljaju dodatni zdravstveni rizik ne samo za
konje, veü i za radnike.
ZAKLJUýAK
Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata se može zakljuþiti
da rizik po zdravstveno stanje konja u ispitivanim
štalama predstavlja, pored velike koncentracije prašine, i oblik þestica prašine respiratorne frakcije.
Ovakvo stanje ukazuje na neodgovarajuüu ventilaciju štala kako u zimskoj, tako i u letnjoj sezoni.
Zato vlasnicima treba savetovati da koriguju
postojeüe sisteme ventilacije u svojim štalama, a to
se odnosi na prirodnu ventilaciju, odnosno da što
þešüe provetravaju štale, da konjima omoguüe što
duži boravak izvan štala, kao i da za ishranu koriste
kvalitetno seno, koje treba navlažiti pre nego što ga
raspodele konjima, kao i da izbegavaju skladištenje
sena na tavanskom prostoru iznad zone disanja
konja.
LITERATURA
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Dust Particles in Equine Stable. Journal of
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Markers of respiratory inflammation in horses in
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Carr E. A., Derksen F. J. Airway inflammation in
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
25
UDK 614:636.083
Ɇɚɪɢʁɚɧɚ ȼɭɱɢɧɢʄ, Ʉɚɬɚɪɢɧɚ Ɋɚɞɢɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ1
ȳȺȼɇɈ ɁȾɊȺȼȴȿ ɂ ȾɈȻɊɈȻɂɌ ɀɂȼɈɌɂȵȺ
Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ȳɚɜɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɢ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɭ ɭ ɞɜɚ ɩɨɞɪɭɱʁɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɩɪɚɤɫɟ ɢ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚʁʁɚɱɢɯ
ɫɩɨʁɟɜɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɢ ɯɭɦɚɧɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ. Ⱦɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɥɭɠɢ ɤɚɨ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɢʁɢɯ ɢ
ɫɜɟɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɧɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɚ ɡɚ ʁɚɜɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ. ɋɩɨʁ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ
ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɟ ɫɚɝɥɟɞɚɬɢ ɤɪɨɡ ɬɪɢ ɧɚʁɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɟ ɝɪɭɩɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ, ɚ ɬɨ ɫɭ: 1) ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɢ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɢ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɥɭɠɟ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɢ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ
ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ; 2) ɤɪɨɡ ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟ ɢ ɫɩɪɨɜɨɻɟʃɟ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɝ
ɜɥɚɫɧɢɲɬɜɚ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɭ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢɯ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɧɟɡɛɪɢɧɭɬɢɯ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ
ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ 3) ɤɪɨɡ ɟɬɢɱɤɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɟ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɭ ɧɚɭɱɧɟ ɢɥɢ
ɟɞɭɤɚɬɢɜɧɟ ɫɜɪɯɟ ɢ ɡɚ ɬɟɫɬɢɪɚʃɟ ɦɟɞɢɤɚɦɟɧɚɬɚ.
Kʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ʁɚɜɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ, ɜɟɡɚ.
Marijana Vuþiniü, Katarina Radisavljeviü
PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE OF ANIMALS
Abstract
Public health and animal welfare are two areas of veterinary practice and one of the strongest link
between veterinary and human medicine. Animal welfare is used as one of the most complex and
comprehensive mechanism to provide and ensure all conditions for public health. Connection between animal
welfare and public health can be seen in three major groups of following mechanisms: 1) common
mechanisms to ensure the welfare of animals used for food production and ensure food safety and quality; 2)
the establishment and implementation of responsible ownership institution and pet population control
including pets of known owners and free-roaming pets and 3) the ethical relation to the experimental animals
used for scientific or educational purposes and for drug testing.
Key words: animal welfare, public health, link.
1
Ɇɚɪɢʁɚɧɚ ȼɭɱɢɧɢʄ, Ʉɚɬɚɪɢɧɚ Ɋɚɞɢɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ, ɍɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, Ȼɭɥ.
ɨɫɥɨɛɨɻɟʃɚ 18, 11000 Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, ɋɪɛɢʁɚ.
Marijana Vuþiniü, Katarina Radisavljeviü, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bul. osloboÿenja
18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
26
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɍȼɈȾ
ɍ ɫɜɢɦ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɦɚ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢʁɟ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɢ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ.
ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɨɞ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ; ɞɚ ɨɫɢɝɭɪɚʁɭ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ
ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ; ɞɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɟ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬ ɢɥɢ ɚɥɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɟ í ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɟ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɚ ɪɟɡɢɞɭɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɭ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚɦɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɫɤɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ;
ɞɚ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɢɪɚʁɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ ɢ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɞɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɟ ɲɢɪɟʃɟ
ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ; ɞɚ ɲɬɢɬɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɭ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ; ɞɚ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɟ
ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɨɞ ɬɨɤɫɢɤɨɡɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɟ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚɦɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɫɤɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ; ɞɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɟ
ɩɪɨɧɚɥɚɠɟʃɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɢ
ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ
ɬɟɫɬɢɪɚʁɭ ɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ; ɞɚ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɢɪɚʁɭ
ɛɢɨɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɚɦ ɢ ɚɝɪɨɬɟɪɨɪɢɡɚɦ; ɞɚ ʁɚɱɚʁɭ
ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɢ ɞɚ ɫɚɜɟɬɨɞɚɜɧɨ
ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɟ
ɭɧɚɩɪɟɻɟʃɭ
ʁɚɜɧɨɝ
ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ
(Pappaioanou, 2004). ȳɟɞɧɚ ɨɞ ɫɩɨɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ
ɫɬɪɭɤɟ ɢ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ʁɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɨ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪ ʁɟ ɞɭɠɚɧ ɞɚ ɲɬɢɬɢ
ɮɢɡɢɱɤɭ, ɩɫɢɯɢɱɤɭ ɢ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɭ ɰɟɥɨɜɢɬɨɫɬ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɤɚɤɨ ɩɪɭɠɚʃɟɦ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɢɯ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝɚ ɢ ɫɩɪɨɜɨɻɟʃɟɦ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ
ɢ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɢ ɟɞɭɤɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɢɦɚ ɭ ɲɢɪɨʁ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɢ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɧɢɤɚ
ʁɟɞɧɟ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɰɟ. ɋɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢʁɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɡɚɫɧɨɜɚɧɚ ɫɚɦɨ ɧɚ ɥɟɱɟʃɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɜɟɧɢɪɚʃɭ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ ɢ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧɭ
ɩɨɜɪɟɞɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɧɟɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɟ
ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɧɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɭ ɭɫɥɨɜɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ, ɭ
ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ʄɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɦɨʄɢ ɞɚ ɢɫɩɨʂɟ ɫɜɨʁɟ
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɟ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ, ɞɚ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɟ ɰɢʂɟɜɟ ɫɜɨʁɢɯ
ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɢɫɩɨʂɟ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɟ ɨɛɥɢɤɟ
ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɚ ɪɚɞɢ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɚɜɚʃɚ ɫɜɨʁɢɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ, ɚ
ɞɚ ɩɪɢ ɬɨɦɟ ɨɫɬɚɧɭ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢ, ɩɫɢɯɢɱɤɢ ɢ
ɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɨ ɢɧɬɚɤɬɧɟ. ɋɚɦɨ ɨɞ ɬɚɤɜɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ʁɟ ɞɨɛɢɬɢ ɧɚʁɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɧɢʁɟ ɢ ɧɚʁɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɢʁɟ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɟ ɢ ɫɚɦɨ ʁɟ ɫɚ ɬɚɤɜɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ
ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɢ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɭ ɜɟɡɭ ɧɚ ɪɟɥɚɰɢʁɢ
ɱɨɜɟɤíɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ.
ɉɪɟɞ
ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɨɦ
ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢʁɨɦ ʁɟ ɨɛɚɜɟɡɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɟɞɭɤɭʁɟ ɭ ɩɪɚɜɰɭ ɩɪɟɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɚ ɢ ɫɭɡɛɢʁɚʃɚ ɨɧɢɯ
ɫɬɚʃɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɧɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɫɚɦɨ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɭ
ɰɟɥɨɜɢɬɨɫɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɭ ɢ
ɟɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɭ ɰɟɥɨɜɢɬɨɫɬ ɢ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʁɭ
ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɧɟɩɪɢʁɚɬɧɢɯ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɢɯ ɢ ɟɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɯ
ɢɫɤɭɫɬɚɜɚ ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɫɬɪɚɯ, ɫɬɪɟɫ, ɞɨɫɚɞɚ, ɩɚɬʃɚ,
ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɫɬɜɨ, ɧɟɭɞɨɛɧɨɫɬ, ɧɟɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɬ ɢ
ɧɟɩɪɢʁɚɬɧɨɫɬ, ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɭʄɢ ɢ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɟ, ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɢ
ɛɨɥ (ȼɭɱɢɧɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2011). ɋɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɟ ɨɛɚɜɟɡɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɭɡɢɦɚʃɟ
ɨɛɚɜɟɡɚ ɭ ɦɧɨɝɢɦ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɫɮɟɪɚɦɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ
ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ. Ɍɚɤɨ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɢ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ
ɞɚ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɭ ɭɥɨɝɭ ɭ ɫɭɡɛɢʁɚʃɭ ɢ
ɢɫɤɨɪɟʃɢɜɚʃɭ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɭ ɛɟɫɩɪɟɤɨɪɧɨɦ
ɨɞɚɛɢɪɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɭ
ɡɜɚɧɢɱɧɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɬɢɦ ɚɥɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɧɚɱɢɧɢɦɚ
ɥɟɱɟʃɚ ʂɭɞɢ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɬɨ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɚɧɢɦɨɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ.
ȳɚɜɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɞɟɮɢɧɢɲɟ ɤɪɨɡ
ɫɤɭɩ ɤɨɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟɞɧɚ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɰɚ
ɫɩɪɨɜɨɞɢ ɡɚɪɚɞ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ, ɭ
ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ʄɟ ʂɭɞɢ ɛɢɬɢ ɡɞɪɚɜɢ (National Academy of
Science 1988). ɋɚ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɋɜɟɬɫɤɚ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ ʁɟ ɞɟɮɢɧɢɫɚɥɚ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɤɚɨ
ɫɬɚʃɟ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨɝ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɨɝ, ɩɫɢɯɢɱɤɨɝ ɢ ɟɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɬɚʃɚ, ɚ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɨɞɫɭɫɬɜɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɢ
ɧɟɦɨʄɢ (WHO 1946). ɍɥɨɝɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɚ ɭ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɭ ɢ ɭɧɚɩɪɟɻɟʃɭ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ʁɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɫɬɪɭɤɚ, ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɚ ɢ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɧɚ ʁɟɪ ɫɟ, ɫɚ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ,
ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚ ɞɚ ɩɨɡɧɚʁɟ ɫɜɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ
ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɚ ɫɚ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɞɚ ɩɨɡɧɚʁɟ ɫɩɨɧɭ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɢ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ.
ɇɚ ɤɪɚʁɭ, ɨɞ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚ ɞɚ ɩɨɡɧɚʁɟ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ ɢ ɭɧɚɩɪɟɻɟʃɚ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ
ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɢ ɞɚ ɧɚ ɫɟɛɟ ɩɪɢɦɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɭ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɰɢ ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ ɨɛɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɫɜɨʁɭ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢʁɭ. ɇɟɦɢɧɨɜɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ʁɟɞɧɚ ɨɞ
ɧɚʁʁɚɱɢɯ ɜɟɡɚ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢʁɟ ɢ
ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɭʁɟ ɩɪɟɤɨ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ.
ȾɈȻɊɈȻɂɌ ɎȺɊɆɋɄɂɏ
ɀɂȼɈɌɂȵȺ, ɄȼȺɅɂɌȿɌ ɂ
ȻȿɁȻȿȾɇɈɋɌ ɇȺɆɂɊɇɂɐȺ
ɂ ȳȺȼɇɈ ɁȾɊȺȼȴȿ
Ʉɨɧɬɢɧɭɢɪɚɧɢ ɩɨɪɚɫɬ ɩɨɬɪɚɠʃɟ ɧɚ ɬɪɠɢɲɬɭ
ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ ɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɭ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ ɭ ɜɟɥɢɤɨ ɢɫɤɭɲɟʃɟ ɢ ɧɟɞɨɭɦɢɰɭ –
ɞɚ ɥɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɢɬɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚ ɧɚɱɟɥɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ
ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɨɫɬ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɬɚɜɢɬɢ ɢɫɩɪɟɞ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ? Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ,
ɡɚɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟɦ ɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚʃɟɦ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɫɟ ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɢ
ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ
ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ. Ⱦɨɤ ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚʃɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ
ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɟɬɢɱɤɭ/ɦɨɪɚɥɧɭ ɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢɨɧɚɥɧɭ
ɞɢɥɟɦɭ ɛɟɡ ɨɛɡɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɚ ɥɢ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɨ
ɫɬɨɱɚɪɢɦɚ, ɚɝɪɨɧɨɦɢɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɢɦɚ, ɞɨɬɥɟ
ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚʃɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ
ɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɚɧ ɪɢɡɢɤ ɡɚ ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚʃɟ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ
ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɧɢɤɚ ɨɜɢɯ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ. ɂɩɚɤ, ɨɜɟ
ɞɜɟ, ɫɚɦɨ ɧɚɢɡɝɥɟɞ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɞɢɥɟɦɟ, ɢɦɚʁɭ
ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɢ ɤɨɪɟɧ, ɤɨʁɢ ɥɟɠɢ ɞɭɛɨɤɨ ɭ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ
ɡɚɯɬɟɜɭ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ, ɚ ɬɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɭɥɚɬ
ɨɫɥɨɛɚɻɚʃɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɚ
ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ. ɍ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɢɦ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɢɦɚ
ɝɚʁɟʃɚ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɭɬɢɰɚʁ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ ɧɢʁɟ
ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɢɡɛɟʄɢ, ɚɥɢ ʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɫɦɚʃɢɬɢ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɨɫɬ
ɢ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɬɟɬ ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɚ (Kumar ɢ ɫɚɪ.,
2012). ɋɬɚɥɧɢ ɭɬɢɰɚʁ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɭ
ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɟ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɢɯ ɭ ɫɬɚʃɟ
ɮɢɡɢɱɤɟ ɢ ɟɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɟ ɢɫɰɪɩʂɟɧɨɫɬɢ, ɬɚɤɨɡɜɚɧɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ „ɧɚɭɱɟɧɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɦɨʄɧɨɫɬɢ“, ɩɚɬʃɟ ɢ
ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɧɢɡɚ ɮɢɡɢɤɨɩɚɬɢʁɚ, ɪɟɩɪɨɩɚɬɢʁɚ ɢ
ɟɬɨɩɚɬɢʁɚ (ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɢ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɚ), ɱɢɦɟ ʁɟ
ʃɢɯɨɜɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɟɥɢɦɢɧɢɫɚɧɚ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɢɡɜɨɪɢ
ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ ɡɚ ɞɨɦɚʄɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɭ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɢɦ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɢɦɚ ɝɚʁɟʃɚ ɫɭ ɫɦɟɲɬɚʁɧɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢ ɤɨʁɢ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɚɜɚʁɭ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɭ ɤɪɟɬɚʃɚ ɢ ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚʃɚ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢɯ ɨɛɥɢɤɚ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɚ ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɡɚɬɨ
ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɭʁɭ ɮɪɭɫɬɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɤɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢ ɢ ɡɨɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɢ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɭʁɭ
ɛɨɥ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɮɢɡɢɱɤɚ ɢ ɬɟɪɦɢɱɤɚ
ɧɟɭɞɨɛɧɨɫɬ, ɨɫɟʄɚʁ ɧɟɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɟɩɪɢʁɚɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɢ ɧɟɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɢɜɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɧɚɬɪɩɚɧɨɫɬ ɫɦɟɲɬɚʁɧɨɝ
ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɚ, ɩɨɜɪɟɞɟ, ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɪɟɫɬɪɢɤɰɢʁɚ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɢ
ɜɨɞɟ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɝɥɚɞ ɢ ɠɟɻ, ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɚ,
ɛɪɨʁɧɟ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɟ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɞɪ. ɋɬɪɟɫɨɪɢ ɤɨʁɢ
ɞɟɥɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɫɜɪɫɬɚɬɢ ɭ
ɬɪɢ ɝɥɚɜɧɟ ɝɪɭɩɟ, ɚ ɬɨ ɫɭ: ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɢ (ɛɨɥ,
ɮɢɡɢɱɤɚ ɬɪɚɭɦɚ, ɢɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɯɜɚɬɚʃɟ ɢ ɨɛɭɡɞɚɜɚʃɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɞɪ.), ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɲɤɢ
ɢɥɢ ɟɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɢ (ɫɬɪɚɯ, ɚɧɤɫɢɨɡɧɨɫɬ,
ɧɟɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɬ, ɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɧɨɫɬ ɭ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɭ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɢ
ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɬɢɯ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɭɫɚ, ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɚ, ɦɚɬɟɪɧɚɥɧɚ ɞɟɩɪɢɜɚɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɞɪ.) ɢ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɢ ɤɨʁɢ
ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɤɚɪɞɢɨɜɚɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɭ ɯɨɦɟɨɫɬɚɡɭ (ɤɪɜɚɪɟʃɚ, ɡɚɦɨɪ ɢ ɬɨɩɥɨɬɧɢ ɫɬɪɟɫ). ɉɨɪɟɞ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ
ɤɨʁɢ ɞɟɥɭʁɭ ɭ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ, ɧɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ
ɡɚɛɨɪɚɜɢɬɢ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɟ ɢ
ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɢɯ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ (Von Borell ɢ
Schaffer, 2005; Minkɚ ɢ Ayo, 2010; Lv ɢ ɫɚɪ. 2011)
ɢ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ ɭ ɤɥɚɨɧɢɰɚɦɚ (Terlouw ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2008).
Ȼɟɡ ɨɛɡɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɜɪɫɬɭ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ɞɟɥɭʁɭ ɧɚ
ɮɚɪɦɫɤɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ, ɡɚ ɫɜɟ ʃɢɯ ʁɟ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɨ ɞɚ
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ɩɨɤɪɟʄɭ ɧɟɭɪɨɯɭɦɨɪɚɥɧɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɢ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɱɭ
ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɤɚ ɩɪɟɫɬɪɨʁɚɜɚʃɚ ɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɤɚɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɤɢɯ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ, ɫɥɚɛɟʄɢ ɢɦɭɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɲɬɨ ɢɯ ɱɢɧɢ ɜɢɲɟ ɩɨɞɥɨɠɧɢɦ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɭ
ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɫɚ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɚ ɫɚ ɞɪɭɝɟ
ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ, ɤɨʁɟ
ɩɨɬɢɱɭ ɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɟ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɭ
ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ. ɋɥɚɛʂɟʃɟɦ ɢɦɭɧɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ,
ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɢ, ɤɨʁɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɱɢɧɟ ɩɨɞɥɨɠɧɢʁɟ
ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ
ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ.
Ɇɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɚ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ ɢ
ʃɢɯɨɜɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ ɭ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚɦɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ
ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ ɢɥɢ ɪɟɡɢɞɭɚ ɦɟɞɢɤɚɦɟɧɚɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɡɚ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ
ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɢ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ
ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ, ɚ ɬɢɦɟ ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɤɨɧɡɭɦɟɧɚɬɚ ɨɜɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ. Ʉɚɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɤɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ ɫɬɪɟɫɧɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɧɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ. ɇɨɜɢʁɢɦ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɢɦɚ ɭɩɨɡɧɚɬɢ ɫɭ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɢ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɢ,
ɤɨʁɢ ɞɟɥɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ, ɭɬɢɱɭ ɢ ɧɚ
ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ.
ȿɧɬɟɪɢɱɤɢ ɧɟɪɜɧɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɫɦɟɲɬɟɧ ɭ
ɡɢɞɭ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ, ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚ ɨɤɨ
100 ɦɢɥɢɨɧɚ ɧɟɭɪɨɧɚ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɲɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɰɢɪɤɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ, ɦɨɬɢɥɢɬɟɬ, ɟɝɡɨɝɟɧɭ ɢ ɟɧɞɨɝɟɧɭ ɫɟɤɪɟɰɢʁɭ
ɨɜɨɝ ɞɟɥɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ. Ⱦɜɨɫɦɟɪɧɨ ʁɟ ɫɩɨʁɟɧ ɫɚ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɧɢɦ ɧɟɪɜɧɢɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɦ ɫɢɦɩɚɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɢ
ɩɚɪɚɫɢɦɩɚɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɧɟɪɜɧɢɦ ɜɥɚɤɧɢɦɚ ɢ ɬɚɤɨ
ɫɚɱɢʃɚɜɚ ɨɫɭ „ɦɨɡɚɤ í ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɢ
ɬɪɚɤɬ“. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɨɫɟ „ɯɢɩɨɬɚɥɚɦɭɫ í ɯɢɩɨɮɢɡɚ í
ɧɚɞɛɭɛɪɟɠɧɚ ɠɥɟɡɞɚ“, ɨɜɚ ɨɫɚ ʁɟ ɨɞ ɢɫɬɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ
ɤɚɤɨ ɡɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɢ ɡɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɢ
ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ ɢ ʁɚɜɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ
ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱɚ ʁɟɪ ʁɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɚ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɡɚ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɟ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɟ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɨɝ
ɬɪɚɤɬɚ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ ɫɬɪɟɫɧɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɜɟʄ ɢ ɡɚ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ
ɢɧɮɥɚɦɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ ɢ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɨɜɨɝ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ.
ɉɨɡɧɚɬɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɢ ɬɪɚɤɬ ɞɨɛɪɨ
ɢɧɟɪɜɢɫɚɧ ɧɟɭɪɨɧɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɥɭɱɟ ɧɨɪɚɞɪɟɧɚɥɢɧ ɭ
ʃɟɝɨɜɭ ɫɥɭɡɨɤɨɠɭ, ɤɨʁɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɨ
ɫɬɚɧɢɲɬɟ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ, ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɭʄɢ ɢ ɨɧɟ
ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɟ ɡɚ ɤɜɚɪɟʃɟ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ. Ʉɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚ
ɧɨɪɚɞɪɟɧɚɥɢɧɚ ʁɟ ɜɢɫɨɤɚ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɢ
ɫɥɭɡɨɤɨɠɟ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ ɢ ɭ
ɦɭɰɢɧɭ. ɉɨɡɧɚɬɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɚɞɪɟɧɚɥɢɧ ɢ ɧɨɪɚɞɪɟɧɚɥɢɧ
ɫɦɚʃɭʁɭ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ ɥɢɦɮɨɰɢɬɚ ɭ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɚɰɢʁɢ,
ɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɧɢɯ ɥɢɦɮɨɰɢɬɚ, ʃɢɯɨɜɭ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɭ
ɢ ɞɚ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɢ ɧɚ ɫɦɚʃɟʃɟ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɟ ɫɟɤɪɟɬɨɪɧɢɯ
ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ. ɂɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɨɜɢ ɤɚɬɟɯɨɥɚɦɢɧɢ, ɭ
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɬɨɤɭ ɫɬɪɟɫɧɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɟ, ɭɬɢɱɭ ɢ ɧɚ ɫɦɚʃɟʃɟ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ ɠɟɥɭɞɚɱɧɟ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ, ɱɢɦɟ ɭɫɩɨɪɚɜɚʁɭ
ɩɪɚɠʃɟʃɟ ɠɟɥɭɰɚ, ɚ ɭɛɪɡɚɜɚʁɭ ɦɨɬɢɥɢɬɟɬ ɬɚɧɤɢɯ
ɰɪɟɜɚ ɢ ɩɚɫɚɠɭ ɰɪɟɜɧɨɝ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ ɤɪɨɡ ɤɨɥɨɧ. ɇɚ
ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ, ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɩɨɜɟʄɚʃɚ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɇ ɭ
ɰɪɟɜɢɦɚ, ɲɬɨ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚɦɚ ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ
Escherichia coli, Salmonella ɢ Campylobacter ɞɚ
„ɢɡɛɟɝɧɭ“ ɩɚɫɚɠɭ ɤɪɨɡ ɰɪɟɜɚ, ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭ ʃɢɦɚ
ɡɚɞɪɠɟ ɢ ɞɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɡɭʁɭ ɫɥɭɡɨɤɨɠɭ ɰɪɟɜɚ. ɍɫɥɟɞ
ɫɦɚʃɟɧɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɢɯ ɢ ɨɩɲɬɢɯ
ɨɞɛɪɚɦɛɟɧɢɯ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ,
ɩɨɜɟʄɚʃɚ
ɩɟɪɦɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɫɥɭɡɨɤɨɠɟ ɰɪɟɜɚ, ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɭʄɢ ɢ
ɩɚɪɚʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢ ɢ ɬɪɚɧɫʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢ ɩɟɪɦɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɟɬ,
ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɟ ɫɟ ɥɚɤɨ ɭɦɧɨɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɤɚɤɨ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɢ,
ɬɚɤɨ ɢ ɭ ɫɚɦɨʁ ɫɥɭɡɨɤɨɠɢ ɰɪɟɜɚ ɢ ɥɚɤɨ ɩɪɨɞɢɪɭ,
ɛɚɲ ɤɚɨ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ, ɢ ɭ ɰɪɟɜɧɭ ɦɭɤɨɡɭ
ɢ ɫɭɛɦɭɤɨɡɭ. ɉɚɬɨɝɟɧɟ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ
ɤɨɥɨɧɢɡɨɜɚɥɟ ɫɥɭɡɨɤɨɠɭ ɰɪɟɜɧɨɝ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ ɥɚɤɨ
ɫɚɜɥɚɞɚʁɭ ɨɞɛɪɚɧɭ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɟ. ɉɨɞ
ɭɬɢɰɚʁɟɦ ɦɨɬɢɥɢɧɚ, ɤɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɱɢʁɢ ʁɟ
ɢɦɭɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ɨɫɥɚɛʂɟɧ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɟɦ
ɯɪɨɧɢɱɧɢɯ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ ɭ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ
ɞɪɠɚʃɚ, ɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɞɨɞɚɬɧɨ ɢɡɥɚɠɭ ɚɤɭɬɧɢɦ
ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɢɦɚ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɬɨ ɫɥɭɱɚʁ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɢɥɢ ɤɥɚʃɚ, ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɭɛɪɡɚɧɨɝ
ɩɪɚɠʃɟʃɚ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ ɢ
ɢɡɥɭɱɢɜɚʃɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ
ɮɟɰɟɫɨɦ ɭ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɭ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ. Ɏɟɰɟɫ ɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɭ ʃɟɦɭ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɢ ɤɨɧɬɚɦɢɧɢɪɚʁɭ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɭ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ ɫɚ ɤɨʁɨɦ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɞɨɥɚɡɟ ɭ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬ, ɱɢɧɟʄɢ ɢɯ ɩɨɞɥɨɠɧɢɦ
ɪɚɡɜɨʁɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ, ɚ ɢɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɤɨɧɬɚɦɢɧɢɪɚʁɭ
ɢ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɭ ɬɟɥɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɲɬɨ ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɞɚʂɭ ɤɨɧɬɚɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɭ
ɬɪɭɩɨɜɚ ɡɚɤɥɚɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɪɭɤɭ ɪɚɞɧɢɤɚ,
ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɚ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɦɟ ɭ ɤɥɚɨɧɢɰɚɦɚ (Marin ɢ
Lainez, 2009; Abley ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2012ɚ; 2012b). Ɍɚɤɨɻɟ,
ɤɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚɦɚ ɧɚ
ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɨɦ ɬɪɚɤɬɭ, ɜɟʄɚ ʁɟ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɨɫɬ
ɪɭɩɬɭɪɟ
ɡɢɞɚ
ɨɜɢɯ
ɨɪɝɚɧɚ
ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ
ɟɜɢɫɰɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ, ɲɬɨ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ
ɞɢɫɟɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɟ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɢɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɭ ɬɪɭɩɨɜɟ ɡɚɤɥɚɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɨɛɪɚɞɟ
ɬɪɭɩɨɜɚ, ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɭʄɢ ɨɩɪɟɦɭ ɡɚ ɨɛɪɚɞɭ ɬɪɭɩɨɜɚ ɢ
ɪɭɤɟ ɤɥɚɨɧɢɱɚɪɚ (Singer ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2007). ɋɜɟ ɧɚɛɪɨʁɚɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɪɢɡɢɤ ɡɚ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ
ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱɚ (Rostagno, 2009). ȼɢɫɨɤɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɧɨɪɚɞɪɟɧɚɥɢɧɚ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ ɫɬɪɟɫɧɟ
ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʁɭ ɭ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɨɦ
ɬɪɚɤɬɭ ɫɥɚɛɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɟ ɢ
ɨɥɚɤɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɭɦɧɨɠɚɜɚʃɟ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɢɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ, ɚ
ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɝɪɚɦ-ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ. Ɍɚɤɨɻɟ, ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɢ ɧɨɪɚɞɪɟɧɚɥɢɧ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɭɬɢɱɟ ɢ
ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟʄɚʃɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɜɢɪɭɥɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɚɞɯɟɡɢɨɧɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɢ ɤɨɞ ɟɧɬɟɪɨɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɢɯ ɫɨʁɟɜɚ E. coli ɢ ɬɨɤɫɢɧɢ ɤɨɞ ɟɧɬɟɪɨɯɟɦɨɪɚɝɢɱɧɢɯ ɫɨʁɟɜɚ E. coli ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɢɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ,
ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɝɥɚɜɧɢ ɭɡɪɨɰɢ ɤɜɚɪɚ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ ɢ ɚɥɢɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ, ɬɨɤɫɨɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɢɧɬɨɤɫɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɨɬɪɨɲɚɱɚ. ɇɚ ɤɪɚʁɭ, ɦɟɞɢɤɚɦɟɧɬɨɡɧɢ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɚ
ɤɨɞ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɪɢɡɢɤ ɡɚ
ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɪɟɡɢɞɭɚ ɢɫɬɢɯ ɦɟɞɢɤɚɦɟɧɚɬɚ ɢɥɢ
ʃɢɯɨɜɢɯ ɦɟɻɭɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ ɭ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚɦɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ. ɍ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɤɨɞ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɦɟɞɢɤɚɦɟɧɚɬɚ ɡɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɥɟɱɟʃɟ ɢɥɢ ɱɚɤ ɢ
ɡɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɭ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɬɢɜɭ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɥɟɝɚɥɚɧ ɧɚɱɢɧ
ʃɢɯɨɜɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ.
Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɚɤɨ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɚ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɚ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɪɟɦɟɬɟ ɩɪɨɮɢɬɚɛɢɥɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɻɚɱɚ, ɧɢʁɟ
ɪɟɬɤɨ ɞɚ ɧɟɢɫɤɭɫɧɢ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɢ ɩɨɱɧɭ ɢɥɟɝɚɥɧɨ ɞɚ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɥɟɤɨɜɟ ɤɚɨ „ɩɪɨɦɨɬɨɪɟ
ɪɚɫɬɚ“ (Nebot ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2012; Vandenberge ɢ ɫɚɪ.,
2012).
ɂɇɌȿɇɁɂȼɇȺ ɋɌɈɑȺɊɋɄȺ
ɉɊɈɂɁȼɈȾȵȺ, ȾɈȻɊɈȻɂɌ
ɀɂȼɈɌɂȵȺ ɂ ȳȺȼɇɈ ɁȾɊȺȼȴȿ
ɋȺ ȿɄɈɅɈɒɄɈȽ ȺɋɉȿɄɌȺ
ɂɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɭ ɬɢɩɭ
„ɮɚɛɪɢɱɤɟ“ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɭ ɦɧɨɝɢɦ ɞɟɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɫɜɟɬɚ ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɥɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɩɚɞɚʃɟ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ
ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɚ, ɧɚɪɭɲɢɥɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɭ ɪɭɪɚɥɧɢɦ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɚɦɚ, ɫɜɨʁɨɦ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢʁɨɦ ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɥɚ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɨɫɢɪɨɦɚɲɟɧɨɝ ɫɟɨɫɤɨɝ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɧɢɲɬɜɚ ɭ ɝɪɚɞɨɜɟ ɢ ɧɚ ɧɚʁɝɪɭɛʂɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɧɚɪɭɲɢɥɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɡɚɬɜɚɪɚʃɟɦ ɭ
ɧɟɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɟ ɫɦɟɲɬɚʁɧɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɢ ɮɨɪɫɢɪɚʃɟɦ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɡɜɚɧ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɤɚɩɚɰɢɬɟɬɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɟɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɚ ɞɨɛɪɢɯ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɚ.
ɉɨɪɟɞ ɧɚɛɪɨʁɚɧɢɯ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɚ, ɮɚɛɪɢɱɤɚ
ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɭɝɪɨɡɢɥɚ ʁɟ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɭ
ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ ɟɦɢɫɢʁɨɦ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɫɤɢɯ ɡɚɝɚɻɢɜɚɱɚ ɢ
ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɧɢɯ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ. ɍ
ɦɧɨɝɢɦ ɞɟɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɮɚɛɪɢɱɤɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɚ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɛɢɥɚ ʁɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɭɡɪɨɤ ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚʃɚ
ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɡɟɦʂɢɲɬɚ ɢ ɜɨɞɚ ɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɚ ɲɭɦɚ,
ɚ ɬɚɦɨ ɝɞɟ ɫɟ ɮɚɛɪɢɱɤɨ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɨɞɪɠɚɥɨ ɢ ɝɞɟ
ɫɟ ɢɡɝɭɛɢɥɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɚ ɟɬɢɤɚ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ ɫɟ ɞɚ
ɮɚɪɦɟ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɬɢɩɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɝɥɚɜɧɟ
ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɫɦɪɬɨɧɨɫɧɢɯ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɢɦɚɥɟ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɩɚɧɞɟɦɢʁɚ (Appleby 2006). ɍ ɨɞɧɨɫɭ ɧɚ
ɭɤɭɩɧɭ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɭ ɟɦɢɫɢʁɭ ɝɚɫɨɜɚ „ɫɬɚɤɥɟɧɟ
ɛɚɲɬɟ“, ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ʁɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɚ ɡɚ
ɟɦɢɫɢʁɭ 37% ɦɟɬɚɧɚ, 65% ɨɤɫɢɞɚ ɚɡɨɬɚ ɢ 9%
ɭɝʂɟɧɞɢɨɤɫɢɞɚ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɬɨɝɚ, 64% ɭɤɭɩɧɟ ɟɦɢɫɢʁɟ
ɚɦɨɧɢʁɚɤɚ ɩɨɬɢɱɟ ɢɡ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɡɟɦʂɢɲɬɚ, ɜɨɞɟ ɢ ɜɚɡɞɭɯɚ, ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɭʁɭʄɢ
ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɯ ɤɢɲɚ ɢ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ ɨɡɨɧɫɤɢ
ɨɦɨɬɚɱ. ɉɪɟɦɚ ɩɪɨɪɚɱɭɧɢɦɚ FAO, ɭ ɞɚɧɚɲʃɟ
ɜɪɟɦɟ, ɲɢɪɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɚ, ɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɢ ɦɥɟɤɚ, ɦɟɫɚ ɢ
ʁɚʁɚ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɭʁɟ ɨɤɨ 60 ɦɢɥɢʁɚɪɞɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ɋɚɱɭɧɚ ɫɟ ɞɚ ɛɢ 2050. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ʃɢɯɨɜ ɛɪɨʁ ɦɨɝɚɨ ɞɚ
ɞɨɫɟɝɧɟ ɢ 120 ɦɢɥɢʁɚɪɞɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (FAOSTAT
2006). Ɍɚɤɨɻɟ, ɩɪɟɦɚ ɩɪɨɪɚɱɭɧɢɦɚ FAO, ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɫɤɨ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ ʁɟ ɲɟɫɬ ɩɭɬɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚʃɟɧɢʁɟ ɨɞ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɬɪɢ ɩɭɬɚ ɨɞ
ɩɚɲɧɨɝ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɚ (FAOSTAT 2006). ɇɚʁɦɚʃɟ
50% ɭɤɭɩɧɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɫɜɢʃɫɤɨɝ ɦɟɫɚ ɢ 70%
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɠɢɜɢɧɫɤɨɝ ɦɟɫɚ ɨɞɜɢʁɚ ɫɟ ɧɚ
ɮɚɪɦɚɦɚ ɫɚ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɢɦ ɭɡɝɨʁɟɦ ɮɚɛɪɢɱɤɨɝ ɬɢɩɚ
(WorldWatch Institute 2004). ɂɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɧɚʁɜɢɲɟ ʁɟ ɡɚɫɬɭɩʂɟɧɚ ɭ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɢɦ ɡɟɦʂɚɦɚ ɱɢʁɚ ʁɟ ɬɟɠʃɚ ɞɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɟ ʁɟɮɬɢɧɭ
ɯɪɚɧɭ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ ɡɚ ɧɟɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɟ ɡɟɦʂɟ ɢ
ɡɟɦʂɟ ɭ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɭ. Ɏɚɛɪɢɱɤɨ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɧɟ ɭɬɢɱɟ
ɫɚɦɨ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɢʁɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɚɥɢɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɤɨɦɟɪɧɨ ɤɨɧɡɭɦɢɪɚʃɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɭɡɪɨɤ ɝɨʁɚɡɧɨɫɬɢ, ɞɢʁɚɛɟɬɟɫɚ, ɦɚɥɢɝɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ, ɤɚɪɞɢɨɜɚɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɢɯ ɢ ɰɟɪɟɛɪɨɜɚɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɢɯ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɚ.
ɋɜɟɬɫɤɨ ɭɞɪɭɠɟʃɟ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɭɱɚɜɚʃɟ ɤɚɧɰɟɪɚ
ɚɩɟɥɨɜɚɥɨ ʁɟ ɧɚ ɫɦɚʃɟʃɟ ɤɨɧɡɭɦɚɰɢʁɟ ɰɪɜɟɧɨɝ
ɦɟɫɚ ɢ ɦɟɫɧɢɯ ɩɪɟɪɚɻɟɜɢɧɚ ʁɟɪ ʁɟ ɩɨɬɜɪɻɟɧɨ ɞɚ ɫɭ
ɭɡɪɨɤ ɤɨɥɨɪɟɤɬɚɥɧɨɝ ɤɚɧɰɟɪɚ (World Cancer
Research Fund ɢ American Institute for Cancer
Research 2007). ɉɪɟɤɨɦɟɪɧɚ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ɩɪɚɬɢ ɮɚɛɪɢɱɤɭ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ,
ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɥɚ ʁɟ ʁɨɲ ʁɟɞɧɭ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɤɨʁɚ
ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚ ʁɚɜɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ, ɚ ɬɨ ʁɟ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚ
ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɟ. Ɉɜɨɦ ɧɢɡɭ ɬɪɟɛɚ
ɞɨɞɚɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢɨɧɚɥɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɪɚɞɧɢɤɚ ɧɚ
ɮɚɪɦɚɦɚ, ɫɬɨɱɚɪɚ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɚ (ȼɭɱɢɧɢʄ, 2011),
ɚ ɦɟɻɭ ʃɢɦɚ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɪɟɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɪɚɞɧɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɢɦ ɮɚɪɦɚɦɚ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɬɢɩɚ
ɢ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɧɢɤɚ ɭ ʃɢɯɨɜɨɦ ɨɤɪɭɠɟʃɭ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ
ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɧɟ ɛɢɨɚɟɪɨɫɨɥɢɦɚ (Hartung ɢ Schulz,
2011). Ɇɚɞɚ ʁɚɜɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɭɝɪɨɠɟɧɨ ɢ
ɤɚɞɚ ɫɭ ɭ ɩɢɬɚʃɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɫɤɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɢ ɝɚʁɟʃɚ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (Kijlstra ɢ Eijck, 2006), ɬɨ ɫɭ
ɨɪɝɚɧɫɤɢ ɢ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɢ ɝɚʁɟʃɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨɦɩɚɬɢɛɢɥɧɢʁɢ ɤɚɤɨ ɫɚ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɚ ɞɨ-
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ɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɝɚʁɟɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɢ ɫɚ ɟɤɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ
ɚɫɩɟɤɬɚ.
ȾɈȻɊɈȻɂɌ ɈȽɅȿȾɇɂɏ
ɀɂȼɈɌɂȵȺ ɂ ȳȺȼɇɈ ɁȾɊȺȼȴȿ
Ȼɪɨʁɧɢ ɫɭ ɢɡɜɨɪɢ ɧɟɩɪɢʁɚɬɧɢɯ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɭɫɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɧɚɪɭɲɟ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɭ, ɩɫɢɯɢɱɤɭ ɢ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɭ
ɰɟɥɨɜɢɬɨɫɬ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ɉɝɥɟɞɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɧɢɤɚɞɚ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɞɚ ɯɚɛɢɬɭɢɪɚʁɭ ɧɚ
ɨɝɥɟɞɧɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɟ. ɋɩɨɧɬɚɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɚɪɬɢɮɢɰɢʁɟɥɧɨ
ɢɧɞɭɤɨɜɚɧɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɟ, ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɤɟ, ɟɧɞɨɤɪɢɧɟ
ɢɥɢ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢ, ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢ ɢɥɢ
ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɢ ɢɧɞɭɤɨɜɚɧɟ ɛɨɥɧɟ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɟ, ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ
ɢɧɞɭɤɨɜɚɧɟ ɦɚɥɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɟ, ɪɟɫɬɪɢɤɰɢʁɚ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɢ
ɜɨɞɟ ɭ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɟ ɫɜɪɯɟ, ɫɨɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɚ, ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɨ ɯɜɚɬɚʃɟ, ɨɛɭɡɞɚɜɚʃɟ ɢ ɩɨɞɢɡɚʃɟ, ɦɟɪɟʃɟ
ɬɟɥɟɫɧɟ ɦɚɫɟ, ɨɛɟɥɟɠɚɜɚʃɟ, ɱɢɲʄɟʃɟ ɤɚɜɟɡɚ,
ɩɪɟɦɟɲɬɚʃɟ ɤɚɜɟɡɚ, ɩɪɟɝɪɭɩɢɫɚɜɚʃɟ ɢɥɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ ɭɧɭɬɚɪ ɫɚɦɟ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɟ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ, ɤɚɨ ɢ
ɪɚɡɦɟɧɚ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɚ, ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ, ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɚ ɤɪɟɬɚʃɚ,
ɠɢɜɨɬ ɭ ɧɟɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɧɨɦ ɢ ɞɨɫɚɞɧɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɦ
ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɭ, ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɬɢ ɡɜɭɰɢ ɢ ɛɭɤɚ, ɧɟɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɟ ɨɫɜɟɬʂɟʃɟ, ɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢʁɚ ɫɜɟɬɥɨɫɬɢ, ɚɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ
ɩɫɢɯɨɚɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚ, ɚɧɚɥɝɟɬɢɤɚ, ɚɧɟɫɬɟɬɢɤɚ
ɢɥɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɬɨɝ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɚ, ɭɡɨɪɤɨɜɚʃɟ
ɬɟɥɟɫɧɢɯ ɬɟɱɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɢ ɤɨɧɚɱɧɨ ɫɬɚʃɚ ɢ
ɨɤɨɥɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɪɟɬɯɨɞɟ ɫɚɦɨʁ ɟɭɬɚɧɚɡɢʁɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɫɚɦɨ ɧɟɤɟ ɨɞ ɛɪɨʁɧɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɚ ɧɟɩɪɢʁɚɬɧɢɯ, ɛɨɥɧɢɯ ɢ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɝɟɧɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɤɚ ɡɚ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ. Ɂɚɬɨ ʁɟ ʁɚɫɧɨ ɪɚɡɭɦɟɬɢ ɞɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢ
ɪɭɬɢɧɫɤɢ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɢ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɰɢ, ɦɟɬɨɞɢ ɨɝɥɟɞɚ, ʃɢɯɨɜ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɢɡɜɨɻɟʃɚ, ɬɪɚʁɚʃɟ ɢ ɰɢʂ, ɫɦɟɲɬɚʁɧɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ, ɨɩɪɟɦɚ, ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɢ, ɱɢɧɢɨɰɢ ɢɡ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝ ɨɤɪɭɠɟʃɚ ɤɚɨ ɢ ɡɧɚʃɟ, ɢɫɤɭɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɜɟɲɬɢɧɟ ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱɚ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚɱɚ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɝɟɧɢ ɡɚ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɢ ɞɚ ɧɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚʁɭ ʃɢɯɨɜɭ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ (Castelhano-Carlos ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2009). Ɉɞ ɩɪɟɫɭɞɧɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ ɡɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɬɢʃɚ ʁɟ
ɪɟɞɭɤɰɢʁɚ ɢɡɜɨɪɚ, ɬɪɚʁɚʃɚ ɢ ʁɚɱɢɧɟ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɝɟɧɢɯ
ɫɬɢɦɭɥɭɫɚ. ɋɬɪɟɫ ɧɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɚɜɚ ɫɚɦɨ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ
ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ
ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɚ. Ʉɚɞɚ ɫɭ ɭ ɩɢɬɚʃɭ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ,
ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɧɚɥɚɠɟʃɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɨ
ɬɟɫɬɢɪɚʃɟ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ, ɬɚɞɚ ɫɬɪɟɫ
ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɧɚɪɭɲɢ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ
ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɥɟɤɚ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɧɢɤɚ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ. Ɂɚɬɨ, ɭ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɭ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ ɩɪɟɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɨɝ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ,
ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚɱɢ ɩɨɤɭɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɲɬɨ ɜɢɲɟ ɞɚ ɢɡɛɟɝɧɭ
30
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɭɬɢɰɚʁ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ. ɉɨɡɧɚɬɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɨɧɢ ɦɟʃɚʁɭ
ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɟ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜ
ɟɧɞɨɤɪɢɧɢ, ɢɦɭɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɢ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɤɢ ɩɪɨɮɢɥ,
ɪɟɡɭɥɬɢɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɦ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚɦɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɤɨɪɬɢɤɨɫɬɟɪɨɢɞɚ, ɝɥɭɤɨɡɟ, ɯɨɪɦɨɧɚ
ɪɚɫɬɚ, ɩɪɨɥɚɤɬɢɧɚ ɭ ɤɪɜɢ, ɭɛɪɡɚʃɭ ɪɚɞɚ ɫɪɰɚ, ɩɨɪɚɫɬɭ ɤɪɜɧɨɝ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɤɚ, ɭɛɪɡɚʃɭ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɚ ɤɪɜɢ ɤɚ
ɜɢɬɚɥɧɢɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɦɚ (ɫɪɰɟ, ɩɥɭʄɚ, ɦɨɡɚɤ) ɢ
ɦɢɲɢʄɢɦɚ ɢ ɭɫɩɨɪɚɜɚʃɭ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɚ ɤɪɜɢ ɭ ɩɪɚɜɰɭ
ɝɚɫɬɪɨɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ, ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɭʄɢ ɢ ʁɟɬɪɭ.
ɐɢʂ ɩɪɟɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɧɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ ʁɟ ɭɬɜɪɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɬɚɤɨɡɜɚɧɨɝ ȺȾɆȿɌ
ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚ (ɚɩɫɨɪɩɰɢʁɚ, ɞɢɫɬɪɢɛɭɰɢʁɚ, ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɡɚɦ, ɟɤɫɤɪɟɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɨɫɬ) ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ. Ɂɚɬɨ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɩɨɞ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɟɦ
ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ ɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɭ ɨɝɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɟ ȺȾɆȿɌ ɩɪɨɮɢɥ ɥɟɤɚ
(Deferme 2011). Ʉɪɚʁʃɟ ɞɜɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ:
1) ɭɥɚɡɚɤ ɧɟɩɨɭɡɞɚɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ ɭ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɭ ɮɚɡɭ
ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ ɢ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɨɞɛɚɰɢɜɚʃɟ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɧɟɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɠɟʂɟɧɢɯ ɞɟʁɫɬɚɜɚ, ɲɬɨ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ
ɭɬɢɱɟ ɧɚ ʁɚɜɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ
ɛɨɥɟɫɧɢɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɱɟɤɚʁɭ ɧɚ ɧɨɜɢ ɥɟɤ, ʁɟɪ ʁɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɨ
ɞɚ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ɧɨɜɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ ɬɪɚʁɟ ɩɪɨɫɟɱɧɨ 30 ɞɨ 40 ɢ
ɜɢɲɟ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɢɥɢ 2) ɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟ ɥɟɤɚ ɧɚ ɬɪɠɢɲɬɟ,
ɝɞɟ, ɬɚɤɨɻɟ, ɡɛɨɝ ɝɪɟɲɚɤɚ ɭ ɩɪɟɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɨʁ ɮɚɡɢ
ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ, ɭɫɥɟɞ ɢɝɧɨɪɢɫɚʃɚ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɪɚ, ɧɟɟɮɢɤɚɫɚɧ ɥɟɤ ɢɥɢ ɥɟɤ ɫɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɦ ɛɪɨʁɟɦ ɧɟɠɟʂɟɧɢɯ ɞɟʁɫɬɚɜɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɭɝɪɨɡɢ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɢ
ɞɨɞɚɬɧɨ ɞɚ ɩɨɝɨɪɲɚ ɜɟʄ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ
ʃɟɝɨɜɢɯ ɤɨɪɢɫɧɢɤɚ.
ȾɈȻɊɈȻɂɌ Ʉɍȶɇɂɏ ȴɍȻɂɆȺɐȺ
ɂ ȳȺȼɇɈ ɁȾɊȺȼȴȿ
Ɂɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ʁɟ
ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɜɟɡɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɝ ɤɭʄɧɨɝ
ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ. Ɉɞ ɬɨɝ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɜɟɡɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ
ɮɢɡɢɱɤɨ ɢ ɩɫɢɯɢɱɤɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɤɭʄɧɨɝ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ,
ɜɟʄ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɨ ɫɬɚʃɟ ɢ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɫɚɦɨɝ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ, ʃɟɝɨɜɢɯ ɭɤɭʄɚɧɚ, ɩɨɫɟɬɢɥɚɰɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɨɝ
ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɚ. ɉɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɧɢɡ ɪɚɡɥɨɝɚ
ɢɡ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɫɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɤɭʄɧɨɝ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ
ɧɢɤɚɞɚ ɧɟ ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜɢ ɢɥɢ ɧɟ ɨɞɪɠɢ ɜɟɡɚ ɤɨʁɚ
ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɲɟ ɨɞɧɨɫ ɱɨɜɟɤ : ɤɭʄɧɢ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰ (Mondelli ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2004). ɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɫɬ (ɮɢɡɢɱɤɚ ɢ ɩɫɢɯɢɱɤɚ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɫɬ) ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ (ɫɬɚɦɛɟɧɚ
ɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɚɫɢʁɫɤɚ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ, ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟ, ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚʃɚ, ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɞɪ.) ɞɚ ɛɪɢɧɭ
ɨ ɤɭʄɧɨɦ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɭ (Weng ɢ Hart, 2012), ɚɥɢ ɢ
ɟɞɭɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɨ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚɦɚ ɤɭʄɧɨɝ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ (Marder ɢ
Duxbury, 2008) ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɫɭ ɱɢɧɢɨɰɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɬɢɱɭ
ɧɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɫɚɦɨɝ ɤɭʄɧɨɝ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ ɢ ɧɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɧɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɜɟɡɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ
ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɤɭʄɧɨɝ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ. Ⱥɤɨ ʁɟ ɤɨɞ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ
ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɚ ɫɚɦɨ ɠɟʂɚ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɟɞɨɜɚʃɟɦ ɤɭʄɧɨɝ
ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ, ɚ ɨɫɬɚɥɢ ɱɢɧɢɨɰɢ ɧɢɫɭ ɢɫɩɭʃɟɧɢ, ɜɪɥɨ
ɛɪɡɨ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚʃɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɨɛɚ ɫɭɛʁɟɤɬɚ ɭ ɨɜɨʁ ɜɟɡɢ. Ɂɚɬɨ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɭ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ
ʃɢɯɨɜɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ, ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɨɝ ɢ
ɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɢ ɭɫɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟ, ʁɚɱɚʃɟ ɢ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɭ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɝ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɲɬɜɚ,
ɤɚɨ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɭ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɤɭʄɧɢ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢ
ɦɨɝɭ ɧɚɧɟɬɢ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɭ. ɇɚʁɛɪɨʁɧɢʁɢ ɤɭʄɧɢ
ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢ ɫɭ ɩɫɢ ɢ ɦɚɱɤɟ, ɦɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɧɨɜɢʁɟ ɜɪɟɦɟ
ɢɫɩɨʂɟɧɚ ɠɟʂɚ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɟɞɨɜɚʃɟɦ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɢɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɚɨ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ. ɒɢɪɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɚ
ɫɭ ɝɨɞɢɧɚɦɚ ɞɨɦɟɫɬɢɤɨɜɚɧɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɧɟɤɟ ɪɟɬɤɟ ɢ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɟ
ɜɪɫɬɟ
ɩɨɫɬɚɥɟ
ɤɭʄɧɢ
ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢ.
Ɍɚɤɨ,
ɤɨɫɦɨɩɨɥɢɬɫɤɢ ɤɭʄɧɢ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢ ɧɢɫɭ ɫɚɦɨ ɩɫɢ ɢ
ɦɚɱɤɟ, ɜɟʄ ɢ ɤɭɧɢʄɢ, ɩɚɰɨɜɢ ɢ ɦɢɲɟɜɢ,
ɫɤɨɱɢɦɢɲɢ ɢ ɱɢɧɱɢɥɟ, ɯɪɱɤɨɜɢ ɢ ɥɟɦɢɧɡɢ, ɢɝɭɚɧɟ, ɡɦɢʁɟ, ɦɧɨɝɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɩɬɢɰɚ ɢ ɞɪ. ɉɨɪɟɤɥɨ
ɧɨɜɢɯ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ ʁɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɨ. ɇɟɤɢ ɧɨɜɢ
ɤɭʄɧɢ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢ ɩɨɬɢɱɭ ɨɞ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɢɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɤɚɨ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɡɚɦɨɪɚɰɚ ɢ ɫɤɨɱɢɦɢɲɚ,
ɧɟɤɢ ɨɞ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɤɚɨ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ
ɤɭɧɢʄɚ ɢ ɱɢɧɱɢɥɚ, ɞɨɤ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɩɨɬɢɱɭ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɨɞ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɨɬɪɝɧɭɬɢɯ ɫɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢɯ ɫɬɚɧɢɲɬɚ ɢɥɢ
ɢɡ ɢɥɟɝɚɥɧɢɯ ɥɚɧɚɰɚ ɬɪɝɨɜɢɧɟ ɞɢɜʂɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ, ɤɚɨ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɢɯ ɫɢɫɚɪɚ, ɩɬɢɰɚ,
ɝɦɢɡɚɜɚɰɚ ɢ ɞɪ. ɍ ɩɨɫɥɟɞʃɟ ɜɪɟɦɟ, ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɭ
ɭɥɨɝɭ ɭ ɢɥɟɝɚɥɧɨʁ ɬɪɝɨɜɢɧɢ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɡɨɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɜɪɬɨɜɢ. Ɂɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɛɪɨʁ
ɧɨɜɢɯ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ ɧɢɫɭ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɟ ɪɟɚɥɧɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɭ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɝɚʁɟʃɚ ɭ ɞɨɦɨɜɢɦɚ
ɫɜɨʁɢɯ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ, ɛɚɲ ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɨ ɧɢ ɨɞ
ɱɟɝɚ ɨɛɨʂɟɜɚʁɭ, ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɢɯ ɬɪɟɛɚ
ɡɚɲɬɢɬɢɬɢ ɨɞ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɥɟɱɢɬɢ ɢ ɞɚ ɥɢ ɬɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɢɥɢ ɧɟ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɢ ɪɢɡɢɤ ɡɚ
ɱɨɜɟɤɚ. ȼɟʄ ɭ ɨɜɢɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɢɦɚ ɥɟɠɢ ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɚ
ɞɚ ʁɟ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɧɨɜɢɯ, ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɢɯ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ
ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɭɝɪɨɠɟɧɚ, ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ, ɭɫɥɟɞ
ɧɟɡɧɚʃɚ ɢ ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɚ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɚ,
ɲɬɨ ɢɦ ɧɢʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɢɬɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢ
ɫɦɟɲɬɚʁ ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɭ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɭ ɢɥɢ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ. Ɇɚɥɟ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ
ɝɭɲɬɟɪɢ, ɤɨɪʃɚɱɟ ɢɥɢ ɩɚɩɚɝɚʁɢ, ɩɪɟɤɨ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɫɟ
ɩɪɟɧɨɫɟ ɢɥɟɝɚɥɧɨ ɭ ɧɚʁɧɟɯɭɦɚɧɢʁɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ,
ɡɚɬɜɨɪɟɧɢ ɭ ɩɭɬɧɢɦ ɬɨɪɛɚɦɚ ɧɚ ɧɚʁɞɭɠɢɦ
ɞɟɫɬɢɧɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɮɚɥɫɢɮɢɤɨɜɚʃɟɦ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭ-
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ʄɢɯ CITES (Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) ɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɬɚ. Ƚɥɚɜɧɟ ɢɡɜɨɡɧɟ ɞɟɫɬɢɧɚɰɢʁɟ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɢɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɫɭ ȳɭɠɧɚ ɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɧɚ Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɚ, Ⱥɡɢʁɚ,
Ⱥɮɪɢɤɚ ɢ ȳɭɠɧɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɚ, ɞɨɤ ɫɭ ɝɥɚɜɧɟ ɭɜɨɡɧɟ
ɞɟɫɬɢɧɚɰɢʁɟ, ɛɟɡ ɨɛɡɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚʃɟ ɫɬɪɨɝɟ
ɡɚɤɨɧɫɤɟ ɪɟɝɭɥɚɬɢɜɟ ɨ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ,
ɭɩɪɚɜɨ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɚ, ɋɟɜɟɪɧɚ Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɚ, ɋɪɟɞʃɢ ɢ Ⱦɚɥɟɤɢ ɂɫɬɨɤ. ȼɪɥɨ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɧɚɢɜɧɢ, ɧɟɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɫɚɧɢ ɢ ɧɟɟɞɭɤɨɜɚɧɢ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɚ ɞɚɥɟɤɢɯ
ɞɟɫɬɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɞɨɧɨɫɟ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ
ɜɪɥɨ ʁɟɮɬɢɧɨ ɩɥɚɬɢɥɢ. Ɍɚɤɚɜ ʁɟ ɫɥɭɱɚʁ ɫɚ ɤɚɦɟɥɟɨɧɢɦɚ ɢ ɤɨɪʃɚɱɚɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɤɚɨ „ɠɢɜɢ ɫɭɜɟɧɢɪɢ“ ɩɪɨɞɚʁɭ ɧɚ ɬɪɠɢɲɬɭ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɟ Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɟ ɡɚ
ɫɜɟɝɚ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɟɜɪɚ. ɇɚɛɚɜɤɭ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɨɥɚɤɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɚɜɧɢɰɟ ɡɚ ɤɭʄɧɟ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɟ, ɚɥɢ ɢ ɚɧɨɧɢɦɧɢ ɩɪɨɞɚɜɰɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɨɝɥɚɲɚɜɚʁɭ
ɩɭɬɟɦ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɚ. ɉɪɟɤɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɚ ɫɟ ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ
ɩɪɨɞɚʁɭ ɢ ɤɭɩɭʁɭ ɩɪɢɦɚɬɢ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɤɚɩɭɰɢɧɟɪɢ, ɬɚɦɚɪɢɧɢ, ɝɨɪɢɥɟ ɢ ɦɚɪɦɨɫɟɬɢ, ɚɥɢ ɢ
ɪɚɤɭɧɢ, ɤɨɪʃɚɱɟ, ɛɨɟ, ɩɢɬɨɧɢ, ɢɝɭɚɧɟ ɢ ɡɦɢʁɟ
ɨɬɪɨɜɧɢɰɟ. ɋɚ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɚ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɜɪɥɨ ʁɟ
ʁɟɞɧɨɫɬɚɜɧɨ ɪɚɡɭɦɟɬɢ ɞɚ ɧɚɛɪɨʁɚɧɟ ɟɝɡɨɬɢɱɧɟ
ɜɪɫɬɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɩɪɟɧɟɫɭ ɛɪɨʁɧɟ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ,
ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɫɤɟ, ɝʂɢɜɢɱɧɟ ɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɟ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ
ɧɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ (Praud ɢ Moutou, 2010).
ɋɚ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɚ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ, ɩɨɪɟɞ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ,
ɛɢɬɧɨ ʁɟ ɫɩɪɟɱɢɬɢ ɢ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɨɞ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ, ɛɢɥɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɨ ɤɭʄɧɢɦ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢɦɚ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢɯ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɨ ɧɟɡɛɪɢɧɭɬɢɦ ɤɭʄɧɢɦ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢɦɚ, ɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɜɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɟ ɤɨʁɟ
ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɭʁɟɞɢɦɚ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɚ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɬɨɝɚ
ɲɬɨ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɧɚɧɟɫɭ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɟ ɤɨʁɟ ʄɟ ɩɨ ɫɜɨʁɨʁ ɬɟɠɢɧɢ ɢɦɚɬɢ ɥɟɬɚɥɧɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɟ, ɭʁɟɞɢ ɡɚɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɢ
ɨɞ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɭ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɢ ɬɟɲɤɟ
ɩɫɢɯɨɬɪɚɭɦɟ. ɇɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɠɪɬɜɟ ɭʁɟɞɚ ɩɚɫɚ ɫɭ ɞɟɰɚ,
ɤɨɞ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɩɫɢɯɨɬɪɚɭɦɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɨɫɬɚɧɭ ɞɨɠɢɜɨɬɧɟ
(Horswell ɢ Chahine, 2011; Kimble ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2011;
Dixon ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2012).
Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɫɚ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɚ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ, ɡɨɨɧɨɡɟ
ɢ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɟ ɧɢɫɭ ʁɟɞɢɧɚ ɫɩɨɧɚ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ
ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ, ɜɟʄ ɫɭ ɬɭ, ɭ ɧɨɜɢʁɟ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɢ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɢ ɤɭʄɧɢɯ ʂɭɛɢɦɚɰɚ ɭ ɭɧɚɩɪɟɻɟʃɭ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ
ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ. Ɍɚɤɜɟ ɨɛɥɢɤɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɚɧɢɦɨɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ ʂɭɞɢ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɫɩɪɨɜɨɞɢ ɩɨɦɨʄɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɩɨɦɨʄɧɟ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɫɩɪɨɜɨɞɟ ɩɨɦɨʄɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (Walsh,
2009a; 2009b; Cirulli, 2011; Cirulli ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2011). ɍ
ɨɛɚ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɚ, ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɥɭɠɟ ɤɚɨ ɤɭʄɧɢ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢ. Ʉɚɤɨ ʁɟ
31
ɩɨɡɧɚɬɨ, ɤɭʄɧɢ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɟ ɨɩɲɬɟɦ ɩɨɛɨʂɲɚʃɭ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɨɝ ɢ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ
ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɭ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ ɭ ɚɥɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɨɛɥɢɰɢɦɚ ɥɟɱɟʃɚ ʂɭɞɢ.
ɁȺɄȴɍɑȺɄ
ɍ ɫɜɢɦ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɞɟɥɚɬɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢʁɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚʁʁɚɱɭ ɜɟɡɭ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ʁɚɜɧɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ. ɉɪɨɮɟɫɢɨɧɚɥɧɟ ɨɛɚɜɟɡɟ ɧɟ ɧɚɥɚɠɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢʁɢ
ɫɚɦɨ ɞɚ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɛɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɧɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ, ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɢ ɨɞ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɧɟɫɭ
ɧɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɪɚɡɥɨɝ ɤɜɚɪɚ ɢ ɥɨɲɟɝ
ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ. ɇɚɩɪɨɬɢɜ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɢ ɫɭ
ɞɭɠɧɢ ɞɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɟ ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɧɚ ɧɚɱɢɧ
ɤɨʁɢɦ ɫɟ ɢɡɛɟɝɚɜɚʁɭ ɫɜɚ ɧɟɩɪɢʁɚɬɧɚ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɚ ɢ
ɟɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɚ ɢɫɤɭɫɬɜɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ɪɟɦɟɬɟ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɤɢ,
ɟɧɞɨɤɪɢɧɢ, ɢɦɭɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɢ ɛɢɯɟʁɜɢɨɪɚɥɧɢ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɩɪɨɮɢɥ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɤɨʁɚ, ɡɚɬɨ, ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ
ɭɬɢɱɭ ɧɚ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɨɫɬ, ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɢ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛʂɢɜɨɫɬ
ɧɚɦɢɪɧɢɰɚ, ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɞɨɛɢʁɚʁɭ
ɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɢɫɩɢɬɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɜɟɡɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɨ ɤɭʄɧɢɦ ʂɭɛɢɦɰɢɦɚ.
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ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɚ ɧɟɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ. ȼɟɬ.
ɝɥɚɫɧɢɤ 2011; 65 (1í2): 109–21.
34
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
UDK 619:616-006:636.7
ɋɚʃɚ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɢʄ-Ʉɨɜɚɱɟɜɢʄ, Ⱦ. Ɇɚɪɢɧɤɨɜɢʄ ɢ ɂɜɚɧɚ ȼɭɱɢʄɟɜɢʄ1
ɆȺɊɄȿɊɂ ɁɇȺɑȺȳɇɂ ɁȺ ɉɊɈȽɇɈɁɍ ɂ ɌȿɊȺɉɂȳɍ ɌɍɆɈɊȺ ɉȺɋȺ
Kɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ȼɢɲɟɫɬɪɭɤɢ ɨɧɤɨɝɟɧɢ ɟɮɟɤɬɢ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɧɚ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɭ ɦɚɬɭɪɚɰɢʁɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ, ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɢ ɬɤɢɜɧɭ
ɢɧɜɚɡɢʁɭ. Ɋɚɡɜɨʁ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɧɟɫɤɥɚɞ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ, ɪɚɫɬɚ ɢ ɞɢɮɟɪɟɧɰɢʁɚɰɢʁɟ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ
ɩɪɚʄɟɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɦ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɫɤɢɦ ɢ ɮɟɧɨɬɢɩɫɤɢɦ ɜɚɪɢʁɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ. Ʉɜɚɥɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɢ ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɨ
ɨɞɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɭ ɬɤɢɜɭ ɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɨ ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɬɫɤɨɦ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɢ
ɩɪɟɞɢɤɰɢʁɢ ɧɟɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ. Ɏɚɤɬɨɪɟ ɚɧɝɢɨɝɟɧɟɡɟ ɢ ɛɪɨʁɧɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɚʁɭʄɟ ɢ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɧɟ
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ʁɟ ɢɦɭɧɨɯɢɫɬɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɢ ɭ ɬɤɢɜɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ, ɚ ɢɦɭɧɨɮɟɧɨɬɢɩɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɚ ʁɟ
ɧɭɠɧɚ ɡɚ ɢɡɛɨɪ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ. Ɉɞɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ
ɢɦɭɧɨɯɢɫɬɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɨɦ PCNA, Ki-67, CD-117, CD45 ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɭ ɝɪɚɞɢɪɚʃɭ ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɨɦɚ.
ɋɜɟ ʁɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɚ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɚ ɤɨɪɟɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɪɚɫɬɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɫɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɨɦ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɝɟɧɚ ɧɚ
ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɦ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ.
Kʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: ɬɭɦɨɪɢ ɩɚɫɚ, ɦɚɪɤɟɪɢ, ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɚ.
Sanja Aleksiü-Kovaþeviü, D. Marinkoviü i Ivana Vuþiüeviü
PROGNOSTIC MARKERS SIGNIFICANT FOR THERAPY
OF TUMOURS IN DOGS
Abstract
The multiple oncogenic effects on the inhibition of cell maturation, on cell migration and tissue invasion,
is responsible for the occurrence of tumours. The development of tumours implies a disproportion between
proliferation, growth and differentiation, which is accompanied by significant genotypic and phenotypic
variations in the diseased. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the biological prognostic factors
in the tissue indicates possible tumour metastasizing, and consequently also the prognosis of the neoplastic
disease. It is possible immunohistochemically to prove factors of angiogenesis and numerous activating and
inhibiting proteins in the tumour tissue, which is also very important for properly choice of lymphoma
therapy. The determination of the proliferative potential of tumour cells by immunohistochemical detection of
PCNA, Ki-67, CD-117, CD 45, is used in grading of mast cell tumours. In addition to other histological,
clinical and biological parameters, they are significant for the further prognosis and therapy of neoplasms.
Key words: tumours, dogs, prognostic markers.
1
Ⱦɪ ɋɚʃɚ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɢʄ-Ʉɨɜɚɱɟɜɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ, Ʉɚɬɟɞɪɚ ɡɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɭ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, e-mail: [email protected]; ɞɪ Ⱦɚɪɤɨ Ɇɚɪɢɧɤɨɜɢʄ, ɞɨɰɟɧɬ, Ʉɚɬɟɞɪɚ ɡɚ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɭ
ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ; ɦɪ ɂɜɚɧɚ ȼɭɱɢʄɟɜɢʄ, ɚɫɢɫɬɟɧɬ, Ʉɚɬɟɞɪɚ ɡɚ
ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɭ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɍȼɈȾ
ɇɨɪɦɚɥɧɚ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɭ ɨɛɧɚɜʂɚʃɚ ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚʁɭ ɪɚɜɧɨɬɟɠɭ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɟ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ, ɪɚɫɬɚ, ɞɢɮɟɪɟɧɰɢʁɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɢɪɚɧɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɟ ɫɦɪɬɢ. Ɋɚɡɜɨʁ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɧɟɫɤɥɚɞ
ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ, ɪɚɫɬɚ ɢ ɞɢɮɟɪɟɧɰɢʁɚɰɢʁɟ,
ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɚʄɟɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɦ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɫɤɢɦ ɢ
ɮɟɧɨɬɢɩɫɤɢɦ ɜɚɪɢʁɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ ɤɨɞ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɟ ʁɟɞɢɧɤɟ.
ɋɰɟɧɚɪɢɨ ɜɢɲɟɫɬɪɭɤɢɯ ɨɧɤɨɝɟɧɢɯ ɟɮɟɤɚɬɚ ɧɚ
ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɭ ɫɬɚɪɟʃɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ, ɚɩɨɩɬɨɡɟ ɢ ɦɚɬɭɪɚɰɢʁɟ, ɡɚɬɢɦ ɧɚ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ, ɧɚ
ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɭ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɢ ɬɤɢɜɧɭ ɢɧɜɚɡɢʁɭ, ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɚɧ
ʁɟ ɩɨɞʁɟɞɧɚɤɨ ɡɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ ɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɫɟ ɨɜɨɦ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ
ɨɧɤɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɭ ɫɜɟɬɭ ɩɪɢɞɚʁɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɟʄɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ.
ɉɨɫɬɚɥɨ ʁɟ ɫɚɫɜɢɦ ʁɚɫɧɨ ɞɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɢ
ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɨɞɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɭ ɬɤɢɜɭ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɢɯ ɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɪɚʃɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ, ɚ ɬɢɦɟ
ɢ ɨ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɢ ɧɟɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ. ɉɪɚʄɟʃɟ
ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ
ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ʁɟ ɡɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɢɤɰɢʁɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɤɨɞ
ʂɭɞɢ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ.
ɆȿɌɈȾȿ ɊȺȾȺ
Ɇɟɬɨɞɟ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚɥɟ
ɫɭ: ɭɡɨɪɤɨɜɚʃɟ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɩɚɫɚ, ɮɢɤɫɢɪɚʃɟ ɭ
ɩɭɮɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɧɭ, ɚɭɬɨɦɚɬɫɤɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɨɜɚʃɟ, ɤɚɥɭɩʂɟʃɟ ɢ ɫɟɱɟʃɟ ɧɚ ɦɢɤɪɨɬɨɦɭ, ɡɚɬɢɦ
ɪɭɬɢɧɫɤɨ ɯɢɫɬɨɥɨɲɤɨ ɛɨʁɟʃɟ ɢɫɟɱɚɤɚ (ɯɟɦɚɬɨɤɫɢɥɢɧ ɟɨɡɢɧ í HE) ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨ ɯɢɫɬɨɥɨɲɤɨ
ɛɨʁɟʃɟ ɢɫɟɱɚɤɚ ɡɚ ɞɨɤɚɡɢɜɚʃɟ ɯɢɫɬɚɦɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɝɪɚɧɭɥɚ ɭ ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɢɦɚ ɤɨɞ ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɨɦɚ (ɬɨɥɭɢɞɢɧ
ɩɥɚɜɨ í TB). ɍɪɚɻɟɧɚ ɫɭ ɢ ɢɦɭɧɨɯɢɫɬɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɚ
ɛɨʁɟʃɚ ɢɫɟɱɚɤɚ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɚɧɢɯ ɭ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɧɭ
(LSAB2 ɬɟɯɧɢɤɨɦ) ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟʃɟɦ ɦɨɧɨɤɥɨɧɫɤɢɯ
ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ ɡɚ CD3, CD79, CD45RA, CD117, Ki –
67, PCNA, ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢɯ ɫɟɤɭɧɞɚɪɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ,
ɯɪɨɦɨɝɟɧɚ ɡɚ ɜɢɡɭɟɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ DAB ɢɥɢ AEC,
ɦɟɞɢʁɭɦɚ ɡɚ ɢɫɩɢɪɚʃɟ ɢ ɪɚɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ ɢ
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɢɯ ɡɚ ɞɟɦɚɫɤɢɪɚʃɟ ɚɧɬɢɝɟɧɚ.
Ʉɨɞ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɚ
ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɨɦɚ, ɩɪɢɦɟʃɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ PCR ɡɚ
ɞɨɤɚɡɢɜɚʃɟ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ ɧɚ c-kit ɩɪɨɬɨ-ɨɧɤɨɝɟɧɭ ɢɡ
ɭɡɨɪɚɤɚ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɚɧɢɯ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɧɨɦ, ɲɬɨ
ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɟɤɫɬɪɚɤɰɢʁɭ ȾɇɄ ɢɡ ɬɤɢɜɧɢɯ ɭɡɨɪɚɤɚ ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɨɦɚ ɩɚɫɚ, ɮɢɤɫɢɪɚɧɢɯ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɧɨɦ ɢ
ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɭ ɝɟɧɨɦɚ PCR ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ. ɍɩɨɬɪɟɛʂɟɧɢ ɫɭ ɩɪɚʁɦɟɪɢ PE1 ɢ PE 2 ɡɚ ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɭ c-kit
ɩɪɨɬɨɨɧɤɨɝɟɧɚ.
35
ɊȿɁɍɅɌȺɌɂ ɂ ȾɂɋɄɍɋɂȳȺ
ɉɨɡɧɚɬɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɭ ɧɟɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɢɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɢɦɚ
ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɢɧɮɢɥɬɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɥɢɦɮɧɢɯ
ɱɜɨɪɨɜɚ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɢɦ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ (ɇ-ɫɬɚɞɢʁɭɦ), ɤɨɪɟɥɢɪɚ ɫɚ ɪɢɡɢɤɨɦ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɚ. ȼɟʄɢɧɚ
ɧɟɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ ɛɢɜɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ
ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɜɚɧɚ ɬɟɤ ɭ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɭ ɤɚɞɚ
ɫɭ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɢɥɟ ɭɞɚʂɟɧɟ ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɟ. Ɇɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɟ
ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɫɟ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɧɨ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɧɚ ɨɛɞɭɤɰɢʁɢ, ɚ
ɞɚ ɩɪɟ ɬɨɝɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɢɜɚɥɚ, ɡɚ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɭɨɱʂɢɜɟ, ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɟ ɦɚɧɢɮɟɫɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ
(Ⱥɥɟɤɫɢʄ-Ʉɨɜɚɱɟɜɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2005). Ɉɜɨ ɫɟ
ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɨɞɧɨɫɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɤɟ ɫɟɤɭɧɞɚɪɧɟ ɞɟɩɨɡɢɬɟ ɭ
ʁɟɬɪɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɩɪɢɦɟɬɧɢ ɬɟɤ ɤɚɞɚ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɢ
ɚɫɰɢɬɟɫ. ɇɚɫɭɩɪɨɬ ɬɨɦɟ, ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɢ ɲɬɢɬɚɫɬɟ
ɠɥɟɡɞɟ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɭ ɩɪɟɤɨ 60% ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ
ɜɟɨɦɚ ɛɪɡɨ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢ ɞɟɬɟɤɬɢɛɢɥɧɢ ɩɚɥɩɚɰɢʁɨɦ.
Ɍɜɪɞɟ ɫɭ ɤɨɧɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɜɪɲɟʄɢ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɚɤ ɧɚ
ɞɭɲɧɢɤ ɭɡɪɨɤɭʁɭ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɟ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɟ, ɲɬɨ
ʁɟ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɪɚɧɨ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢ ɭɨɱʂɢɜɨ. Ʉɨɞ
ɨɜɢɯ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɢɯ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɇ-ɫɬɚɞɢʁɭɦ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɭɡɞɚɧ
ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɚɪ, ʁɟɪ ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɢ ɲɬɢɬɚɫɬɟ
ɠɥɟɡɞɟ ɪɟɬɤɨ ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɪɚʁɭ ɭ ɪɟɬɪɨɮɚɪɢɧɝɟɚɥɧɟ
ɢ ɤɚɭɞɚɥɧɟ ɰɟɪɜɢɤɚɥɧɟ ɥɢɦɮɧɟ ɱɜɨɪɨɜɟ. ɇɚɢɦɟ,
ɡɛɨɝ ɜɪɥɨ ɪɚɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɞɨɪɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɬɢɪɟɨɢɞɧɨɝ
ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɚ ɭ ɨɝɪɚɧɤɟ ɬɢɪɟɨɢɞɧɢɯ ɜɟɧɚ, ɩɪɜɟ
ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɟ ɫɟ ɧɚɱɟɲʄɟ ɡɚɩɚɠɚʁɭ ɭ ɩɥɭʄɢɦɚ.
ɉɨɥ ɢ ɫɬɚɪɨɫɬ ɩɚɫɚ ɧɟ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɭ ɜɟʄɢɧɟ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɤɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ɂɡɭɡɟɬɚɤ
ɭ ɬɨɦɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɢ ɦɥɟɱɧɟ ɠɥɟɡɞɟ, ɱɢʁɚ
ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɚ ʁɟ ɡɧɚɬɧɨ ɥɨɲɢʁɚ ɩɪɢ ɢɫɬɨɦ ɯɢɫɬɨɥɨɲɤɨɦ ɝɪɚɞɭɫɭ ɤɨɞ ɦɭɠʁɚɤɚ ɧɟɝɨ ɤɨɞ ɠɟɧɤɢ.
ɉɥɚɧɨɰɟɥɭɥɚɪɧɢ ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɠɢ ɫɬɚɪɢʁɢɯ
ɩɚɫɚ ɝɨɞɢɧɚɦɚ ɪɚɫɬɭ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɜɧɨ, ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɭ ɨɤɨ 10% ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɭ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɧɟ
ɥɢɦɮɧɟ ɱɜɨɪɨɜɟ.
ȼɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ʁɟ ɭ ɧɟɤɢɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ
ɩɪɟɫɭɞɚɧ ɡɚ ɞɚʂɭ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɭ ɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ.
ɇɚɢɦɟ, ɩɨɡɧɚɬɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ ɫɚ ɧɟɞɢɮɟɪɟɧɬɨɜɚɧɢɦ ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɨɦ ɧɚɡɨɮɚɪɢɧɤɚɫɚ, ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɚɧ
EBV ɫɬɚɬɭɫ (Epstein-Barr ɜɢɪɭɫ) ɤɨɪɟɥɢɪɚ ɫɚ ɩɨɜɨʂɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɨɦ. Ɋɚɡɥɨɝ ɡɚ ɨɜɨ ʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ
ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɨɜɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ. ɇɚɫɭɩɪɨɬ ɬɨɦɟ,
ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɚɧ ɪɟɬɪɨɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ (FeLV) ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ɤɨɞ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ ɭɦɚʃɭʁɟ ɫɦɢɫɚɨ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɮɚɜɨɪɢɡɭʁɭʄɢ ɟɭɬɚɧɚɡɢʁɭ ɤɚɨ ʁɟɞɢɧɨ ɪɟɲɟʃɟ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ
ɪɟɬɪɨɜɢɪɭɫɢɦɚ ɢɧɞɭɤɨɜɚɧɨɝ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɚ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ.
ɇɚɫɭɩɪɨɬ ɬɨɦɟ, ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ʁɟ ɢɦɭɧɨɮɟɧɨɬɢɩɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɚ ɞɪɚɝɨɰɟɧɚ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɝɧɨ-
36
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɫɬɢɱɤɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɚ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ
ɩɪɟɞɭɫɥɨɜ ɡɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ
(Ⱥɥɟɤɫɢʄ-Ʉɨɜɚɱɟɜɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2001; Ⱥɥɟɤɫɢʄ-Ʉɨɜɚɱɟɜɢʄ, 2005). Ⱦɜɚ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɭ
ɥɢɦɮɨɦɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɫɭ ɢɦɭɧɨɮɟɧɨɬɢɩ ɢ ɩɨɞɫɬɚɞɢʁɭɦ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧ ɩɪɟɦɚ WHO ɤɥɚɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɢ
(ɤɥɚɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɩɨ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢʁɭɦɢɦɚ ɋɜɟɬɫɤɟ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧe ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ). ȼɟʄɢɧɚ ɚɭɬɨɪɚ
ɫɦɚɬɪɚ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɩɫɢ ɫɚ CD3 ɢɦɭɧɨɪɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɢɦ
ɬɭɦɨɪɢɦɚ (Ɍ-ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɢ) ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɢ
ɤɪɚʄɨʁ ɪɟɦɢɫɢʁɢ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɭ ɩɪɟɠɢɜʂɚɜɚʃɚ, ɨɞ
ɨɧɢɯ ɫɚ Ȼ-ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢɦ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɢɦɚ. ɇɚɤɨɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ
ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɟɝ ɯɟɦɢɨɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ, 80%
ɩɚɫɚ ɫɚ Ȼ-ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢɦ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɨɦ ɭɥɚɡɟ ɭ ɪɟɦɢɫɢʁɭ
ɭ ɩɪɜɨʁ ɝɨɞɢɧɢ. Ɂɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭ ɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ, CD3
ɢɦɭɧɨɪɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢ
ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ɤɨɞ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ, ɩɚ ʁɟ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ɩɪɜɨ
ɢɫɤʂɭɱɢɬɢ FeLV ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ, ɚ ɨɧɞɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɢ
ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɯɟɦɢɨɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɢ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥ. ɍ ɬɨɦ
ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ, ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɟɠɢɜʂɚɜɚʃɚ ɤɨɞ ɬɪɟʄɢɧɟ
ɦɚɱɚɤɚ ɫɚ ɨɜɚɤɜɢɦ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɢɦɚ ɢɡɧɨɫɢ ɨɤɨ
ɨɫɚɦɧɚɟɫɬ ɦɟɫɟɰɢ ɨɞ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɚ
ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɟ.
Ɋɟɝɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɰɢɤɥɭɫɚ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚ ɛɪɨʁɧɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɚʁɭʄɟ ɢ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɱɢʁɢ ʁɟ
ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁ ɟɜɢɞɟɧɬɚɧ ɭ ɦɧɨɝɢɦ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɢɦ ɬɭɦɨɪɢɦɚ ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ɉɪɨɬɟɢɧɫɤɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬ
p53 ɝɟɧɚ ɧɚɡɢɜɚ ɫɟ ɱɭɜɚɪɨɦ ɝɟɧɨɦɚ ɢ ɧɚɞɡɢɪɟ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɬɟɬ ȾɇɄ, ɩɚ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɨɲɬɟʄɟʃɚ ȾɇɄ
ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ ɡɚɭɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɰɢɤɥɭɫɚ, ɤɚɤɨ
ɛɢ ɫɟ ɨɲɬɟʄɟʃɟ ɩɨɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɢɥɢ ɭɜɨɞɢ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ ɭ
ɚɩɨɩɬɨɡɭ. Ɍɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚ ɩɪɟɧɨɲɟʃɟ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɟ
ɧɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ʄɟɪɤɟ. Ƚɭɛɢɬɚɤ ɢɥɢ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ p53 jɟ
ɭɞɪɭɠɟɧ ɫɚ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧɢɦ ɪɢɡɢɤɨɦ ɡɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ
ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɭ
ɚɥɬɟɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɢɦɚ. ɉɨɡɧɚɬɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢ ɦɭɬɢɪɚɧɨɝ p53 ɝɟɧɚ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɧɢʁɢ, ɚɤɭɦɭɥɢɪɚʁɭ ɫɟ ɭ ʁɟɞɪɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ, ɝɞɟ ɫɟ ɥɚɤɨ
ɞɟɬɟɤɬɭʁɭ ɢɦɭɧɨɯɢɫɬɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚ (Murakamɢ et al., 2000). Ɂɚ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɭ p53 ɝɟɧɚ ɦɨɝɭ
ɛɢɬɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɢ ɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ EBV ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ ɢ
ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɝɥɨɞɚɪɚ, FeLV ɢ FeSV ɝɟɧɢ ɤɨɞ
ɦɚɱɚɤɚ, BLV ɤɨɞ ɝɨɜɟɞɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢ.
Ɋɟɥɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɱɟɫɬɚ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɟ
ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɚɩɨɩɬɨɡɭ. ȳɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ ɞɚ ɭɻɟ ɭ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫ ɚɩɨɩɬɨɡɟ ʁɟ Bcl-2. Ɉɜɚʁ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ ʁɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧ ɧɚ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɨʁ ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɢ ɦɢɬɨɯɨɧɞɪɢʁɚ,
ɟɧɞɨɩɥɚɡɦɚɬɫɤɨɦ ɪɟɬɢɤɭɥɭɦɭ ɢ ʁɟɞɪɨɜɨʁ ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɢ. Ɇɧɨɝɨɛɪɨʁɧɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚʁɭ ɨɲɬɟ-
ʄɟʃɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɞɨɜɨɞɟ ɞɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɚɧɬɢ- ɢ
ɩɪɨɚɩɨɩɬɨɬɫɤɢɯ ɱɥɚɧɨɜɚ Bcl-2 ɩɨɪɨɞɢɰɟ. Ɉɞ ɭɡɚʁɚɦɧɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɨɜɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɞɚ ɥɢ ʄɟ
ɩɪɨɬɟɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɚ ɤɚɫɤɚɞɚ ɤɚɫɩɚɡɚ, ɟɝɡɟɤɭɬɨɪɚ ɚɩɨɩɬɨɡɟ, ɛɢɬɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɚɧɚ. Ⱥɤɨ ɫɭ ɭ ɪɚɜɧɨɬɟɠɢ, ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɯɨɦɟɨɫɬɚɡɚ, ɚ ɚɤɨ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ ɚɧɬɢɚɩɨɩɬɨɬɫɤɢɯ ɢɥɢ ɫɦɚʃɟɧɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ ɩɪɨɚɩɨɩɬɨɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ, ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɬɭɦɨɪ.
Ⱥɛɟɪɚɧɬɧɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ Bcl-2 ɨɩɢɫɚɧɚ ʁɟ ɤɨɞ
ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɚ. ɉɨɜɟʄɚɧɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ Bcl-2 ɭ
ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɦ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ ɦɨɝɥɚ ɛɢ, ɭɡ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɟ, ɭɤɚɡɚɬɢ ɧɚ ɥɨɲɭ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɭ (Youle
et al., 2008).
ɉɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁ ɪɟɝɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɰɢɤɥɭɫɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɞɨ ɧɟɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧɨɝ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɪɚɫɬɚ ɢ
ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɨɝ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ. ɐɢɤɥɢɧɢ ɫɭ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɢ
ɪɟɝɭɥɚɬɨɪɢ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɰɢɤɥɭɫɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɚ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧɚ
ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɫɚ ɭɛɪɡɚɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ. Ɍɨɤɨɦ ɪɚɧɟ G1 ɮɚɡɟ
ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɰɢɤɥɭɫɚ ɢɡɪɚɠɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ ɰɢɤɥɢɧɚ D1, ɤɨʁɢ ɞɟɥɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɢɦɚ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢɦ ɤɚɨ
„ɦɟɫɬɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɟ“ (checkpoints). ɉɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɰɢɤɥɢɧɚ D1 ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚɧ ʁɟ ɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɢɦɚ ʂɭɞɢ,
ɪɟɻɟ ɤɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɚɥɢ ɫɟ ɭ ɧɟɤɢɦ ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɢɦɚ
ɨɩɢɫɭʁɟ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ ɰɢɤɥɢɧɚ D1 ɢ
ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɫɟ ɭ ɜɟɡɭ ɫɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɨɦ ɪɚɧɨɝ ɪɟɥɚɩɫɚ
ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɢ ɤɪɚʄɢɦ ɩɪɟɠɢɜʂɚɜɚʃɟɦ. ɉɨɫɬɨʁɟ, ɦɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ ɨɜɨɝ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɨɝ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ, ɤɨʁɢ ɭɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɞɚ ɝɭɛɢɬɚɤ
ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɟ ɰɢɤɥɢɧɚ D1 ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨɝ
ɪɟɰɢɞɢɜɚ. ȿɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ ɰɢɤɥɢɧɚ D1 ɩɪɚʄɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɧɚ
ɬɭɦɨɪɢɦɚ ɦɥɟɱɧɟ ɠɥɟɡɞɟ ɤɭʁɚ, ɢ ɬɨ ɭ ɩɪɟɤɚɧɰɟɪɫɤɢɦ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɢɦ ɤɚɧɰɟɪɫɤɢɦ ɥɟɡɢʁɚɦɚ. ɐɢɤɥɢɧ
D1 ɛɢɨ ʁɟ ɟɤɫɩɪɢɦɢɪɚɧ ɭ 60% ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɭ ɩɪɟɤɚɧɰɟɪɫɤɢɦ ɥɟɡɢʁɚɦɚ ɢ ɭ 44% ɫɥɭɱɚʁɚ ɭ ɤɚɧɰɟɪɫɤɢɦ
ɥɟɡɢʁɚɦɚ ɭ ɦɥɟɱɧɨʁ ɠɥɟɡɞɢ ɤɭʁɚ (Sfacteria et al.,
2003). Ɉɛɟ ɥɟɡɢʁɟ ɫɚ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧɨɦ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɨɦ ɰɢɤɥɢɧɚ D1 ɩɨɤɚɡɢɜɚɥɟ ɫɭ ɜɟʄɢ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɢ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥ.
CD117 (c-Kit ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ) ɩɪɢɩɚɞɚ ɩɨɪɨɞɢɰɢ
ɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɪɚ ɬɢɪɨɡɢɧ ɤɢɧɚɡɚ ɢ ɤʂɭɱɧɢ ʁɟ ɦɟɞɢʁɚɬɨɪ
ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɩɪɨɝɟɧɢɬɨɪɫɤɢɯ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ. ɇɨɪɦɚɥɧɚ
ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ CD117 ɨɩɢɫɚɧɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɢɦɚ, ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɩɨɟɡɟ, ɞɭɤɬɚɥɧɨɦ ɟɩɢɬɟɥɭ, ɦɟɥɚɧɨɰɢɬɢɦɚ, ɩɚɪɢʁɟɬɚɥɧɢɦ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ ɠɟɥɭɰɚ ɢ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ ʁɚʁɧɢɤɚ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɬɨɝɚ ɲɬɨ ɢɦɚ ɭɥɨɝɭ ɭ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɨɦ ɪɚɫɬɭ ɢ ɞɢɮɟɪɟɧɰɢʁɚɰɢʁɢ, CD117 ɤɨɪɟɥɢɪɚ ɢ
ɫɚ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɨɦ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɢɯ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ, ɚ ɫɜɟ
ɜɟʄɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɢɦɚ ɤɚɨ ɬɚɪɝɟɬ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɫɤɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥ.
ɐɢɬɨɩɥɚɡɦɚɬɫɤɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ CD117 ɭ ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɨ-
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɦɢɦɚ ɩɚɫɚ ɤɨɪɟɥɢɪɚ ɫɚ ɜɢɫɨɤɢɦ ɯɢɫɬɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ
ɝɪɚɞɭɫɨɦ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɢ ɥɨɲɢʁɨɦ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɨɦ (Da Costa
et al., 2007). Ɉɞɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɢɦɭɧɨɯɢɫɬɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɨɦ Ki-67 (MIB-1) ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɱɟɫɬɨ
ɭ ɝɪɚɞɢɪɚʃɭ ɧɟɤɢɯ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ, ɩɪɟ
ɫɜɟɝɚ ɥɢɦɮɨɦɚ, ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɦɥɟɱɧɟ ɠɥɟɡɞɟ, ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɨɦɚ ɢ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɧɟɪɜɧɨɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɟ Ki-67, ɡɚ ɭɬɜɪɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɫɟ ɢ ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɨɝ
ɚɧɬɢɝɟɧɚ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ (proliferatɢng cell nuclear antigen í PCNA, ɟɧɝɥ.) ɤɚɨ ɢ ɚɪɝɢɪɨɮɢɥɧɨɝ
ɧɭɤɥɟɨɥɚɪɧɨɝ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɨɝ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ – AgNOR.
Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɨɞ ɫɜɢɯ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ, ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɚ
CD-117, Ki-67 ɢ AgNOR ɫɟ ɫɦɚɬɪɚʁɭ ɧɚʁɩɨɭɡɞɚɧɢʁɢɦ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚɦɚ. ɉɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɤɨɪɢɫɧɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɢ ɫɭ ɤɨɞ ɨɞɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɚ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɚ ɦɚɫɬɨɰɢɬɨɦɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ
ɨɜɢɯ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ (Kiupel et al., 2011).
Ɋɚɫɬ ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɬɫɤɨɝ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ ʁɟ ɚɭɬɨɧɨɦɚɧ, ɦɚɞɚ
ʁɟ ɭ ɢɡɜɟɫɧɨʁ ɦɟɪɢ ɢ ɩɨɞ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɟɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɪɚɫɬɚ
ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɚ (Tumor growth factor í TGF, ɟɧɝɥ. ɢ
Platelets derived growth factor – PDGF, ɟɧɝɥ.) ɤɨʁɢ
ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɲɭ ɪɚɫɬ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ. Ⱥɧɝɢɨɝɟɧɟɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɤɚɩɢɥɚɪɚ ɢɡ
ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟʄɢɯ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ ɢ ɤʂɭɱɧɢ ʁɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɭ
ɨɞɪɠɚɜɚʃɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɨɝ ɪɚɫɬɚ ɢ ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɪɚʃɚ.
Ɍɭɦɨɪ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɢʁɟ ɭ ɫɬɚʃɭ ɞɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭʁɟ ɫɨɩɫɬɜɟɧɭ
ɜɚɫɤɭɥɚɪɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ ɧɟ ɪɚɫɬɟ, ɜɟʄ ɨɫɬɚʁɟ ɭ ɨɛɥɢɤɭ
ɝɪɭɩɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɯɪɚɧɢ ɢɡɦɟʃɭʁɭʄɢ ɯɪɚɧʂɢɜɟ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɦ ɞɢɮɭɡɢʁɨɦ ɫɚ ɨɤɨɥɢɧɨɦ.
Ɍɭɦɨɪɫɤɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ, ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɞɨɛɪɢ ɤɥɨɧɨɜɢ, ɢɦɚʁɭ
ɨɫɨɛɢɧɭ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɲɟ ɚɧɝɢɨɝɟɧɟɡɭ (Tumor agiogenesis factor – TAF, ɟɧɝɥ.).
Ɉɜɚʁ ɪɢɛɨɧɭɤɥɟɨɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɞɟɥɭʁɟ ɧɚ
ɫɬɢɦɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ ɞɟɨɛɟ ɟɧɞɨɬɟɥɧɢɯ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɤɚɩɢɥɚɪɚ.
Ɏɚɤɬɨɪɟ ɚɧɝɢɨɝɟɧɟɡɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ʁɟ ɢɦɭɧɨɯɢɫɬɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɢ ɭ ɬɤɢɜɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ, ɲɬɨ ɢɯ ɭɡ
ɨɫɬɚɥɟ ɯɢɫɬɨɥɨɲɤɟ, ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɟ ɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɟ
ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɟ ɱɢɧɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɦ ɡɚ ɞɚʂɭ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɭ ɢ
ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ɧɟɨɩɥɚɡɦɟ. Ⱥɧɝɢɨɝɟɧɟɡɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɚ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɢɦɚ ɪɚɫɬɚ, ɨɞ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɩɨɫɟɛɚɧ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɡɚ
ɫɬɢɦɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɟɧɞɨɬɟɥɧɢɯ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɢɦɚ ɜɚɫɤɭɥɚɪɧɢ ɟɧɞɨɬɟɥɧɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ
ɪɚɫɬɚ (Vascular endothelial growth factor – VEGF,
ɟɧɝɥ.). ɉɪɨɞɭɤɭʁɭ ɝɚ ɦɚɤɪɨɮɚɝɢ, ɝɥɚɬɤɨɦɢɲɢʄɧɟ
ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ ɢ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ. Ɉɜɚʁ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɟɧɞɨɬɟɥɧɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ
ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɞɜɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ɢɦɚʁɭ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ ɬɢɪɨɡɢɧ ɤɢɧɚɡɟ. ɉɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢ
37
ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɟ VEGF ɞɨɤɚɡɚɧ ʁɟ ɭ ɧɟɤɢɦ
ɦɚɥɢɝɧɢɦ ɬɭɦɨɪɢɦɚ: ɭ ɤɨɥɨɪɟɤɬɚɥɧɨɦ ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɭ, ɚɞɟɧɨɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɢɦɚ ɦɥɟɱɧɟ ɠɥɟɡɞɟ ɢ ɫɤɜɚɦɨɡɧɨ-ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢɦ ɤɚɪɰɢɧɨɦɢɦɚ. ɉɨɜɟʄɚɧɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ VEGF ɭ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɦ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɢɦ ɬɭɦɨɪɢɦɚ ɤɨɞ
ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɫɟ ɭ ɜɟɡɭ ɫɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɨɦ
ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɢʁɨɦ ɢ ɜɟʄɢɦ ɪɢɡɢɤɨɦ ɡɚ ɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɪɚʃɟɦ
ɭ ɥɢɦɮɧɟ ɱɜɨɪɨɜɟ, ɲɬɨ ɤɨɪɟɥɢɪɚ ɫɚ ɥɨɲɨɦ
ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɨɦ.
ɉɨɪɟɞ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɯ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɟ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɭ ɬɤɢɜɢɦɚ, ɭ ɨɧɤɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ ɫɟ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨ ɨɞɪɟɻɭʁɟ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ ɭ ɤɪɜɢ ɢɥɢ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɢɦ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ.
Ɍɭɦɨɪɫɤɢ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɢ ɫɭ ɫɭɩɫɬɚɧɰɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʁɭ
ɢɥɢ ɫɚɦɢ ɬɭɦɨɪɢ ɢɥɢ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧ ɤɚɨ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪ ɧɚ
ɬɭɦɨɪ, ɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɫɟ ɡɚ ɭɬɜɪɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɚ
ɬɭɦɨɪɚ. Ɍɚɤɜɟ ɫɭɩɫɬɚɧɰɟ ɫɟ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ,
ɬɤɢɜɢɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɢɦ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ, ɚ ɦɟɪɟ ɫɟ
ɤɜɚɥɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɨ, ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢ, ɢɦɭɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɢɥɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɢɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚ. Ɍɭɦɨɪɫɤɢ
ɦɚɪɤɟɪɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɛɢɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢ ɢɥɢ ɢɦɭɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟʂɢ ɫɬɚɞɢʁɭɦɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ. Ȼɪɨʁɧɢ
ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɢ ɨɞɪɚɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɫɭɩɫɬɚɧɰɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ
ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɨ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʁɭ ɭ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɬɤɢɜɢɦɚ. ɉɪɜɢ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢ ɦɚɪɤɟɪ ʁɟ
ɛɢɨ Bence-Jones ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ. Ɇɧɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɨɜɨɝ ɨɬɤɪɢʄɚ, ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɨɜɚɧɢ ɫɭ ɛɪɨʁɧɢ ɯɨɪɦɨɧɢ, ɟɧɡɢɦɢ, ɢɡɨɟɧɡɢɦɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢ, ɱɢʁɚ
ɫɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɭ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɢɦ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ ɦɟʃɚ
ɭɫɥɟɞ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ. ɉɪɢɦɟɧɚ
ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ ʁɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɚ ɭ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɫɤɪɢɧɢɧɝɚ, ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɜɚʃɚ, ɩɪɨɰɟʃɢɜɚʃɚ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɟ, ɭɬɜɪɻɢɜɚʃɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɚ ɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ. Ɍɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɜɟʄɢɧɚ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ
ɩɪɜɟɧɫɬɜɟɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɚʄɟʃɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ, ɚ ɞɚ ʁɟ
ɫɚɦɨ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʃɢɯ ɤɨɪɢɫɧɨ ɡɚ ɪɚɧɨ ɨɬɤɪɢɜɚʃɟ
ɬɭɦɨɪɚ. ɋɤɨɪɨ ɧɢʁɟɞɚɧ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢ ɦɚɪɤɟɪ ɧɢʁɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚɧ ɭ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɰɢʁɢ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ. ɇɨɜɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɭ
ɛɢɨɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ʄɟ ɫɜɚɤɚɤɨ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɢɬɢ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ɢ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɛɢɨɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ ɤɚɨ ɬɭɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ
ɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ.
ɁȺɄȴɍɑȺɄ
ɂɡ ɫɜɟɝɚ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɨɝ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɟ ɡɚɤʂɭɱɢɬɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ
ɡɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟ ɜɚʂɚɧɟ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɟ, ɩɪɟɞɢɤɰɢʁɟ ɢ
ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ, ɨɞ ɧɟɩɪɨɰɟʃɢɜɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɭ ɫɚɦɨɦ
ɬɤɢɜɧɨɦ ɢɫɟɱɤɭ ɬɭɦɨɪɚ. Ɉɜɨ ɮɚɜɨɪɢɡɭʁɟ ɢɦɭɧɨɯɢɫɬɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɨ ɨɞɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ, ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ, ɩɪɨɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɪɚɫɬɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɟ
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ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ, ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɚɧɝɢɨɝɟɧɟɡɟ ɢ ɛɪɨʁɧɢɯ
ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɚʁɭʄɢɯ ɢ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ. Ɋɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɢɦɭɧɨɯɢɫɬɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɢ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɥɨɜ ɡɚ
ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɭ ɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ɧɟɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨɞ
ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ.
ɇɚɩɨɦɟɧɚ: ɪɚɞ ɢɡ
Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɧɚɭɤɟ Ɋɋ.
ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɚ
III
46002,
ɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊȺ
1. Aleksiü-Kovaþeviü S., Kukolj V., Marinkoviü
D., Kneževiü M., 2005, Retrospective study of
canine epithelial and melanocytic tumors, Acta
Vet. 55, 319–326.
2. Aleksiü-Kovaþeviü S., Jelesijeviü T., 2001,
Morphological, histopathological and immunohistochemical study of canine malignant lymphoma, Acta. Vet. 51, 245í254.
3. Aleksiü-Kovaþeviü S., 2005, Limfomi pasa i
maþaka, Mladost biro, Beograd, Srbija.
4. Da Costa R. M. G., Matos E., Rema A., Lopes
C., Pires M. A., Gärtner F., 2007, CD117
immunoexpression in canine mast cell tumours:
correlations with pathological variables and
proliferation markers, BMC Vet. Res. 3, 19í29.
5. Kiupel, M., Webster, J. D., Bailey, K. L., Best,
S., DeLay, J., Detrisac, C. J. et al., 2011,
Proposal of a 2-Tier Histologic Grading System
for Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors to
More Accurately Predict Biological Behavior,
Veterinary Pathology, 48, 147í55.
6. Murakami Y., Tateyama S., Rungsipipat A.,
Uchida K., Yamaguchi R., 2000, Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclin A, cyclin D1 and
P53 in mammary tumors, squamous cell
carcinomas and basal cell tumors of dogs and
cats, J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62, 743í750.
7. Sfacteria A., Bertani C., Costantino G., Del Bue
M., Paiardini M., Cervasi B., Piedimonte A., De
Vico G., 2003, Cyclin D1 expression in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the canine
mammary gland, J. Comp. Pathol. 128,
245í251.
8. Youle R. J., Strasser A., 2008, The Bcl-2 protein
family: opposing activites that mediate cell
death, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol. 9, 47í59.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
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UDK 619:615.281
A. M. ȼɚɥɱɢʄ,1 ɋɨʃɚ Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, Ⱦ. Ȼɚɰɢʄ ɢ ɋɨʃɚ Ɉɛɪɟɧɨɜɢʄ
ɊȿɁɂɋɌȿɇɐɂȳȺ ɇȺ ȺɇɌɂȼɂɊɍɋɇȿ ɅȿɄɈȼȿ ɂ ȵȿɇ ɁɇȺɑȺȳ
ɁȺ ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɍ ɆȿȾɂɐɂɇɍ2
Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
Ʉɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɢ ɨ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ, ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ, ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɫɟ
ɦɢɫɥɢ ɧɚ ɫɨʁɟɜɟ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɢ ɧɚ ɯɟɦɢɨɬɟɪɚɩɟɭɬɢɤɟ, ɩɪɟɜɚɫɯɨɞɧɨ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɟ.
ɍɨɛɢɱɚʁɟɧɨ ɞɨɞɚɜɚʃɟ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɫɬɨɱɧɨʁ ɯɪɚɧɢ, ɧɟɫɟɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɚ, ɧɟɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧɚ ɢ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɛɟɡɪɚɡɥɨɠɧɚ
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɭ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɬɢɜɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɫɭ ɧɟɤɢ ɨɞ ɪɚɡɥɨɝɚ ɡɚ ɨɜɚɤɚɜ ɩɪɢɥɚɡ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɢ
ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɭ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɥɢɯ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɞɟɰɟɧɢʁɚ, ʁɟɞɧɚ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɢʁɢɯ ɫɮɟɪɚ
ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɮɚɪɦɚɰɟɭɬɫɤɟ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɟ ɫɭ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɢ. Ɇɨɠɟ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɤɚɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨ
ɜɢɪɭɫɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚʁɭ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɫɢɫɚɪɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨ ɫɜɟ ɡɧɚ. Ɉɞ ɧɚɱɢɧɚ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ, ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ
ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɨ ɞɟɥɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɟ, ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɚ ɭ ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɢɦ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ, ɚ ɡɚ ɧɟɤɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɟ ʁɟ
ɩɨɡɧɚɬ ɢ ɰɟɥɨɤɭɩɧɢ ɝɟɧɟɫɬɤɢ ɤɨɞ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɞɨ ɞɚɧɚɫ ʁɟ ɡɚ ɤɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɜɚɧɨ ɬɟɤ
ɬɪɢɞɟɫɟɬɚɤ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ ɭɡ ɦɚɥɟ ɢɡɝɥɟɞɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɟɩɟɪɬɨɚɪ ɨɜɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɭ ɞɨɝɥɟɞɧɨ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɜɟʄɚ.
Ɇɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ʁɟ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɚ ɧɟɤɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ
ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɞɢɝɪɚ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɧɢɜɨɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ. Ɍɨ ɫɭ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɚ ɚɞɫɨɪɩɰɢʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɮɭɡɢʁɟ
ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɫɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɨɦ, ɭɤɥɚʃɚʃɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɨɦɨɬɚɱɚ, ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɟɧɡɢɦɚ (ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ȾɇɄ
ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɟ, ɪɟɜɟɪɡɧɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɬɚɡɟ, ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɟɚɡɚ, ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɟ, ɞɟɯɢɞɪɨɝɟɧɚɡɚ ɢ ɯɢɞɪɨɥɚɡɚ)
ɤɚɨ ɢ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɚ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɊɇɄ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢɯ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɭ
ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɢ ɤɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɦɚɥɟ (ɥɭɤɫɭɡɧɟ) ɩɪɚɤɫɟ, ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɢ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɦɟɬɚɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɱɧɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɤɨɞ ɨɧɢɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɡɚ
ɢɫɯɪɚɧɭ ʂɭɞɢ, ɡɚ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚʁɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɟ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɟ.
Ʉʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚ, ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɥɟɤɨɜɢ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ.
A. M. Valþiü, Sonja Radojiþiü, D. Baciü and Sonja Obrenoviü
ANTIVIRAL DRUGS RESISTANCE – IMPORTANCE FOR VETERINARY
MEDICINE
Abstract
Especially in veterinary medicine, resistance to antimicrobial drugs is most frequently referred to
bacterial resistance to chemotherapeutics especially antibiotics that we use in order to cure bacterial diseases
in animals. Usual animal feed antibiotic supplementation, nonselective, uncontrolled and often with no reason
usage of antibiotic in therapy and prophylaxis are just some of the reasons for such approach to
1
2
Ⱦɪ Ɇɢɪɨɫɥɚɜ Ⱥ. ȼɚɥɱɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ; ɞɪ ɋɨʃɚ Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ; ɞɪ Ⱦɪɚɝɚɧ Ȼɚɰɢʄ, ɞɨɰɟɧɬ;
ɢ ɞɪ ɋɨʃɚ Ɉɛɪɟɧɨɜɢʄ, ɞɨɰɟɧɬ, Ʉɚɬɟɞɪɚ ɡɚ ɡɚɪɚɡɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɩɱɟɥɚ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ ɍɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬɚ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ; Ȼɭɥɟɜɚɪ ɨɫɥɨɛɨɻɟʃɚ 18, 11000 Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, ɋɪɛɢʁɚ. E-mail:
[email protected]
Ɋɚɞ ʁɟ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɚɧ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɢɦɚ Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɡɚ ɧɚɭɤɭ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ, ɩɪɨʁɟɤɚɬ ɌɊ31088.
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microorganism’s resistance. However, in last few decades development of antiviral drugs is one of the most
intensive fields of the work of the pharmaceutical industry. One can easily say that there are a few
unanswered questions as far as viruses that cause disease of mammals are concerned. As a science, virology
is aware of all aspects of virus biology and infectology. Mechanisms of the virus replication, pathogenic
pathways in infected hosts and all aspects of virus biology are well known. Moreover, for most of the
important viruses, whole genetic base has been elucidated. In spite of that, up to now there are not more than
thirty commercially registered antiviral drugs with a little chance this number to increase. Antiviral repertoire
most frequently is inhibition of some virus activity such as virus adsorption, fusion with the cell, virus
uncoating, inhibition of virus enzymes (DNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, neuraminidase, protease,
dehydrogenase and hydrolase) as well as virus RNA replication. Apart of the potential importance as a part of
the therapy in small-luxury veterinary praxis, antivirus drugs are potential hazard if they are used as a part of
metaphylaxis in order to prevent diseases in the animal species that we use as a food. At the same time there
is a risk of virus becoming resistant in case of using antiviral drugs in the prophylaxis of the zoonoses.
Key words: resistance, antiviral drugs, veterinary medicine.
ɍȼɈȾ
ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɞɚɬɢɪɚ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɦiɥɟɧɢʁɭɦɚ ɩɪɟ ɧɚɲɟ ɟɪɟ. ɇɚɢɦɟ, ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢ ɫɭ ɩɢɫɚɧɢ
(ɢ ɫɥɢɤɚɧɢ) ɩɨɞɚɰɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɛɟɫɧɢɥɨ ɤɨɞ
ɝɪɱɤɨɝ ʁɭɧɚɤɚ ɏɟɤɬɨɪɚ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɥɢɨɜɢɪɭɫɧɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ ɤɨʁɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɜɢɞɢ ɧɚ ɫɥɢɰɢ ɨɫɥɢɤɚɧɨʁ ɧɚ
ɤɟɪɚɦɢɱɤɨʁ ɩɥɨɱɢ ɢɡ ȿɝɢɩɬɚ. ȳɨɲ ɨɞ ɬɢɯ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ,
ɩɪɟɤɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɭɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ
ɩɚ ɞɨ ɞɚɧɚɫ, ɤɚɞɚ ɡɚ ɛɟɡɦɚɥɨ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɟ ɩɨɡɧɚʁɟɦɨ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɭ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ, ɬɪɚɠɢɥɢ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɧɚɱɢɧɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚʁɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ.
Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɱɢɧɢ ɞɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ,
ɩɚ ɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ, ɢɡɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɧɚɱɢɧɟ ɞɚ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɟ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ɰɢʂ, ɚ ɬɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɞɭɠɟɬɚɤ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ
ɧɚɫɬɚɜɚɤ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ. ɍ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɥɢɯ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɞɟɰɟɧɢʁɚ, ɩɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɢ ɫɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɧɚ ɩɨʂɭ
ɟɬɢɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ. ɇɚɪɨɱɢɬɢ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɚɧɫ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɢɦɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ
ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɏɂȼ ɜɢɪɭɫ ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɫɢɧɞɪɨɦ
ɋɂȾȺ, ɚɥɢ ɧɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɡɚɛɨɪɚɜɢɬɢ ɞɚ ɞɨ ɫɚɞɚ ɧɚʁɭɫɩɟɲɧɢʁɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ʁɟɫɭ ɥɟɤɨɜɢ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɨɪɬɨɦɢɤɫɨɜɢɪɭɫɚ (ɝɪɢɩ) ɢ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɯɟɪɩɟɫ
ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɬɪɟɛɚ ɢɦɚɬɢ ɧɚ
ɭɦɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɨ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɜɟʄ
ɬɪɢ ɢ ɜɢɲɟ ɞɟɰɟɧɢʁɚ, ɱɢʁɢ ʁɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɚ
ɨɬɤɪɢɜɟɧ ɜɢɲɟ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɱɟɬɤɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɟ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ.
ɋɚ ɩɨɱɟɬɤɨɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ
ɩɨɱɟɥɢ ɫɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ʁɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɢ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ
ɧɚ ʃɢɯ. ɋɭɲɬɢɧɚ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ
ʁɟɫɬɟ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɚ ɧɟɤɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨɝ ɦɟɯɚ-
ɧɢɡɦɚ ɨɞ ɤɨɝɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɨɩɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ.
Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɨ ɥɟɤɨɜɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɨɦɟɬɚʁɭ ɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɭʁɭ:
-
ɜɟɡɢɜɚʃɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɱɢɜɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ,
ɩɟɧɟɬɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ ɢ ɨɫɥɨɛɚɻɚʃɟ
ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɧɭɤɥɟɢɧɫɤɟ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ,
ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɊɇɄ,
-
ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ,
-
ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ȾɇɄ,
-
ɛɢɨɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɧɭɤɥɟɨɬɢɞɚ,
-
ɨɛɪɚɞɭ ɝɥɢɤɨɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɬɟɬ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɱɟɫɬɢɰɟ.
-
Ʉɚɨ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪ ɧɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɥɟɤɨɜɟ, ɜɢɪɭɫɢ
ɩɨɫɟɞɭʁɭ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɱɢɧɟ ɞɚ ɨɞ ɦɢɥɢʁɚɪɞɟ ɤɨɩɢʁɚ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɱɟɫɬɢɰɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɩɨ ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɨʁ ʄɟɥɢʁɢ, ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʃɢɯ ɩɨɫɟɞɭʁɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɭ ɭ
ɨɧɨɦ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɭ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɰɢʂ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ.
ɇɚɢɦɟ, ɨɦɟɬɚʁɭʄɢ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɧɟɤɨɝ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɭʁɭʄɢ ɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɪ ɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɨʁ ɱɟɫɬɢɰɢ, ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɥɟɤ ɭɬɢɱɟ ɞɚ ɬɚɤɜɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɚ
ɱɟɫɬɢɰɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɟɞɭʁɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ
ɜɟʄɢɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɱɟɫɬɢɰɚ ɛɢɜɚ ɢɧɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɚɧɚ.
Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɞɚ ɦɭɬɢɪɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɢʄɟ
ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɧɚɢɡɝɥɟɞ ɛɟɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɦɚɥɨɝ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɚ ɨɜɚɤɜɢɯ ɢɡɦɟʃɟɧɢɯ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɱɟɫɬɢɰɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʄɟ ɭ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɭ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ ɢɦɚɬɢ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɪɟɩɥɢɤɭʁɭ.
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɢɦɚ ɪɟɥɚɬɢɜɧɨ
ɞɭɝɭ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɭ ɭ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ʂɭɞɢ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɭ ɧɨ-
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɜɢʁɟ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɩɨɤɭɲɚʁɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɜɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɢ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɢ ɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ
ɧɚɱɢɧ, ɭɬɢɱɟ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɦɨɝɭ,
ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ ɨɛɥɢɰɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɞɚ
ɫɬɟɤɧɭ ɜɢɪɭɥɟɧɰɢʁɭ ɡɚ ʂɭɞɟ. ɍ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɥɨʁ ɞɟɰɟɧɢʁɢ ɡɚɛɟɥɟɠɟɧɢ ɫɭ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɢ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɢ ɭ ɰɢʂɭ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɰɢʁɟ (ɦɟɬɚɮɢɥɚɤɫɟ) ɢ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɨɪɬɨɦɢɤɫɨɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɬɢɰɚ
(ɩɬɢɱʁɢ ɝɪɢɩ) ɧɚ Ⱦɚɥɟɤɨɦ ɢɫɬɨɤɭ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ,
ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɩɨʁɚɜʂɢɜɚʃɚ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢɯ
ɫɨʁɟɜɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɫɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɦ ɡɨɨɧɨɬɫɤɢɦ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɨɦ.
ɉɈȳɆɈȼɂ ɂ ɂɋɌɈɊɂȳȺɌ
ȺɇɌɂȼɂɊɍɋɇɂɏ ɉɊȿɉȺɊȺɌȺ
ȼɟʄɢɧɚ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɫɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɲɟ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɨɦ. ȼɟɨɦɚ ʁɟ ɦɚɥɢ
ɛɪɨʁ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɨɜɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ
ɩɪɟɜɟɧɢɪɚʁɭ, ɚɥɢ ɫɟ, ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɭ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ʂɭɞɢ,
ɪɚɞɢ ɨ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɦ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢɦɚ ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɬɨ
ɏɂȼ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɢɥɢ ɯɟɩɚɬɢɬɢɫ ɐ. ɍ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ, ɡɚ ɫɚɞɚ ɧɟɦɚ ɭɫɩɟɯɚ ɭ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɢɪɚʃɭ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ: ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɚ ɚɧɟɦɢʁɚ ɤɨʃɚ
ɢ aɮɪɢɱɤɚ ɤɭɝɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɚ ɡɚ ɧɟɤɚ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ
ɜɚɤɰɢɧɟ, ɚɥɢ ɫɭ ɨɧɟ ɪɟɥɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɧɟɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɟ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɧɟɤɨ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ
ɩɨʁɚɜɢ, ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ɦɚɥɚ ɚɤɨ ɢɤɚɤɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ. ɍ ɯɭɦɚɧɨʁ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ, ɨɜɚʁ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ʁɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɢ ɢ ɭɩɪɤɨɫ
ɧɚɩɨɪɢɦɚ ɭ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚʃɭ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ, ɤɨʁɢ
ɬɪɚʁɭ ɜɟʄ ɞɭɠɟ ɨɞ ɩɨɥɚ ɜɟɤɚ, ɦɚɥɢ ʁɟ ɛɪɨʁ ɨɜɢɯ
ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɭ ɤɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɧɨʁ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ.
ɉɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɪɚɡɥɨɝɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ ɪɟɥɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɨɫɤɭɞɧɟ ɩɚɥɟɬɟ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ. Ʉɚɨ ɩɪɜɢ, ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ ɥɟɤ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɭɫɥɨɜ ɞɚ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ
ɛɟɡɛɟɞɚɧ. ɑɟɫɬɨ ɨɜɚʁ ɭɫɥɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɩɪɟɩɪɟɤɭ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɩɨɲɬɨ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɢɫɬɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɡɚ ɫɜɨʁɭ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢʁɭ
ɤɨʁɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɢ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɨɝ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɚ.
Ⱦɪɭɝɢ ɪɚɡɥɨɝ ʁɟɫɬɟ ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɚ ɞɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɥɟɤ
ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ 100 ɩɨɫɬɨ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɚɧ. Ɍɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ
ɚɤɨ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɢ ʁɟɞɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɚ ɱɟɫɬɢɰɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɩɪɟɠɢɜɢ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧ, ɨɧɚ ʄɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɦɧɨɠɢ ɢ ɞɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟ ɧɟɛɪɨʁɟɧɨ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɫɜɨʁɢɯ ɤɨɩɢʁɚ ɩɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɚ
ɛɥɨɤɚɞɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɬɟɲɤɚ. ɇɚʁɡɚɞ, ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɫɭ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɤɪɚɬɤɨɝ
ɬɨɤɚ. Ɍɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɜɟʄ ɨɛɚɜɢɥɚ ɭ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɤɚɞɚ ɡɚɩɨɱɧɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ ɩɚ ɫɟ ɦɨɠɟ
ɡɚɤʂɭɱɢɬɢ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ ɛɢɥɚ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɚ ɫɚɦɨ ɚɤɨ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɥɚ ɭ ɪɚɧɨʁ ɮɚɡɢ
41
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɢɥɢ ɤɚɨ ɦɟɪɚ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɟ ɡɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ ɩɨɞ ɪɢɡɢɤɨɦ.
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɯ ɭɫɩɟɯɚ ɭ ɩɪɨɧɚɥɚɠɟʃɭ ɛɪɨʁɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɡɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ, ɮɚɪɦɚɰɟɭɬɫɤɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢʁɟ ɫɭ ɭɥɨɠɢɥɟ
ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɟ ɧɚɩɨɪɟ ɭ ɰɢʂɭ ɩɪɨɧɚɥɚɠɟʃɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ. ɉɨɱɟɰɢ ɨɜɢɯ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ ɭɱɢʃɟɧɢ ɫɭ ɩɟɞɟɫɟɬɢɯ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ 20. ɜɟɤɚ, ɚɥɢ ʁɟ ɩɪɜɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɭɲɚɨ ɭ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ ɛɢɨ ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ
(ɲɟɡɞɟɫɟɬɢɯ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ 20. ɜɟɤɚ) ɤɚɨ ɥɟɤ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ Ⱥ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ (ɨɪɬɨɦɢɤɫɨɜɢɪɭɫ). ɍɫɥɟɞɢɥɟ
ɫɭ ɞɟɰɟɧɢʁɟ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɭ ɜɢɲɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɟɦɩɢɪɢʁɫɤɚ ɢ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɭ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɥɚ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɟ ɛɪɨʁɧɢɯ ɫɭɩɫɬɚɧɰɢʁɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɚ, ɚ ɛɟɡ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɧɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɚ. Ⱦɨ ɞɚɧɚɫ ʁɟ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɜɚɧɨ ɬɪɢɞɟɫɟɬɚɤ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɨ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢɦ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɚ ɫɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɭ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ ɛɪɨʁ ɝɪɭɩɚ. Ɇɚɥɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ ʁɟ ɢɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɚɧ
ɡɚ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ ɢ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɚɧ ɭ ɨɞɧɨɫɭ ɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫ. ȼɟʄɢɧɚ ɢɦɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɟ ɧɟɠɟʂɟɧɟ ɟɮɟɤɬɟ ɭɡ ɢɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɭ ɦɚɥɭ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬ, ɦɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɩɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ
ɢɡɛɨɪɚ „ɦɚʃɟɝ ɡɥɚ“ ɭ ɧɟɤɢɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɢ ɧɟɤɢ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬ
ɭɩɪɤɨɫ ʃɟɝɨɜɢɦ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɦ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɟɮɟɤɬɢɦɚ.
ɋɚ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɟɦ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɢɯ ɢ ȾɇɄ ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɧɬɧɢɯ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ ɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ ɩɨɱɟɥɨ ɫɟ ɫɚ
ɭɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟɦ ɝɟɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɭ ɞɚ
ɩɪɟɠɢɜɢ, ɭɦɧɨɠɚɜɚ ɫɟ ɢ ɢɡɚɡɨɜɟ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɟ ɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɭ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɚ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ, ɭɩɨɡɧɚɬɟ ɫɭ ɮɚɡɟ ɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɭ ɜɟʄɢɧɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢɯ ɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɯ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɭ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɥɟɤɨɜɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ
ɢɦɚʁɭ ɟɮɟɤɬɚ, ɩɪɢ ɱɟɦɭ ɫɟ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɟɮɟɤɬɢ ɫɜɨɞɟ
ɧɚ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɭ ɭɥɚɫɤɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ, ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɭ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ ɮɚɡɚ ɭ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɭ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɫɚɡɪɟɜɚʃɟ.
ɉɊɂɇɐɂɉɂ ɂɁȻɈɊȺ
ȺɇɌɂȼɂɊɍɋɇɂɏ ɅȿɄɈȼȺ
Ⱥɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɛɚɡɢɪɚʁɭ
ɧɚ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɭ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɱɟɫɬɢɰɚ.
Ⱥɬɨɦɫɤɚ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɚ ɤɪɢɫɬɚɥɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɨɦ, ɤɨɦɩʁɭɬɟɪɫɤɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɢ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɜɢɻɚʃɟ
ɟɧɡɢɦɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɚ ɯɟɦɢʁɚ,
ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɭ ɡɚ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚ ɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ɦɨɪɚʁɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɛɥɨɤɢɪɚʁɭ ɢ ɧɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɪɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢʁɚ ɧɟɤɨɝ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ.
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɉɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɫɟɤɜɟɧɰɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨɝ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɚɥɢ ɢ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɚ, ɞɚʁɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɟ
ɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɫɚʃɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɭ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɦ ɫɦɢɫɥɭ.
Ɉɜɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɡɚ ɨɞɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɰɢʂɧɢɯ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚ ɡɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɥɟɤɨɜɟ. Ɉɞ
ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɫɢɧɬɟɬɢɫɚɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɢɯ ɊɇɄ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɟ ɭ
ɨɜɢɦ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɢɦɚ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɟ
ɜɢɪɭɫɨɦ.
Ⱥɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɥɟɤɨɜɢ ɦɨɪɚʁɭ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɛɟɡɛɟɞɧɢ
ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɧɟ ɫɦɟʁɭ ɞɚ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɨ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɨ ɧɚ
ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɚ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɭ ɦɧɨɝɢɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɢ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫ ɭ ɫɦɢɫɥɭ ɞɚ
ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɥɟɤ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɢʁɢ ɡɚ ɜɢɪɭɫ ɧɟɝɨ ɡɚ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɚ. Ɍɨ ʁɟɞɧɨɫɬɚɜɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɞɚ ʄɟ
ɧɟɤɢ ɥɟɤɨɜɢ, ɢɚɤɨ ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚʁɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɟ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɟ
ɟɮɟɤɬɟ, ɢɩɚɤ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ
ɨ ɮɚɬɚɥɧɨɦ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɭ.
Ɂɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ɩɨɬɟɲɤɨʄɚ ɭ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɫɚʃɭ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ʁɟɫɬɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ ɞɚ ɞɨɻɟ ɞɨ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɭ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɟ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ. ɉɨ ɭɧɨɲɟʃɭ ɥɟɤɚ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɨɧ ɩɪɨɻɟ ɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɭ ɛɚɪɢʁɟɪɭ, ɚ ɤɚɞɚ ɢ ɫɬɢɝɧɟ ɭ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ, ɜɟʄɢ
ɞɟɨ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɜɟɠɟ ɡɚ ɚɥɛɭɦɢɧɟ ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɤɪɜɢ ɢ ɧɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɢɧɚɤɬɢɜɢɲɟ. Ȼɢɨɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɢɜɨɫɬ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ
ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɫɦɚʃɟɧɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɨɦ ɪɚɡɝɪɚɞʃɨɦ ɭ
ʁɟɬɪɢ ɢɥɢ ɜɟɡɢɜɚʃɟɦ ɧɟɤɨɝ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɝɚ
ɢɧɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɚɬɢ.
ɉɊɂɆȿɊɂ ȺɇɌɂȼɂɊɍɋɇɂɏ
ɅȿɄɈȼȺ
Ⱥɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ. ɉɪɜɢ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɥɟɤ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ
ɭɲɚɨ ɭ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ (1974. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ), ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɯɟɪɩɟɫ
ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ʂɭɞɢ, ɛɢɨ ʁɟ ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɢ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɚ ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪɚ ɫɭ ɪɚɡʁɚɲʃɟɧɢ
ɫɪɟɞɢɧɨɦ ɞɟɜɟɞɟɫɟɬɢɯ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ. Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɨ
ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɭ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɚɧɚɥɨɝ ɝɭɚɧɨɡɢɧɭ, ɚɥɢ, ɡɚ
ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭ ɨɞ ɨɜɨɝ ɧɭɤɥɟɨɬɢɞɚ, ɩɨɫɟɞɭʁɟ ɚɰɢɤɥɢɱɧɭ
ɲɟʄɟɪɧɭ ɝɪɭɩɭ. ɍ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɭɥɚɡɢ ɭ ɨɛɥɢɤɭ
ɩɪɟɤɭɪɡɨɪɚ, ɱɢʁɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɚɰɢʁɚ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɩɨɞ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɨɦ
ɬɪɢ ɟɧɡɢɦɚ ɤɢɧɚɡɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɟ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ.
ȵɢɯɨɜɢɦ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɟɦ, ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ ɫɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɢɲɟ ɭ ɬɪɢɮɨɫɮɚɬɧɢ ɞɟɪɢɜɚɬ. ɉɪɜɚ ɤɢɧɚɡɚ, ɤɨʁɚ
ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɢɲɟ ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ ɭ ɦɨɧɨɮɨɫɮɚɬ, ɧɟ
ɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɫɟ ɭ ɧɟɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɢɦ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ. Ɉɬɭɞɚ
ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ ɧɟɦɚ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɨ ɧɚ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɭ ȾɇɄ
ɡɞɪɚɜɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ. ɏɟɪɩɟɫ ɜɢɪɭɫ ɩɨɫɟɞɭʁɟ ɟɧɡɢɦ
ɤɢɧɚɡɭ ɤɨʁɢ ɨɛɚɜʂɚ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪɚ, ɩɪɢ ɱɟɦɭ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɦɨɧɨɮɨɫɮɚɬ. ɍ ɧɚɫɬɚɜɤɭ,
ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢ ɟɧɡɢɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɨɛɥɢɤɚ ɥɟɤɚ, ɬɪɢɮɨɫɮɚɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɛɢɜɚ ɢɧɤɨɪɩɨɪɢɫɚɧ ɭ
ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɭ ȾɇɄ ɩɨɦɨʄɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ȾɇɄ ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɟ.
Ʉɚɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ, ɩɪɟɤɢɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ȾɇɄ.
Ⱥɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ ʁɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɚɧ ɡɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ
ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɨɦ, ɚ ɨɜɚ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬ ʁɟ ɭ
ɫɬɜɚɪɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɟɧɡɢɦɚ ɬɢɦɢɞɢɧ ɤɢɧɚɡɟ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɟɧɡɢɦ ɨɛɚɜʂɚ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ ɬɢɦɢɞɢɧɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚ ɩɚ ɡɞɪɚɜɚ (ɧɟɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɚ) ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɛɢ ɝɚ ɫɢɧɬɟɬɢɫɚɥɚ,
ɛɢɥɚ ɛɢ ɭɛɢʁɟɧɚ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɞɚ ɭ ɫɟɛɟ ɢɧɤɨɪɩɨɪɢɲɟ
ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɭ ɫɟɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɭɛɢʁɚʃɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ, ɚ ɭ ɧɨɜɢʁɟ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɫɭ ɫɢɧɬɟɬɢɫɚɧɢ ɞɟɪɢɜɚɬɢ ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɛɨʂɭ
ɛɢɨɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɢɜɨɫɬ (ɜɚɥɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ ɢ ɮɚɦɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ).
Ƚɚɧɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɞɟɪɢɜɚɬɚ ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪɚ, ɚɥɢ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɥɟɱɟʃɟ ɰɢɬɨɦɟɝɚɥɨɜɢɪɭɫɚ
ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ. ɋ ɨɛɡɢɪɨɦ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɚ ɢɦɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚɧ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ, ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɠɢɜɨɬ.
Ɏɨɫɤɚɪɧɟɬ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɢɧɢ ɧɟɧɭɤɥɟɨɬɢɞɧɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪ ȾɇɄ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ. ɇɟɤɨɦɩɟɬɢɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɪɚ ɯɟɪɩɟɫ ɢ ɯɟɩɚɬɢɬɢɫ Ȼ
ɜɢɪɭɫɧɭ ȾɇɄ ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɭ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɪɟɜɟɪɡɧɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɬɚɡɭ ɏɂȼ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. Ⱥɤɭɦɭɥɢɪɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɤɨɫɬɧɨʁ
ɫɪɠɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɭʁɟ ɫɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɤɨɞ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɟ
ɭɝɪɨɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɠɢɜɨɬ.
Ɋɢɛɚɜɢɪɢɧ ʁɟ ɚɧɚɥɨɝ ɧɭɤɥɟɨɬɢɞɚ. ɋɢɧɬɟɬɢɫɚɧ ʁɟ 1972. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɢ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɡɚ ɥɟɱɟʃɟ ɜɟʄɟɝ
ɛɪɨʁɚ ȾɇɄ ɢ ɊɇɄ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. ɍɩɪɤɨɫ ɞɭɝɨɬɪɚʁɧɨʁ
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ, ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɚ ʁɨɲ ʁɟ ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɬ. Ɋɢɛɚɜɢɪɢɧ ɦɨɧɨɮɨɫɮɚɬ ʁɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɢɬɢɜɧɢ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪ
ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɟ ɢɧɨɡɢɧ ɦɨɧɨɮɨɫɮɚɬ ɞɟɯɢɞɪɨɝɟɧɚɡɟ ɢ
ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪ ɢɧɢɰɢʁɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɟɥɨɧɝɚɰɢʁɟ ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɟ
ɡɚɜɢɫɧɟ ɨɞ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɊɇɄ. Ⱦɟɥɭʁɟ ɢ ɤɚɨ ɦɭɬɚɝɟɧ
ɊɇɄ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. Ʉɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɡɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ Ʌɚɫɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ, ɚ ɞɟɪɢɜɚɬɢ ɪɢɛɚɜɢɪɢɧɚ (ɜɢɪɚɦɢɞɢɧ ɢ ɥɟɜɨɜɢɪɢɧ) ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɡɚ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɢɯ
ɨɞ ɯɟɩɚɬɢɬɢɫɚ ɐ.
Ʌɚɦɢɜɭɞɢɧ ʁɟ ɚɧɚɥɨɝ ɧɭɤɥɟɨɬɢɞɚ ɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɚ
ɫɟ ɩɨɦɨʄɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɤɢɧɚɡɚ. Ⱥɤɬɢɜɚɧ, ɛɥɨɤɢɪɚ
ɪɟɜɟɪɡɧɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɬɚɡɭ ɯɟɩɚɬɢɬɢɫ Ȼ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢ
ɏɂȼ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. ɂɦɚ ɛɟɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ɢ
ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ.
Ⱥɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ (ɚɞɚɦɚɧɬɢɧ) ʁɟ ɩɪɨɧɚɻɟɧ ɩɪɟ 40ɚɤ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ. Ɋɚɞɢ ɫɟ ɨ ɬɪɨɩɪɫɬɟɧɚɫɬɨɦ ɚɦɢɧɭ ɤɨʁɢ
ɫɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɨ ɤɚɨ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɚɧ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ
ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɟ Ⱥ (ɝɪɢɩɚ). ɂɩɚɤ, ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɚ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ʁɟ ɬɟɤ ɧɟɞɚɜɧɨ ɨɬɤɪɢɜɟɧ. Ⱥɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ ɞɟɥɭʁɟ ɧɚ
ɧɢɜɨɭ Ɇ2 ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ. ȼɢɪɭɫɧɢ Ɇ2 ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ ʁɟ
ɬɟɬɪɚɦɟɪ ɤɨʁɢ ɭ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɢ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɨɡɧɢ ɤɚɧɚɥ ɡɚ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɟ ɜɨɞɟ
ɢ ʁɨɧɟ. Ȼɥɨɤɢɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɨɜɟ ɤɚɧɚɥɟ ɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɭ, ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ ɭ ɦɚɥɢɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚ ɩɪɨɞɨɪ
ɩɪɨɬɨɧɚ ɭ ɜɢɪɭɫ, ɱɢɦɟ ɨɧɟɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚ ɭɤɥɚʃɚʃɟ
ɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɨɦɨɬɚɱɚ ɢ ɨɫɥɨɛɚɻɚʃɟ ɊɇɄ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ
Ⱥ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. ɂɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ ɜɢɪɭɫ Ȼ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɟɞɭʁɟ Ɇ2
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ, ɩɚ ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ ɧɟ ɞɟɥɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɝɪɢɩ ɢɡɚɡɜɚɧ
ɨɜɢɦ ɜɢɪɭɫɨɦ.
ɋɜɚɤɚ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ, ɬʁ. ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ ɭ Ɇ2 ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɭ
ɭɫɥɨɜʂɟɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧɚ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ
ɭɦɧɨɠɚɜɚʃɚ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ Ⱥ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ.
ɉɨɡɧɚɬɟ ɫɭ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɟ (ɢɡɦɟɧɟ ɭ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɫɚɫɬɚɜɭ) ɚɜɢʁɚɪɧɨɝ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ Ⱥ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ
(H7N7) ɢ ɬɨ ɭ Ɇ2 ɬɪɚɧɫɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɨɡɧɨʁ ɫɟɤɜɟɧɰɢ
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ. Ɉɜɚɤɜɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ (A/chicken/Germany)
ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ ɫɭ ɧɚ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɟ ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧɚ.
ɍ ɰɢʂɭ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ, ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɚɩɥɢɤɭʁɟ ɭ ɩɪɜɢɯ 24í48 ɫɚɬɢ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ. ɇɚʁɛɨʂɢ
ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɫɟ ɩɨɫɬɢɠɭ ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɥɟɤ ɞɚʁɟ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɨ ɩɪɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ.
Ɋɢɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ ʁɟ ɞɟɪɢɜɚɬ ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɧɟ
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɭʁɟ ɤɪɨɡ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɟɧɰɟɮɚɥɧɭ ɛɚɪɢʁɟɪɭ ɩɚ
ɧɟɦɚ ɧɟɠɟʂɟɧɢɯ ɟɮɟɤɚɬɚ ɧɚ ɐɇɋ.
Ɂɚɧɚɦɢɜɢɪ ɢ ɨɫɟɥɬɚɦɢɜɢɪ ɫɭ ɥɟɤɨɜɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ
ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɢ ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɟ, ɟɧɡɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɢɧɬɟɬɢɲɭ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ Ⱥ ɢ Ȼ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ. ɇɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɚ ʁɟ
ɟɧɡɢɦ, ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ ɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɬɟɬɪɚɦɟɪɚ, ɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ
ɦɟɫɬɨ ɟɧɡɢɦɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɮɨɪɦɢ ɭɞɭɛʂɟʃɚ ɭ ɱɢʁɟɦ ɞɧɭ
ɫɟ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɢɫɬɟ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ ɢ ɤɨɞ Ⱥ ɢ ɤɨɞ Ȼ
ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɟɧɡɢɦ ɰɟɩɚ ɪɟɡɢɞɭɟ ɫɢʁɚɥɢɧɫɤɟ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ ɢɡ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚ ɝɥɢɤɨɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ,
ɝɥɢɤɨɥɢɩɢɞɚ ɢ ɨɥɢɝɨɫɚɯɚɪɢɞɚ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɭ
ɲɢɪɟʃɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɨɦ ɫɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ
ɧɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ. ɇɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɚ ɛɟɬɚ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ
ɪɚɫɬɚ ɭɫɥɨɜʂɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ ɚɩɨɩɬɨɡɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɱɢɦɟ ɭɬɢɱɟ
ɧɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪ ɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ.
Ɇɨɥɟɤɭɥ ɫɢʁɚɥɢɧɫɤɟ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɧɨ ɫɟ
ɩɨɞɭɞɚɪɚ ɫɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɦɟɫɬɨɦ ɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɨʁ ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɢ ɩɚ ɨɜɚ ɜɟɡɚ ɱɢɧɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɡɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɦɭɤɨɡɧɢɯ ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɚ. Ɂɚɧɚɦɢɜɢɪ ɢ ɨɫɟɥɬɚɦɢɜɢɪ ɫɭ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɢ
ɤɨɞ ɤɨʁɢɯ ʁɟ ɯɢɞɪɨɤɫɢɥɧɚ ɝɪɭɩɚ ɫɢʁɚɥɢɧɫɤɟ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ ɡɚɦɟʃɟɧɚ ɚɦɢɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɝɭɚɧɢɞɢɥ ɝɪɭɩɨɦ, ɱɢɦɟ
ʁɟ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧ ɚɮɢɧɢɬɟɬ ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɟ ɡɚ ɨɜɟ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɟ. Ɉɜɢ ɥɟɤɨɜɢ ɫɟ ɜɟɡɭʁɭ ɡɚ ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɭ
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ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɚɥɢ ɧɟ ɢ ɡɚ ɧɟɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɟ,
ɱɢɦɟ ʁɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɫɦɚʃɟɧ ʃɢɯɨɜ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ.
Ⱥɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɱɢɧɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɞɧɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝ
ɦɟɫɬɚ (ɭɞɭɛʂɟʃɚ) ɤɨɧɡɟɪɜɢɫɚɧɟ ɫɭ (ɧɟɦɚ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ), ɩɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚ
ɧɚ ɨɜɟ ɥɟɤɨɜɟ ɪɟɥɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɪɟɬɤɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ.
ɉɈɌȿɇɐɂȳȺɅɇɂ ɆȿɏȺɇɂɁɆɂ
ȺɇɌɂȼɂɊɍɋɇɈȽ ȾȿȳɋɌȼȺ ɅȿɄȺ
ɂɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɢ ɭɥɚɫɤɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ ɢ
ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɢ ɨɫɥɨɛɚɻɚʃɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɨɞ ɨɦɨɬɚɱɚ ɫɭ
ɭ ɩɪɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɭɫɥɨɜʂɚɜɚɥɢ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɦ ɤɨɞ
ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚɱɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɛɚɜɢɥɢ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɟɦ
ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ. ɇɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɫɟ ɬɨ ɨɞɧɨɫɢɥɨ
ɧɚ ɦɨɧɨɤɥɨɧɫɤɚ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ɫɭ ɛɥɨɤɢɪɚɥɚ ɜɟɡɢɜɚʃɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɡɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ ɢɥɢ ɫɭ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚɥɚ ɭɥɚɡɚɤ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ. ɂɩɚɤ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɯ
ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɦɨɧɨɤɥɨɧɫɤɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɚ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɦɨɧɨɤɥɨɧɫɤɚ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ ɫɟ ɞɚɧɚɫ
ɢɩɚɤ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɭ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɭ ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢɯ, ɛɢɨɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɟɩɢɬɨɩɚ,
ɬʁ. ɦɟɫɬɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɜɟɡɢɜɚʃɚ ɡɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɟ ɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɪɟ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ, ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɫɢɧɬɟɬɢɫɚʃɚ ɦɚɥɢɯ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɛɢ ɛɥɨɤɢɪɚɥɢ ɭɥɚɡɚɤ
ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɤɨɞ ɨɜɨɝ ɩɪɢɥɚɡɚ
ɪɚɡɜɨʁɭ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɬɨɦɟ ɲɬɨ
ɜɟʄɢɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢɦɚ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚʃɭ ɜɟʄɢ ɛɪɨʁ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ ɭɥɚɫɤɚ ɭ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɱɢɜɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɭ.
ȳɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚɱɢɧɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʃɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ʁɟ ɢ ɨɧɟɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚʃɟ ɮɭɡɢʁɟ ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɚ ɤɨɞ
ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɨɫɟɞɭʁɭ ɨɦɨɬɚɱ. Ɍɚɤɨ ɫɭ, ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
ɞɨ ɫɚɞɚ ɫɢɧɬɟɬɢɫɚɧɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɜɟɡɭʁɭ ɡɚ
ɯɟɦɚɝɥɭɬɢɧɢɧ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚ ɤɨɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɚ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ ɯɟɦɚɝɥɭɬɢɧɢɧɚ ɭɫɥɨɜʂɟɧɚ ɧɢɫɤɢɦ pH.
ɉɪɨɬɟɚɡɟ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɰɟɩɚʁɭ ɩɪɟɤɭɪɡɨɪɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ, ɱɢɦɟ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢ
ɢɥɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɢ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɱɟɫɬɢɰɟ. ɂɡ
ɬɨɝ ɪɚɡɥɨɝɚ, ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɟɚɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɜɚɠɧɟ ɦɟɬɟ ɡɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɥɟɤɨɜɟ. ɇɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɫɟ ɬɨ ɨɞɧɨɫɢ ɧɚ ɯɟɪɩɟɫ, ɰɢɬɨɦɟɝɚɥɨ ɢ
ɯɟɩɚɬɢɬɢɫ ɐ ɜɢɪɭɫɟ.
ɋɢɧɬɟɡɚ ɢ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɤɢ ɩɭɬɟɜɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ
ɧɭɤɥɟɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɚʂɚʁɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɟ
„ɦɟɬɟ“ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ. ɊɇɄ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɚ ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɊɇɄ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ
ʁɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥ ɭ ɠɢɜɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɭ. ɇɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ
ɜɟɥɢɤɢɯ ɮɚɪɦɚɰɟɭɬɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢʁɚ ɪɚɞɢ ɨɛɢɦɧɚ
ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɚ, ɚ
44
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ ɢ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɟ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ
ɩɪɚʁɦɟɪɚ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɟ ɫɚɡɪɟɜɚʃɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ
ɧɭɤɥɟɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ. ɇɚ ɫɥɢɱɚɧ ɧɚɱɢɧ, ɤɨɞ
ɯɟɪɩɟɫ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ʁɟ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚʃɟ ɟɧɡɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ɰɟɩɚʁɭ ɜɟɥɢɤɟ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ȾɇɄ. ɂɧɯɢɛɢɰɢʁɚ ɨɜɢɯ ɟɧɡɢɦɚ ɛɢ ɫɜɚɤɚɤɨ ɛɢɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦ
ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɚ.
Ɋɟɝɭɥɚɬɨɪɧɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɲɭ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɢ ɰɢɤɥɭɫ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. Ɉɜɢ, ɡɚ ɜɢɪɭɫ
ʁɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ʁɨɲ ʁɟɞɧɭ
ɝɪɭɩɭ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɛɢ ɦɨɝɥɢ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɦɟɬɚ
ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ. Ɂɚ ɫɚɞɚ, ɭ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ ʁɟ ɮɨɦɢɜɢɪɫɟɧ, ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɭ ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɫɦɢɫɥɭ ɨɥɢɝɨɧɭɤɥɟɨɬɢɞ ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɭ ɰɢɬɨɦɟɝɚɥɨɜɢɪɭɫɚ.
Ƚɪɢɩ ʁɟ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɟ ɡɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɫɦɚɬɪɚ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɭɛɢɥɨ
ɜɢɲɟ ʂɭɞɢ ɨɞ ɛɢɥɨ ɤɨɝ ɞɪɭɝɨɝ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ.
ɉɚɧɞɟɦɢʁɚ „ɩɬɢɱʁɟɝ ɝɪɢɩɚ“ (2003í2008) ʁɟ ɭ
ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɢ ʂɭɞɢ ɢɦɚɥɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧ ɫɦɪɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɞ
63,3%. Ɉɬɭɞɚ ɧɟ ɢɡɧɟɧɚɻɭʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɢ
ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɟ, ɤɚɨ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɨɞ ɤʂɭɱɧɨɝ ɟɧɡɢɦɚ
ɨɪɬɨɦɢɤɫɨɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɢ.
ɊȿɁɂɋɌȿɇɐɂȳȺ ɇȺ ȺɇɌɂȼɂɊɍɋɇȿ
ɅȿɄɈȼȿ
ɍɫɥɟɞ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɝ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɤɚɩɚɰɢɬɟɬɚ,
ɤɚɨ ɢ ɜɟɥɢɤɟ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɨɫɬɢ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ, ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨ
ɫɜɚɤɚ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɛɢɥɨ ɤɨɝ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ ɦɨɪɚ
ɞɚ ɭɡɦɟ ɭ ɨɛɡɢɪ ɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢɯ ɫɨʁɟɜɚ.
ɇɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɫɟ ɬɨ ɨɞɧɨɫɢ ɧɚ ɞɭɝɨɬɪɚʁɧɭ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ
ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɯɪɨɧɢɱɧɢɯ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ.
ɍ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɢ, ɞɨ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɫɭ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɧɢ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ
ɫɨʁɟɜɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɢ ɬɨ ɧɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ (ɨɞ ɦɚɥɨɝ ɛɪɨʁɚ)
ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢ ɥɟɤ. Ɉɜɢ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ ɫɨʁɟɜɢ ɫɭ ɨɩɚɫɧɢ ɤɚɤɨ ɡɚ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɬɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɢ ɡɚ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɱɢɜɭ
ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ ɭ ɨɤɨɥɢɧɢ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɢ ɫɨʁɟɜɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁ ɭ ɧɚɭɰɢ ɫ ɨɛɡɢɪɨɦ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɚ ɩɪɭɠɚʁɭ ɛɪɨʁɧɟ ɩɨɞɚɬɤɟ ɨ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɢɦɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɭɨɩɲɬɟ ɨ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ, ɢɡɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɫɟ ɧɨɜɟ
ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢʁɟ ɛɨɪɛɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ.
ɏɟɪɩɟɫ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ. Ʉɥɚɫɢɱɚɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɧɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɭ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ʁɟɫɭ ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ ɦɭɬɚɧɬɢ ɯɟɪɩɟɫ ɫɢɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ
ɤɨʁɢ ɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɨ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɨɜɨɝ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ. Ɉɜɢ ɦɭɬɚɧɬɢ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɨɛɚɜɟ
ɮɨɫɮɨɪɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ ɩɪɟɤɭɪɡɨɪɚ ɥɟɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɧɢɫɭ ɭ
ɫɬɚʃɭ ɞɚ ɢɧɤɨɪɩɨɪɢɲɭ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɢɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɢ ɦɨɥɟ-
ɤɭɥ ɥɟɤɚ ɭ ȾɇɄ. ȼɟʄɢɧɚ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ, ɭ ɨɜɨɦ
ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ, ɞɟɫɢɥɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɝɟɧɭ ɡɚ ɬɢɦɢɞɢɧ ɤɢɧɚɡɭ ɩɚ
ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɤʂɭɱɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɨ ɟɧɡɢɦɭ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ
ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɚɧ ɡɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ. ɏɟɪɩɟɫ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ ɧɚ ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ
ɢɦɚʁɭ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɭ ɢ ɭ ɝɟɧɭ ɡɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɭ ȾɇɄ
ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɭ. ɉɪɨɦɟʃɟɧɚ (ɦɭɬɢɪɚɧɚ) ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɚ
ɢɦɚ ɦɚʃɭ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɢɧɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɢɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ ɭ ȾɇɄ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. ɂɚɤɨ ɫɭ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ
(ɦɭɬɢɪɚɧɢ) ɜɢɪɭɫɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɫɥɚɛɢʁɢ, ɢɩɚɤ ɦɨɝɭ
ɞɚ ɢɡɚɡɨɜɭ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɫɤɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɩɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɬɚɤɜɢɦ
ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɭʁɟ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ
(ɚɰɢɤɥɨɜɢɪ ɢ ɮɨɫɤɚɪɧɟɬ).
ɂɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ. ɉɚɧɡɨɨɬɢʁɟ, ɚ ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ
ɩɚɧɞɟɦɢʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɟ ɭ ɜɟɥɢɤɨʁ ɦɟɪɢ
ɭɫɥɨɜʂɚɜɚʁɭ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚʃɟ ɡɚ ɢɡɧɚɥɚɠɟʃɟ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɝɪɢɩɚ. ȿɩɢɡɨɨɬɢɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɢ ɟɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɟ
ɨɜɨɝ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ (ɢ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ) ɭɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɞɚ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɜɚʃɟ
ɜɢɪɭɥɟɧɰɢʁɟ (ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɚ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ
ɢɡɚɡɨɜɟ ɚɩɨɩɬɨɡɭ) ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɧɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɭɜɟɤ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɫɬɢɰɚʃɚ ɜɢɪɭɥɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɚɜɢʁɚɪɧɨɝ ɢɥɢ
ɫɜɢʃɫɤɨɝ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɡɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ. ɉɬɢɰɟ ɢ ɫɜɢʃɟ, ɤɚɨ
ɜɪɫɬɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɨɚɪɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɝɪɢɩɚ,
ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɟ ɨɞ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ. ɍ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɞɚ
ɫɟ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɭʁɟ ɧɟɤɢ ɨɞ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ,
ɬɚɤɜɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɩɪɟɬɪɩɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨɝ
ɤɨɞɚ ɢ ɩɨɞ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɟɦ ɥɟɤɚ.
Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɫɭ ɭ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ ɞɜɟ ɤɥɚɫɟ ɥɟɤɨɜɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ
ɝɪɢɩɚ. ɉɪɜɚ ɤɥɚɫɚ ɤɨʁɭ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɚɞɚɦɚɧɬɚɧ
(ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ), ɭɬɢɱɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ
(Ɇ2). Ⱦɪɭɝɚ ɤɥɚɫɚ ɫɭ ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪɢ ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɟ
(ɨɫɟɥɬɚɦɢɜɢɪ ɢ ɡɚɧɚɦɢɜɢɪ). ɂɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɚɜɢʁɚɪɧɟ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɟ (H5N1) ɭɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚʃɟ ɞɜɚ ɫɟɬɚ
ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ. ɉɪɜɢ ʁɟ ɫɟɬ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ ɧɚ Ɇ2 ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɭ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɱɧɨ ɫɬɢɰɚʃɟ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɧɚ
ɚɞɚɦɚɧɬɚɧ ɢ ɞɟɪɢɜɚɬɟ (L26I, V27A/I, A30S, S31N
ɢ G34E). ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜʂɟɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɭ 92,3% ɢɡɨɥɨɜɚɧɢɯ
ɜɢɪɭɫɚ (H3N2) ɢɡ ʂɭɞɢ ɭ ɋȺȾ-ɭ ɛɢɥɢ
ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ ɧɚ ɚɞɚɦɚɧɬɚɧ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɫɟ ɡɧɚ ɞɚ
ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɚɞɚɦɚɧɬɚɧ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɩɪɟɤɨ
ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɟ ɜɟɡɟ ɫɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɫɢɬɭɫɢɦɚ ɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɦ
ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɭ ɤɨʁɢ ɬɪɩɟ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɢ
ɩɪɢɬɢɫɚɤ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɥɟɤɚ.
ɇɟɨɛɢɱɧɚ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧɚ ʁɟ ɬɨ ɞɚ
ʃɟɝɨɜ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ɞɨɡɟ, ɬɚɱɧɢʁɟ ɨɞ ɜɢɫɨɤɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɟ. ɍ ɦɚɥɢɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ, ɨɜɚʁ
ɥɟɤ ʁɟ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɚɧ ɫɚɦɨ ɡɚ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ Ⱥ ɜɢɪɭɫ, ɛɟɡ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɟɮɟɤɬɚ ɧɚ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ Ȼ ɢ ɐ ɜɢɪɭɫɟ. ɍ ɜɟʄɢɦ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ, ɞɟɥɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɫɜɚ ɬɪɢ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ
ɜɢɪɭɫɚ. Ɇɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɧɚ ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧ ʁɟ
ɫɥɨɠɟɧ. ɍ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ • 100 µɆ, ɥɟɤ ɞɟɥɭʁɟ
ɤɚɨ ɫɥɚɛɚ ɛɚɡɚ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ pH ɟɧɞɨɡɨɦɚ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ
ɧɚɱɢɧ ɛɢɜɚ ɛɥɨɤɢɪɚɧɚ ɮɭɡɢʁɚ ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɚ ɤɨʁɚ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ pH. Ɇɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɤʂɭɱɢ ɞɚ ʄɟ ɫɜɚɤɢ
ɜɢɪɭɫ ɱɢʁɚ ɮɭɡɢʁɚ ɫɚ ʄɟɥɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɨɦ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ pH, ɛɢɬɢ ɛɥɨɤɢɪɚɧ ɨɜɢɦ ɥɟɤɨɦ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ,
ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ ɦɭɬɚɧɬɢ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ Ⱥ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɩɨɫɟɞɭʁɭ ɫɭɩɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɭ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ ɭ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɭ
ɯɟɦɚɝɥɭɬɢɧɢɧɚ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ, ɨɜɚʁ ɡɚ ɜɢɪɭɫ ɜɚɠɚɧ
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ ɛɢɜɚ ɞɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɨɜɚɧ ɩɚ ʁɟ ɮɭɡɢʁɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɚ
ɢ ɩɪɢ ɜɢɲɢɦ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ pH. Ɋɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢ
ɦɭɬɚɧɬɢ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɩɪɢ
ɧɢɫɤɢɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ ɚɦɚɧɬɚɞɢɧɚ (” 5 µɆ)
ɢɦɚʁɭ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɭ ɭ Ɇ2 ɝɟɧɭ, ɲɬɨ ɤɚɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɭ
ɢɦɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɭ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ ɭ ɩɨɪɚɦɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɭ
ʁɨɧɫɤɢɦ ɤɚɧɚɥɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɠɭ ɤɪɨɡ
ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ.
Ⱦɭɝɢ ɫɟɬ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɭɫɥɨɜʂɚɜɚʁɭ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɭ ɧɚ ɨɫɟɥɬɚɦɢɜɢɪ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɟɧ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɢɦɚ
H274Y ɢ N294S ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɧɚ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɭ
ɧɟɭɪɚɦɢɧɢɞɚɡɟ. ɍ ɩɨɪɟɻɟʃɭ ɫɚ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɨɦ ɧɚ
ɚɞɚɦɚɧɬɚɧ, ɞɨ ɞɚɧɚɫ ʁɟ ɢɡɨɥɨɜɚɧ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɦɚʃɢ
ɛɪɨʁ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢɯ ɫɨʁɟɜɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ (H5N1). Ʉɨɞ
ʂɭɞɢ, ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɧɟɩɨɬɩɭɧɟ
ɫɭɩɪɟɫɢʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɧɟɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ
ɞɚ ɫɟ ɰɟɥɨɤɭɩɧɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɟɥɢɦɢɧɢɲɟ
ɢɡ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɬɚ. ɂɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɢɡɨɥɨɜɚʃɟ ɨɫɟɥɬɚɦɢɜɢɪ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɢɯ ɫɨʁɟɜɚ ɢɡ ɞɢɜʂɢɯ ɩɬɢɰɚ ɭɤɚɡɭʁɟ
ɞɚ ɫɟ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɭ H5N1 ɜɢɪɭɫɭ ɞɟɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɢ ɭ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɢ ɭ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɱɢɜɢɦ ɜɪɫɬɚɦɚ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɚ ɢ ɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɚ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɧɚ
ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɟ, ɨɫɢɦ ɩɪɟɤɨ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ
ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨɝ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ
ɧɟɦɭɬɚɝɟɧɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ. ɉɨɪɟɤɥɨ ɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɢ
ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɬɚɱɤɚɫɬɢɯ
ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɚ
ɢɥɢ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ
ɯɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɧɨɝ
ɪɟɚɫɨɪɬɢɪɚʃɚ (ɤɨɞ ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬɨɜɚɧɢɯ ɊɇɄ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ).
Ȼɟɡ ɨɛɡɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɫɟ ɫɬɢɱɟ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɚ,
ɨɧɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɨɞɪɠɚɜɚ ɛɢɥɨ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨɦ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɟɤɨ ɜɟɡɟ ɫɚ ɧɟɤɢɦ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ
ɫɢɬɭɫɨɦ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɢ ɫɚɦ ɩɨɞ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɤɨɦ
ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɨɝ ɥɟɤɚ. ɉɨɡɧɚʁɭʄɢ ɨɜɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ, ɚ ɭ
ɰɢʂɭ ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦɟ ɡɚ ɧɚɪɟɞɧɭ ɩɚɧɞɟɦɢʁɭ ɢ ɩɚɧɡɨɨɬɢʁɭ, ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚʃɟ ɤɚɤɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢ
ɟɜɨɥɭɬɢɜɧɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɢ (ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɱɢɜɢɯ
ɜɪɫɬɚ ɢ ɫɚ ʃɢɦɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɚ, ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ
ɪɟɚɫɨɪɬɢɪɚʃɟ) ɭɫɥɨɜʂɚɜɚʁɭ ɢ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɭʁɭ ɞɚ ɪɚɡ-
45
ɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɥɢɧɢʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɦɟʃɚʁɭ ɭ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɧɨʁ ɨɤɨɥɢɧɢ (ɫɜɟ ɱɟɲʄɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɚɧɬɢɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ
ɥɟɤɨɜɚ) ɩɪɟɠɢɜɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɧɟɫɭ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɭ ɧɚ ɫɥɟɞɟʄɭ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɭ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɨɧɟɤɥɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɟ ɩɭɬɟɜɢ ɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɟ ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚɱɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ.
ɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊȺ
1. Anderson, C. A. (2011) The challenge of
developing robust drugs to overcome resistance.
Drug Discɨvery Today, 16: 755í761.
2. Air, G. et al. (1999) Influenza neuraminidase as
target for antivirals. Adv. Virus Res. 54: 375í402.
3. Crotty, S., et al. (2000) The broad-spectrum
antiviral ribonucleoside ribavirin is an RNA
virus mutagen. Nat. Med. 6: 1375í1379.
4. De Clercq, E. (2002) Strategies on the design of
antiviral drugs. Nat. Rev. Drug. Discov. 1:
13í25.
5. Evans, J. K. et al. (1998) Herpesviral tymidine
kinases: laxity and resistance by design. J. Gen.
Virol. 79: 2083í2092.
6. Field, H. J. and Subhajit Biswas (2011) Antiviral
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
47
UDK 619:616.28:636.7/.8
ȼ. Ɋɚɤɟɬɢʄ1, ɋ. Ƚɚɬɚɪɢʄ2, Ⱦ. ɍɪɨɲɟɜɢʄ3
ɍɉɈɌɊȿȻȺ ɋɍɇȭȿɊȺɋɌɈȽ ȳȺɋɌɍɑȿɌȺ ɍ ɌȿɊȺɉɂȳɂ ɏȿɆȺɌɈɆȺ
ɍɒɇȿ ɒɄɈȴɄȿ ɉȺɋȺ ɂ ɆȺɑȺɄȺ
Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ɍ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɫɤɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɭ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɧɟ ɫɟɧɡɢɬɢɜɧɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɟ ɞɚ ɩɪɢɦɚʁɭ ɪɚɡɧɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ
ɧɚɞɪɚɠɚʁɚ ɢɡ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟ ɢ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɢ ɞɚ ɢɯ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɟ ɞɨ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢɯ ɞɟɥɨɜɚ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɧɨɝ
ɧɟɪɜɧɨɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ. Ɉɜɟ ɫɟɧɡɢɬɢɜɧɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɪɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɪɟɚɝɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɟ,
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɤɟ, ɬɨɩɥɨɬɧɟ, ɫɜɟɬɥɨɫɧɟ ɢ ɡɜɭɱɧɟ ɧɚɞɪɚɠɚʁɟ, ɨɫɟʄɚʁɟɦ ɦɢɪɢɫɚ, ɭɤɭɫɚ, ɞɨɞɢɪɚ, ɩɪɢɬɢɫɤɚ,
ɬɨɩɥɨɬɟ, ɯɥɚɞɧɨʄɟ, ɛɨɥɚ, ɜɢɞɚ ɢ ɫɥɭɯɚ. ɍ ɬɨɤɭ ɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɥɢ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɧɢ ɫɟɧɡɢɬɢɜɧɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢ,
ɢ ɬɨ: ɱɭɥɨ ɦɢɪɢɫɚ í ɨɥɮɚɤɬɢɜɧɢ ɨɪɝɚɧ, ɱɭɥɨ ɭɤɭɫɚ í ɝɭɫɬɚɬɨɪɧɢ ɨɪɝɚɧ, ɱɭɥɨ ɜɢɞɚ í ɨɤɨ, ɱɭɥɨ ɫɥɭɯɚ í
ɭɜɨ. Ɉɫɢɦ ɬɨɝɚ, ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɱɭɥɚ ɡɚ ɪɚɜɧɨɬɟɠɭ ɢ ɨɞɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁɚ ɭ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɭ. ɉɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɛɪɨʁɧɢ
ɡɚɜɪɲɟɰɢ ɫɟɧɡɢɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɱɭɥɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɪɟɻɟɧɢɯ ɭ ɤɪɡɧɭ ɤɨɠɟ, ɦɢɲɢʄɢɦɚ, ɭ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɢɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɦɚ. ɋɜɚɤɨ
ɱɭɥɨ ɫɟ ɫɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɞ ɫɥɟɞɟʄɚ ɬɪɢ ɞɟɥɚ: ɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɪɢɦɚ ɧɚɞɪɚɠɚʁɟ, ɚɮɟɪɚɧɬɧɨɝ ɧɟɪɜɧɨɝ ɜɥɚɤɧɚ ɤɨʁɟ
ɩɪɟɧɨɫɢ ɪɚɡɞɪɚɠɟʃɟ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɧɨɦ ɧɟɪɜɧɨɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɜɨɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɭ ɤɨʁɨʁ
ɫɟ ɩɪɢɦɚ ɧɚɞɪɚɠɚʁ í ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɭʁɟ ɱɭɥɧɢ ɭɬɢɫɚɤ.
ɑɭɥɨ ɫɥɭɯɚ ɢ ɪɚɜɧɨɬɟɠɟ – ɭɜɨ (organum vestibulocochleare) ɫɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɨɞ ɱɭɥɚ ɫɥɭɯɚ, ɱɭɥɚ ɡɚ
ɪɚɜɧɨɬɟɠɭ ɢ ɜɟɫɬɢɛɭɥɨɤɨɯɥɟɚɪɧɨɝ ɧɟɪɜɚ. Ⱦɟɥɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟ, ɫɪɟɞʃɟ ɢ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ ɭɜɨ. ɋɩɨʂɚɲʃɟ
ɭɜɨ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚ ɩɪɢɤɭɩʂɚʃɟ ɡɜɭɱɧɢɯ ɬɚɥɚɫɚ, ɞɨɤ ɫɟ ɭ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟɦ ɞɟɥɭ ɭɜɚ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɱɭɥɚ ɫɥɭɯɚ ɢ
ɪɚɜɧɨɬɟɠɟ.
ɋɦɚɬɪɚ ɫɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ʁɟɞɧɚ ɨɞ ɱɟɲʄɢɯ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɚ ɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɨʁ ɩɪɚɤɫɢ.
ɍɩɪɤɨɫ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɨɫɬɢ, ɦɚɥɨ ɫɟ ɡɧɚ ɨ ɫɬɜɚɪɧɢɦ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɞɨɜɟɞɭ ɞɨ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ
ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ.
ɂɚɤɨ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɤɨɧɡɟɪɜɚɬɢɜɧɟ ɢ ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ, ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɜɟɪɡɟ ɭ ʃɢɯɨɜɨʁ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢɦɚ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɬɨɝɚ, ɡɚ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɢ ɢ ɝɨɬɨɜɨ ʁɟɞɢɧɢ ɭɡɪɨɤ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɚ
ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɪɚɧɢʁɟ ɫɟ ɫɦɚɬɪɚɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɤɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ. ɇɚɢɦɟ, ɬɪɟɲɟʃɟ ɝɥɚɜɨɦ ɤɨɞ ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɚ
ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟɝ ɞɟɥɚ ɭɲɧɨɝ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ (otitis externa) ɜɨɞɢ ɪɭɩɬɭɪɢ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɱɧɨɦ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɚʃɭ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ. ɋɤɨɪɢʁɚ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɝɨɜɨɪɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɨɛɡɢɪ ɭɡɢɦɚ ɢ ɚɭɬɨɢɦɭɧɚ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɟɡɚ
ɤɚɨ ɦɨɝɭʄɢ ɭɡɪɨɤ, ɲɬɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɞɚ ɥɢ ʁɟ ɨɬɨɤ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɩɪɚɜɢ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬ
ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭ ɫɬɜɚɪɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɢɧɮɥɚɦɚɬɨɪɧɢ ɟɤɫɭɞɚɬ.
ɏɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɫɟ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ ɫɟ ʁɚɜʂɚ ɢ ɤɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ. Ʉɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ ɨɜɨ ɫɬɚʃɟ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɧɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɨɝ ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɚ ɫɭ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ. Ʉɨɞ ʂɭɞɢ, ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɢ ɭɡɪɨɤ
ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ʁɟ ʁɚɤ ɭɞɚɪɚɰ ɭ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɭ ɭɜɚ; ɱɟɫɬɨ ɫɟ ʁɚɜʂɚ ɤɨɞ ɛɨɤɫɟɪɚ ɢ ɪɜɚɱɚ, ɮɭɞɛaɥɟɪɚ ɢ ɫɥɢɱɧɨ.
ɋɚɦɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɚɜɚ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɚɪɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɚɪ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɢɫɩɭɧɢ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɢɨ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚɧ ɨɩɨɪɚɜɚɤ ɢ ɜɪɚʄɚʃɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢʁɟ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɨɝ ɭɜɚ ɢ ɟɫɬɟɬɫɤɭ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɭ ɤɨʁɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɡɚɧɟɦɚɪʂɢɜɚ ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɨ ɜɪɟɞɧɢɦ ɢɡɥɨɠɛɟɧɢɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɰɢɦɚ.
Ʉʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: ɩɚɫ, ɦɚɱɤɚ, ɭɜɨ, ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ.
1
2
3
Ⱦɪ. ɜɟɬ. ɦɟɞ. ȼɥɚɞɚ Ɋɚɤɟɬɢʄ, ɜɟɬ.ɫɩɟɰ., Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɩɨʂɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɟ, ɬɪɝɨɜɢɧɟ, ɲɭɦɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɟ í
ɍɩɪɚɜɚ ɡɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɭ.
Ⱦɪ ɜɟɬ. ɋɢɧɢɲɚ Ƚɚɬɚɪɢʄ, ɜɟɬ. ɫɬɚɧɢɰɚ ɉɪʃɚɜɨɪ, Ɋɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɚ ɋɪɩɫɤɚ.
Ⱦɪ Ⱦɪɚɝɢɲɚ ɍɪɨɲɟɜɢʄ, ɚɫɢɫɬɟɧɬ, Ʉɚɬɟɞɪɚ ɡɚ ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢʁɭ, ɨɮɬɚɥɦɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɢ ɨɪɬɨɩɟɞɢʁɭ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
48
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
V. Rɚkɟtiü, S. Gɚtɚriü, D. Urɨšɟviü
USE A FOAM PAD IN THE TREATMENT OF AURICULAR HEMATOMA
DOGS AND CATS
Abstract
Aural hematomas may occur in dogs or cats and usually are characterized as fluctuant, fluid-filled
swellings on the concave surface of the pinna. The entire concave surface of the pinna may be involved or
only part of it. The cause of aural hematomas is not well understood; however, in many cases they appear to
be the result of head shaking or scratching at the ear caused by pain or irritation associated with otitis externa.
The latter is usually bacterial in dogs and due to O. cynotis infestation in cats. Head shaking may cause
sinusoidal wave motions in the ear, resulting in fracture of the cartilage. The hematoma appears to originate
from branches of the great auricular artery within the fractured auricular cartilage rather than between the skin
and cartilage as was initially postulated. Some animals that develop aural hematomas do not have evidence of
concurrent ear disease; hematoma formation in some patients may be associated with increased capillary
fragility (e.g., Cushing's disease).
The ear may be lacerated as a result of fighting or other trauma. These wounds may be superficial,
involving the skin on one surface of the ear only, or may perforate the cartilage and involve both skin
surfaces. Depending on the severity of the wounds, some may be left to heal by secondary intention, whereas
others will have a more cosmetic appearance if sutures are placed. In rare cases, a portion of the ear may be
avulsed, resulting in an unacceptable cosmetic deformity.
Key words: Dog, Cat, auricula, haematoma
ɍȼɈȾ
ɍɲɧɚ ɲɤɨʂɤɚ (auricula) ɢɦɚ ɭɥɨɝɭ ɩɪɢɦɚʃɚ
ɡɜɭɱɧɢɯ ɬɚɥɚɫɚ. Ɂɚɬɨ ɫɭ ɤɨɞ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
ɞɨɛɪɨ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɢ ɫɤɭɬɭɥɨɚɭɪɢɤɭɥɚɪɧɢ ɦɢɲɢʄɢ
ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɩɨɤɪɟʄɭ. ɇɚ ɭɲɧɨʁ ɲɤɨʂɰɢ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭʁɟ
ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɚ
ɤɨɧɜɟɤɫɧɚ
ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɚ
(dorsum
auriculae), ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɚ ɤɨɧɤɚɜɧɚ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɚ
(scapha), ɞɜɚ ɪɭɛɚ, ɜɪɯ (apex auriculae) ɢ ɛɚɡɚ
ɤɨʁɨɦ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɱɜɪɲʄɟɧɚ ɨɤɨ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟɝ ɫɥɭɲɧɨɝ
ɨɬɜɨɪɚ (ɫɥɢɤɚ 1). Ɉɧɚ ɫɟ ɫɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɞ ɱɟɬɢɪɢ ɫɥɨʁɚ:
ɤɨɠɟ ɫɚ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɦɢɲɢʄɧɨɝ ɫɥɨʁɚ,
ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ (cartilago auriculae) ɢ ɤɨɠɟ ɫɚ
ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɭɜɚ.
ɋɥɢɤɚ 1. Ⱥɧɚɬɨɦɫɤɢ ɞɟɥɨɜɢ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɭɜɚ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɋɩɨʂɚɲʃɚ, ɤɨɧɜɟɤɫɧɚ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧa ʁɟ ɨɤɪɟɧɭɬɚ
ɤɚɭɞɨ-ɦɟɞɢʁɚɥɧɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɤɪɢɜɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɞɥɚɤɨɦ, ɞɨɤ ʁɟ
ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɚ, ɤɨɧɤɚɜɧɚ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɚ ɪɨɫɬɪɨ-ɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɧɚ ɢ ɫɚ ɪɟɬɤɢɦ ɞɥɚɱɧɢɦ ɩɨɤɪɢɜɚɱɟɦ. Ⱥɭɪɢɤɭɥɚɪɧɚ ɢ ɫɤɭɬɢɮɨɪɦɧɚ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɚʁɭ ɨɬɜɨɪ
ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟɝ ɭɲɧɨɝ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ ɢ ɭɲɧɭ ɲɤɨʂɤɭ. ȼɟɥɢɤɚ, ɡɚɤɪɢɜʂɟɧɚ ɚɭɪɢɤɭɥɚɪɧɚ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɚ ɭ ɨɛɥɢɤɭ
ɤɭɩɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɭɠɚ ɫɚ ɫɜɨɝ ɩɪɫɬɟɧɚɫɬɨɝ ɩɨɱɟɬɤɚ,
ɞɢɫɬɚɥɧɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɭɲɧɭ ɲɤɨʂɤɭ.
ɋɦɚɬɪɚ ɫɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ʁɚɜʂɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɫɚ ɫɩɭɲɬɟɧɢɦ ɭɲɢɦɚ.
Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ ɨɛɪɚɞɟ ɨɜɢɯ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɧɢɫɭ
ɫɟ ɭ ɨɛɡɢɪ ɭɡɢɦɚɥɟ ɪɚɫɟ ɩɚɫɚ ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ
ɫɚ ɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɲʄɭ ɬɜɪɞɢɬɢ ɞɚ ɥɢ ʁɟ ɨɜɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ ɜɟɡɚɧɚ
ɡɚ ɚɧɚɬɨɦɫɤɢ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɫɤɥɨɩ ɨɜɚɤɜɨɝ ɭɜɚ,
ɢɥɢ ʁɟ ɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɢɫɩɨɡɢɰɢʁɭ ɪɚɫɟ. ɇɟɤɢ
ɚɭɬɨɪɢ (Ʌɚɪɫɟɧ, Kuwahara) ɧɚɜɨɞɟ ɱɟɲʄɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ
ɤɨɞ ɧɟɦɚɱɤɢɯ ɨɜɱɚɪɚ ɢ ɩɭɞɥɢ, ɚ ɧɟɤɢ (Young) ɤɨɞ
ɥɚɛɪɚɞɨɪɚ ɢ ɡɥɚɬɧɢɯ ɪɟɬɪɢɜɟɪɚ.
Ɇɚɥɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɨ ɩɨɥɧɨʁ ɩɪɟɞɢɫɩɨɡɢɰɢʁɢ ɡɚ
ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ. ȼɟʄɢɧɚ ɚɭɬɨɪɚ (Kuwahara, Willson, Young)
ɧɚɜɨɞɢ ɫɤɨɪɨ ɢɫɬɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɟ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɤɨɞ ɦɭɠʁɚɤɚ ɢ ɠɟɧɤɢ, ɞɨɤ ʁɟ ɦɚʃɢ ɛɪɨʁ (Ʌɚɪɫɟɧ) ɨɧɢɯ
ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɜɨɞɟ ɱɟɲʄɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɤɨɞ ɦɭɠʁɚɤɚ.
Ɇɚɥɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɢ ɨ ɫɬɚɪɨɫɧɨʁ ɩɪɟɞɢɫɩɨɡɢɰɢʁɢ; ɩɪɟɦɚ ɨɛɪɚɻɟɧɢɦ ɩɨɞɚɰɢɦɚ, ɧɚʁɜɟʄɢ ɛɪɨʁ
ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɚɬɚ ɫɩɚɞɚ ɭ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢʁɭ ɫɪɟɞʃɟ ɫɬɚɪɨɫɬɢ
(ɧɚʁɜɟʄɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɭ ɫɬɚɪɨɫɬɢ ɨɞ 6 ɞɨ 8
ɝɨɞɢɧɚ).
ɏɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɚ
ɮɢɡɢɱɤɟ ɫɢɥɟ ɧɚ ɭɜɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɭ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɭ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɭ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɭ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɨʁ ɩɪɚɤɫɢ.
Ʉɨɞ ɧɚʁɜɟʄɟɝ ɛɪɨʁɚ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɫɚɦɨɩɨɜɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟɦ ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ ɧɟɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧɨɝ ɢ ɛɪɭɬɚɥɧɨɝ
ɱɟɲɚʃɚ ɲɚɩɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɱɟɫɬɨɝ ɢ ʁɚɤɨɝ ɨɬɪɟɫɚʃɚ
ɝɥɚɜɨɦ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɩɪɭɪɢɬɭɫɚ. ɉɪɢɦɚɪɧɢ ɭɡɪɨɰɢ ɫɜɪɚɛɚ ɫɭ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢ, ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɚ, ɚɥɟɪɝɢʁɟ, ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ɬɟɥɚ ɢ
ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ.
ɍ ɧɨɜɢʁɟ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɩɨɦɢʃɭ ɫɟ ɝɪɢʃɟ ɭɯɚ í Otodectes cynotis, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɩɪɨɧɚɻɟɧɟ ɭ 10% ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ
ɤɨɞ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɚɬɚ ɫɚ ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɟɦ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟɝ ɭɲɧɨɝ
ɤɚɧɚɥɚ. Ɇɧɨɝɢ ɚɭɬɨɪɢ (Kuwahara, Willson) ɫɦɚɬɪɚʁɭ ɞɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɭ ɭɥɨɝɭ ɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɢ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ
ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɧɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɡɚɧɟɦɚɪɢɬɢ.
Ɋɚɧɢʁɟ ɫɟ ɫɦɚɬɪɚɥɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɭɪɢɬɭɫ, ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ
ɩɪɚɬɟʄɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɚ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟɝ ɭɲɧɨɝ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ, ɭɡɪɨɤ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦa ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. ɋɦɚ-
49
ɬɪɚɥɨ ɫɟ ɞɚ ɫɧɚɠɧɨ ɨɬɪɟɫɚʃɟ ɝɥɚɜɨɦ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ
ɩɨɦɟɪɚʃɚ ɤɨɠɟ ɧɚɩɪɟɞ-ɧɚɡɚɞ ɩɪɟɤɨ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ,
ɲɬɨ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ ɬɪɟʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɭɡɪɨɤɭʁɟ ɩɭɰɚʃɟ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ. ɂɡɦɟɻɭ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ ɢ ɩɟɪɢɯɨɧɞɪɢʁɭɦɚ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɱɧɨ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɤɪɜɚɪɟʃɚ.
Ɉɛʁɚɲʃɟɧɚ ɫɭ ɞɜɚ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɤɨʁɢɯ
ɨɬɪɟɫɚʃɟ ɝɥɚɜɨɦ ɦɨɠɟ ɢɡɚɡɜɚɬɢ ɪɭɩɬɭɪɭ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. ɉɨ ɩɪɜɨɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɭ, ɟɤɫɩɥɨɡɢɜɧɨ ɨɬɪɟɫɚʃɟ ɝɥɚɜɨɦ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ
ɬɚɥɚɫɚ ɤɪɨɡ ɭɲɧɭ ɲɤɨʂɤɭ, ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɪɟɮɥɟɤɬɭʁɟ ɧɚ
ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɨɦ ɤɪɚʁɭ ɤɚɨ ɧɚɩɪɟɝɧɭɬ ɬɚɥɚɫ ɢ ɩɭɬɭʁɟ
ɧɚɡɚɞ ɤɪɨɡ ɭɜɨ, ɡɚɜɪɲɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɤɫɢɦɚɥɧɨɦ
ɤɪɚʁɭ ɤɚɨ ɫɢɥɚ ɞɭɩɥɨ ɜɟʄɚ ɨɞ ɢɧɢɰɢʁɚɥɧɟ, ɪɟɡɭɥɬɭʁɭʄɢ ɪɭɩɬɭɪɨɦ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ. ɉɨ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɭ, ɧɟɟɤɫɩɥɨɡɢɜɧɨ, ɚɥɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɚɧɬɧɨ ɢ ɞɨɜɨʂɧɨ ʁɚɤɨ ɨɬɪeɫaʃɟ ɝɥɚɜɨɦ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɞɨ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ ɫɢɧɭɫɨɢɞɚɥɧɨɝ ɬɚɥɚɫɧɨɝ ɤɪɟɬɚʃɚ ɭ ɫɚɦɨʁ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ, ɲɬɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɭʁɟ ɫɬɪɟɫɪɭɩɬɭɪɨɦ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ.
Ʉɚɨ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɦɨɝɭʄɢɯ ɭɡɪɨɤɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ
ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ. ɍɫɥɟɞ ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɞɟɮɟɤɚɬɚ ɭ
ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɩɨɩɭʃɚɜɚʁɭ ɝɪɚɧɭɥɚɰɢɨɧɢɦ
ɬɤɢɜɨɦ. Ⱦɟɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɧɚ ɚɭɬɨɢɦɭɧɨɦ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɨɦ ɤɚɞɚ ɜɚɡɨɚɤɬɢɜɧɢ
ɚɦɢɧɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɬɢ ɩɟɪɦɚɛɢɥɧɨɫɬ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ, ɲɬɨ ɜɨɞɢ ɟɤɫɭɞɚɰɢʁɢ ɢ ɩɨɜɟʄɚʃɭ
ɩɪɢɬɢɫɤɚ, ɚ ɤɚɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬ ʁɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɫɟ ɯɨɧɞɪɚɥɧɟ
ɩɭɤɨɬɢɧɟ, ɞɚʂɚ ɪɭɩɬɭɪɚ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ ɢ ɤɪɜɚɪɟʃɟ.
ȼɟʄɢɧɚ ɚɭɬɨɪɚ (Woung, Kuwahara, Willson)
ɫɦɚɬɪɚ ɞɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɡɛɨɝ
ɤɪɜɚɪɟʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɟɤɭɧɞɚɪɧɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ
ɪɭɩɬɭɪɟ ɤɪɜɧɨɝ ɫɭɞɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɜɪɲɟɧɚ ɫɭ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ ɫɚɫɬɚɜɚ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ
ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɚ ɨɜɢɯ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɫɚɫɬɚɜ ɨɜɟ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭʁɟ ɨɞ
ɫɚɫɬɚɜɚ ɤɪɜɢ (ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɟ ɫɭ ɧɢɠɟ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ
ɉɐȼ, ɭɤɭɩɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɢ ɚɥɛɭɦɢɧɟ). Ɉɜɢ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ
ɭɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɩɪɟ ɟɤɫɭɞɚɬ ɧɟɝɨ ɤɪɜ, ɚɥɢ ɭ ɨɛɡɢɪ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɭɡɟɬɢ
ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɭ ɞɚ ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɢ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ ɭ ɫɚɫɬɚɜɭ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɭ
ɞɟɲɚɜɚɬɢ ɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɭ ɨɞ ɫɚɦɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɞɨ ɭɡɨɪɤɨɜɚʃɚ (ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɨɞ 0. ɞɨ 7. ɞɚɧɚ). ɂɡɜɨɪ ɤɪɜɚɪɟʃɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɝɪɚɧɟ ɜɟɥɢɤɟ ɚɭɪɢɤɭɥɚɪɧɟ ɚɪɬɟɪɢʁɟ
ɤɨʁɟ ɩɟɧɟɬɪɢɪɚʁɭ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɭ. ɏɟɦɚɬɨɦ ʁɟ ɫɚ ɨɛɟ
ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɨɦ – ɤɚɨ ɭ ɫɟɧɞɜɢɱɭ,
ɲɬɨ ɧɚɜɨɞɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɮɪɚɤɬɭɪɚ
50
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɢɥɢ ɪɚɡɞɜɚʁɚʃɟ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ. ɏɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ ɫɟ ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ ʁɚɜʂɚ ɭɧɢɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɧɨ, ɚɥɢ ʁɟ ɢ ɦɨɝɭʄɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɚ ɛɢɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɧɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ. Ⱦɨ
ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɤɚɜɧɨʁ
ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɢ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. ȵɟɝɨɜɨ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɚʃɟ,
ɤɚɨ ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ, ɜɚɪɢɪɚʁɭ ɨɞ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɚ ɞɨ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɚ ɢ
ɧɟɦɚʁɭ ɜɟɡɟ ɫɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɧɨɲɟʃɟɦ ɭɜɚ.
Ʉɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɱɧɢ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢ ɡɧɚɰɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɪɚɬɟ
ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɫɭ ɜɟɨɦɚ ʁɚɫɧɢ ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ
ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤ ɭɨɱɚɜɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɜɪɥɨ ɛɪɡɨ ɫɟ
ʁɚɜʂɚ ɫɜɨɦ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɭ. ɉɪɜɢ ɡɧɚɤ ʁɟ ɨɬɨɤ ɫɚ
ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ Ɉɜɚʁ ɨɬɨɤ ʁɟ ɛɨɥɚɧ ʁɟɪ
ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɞɢɫɬɟɧɡɢʁɚ ɤɨɠɟ ɢ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɚɤ ɧɚ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɭ
ɚɭɪɢɤɭɥɟ. Ɂɛɨɝ ɨɬɨɤɚ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɢ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɚ ɩɨɡɢɰɢʁɚ í ɧɨɲɟʃɚ ɭɜɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ʁɚɜʂɚ ɨɱɢɝɥɟɞɧɚ
ɪɚɡɥɢɤɚ ɭ ɨɞɧɨɫɭ ɧɚ ɡɞɪɚɜɨ ɭɜɨ. Ʉɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ɢɦɚʁɭ ɭɫɩɪɚɜʂɟɧɟ ɭɲɢ ɢ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɩɚɞɚ ɭɜɚ, ɲɬɨ
ʁɟ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɱɚɧ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢ ɡɧɚɤ
ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. Ɉɬɪɟɫɚʃɟ ɝɥɚɜɨɦ, ɤɚɨ ɢ
ɩɨɤɭɲɚʁ ɱɟɲɚʃɚ ɲɚɩɨɦ ɫɭ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ
ɜɟɨɦɚ ɢɡɪɚɠɟɧɢ ɤɨɞ ɨɜɨɝ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɟ
ɫɭ ɞɢɫɤɨɦɮɨɪɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɢɡ ɬɢɯ ɪɚɡɥɨɝɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɭʁɟ ɨɜɟ ɡɧɚɤɨɜɟ.
ɐɢʂ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ʁɟɫɬɟ
ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɢɡɜɨɪɚ ɢɪɢɬɚɰɢʁɟ, ɟɜɚɤɭɚɰɢʁɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ, ɨɞɪɠɚɜɚʃɟ ɬɤɢɜɧɟ ɚɩɨɡɢɰɢʁɟ, ɫɦɚʃɟʃɟ
ɞɟɩɨɡɢɰɢʁɟ ɮɢɛɪɢɧɚ ɢ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʃɟ ɪɟɰɢɞɢɜɚ. ɇɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɬɪɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɟ ɫɚɧɚɰɢʁɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ
ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ: ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɚ ɪɟɞɭɤɰɢʁɚ ɫɚ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɤɨɦɩɪɟɫɢʁɨɦ, ɞɪɟɧɚɠɚ
ɛɟɡ ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɟ ɢɧɰɢɡɢʁɟ, ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɝɥɭɤɨɤɨɪɬɢɤɨɢɞɚ, ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ
ɍɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ (ɫɥɢɤɚ 2)
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ʁɟɞɧɭ ɧɨɜɭ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɭ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɭ
ɪɟɲɚɜɚʃɭ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɢ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ
ɤɨɞ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ. ɋɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɨɞ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɧɨ
ɞɢɡɚʁɧɢɪɚɧɨɝ ɫɬɟɪɢɥɧɨɝ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ,
ɱɟɬɜɪɬɚɫɬɨɝ ɨɛɥɢɤɚ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɫɜɨʁɨɦ ɦɟɤɲɨɦ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɦ, ɲɚɜɨɜɢɦɚ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɚ ɡɚ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɭ ɫɬɪɚɧɭ
ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. ɉɨɫɥɟ „ɋ“ ɢɧɰɢɡɢʁɟ ɧɚ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɨʁ ɫɬɪɚɧɢ ɭɜɚ ɢ ɟɜɚɤɭɚɰɢʁɟ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ,
ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɲɢɜɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɭɡ ɭɜɨ ɬɚɤɨ ɲɬɨ
ɲɚɜ ɢɞɟ ɤɪɨɡ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɡɚɬɢɦ ɤɪɨɡ ɤɨɠɭ, ɡɚɬɢɦ ɨɩɟɬ
ɨɞ ɫɩɨʂɚ ɤɚ ɭɧɭɬɪɚ ɤɪɨɡ ɤɨɠɭ, ɩɚ ɨɩɟɬ ɤɪɨɡ
ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɱɜɨɪ ɧɚ ɲɚɜɭ ɛɭɞɟ ɧɚ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɭ,
ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ʁɚɱɟ ɡɚɬɟɡɚʃɟ ɢ ɬɢɦɟ
ɨɞɥɢɱɧɚ ɤɨɦɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɲɭɩʂɢɧɭ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ. Ɂɚɞɚɬɚɤ ɨɜɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ ʁɟ ɬɪɨɫɬɪɭɤɢ: ɩɪɜɨ, ɞɚ ɫɤɭɩʂɚ
ɫɟɤɪɟɬ ɢɡ ɲɭɩʂɢɧɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɞɨɤ ɫɟ ɨɧ ɧɟ ɢɫɩɭɧɢ
ɜɟɡɢɜɧɢɦ ɬɤɢɜɨɦ, ɞɪɭɝɨ, ɞɚ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɦ ɧɚɥɟɝɚʃɟɦ ɧɚ ɤɨɠɭ ɭɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɤɨɦ ɜɟɥɢɤɨɦ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɨɦ ɨɛɥɢɬɟɪɢɲɟ ɲɭɩʂɢ ɦɪɬɜɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ ɢ,
ɬɪɟʄɟ, ɞɚ ɞɚʁɟ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɭ ɩɨɞɪɲɤɭ ɭɲɧɨʁ ɲɤɨʂɰɢ,
ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɢɪɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɜɟɥɢɤɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɟ
ɨɠɢʂɧɨɝ ɬɤɢɜɚ, ɚ ɬɢɦ ɢ ɫɤɜɪɱɟʃɟ ɭɜɚ.
ɋɥɢɤɚ 2. ɋɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ
Ɂɚ ɢɡɜɨɻɟʃɟ ɫɚɧɚɰɢʁɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ
ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧɨ ʁɟ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ (Ȼɭɫɬɟɪ – Crusse, „Otohematome pad“ 12 x 18
ɰɦ), ɧɟɪɟɫɨɪɩɬɢɜɧɢ ɲɚɜɨɜɢ (ɉɨɥɢɞɟɤ, Ⱦɟɤɧɚɬɟɥ
Ⱦɋɉ, ɨɞ 3-0 ɞɨ 2-0 ɭ ɡɚɜɢɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɞ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɩɫɚ,
ɢ ɤɨɞ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɨɞ 3-0 ɞɨ 4-0) ɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ
ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɢ ɫɟɬ ɡɚ ɫɟɱɟʃɟ ɢ ɲɢɜɟʃɟ.
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦɟ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɨɝ ɩɨʂɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ
ɫɟ ɫɬɟɪɢɥɧɚ ɤɨɦɩɪɟɫɚ ɫɚ ɨɬɜɨɪɨɦ. Ɋɟɡ ɫɟ ɩɥɚɫɢɪɚ
ɫɚ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ – ɦɟɞɢʁɚɥɧɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ,
ɞɭɠɢɧɟ ɨɞ 2 ɞɨ 8 ɰɦ, ɲɬɨ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ɫɚɦɟ
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɭɜɚ ɩɫɚ ɢɥɢ ɦɚɱɤɟ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɨɞ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ
ɫɚɦɨɝ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ. Ɋɟɡ ɢɦɚ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɥɚɬɢɧɢɱɧɨɝ ɫɥɨɜɚ
„ɋ“ ɢ ɩɥɚɫɢɪɚ ɫɟ ɤɪɨɡ ɤɨɠɭ ɦɟɞɢʁɚɥɧɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɢ
ɞɟɛʂɢɧɭ ɰɟɥɟ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɢɧɰɢɡɢʁɟ ɟɜɚɤɭɢɲɟ ɫɟ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɢɡ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ; ɡɝɪɭɲɚɧɚ ɤɪɜ ɫɟ ɞɢɝɢɬɚɥɧɢɦ ɩɨɬɢɫɤɢɜɚʃɟɦ ɟɥɢɦɢɧɢɲɟ ɢɡ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɟ ɬɤɢɜɧɟ ɲɭɩʂɢɧɟ. ɍ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ, ɤɨɚɝɭɥɭɦ ɫɚɫɬɚɜʂɟɧ ɨɞ ɤɪɜɢ ɢ
ɮɢɛɪɢɧɚ ɨɞɫɬɪɚʃɭɢɜɚɥɢ ɫɦɨ, ɜɟɨɦɚ ɩɚɠʂɢɜɨ,
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɦ „ɦɨɫɤɢɬɨ“ ɮɨɪɰɟɩɫa. Ʉɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ
ɢɫɩɪɚɠʃɟɧ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɢɡ ɧɨɜɨɧɚɫɬɚɥɟ ɲɭɩʂɢɧɟ
ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ, ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɟ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɧɚ
ɤɨɧɤɚɜɧɭ ɫɬɪɚɧɭ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. Ɉɧɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɬɯɨɞɧɨ
ɦɚɤɚɡɚɦɚ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɚɧɨ ɞɚ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɢ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ. ɋɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɦɨɪɚ
ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɢʂɭɛɢ ɭɡ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɭ ɭɜɚ ɢ ɲɢʁɟ
ɫɟ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɨ ɫɚ ɭɲɧɨɦ ɲɤɨʂɤɨɦ, ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟʄɢ ɧɟɪɟ-
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɫɨɪɩɬɢɜɧɟ ɩɨɜɪɚɬɧɟ ɲɚɜɨɜɟ (ɩɨɥɢɟɫɬɟɪ, ɨɞ 3-0 ɞɨ
2-0 ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɨɞ 3-0 ɞɨ 4-0 ɤɨɞ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ). Ɉɜɢ
ɲɚɜɨɜɢ ɫɟ ɩɥɚɫɢɪɚʁɭ ɤɪɨɡ ɰɟɥɭ ɞɟɛʂɢɧɭ
ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ ɢ ɭɜɚ – ɨɞ ɭɧɭɬɪɚ ɤɚ ɫɩɨʂɚ ɢ ɧɚɡɚɞ ɭ
ɨɛɥɢɤɭ ɫɥɨɜɚ „ɍ“, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɱɜɨɪ ɛɭɞɟ ɧɚ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɭ,
ɬʁ. ɫɚ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ.
Ɇɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɜɨɞɢ ɪɚɱɭɧɚ ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ ɡɚɬɟɡɚʃɚ
ɲɚɜɨɜɚ ʁɟɪ ɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɲɚɜɨɜɢ ɫɥɚɛɨ ɡɚɬɟɝɧɭ, ɜɟʄɚ ʁɟ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɦɪɬɜɨɝ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɪɟɰɢɞɢɜɚ, ɚ
ɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɲɚɜɨɜɢ ɩɪɟɜɢɲɟ ɡɚɬɟɝɧɭ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ
ɭɫɟɰɚʃɚ ɢ ɭɜɢʁɚʃɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ, ɲɬɨ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɞɪɚɡɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɧ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁ ɭɜɚ
51
(ɧɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪɢ, ɲɤɨɬɫɤɢ ɬɟɪɢʁɟɪɢ, ɞɨɛɟɪɦɚɧ,
ɲɧɚɭɰɟɪ ɫɚ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɦ ɭɲɢɦɚ...).
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɨɝ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɚ, ɭ ɰɟɥɨɤɭɩɧɨɦ
ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɭ, ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɭɩɨɡɧɚɬɢ ɫɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɢɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɢɦɚ ɢ ɞɚɬɢ ɦɭ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɟ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɟ ɡɚ ɞɚʂɢ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧ. Ɍɪɟɬɢɪɚɧɨʁ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɩɥɚɫɢɪɚɬɢ ɤɪɚɝɧɭ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɫɟ
ɢɡɛɟɝɥɨ ɱɟɲɚʃɟ, ɚ ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ ɢ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɚ ɭɲɧɟ
ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. Ⱦɜɚ ɞɨ ɬɪɢ ɩɭɬɚ ɞɧɟɜɧɨ, ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ
ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚɬɢ ɭɲɧɭ ɲɤɨʂɤɭ
ɢ ɫɜɚɤɭ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɪɟɰɢɞɢɜɚ ɢɥɢ ɫɤɢɞɚʃɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ ɨɞɦɚɯ ɩɪɢʁɚɜɢɬɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɭ.
Ɍɚɛɟɥɚ 1: Ⱦɜɚɞɟɫɟɬ ɱɟɬɢɪɢ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ
Ɋɚɫɚ
ɉɚɫ
1.ɇɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
2.ɇɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
3.ɇɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
4.ɇɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
5.ɇɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
6.ɇɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
7.ɇɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
8.ɒɤɨɬɫɤɢ ɬɟɪɢʁɟɪ
9.Ȼɚɥɤɚɧɫɤɢ ɝɨɧɢɱ
10.Ȼɚɥɤɚɧɫɤɢ ɝɨɧɢɱ
11.ɉɨɫɚɜɫɤɢ ɝɨɧɢɱ
12.Ʌɚɛɪɚɞɨɪ í Ɋɟɬɪɢɜɟɪ
13.Ʌɚɛɪɚɞɨɪ í Ɋɟɬɪɢɜɟɪ
14.Ʌɚɛɪɚɞɨɪ í Ɋɟɬɪɢɜɟɪ
15.ɐɪɧɢ ɥɚɛɪɚɞɨɪ
16.Ȼɟɥɝɢʁɫɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
17.Ȼɟɥɝɢʁɫɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪ
18.Ɇɚɥɢ ɲɧɚɭɰɟɪ
19.ɋɪɟɞʃɢ ɲɧɚɭɰɟɪ
20.ɋɪɟɞʃɢ ɲɧɚɭɰɟɪ
Ɇɚɱɤɚ
1.Ⱦɨɦɚʄɚ ɦɚɱɤɚ
2.Ⱦɨɦɚʄɚ ɦɚɱɤa
3.Ⱦɨɦɚʄɚ ɦɚɱɤɚ
4.ɉɟɪɫɢʁɫɤɚ ɦɚɱɤɚ
ȼɪɟɦɟ ɨɞ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɞɨ
ʃɟɝɨɜɨɝ ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɨɝ
ɡɛɪɢʃɚɜɚʃɚ (ɞɚɧɚ)
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɫɤɢ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɞɪɠɚʃɚ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ ɧɚ ɭɜɭ
(ɞɚɧɚ)
7
9
3,5
6,4
7,2
7,8
6,6
4,5
6
7,5
8,5
4
5,9
10
1,3
8
6,5
3
9
5,5
1
2
4
7
3
2
2
1
13
2
4
6
10
8
7
3
2
5
4
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
8
6,5
2
8,5
5
8
4
9
14
14
14
14
ɋɬɚɪɨɫɬ
(ɝɨɞɢɧɟ)
ɊȿɁɍɅɌȺɌɂ ɊȺȾȺ
ɍ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɭ ɨɞ ʁɚɧɭɚɪɚ 2010. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɞɨ ɧɨɜɟɦɛɪɚ 2011. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɭ ɚɦɛɭɥɚɧɬɢ Ʉɥɢɧɢɤɟ ɡɚ ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢʁɭ, ɨɪɬɨɩɟɞɢʁɭ ɢ ɨɮɬɚɥɦɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚɧɨ ʁɟ ɢ
ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɢɦ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɨɦ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ
ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ ɬɪɟɬɢɪɚɧɨ 20 ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɱɟɬɢɪɢ ɦɚɱɤɟ ɫɚ
ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɨɦ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ
ɩɪɢɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɭ ɬɚɛɟɥɢ 1.
52
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɇɚɤɨɧ 24 ɱɚɫɚ ɨɞ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ, ɜɪɲɢɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɩɪɜɢ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɧɢ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɤɨɞ ɫɜɚɤɟ ɨɞ ɨɩɟɪɢɫɚɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ɇɟɪɟʃɟɦ ɬɪɢʁɚɫɚ ɭɬɜɪɞɢɥɢ
ɫɦɨ ɞɚ ɧɢ ɤɨɞ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɬɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɛɢɥɨ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɚ ɭ ʃɟɝɨɜɢɦ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ. ɉɨ ɧɚɜɨɞɢɦɚ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ, ɨɩɨɪɚɜɚɤ ɨɞ ɚɧɟɫɬɟɡɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɬɟɤɚɨ ɩɪɟɞɜɢɻɟɧɢɦ ɩɭɬɟɦ, ɛɟɡ ɢɤɚɤɜɢɯ ɨɞɫɬɭɩɚʃɚ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɧɨɝ ɧɟɪɜɧɨɝ ɢ ɤɚɪɞɢɨɜɚɫɤɭɥɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɢ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ.
ɀɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɫɭ ɭɨɛɢɱɚʁɟɧɨ ɭɡɟɥɟ ɩɪɜɢ ɨɛɪɨɤ ɢ
ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɨ ɞɟɮɟɰɢɪɚɥɟ ɢ ɭɪɢɧɢɪɚɥɟ.
ɂɡɝɥɟɞ ɢ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɭ
ɨɩɟɪɢɫɚɧɨɝ ɭɜɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧ ʁɟ ɫɚ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɚ ɨɬɨɤɚ,
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɢɪɚɧɨɫɬɢ, ɰɪɜɟɧɢɥɚ, ɛɨɥɚ ɧɚ ɩɚɥɩɚɰɢʁɭ ɢ
ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɚ ɫɟɤɪɟɬɚ ɢ ʃɟɝɨɜɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɫɬɚʃɚ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɟɧɢɯ ɲɚɜɨɜɚ.
Ʉɨɞ ɫɜɢɯ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɚɬɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɨɬɨɤ
ɤɨɠɟ ɢ ɩɨɬɤɨɠɧɨɝ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɨʁ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɢ ɭɜɚ ɨɤɨ ɩɥɚɫɢɪɚɧɢɯ ɲɚɜɨɜɚ. ɍɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɚ
ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɩɨɤɪɢɜɟɧɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɢɦ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɚ ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢʁɢ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɨɬɨɤ
ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɨ ɢɡɪɚɠɟɧ ɤɨɞ ɫɜɚɤɟ ʁɟɞɢɧɤɟ ɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚɨ ʁɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɭ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɧɭ ɬɤɢɜɧɭ
ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɭ ɧɚ ɩɟɧɟɬɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɢɝɥɨɦ ɢ ɩɥɚɫɢɪɚɧɢ
ɲɚɜɧɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥ.
Ɍɟɦɩɟɪɢɪɚɧɨɫɬ ʁɟ ɭɬɜɪɻɢɜɚɧɚ ɩɚɥɩɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɢ
ɤɨɦɩɚɪɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɫɚ ɡɞɪɚɜɢɦ ɭɜɨɦ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɬɨɦɟ ʁɟ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜʂɟɧɚ ɛɥɚɝɨ ɩɨɜɢɲɟɧɚ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɨɩɟɪɢɫɚɧɨɝ ɭɜɚ. Ɉɜɨ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɥɨ ɢ ɨɱɟɤɢɜɚɬɢ ɢɡ ɪɚɡɥɨɝɚ
ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨɝ ɢɧɮɥɚɦɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ ɭɫɥɟɞ
ɢɧɰɢɡɢʁɟ ɢ ɲɢɜɟʃɚ ɬɤɢɜɚ (ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɤɨ ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɟ).
ɐɪɜɟɧɢɥɨ ɤɨɠɟ ɫɦɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɢ ɤɨɞ ɫɜɢɯ ɩɚɫɚ, ɚ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɨ ɢɡɪɚɠɟɧɨ ɤɨɞ ɫɜɢɯ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ.
ȿɪɢɬɟɦ ʁɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɨ ɢɡ ɜɢɲɟ ɪɚɡɥɨɝɚ: ɩɪɟɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ
ɛɪɢʁɚʃɟ ɢ ɞɟɡɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɟ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɭ ɰɪɜɟɧɢɥɚ, ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɭɜɨɦ ɬɨɤɨɦ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɚ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɚ ɱɢʁɢ
ɦɟɞɢʁɚɬɨɪɢ ɞɨɜɨɞɟ ɞɨ ɞɢɥɚɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ.
Ʉɨɠɚ ɤɨɞ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ ʁɟ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɢʁɚ ɢ ɬɚʃɚ, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɤɨɞ ʃɢɯ ɬɨ ɞɨɞɚɬɧɨ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɟɥɨ ɢɡɪɚɠɟɧɢʁɟɦ ɰɪɜɟɧɢɥɭ.
Ȼɨɥ, ɤɚɨ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɧɢ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ ɢ ɩɪɚɬɢɥɚɰ ɫɜɢɯ
ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɚ, ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɢɦ ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟɦ ɧɨɰɢɰɟɩɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɡɛɨɝ ɨɫɥɨɛɚɻɚʃɚ ɦɟɞɢʁɚɬɨɪɚ ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɚ. ȵɟɝɨɜɨ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɬɟɬ
(ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɬɪɩʂɟʃɚ) ɩɪɨɰɟʃɢɜɚɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɧɟɠɧɨɦ
ɩɚɥɩɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɨɦ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɚ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ
ɧɚ ɨɜɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɭ. ɇɢʁɟɞɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɢɜɚɥɚ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɭ ɢɥɢ ɚɝɪɟɫɢɜɧɭ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɭ ɧɚ
ɩɚɥɩɚɰɢʁɭ ɨɩɟɪɢɫɚɧɨɝ ɭɜɚ ʁɟɪ ɫɦɨ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɨ
ɩɪɟ ɫɚɦɨɝ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɚ ɚɩɥɢɤɨɜɚɥɢ ɩɨɬɟɧɬɚɧ ɚɧɚɥɝɟɬɢɤ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɧɨ ɤɭɩɢɪɚɨ ɛɨɥ
ɛɟɡ ɨɛɡɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɟ ɬɤɢɜɚ.
Ɉɤɨ ɨɬɜɨɪɚ ɧɚ ɤɨɠɢ ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɥɚɡɟ ɲɚɜɨɜɢ
ɦɨɝɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɞɚ ɡɚɩɚɡɢɦɨ, ɩɪɜɨɝ ɞɚɧɚ, ɯɟɦɨɪɚɝɢɱɚɧ
ɫɟɤɪɟɬ ɤɨɞ ɫɜɢɯ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɚɬɚ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɫɟɤɪɟɬ ʁɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɨ
ɭɫɥɟɞ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɨɝ ɤɪɜɚɪɟʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɥɨ
ɩɨɜɪɟɞɨɦ ɦɚʃɢɯ ɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɚ ɢɝɥɨɦ. ȼɟɨɦɚ ʁɟ
ɞɨɛɪɨ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɭɜɨ ɢɡɭɡɟɬɧɨ ɛɨɝɚɬɨ ɜɚɫɤɭɥɚɪɢɡɨɜɚɧɨ (ɫɜɟ ʃɟɝɨɜɟ ɚɧɚɬɨɦɫɤɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ), ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɢ ɧɚʁɦɚʃɚ ɩɨɜɪɟɞɚ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ ɨɛɢɥɧɨɝ ɤɪɜɚɪɟʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɬɟɲɤɨ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɡɚɭɫɬɚɜɢ.
ɇɚ ɩɪɜɨɦ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɨɦ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɭ, 24 ɱɚɫɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ, ɲɚɜɨɜɢ, ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɩɥɚɫɢɪɚɧɢ
ɤɪɨɡ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɢ ɭɜɨ, ɨɞɪɠɚɜɚɥɢ ɫɭ ɢ ɢɡɞɪɠɚɜaɥɢ
ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɭ ɬɟɧɡɢʁɭ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ ɢ ɫɜɢɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɭɜɚ,
ɢ ɬɨ ɛɟɡ ɭɫɟɰɚʃɚ. ɋɬɚʁɚɥɢ ɫɭ ɫɚ ɯɢɪɭɪɲɤɢɦ ɱɜɨɪɨɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɦ ɭɡ ɤɨɠɭ ɛɟɡ ɩɪɟɜɟɥɢɤɨɝ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɤɚ
ɭ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨɫɬɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɨ. Ɉɜɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɨ
ɡɚɯɜɚʂɭʁɭʄɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɨɦ ɢɡɛɨɪɭ ɲɚɜɧɨɝ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɢ ɩɨ ɜɪɫɬɢ (ɦɨɧɨɮɢɥɚɦɟɧɬɧɢ ɧɟɪɟɫɨɪɩɬɢɜɧɢ)
ɢ ɩɨ ɞɟɛʂɢɧɢ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɢɦ ɢɡɛɨɪɨɦ ɧɚɱɢɧɨɦ ɲɢɜɟʃɚ (ɩɨɜɪɚɬɧɢ – „ɍ“ ɲɚɜ, ɤɨʁɢ ɞɨɛɪɨ ɩɪɢʂɭɛʂɭʁɟ ɬɤɢɜɨ ɢ ɧɟ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɬɭʁɟ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ
ɩɪɟʁɚɤɢɦ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɤɨɦ).
ɉɨɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɫɜɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɛɢɥɟ ɩɨɞɜɪɝɧɭɬɟ
ɱɟɬɜɨɪɨɞɧɟɜɧɨʁ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨʁ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɫɤɨʁ ɢ
ɚɧɚɥɝɟɬɫɤɨʁ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɢ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨʁ ɤɨɡɦɟɬɢɰɢ
ɪɚɧɟ (ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɤɨ ɱɢɲʄɟʃɟ, ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɟɡɢɧɮɢɰɢʁɟɧɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɫɬɢ), ɦɨɝɥɢ ɫɦɨ, ɭ ɬɨɦ ɜɪɥɨ ɜɚɠɧɨɦ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɭ ɡɚɪɚɫɬɚʃɚ, ɞɚ ɩɪɚɬɢɦɨ ɫɜɟ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɟ
ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɟ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɟ ɭ ɡɚɞɚɰɢɦɚ ɪɚɞɚ. Ɍɨɤɨɦ ɨɜɨɝ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚʃɚ, ɫɜɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɢ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢ
ɡɧɚɤɨɜɢ ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɚ ɫɭ ɝɭɛɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɬɟɬɭ,
ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɧɚɦ ɫɜɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɛɢɥɟ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ
ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɚ ɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɢɜɚɥɟ ɫɭ ɫɚɦɨ
ɧɟɥɚɝɨɞɧɨɫɬ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɧɨɲɟʃɚ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɧɟ ɤɪɚɝɧɟ.
Ɂɚɲɬɢɬɧɚ ɤɪɚɝɧɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚɥɚ ɢɞɟɚɥɧɨ
ɪɟɲɟʃɟ ɭ ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʃɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɞɚ, ɲɚɩɨɦ ɢɥɢ
ɬɪʂɚʃɟɦ ɨ ɩɨɞɥɨɝɭ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɟ, ɱɟɲɭ ɨɩɟɪɢɫɚɧɨ
ɭɜɨ ɢ ɨɬɤɢɧɭ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɢɥɢ ɞɨɜɟɞɭ ɞɨ
ɭɫɟɰɚʃɚ ɤɨɧɚɰɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜe ɞɟɯɢɫɰɟɧɰɢʁe. ɇɚ ɨɜɚʁ
ɧɚɱɢɧ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬ ʁɨɲ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɛɢɬɚɧ ɭɫɥɨɜ ɡɚ
ɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɨ ɡɚɪɚɫɬɚʃɟ ɪɚɧɚ, ɚ ɬɨ ʁɟ ɦɢɪɨɜɚʃɟ ɪɚɧɟ.
ɋɟɞɦɨɝ ɞɚɧɚ ɨɞ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢʁe, ʁɟɞɚɧ ɩɚɫ ʁɟ, ɭɫɥɟɞ
ɧɟɩɚɠʃɟ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ, ɭɫɩɟɨ ɞɚ ɫɤɢɧɟ ɤɪɚɝɧɭ ɢ
ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ. Ɉɜɨ ɤɢɞɚʃɟ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ ʁɟ
ɞɨɜɟɥɨ ɞɨ ɭɫɟɰɚʃɚ ɭɜɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɨɪɩɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɤɨɧɰɢɦɚ
ɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃa ɪɚɧɟ ɧɚ ɭɲɧɨʁ ɲɤɨʂɰɢ. ȿɤɫɭɞɚɬ ɢ ɤɪɜ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɫɭ ɛɢɥɢ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɢ ɭ ɪɚɧɢ ɢ ɨɤɨ ʃɟ, ɧɚ ɤɨɠɢ
ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ ɢ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɭɜɚ. Ɉɜɚɤɜɚ
ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ʁɟ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚɥɚ ɩɨɫɟɛɚɧ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧ ɩɨɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢɥɨ ɨ ɫɬɚɪɨʁ ɪɚɧɢ. Ɇɨɪɚɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɞɚ ɚɩɥɢɤɭʁɟɦɨ ɨɩɲɬɭ ɚɧɟɫɬɟɡɢʁɭ ɢ ɦɚɥɨɛɪɨʁɧɟ ɩɪɟɨɫɬɚɥɟ ɲɚɜɨɜɟ ɞɚ ɨɞɫɬɪɚɧɢɦɨ, ɚ ɡɚɬɢɦ ɢ ɞɚ ɨɛɪɚɞɢɦɨ ɪɚɧɭ ɟɤɫɰɢɡɢʁɨɦ ɨɬɤɢɧɭɬɢɯ ɞɟɥɨɜɚ ɬɤɢɜɚ.
Ɍɚɤɨ ɫɦɨ ɩɨɫɬɢɝɥɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɟ ɞɚ ɨɜɚɤɜɚ ɪɚɧɚ, ɭɡ
ɫɜɚɤɨɞɧɟɜɧɭ ɤɨɡɦɟɬɢɤɭ ɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɫɤɭ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ
ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɢ ɧɟɫɬɟɪɨɢɞɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɢɧɮɥɚɦɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚ, ɡɚɪɚɫɬɚ per secundam intentionem.
ɋɪɟʄɧɚ ɨɤɨɥɧɨɫɬ ʁɟ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɨɜɚ ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ
ɞɟɫɢɥɚ ɤɨɞ ɥɚɛɪɚɞɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɨɫɢ ɭɲɢ ɨɛɨɪɟɧɨ ʁɟɪ
ɫɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɢ ɨɜɚɤɜɨɝ ɡɚɪɚɫɬɚʃɚ ɛɭɪɧɢʁɢ ɢ ɡɚɜɪɲɚɜɚʁɭ ɫɟ ɜɟʄɨɦ ɦɚɫɨɦ ɨɠɢʂɧɨɝ ɬɤɢɜɚ, ɲɬɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɢɪɚ ɫɤɜɪɱɚɜɚʃɟɦ ɭɜɚ ɭ ɦɚʃɨʁ ɢɥɢ ɜɟʄɨʁ ɦɟɪɢ.
Ʉɨɧɬɪɨɥɚ ɞɟɜɟɬɨɝ ɞɚɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɪɚɧɟ ɦɢɪɧɟ, ɫɭɜɟ, ɚ ɲɚɜɨɜɢ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɢ
ɢ ɩɨɦɢɱɧɢ, ɛɥɚɝɨ ɢɡɧɚɞ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɟ ɤɨɠɟ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨɝ ɩɨɜɥɚɱɟʃɚ ɟɞɟɦɚ. Ɂɛɨɝ ɬɨɝɚ
ʁɟ ɢ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɩɨ ɪɭɛɨɜɢɦɚ ɨɞɜɨʁɟɧɨ ɨɞ
ɤɨɠɟ, ɚ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɢɰɢɡɢʁɟ, ʁɨɲ ɭɜɟɤ, ɞɨɛɪɨ ɩɪɢjɚʃɚ ɭɡ ʃɭ.
Ɍɨɤɨɦ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɬɧɨɝ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚʃɚ, ɜɥɚɫɧɢɰɢ ɫɭ ɢɡʁɚɜɢɥɢ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɩɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ
ɛɥɚɝɨ ɢ ɪɟɬɤɨ ɨɬɪɟɫɚɥɟ ɝɥɚɜɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɛɥɚɝɨ ɱɟɲɚɥɟ
ɲɚɩɨɦ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɧɟ ɤɪɚɝɧɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɩɨɤɪɢɜɚɥɟ ɨɩɟɪɢɫɚɧɭ ɭɲɧɭ ɲɤɨʂɤɭ.
Ɉɞ ɭɤɭɩɧɨ 24 ɬɪɟɬɢɪɚɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ, ɤɨɞ 21
ɞɨɲɥɨ ʁɟ ɞɨ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɨɝ ɡɚɪɚɫɬɚʃɟ ɪɚɧɟ ɛɟɡ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ
ɢɤɚɤɜɢɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɬɨɤɨɦ ɬɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ, ɲɬɨ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ 87,5%.
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɫɤɢɞɚʃɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ, ɪɚɧɟ ɫɭ
ɛɢɥɟ ɱɢɫɬɟ, ɛɟɡ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ, ɭɫɟɰɚʃɚ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁɚ ɭɜɚ. ɍɲɧɚ ɲɤɨʂɤɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɫɭɜɚ,
ɬɚɧɤɚ ɢ ɫɚɜɢɬʂɢɜɚ, ɚɥɢ ɛɥɚɝɢ (ɧɟɡɧɚɬɚɧ) ɨɬɨɤ ʁɟ
ɩɪɢɦɟʄɟɧ 1. ɢɥɢ 2. ɞɚɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɫɤɢɞɚʃɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ ɤɨɞ ɫɟɞɚɦ ɩɚɫɚ. Ɉɜɚʁ ɨɬɨɤ ʁɟ,
ɜɟɪɨɜɚɬɧɨ, ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɩɨɜɪɚɬɤɚ ɩɭɧɟ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ
ʁɟɪ ɫɭ ɤɪɜɧɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɢ ɨɤɨ ɢɧɰɢɡɢʁɟ ɛɢɥɢ ɤɨɦɩɪɢɦɨɜɚɧɢ ɞɨɛɪɨ ɧɚɥɟɝɥɢɦ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɨɦ.
Ʉɨɡɦɟɬɢɱɤɚ ɪɟɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭ ɫɜɢɦ
ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ (21) ɛɢɥɚ je ɨɞɥɢɱɧɚ ɢ ɤɚɨ ɬɚɤɜɚ ʁɟ ɢ
ɨɰɟʃɟɧɚ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ.
Ʉɨɞ ɞɜɚ ɩɫɚ (ɧɟɦɚɱɤɢ ɨɜɱɚɪɢ) ɩɨɫɥɟ ɫɤɢɞɚʃɚ
ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɬɭɱɟɬɚ ɩɪɢɦɟʄɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɦɚɥɚ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɚ ɪɟɚɤɰɢʁɚ ɨɤɨ ɲɚɜɨɜɚ ɫɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɦ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨɦ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɨɦ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɭɫɟɰɚʃɚ. Ʉɨɞ ɨɜɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
ɡɚɩɚɡɢɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɢ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɦɚɥɢɯ ɦɪɬɜɢɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɚ ɫɚ
53
ɧɚɤɭɩʂɚʃɟɦ ɫɟɪɨɦɚ. Ȼɢɥɢ ɫɭ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɨɞ 3 ɞɨ 5
ɦɦ. ɉɚɠʂɢɜɢɦ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɟɦ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɨɜɢɯ
ɫɧɚɠɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɞɨɲɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɞɨ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɞɚ ɫɭ
ɩɫɢ ɬɪɟɲɟʃɟɦ ɝɥɚɜɟ ɢ ɝɪɭɛɢɦ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɤɨɦ ɲɚɩɟ
ɩɪɟɤɨ ɤɪɚɝɧɟ ɭɫɩɟɜɚɥɢ ɞɚ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɧɨ ɩɨɦɟɪɚʁɭ
ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɢ ɬɢɦɟ ɢɡɚɡɜɚɥɢ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɢɫɬɟɡɚʃɟ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɢɪɚɥɨ ɩɨɦɟɧɭɬɨɦ ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɨɦ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɫɤɢɞɚʃɚ ɫɭɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ, ɭɜɨ
ɫɦɨ ɫɜɚɤɨɞɧɟɜɧɨ ɱɢɫɬɢɥɢ ɩɨɜɢɞɨɧ ʁɨɞ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɨɦ
ɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɫɤɢ ɦɟɞɢɤɚɦɟɧɬɨɡɧɨ ɬɪɟɬɢɪɚɥɢ ɩɟɬ ɞɚɧɚ.
Ⱥɩɥɢɤɨɜɚɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɤɨɪɬɢɡɨɧɫɤɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬ ɞɟɤɫɚɦɟɬɚɡɨɧ ɭ ɞɨɡɢ ɨɞ 1ɦɝ/ɤɝ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɟ ɦɚɫɟ ɫɭɩɤɭɬɚɧɨ.
Ɂɚ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧɚ ɫɜɚɤɨɞɧɟɜɧɨ ɫɭ ɩɫɢ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚɧɢ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɚ ɢɡ ɫɬɪɚɯɚ
ɞɚ ɧɟ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɟ ɪɟɰɢɞɢɜ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɩɟɬ ɞɚɧɚ ɭɲɧɚ
ɲɤɨʂɤɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɫɭɜɚ, ɛɟɡ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ, ɫɚ ɛɥɚɝɨ
ɢɫɬɚʃɟɧɨɦ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɨɦ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɫɟɪɨɦɚ. Ɉɜɨ ɭɜɨ
ʁɟ ɜɪɚɬɢɥɨ ɫɤɨɪɨ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɭ ɞɟɛʂɢɧɭ ɭ ɧɚɪɟɞɧɢɯ
14 ɞɚɧɚ ɫɚ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɚɜɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɤɨɡɦɟɬɢɱɤɢɦ
ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢɦɚ ɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɢɦ ɭɫɩɪɚɜɧɢɦ ɧɨɲɟʃɟɦ.
Ʉɨɞ ɫɜɢɯ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ, ɨɞ 28 ɞɨ 30 ɞɚɧɚ
ɩɨɫɥɟ ɫɤɢɞɚʃɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨɝ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟɬɚ, ɭɲɧɚ ɲɤɨʂɤɚ ʁɟ ɢ ɫɚ ɭɧɭɬɪɚɲʃɟ ɢ ɫɚ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɜɟʄ
ɞɨɛɪɨ ɨɛɪɚɫɥɚ ɞɥɚɤɨɦ, ɱɢɦɟ ʁɟ ɩɨɤɪɢɜɟɧ ɨɠɢʂɚɤ
ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ʁɟɞɜɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɬɚɧ.
ɇɟɤɟ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɬɟ ɫɦɨ ɜɢɞɟɥɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɞɜɚ ɦɟɫɟɰɚ
ɢ ɨɩɟɪɢɫɚɧɚ ɭɲɧɚ ɲɤɨʂɤɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɱɧɚ
ɧɟɨɩɟɪɢɫɚɧɨʁ ɢ ɩɨ ɞɟɛʂɢɧɢ ɢ ɩɨ ɧɨɲɟʃɭ.
ȾɂɋɄɍɋɂȳȺ
ɇɚɲɚ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɚ ɢɫɤɭɫɬɜɚ ɫɚ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ
ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚ ɫɭ ɞɚ ʁɟ
ɧɚʁɜɟʄɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɚɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɩɨɞɜɪɝɧɭɬɢ
ɨɩɪɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨʁ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɢ ɩɪɟɬɯɨɞɧɨ ɛɢɨ ɩɨɞ
ɞɭɝɨɬɪɚʁɧɢɦ ɤɨɧɡɟɪɜɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɬɪɟɬɦɚɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɨɝ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟɝ ɭɲɧɨɝ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ. Ɉɜɟ
ɩɨɞɚɬɤɟ ɫɦɨ ɩɪɢɤɭɩɢɥɢ ɨɞ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
ɢɥɢ ɨɞ ɤɨɥɟɝɚ ɱɢʁɢ ɫɭ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɬɢ ɛɢɥɢ ɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ
ɢɯ ɭɩɭɬɢɥɢ ɧɚ Ʉɥɢɧɢɤɭ ɡɚ ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢʁɭ. ɍɫɥɟɞ ɨɬɢɬɢɫɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ – ɨɞ ɬɨɝɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟɦ ɭɲɧɨɦ ɤɚɧɚɥɭ ɧɚɥɚɡɢɥɨ ɫɬɪɚɧɨ ɬɟɥɨ ɩɚ
ɞɨ ɚɬɨɩɢʁɟ, ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɫɤɢ ɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨ ɬɪɟɬɢɪɚɧ
ɦɟɞɢɤɚɦɟɧɬɨɡɧɨɦ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɨɦ ɢ ɢɫɩɢɪɚʃɟɦ, ɫɬɚɥɧɨ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɚɧ ɛɨɥ. Ɂɚɬɨ ɫɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɨɬɪɟɫɚʃɟɦ ɝɥɚɜɟ ɢ ɱɟɲɚʃɟɦ ɲɚɩɨɦ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɨɝ ɭɜɚ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɤɢ ɥɟɞɢɪɚɥɟ ɤɪɜɧɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɟ ɭɜɚ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɥɨ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ.
ɇɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɤɚ (Kuwahara, Willson,
Yuong) ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɫɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɤɨɠɟ ɢ ɚɭɪɢɤɭɥɚɪɧɟ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɤɚɜɧɨʁ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɢ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ. Ʉɨɠɚ
54
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɧɚ ɤɨɧɤɚɜɧɨʁ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɢ ʁɟ ɭɫɤɨ ɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɯɨɧɞɪɢʁɭɦ, ɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭʄɢ ɦɚɥɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ ɡɚ ɧɚɤɭɩʂɚʃɟ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ. Ʉɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ʂɭɞɢ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ ɭɲɧɟ
ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚ ɫɭɛɩɟɪɯɨɧɞɪɚɥɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɬɪɚɯɨɧɞɪɚɥɧɨ, ɧɟ ɩɨɬɤɨɠɧɨ. Ɂɚ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɫɚɧɚɰɢʁɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ ɫɭɩɟɪɯɨɧɞɪɚɥɧɨɝ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɬɪɚɯɨɧɞɪɚɥɧɨɝ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ, ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɫɟ ɤɨɚɝɭɥɭɦ ɤɨʁɢ
ɩɪɨɞɢɪɟ ɤɪɨɡ ɯɨɞɪɨɛɥɚɫɬɟ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɢɯɨɧɞɪɢʁɭɦɚ
ɢɥɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨɝ ɜɟɡɢɜɧɨɝ ɬɤɢɜɚ. ȶɟɥɢʁɫɤɢ ɦɚɬɪɢɤɫ
ɫɟ ɪɚɡɝɪɚɻɭʁɟ ɢ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɯɨɧɞɪɨɰɢɬɢ, ɤɨʁɢ ɞɨɜɨɞɟ
ɞɨ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ ɧɨɜɟ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ. ɏɨɧɞɪɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫɟ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚʁɭ ɱɟɬɢɪɢ ɞɚɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɫɭɩɯɨɧɞɪɚɥɧɨɝ
ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ. Ⱦɢɫɬɨɪɡɢʁɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ ɫɟ ɞɟɲɚɜɚ
ʁɟɪ ɫɟ ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɚ ɭɜɚ ɜɟɡɭʁɟ ɨɤɨɥɨ ɧɨɜɨɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɟ
ɯɪɫɤɚɜɢɰɟ. Ⱥɤɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɚɧ ɦɪɬɜɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɫɚɧɚɰɢʁɟ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ, ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɨ ʁɟ ɢ
ɧɚɤɭɩʂɚʃɟ ɮɢɛɪɢɧɚ ɢ ɤɪɜɢ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɤɨɚɝɭɥɭɦɚ. ɂɡ ɬɨɝ ɪɚɡɥɨɝɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ ʁɟ ɫɜɚɤɨɞɧɟɜɧɨ
ɨɞ 2 ɞɨ 3 ɩɭɬɚ ɟɜɚɤɭɢɫɚɢɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɢɫɩɢɪɚɬɢ (ɞɪɟɧɢɪɚɬɢ) ɧɨɜɨɧɚɫɬɚɥɭ ɲɭɩʂɢɧɭ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɢɡɛɟɝɥɢ
ɝɨɪɟɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɢ, ɡɚɬɢɦ ɦɨɝɭʄɚ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ, ɧɟɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɡɚɪɚɫɬɚʃɚ ɪɚɧɟ ɢ ɧɟɩɨɠɟʂɧɚ ɨɠɢʂɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁa. Ɂɛɨɝ ɬɨɝɚ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ
ɤɨʁɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɭɦɧɨɝɨɦɟ ɭɦɚʃɭʁɟ ɲɚɧɫɭ ɡɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɦɪɬɜɨɝ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɚ. Ɉɧɨ ɜɪɲɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɭ ɢ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɭ ɤɨɦɩɪɟɫɢʁɭ, ɚ ɫɚɦɢɦ
ɬɢɦ ɭɦɚʃɭʁɟ ɢ ɧɚɤɭɩʂɚʃɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ ɢ, ɧɚ ɤɪɚʁɭ,
ɜɟɨɦɚ ɫɦɚʃɭʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɧɟɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɚɜɚʁɭʄɢɯ ɤɨɡɦɟɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɚ. ɋɜɟ ɨɜɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɨ ɨɞɥɢɱɧɨ ɢɡɚɛɪɚɧɨɦ ɱɜɪɫɬɢɧɨɦ, ɞɢɡɚʁɧɨɦ ɢ
ɬɪɨɫɥɨʁɧɨɦ ɝɪɚɻɨɦ ɫɚɦɨɝ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚ ɨɞ ɤoɝɚ ʁɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜʂɟɧɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ. ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɟ ɢ ɧɚɤɭɩʂɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ, ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɢɦɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɚɩɫɨɪɩɬɢɜɧɢ
ɤɚɩɚɰɢɬɟɬ, ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɩɨɤɭɩɢ ɜɟʄɭ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɫɟɤɪɟɬɚ ɪɚɧɟ ɢ, ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɡɚɩɚɠɟɧɨ ɬoɤɨɦ ɪɚɞɚ,
ɧɢɫɦɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɢ ɧɟɩɪɢʁɚɬɚɧ ɦɢɪɢɫ ɧɢ ɤɨɞ
ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɬɚ ɛɟɡ ɨɛɡɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɫɟɤɪɟɬɚ ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɭɩɢɥɨ.
Ʉɨɡɦɟɬɢɱɤɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɫɭ ɜɪɥɨ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ, ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɨɰɟɧaɦɚ ɩɨɬɜɪɞɢɥɢ ɢ ɫɚɦɢ
ɜɥɚɫɧɢɰɢ, ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɤɚɞɚ ɩɪɨɻɟ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɦɟɫɟɰɢ
ɨɞ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɫɦɚʃɢ ɫɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɜɟɡɢɜɧɨɝ
ɬɤɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɢɧɰɢɡɢʁɟ ɢ ɭ ɲɭɩʂɢɧɢ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ
ɤɨʁɭ ʁɟ ɨɜɨ ɜɟɡɢɜɨ ɩɪɨɠɟɥɨ.
Ɂɚ ɨɞɥɢɱɧɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɟ ɨɜɨɝ ɪɚɞɚ ɡɚɫɥɭɠɧɚ ʁɟ ɢ
ɰɢʂɚɧɚ ɩɪɟɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɚ ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦɚ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ, ɬɚɱɧɢʁɟ ɨɞɥɢɱɚɧ ɢɡɛɨɪ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ (ɰɟɮɚɥɨɫɩɨɪɢɧ) ɢ ɚɧɚɥɝɟɬɢɤɚ (ɮɟɧɢɥɛɭɬɚɡɨɧ
ɫɚ ɞɟɤɫɚɦɟɬɚɡɨɧɨɦ). Ȼɟɡ ɨɛɡɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ
ɨ ɧɟɢɧɜɚɡɢɜɧɨɦ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɭ, ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦ ʁɟ
ɢɞɟɚɥɧɨ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɡɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ, ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ
ɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɩɪʂɚɜɨ ɪɚɞɢ ɡɚɯɜɚɬ. Ⱥɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤ ɫɟ ɨɜɞɟ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɬɢɜɧɨ ɞɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɢ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ ɤɨʁɚ
ɛɢ ɞɨɜɟɥɚ ɞɨ ʁɚɤɨɝ ɡɚɩɚʂɟʃɚ, ɧɟɤɪɨɡɟ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɢ
ɜɟɥɢɤɨɝ ɞɟɮɟɤɬa, ɲɬɨ ɛɢ ɭ ɫɚɧɚɰɢʁɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɢɪɚɥɨ
ɦɚɫɢɜɧɨɦ ɨɠɢʂɧɨɦ ɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɨɦ. ɇɟɫɬɚɪɨɢɞɧɢ
ɚɧɬɢɢɧɮɥɚɦɚɬɨɪɧɢ ɚɧɚɥɝɟɬɢɤ ɭ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɢ ɫɚ
ɞɟɤɫɚɦɟɬɚɡɨɧɨɦ ʁɟ ɢɞɟɚɥɚɧ ɡɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɭ ɢɧɮɥɚɦɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ ɢ ɤɭɩɢɪɚʃɟ ɛɨɥɚ ɢ ɨɬɨɤɚ. Ɉɧ ʁɟ
ɨɦɨɝɭʄɢɨ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɦɢɪɨɜɚʃɟ ɪɚɧɟ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɨɫɟʄɚɥɚ ɛɨɥ ɢ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɢɜɚɥɚ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ ɞɚ ɨɬɪɟɫɚ ɝɥɚɜɨɦ ɢ ɱɟɲe ɭɜɨ, ɲɬɨ ɭ
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɢ ɫɚ ɤɪɚɝɧɨɦ ɱɢɧɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɢ
ɬɨɤ ɩɨɞɧɨɲʂɢɜɢʁɢɦ ɢ ɡɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɭ ɢ ɡɚ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ.
ɁȺɄȴɍɑɐɂ
Ⱦɨɛɢʁɟɧɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɭɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɞɚ ɫɭɧɻɟɪɚɫɬɨ
ʁɚɫɬɭɱɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɨɞɥɢɱɧɨ ɞɢɡɚʁɧɢɪɚɧɨ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɫɚɧɚɰɢʁɭ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɭɜɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɚ ɢ ɦɚɱɚɤɚ;
ɡɛɨɝ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɱɜɪɫɬɢɧɟ ɢ ɬɪɨɫɥɨʁɧɟ ɝɪɚɻɟ ɨɞɥɢɱɧɨ
ɩɪɢjɚʃɚ ɭɡ ɦɟɞɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɫɬɪɚɧɭ ɭɲɧɟ ɲɤɨʂɤɟ
ɤɨɦɩɪɢɦɭʁɭʄɢ ɲɭɩʂɢɧɭ ɯɟɦɚɬɨɦɚ ɢ ɚɩɫɨɪɛɭʁɟ
ɫɟɤɪɟɬ ɪɚɧɟ; ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɢ ɫɟ ɜɪɥɨ ɥɚɤɨ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɚ
ɩɪɟɦɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɢ ɭɜɚ ɢ ɨɞɥɢɱɧɨ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɚ ɲɚɜɨɜɢɦɚ ɡɚ ɭɲɧɭ ɲɤɨʂɤɭ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɢɪɚ ɪɟɰɢɞɢɜ ɢ ɞɟɯɢɫɰɟɧɰɢʁɚ ɲɚɜɨɜɚ ɤɚɨ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ; ɭ ɩɨɫɬɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɭ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɚ ʁɟ ɚɩɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɚ ɢ
ɚɧɚɥɝɟɬɢɤɚ; ɡɚɲɬɢɬɧɚ ɤɪɚɝɧɚ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ
ɧɚʁɦɚʃɟ 17 ɞɚɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɚ ɪɚɞɢ
ɡɚɲɬɢɬɟ ɨɞ ɱɟɲɚʃɚ ɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɧɨɤɫɢ ʁɟɪ ɫɟ
ɭɜɨ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɜɢʁɚ ɤɨɞ ɨɜɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɟ.
ɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊȺ
1. Slater D.: Textbook of small animal surgery.
Second Edition. W.B: Saunders Company,1993.
2. ɒɢʁɚɱɤɢ ɇ., ȳɚɛɥɚɧ-ɉɚɧɬɢʄ Ɉ., ɉɚɧɬɢʄ ȼ.:
Ɇɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ɉɟɬɨ ɢɡɞɚʃɟ. Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, 1997.
3. Joyce J.: Canine aural haematoma. Waltham
Focus, Publish Quarterly, Vol 10 No 4, 2000.
4. Barnes J. W.; Aural hematoma, in Bojrab M. J.:
Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery.
Philadephia, Lea & Febiger, 1975.
5. Bojrab M. J., Renegar W. R.: The ear: Pathophysiology in Small Animal Surgery.
Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger 1981.
6. Larsen S.: Intrachondral rupture and hematoma
formation in the external ear of dog. Pathol Vet,
1968.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
55
UDK 619:616.728-001.31:636.1
M. Stevanþeviü, B. Toholj, J. Spasojeviü, M. Cincoviü, Ksenija Barjaktareviü1
PRIKAZ SLUýAJA KARPALNOG HIGROMA KOD KONJA
Kratak sadržaj
Karpalni higrom predstavlja sinovijalno oteknuüe sa dorzalne strane karpalnog zgloba. Kod konja je
najþešüe reþ o traumatski prouzrokovanom, tj. steþenom burzitisu. U sluþaju koji opisujemo, za pacijenta smo
imali pastuva starosti osam godina, po nameni preponaša. Konj je, pet meseci pre našeg pregleda, u parkuru
naleteo na ogradu i snažno udario karpalnim zglobom. Hromost se, po kazivanju vlasnika, odmah javila i bila
je srednje izražena. Provoÿena je i izvesna dijagnostika i terapija od strane struþnih lica, ali bez uspeha.
Kliniþkim pregledom nalazimo da su vrednosti trijasa normalne. Pregled ukazuje na mešoviti tip hromosti na
prednjem levom ekstremitetu. Adspekcijom uoþavamo oteklinu sa dorzalne strane karpalnog zgloba veliþine
pesnice, palpatorno mekanu, netempriranu, blago bolnu, pokretnu sa prisutnom fluktuacijom. Ultrazvuþnim
pregledom ustanovljeno je prisustvo hipoehogenog sadržaja sa prisutnom fibrozom zida higroma, pri þemu je
ustanovljeno da nema povezanosti sa strukturama karpalnog zgloba. Punkcijom je dobijeno oko 100 ml bistre
žuükaste teþnosti. Mikrobiološki i citološki nalaz punktata je bio uredan. Leþenje je izvedeno aplikacijom
kortikosteroida i antibiotika u šupljinu lezije uz postavljanje kompresionog zavoja. Nakon dva meseca, konj
je ponovo bio u treningu, a po nastupu takmiþarske sezone opet je postizao vrhunske rezultate.
Kljuþne reþi: konj, hromost, higrom.
M. Stevanþeviü, B. Toholj, J. Spasojeviü, Marko Cincoviü, Ksenija Barjaktareviü2
CASE REPORT í CARPAL HYGROMA AT HORSE
Abstract
A carpal hygroma is a synovial sweling over anterior surface of the carpal joint. Most commonly, it is an
acquired bursitis resulting from trauma. In this case the patient was a 8 year old stallion. Five month before
our egzamination the horse were injured in strike with carpal joint in fence. The lameness has been occur
immidately after. The horse were initialy examined by qualified personel and diagnosis and therapy has been
conducted but without success. Clinicaly horse has normal value of heart and breath rate and body
temperatury. In lameness diagnostic procedure there are evidency of lameness during normal stride in both
phases of step. Visually there was present a swelling over dorsal surface of carpal joint. Palpatory movable,
without heating, soft and with fluctuation effect. Ultrasound egzamination reveals presence of hypoechogenic
cavity and fibrosis of wall surounding cyst, but without connection with carpal structures. Others structures
presenting as normal. Punction has been conducted and 100 ml of clear yelow fluid were obtained. The
1
2
Dr M. Stevanþeviü, red. prof.; dr B. Toholj, docent; MSc J. Spasojeviü, dr vet. med.; MSc M. Cincoviü, asistent;
Ksenija Barjaktareviü, dr vet. med., Poljoprivredni fakultet, Departman za veterinarsku medicinu, Trg Dositeja
Obradoviüa 8, Novi Sad.
M. Stevanþeviü, Phd, full prof., B. Toholj, Phd, assistant prof., J. Spasojeviü, MSc, research associate, Marko
Cincoviü, MSc, assit. of teach. Ksenija Barjaktareviü, dvm, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary
Medicine, Trg Dositeja Obradoviüa 8, Novi Sad
56
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
microbiological and cytological examination of collected fluid show normal findings. The therapy consisted
of intralesional aplication of corticosteroid with antibiotics and commpresion bandage for several weeks.
After treatment the recovery was complete and after two months the horse was at top condition with great
results on competition.
Key words: horse, lameness, hygroma.
UVOD
Higrom karpalnog zgloba predstavlja sinovijalno
oteknuüe sa anteriorne strane karpalnog zgloba.
Normalno, u ovom podruþju se ne nalazi potkožna
burza, ali se pod dejstvom traume može formirati
sinovijalni prostor, a ponekad u proces mogu da
budu ukljuþene i tetivne ovojnice m. extensor carpi
radialis i m. ext. digitorum communis (Adams,
1979), pri þemu je þešüa involviranost tetive radijalnog ispružaþa (Tadiü, 1991). Trauma je u osnovi
etiologije u gotovo svim sluþajevima. Najþešüe se
higrom karpalnog zgloba javi kod konja koji ustaju i
liježu na tvrdoj podlozi, a navodi se i moguünost
nastanka higroma nakon udarca u prepreku, zid, pa
se etiološki kao razlog gotovo uvek navodi povreda.
Povredom najþešüe budu obuhvaüene i tetivne
ovojnice, pa se higrom, u stvari, razvija najþešüe iz
akutnog tendovaginitisa. U literaturi, naroþito
starijoj, naziva se još i hidrops ili žuþ tetivnih
ovojnica. Terapija se svodi na pokušaj da se, nakon
punkcije sadržaja, primenom zavoja na pritisak,
podstakne razvoj priraslica izmeÿu zidova šupljine,
uz istovremenu primenu kortikosteroida i antibiotika
(Ross, 2003). Ukoliko ovakav vid terapije ostane bez
rezultata, moguüe je, u zavisnosti od sluþaja, izvesti
hirurški zahvat. To najþešüe podrazumeva inciziju,
drenažu ili ekstirpaciju, pri þemu se mora iskljuþiti
moguünost komunikacije šupljine higroma sa
šupljinom karpalnog zgloba (Adams, 1976).
DIJAGNOSTIýKI POSTUPAK
Anamnestiþki podaci
U avgustu mesecu 2011. godine, nakon boravka
u ispustu, primeüen je akutni otok u predelu dorzalne
strane karpalnog zgloba leve noge. Vlasnica pretpostavlja da se radi o povredi jer je primetila udarac
od ogradu. Hromost je, po kazivanju vlasnice, bila
prisutna. U toku narednih nedelja, otok se postepeno
poveüavao. Konj je pregledan od strane dva oridinirajuüa veterinara koji su odradili dijagnostiku
(kliniþki pregled, ultrazvuk, RTG), dali preporuku i
vršili terapiju koja se, po kazivanju vlasnice,
sastojala u jednokratnoj aplikaciji prednizolona.
Vlasnica negira postojanje alergije na lekove, a na
pitanje o postojanju antitetanusne zaštite izjavljuje
da je konj uredno vakcinisan protiv tetanusa.
Kliniþki pregled
Izveden je pregled u decembru mesecu (oko
þetiri meseca nakon inicijalne povrede), koji je za
cilj imao ispitivanje morfo-funkcionalnog stanja
lokomotornog sistema (pregled na hromost).
Procena stavova ekstremiteta: prednji ekstremiteti
su odgovarajuüe osteo-muskularne graÿe i pravilno
povezani sa trupom. Posmatranjem spreda, uoþava
se blagi prizemno primaknut stav sa lateralnom
devijacijom prsta leve noge (eng. „base narow-toe
out left“). Posmatranjem sa strane, uoþena je blaga
„hiperekstenzija“ kiþiþnog zgloba (hiperextensio
gradus primus art. metacerpeo-phalangealis), „meka kiþica“. Analiza kretanja i analiza video zapisa
prilikom kretanja: prednji ekstremiteti imaju
ritmiþnu akciju sa izdašnim lukom centralno naglašenim, zadnji ekstremiteteti takoÿe imaju ritmiþnu
akciju sa izdašnim i centralno naglašenim lukom.
Pozicioniranje kopita prilikom oslanjanja je
pravilno, što ukazuje na malu moguünost
interferencije ekstremiteta. Uoþena je blaga hromost
mešovitog tipa. Palpacijom ekstremiteta nije
utvrÿeno postojanje bolnih lokusa, sagibaþke tetive
su jasno izražene bez zadebljanja, otoka i bolnosti. U
predelu karpalnog zgloba leve noge sa dorzalne
strane palpira se oteklina veliþine kokošijeg jajeta,
bezbolna na dodir sa fluktuirajuüim sadržajem,
netemperirana (slika 1).
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
57
Slika 2. Ultrazvuþni nalaz.
Slika 1. Položaj higroma na karpalnom zglobu.
Ultrazvuþni pregled
Nakon pripreme (šišanje i nanošenje sonografskog gela) uraÿena je ultrazvuþna dijagnostika u regio carpi pomenute noge (slike 2. i 3). U predelu
iznad tetive od m. ext. carpi radialis prisutan je
kompartman higroma, hipoehogenog prostora
(šupljine) ispunjene teþnošüu. Palpatorno i
ultrazvuþno utvÿena je fluktuacija sadržaja koji je u
potpunosti hipoehogen, bez prisustva hiperehogenih
fokusa. Zid higroma je zadebljao i
fibrozno
izmenjen. Tetiva od m. ext. dig. communis je
izoehogene i normoehogene strukture sa pravilnom
orijentacijom kolagenih vlakana bez prisutne fokalne
hipoehogenosti. Zglobna kapsula se prikazuje
hiperehogeno usled hiperrefleksije. Zglobna kapsula
je kompaktna, bez uoþenih protruzija u higromne
kompartmane. Lig. colateralis lat. et lig. colateralis
med. su izoehogene strukture bez prisutne fokalne
hipoehogenosti.
Slika 3. Položaj sonde prilikom dijagnostike
Fiziþko-hemijska, citološka i mikrobiološka
analiza punktata
Punkcijom je dobijeno oko 100 ml žuükaste,
prozirne, slabo viskozne teþnosti (tabela 1). Citološka analiza se sastojala od bojenja hematoksilin eozinom razmaza punktata na ploþici i identifikacije
prisutnih üelija. Od ukupnog broja izbrojanih üelija,
7% su bili polimorfonukleari, dok su ostatak þinile
epitelne i druge üelije. Uzorak punktata je zasejan na
standardne podloge za izolaciju mikrorganizama, pri
þemu ja nalaz bio negativan. Hemijskom analizom
utvrÿena je koncentracija hijaluronske kiseline od
0,1 mg/ml. Ova proba je imala za cilj da iskljuþi
postojanje eventualne hernije karpalnog zgloba i
58
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
komunikacije karpalnog zgloba sa šupljinom higroma.
Tabela 1. Fiziþko-hemijski, citološki i mikrobiološki nalaz punktata.
Boja
svetložuta
Viskoznost
slaba
Prozirnost
potpuna
Polimorfonukleari
12%
Hijaluronska kiselina
0,1 mg/ml
Mikrobiološki nalaz
negativan
Nakon sprovedene dijagnostiþke procedure,
postavljene su sledeüe dijagnoze
x
Hygroma tenovaginarum m.extensorii carpi
radialis anterior pedis sinister
x
Hiperextensio gradus primus art. metacerpeophalangealis anterior pedis sinister
Deviatio lateralis articulatio inerphalangealis
proximalis anterior pedis sinister
x
Terapija
Sedacija je izvršena intramuskularnom aplikacijom ksilazina u dozi od 1,5 mg/kg telesne mase. Nakon odgovarajuüe pripreme regije karpalnog zgloba
(šišanje, brijanje, dezinfekcija), izvršena je punkcija
u cilju evakuacije i prikupljanja sadržaja za dalju
analizu. Punkcijom je dobijeno oko 100 ml žuükaste,
prozirne slabo viskozne teþnosti. Nakon evakuacije
sadržaja, u šupljinu je aplikovan prednizolon 1% u
koliþini od 5 ml i 3ml antibiotika širokog spektra.
Nakon toga, izvršeno je postavljanje elastiþnog kompresionog zavoja na taj naþin da se iznad higroma
postavi uduplana gaza i smotuljak tkanine koji je
obezbedio intenzivniji i kontinuirani pritisak na
zidove higroma. Na gazu i kožu je nanošena cinkvitaminska mast. Zavoj je bio postavljen sve vreme
leþenja, uz povremenu kontrolu zategnutosti. Navedeni proces leþenja ponavljan je jednom nedeljno u
isti dan u toku pet nedelja. Dat je savet vlasnici da
konja hrani laganijom hranom i koristi za blaže
oblike fiziþke aktivnosti (šetanje, kraüe rekreativno
jahanje i sl.). Zbog moguüeg razvoja egzostoza na
krunskom zglobu (art. interphalangealis prox.)
prednje desne noge, dat je savet da je potrebno u
perspektivi odraditi RTG snimak.
Kontrolni pregled
Po završetku terapije, izvršen je kontrolni
pregled, pri kome je uoþeno da je higrom u
potpunosti redukovan, kao i da se palpatorno ne
oseti fenomen prevlaþenja zbog, kako procenjujemo,
razvoja priraslica izmeÿu zidova higroma. Nakon
narednih nekoliko nedelja, palpatorni nalaz se nije
razlikovao od zdravog ekstremiteta. Konj je nakon
intenzivnih priprema ponovo uveden u takmiþarsku
sezonu, gde je ostvario zapažene rezultate.
DISKUSIJA
Karpalni zglob kod konja je þesto predisponiran
za nastanak razliþitih povreda. U raznovrsnoj
paologiji naroþito se istiþu traumatske povrede tetiva, tetivnih ovojnica i dr. U sluþaju koji opisujemo,
patološki proces je, prema anamnestiþkim podacima,
zapoþeo udarcem u predelu karpalnog zgloba. Zbog
nepostojanja dokumentacije o leþenju i dijagnozi u
tom periodu, nismo bili u moguünosti da saznamo
stepen i lokalizaciju ošteüenja. ýetiri meseca nakon
nastanka povrede, izveden je pregled koji je za cilj
imao ispitivanje morfo-funkcionalnog stanja lokomotornog sistema. Kao deo pregleda izvršena je adspekcija u mirovanju i kretanju, palpacija i sl. Ovim
pregledom je ustanovljeno prisustvo fluktuirajuüe,
netemperirane otekline sa dorzalne strane karpalnog
zgloba. Nakon postavljanja presumptivne dijagnoze
higroma, bilo je potrebno ustanoviti koja je taþno
struktura involvirana u ovaj proces, da li je prisutna
infekcija i da li je prisutna komunikacija sa zglobnom šupljinom karpalnog zgloba. Ultrazvuþnim
pregledom dobijene su potrebne informacije za postavljanje dijagnoze sa lokalizacijom patološkog procesa. Analizom punktata bojenjem po HE odreÿivan
je relativni broj polomorfonukleara. Kao graniþna
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
vrednost za inflamatorno-septiþne procese se uzima
vrednost od >40% (Davies, 1966; Elizabeth, 2008).
Odsustvo septiþne inflamacije potvÿeno je i mikrobiološkom pretragom. U nekim sluþajevima karpalnog higroma postoji moguünost nastanka hernije
sinovijalne membrane karpalnog zgloba kroz fibroznu kapsulu (Adams, 1976). Kako bismo iskljuþili i
ovu moguünost, izvršeno je odreÿivanje koncentracije hijaluronske kiseline u punktatu. Visoka koncentracija hijaluronske kiseline je karakteristiþna za
sinovijalnu teþnost zglobne šupljine, te bi poveüan
sadržaj iste u punktatu higroma ukazao na komunikaciju izmeÿu zglobne šupljine i šupljine higroma.
Pronaÿena koncentracija hijaluronske kiseline (0,1
mg/ml) je daleko ispod graniþnih vrednosti za sadržaj hijaluronske kiseline u sinovijalnoj teþnosti zgloba, što iskljuþuje moguünost komunikacije šupljine
higroma i zglobne šupljine.
ZAKLJUýAK
Karpalni higrom najþešüe nastaje kao rezultat
traume u predelu karpalnog zgloba. Razliþite
sinovijalne strukture mogu biti ukljuþene, odnosno
iz njih može da se razvije higrom. Pre zapoþinjanja
terapije poželjno je kliniþki ili pomoüu ultrazvuka
odrediti koja je struktura involvirana. Takoÿe je
poželjno citološkim, biohemijskim testovima isklju-
59
þiti moguünost postojanja sinovijalne hernije karpalnog zgloba, a mikrobiološkim ispitivanjem potvrditi
aseptiþnost procesa. Terapija u prvi mah se sprovodi
kao konzervativna, što podrazumeva punkciju sadržaja, intralezionalno aplikovanje kortikosteroida i
antibiotika i leþenje pod zavojem na pritisak. Ukoliko rezultat ovakve terapije nije zadovoljavajuüi, potrebno je pažljivo razmotriti moguünost hirurške incizije, tj. otvaranja šupljine higroma i drenažu.
LITERATURA
1. Adams, O. R.: Lameness in horses. Lea&Febiger, Philadelphia, 1976.
2. Davies, D. V.: The anatomy and physiology of
joints. Physiotherapy 110; 49: 3í7, 1963.
3. Elizabeth D., Steven S.: Step-Up to Medicine.
Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, 2008.
4. Ross M. W., Dyson, S. J.: Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse. Elsevier Inc,
2003.
5. Tadiü, M.: Oboljenja lokomotornog sistema domaüih životinja. Fakultet veterinarske medicine,
Beograd, 1991.
60
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
UDK 639.3.043
Ɋɚɞɦɢɥɚ Ɇɚɪɤɨɜɢʄ1, Ɇ. ɀ. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ1, Ⱦ. ȼɪɚɧɢʄ2, ȼ. ȭɨɪɻɟɜɢʄ2, ɋ. Ɋɚɞɭɥɨɜɢʄ1, Ⱦ. ɒɟɮɟɪ1
ɉɈɌɊȿȻȿ ɋȺɅɆɈɇɂȾɇɂɏ ȼɊɋɌȺ ɊɂȻȺ ɍ ɏɊȺɇȴɂȼɂɆ ɆȺɌȿɊɂȳȺɆȺ
Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ɂɫɯɪɚɧɚ ɪɢɛɟ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ ɱɢɧɢɥɚɰɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɬɢɱɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɟ ɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ
ɦɟɫɚ. Ʉɚɨ ɢɡɜɨɪ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ, ɪɢɛɟ ɢɡ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɩɪɟɬɟɠɧɨ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɢ ɦɚɫɬɢ. ɏɪɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɪɢɛɟ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɨɞ
30% ɞɨ 35% ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ, ɨɞ 15% ɞɨ 25% ɦɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɞɨ 17% ɭɝʂɟɧɢɯ ɯɢɞɪɚɬɚ. ɍ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɢ ɪɢɛɚ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ʁɟ
ɢ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɫɜɢɯ ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɚ, ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɤɚɥɰɢʁɭɦɚ, ɮɨɫɮɨɪɚ, ɦɚɝɧɟɡɢʁɭɦɚ, ɝɜɨɠɻɚ ɢ
ɦɚɧɝɚɧɚ. Ɋɢɛɟ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɢ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɡɚ n-3 ɦɚɫɧɢɦ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚɦɚ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɭ ɯɪɚɧɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɨɤɨ 1%.
ɍ ɩɨɝɥɟɞɭ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɯɪɚɧɢɜɚ, ɫɚɥɦɨɧɢɞɧɟ ɪɢɛɟ ɫɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɦɟɻɭ ɧɚʁɡɚɯɬɟɜɧɢʁɟ. Ʉɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ
ɯɪɚɧɢɜɚ ɢ ɤɪɦɧɢɯ ɫɦɟɲɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɢ ɫɚɥɦɨɧɢɞɧɢɯ ɪɢɛɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɬɜɪɞɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ
ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ.
Ʉʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: ɫɚɥɦɨɧɢɞɧɟ ɪɢɛɟ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ, ɯɪɚɧɚ.
Rɚdmilɚ Ɇɚrkɨviü, Ɇ. Ž. Bɚltiü, D. Vrɚniü, V. Ĉɨrÿɟviü, S. Rɚdulɨviü, D. Šɟfɟr
NEEDS OF SALMONID SPECIES OF FISH IN NUTRIENTS
Abstract
Fish diet is one of the most important factors that influence on production performance and meat quality.
Fish mainly use protein and fat from food, as a source of energy. Fish food contains 30 to 35 % protein, 15
to 25 % fat and 17 % carbohydrate. In fish diet its necessary presence of all vitamins and minerals,
especially calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and manganese. Fish have special needs in n-3 fatty acid
which should be about 1% in food. Salmonid fish are the most demanding fish in terms of food quality. The
quality of nutrients and feed mixtures used in the nutrition of salmonid fish can be determined
by chemical analysis.
Key words: salmonid fish, requirements, food.
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Ⱦɪ Ɋɚɞɦɢɥɚ Ɇɚɪɤɨɜɢʄ, ɞɨɰɟɧɬ; ɞɪ Ɇɢɥɚɧ ɀ. Ȼɚɥɬɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ; ɋɬɚɦɟɧ Ɋɚɞɭɥɨɜɢʄ, ɞɪ ɜɟɬ. ɦɟɞ.; ɞɪ
Ⱦɪɚɝɚɧ ɒɟɮɟɪ, ɜɚɧɪɟɞɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, ɍɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ.
Ⱦɪ ȼɟɫɧɚ ȭɨɪɻɟɜɢʄ, ɧɚɭɱɧɢ ɫɚɪɚɞɧɢɤ, ɞɪ Ⱦɚɧɢʁɟɥɚ ȼɪɚɧɢʄ, ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɚ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɭ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ ɦɟɫɚ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
Ɋɢɛɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɢ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɚɱɧɢ ɢɡɜɨɪ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ ɜɢɫɨɤɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɟ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɭ ɫɢɪɨɦɚɲɧɨɦ ɢ ɧɟɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɨɦ ɞɟɥɭ ɫɜɟɬɚ. Ɂɚ ɨɤɨ ʁɟɞɧɭ
ɦɢɥɢʁɚɪɞɭ ʂɭɞɢ ɭ ɫɜɟɬɭ, ɦɟɫɨ ɪɢɛɟ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢ
ɢɡɜɨɪ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ.
ɉɨɫɥɟɞʃɢɯ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɪɢɛɟ ɭ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɬɭɪɢ ɢɦɚ ɩɪɨɫɟɱɚɧ ɝɨɞɢɲʃɢ ɩɨɪɚɫɬ ɨɞ 10%.
ɉɪɟɦɚ ɩɨɞɚɰɢɦɚ FAO (2005), ɭɤɭɩɧɚ ɫɜɟɬɫɤɚ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɢɡ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɬɭɪɟ ɥɨɫɨɫɚ ɢ ɦɨɪɫɤɟ ɢ
ɤɚɥɢɮɨɪɧɢʁɫɤɟ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ ɢɡ ɛɨɝɚɬɢɯ ɜɨɞɚ, 2003.
ɝɨɞɢɧɟ, ɛɢɥɚ ʁɟ 1,46 ɦɢɥɢɨɧɚ ɬɨɧɚ.
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ ɱɢɧɢ ɨɤɨ 15 ɩɨɫɬɨ ɨɞ
ɭɤɭɩɧɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɪɢɛɟ ɢ ɨɞɜɢʁɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɪɢɛʃɚɰɢɦɚ ɫɚ ɯɥɚɞɧɨɦ ɜɨɞɨɦ, ɭ ɛɪɞɫɤɨ-ɩɥɚɧɢɧɫɤɢɦ ɞɟɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɡɟɦʂɟ (Baltiü ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2009).
ɋɜɟ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɫɤɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɪɢɛɚ, ɩɚ ɢ ɤɚɥɢɮɨɪɧɢʁɫɤɚ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɚ, ɩɪɟɦɚ ɧɚɱɢɧɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɟ, ɫɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɭ
ɝɪɚɛʂɢɜɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɪɢɛɚ í ɤɚɪɧɢɜɨɪɟ.
ɉɪɢ ɟɤɫɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨʁ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨʁ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɢ, ɡɚ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɭ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɢ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧɢ ɫɭ
ɪɚɧɢʁɢɯ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɤɥɚɨɧɢɱɧɢ ɨɬɩɚɰɢ, ɫɥɟɡɢɧɚ ɢ
ʁɟɬɪɚ. Ɉɧɢ ɫɭ ɧɚ ɥɢɰɭ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɦɥɟɜɟɧɢ, ɚ ɩɨɬɨɦ ɫɭ
ɢɦ ɞɨɞɚɜɚɧɚ ɯɪɚɧɢɜɚ ɭɝʂɟɧɨɯɢɞɪɚɬɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ.
ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɫɚ ɨɜɚɤɜɨɦ ɯɪɚɧɨɦ ɛɢɥɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɥɢɱɧɨ:
ɜɟɥɢɤɚ ɤɨɧɜɟɪɡɢʁɚ, ɥɚɝɟɪɨɜɚʃɟ ɭ ɩɪɢɪɭɱɧɢɦ
ɯɥɚɞʃɚɱɚɦɚ ɢ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɫɤɚ ɤɨɧɬɚɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɢ
ɤɜɚɪɟʃɟ ɯɪɚɧɟ.
ɂɫɯɪɚɧɚ ɪɢɛɟ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɧɨɦ ɯɪɚɧɨɦ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ
ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɬɢɱɟ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɬ ɪɢɛɟ,
ɤɨɧɜɟɪɡɢʁɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɢ ɫɚɫɬɚɜ ɦɟɫɚ ɪɢɛɟ ɭ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ
ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨɝ ɭɡɝɨʁɚ. ɉɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɯɪɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɪɢɛɭ
ɛɭɞɟ ɬɚɤɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɫɚɧɚ ɞɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɢ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɧɭ
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɭ ɯɪɚʃɢɜɢɯ ɫɚɫɬɨʁɚɤɚ ɢɡ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɢɯ
ɢɡɜɨɪɚ ɢ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɚɧ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɭ
ɜɪɫɬɭ ɢ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢʁɭ ɪɢɛɟ, ɭ ɫɤɥɚɞɭ ɫɚ ʃɟɧɢɦ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɲɤɢɦ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚɦɚ ɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɭɡɝɨʁɚ, ɜɨɞɟʄɢ
ɪɚɱɭɧɚ ɨ ɭɤɭɩɧɢɦ ɬɪɨɲɤɨɜɢɦɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ. Ⱦɚ
ɛɢ ɯɪɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɪɢɛɟ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɢɥɚ ɧɭɬɪɢɬɢɜɧɟ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɟ
ɢ ɫɜɟ ɫɬɪɨɠɟ ɩɪɨɩɢɫɟ ɜɟɡɚɧɟ ɡɚ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɟ
ɫɪɟɞɢɧɟ, ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɢʄɢ ɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɟ
ɮɢɡɢɱɤɟ
ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɟ
ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɫɤɢ
ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦʂɟɧɟ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɡɚ ɪɢɛɭ (ɨɛɥɢɤ, ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɢ
ɝɭɫɬɢɧɚ ɝɪɚɧɭɥɚ, ɧɚɫɢɩɧɚ ɦɚɫɚ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ
ɫɟ ɲɬɨ ɦɚʃɟ ɪɚɫɬɜɚɪɚʁɭ ɢ ɲɬɨ ɞɭɠɟ ɡɚɞɪɠɟ
ɤɨɦɩɚɤɬɧɨɫɬ ɭ ɜɨɞɢ) (Jovanoviü ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2009).
Ɋɢɛɟ ɝɪɚɛʂɢɜɢɰɟ, ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɚ ɢ ɥɨɫɨɫ,
„ɥɨɜɟ“ ɯɪɚɧɭ ɞɨɤ ɨɧɚ ɩɨɥɚɤɨ ɬɨɧɟ.
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ɏɪɚʃɟʃɟ ɪɢɛɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɪɢɛɟ, ʃɟɧɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ, ɞɨɛɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɟ ɡɪɟɥɨɫɬɢ. ɂɫɯɪɚɧɚ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɢ ɨɞ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɨ-ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɜɨɞɟ, ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ, ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ ɤɢɫɟɨɧɢɤɚ,
ɭɝʂɟɧ-ɞɢɨɤɫɢɞɚ ɢ ɚɡɨɬɚ ɭ ɜɨɞɢ, ɬɜɪɞɨʄɟ ɜɨɞɟ, pH
ɢ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɚ ɚɦɨɧɢʁɚɤɚ, ɚ ɤɨɞ ɧɟɤɢɯ ɪɢɛɚ ɢ ɨɞ
ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɚ ɮɢɬɨ- ɢ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ (Milinkoviü,
1986).
Ɇɧɨɝɨɛɪɨʁɧɢ ɪɚɞɨɜɢ (Halver, 1982; 1989)
ɨɩɢɫɭʁɭ ɧɭɬɪɢɬɢɜɧɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɪɢɛɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɡɛɨɝ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚ, ɜɢɲɤɚ
ɢɥɢ ɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɫɤɟ ɧɟɢɫɩɪɚɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɚɬɚ ɤɨʁɟ
ɫɭ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧɟ ɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɢ ɪɢɛɚ. ɋ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɫɟ ɛɚɜɟ ɢɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɟɦ ɯɪɚʃɢɜɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɢɯ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɧɢɯ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚ, ɚ ɫɚ ɞɪɭɝɟ
ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɩɢɬɚʃɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɟ ɧɚ ɜɪɫɬɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɢ
ɩɨɫɬɢɡɚʃɟ ɞɨɛɪɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɯ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɚ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɧɭɬɪɢɬɢɜɧɢ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɢ ɫɚɥɦɨɧɢɞɚ ɫɭ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜʂɟɧɢ (NRC 1993), ɤɚɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɤɟ ɨ ɯɪɚʃɟʃɭ
(ɞɧɟɜɧɨɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɟ) (Storebakken ɢ ɫaɪ.,
1991; Alanara, 1992), ɦɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɫɚɫɬɚɜ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɦɟʃɚɬɢ ɭ ɫɤɥɚɞɭ ɫɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɨɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢɦ
ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɚ ɩɟɥɟɬɚ (Thomas ɢ van der Poel,
1996).
Ɋɢɛɟ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɯɪɚɧɢɬɢ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɦ ɢ ɫɭɜɨɦ ɯɪɚɧɨɦ. ȼɥɚɠɧɚ ɯɪɚɧɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɱʂɢɜɚ ɡɚ ɦɚʃɟ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɫɤɟ ɪɢɛʃɚɤɟ, ɝɞɟ ɧɢʁɟ ɧɭɠɚɧ ɚɭɬɨɦɚɬɫɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɯɪɚʃɟʃɚ, ɚ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɢ ɡɚ ɫɤɥɚɞɢɲɧɢɦ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɨɦ ɫɭ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɧɢ. ɋɭɜɚ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɬɧɚ ɯɪɚɧɚ, ɭ
ɨɛɥɢɤɭ ɝɪɚɧɭɥɚ ɢɥɢ ɩɟɥɟɬɚ, ɢɦɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɭ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ
ɭ ɫɜɢɦ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɫɤɢɦ ɪɢɛʃɚɰɢɦɚ. Ɉɜɚ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɯɪɚɧɟ
ɦɨɪɚ ɢɦɚɬɢ ɢ ɩɨɜɨʂɧɟ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɟ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɟ. Ⱦɧɟɜɧɚ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɡɚ ɯɪɚɧɨɦ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɞɢɫɩɟɪɡɢʁɚ ɨɛɪɨɤɚ, ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɜɨɞɟ, ɭɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɪɢɛɟ ɢ ɜɪɫɬɟ
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛʂɟɧɟ ɯɪɚɧɟ (Treer ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1995).
ɉɈɌɊȿȻȿ ɉȺɋɌɊɆɄɂ
ɍ ɏɊȺȵɂȼɂɆ ɆȺɌȿɊɂȳȺɆȺ
Ʉɚɨ ɢɡɜɨɪ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɪɢɛɟ ɢɡ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɢ ɬɪɢɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɞɟ. ȿɧɟɪɝɟɬɫɤɚ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬ
ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ ɯɪɚɧɢɜɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ʃɢɯɨɜɨɝ ɫɚɫɬɚɜɚ ɢ
ɫɜɚɪʂɢɜɨɫɬɢ. ɋɚɥɦɨɧɢɞɧɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɪɢɛɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ
90% ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɢɡ ɨɛɪɨɤɚ, ɦɚɫɬɢ ɨɤɨ 85%, ɭɝʂɟɧɟ
ɯɢɞɪɚɬɟ ɨɤɨ 40% (Philips ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1948). ɂɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ Phillips (1951) ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚ ɫɭ ɞɚ, ɨɞ ɭɤɭɩɧɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɚ ɩɨɬɢɱɟ ɨɞ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɧɢɯ ɯɪɚɧɢɜɚ, ɪɢɛɚ ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲʄɚɜɚ 30% ɡɚ ɩɪɢɪɚɫɬ, ɚ ɨɫɬɚɥɢ
ɞɟɨ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɫɟ ɝɭɛɢ ɬɨɤɨɦ ɜɚɪɟʃɚ ɢ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ.
62
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
Ɋɢɛɟ, ɭ ɩɨɪɟɻɟʃɭ ɫɚ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ,
ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚʁɭ ɯɪɚɧɭ ɫɚ ɜɟʄɢɦ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɟɦ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ, ɚ
ɪɚɡɥɨɝ ɥɟɠɢ ɭ ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɢ ɞɚ ɫɭ ʃɢɯɨɜɢ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɢ ɡɚ
ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɨɦ ɦɚʃɢ. Ʉɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɯɪɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɪɢɛɟ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɨɞ 30% ɞɨ 35% ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɫɚ ɢɡɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɚɧɨɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɨɦ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ, ɞɨɤ ɯɪɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɠɢɜɢɧɭ ɢ ɫɜɢʃɟ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɨɞ 18% ɞɨ 23% ɢ 16%
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ, ɪɟɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ (Lovell, 1991). Ɋɢɛɚɦɚ ʁɟ
ɡɚ ɤɪɟɬɚʃɟ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ɡɧɚɬɧɨ ɦɚʃɟ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɭ
ɩɨɪɟɻɟʃɭ ɫɚ ɫɢɫɚɪɢɦɚ ɢ ɩɬɢɰɚɦɚ (Tucer, 1969).
Fijan (1964) ɢɫɬɢɱɟ ɞɚ ɯɪɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ
ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɩɭɧɨɜɪɟɞɧɟ ɢ ɢɡɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɚɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɭ
ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɭ ɡɚɫɬɭɩʂɟɧɟ ɫɜɟ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɟ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ. Ɂɚ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ ʁɟ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɨ 10 ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ. ɂɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɭɜɭ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɭ, ɩɟɥɟɬɢɪɚɧɚ
ɤɪɦɧɚ ɫɦɟɲɚ ɡɚ ʁɟɞɧɨɝɨɞɢɲʃɭ ɤɚɥɢɮɨɪɧɢʁɫɤɭ
ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɭ ɛɢ ɬɪɟɛɚɥɨ ɞɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ: ɚɪɝɢɧɢɧ (2,5%),
ɯɢɫɬɢɞɢɧ (0,7%), ɢɡɨɥɟɭɰɢɧ (1,5%), ɥɟɭɰɢɧ
(1,8%), ɥɢɡɢɧ (2,5%), ɦɟɬɢɨɧɢɧ (1,2%), ɬɪɟɨɧɢɧ
(1,0%), ɮɟɧɢɥɚɥɚɧɢɧ (1,8%), ɬɪɢɩɬɨɮɚɧ (0,2%),
ɜɚɥɢɧ (1,5%) ɢ ɰɢɫɬɢɧ (0,8%) (Bogut ɢ ɫɚɪ.,
2006). ɇɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɚɤ ɧɟɤɟ ɨɞ ʃɢɯ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ, ɧɚʁɩɪɟ, ɞɨ
ɭɫɩɨɪɚɜɚʃɚ ɪɚɫɬɚ, ɚ ɧɚɤɨɧ 10í12 ɞɚɧɚ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ
ɝɭɛɢɬɤɚ ɚɩɟɬɢɬɚ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɪɚɫɬɚ. Ɍɚɤɨ,
ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɚɤ ɬɪɢɩɬɨɮɚɧɚ ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚ ɢɡɪɚɡɢɬɭ ɢɫɤɪɢɜʂɟɧɨɫɬ ɤɢɱɦɟ. Ⱦɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɞɨɞɚɬɚɤ ɥɢɡɢɧɚ ɢ
ɬɪɢɩɬɨɮɚɧɚ ɭ ɯɪɚɧɭ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɭʁɟ ɛɨʂɢ ɩɪɢɪɚɫɬ ɢ
ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲʄɚɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ (Nose, 1963). ɉɨɪɟɞ
ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɟ, ɡɚ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ ʁɟ ɜɪɥɨ ɜɚɠɚɧ ɢ
ɨɞɧɨɫ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɢɯ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ ɭ ɯɪɚɧɢ (NRC,
1973). Ɍɚɤɨ, ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɚɧ ɨɞɧɨɫ ɥɟɭɰɢɧɚ ɢ ɢɡɨɥɟɭɰɢɧɚ ɢɡɧɨɫɢ 1:2.
Ⱥɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧɟ ɤɚɨ
ɢɡɜɨɪ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ, ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ
ɦɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɭɝʂɟɧɢɯ ɯɢɞɪɚɬɚ, ɧɢɠɢ ɨɞ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɝ.
ɉɪɟɦɚ Drecun (1979), ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚɧ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ
ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ ɭ ɤɪɦɧɨʁ ɫɦɟɲɢ ʁɟ ɨɞ 45% ɞɨ
50%, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɭʁɟ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɫɤɢ ɫɚɫɬɚɜ
ɫɥɢɱɚɧ ɨɧɨɦ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɭ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢɦɚ ɬɟɥɚ.
ɍɤɭɩɧɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɭ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢɦɚ ɫɭ ɧɚʁɜɟʄɟ ɧɚ
ɩɨɱɟɬɤɭ ɢ ɨɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɫɚ ɭɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ ɪɢɛɟ. Ɇɥɚɻ ɦɨɪɚ
ɞɨɛɢʁɚɬɢ ɯɪɚɧɭ ɫɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɟɦ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɨɞ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɧɨ 50%, ɧɚɤɨɧ 6í8 ɧɟɞɟʂɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ
ɦɨɠɟ ɛɢɬɢ 40%, ɚ ɡɚ ʁɟɞɧɨɝɨɞɢɲʃɭ ɪɢɛɭ 35%.
Piper ɢ ɫɚɪ. (1982) ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɱɭʁɭ ɫɥɟɞɟʄɢ ɨɞɧɨɫ
ɦɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɡɚ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɟ ɭɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɪɢɛɚ: ɡɚ
ɦɥɚɻ 15% ɦɚɫɬɢ ɢ 50% ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ, ɡɚ ʁɟɞɧɨɝɨɞɢɲʃɭ ɦɥɚɻ 12% ɦɚɫɬɢ ɢ 40% ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ, ɚ ɡɚ ɫɬɚɪɢʁɟ
ɪɢɛɟ 9% ɦɚɫɬɢ ɢ 35% ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ.
ɏɪɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɤɚɥɢɮɨɪɧɢʁɫɤɭ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɭ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ
ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɨɞ 15% ɞɨ 25% ɦɚɫɬɢ, ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɟ
ɚɧɬɢɨɤɫɢɞɚɧɬɨɦ (NRC, 1973). ɍ ɬɭ ɫɜɪɯɭ ɧɚʁɛɨʂɟ
ʁɟ ɞɨɞɚɬɢ DL-D-ɬɨɤɨɮɟɪɨɥ ɚɰɟɬɚɬ ɭ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɢ ɨɞ
0,5 ɞɨ 1 IU/g ɪɚɱɭɧɚɬɨ ɧɚ ɫɭɜɭ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ.
ɉɪɟɦɚ ɒɟɜɤɨɜɢʄɭ ɢ ɫɚɪ. (1987) ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɭ
ɦɚɫɬɢɦɚ ɢɡɧɨɫɟ ɨɞ 5% ɞɨ 8% ɨɛɪɨɤɚ. Ɇɚɫɬɢ ɫɭ
ɢɡɜɨɪ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ, ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ ɦɚɫɧɢɯ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ ɢ
ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɚ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪʂɢɜɢɯ ɭ ɦɚɫɬɢɦɚ. ɍɫɥɟɞ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ ɦɚɫɧɢɯ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ ɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɢ
ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɨʄɢ ɞɨ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɪɚɫɬɚ ɢ ɞɨ
ɞɟɩɢɝɦɟɧɬɚɰɢʁɟ (Fijan, 1964). ɇɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɚ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɦɚɫɧɚ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ ʁɟ ɥɢɧɨɥɟɧɫɤɚ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ, ɚ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɡɚ ɥɢɧɨɥɧɨɦ ɢ ɨɥɟɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɨɦ ɫɭ
ɨɤɨ 10 ɩɭɬɚ ɦɚʃɟ. Ɋɢɛɟ ɛɨʂɟ ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲʄɚɜɚʁɭ
ɧɟɡɚɫɢʄɟɧɟ ɧɟɝɨ ɡɚɫɢʄɟɧɟ ɦɚɫɬɢ, ʁɟɪ ɪɟɫɨɪɩɰɢʁɚ
ɦɚɫɬɢ ɭ ɞɢɝɟɫɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɬɪɚɤɬɭ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ʃɟɧɟ
ɬɚɱɤɟ ɬɨɩʂɟʃɚ. Ɂɚɫɢʄɟɧɟ ɦɚɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɫɩɨɪɨ ɜɚɪɟ, ʁɟɪ
ɫɟ ɫɩɨɪɨ ɟɦɭɥɝɭʁɭ, ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɭ ɯɥɚɞɧɨʁ ɜɨɞɢ.
Ƚɥɚɜɧɢ ɢɡɜɨɪɢ ɦɚɫɬɢ ɫɭ ɪɢɛʂɟ ɛɪɚɲɧɨ ɢ ɭʂɟ,
ɛɪɚɲɧɨ ɫɟɦɟɧɚ ɩɚɦɭɤɚ, ɫɜɟɠɚ ɪɢɛɚ ɢ ɦɟɫɨ
(Castell, 1979).
ɍɝʂɟɧɢ ɯɢɞɪɚɬɢ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢ ɞɟɨ
ɢɡɜɨɪɚ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɢ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɫɟ ɨɞɦɚɯ ɢɥɢ ɫɟ ɞɟɩɨɧɭʁɭ ɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɭ ɭ ɨɛɥɢɤɭ ɝɥɢɤɨɝɟɧɚ (Phillips ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 1948). ɉɪɟɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɚ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɭɝʂɟɧɢɯ ɯɢɞɪɚɬɚ ɭ ɯɪɚɧɢ ɡɚ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ ɫɟ ɤɪɟʄɟ ɨɞ 17%
(Edwards ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1977) ɞɨ 20% (NRC, 1973). Ɂɚ
ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭ ɨɞ ɬɨɩɥɨɜɨɞɧɢɯ ɪɢɛɚ, ɤɨʁɟ ɭɝʂɟɧɟ ɯɢɞɪɚɬɟ ɢɡ ɠɢɬɚɪɢɰɚ ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲʄɚɜɚʁɭ ɜɪɥɨ ɞɨɛɪɨ, ɫɜɚɪʂɢɜɨɫɬ ɫɤɪɨɛɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ ʁɟ ɫɥɚɛɚ (20%), ɚɥɢ
ɤɭɜɚʃɟɦ, ɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɭ ɟɤɫɬɪɭɞɢɪɚʃɚ ɯɪɚɧɟ, ɫɜɚɪʂɢɜɨɫɬ ɭɝʂɟɧɢɯ ɯɢɞɪɚɬɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɜɟʄɚ ɢ ɞɨ 50% (NRC,
1983).
ȼɢɬɚɦɢɧɢ ɫɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɫɤɚ ɯɟɦɢʁɫɤɚ ʁɟɞɢʃɟʃɚ,
ɤɨʁɚ ɫɭ ɭ ɦɚɥɢɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚɦɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɚ ɡɚ ɪɚɫɬ,
ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢʁɭ, ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɚɧ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɡɚɦ
ɪɢɛɚ. ɉɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɪɢɛɚ ɭ ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɢɦɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɟ ɨɞ
ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɫɬɚʃɚ ɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɚ ɨɤɨɥɢɧɟ. Ɋɢɛɟ ɫɭ
ɜɟɨɦɚ ɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɟ ɧɚ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɚɤ ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɚ C ɭ ɯɪɚɧɢ (ɫɦɚʃɭʁɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɪɚɫɬ, ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢɯ
ɞɟɮɨɪɦɢɬɟɬɚ í ɫɤɨɥɢɨɡɚ ɢ ɥɨɪɞɨɡɚ, ɫɦɚʃɭʁɟ ɫɟ
ɨɬɩɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɧɚ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɡɚɝɚɻɢɜɚɱɟ ɨɤɨɥɢɧɟ,
ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɧɢɬɪɢɬɢ, ɯɥɨɪɨɜɚɧɢ ɭɝʂɨɜɨɞɨɧɢɰɢ),
(NRC, 1981; 1983). Ʉɚɥɢɮɨɪɧɢʁɫɤɚ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɚ, ɱɢʁɚ
ʁɟ ɦɚɫɚ ɦɚʃɚ ɨɞ 100 g, ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚ 150 mg L-ɚɫɤɨɪɛɢɧɫɤɟ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɟ ɩɨ ʁɟɞɧɨɦ ɤɢɥɨɝɪɚɦɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ
(Halver, 1982). ɇɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɚɤ Se, ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɚ ȿ ɢɥɢ
ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɚ B6, ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚ ɤɨɞ ɪɢɛɚ ɝɭɛɢɬɚɤ ɚɩɟɬɢɬɚ ɢ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɭɝɢɧɭʄɟ. ɉɪɟɩɨɪɭɤɚ ɡɚ ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧ Ⱥ ʁɟ ɨɤɨ 200 IU/g
ɯɪɚɧɟ. Ɂɚ ɭɡɝɨʁ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɯɪɚɧɚ
ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɫɜɢɯ 15 ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɚ. ɇɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɚɤ ɨɜɢɯ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɚ ɭ ɯɪɚɧɢ, ɤɨɞ ɨɜɟ ɪɢɛɟ ɦɨɠɟ
ɞɚ ɢɡɚɡɨɜɟ ɫɦɚʃɟʃɟ ɚɩɟɬɢɬɚ, ɭɫɩɨɪɟɧ ɪɚɫɬ, ɚɧɟɦɢʁɭ, ɚɬɚɤɫɢʁɭ ɢ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧɭ ɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɨɫɬ ɧɚ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɫɤɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ.
Ɇɢɧɟɪɚɥɧɟ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɟ ɢɦɚʁɭ, ɩɪɜɟɧɫɬɜɟɧɨ, ɨɫɦɨɪɟɝɭɥɚɬɨɪɧɭ ɢ ɧɭɬɪɢɬɢɜɧɭ ɮɭɧɤɰɢʁɭ (Nose,
1979), ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɟ ɫɭ ɡɚ ɢɡɝɪɚɞʃɭ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɫɚʃɟ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ (ɤɨɲɬɚɧɨɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ). Ɋɟɫɨɪɛɭʁɭ
ɫɟ ɤɪɨɡ ɤɨɠɭ, ɲɤɪɝɟ ɢ ɞɢɝɟɫɬɢɜɧɢ ɬɪɚɤɬ. Ɉɞ
ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɚ ɫɭ, ɫɚ 60%í80%, ɧɚʁɜɢɲɟ ɡɚɫɬɭɩʂɟɧɢ
ɤɚɥɰɢʁɭɦ, ɮɨɫɮɨɪ, ɦɚɝɧɟɡɢʁɭɦ, ɧɚɬɪɢʁɭɦ, ɯɥɨɪ,
ɤɚɥɢʁɭɦ, ɫɭɦɩɨɪ, ɚ ɨɞ ɟɫɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɚɬɚ ɭ
ɬɪɚɝɨɜɢɦɚ ɫɭ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɢ ɝɜɨɠɻɟ, ɛɚɤɚɪ, ɦɚɧɝɚɧ,
ɰɢɧɤ, ʁɨɞ, ɤɨɛɚɥɬ, ɦɨɥɢɛɞɟɧ, ɫɟɥɟɧ ɢ ɮɥɭɨɪ.
Ʉɚɥɢɮɨɪɧɢʁɫɤɚ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɚ, ɨɫɢɦ ɢɡ ɯɪɚɧɟ, ɞɟɨ
ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɚ ɩɨɞɦɢɪɭʁɟ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɢɡ ɜɨɞɟ (Hickman,
1968). Ⱦɨɜɨʂɧɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɤɚɥɰɢʁɭɦɚ ɪɢɛɚ ɚɩɫɨɪɛɭʁɟ ɢɡ ɜɨɞɟ ɢ ɬɟɲɤɨ ʁɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɬɢ ɭɤɭɩɚɧ
ɭɧɨɫ ɤɚɥɰɢʁɭɦɚ. ɋ ɨɛɡɢɪɨɦ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚ
ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɨɝ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɚ ɭ ɜɨɞɢ ɜɪɥɨ ɦɚɥɚ, ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɪɢɛɚ ɮɨɫɮɨɪ ɭɧɨɫɢ ɯɪɚɧɨɦ. Ketola (1975)
ɧɚɜɨɞɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɚ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɚ ɭ
ɯɪɚɧɢ ɨɞ 0,6% ɞɨ 0,7%, ɚ ɩɪɟɦɚ Lovell (1978),
0,45%. Ɉɞ ɫɜɢɯ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɚ, ɮɨɫɮɨɪ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ, ɫ ɨɛɡɢɪɨɦ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɬɚɧ ɡɚ ɪɚɫɬ ɢ
ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ ɤɨɫɬɢʁɭ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɡɚ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɡɚɦ
ɥɢɩɢɞɚ ɢ ɭɝʂɟɧɢɯ ɯɢɞɪɚɬɚ (Watanabe ɢ ɫɚɪ.,
1988). Ʉɨɞ ɤɚɥɢɮɨɪɧɢʁɫɤɟ ɩɚɫɬɪɦɤɟ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɡɚ
Mg ɭ ɯɪɚɧɢ ɫɭ ɨɞ 0,05% ɞɨ 0,07% (Knox ɢ ɫɚɪ.,
1983), Zn – ɨɞ 15 ɞɨ 30 mg/kg ɯɪɚɧɟ (Ogino ɢ
Jang, 1978), Fe í 150 mg/kg ɯɪɚɧɟ (Sakamoto ɢ
Yone, 1978), Mn íɨɞ 12 ɞɨ 13 mg/kg ɯɪɚɧɟ (Ogino
ɢ Jang, 1980).
Ɋɢɛɟ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭʁɭ ɨɞ ɬɨɩɥɨɤɪɜɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
ɢ ɡɛɨɝ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɡɚ n-3 ɦɚɫɧɢɦ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚɦɚ.
ɉɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɫɚɥɦɨɧɢɞɚ ɡɚ ɨɜɢɦ ɦɚɫɧɢɦ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚɦɚ
ɫɭ ɨɤɨ 1% ɭ ɯɪɚɧɢ (Castell ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1972), a ɦɨɝɭʄɢ
ɪɚɡɥɨɝ ɡɚ ɜɟʄɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɭ n-3 ɭɦɟɫɬɨ n-6 ɦɚɫɧɢɦ
ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚɦɚ ʁɟ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɟʃɟ ɜɟʄɟɝ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɚ ɧɟɡɚɫɢʄɟʃɚ, ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ɮɨɫɮɨɥɢɩɢɞɢɦɚ ɞɚ
ɩɨɫɬɢɝɧɭ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɭ ɮɥɟɤɫɢɛɢɥɧɨɫɬ ɢ ɩɟɪɦɟɚɛɢɥɧɨɫɬ ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɟ ɩɪɢ ɧɢɫɤɢɦ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚɦɚ.
ɁȺɄȴɍɑȺɄ
ɍ ɩɨɝɥɟɞɭ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɯɪɚɧɢɜɚ, ɫɚɥɦɨɧɢɞɧɟ
ɪɢɛɟ ɫɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɦɟɻɭ ɧɚʁɡɚɯɬɟɜɧɢʁɟ ɢ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɚ ɩɚɫ-
63
ɬɪɦɤɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɧɨɦ ɯɪɚɧɨɦ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɬɢɱɟ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɬ ɪɢɛɟ, ɤɨɧɜɟɪɡɢʁɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɢ ɫɚɫɬɚɜ ɦɟɫɚ ɪɢɛɟ ɭ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ
ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨɝ ɭɡɝɨʁɚ.
ɇɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɬɢʄɢ ɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɟ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɟ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɟ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɫɤɢ ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦʂɟɧɟ
ɯɪɚɧɟ ɡɚ ɪɢɛɭ (ɨɛɥɢɤ, ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɢ ɝɭɫɬɢɧɚ ɝɪɚɧɭɥɚ, ɧɚɫɢɩɧɚ ɦɚɫɚ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɲɬɨ ɦɚʃɟ
ɪɚɫɬɜɚɪɚʁɭ ɢ ɲɬɨ ɞɭɠɟ ɡɚɞɪɠɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɤɧɨɫɬ ɭ
ɜɨɞɢ). Ɏɨɪɦɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɭɫɤɥɚɞɢɬɢ ɫɚ
ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚɧɢɦ ɫɚɫɬɚɜɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚɦɚ ɭ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɢ, ɚɥɢ
ɫɚɫɬɚɜ ʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɦɟʃɚɬɢ ɭ ɫɤɥɚɞɭ ɫɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɨɦ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢɦ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɚ ɩɟɥɟɬɚ.
ȺɎɂɅȺɐɂȳȺ
Ɉɜɚʁ ɪɚɞ ʁɟ ɪɚɻɟɧ ɭ ɨɤɜɢɪɭ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɚ „ɍɬɢɰɚʁ
ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɚɬɚ ɭ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɢ ɰɢɩɪɢɧɢɞɚ ɧɚ
ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɦɟɫɚ, ɝɭɛɢɬɤɟ ɢ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ“. Ɍɟɯɧɨɥɨɲɤɢ ɪɚɡɜɨʁ, 2011í2014, ɛɪ. ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɚ 31011, ɉɨʂɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɧɨɝ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬɚ ɇɨɜɢ
ɋɚɞ.
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65
33. Thomas, M., van der Poel, A. F. B. (1996).
Physical quality of pelleted animal feed. 1.
Criteria for pellet quality of feed pellets.
Animal Feed Science Technology, 61: 89í112.
34. Treer, T., Safner, R., Aniþiü, I., Lovrinov, M.
(1995). Ribarstvo. Hrvatsko obiteljsko gospodarstvo. Nakladni zavod Globus, Zagreb, 352í356.
35. Tucer, V. A. (1969). The energetetics of bird
flight. Sci. Am., 200, 70.
36. Watanabe, Y., Satoh, S., Takeuchi, T. (1988).
Availability of minerals in fish meal to fish.
Asian Fisheries Science, 1, 175í195.
66
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
UDK 636.084.5:547.495.9:636.5
Stamen Raduloviü1, Dragan Šefer2, Radmila Markoviü3, Dobrila Jakiü-Dimiü4, Svetlana Grdoviü5
EFEKTI UPOTREBE KREATINA KAO STIMULATORA RASTA U ISHRANI
ŽIVINE
Kratak sadržaj
Kreatin je ergogeno pomoüno sredstvo koje odnedavno uživa veliku pažnju domaüe i strane nauþne
javnosti kao potencijalni stimulator rasta u ishrani životinja. Utvrÿeno je znaþajno poveüanje ukupne telesne
mase i þiste mišiüne mase prilikom unosa kreatina kod ljudi, što je navelo na zakljuþak da bi se dodavanjem
kreatina u hrani za živinu uticalo na poboljšanje proizvodnih rezultata. Utvrÿena je bolja konverzija kod
piladi hranjenih obrokom sa dodatkom 0,63% kreatina. Upotrebom obroka sa dodatkom 5% ili 10% kreatina
smanjen je nivo masti u abdomenu kod brojlera. Histopatološke promene nisu bile uoþene u ogledima na
živini, što dokazuje da kreatin nema patološki uticaj na jetru, bubrege i mišiüe.
Kljuþne reþi: kretin, stimulatori rasta, živina.
Stamen Raduloviü1, Dragan Šefer2, Radmila Markoviü3, Dobrila Jakiü-Dimiü4, Svetlana Grdoviü5
THE EFFECTS OF USING CREATINE AS A GROWTH PROMOTER
IN POULTRY NUTRITION
Abstract
Creatine is an ergogenic supplement that from recently enjoys great attention of national and
international scientific community as a potential growth promoter in animal nutrition. A significant increase
in total body mass and lean body mass during creatine ingestion in humans was observed, which led to the
conclusion that the poultry with added creatine could showe an increase in growth during the period of
complementary feeding. There was a better conversion observed in chickens fed diets supplemented with
0.63% of creatine. Using a meal with the addition of 5 or 10% creatine has reduced the level of abdominal fat
in broilers. Histopathological changes were not significant in studies on poultry proving that creatine has no
pathological effect on the liver, kidneys and muscles.
Keywords: creatin, growth promoters, poultry.
1
2
3
4
5
Dr vet. med. Stamen Raduloviü, asistent, Katedra za ishranu i botaniku, FVM, Univerzitet u Beogradu.
Dr Dragan Šefer, vanr. prof., Katedra za ishranu i botaniku, FVM, Univerzitet u Beogradu.
Dr Radmila Markoviü, docent, Katedra za ishranu i botaniku, FVM, Univerzitet u Beogradu.
Dr Dobrila Jakiü-Dimiü, viši nauþni saradnik, Nauþni institut za veterinarstvo Srbije, Beograd.
Dr Svetlana Grdoviü, vanr. prof., Katedra za ishranu i botaniku, FVM, Univerzitet u Beogradu.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
UVOD
Kreatin je ergogeno pomoüno sredstvo (ergogena sredstva ukljuþuju bilo koju materiju, namirnicu,
hemikaliju, pa i trenersku metodu í sugestiju, koja
omoguüava veüe telesno naprezanje, veüu izdržljivost i veüu snagu) koje je odnedavno dobilo veliku
pažnju u okviru nauþne zajednice. Studije na ljudima
su uspešno pokazale da poveüanje koncentracije
intramuskularnog fosfokreatina (kreatin hemijski vezan za molekul fosfata) može rezultirati osmotskim
izvlaþenjem teþnosti u intracelularni prostor mišiünih üelija, što na kraju vodi poveüanju zapremine
mišiünih üelija (Ziegenfuss et al., 1998). Ovo poveüanje obima mišiünih üelija zbog „superhidriranja“ üelije, na kraju je izazvalo dodatnu sintezu
proteina, minimiziranje razlaganja proteina, i poveüanje sinteze glikogena (Haussinger, 1996). Pored
toga, istraživanja na ljudima su pokazala da dodavanje kreatina u ishrani može znaþajno smanjiti
nagomilavanje mleþne kiseline u tkivu mišiüa nakon
fiziþkih vežbi (Prevost i sar., 1997).
Kreatin je aminokiselinski derivat koji se normalno proizvodi u jetri, bubrezima i pankreasu od
glicina, arginina i metionina. Natrijum-zavisni
transporter ga transportuje do skeletnih mišiüa, srca,
mozga i nekoliko drugih tkiva (Wyss i KaddurahDaouk, 2000). Kreatin je važan sastojak u održavanju adekvatnog nivoa üelijske energije i prenosu
energije iz mitohondrija u citosol. Najvažnija uloga
kreatina je u održavanju homeostaze ATP-a (adenozin trifosfat) u üeliji (Brosnan i Brosnan, 2007).
Umor tokom maksimalnog vežbanja, kratkog trajanja, delimiþno je rezultat pražnjenja fosfokreatina
(PCR) i nemoguünosti hidrolize fosfokreatina da bi
održao visok ATP: ADP odnos (Greenhaff, 1997).
Dakle, neizdržljivi sportisti redovno uzimaju kreatin
za kratkoroþni period punjenja (Toler, 1997). Dok je
PCR dostupan trenutno za regeneraciju ATP-a, glikoliza se javlja sa zakašnjenjem od nekoliko sekundi
i stimulacija oksidativne fosforilacije mitohondrija
se još odgaÿa. S druge strane, PCR skladišta u
mišiüima su ograniþena, tako da se tokom visokog
intenziteta vežbanja PCR isprazni u roku od 10
sekundi. Dakle, ako bi bilo moguüe da se poveüaju
rezerve PCR mišiüa i na taj naþin da se odloži
pražnjenje PCR, na taj naþin bi se moglo povoljno
uticati na performanse mišiüa. Studije su otkrile da
dodavanjem obroku kreatin monohidrata (CMH)
može da se poveüa koncentracija ukupnog kreatina i
fosfokreatina skeletnih mišiüa (Parise et al., 2001) i
67
mozga (Leuzzi et al., 2000) uz još veüi stepen
poveüanja u organima sa niskim bazalnim sadržajem
kreatina, kao što su jetra i bubrezi (Ipsiroglu i sar.,
2001).
Punjenje kreatinom rezultuje poveüanjem zadržavanja vode (Juhn, 1999). ûelijska hidratacija je
anaboliþki proliferativni signal za sintezu proteina
(Perski i Brazeau, 2001). Pored toga, kreatin monohidrat poveüava gustinu kostiju (Antoliü et al.,
2007). Prevost i sar. (1997) izvestili su da
intramuskularno punjenje kreatinom može da
puferuje akumuliranje mleþne kiseline i ubrza vreme
oporavka od kratkotrajnog vežbanja maksimalnog
intenziteta.
Kreatin nije prisutan u hranivima biljnog
porekla, što nalaže upotrebu hraniva animalnog
porekla kao njegovog izvora u obrocima za životinje
ili upotrebu sintetskih preparata. Meÿu hranivima
animalnog porekla koja se uobiþajeno koriste
prilikom formulisanja obroka za ishranu živine,
najveüa koliþina kreatina se nalazi u mesnokoštanom brašnu (207,7 mg/kg) i ribljem brašnu
(1110,5 mg/kg), uz variranja u zavisnosti od
kvaliteta sirovine i tehnološkog postupka dobijanja.
Na tržištu su trenutno prisutne þetiri razliþite forme
kreatina: monohidrat, fosfat, citrat i piruvat. Kreatin
monohidrat sadrži 88% kreatina i 12% vode,
odnosno 1g keratin-monohidrata sadrži 880 mg
kreatina. Kreatin fosfat sadrži 62,3% kreatina i
37,7% fosfata, i trenutno je mnogo skuplji od kreatin-monohidrata. Kreatin-citrat sadrži tek 400 mg
kreatina po gramu preparata i bolje je rastvorljiv u
vodi. Kreatin-piruvat sadrži farmaceutski þist kreatin
molekularno vezan za kiselinu piruvata u koncentraciji odnosa 60:40. Do sada je najviše istraživanja
obavljeno sa keratin-monohidratom, koji je u odnosu
na ostale forme kreatina najviše u upotrebi kao
dodatak u ishrani sportista.
Iako je upotreba kreatina najviše prouþavana kod
ljudi, postoji moguünost njegove upotrebe i u ishrani
živine. Upotreba kreatina kao dodatka stoþnoj hrani
može biti od velikog interesa za živinsku industriju s
obzirom na to da glavni grudni mišiüi brojlera i üurki
(pectoralis major) sadrže uglavnom brzomišiüni tip
(IIb) mišiünih vlakana (Lengerken et al., 2002) sklon
brzom glikolitiþkom metabolizmu. Brza mišiüna
vlakna (IIb) imaju sposobnost da generišu velike
koliþine mleþne kiseline u mišiüe postmortalno
intramuskularno, što može dovesti do poveüanja
68
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
degradacije proteina, brzog smanjenja pH vrednosti
mišiüa, i smanjenja kapaciteta vezivanja vode, u
krajnjoj liniji smanjenja maloprodajne vrednosti sveže živine. Opisanim mehanizmima poveüanja üelijske hidratacije i sinteze proteina mogli bi se poboljšati prirast i/ili mesnatost živinskih trupova kod
životinja
hranjenih
sa
dodatkom
keratinmonohidrata (CMH).
U radovima (Casey i Greenhaff, 2000; Mihiü i
sar., 2000) dokazano je znaþajno poveüanje ukupne
telesne mase i þiste mišiüne mase kod unosa CMH
kod ljudi, što je navelo na zakljuþak da bi i živina sa
dodatkom CMH pokazala linearno poveüanje prirasta tokom perioda dopunske ishrane. Inicijalni nalazi
Maddock i sar. (2000) potkrepili su tu pretpostavku
rezultatima dobijenim u ogledima na svinjama, gde
su životinje hranjene obrokom sa dodatkom CMH
tokom pet dana pre klanja ostvarile veüu telesnu
masu nego životinje kontrolne grupe (6,69 kg
nasuprot 4,36 kg).
Shodno rezultatima dobijenim u prethodnim
ogledima, cilj istraživanja koji su sproveli Stahl i
Berg (2003) bio je da se utvrdi da li dodavanje kreatin monohidrata u obroku za pilad tokom tri do šest
nedelja pre klanja može znaþajno uticati na konverziju hrane. Tokom þetvrte nedelje eksperimenta,
konverzija zabeležena kod piliadi koja su dobijala
obrok koji je imao 0% kreatina tokom 1í3. nedelje i
0,63% kreatina tokom 4í6. nedelje bila je statistiþki
znaþajno viša (P ”0,05) u odnosu na pilad hranjenu
obrokom koji je sadržao 1,05% kreatina tokom 1í3.
nedelje i 0,63% kreatina 4í6. nedelje, sugerišuüi da
pilad reaguju povoljno na punjenje kreatinom kada
je dopuna sa 0,63% obroka. Pokazano je da dodavanje kreatina u ishrani poveüava ukupnu telesnu
težinu i prelazak teþnosti u intracelularni prostor,
þime se znaþajno podiže teþnost celog tela i intracelularna teþnost (Ziegenfuss i sar., 1998). Pored toga,
dodavanje kreatina u ishrani poveüava masu celog
tela, kao i ukupnu masu bez masti (Mihiü i dr., 2000)
kod ljudi za manje od jedne nedelje. Rezultati ovog
eksperimenta, zajedno sa informacijama iz prethodnih istraživaþkih poduhvata (Casey i Greenhaff,
2000) ukazuju na to da je znaþajno poboljšanje
konverzije hrane posmatrano tokom þetiri nedelje
eksperimenta najverovatnije povezano sa poþetnim
rastom üelijske hidratacije mišiüa i naknadnim poveüanjem telesne težine.
Ipak, u ogledu koji su sproveli Stahl i Berg
(2003), poþetni pozitivan odgovor u toku þetvrte
nedelje ogleda na dodavanje kreatina (poboljšanje
konverzije) izgubljen je u toku pete i šeste nedelje
eksperimenta, što je u skladu sa rezultatima koji su
dobijeni u ogledima na ljudima (Ziegenfuss et al.,
1998), gde je pokazano da se hidratacija intracelularnih odeljka, a zatim i naknadni dobitak u telesnoj
masi, javlja u prva tri dana dodavanja. Ovi nalazi
podržavaju hipotezu da je poþetno, ali kratkog daha,
poveüanje konverzije hrane rezultat mišiüne üelijske
hidratacije, efekta koji slabi uporedo kako üelije
postaju zasiüene vodom.
Ergogeni i metaboliþki efekti kreatina zavise od
akumulacije (tj. ukupne koliþine) kreatina u mišiüima tokom njegovog dodavanja (Steenge i sar.,
2000). U svojim radovima, Green i sar., (1996) navode da dodavanje kreatina u kombinaciji sa
ugljenim hidratima poveüava ukupnu koliþinu
kreatina u mišiüima za više od 25%. Steenge i sar.
(2000) navode da konzumiranje kreatina u
kombinaciji sa ugljenim hidratima može smanjiti
varijabilnost izmeÿu individua u vezi sa veliþinom
akumulacije ukupne koliþine kreatina u mišiüima. U
istraživanju koje su sproveli Nissen i J. F. Young
(2006) ispitivan je uticaj dodavanja CMH, zajedno
sa glukozom u vodi za piüe u poslednjih 48 sati pre
klanja kod brzorastuüih (Ros 308) i spororastuüih
(Ros 1972) sojeva Ros piladi. Jedinke u oglednim
grupama su imale tokom poslednjih 48 h pre
žrtvovanja slobodni pristup vodi koja sadrži 15 g/l
CMH i 50 g/l glukoze. Unos hrane od roÿenja do
žrtvovanja nije bio pod uticajem dodavanja, ali je
postojala znaþajna razlika u unosu hrane izmeÿu
sojeva (P<0,01). Telesna masa na 1. danu i na
klanju, kao i proseþni dnevni prirast, nisu bili
razliþiti u grupama u okviru istog soja. Meÿutim,
izmeÿu sojeva, Ross 308 pilad su znatno teža od Ros
1972 piladi na 1. danu (p <0.0001) i na klanju (P
<0,0001). Ovo se takoÿe odražavalo u mnogo bržem
prirastu Ros 308 u poreÿenju sa Ros 1972 (p
<0,0001). Potrošnja vode u poslednjih 48 sati je
znaþajno porasla kod piladi sa dodatkom CMH i
glukoze (P <0,01). Takoÿe, znaþajna razlika u
potrošnji vode je pronaÿena izmeÿu sojeva (p <
0.0001); Ros 308 pilad su imala mnogo veüu
potrošnju nego Ros 1972 pilad.
U istraživanjima Abdolkarim i sar. (2008) istražen je uticaj dodavanja CMH kod dve vrste životinja: piliüa i pacova držanih u standardnim uslovima
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
podeljenih u tri jednake grupe od po dvanaest
životinja. Kontrolna grupa nije dobijala CMH, dok
je eksperimentalna grupa dobila CMH dodat putem
vode u dozi od 0,25 i 0,5 g/kg/dan. Mereni su telesna
težina i unos hrane i obraþunata je konverzija hrane.
Sve životinje su secirane posle 15 dana. Nije bilo
znaþajne razlike u korist prirasta i konverzije hrane
izmeÿu kontrole i grupe pacova sa dodatkom
kreatina. Nije bilo, takoÿe, bilo kakvih promena u
konverziji hrane kod piladi, ali prirast je znaþajno (p
<0,05) poveüan na 15. danu uzgoja u grupi sa dodatkom kreatina (0,5 g/kg/dan) u odnosu na kontrolu. U
ovoj studiji, ishrana sa dodatkom CMH tokom 15
dana nije imala uticaja na prirast kod pacova, ali je
imala signifikantno poveüanje kod piladi. Ove razlike meÿu vrstama su verovatno posledica razliþitosti
metabolizma i funkcije kreatina.
Razlike u podacima o ostvarenom proseþnom
dnevnom prirastu u brojnim ogledima koji su
sprovedeni na živini, ali i na svinjama, mogle bi biti
i pod uticajem smeštajnih, tj. socijalnih uslova (broj
životinja po boksu). Prema navodima Gomez i sar.
(2000), postoje brojni faktori koji se mogu pripisati
smanjenjenju unosa hrane i prirastu životinja gajenih
u grupnom smeštaju, u poreÿenju sa životinjama
gajenim u pojedinaþnim boksovima. Veüi broj životinja po oboru poveüava stres udružen sa hranjenjem, konkurencijom i društvenom interakcijom i
time negativno utiþe na proizvodne rezultate. Isti
autori su utvrdili da su proizvodni rezultati bili
znaþajno bolji kod životinja hranjenih pojedinaþno u
odnosu na rezultate kod životinja hranjenih u grupama od po þetiri. Iako je evidentno da prirast može
zaista biti drugaþiji izmeÿu grupnog i pojedinaþnog
držanja, tek treba istražiti prednosti i praktiþnost
primene dodavanja CMH u velikim proizvodnim
pogonima.
Savremeni sojevi ptica þesto ispoljavaju prekomernu depoziciju telesne masnoüe, (Xu et al., 2003),
što je od velikog znaþaja za proizvoÿaþe brojlera.
Akumulacija viška masti treba da bude kontrolisana
zbog njenog negativnog efekta na produktivnost.
Mnogi odgajivaþi živine su u potrazi za novim metodama za smanjenje telesne masti u okviru njihovih
programa selekcije, ali identifikovano je i nekoliko
korisnih nutritivnih rešenja za prevazilaženje ovog
složenog problema (Xu et al., 2003; Scabo i dr.,
2005; Vang i sar., 2006). Ipak, uobiþajeni regulatori
metabolizma primenjeni kod brojlera smanjili su ne
samo taloženje masti, veü i ukupnu telesnu težinu i
69
konverziju. Nekoliko ranijih studija je pokazalo da
dodaci kalcijum i/ili natrijum piruvata poveüavaju
težinu i gubitak masti i poboljšavaju moguünost
vežbanja, pre svega, u gojaznih osoba (Stanko i sar.,
1990; Stanko et al., 1992). Piruvat se formira u telu
kao sporedni proizvod metabolizma ugljenih hidrata
i proteina i odnedavno je postao popularan dodatak
obrocima formulisanim za smanjenje telesne mase i
predložen je kao ergogeniþni dodatak.
Kreatin-piruvat (Cr-pir) je novo jedinjenje, koje
sadrži farmaceutski þist kreatin molekularno vezan
za kiselinu piruvata u koncentraciji odnosa 60:40.
Dakle, piruvatna kiselina može biti vezana za kreatin
i poboljšati korišüenje oba jedinjenja (Cr-pir) u telu.
Za razliku od velikog broja studija o efektima
piruvata (Stanko i sar., 1990; 1992) i kreatina pojedinaþno, kod pacova, svinja i ljudi (Rosenvold i sar.,
2007; Young i dr., 2007), malo se zna o efektu kombinovanog jedinjenja Cr-pir. Tronedeljni eksperiment koji su postavili Chen-Yan i sar. (2011)
izveden je sa ciljem da istraži efekte dodavanja Crpir u koliþini od 0%, 1,0%, 5,0% i 10% u ishrani
brojlera na proizvodne rezultate, metabolizam lipida
i proteina. Nije bilo statistiþki znaþajne razlike
izmeÿu telesne težine i prirasta brojlera mereno na
21. danu starosti. Nakon dodavanja Cr-pir od 22 do
42 dana, telesna težina i proseþni dnevni prirast u
grupi sa dodatkom 10% Cr-pir bili su znaþajno niži
(p <0,01) nego u kontrolnoj grupi, dok se na
proizvodne rezultate tretmanom nije negativno
uticalo u grupi koja je dobijala 1% i 5% Cr-pir (P>
0,05). Težina mišiüa nogu i grudnog mišiüa bila je
znaþajno veüa u odnosu na kontrolnu grupu (p
<0,05). Dodavanjem 5% ili 10% Cr-pir obroku
smanjen je nivo masti u abdomenu brojlera.
Koncentracija serum ili triglicerida jetre (TG) bila je
znaþajno niža u grupama sa dodatkom 5% i 10% Crpir (P <0,01). Nasuprot tome, dodavanje Cr-pir
izazvalo je znaþajno poveüanje koncentracije
neesterifikovanih masnih kiselina (NEFA) u serumu,
lipoproteina visoke gustine (HDL) i koncentracije
keratin-kinaze (CK) (P <0,01). Dodavanje CR-pir
(5% i 10%) u ishrani takoÿe je poveüalo sadržaj
glucagona (GLU), insulina (INS) i leptina (ZIP) (P
<0,01).
Ekspresija
jetrinog
peroxisomalnog
proliferator aktiviranog receptora Į (PPAR-Į) i
karnitin-palmitoil-transferaze-I (CPT-I), insulinu
sliþan faktor rasta I (IGF-I) su znaþajno povišeni a
nivo miostatin iRNK je smanjen u grupama sa
dodatkom 5% i 10% Cr-pir (P <0,05). Utvrÿeno je
da dodavanje sa 5% Cr-pir u obroku za živinu
70
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
poboljšava metabolizam proteina i lipida regulisanjem razliþitih metaboliþkih parametara brojlera,
dok ne utiþe negativno na proizvodne rezultate.
Bilo je dosta polemike i zabrinutosti od strane
potrošaþa u pogledu toksiþnosti kreatina zasnovano
na dva sluþaja kod ljudi (Koshy et al., 1999; Thorsteinsdottir et al., 2006), jednoj studiji na hipertenzivnim pacovima (Edmunds i sar., 2001) i þinjenici
da kancerogeni mogu da se formiraju ako su kreatin
i šeüeri zagrevani na visokim temperaturama tokom
procesa obrade hrane (Wiss i Kaddurah-Daouk,
2000). Kod ljudi, veüina ogleda u kojima je ispitivana toksiþnost kreatina nisu pronašli dokaze o neželjenim efektima kada je konzumiran u preporuþenim
dozama (Kreider et al., 2003; Mihiü i dr., 2000).
Rezultati nekoliko skorijih istraživanja su uputili na
zakljuþak da je dodavanje CMH obroku kod ljudi
relativno bezbedno u kratkom roku, ali su upozorili
da dugoroþni neželjeni efekti još uvek nisu sistematski procenjeni (Juhn i Tarnopolski, 1998; Terjung et
al., 2000) . U prilog ovim rezultatima su i novije studije kod starijih odraslih ljudi (Brose et al., 2003) u
kojima nisu pronaÿeni dokazi za toksiþnosti CRM
vezano za sporedne efekte na osnovu analize krvi i
upitnika, kod mladih sportista (Terjung i sar., 2000) i
kod bolesnika sa neurološkim bolestima (Jan
Groeneveld, 2003; Walter et al., 2000).
Abdolkarim i sar. (2008) su sproveli istraživanje
sa ciljem da se ispitaju efekti dodavanja CMH na
histopatološke promene kod pacova i brojlera. U
ogledu su korišüeni trideset pet dana stari brzorastuüi
brojleri (Ross 308) i Sprague-Dawley pacovi podeljeni u tri jednake grupe sa razlikom u koliþini dodatog CMH, koji je obezbeÿen putem sistema za
napajanje u dozi od 0,25 i 0,5 g/kg/dan. Primeüena
je promena u ponašanju pacova u 7. danu ogleda.
Ove promene su bile u vidu hiperaktivnosti i poveüane agresivnosti, što je u skladu sa rezultatima
Hillbrand i sar. (1998), koji su uoþili da postoji pozitivan odnos izmeÿu kreatin kinaze i agresivnog
ponašanja uoþenog kod mužjaka. U navedenoj studiji Abdolkarim i sar. (2008) nije primeüena bilo
kakva promena u ponašanju piladi tokom odgajanja.
Nisu pronaÿene histopatološke promene u jetri i
bubrezima kod grupa sa dodatim CMH kod pacova
niti kod piladi. Podaci dobijeni iz ogleda na ljudima
potvrÿuju navedene rezultate histopatološke analize
jetre i bubrega kod ispitivanih pacova i piladi.
Poortmans i Francaux (1999) su pokazali da ni
kratkoroþno ni srednjeroþno ni dugoroþno oralno
dodavanje kreatina ne izaziva štetne efekte na stepen
glomerularne filtracije, tubularnu resorpciju i permeabilitet glomerularne membrane. Mayhew i sar.
(2002) su utvrdili da oralno dodavanje CMH nije
imalo dugoroþne štetne efekte na funkcije bubrega
ili jetre u dobro utreniranih sportista. Takoÿe je potvrÿeno da dodavanje kreatina nema sporednih efekata na mišiünu funkciju, što je u saglasnosti sa rezultatima koje su dobili Bizzarini i Angelis (2004). Oni
su naveli da nema jakih dokaza koji povezuju kreatin sa pogoršanjem mišiünoskeletnih funkcija. Rezultati predstavljenih istraživanja su pokazali da
dodavanje kreatina nema patološki uticaj na jetru,
bubrege i mišiüe pacova i piladi i da kreatin može
poboljšati proizvodne rezultate u ishrani piladi bez
nuspojava.
ZAKLJUýNA RAZMATRANJA
Savremena intezivna stoþarska proizvodnja postavlja velike zahteve pred organizam domaüih životinja, pri þemu je jedan od imperativa u industrijskom naþinu držanja da se postigne što manji utrošak hrane po jedinici prirasta u što je moguüe kraüem vremenu. Nerealno je i nemoguüe oþekivati
optimalne rezultate u proizvodnji ako nije uspešno i
adekvatno rešeno pitanje ishrane. Obrok mora da sadrži sve neophodne hranljive materije koje üe zadovoljiti ne samo potrebe životinja za održavanje života, nego i za proizvodnju (Šefer, 2002). Da bi se
postiglo bolje iskorišüavanje hrane, duža održivost,
lakša manipulacija, a u krajnjem ishodu poveüanje
proizvodnje i poboljšanje kvaliteta namirnica
animalnog porekla, pored osnovnih hraniva u smeše
se dodaje veliki broj aditiva koji imaju razliþitu namenu. Dodaci hrani su supstance koje dodate obroku
u malim koliþinama, potenciraju korisne i suprimiraju štetne efekte (Sinovec, 2000). U poslednje vreme,
posebnu pažnju nauþne i struþne javnosti, a svakako
i potrošaþa, izazivaju stimulatori rasta. Meÿu brojnim jedinjenjima za koje je dokazan i opravdan ovaj
naziv, na osnovu rezultata dobijenih u velikom broju
ogleda još uvek je nepoznanica da li toj grupi jedinjenja treba dodati i kreatin monohidrat. Pred istraživaþe je postavljen izazov da pronaÿu naþin da se
optimalnom postavkom ogleda, koliþinom i dužinom
trajanja upotrebe kreatina približe rezultatima koje
ovaj dodatak ostvaruje upotrebom kod ljudi.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
AFILACIJA
Ovaj rad je finansiran sredstvima projekta Ministarstva nauke i prosvete Republike Srbije III 46002
i 46009.
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UDK 577.21:[619+636]
ȼ. ȼɢɞɨɜɢʄ, Ɇ. ɋɬɭɩɚɪ, Ⱦ. Ʌɭɤɚɱ, ȴ. ɒɬɪɛɚɰ1
ȽȿɇȿɌɂɑɄɂ ɂɇɀȿȵȿɊɂɇȽ ɍ ɋɌɈɑȺɊɋɌȼɍ ɂ ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇɂ
Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ɋɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɲɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɨɦ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚɧ ɭɬɢɰɚʁ ɧɚ ɭɡɝɨʁ
ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ɇɨɠɟɦɨ ɢɯ ɩɨɞɟɥɢɬɢ ɧɚ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɟ. ȳɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢɯ
ɰɢʂɟɜɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ʁɟɫɬɟ ɩɨɛɨʂɲɚʃɟ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɜɚɠɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɩɪɢɧɨɫ ɦɟɫɚ, ɦɥɟɤɚ,
ʁɚʁɚ, ɜɭɧɟ, ɛɪɡɢɧɟ ɤɨɞ ɤɨʃɚ. ɋ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɜɪɯɭɧɫɤɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɟ ɦɨɠɟɦɨ ɨɱɟɤɢɜɚɬɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɨɞ
ɡɞɪɚɜɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɩɚ ɫɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɚɤɰɟɧɚɬ ɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɜɨ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ.
ɇɚʁɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɨ ɨɫɟɦɟʃɚɜɚʃɟ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɤɨɞ ɝɨɜɟɞɚ ɢ ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɚ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɢ ɤɨɞ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ȿɦɛɪɢɨɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ ʁɟ ɞɪɭɝɚ
ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɚ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɨɜɢɦɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɧɚʁɜɢɲɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɭ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɢ ɬɨɜɧɢɯ ɢ
ɦɥɟɱɧɢɯ ɝɨɜɟɞɚ. ɍɬɜɪɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɨɥɚ í ɫɟɤɫɢɪɚʃɟ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ ɩɪɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪɚ ɩɪɭɠɚ ɧɨɜɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ
ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ í ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ ɩɨɬɨɦɚɤɚ ɠɟʂɟɧɨɝ ɩɨɥɚ. Ɇɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɫɚʃɟ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɨɦ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚ ɢ
ɬɟɯɧɢɤɭ ɞɟɥɟʃɚ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢ ɢɫɬɢɯ ɩɨɬɨɦɚɤɚ, ɤɥɨɧɨɜɚ, ɢɡ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ
ɨɩɥɨɻɟɧɨɝ ʁɚʁɟɬɚ. Ɍɟɯɧɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɨɲ ɧɢɫɭ ɞɨɜɨʂɧɨ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɟɧɟ ɢ ɭɫɚɜɪɲɟɧɟ, ɢɥɢ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɨɲ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɭ ɨɧɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚʁɭ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɫɚʃɟ ɯɪɨɦɨɡɨɦɢɦɚ ɢ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɧɢɦ
ɝɟɧɢɦɚ, ɬɡɜ. ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ. ɍɛɚɰɢɜɚʃɟ ɝɟɧɚ ɭ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɨɜɟ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɜɪɫɬɚɜɚ ɫɟ
ɭ ɫɮɟɪɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɢɡɜɨɞʂɢɜɨɫɬɢ (ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɫɤɟ ɫɜɢʃɟ), ɚɥɢ ɫɟ ʁɨɲ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨ ɧɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɧɨɦ
ɧɢɜɨɭ. ɋɜɚɤɚ ɧɨɜɚ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ, ɢ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɩɪɢɜɥɚɱɧɚ ɢ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɛɢɥɚ ɩɪɢɯɜɚʄɟɧɚ
ɭ ɩɪɚɤɫɢ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ ɫɭ ɭɫɦɟɪɟɧɚ ɤɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɚ ɛɨʂɢɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɦ
ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢɦɚ ɢ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɢʁɢɦ ɧɚ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɟ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɱɢɦɟ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɨɫɢɝɭɪɚɨ ɩɪɨɮɢɬ.
Ʉʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɝɟɧɢɦɚ, ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ, ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɚ.
V. Vidoviü, M. Stupar, D. Lukaþ, Lj. Štrbac
GENETIC ENGINEERING IN LIVESTOCK AND VETERINARY MEDICINE
Abstract
Modern technologies that manipulate genetic material are significant impact on the breeding of domestic
animals. They can be classified into reproductive and molecular. One of the primary objectives of their
application is to improve economically important traits such as yield of meat, milk, eggs, wool, and the speed
of the horse. On the other side high production results can be expected only from healthy animals and is more
1
Ⱦɪ ȼɢɬɨɦɢɪ ȼɢɞɨɜɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ, ɉɨʂɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɧɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ, Ⱦɟɩɚɪɬɦɚɧ ɡɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ, Ɍɪɝ Ⱦɨɫɢɬɟʁɚ
Ɉɛɪɚɞɨɜɢʄɚ 8, 21 000 ɇɨɜɢ ɋɚɞ.
Ⱦɪ Ɇɢɥɚɧɤɨ ɋɬɭɩɚɪ, ɧɚɭɱɧɢ ɫɚɪɚɞɧɢɤ, ɉɨʂɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɧɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ, Ⱦɟɩɚɪɬɦɚɧ ɡɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ, Ɍɪɝ Ⱦɨɫɢɬɟʁɚ
Ɉɛɪɚɞɨɜɢʄɚ 8, 21 000 ɇɨɜɢ ɋɚɞ.
MSc Ⱦɪɚɝɨɦɢɪ Ʌɭɤɚɱ, ɚɫɢɫɬɟɧɬ, ɉɨʂɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɧɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ, Ⱦɟɩɚɪɬɦɚɧ ɡɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ, Ɍɪɝ Ⱦɨɫɢɬɟʁɚ Ɉɛɪɚɞɨɜɢʄɚ
8, 21 000 ɇɨɜɢ ɋɚɞ.
MSc ȴɭɛɚ ɒɬɪɛɚɰ, ɉɨʂɨɩɪɢɜɪɟɞɧɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ, Ⱦɟɩɚɪɬɦɚɧ ɡɚ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɨ, Ɍɪɝ Ⱦɨɫɢɬɟʁɚ Ɉɛɪɚɞɨɜɢʄɚ 8, 21 000
ɇɨɜɢ ɋɚɞ.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
75
emphasis is placed on trait resistant to disease of the animals. The most significant example of reproductive
technology is artificial insemination, which is intensively used in cattle and pig production, and more in other
species of animals. Embryo transfer is a second reproductive kind of manipulation of genotypes, which is
mostly used in industrial beef and dairy cattle. Determination of sex before transfer provides a new
opportunity breeder animals, producing wanted sex of offspring. Embryo manipulation includes and
technique divisions of the embryo thus created several genetic the same offspring, clones, from a single
fertilized egg. The techniques that have not yet been explored and improved, or that are not useful breeder are
those that involve manipulation of chromosomes and individual genes so called molecular technology.
Inserting genes into genotypes of farm animals classified as a sphere possible feasibility (transgenic pigs) but
it still does not work effectively on a commercial basis. Any new technology takes time, and to be
economically attractive to be adopted in practice. However, efforts are directed towards the creation of
transgenic animals with better production results and more resistant to certain pathogens, which would
provide a profit.
Key words: gene manipulation, animals, selection.
ɍȼɈȾ - ȻɂɈɌȿɏɇɈɅɈɒɄȿ
ɌȿɏɇɂɄȿ
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɯ ɛɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɭ
ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɭ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɢ ʁɟɫɬɟ, ɢ ɭ ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ʄɟ
ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚɬɢ ɪɟɚɥɧɨɫɬ ɭ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢʁɢ
ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɨɝ ɩɨɪɚɫɬɚ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɡɟɦʂɟ, ʁɟɪ ɞɚʁɭ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪ ɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɧɟ ɢ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɟɧɨ-ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɟ
ɡɚɯɬɟɜɟ. ɍ ɩɨɫɥɟɞʃɟɦ ɜɟɤɭ, ɧɚɭɱɧɢɰɢ ɫɭ
ɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɭ ɯɪɨɦɨɡɨɦɭ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɟ ɢ
ɬɢɦɟ ɨɞɪɟɞɢɥɢ ɛɚɡɭ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ
ɩɨʁɚɫɧɢɥɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɤɪɢɩɰɢʁɭ ɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɥɚɰɢʁɭ ȾɇɄ ɭ
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɭ ɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ ɨɜɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ. ɂɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ, ɪɚɡɜɨʁ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧ ɭ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɢ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɤɚɤɨ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɥɨ ɩɨʁɚɜʂɢɜɚʃɟ ɢ ɨɞɪɠɚɜɚʃɟ ɠɟʂɟɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ. Ɂɚ ɫɚɦɨ 20
ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɛɪɡɨɝ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ
ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɧɬɧɟ ȾɇɄ, ɩɪɟɤɨ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ
ɢ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɟ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɞɨɛɢɥɢ ɫɦɨ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɧɚ ɫɜɟ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɢʁɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɨɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ
ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɧɚɦ ɨɞ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ.
ȿɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɧɚʁɜɚɠɧɢʁɟ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɟ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ je ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɦɥɟɤɚ, ɦɟɫɚ, ʃɢɯɨɜ
ɫɚɫɬɚɜ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɚɫɬ ɝɪɥɚ, ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲʄɚɜɚʃɟ ɯɪɚɧɟ, ɛɪɡɢɧɚ ɤɨɞ ɤɨʃɚ ɢ ɫɥ., ɫɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɭ ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɟ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɟ. ɇɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɨɜɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ ɭɬɢɱɟ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ
ɛɪɨʁ ɝɟɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɦɟɻɭɫɨɛɧɨ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɭʁɭ ɭ ɜɟɥɢɤɨɦ
ɛɪɨʁɭ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɨɜɚ. ɇɚɫɥɟɞɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ ʁɟ, ɫɚɦɢɦ ɬɢɦ, ɩɨɥɢɝɟɧɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ, ɩɚ
ɫɟ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɭɬɜɪɻɭʁɟ ɩɪɨɭɱɚɜɚʃɟɦ
ɜɟɥɢɤɨɝ ɛɪɨʁɚ ʁɟɞɢɧɤɢ ɤɨɞ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɫɟ ɨɜɟ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɟ
ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚʁɭ (ȼɢɞɨɜɢʄ ɢ Ʌɭɤɚɱ, 2010). Ⱦɨɫɚɞɚɲʃɢ
ɪɚɞ ɧɚ ɩɨɛɨʂɲɚʃɭ ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ
ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ ɫɟ ɫɚɫɬɨʁɚɨ ɭ ɩɪɨɭɱɚɜɚʃɭ ɜɚɪɢʁɚɛɢɥɧɨɫɬɢ ʁɟɞɢɧɤɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɱɢɧɟ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɭ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ,
ɤɚɨ ɢ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟʃɭ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɭɤɪɲɬɚʃɚ
ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚɧɢɯ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚ.
ɋɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɲɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɨɦ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚɧ ɭɬɢɰɚʁ ɧɚ
ɭɡɝɨʁ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ɇɨɠɟɦɨ ɢɯ ɩɨɞɟɥɢɬɢ
ɧɚ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɟ. ȳɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢɯ ɰɢʂɟɜɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ʁɟɫɬɟ ɩɨɛɨʂɲɚʃɟ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɜɚɠɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ, ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ
ɩɪɢɧɨɫ ɦɟɫɚ, ɦɥɟɤɚ, ʁɚʁɚ, ɜɭɧɟ, ɛɪɡɢɧɟ ɤɨɞ ɤɨʃɚ.
ɋ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɜɪɯɭɧɫɤɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɟ
ɦɨɠɟɦɨ ɨɱɟɤɢɜɚɬɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɨɞ ɡɞɪɚɜɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɩɚ
ɫɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɚɤɰɟɧɚɬ ɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɜɨ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ. ɇɚʁɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢʁɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ
ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɨ ɨɫɟɦɟʃɚɜɚʃɟ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɤɨɞ ɝɨɜɟɞɚ ɢ
ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɚ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɢ ɤɨɞ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ.
ȿɦɛɪɢɨɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ ʁɟ ɞɪɭɝɚ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɚ ɜɪɫɬɚ
ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɨɜɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɧɚʁɜɢɲɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɭ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɢ ɬɨɜɧɢɯ ɢ ɦɥɟɱɧɢɯ ɝɨɜɟɞɚ. ɍɬɜɪɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɨɥɚ í ɫɟɤɫɢɪɚʃɟ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ ɩɪɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪɚ
ɩɪɭɠɚ ɧɨɜɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ í
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ ɩɨɬɨɦɚɤɚ ɠɟʂɟɧɨɝ ɩɨɥɚ. Ɇɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɫɚʃɟ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɨɦ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɭ ɞɟɥɟʃɚ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢ ɢɫɬɢɯ
ɩɨɬɨɦɚɤɚ, ɤɥɨɧɨɜɚ, ɢɡ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɨɩɥɨɻɟɧɨɝ ʁɚʁɟɬɚ.
Ɍɟɯɧɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɨɲ ɧɢɫɭ ɞɨɜɨʂɧɨ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɟɧɟ ɢ
ɭɫɚɜɪɲɟɧɟ, ɢɥɢ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɨɲ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ
76
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɭ ɨɧɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚʁɭ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɫɚʃɟ ɯɪɨɦɨɡɨɦɢɦɚ ɢ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɧɢɦ ɝɟɧɢɦɚ, ɬɡɜ. ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ. ɍ ɩɨɫɥɟɞʃɢɦ
ɞɟɰɟɧɢʁɚɦɚ ɞɜɚɞɟɫɟɬɨɝ ɜɟɤɚ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ
ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɫɤɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɤɟ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɢɧɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɝɟɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɧɚ ɜɚɪɢɪɚʃɟ ɤɜɚɧɬɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɟ (ɆȺɋ) ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɡɚ ɦɚɩɢɪɚʃɟ ɝɟɧɨɦɚ
ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɭ ɜɟɡɚɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɟɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɧɚ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɜɚɠɧɟ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (Davis ɢ De Nise,
1992). Ɉɜɢɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɟɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɬɤɪɢʁɭ
ɢ ɩɨɬɜɪɞɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɟ ɜɚɪɢʁɚɧɬɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɦɥɟɤɚ,
ɭɬɜɪɞɢ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɢ ɫɬɪɟɫ,
ɨɞɪɟɞɢ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɦɟɫɚ, ɢɡɜɪɲɢ ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ
ɩɟɞɢɝɪɟɚ ɢ ɩɨɥɚ, ɭɬɜɪɞɢ ɛɢɨɞɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬ, ɮɢɥɨɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɫɬɚɞɢʁɭɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɞɪ.
ɇɚʁɝɥɚɦɭɪɨɡɧɢʁɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɢ ɢɡɜɨɞʂɢɜɟ ɚɥɢ ɩɪɢɥɢɱɧɨ ɫɤɭɩɟ. ɍ ɩɨɪɟɻɟʃɭ ɫ ɬɢɦ, ʁɟɞɧɨɫɬɚɜɧɟ, ɚɥɢ ɢ ʁɟɮɬɢɧɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɨɞ ɜɟɥɢɤɟ ɩɨɦɨʄɢ.
ɌɊȺɇɋɎȿɊ ȽȿɇȺ
Ɍɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɟɧɨɫ ɝɟɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɧɬɚɰɢʁɭ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɢɯ ɝɟɧɚ ɢɡ ʁɟɞɧɟ
ʁɟɞɢɧɤɟ ɭ ɞɪɭɝɭ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟʃɟɦ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɟ
ɬɟɯɧɢɤɟ. Ɇɧɨɝɢ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɰɢ ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪɚ
ɝɟɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɭɪɚɻɟɧɢ ɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɭ
ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ ɝɟɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɤɥɨɧɢɪɚʁɭ, ɩɪɟɧɨɫɟ ɡɚ
ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɟ ɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɢɡ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ
ɡɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɧɚ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɟ. Ƚɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɢɡɦɟʃɟɧɚ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɡɚɬɢɦ, ɜɟɨɦɚ ʁɟɮɬɢɧɨ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ. Ɍɚɤɨɻɟ ʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɢɬɢ ɝɟɧɟ ɭɧɭɬɚɪ ɢ
ɩɪɟɤɨ ɪɚɫɚ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ɇɚʁɜɟʄɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɚ
ɫɟ ɨɜɨ ɭɪɚɞɢ ʁɟ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɨ ɭɛɚɰɢɜɚʃɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ȾɇɄ ɭ
ɧɭɤɥɟɭɫ ɧɨɜɨɨɩɥɨɻɟɧɟ ʁɚʁɧɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ. Ɍɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ
ɝɟɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɚɥɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɭ ɩɨɜɪɚɬɧɨɝ ɭɤɪɲɬɚʃɚ ɯɢɛɪɢɞɚ ɫɚ ʁɟɞɧɢɦ ɨɞ ɪɨɞɢɬɟʂɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɫɚ ɡɚ
ɫɩɚʁɚʃɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɢɯ ɚɥɟɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɜɟʄ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɭ
ʁɟɞɧɨʁ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɢ ɫɚ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɨɦ. ɉɨɧɨɜʂɟɧɨ ɩɨɜɪɚɬɧɨ ɭɤɪɲɬɚʃɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɲɟ, ɚɥɢ
ʁɟ ɨɧɨ ɫɩɨɪɨ, ɢ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɭɤɪɲɬɚʃɚ ɯɢɛɪɢɞɚ ɫɚ ʁɟɞɧɢɦ ɨɞ ɪɨɞɢɬɟʂɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɫɚ ɢ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɚ
ɡɚ ɠɟʂɟɧɟ ɚɥɟɥɟ. Ɉɧɨ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ
ɫɟ ɧɟɩɨɠɟʂɧɢ ɚɥɟɥɢ, ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɥɟɬɚɥɧɟ ɪɟɰɟɫɢɜɧɟ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɟ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɟ ɫɚ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɧɚ
ɞɪɭɝɭ. Ɍɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ ɝɟɧɚ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɭʁɟ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ
ɦɨɝɭ ɞɨɛɢɬɢ ɚɥɟɥɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɧɚɫ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭʁɭ ɛɟɡ
ɭɜɨɻɟɧɚ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɨɝ ɝɟɧɚ ɢɡ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɞɨɧɨɪɚ. ɇɚɠɚɥɨɫɬ, ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ ɝɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɫɩɨɪ ɩɪɨɰɟɫ –
ɜɟɪɨɜɚɬɧɨ ɢɫɬɨ ɬɚɤɨ ɫɩɨɪ ɤɚɨ ɢ ɩɨɧɨɜʂɟɧɨ ɩɨɜ-
ɪɚɬɧɨ ɭɤɪɲɬɚʃɟ ɯɢɛɪɢɞɚ ɫɚ ʁɟɞɧɢɦ ɨɞ ɪɨɞɢɬɟʂɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɫɚ – ɡɛɨɝ ɬɨɝɚ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɟ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɟ
ɞɚ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɥɢ ɯɨɦɨɡɢɝɨɬɢ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɢɥɢ
ɝɟɧɢ ɤɪɨɡ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɭ. ɉɪɟɧɨɫɢ ɫɟ ɫɚɦɨ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɩɨ
ʁɟɞɚɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɤ ɝɟɧɚ, ɤɨɩɢʁɚ ɝɟɧɚ. ɉɪɟɧɟɫɟɧɢ ɝɟɧ
ɛɢ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɚɨ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢ ɭɛɚɰɢɬɢ ɛɢɥɨ ɝɞɟ ɭ ɝɟɧɨɦ,
ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɞɨɛɢʁɚʃɟ ɯɨɦɨɡɢɝɨɬɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɬɚɤɨ ʁɟɞɧɨɫɬɚɜɧɨ ɤɚɨ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ ɝɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɟ, ɚ ɡɚɬɢɦ
ɢɯ ɩɚɪɢɬɢ. ȼɢɲɟ ʁɟ ɜɟɪɨɜɚɬɧɨ ɞɚ ɯɨɦɨɡɢɝɨɬɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬ ɭɤɪɲɬɚʃɚ ɪɨɻɚɤɚ ɱɢʁɢ ʁɟ
ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɚɤ ɩɪɢɦɢɨ ɝɟɧɟ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪɚ
ɝɟɧɚ. Ⱥɥɢ, ɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɠɟɥɢ ɢɡɜɪɲɢɬɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɧɬɚɰɢʁɚ ɝɟɧɚ ɢɡ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɭ ɞɪɭɝɭ ɤɨɞ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɧɟɤɨɦɩɚɬɢɛɢɥɧɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ, ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ ɝɟɧɚ ʁɟ
ʁɟɞɢɧɢ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɤɨʁɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɲɟ.
ȽȿɇȿɌɂɑɄɂ ɂɇɀȿȵȿɊɂɇȽ
ɍ ɉɊȺɄɋɂ
Ɍɟɯɧɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɨɲ ɧɢɫɭ ɞɨɜɨʂɧɨ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɟɧɟ ɢ
ɭɫɚɜɪɲɟɧɟ, ɢɥɢ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɨɲ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɭ ɨɧɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚʁɭ ɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɫɚʃɟ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɧɢɦ ɝɟɧɢɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɯɪɨɦɨɡɨɦɢɦɚ. ɍɛɚɰɢɜɚʃɟ ɝɟɧɚ ɭ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɨɜɟ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɜɪɫɬɚɜɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɫɮɟɪɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɢɡɜɨɞʂɢɜɨɫɬɢ (ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ), ɚɥɢ ɫɟ ʁɨɲ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨ ɧɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɧɨɦ ɧɢɜɨɭ. ɋɜɚɤɨʁ ɧɨɜɨʁ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ
ɩɪɢɜɥɚɱɧɚ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɛɢɥɚ ɩɪɢɯɜɚʄɟɧɚ ɭ ɩɪɚɤɫɢ.
Ɍɚɤɨɻɟ, ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɚ ɦɨɪɚ ɛɢɬɢ ɬɚɤɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ
ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɢ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɧɚ ɞɨɛɢɬ ɨɞ ɧɟɤɟ ɧɨɜɟ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ.
Ƚɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢ ɢɧɠɟʃɟɪɢɧɝ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɟ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɨɝ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚʃɚ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɨɝ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɢ ɭ ɞɪɭɝɢ, ɱɢɦɟ ɫɟ ɞɨɛɢʁɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɫɚ ɞɪɭɝɚɱɢʁɨɦ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɝɟɧɚ, ɱɢʁɚ ɫɟ ȾɇɄ ɧɚɡɢɜɚ ɯɢɛɪɢɞɧɚ ɢɥɢ
ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɨɜɚɧɚ. Ɇɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɨɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɟ
ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚʁɭ ɪɚɞ ɫɚ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɨɦ –
ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ ȾɇɄ, ɚ ɩɨ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ ɢ ɊɇɄ ɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢɦɚ. ȾɇɄ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɭ ɨɜɢɦ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɰɢɦɚ
ɦɨɠɟ ɫɟ ɢɡɨɥɨɜɚɬɢ ɢɡ ɫɜɚɤɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɫɚ ʁɟɞɪɨɦ, ɚ ɭ
ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɩɪɚɤɫɢ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɫɟ ɞɨɛɢʁɚ ɢɡ
ɥɢɦɮɨɰɢɬɚ ɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɧɟ ɤɪɜɢ. ɂɡɜɨɪ ȾɇɄ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ
ɛɭɞɟ, ɩɨ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ, ɢ ɭɡɨɪɚɤ ɯɨɪɢɨɧɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɢɰɚ
ɢɥɢ ɚɦɧɢɨɧɫɤɟ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɪɟɧ ɞɥɚɤɟ, ɬɪɚɝ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɢɯ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ (ɤɚɩ ɤɪɜɢ, ɫɟɦɟɧɚ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬ, ɩʂɭɜɚɱɤɚ) ɢ ɫɥ.
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɢɧɠɟʃɟɪɫɬɜɚ ɭ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɭ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɢ ɩɨɤɭɲɚɜɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɢɬɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɚ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɦɥɟɤɚ ɢ ɦɥɟɱɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɫɦɚʃɢ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɥɚɤɬɨɡɟ, ɚ ɩɨɜɟʄɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɭ ɦɥɟɤɭ. Ɇɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɫɢɪɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɨɞ ɦɥɟɤɚ ɧɚʁɜɢɲɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ ɤ-ɤɚɡɟɢɧɚ, ɢ ɡɛɨɝ ɬɨɝɚ ʁɟ ɰɢʂ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɜɟʄɚ ɟɤɫɩɪɢɦɢɪɚʃɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ ɡɚ ɤ-ɤɚɡɟɢɧ (ɋɬɨʁɱɟɜɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ.,
2012; Herczegh ɢ Fenyves, 2001). Ⱦɪɭɝɚ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ
ɦɥɟɤɚ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɭ ɫɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɭɬɢɰɚɬɢ ɨɜɨɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ʁɟ
ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɥɚɤɬɨɡɟ. ɉɨʁɟɞɢɧɟ ɨɫɨɛɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɬɨɥɟɪɢɲɭ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɥɚɤɬɨɡɟ ɭ ɦɥɟɤɭ ɢɥɢ ɭ ɦɥɟɱɧɢɦ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɦɚ. ɉɨɫɬɭɩɤɨɦ ɢɧɠɟʃɟɪɢɧɝɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ʁɟ
ɞɨɛɢɬɢ ɤɪɚɜɟ ɤɨʁɟ ʄɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɢ ɦɥɟɤɨ ɫɚ ɧɢɫɤɢɦ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɟɦ ɥɚɤɬɨɡɟ. Ɉɜɚɤɜɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɭ ɫɜɨɦ
ɝɟɧɨɦɭ ɫɚɞɪɠɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧ, ɬʁ. ɝɟɧɫɤɭ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɭ
ɱɢʁɚ ɤɨɞɢɪɚʁɭʄɚ ɫɟɤɜɟɧɰɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɲɟ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ
ɟɧɡɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɭʁɭ ɭ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ ɦɥɟɱɧɨɝ ɲɟʄɟɪɚ, ɬʁ. ɥɚɤɬɨɡɟ. ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɞɨɛɢɥɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɟ
ɤɪɚɜɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɛɢ ɢɦɚɥɟ ɝɟɧ ɡɚ ɪɚɡɝɪɚɞʃɭ ɥɚɤɬɨɡɟ, ɦɨɝɥɨ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɞɨɛɢɬɢ ɢ ɦɥɟɤɨ ɛɟɡ ɨɜɨɝ ɲɟʄɟɪɚ.
Ɋɚɡɜɨʁɟɦ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɫɤɢɯ ɛɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɢ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɭ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɨʁ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ, ɨɦɨɝɭʄɟɧɨ
ʁɟ ɢɧɠɢʃɟɪɢɫɚʃɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɬʁ. ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɧɨɫɟ ɝɟɧɟ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɨɦ ɢɡ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɪɫɬɚ.
ɉɪɜɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɦɢɲ (Gordon ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 1980). ɍɛɪɡɨ ɧɚɤɨɧ ɬɨɝɚ, ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɚ ɛɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ʁɟ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɢɥɚ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢɯ ɡɟɱɟɜɚ, ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɨɜɰɚ ɢ ɤɪɚɜɚ (Hammer ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 1985; Pursel ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1987). Ɋɚɡɥɨɡɢ ɡɚ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢʁɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɥɚɡɟ ɢɡ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɲɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɫɤɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɫɢɫɬɟɦɢ ɡɚ ɢɡɭɱɚɜɚʃɟ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚɪɧɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɚ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ (Petters ɢ Sommer, 2000).
Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢ ɢ ɮɚɪɦɟɪɢ ɛɢ
ɜɨɥɟɥɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɢ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɚ ɞɚ ʄɟ ɛɭɞɭʄɟ ɞɨɦɚʄɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɢʁɟ ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲɬɚɜɚɬɢ ɭɧɟɬɭ ɯɪɚɧɭ, ɞɚ ʄɟ ɢɦɚɬɢ ɦɟɫɨ ɛɨʂɟɝ ɤɜɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ (ɦɚʃɟ ɦɚɫɧɨʄɟ ɢɥɢ ɯɨɥɟɫɬɟɪɨɥɚ, ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ)
(Gibson, 1991), ɞɚ ʄɟ ɪɚɫɬɢ ɛɪɠɟ ɞɨ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɤɨʁɚ
ʁɟ ɩɪɢɯɜɚɬʂɢɜɚ ɡɚ ɬɪɠɢɲɬɟ ɢ ɞɚ ʄɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɟ
ɧɚ ɞɚɧɚɲʃɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɞɟɫɟɬɤɭʁɭ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ
ɨɫɬɜɚɪɟɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɢɬ. Ɋɚɞ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢɯ ɩɢɥɢʄɚ ɫɟ ɭɫɦɟɪɚɜɚ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɢʁɢ
ɩɪɢɪɚɫɬ ɦɢɲɢʄɚ ɩɢɥɟɬɚ, ɞɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɜɟʄɚ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢʁɚ
ʁɚʁɚ ɢ ɞɚ ɩɢɥɢʄɢ ɛɭɞɭ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɢʁɢ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɚɥɢ
ɞɚ ɫɟ ɡɚ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɟʃɟ ɨɜɢɯ ɰɢʂɟɜɚ ɧɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ
ɯɟɦɢɤɚɥɢʁɟ.
ȳɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɜɚɠɧɢʁɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɢɧɠɟʃɟɪɫɬɜɚ ɭ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɭ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɢ ʁɟ
ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɬɚɤɜɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɛɢ ɛɢɥɟ ɛɢɨɪɟɚɤ-
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ɬɨɪɢ ɡɚ ɞɨɛɢʁɚʃɟ ɜɚɠɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɨɞ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɟ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ (ɛɢɨɮɚɪɦɚɰɟɭɬɢɰɢ) ɢɥɢ ɢɡɜɨɪɢ
ɤɫɟɧɨɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɧɬɚɬɚ. ɋɚ ɭɫɩɟɯɨɦ ɫɭ ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɟ
ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɟ ɨɜɰɟ ɢ ɤɨɡɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɥɭɱɟ í ɫɟɤɪɟɬɭʁɭ ɯɭɦɚɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɭ ɫɜɨɦ ɦɥɟɤɭ. Ƚɟɧɢ ɡɚ ɯɭɦɚɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɟ ɫɟ ɟɤɫɩɪɢɦɢɪɚʁɭ ɭ ɦɥɟɱɧɢɦ ɠɥɟɡɞɚɦɚ, ɚ
ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɞɚɬɨɝ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ ɭ ɦɥɟɤɭ ɧɟɦɚ ɧɟɩɨɜɨʂɧɨ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɨ ɧɢ ɧɚ ɫɚɦɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɭ ɧɢ ɧɚ ʃɟɧɨ
ɩɨɬɨɦɫɬɜɨ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɬɢɦ ɦɥɟɤɨɦ ɯɪɚɧɢ. ɂɫɩɢɬɢɜɚʃɚ ɫɭ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚ ɞɚ ɨɜɚɤɨ ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɲɤɢ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɢ (ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɬɤɢɜɧɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɚɬɨɪ
ɩɥɚɫɦɢɧɨɝɟɧɚ, ɭɪɨɤɢɧɚɡɚ, ɚ 1-ɚɧɬɢɬɪɢɩɫɢɧ, ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɤɨɚɝɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ IX, ɥɚɤɬɨɮɟɪɢɧ) ɢɦɚʁɭ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬ
ɫɥɢɱɧɭ ɨɧɢɦɚ ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɢɦ ɢɡ ʂɭɞɫɤɢɯ ɬɤɢɜɚ (Wall
ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1992; Rudolph, 1999). Ƚɨɞɢɧɟ 1997.
ɞɨɛɢʁɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɜɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ ɤɪɚɜɚ, ɧɚɡɜɚɧɚ „Ɋɨɡɢ“,
ɱɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɦɥɟɤɨ ɫɚɞɪɠɚɜɚɥɨ 2,4 ɝɪ/ɥ ɯɭɦɚɧɨɝ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ í ɥɚɤɬɚɥɛɭɦɢɧɚ. Ɉɜɨ ɦɥɟɤɨ ʁɟ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɛɨʂɟ
ɡɚ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɭ ɭ ɧɭɬɪɢɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɫɦɢɫɥɭ ɧɟɝɨ ɦɥɟɤɨ
ɝɨɜɟɞɚ, ɩɨɝɨɬɨɜɭ ɡɚ ɛɟɛɟ ɢɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɟ ɫɚ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɦ ɧɭɬɪɢɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɢɥɢ ɞɢɝɟɫɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɢɦɚ.
ȼɟɥɢɤɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɩɚɰɢʁɟɧɚɬɚ ɭɦɢɪɟ ɝɨɞɢɲʃɟ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚ ɫɪɰɚ, ʁɟɬɪɟ ɢɥɢ ɛɭɛɪɟɝɚ ɡɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɧɬɚɰɢʁɭ. ɋɬɨɝɚ ʁɟ ɩɢɬɚʃɟ ɞɨɛɢʁɚʃɚ ɤɫɟɧɨɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɧɬɚɬɚ ɢɡɭɡɟɬɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ (Auchincloss ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 1998). ȿɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢ ɫɭ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ ɞɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢ ɩɪɚɫɢʄɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɢɡɜɨɪ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɬɚɰɢʁɭ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɧɟʄɟ ɨɞɛɚɰɢɜɚɬɢ
ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɚɨ ɩɪɢɦɚɨɰɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ (Fodor ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 1994; Diamond ɢ Sachs, 2001). ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɧɬɚɧ
ʁɟ ɢ ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟʃɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɡɚ
ɞɨɛɢʁɚʃɟ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ. Ɍɚɤɨ ɫɭ 2001. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ
ɭ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢʁɢ Nehia Biotechnologies ɭ Ʉɚɧɚɞɢ,
ɧɚɭɱɧɢɰɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɫɚɥɢ ɤɨɡɭ, ɤɨʁɚ ɢɦɚ ɝɟɧ ɡɚ
ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɫɜɢɥɟɧɨɝ ɜɥɚɤɧɚ („wɟb“ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ) ɩɚɭɤɚ.
Ɍɚʁ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧ ɫɟ ɢɡɥɭɱɢɜɚɨ ɭ ɦɥɟɤɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢɯ
ɤɨɡɚ. ɋɚɤɭɩʂɚʃɟɦ ɫɜɢɥɟɧɢɯ ɜɥɚɤɚɧɚ ɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɢɦ
ɭɩɪɟɞɚʃɟɦ ɞɨɛɢɨ ɫɟ ɧɨɜɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥ ɧɚɡɜɚɧ „ɛɢɨɱɟɥɢɤ“. Ɍɟɯɧɢɤɚ „ɦɪɟɠɚɫɬɨɝ ɦɥɟɤɚ“ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɲɟ ɡɚɬɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɢɫɚɪɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɟ
ɦɥɟɤɨ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɫɥɢɱɚɧ ɧɚɱɢɧɭ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɩɚɭɤ ɫɬɜɚɪɚ
ɫɜɨʁɭ ɦɪɟɠɭ. Ȼɢɨɱɟɥɢɤ ʁɟ ɢɡɭɡɟɬɧɨ ɥɚɤ, ɱɜɪɫɬ ɢ
ɪɚɫɬɟɝʂɢɜ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɥɚɤɲɢ ɨɞ ɱɟɥɢɤɚ ɢɥɢ
ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ, ɚ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɢʁɢ ɧɚ
ɧɚɩɪɟɡɚʃɟ. ɋɬɨɝɚ ɫɟ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɚ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟʃɟ ɨɜɨɝ
ɛɢɨɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɭ ɜɨʁɧɨʁ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɢ, ɚɫɬɪɨɧɚɭɬɢɰɢ
ɢ ɢɡɪɚɞɢ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɦɚɝɚɥɚ ɡɚ ɱɨɜɟɤɚ (ɧɩɪ.
ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɟ ɬɟɬɢɜɟ, ɤɭɤɨɜɢ). Ɋɚɧɢʁɢ ɩɨɤɭɲɚʁɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɨɜɨɝ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɩɚɞɚɥɢ ɫɭ ʁɟɪ ʁɟ
ɢɡɭɡɟɬɧɨ ɬɟɲɤɨ ɫɬɜɨɪɢɬɢ ɞɭɝɚɱɤɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɫɤɟ
ɥɚɧɰɟ ɤɚɤɜɢ ɫɟ ɧɚɥɚɡɟ ɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɢ.
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ȳɭɠɧɨɤɨɪɟʁɫɤɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɰɢ ɫɭ 2007. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɢɧɠɟʃɟɪɢɧɝɨɦ ɫɬɜɨɪɢɥɢ ɦɚɱɤɭ ɤɨʁɚ
ɫɜɟɬɥɢ ɭ ɦɪɚɤɭ, ɡɚɬɢɦ ɫɭ ɭɡɟɥɢ ʃɟɧ ȾɇɄ, ɤɥɨɧɢɪɚɥɢ ɝɚ ɢ ɫɬɜɨɪɢɥɢ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɮɥɭɨɪɟɫɰɟɧɬɢɯ
ɦɚɱɢʄɚ. ɍɡɢɦɚʃɟɦ ɤɨɠɧɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɠɟɧɤɟ ɬɭɪɫɤɟ
ɚɧɝɨɪɚ ɦɚɱɤɟ ɢ ɩɨɦɨʄɭ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɫɭ ɭɛɚɰɢɥɢ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɤɨɞ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ ɰɪɜɟɧɨɝ ɮɥɭɨɪɟɫɰɟɧɬɧɨɝ
ɩɪɨɬɟɢɧɚ. ɇɚɤɨɧ ɬɨɝɚ ɫɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɨɜɚɧɚ
ʁɟɞɪɚ ɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɭ ʁɚʁɚ ɡɚ ɤɥɨɧɢɪɚʃɟ ɢ ɬɚɤɜɢ
ɤɥɨɧɢɪɚɧɢ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɢ ɫɭ ɜɪɚʄɟɧɢ ɭ ɦɚɱɤɭ ɞɨɧɨɪɚ.
Ɍɢɦɟ ʁɟ ɨɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɥɚ ɫɭɪɨɝɚɬ-ɦɚʁɤɚ ɫɨɩɫɬɜɟɧɢɯ
ɤɥɨɧɨɜɚ. Ɇɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɭɫɚɻɢɜɚʃɚ ɮɥɭɨɪɟɫɰɟɧɬɧɢɯ
ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ ɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɤɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɬɟɱɚ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɚ ʂɭɞɫɤɢɦ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢɦɚ ɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɧɢɦ ɝɟɧɫɤɢɦ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɢɦɚ,
ɤɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɭ ɯɟɦɨɮɢɥɢʁɚ, Ⱦɚɭɧɨɜ ɫɢɧɞɪɨɦ, ɉɪɚɞɟɪ-ȼɢɥɢ ɢ Ɍɚɪɧɟɪɨɜ ɫɢɧɞɪɨɦ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɢ ɞɪɭɝɢ, ɩɚ
ʄɟ ʃɢɯɨɜɨ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɟ ɢ ɟɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢɫɚʃɟ
ɛɢɬɢ ɧɟɭɩɨɪɟɞɢɜɨ ɥɚɤɲɟ. Ɍɚɤɨ ɧɟɲɬɨ ɫɜɚɤɚɤɨ
ɢɦɚ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢʁɚɥɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɜɟɥɢɤɚ ɩɪɟɤɪɟɬɧɢɰɚ ɭ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɩɚɫɢɬɢ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɭ
ɛɭɞɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ.
ȿɤɨɫɜɢʃɚ ɢɥɢ, ɤɚɤɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɢɰɢ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨɝ
ɢɧɠɟʃɟɪɢɧɝɚ ɡɨɜɭ, Ɏɪɚɧɤɟɧɫɜɢʃɚ, ʁɟɫɬɟ ɫɜɢʃɚ
ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɨɜɚɧɚ ɭ ɰɢʂɭ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɢʁɟɝ
ɜɚɪɟʃɚ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɚ. ɇɚɢɦɟ, ɫɜɢʃɫɤɢ ɢɡɦɟɬ ʁɟ ɛɨɝɚɬ
ɮɢɬɚɬɢɦɚ, ʁɟɞɧɢɦ ɨɞ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢɯ ɨɛɥɢɤɚ ɫɤɥɚɞɢɲɬɟʃɚ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɚ ɤɨɞ ɛɢʂɚɤɚ. ɋɜɢʃɟ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɫɜɢ ɧɟɩɪɟɠɢɜɚɪɢ, ɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɟ ɫɭ ɞɚ ɫɜɚɪɟ ɮɢɬɚɬɟ, ɩɚ ɢɯ
ɭ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɨɛɥɢɤɭ ɢɡɛɚɰɭʁɭ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɢɡɦɟɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ
ʂɭɞɢ ɤɚɫɧɢʁɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɤɚɨ ɻɭɛɪɢɜɨ. ɍ ɬɚɤɜɨʁ
ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢʁɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɨʄɢ ɞɨ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ, ʁɟɪ ɨɜɚ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚ, ɚɤɨ ɞɨɫɩɟ ɭ ɜɨɞɭ, ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚ ɬɡɜ. „ɰɜɟɬɚʃɟ
ɜɨɞɟ“ – ɦɧɨɠɟʃɟ ɚɥɝɢ ɞɨ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɟ ɝɞɟ ɨɧɟ ɡɚɯɜɚɬɟ
ɨɝɪɨɦɧɭ ɩɨɜɪɲɢɧɭ ɛɚɪɟ ɢɥɢ ʁɟɡɟɪɚ, ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɫɚɜ
ɤɢɫɟɨɧɢɤ, ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʁɭ ɫɜɟɬɥɨɫɬ ɞɚ ɩɪɨɻɟ ɭ ɞɭɛʂɟ
ɞɟɥɨɜɟ ɢ ɬɢɦɟ ɢɧɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɭɛɢʁɚʁɭ ɫɚɜ ɠɢɜɢ ɫɜɟɬ
ɬɨɝ ɟɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ. Ʉɚɤɨ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɬɨɦ ɤɪɚʁʃɟ ɨɡɛɢʂɧɨɦ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ ɫɬɚɥɨ ɧɚ ɩɭɬ, ɧɚɭɱɧɢɰɢ ɫɭ ɞɨɞɚɥɢ
ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɭ E. Coli ɢ ɞɟɨ ȾɇɄ ɨɛɢɱɧɨɝ ɦɢɲɚ ɭ
ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧ ɫɜɢʃɟ. Ɉɜɚ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɢɦɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɚɧ
ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɭɢɪɚʃɟ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɚ ɤɪɨɡ ɩɪɨɛɚɜɧɢ
ɬɪɚɤɬ ɫɜɢʃɟ – ɫɦɚʃɭʁɟ ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɮɢɬɚɬɚ ɢ
ɮɨɫɮɨɪɚ ɭɨɩɲɬɟ ɭ ɢɡɦɟɬɭ ɡɚ ɱɚɤ 70%.
Ƚɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɨɜɚɧɢ ɥɨɫɨɫ ɪɚɫɬɟ ɞɜɚ ɩɭɬɚ
ɛɪɠɟ ɧɟɝɨ ɨɛɢɱɧɢ. Ɋɢɛɚ ɢɦɚ ɢɫɬɢ ɭɤɭɫ, ɛɨʁɭ ɢ
ɦɢɪɢɫ ɤɚɨ ɢ ɨɛɢɱɧɢ ɥɨɫɨɫ. Ƚɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɚɬɥɚɧɬɫɤɨɦ ɥɨɫɨɫɭ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɢɦ ɩɭɬɟɦ ʁɟ
ɞɨɞɚɬ ɯɨɪɦɨɧ ɪɚɫɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɨɧ ɡɚɬɢɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ
ɬɨɤɨɦ ɰɟɥɟ ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. ɇɚɭɱɧɢɰɢ ɫɭ ɭɫɩɟɥɢ ɞɚ ɨɞɪɠɟ
ɯɨɪɦɨɧ ɤɨɧɫɬɚɧɬɧɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟʄɢ ɝɟɧ
ʁɟɞɧɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ ʁɟɝɭʂɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ ɭɫɚɞɢɥɢ ɭ ɥɨɫɨɫɨɜ ɝɟɧɨɦ. Ɍɚʁ ɯɨɪɦɨɧ ɫɟ ɩɨɧɚɲɚ ɤɚɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɚɬɨɪ
ɯɨɪɦɨɧɚ ɪɚɫɬɚ.
ȽȿɇȿɌɂɑɄɂ ɂɇɀȿȵȿɊɂɇȽ
ɂ ɋȿɅȿɄɐɂȳȺ ɀɂȼɈɌɂȵȺ
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪɚ ɝɟɧɚ ɭ ɫɜɪɯɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨɝ
ɩɨɛɨʂɲɚʃɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɢɦɚɬɢ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ
ɡɧɚɱɚʁ, ɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɭʁɭ ɝɟɧɢ ɫɚ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɢɦ
ɦɚʁɨɪ ɟɮɟɤɬɢɦɚ. Ɂɧɚɬɧɚ ɩɚɠʃɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɜɟʄɟɧɚ
ɦɟɬɨɞɢɦɚ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɦɚʁɨɪ ɝɟɧɚ, ɚɥɢ ʁɟ ɦɚɥɨ
ɭɪɚɻɟɧɨ ɧɚ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨʁ ɟɜɚɥɭɚɰɢʁɢ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ ɩɨɞ
ʃɢɯɨɜɢɦ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɟɦ. ɋɢɬɭɚɰɢʁɚ ɫɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪ
ɝɟɧɢɦɚ ʁɟ ɜɟɪɨɜɚɬɧɨ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɧɚ ɟɜɚɥɭɚɰɢʁɢ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɫɚɧɢɯ ɦɚʁɨɪ ɝɟɧɢɦɚ ɩɥɭɫ ɜɢɲɟ
ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɧɬɧɢɯ ɝɟɧɚ (ɢɧɯɢɛɢɬɨɪ ɝɟɧɢ).
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɟɪɚ ɝɟɧɚ ɡɧɚɬɧɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɭʁɟ
ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɭ ɟɜɚɥɭɚɰɢʁɭ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. Ⱥɤɨ
ɫɟ ɨɩɫɟɪɜɢɪɚɧɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɤɥɚɫɢɮɢɤɭʁɭ ɩɪɟɦɚ
ɬɨɦɟ ɞɚ ɥɢ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɦɚʁɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɟ, BLUP
ɚɞɢɬɢɜɧɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɟ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɞ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɚ
ɩɨɥɢɝɟɧɢɦ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɟɦ ɧɚ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɭ, ɦɨɠɟ ɫɟ ɞɨɛɢɬɢ
ɬɪɟɬɢɪɚʃɟɦ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ ɤɚɨ ɮɢɤɫɧɢɯ ɟɮɟɤɚɬɚ, ɭɡ
ɩɪɟɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɭ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɟɤɫɩɪɟɫɢʁɚ ɝɟɧɚ ʁɟɞɧɚɤɚ ɤɨɞ
ɫɜɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (ɲɬɨ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɧɟɪɟɚɥɧɨ). Ⱥɤɨ
ʁɟ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɭ ɤɨʁɚ ɧɚɫ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭʁɟ ɚɞɢɬɢɜɚɧ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɧɬɚɧ, ɬɚɞɚ
ɫɟ ɯɟɦɢɡɢɝɨɬɢ (ɌɈ) ɦɨɪɚʁɭ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɨɜɚɬɢ ɨɞ ɯɨɦɨɡɢɝɨɬɚ (ɌɌ ɢ 00).
ɍɤʂɭɱɢɜɚʃɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ ɭ ɩɪɨɰɟʃɟɧɭ Ɉȼ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɨ ɢ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚ
ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ (ɌɌ, ɌɈ ɢɥɢ 00).
ɀɢɜɨɬɢʃɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɨɰɟʃɟɧɟ ɧɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɭ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɨɜɚɧɭ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɨɬɢɩ ɢ ɫɜɟ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɥɨɤɭɫɟ (ɚ), ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɢ ɬɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɧɨɫɬɚɜɧɨ
ɨɰɟʃɟɧɚ ɤɚɨ ɫɭɦɚ ɩɥɭɫ ɪɟɲɟʃɟ ɟɮɟɤɚɬɚ ʃɟɧɨɝ
ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɚ, ɚɤɨ ʁɟ ɧɚɫɥɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ
ɚɞɢɬɢɜɧɨ. ɂɞɟɚɥɧɨ ɛɢ ɛɢɥɨ ɤɚɞɚ ɛɢ ɢɡɪɚɱɭɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɨɰɟʃɟɧɟ Ɉȼ ɭɤʂɭɱɢɥɨ ɮɪɟɤɜɟɧɰɢʁɭ ɝɟɧɚ
ɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ʃɟɝɨɜɟ ɫɭɩɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɭ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɢ, ɲɬɨ
ɫɟ ɨɝɥɟɞɚ ɭ ɬɨɦɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɫɟɤ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɧɭɥɚ.
ɋɜɟ ɨɜɨ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩ ɩɨɡɧɚɬ ɢ ɫɚɦɨ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɢɬɢ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɚ. Ⱥɤɨ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɨ ɢ ɢɡɜɨɞʂɢɜɨ ɤɥɚɫɢɮɢɤɨɜɚɬɢ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɟ
ɩɪɟɦɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɭ, ɬɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɜɪɲɢ ɤɥɚɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɭɨɛɢɱɚʁɟɧɨɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɟ ɟɜɚɥɭɚɰɢʁɟ, ɝɞɟ ɫɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧ ɬɪɟɬɢɪɚ ɤɚɨ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ
ɝɟɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɧɚ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɭ ɢ ʃɟɝɨɜ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ ɫɟ
ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɟ ɤɚɨ ɞɟɨ ɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɚ. Ɉɜɨ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɚɜɚʁɭʄɟ ɚɤɨ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧ ɢɦɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɭɬɢɰɚʁ.
Ɇɭɥɬɢɜɚɪɢʁɚɧɬɧɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɢɬɟɬ ɫɟ ɧɟ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ
ɱɚɤ ɧɢ ɩɪɟ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɟ. ɒɬɨ ʁɟ ɜɟʄɢ ɭɬɢɰɚʁ
ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ, ɜɟʄɟ ʁɟ ɨɞɫɬɭɩɚʃɟ ɨɞ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ⱥɥɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɛɢ ɛɢɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɩɫɟɪɜɚɰɢʁɟ ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚʁɭ ɤɚɨ ɞɚ ɩɨɬɢɱɭ ɨɞ ɦɟɲɚɜɢɧɟ ɞɜɟ
ɢɥɢ ɜɢɲɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɨ ɞɢɫɬɪɢɛɭɢɪɚɧɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ.
Ɇɟɲɚɧɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɟ, ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ʁɚɫɧɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭʁɭ ɨɞ
ɦɟɲɨɜɢɬɢɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɚ, ɩɪɜɨ ʁɟ ɪɚɡɦɨɬɪɢɨ Pearson
(1894), ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɨɜɚʁ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɨ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɭ
ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɚɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚɥɢ ɦɟɲɚɜɢɧɭ ɞɜɟ
ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɟ ɝɭɫɬɢɧɟ; ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ ɢ ɜɚɪɢʁɚɧɫɟ ɫɜɚɤɟ
ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢʁɭ ɫɜɚɤɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɭ
ɦɟɲɚɜɢɧɢ. ɉɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɚ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɧɟ ɫɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ
ɪɚɡɜɢʁɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɢɡ ɦɟɲɚɧɢɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɚ. ȵɢɯɨɜɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɪɚɱɭɧɫɤɢ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɧɚ ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ ʁɟɪ ʁɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚɧ
ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɫɟɬ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ, ɚɥɢ ɫɭ ɪɚɱɭɧɫɤɢ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɢ
ɦɚʃɢ ɭɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɢ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɚ ɜɚɪɢʁɚɧɫɚ ɡɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ. Ɇɟɬɨɞ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɦɟʃɟɧ ɧɚ ɩɨʂɭ
ɯɭɦɚɧɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɤɟ ɡɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɨɜɚʃɟ ɟɮɟɤɚɬɚ ɦɚʁɨɪ
ɝɟɧɚ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɝɟɧɚ.
ɍ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɡɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɟ, ɦɟɲɚɜɢɧɚ
ɞɜɟ
(ɤɨɦɩɥɟɬɧɚ
ɞɨɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ)
ɢɥɢ
ɬɪɢ
(ɧɟɤɨɦɩɥɟɬɧɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ) ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ, ɨɞ ɤɨʁɢɯ
ʁɟ ɫɜɚɤɚ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɨ ɞɢɫɬɪɢɛɭɢɪɚɧɚ, ɦɨɠɟ ɫɟ
ɩɪɟɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɢ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɫɥɟɞɟʄɟɦ ɦɨɞɟɥɭ:
Y = Pt + Xb +Za +e,
ɝɞɟ ʁɟ: Y ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚɧɚ ɩɪɨɦɟɧʂɢɜɚ ɨɫɨɛɢɧɚ
ɢɥɢ ɝɟɧɨɦ; t ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɬ ɟɮɟɤɚɬ
ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɨɬɢɩɚ (t1 í ɯɨɦɨɡɢɝɨɬ ɡɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɟ (TT),
t2 í ɯɟɦɢɡɢɝɨɬ (TO) ɢ t3 í ɨɞɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɚ
(OO)). Ⱥɤɨ ɫɟ ɚɞɢɬɢɜɧɢ ɦɨɞɟɥ ɩɪɟɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɢ ɡɚ
ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɟ ( ) ɫɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɦɚʃɢɬɢ ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ 2= 0,5
( 1+ 3). Ɉɜɚʁ ɦɨɞɟɥ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɭʁɟ ʁɟɪ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬɢ t
ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɫɚ ɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɲʄɭ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɢ ɭ Y ɚɤɨ ɫɟ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɢɧɰɢɞɟɧɬɧɚ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ.
Ⱥɤɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɦɨ ɬɟɨɪɢʁɭ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɟ ɞɢɫɬɪɢɛɭɰɢʁɟ, ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ʁɟ ɨɞɪɟɞɢɬɢ ɜɟɤɬɨɪ ɜɟɪɨɜɚɬɧɨʄɟ ( )
ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɭ ɨɩɫɟɪɜɚɰɢʁɭ í ɩɪɨɦɟɧʂɢɜɭ ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɭ ɨɞ
ɬɪɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ í ɧɚ ɛɚɡɢ ɪɟɲɟʃɚ ʁɟɞɧɚɱɢɧɚ.
Ɇɚɬɪɢɰɚ P ɧɢʁɟ ɮɢɤɫɧɚ ɢɧɰɢɞɟɧɬɧɚ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɭɨɛɢɱɚʁɟɧɟ ɮɨɪɦɟ, ɚɥɢ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ( ) ɡɚ ɫɜɟ ɨɩɫɟɪɜɚɰɢʁɟ. ȼɪɟɞɧɨɫɬ P ɫɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɨɞɢɬɢ ɫɜɚɤɨʁ
ɢɬɟɪɚɰɢʁɢ.
79
ȽȿɇȿɌɂɑɄɂ ɂɇɀȿȵȿɊɂɇȽ ɂ
ȾɂȳȺȽɇɈɋɌɂɄȺ ɇȺɋɅȿȾɇɂɏ
ȻɈɅȿɋɌɂ
ɉɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ɨɛɥɚɫɬ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢɯ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɭ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɢ ʁɟ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɫɤɚ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ
ɯɢɛɪɢɞɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ ɧɭɤɥɟɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɤɢɫɟɥɢɧɚ ɪɚɞɢ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɜɚʃɚ ɧɟɤɢɯ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɨɬɤɪɢɜɚʃɚ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ. Ƚɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɢɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɚɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ
ɭɫɥɨɜʂɟɧɟ ɝɪɟɲɤɨɦ ɭ ɤɚɪɢɨɬɢɩɭ (ɛɪɨʁɭ ɢ ɝɪɚɻɢ
ɯɪɨɦɨɡɨɦɚ), ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɢ ɧɚ ɜɢɲɟ ɝɟɧɚ (ɩɨɥɢɝɟɧɫɤɟ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ) ɢɥɢ ɧɚ ʁɟɞɧɨɦ ɝɟɧɭ (ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɫɤɟ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ). ɋ ɨɛɡɢɪɨɦ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɭ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɚ
ɤɨʁɢ ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚʁɭ, ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ
ɥɟɬɚɥɧɟ, ɫɟɦɢɥɟɬɚɥɧɟ ɢɥɢ ɫɭɛɜɢɬɚɥɧɟ. ɇɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ
ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɡɚɦɟɧɚ ɧɭɤɥɟɨɬɢɞɧɢɯ ɛɚɡɚ ɭ ɤɨɞɢɪɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɪɟɝɢʁɚɦɚ DNA (ɟɤɫɨɧɢɦɚ). ɍɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɝɟɧɚ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɝ ɡɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɨɝ
ɞɟɮɟɤɬɚ, ɝɟɧɫɤɨɦ ɢ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɦ ɡɚɫɧɨɜɚɧɨɦ ɧɚ
ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨɦ ɬɟɫɬɭ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɟ ɪɟɝɢʁɟ (ɟɤɫɨɧɚ ɫɚ
ɪɚɠɟɧɨɦ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɨɦ), ʁɟɞɢɧɤɟ ɫɚ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɟɦ
ɦɨɠɟɦɨ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɪɚɧɨ ɨɬɤɪɢɬɢ ɢ ɢɡɥɭɱɢɬɢ ɢɡ ɭɡɝɨʁɚ.
Ʉɨɞ ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɚ ɫɟɤɜɟɧɰɟ ɝɟɧɚ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɟ ɡɚ
ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁ, ɧɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɧɚʄɢ ɝɟɧɫɤɢ
ɦɚɪɤɟɪ ɢɧɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɜɟɡɚɧ ɭɡ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɟ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ. Ƚɟɧɫɤɢ ɦɚɪɤɟɪ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɛɢɬɢ ɲɬɨ ɛɥɢɠɟ
ɤɨɞɨɝɟɧɨʁ ɪɟɝɢʁɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɝ ɝɟɧɚ, ɚɤɨ ɛɢ ɫɟ
ɫɦɚʃɢɥɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɨɫɬ ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɟ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɝɪɟɲɤɟ ɬɟɫɬɚ. Ʉɚɨ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɢ ɭ ɢɧɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨʁ ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɢ
ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɫɚɬɟɥɢɬɢ. Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɧɚ ɬɚʁ
ɧɚɱɢɧ ɥɚɤɨ ɨɬɤɪɢɜɚɦɨ ɩɪɟɞɢɫɩɨɡɢɰɢʁɭ ɡɚ ɦɚɥɢɝɧɭ ɯɢɩɟɪɬɟɪɦɢʁɭ ɫɜɢʃɚ, BLAD (Bovine Leucocyɬe Adhesion Deficiency), DUMPS (Deficiency of
Uridine onophosphaɬe Synɬhase) ɢ CVM
(Complex Verɬebral Malformaɬion) ɤɨɞ Holstein
rase goveda, SMA (Spinal Muscular Aɬrophy) ɢ
Weaver
(Progressive
egeneraɬive
Myeloencephalopaɬhy) kod Brown Swiss ɝɨɜɟɞɚ, ɢ
MSUD (Maple Sirup Urin Disease) ɤɨɞ Shorthorna
ɢ Hereforda. ɇɟɤɟ ɨɞ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʃɚ
ɭɫɥɨɜʂɟɧɢɯ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɟɦ ɭɧɭɬɚɪ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɝɟɧɚ (ɡɚ
ɤɨʁɟ
ɩɨɫɬɨʁɟ
ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ
ɬɟɫɬɨɜɢ)
ɫɭ:
ɯɢɩɟɪɤɚɥɰɟɦɢʁɫɤɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɧɚ ɩɚɪɚɥɢɡɚ (HYPP),
ɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɧɨ ɢɲɱɟɲɟʃɟ ɩɚɬɟɥɟ, ɦɚɥɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɚ
ɨɤɰɢɩɢɬɚɥɧɨ-ɚɬɥɚɧɬɨ-ɚɤɫɢɚɥɧɟ ɪɟɝɢʁɟ (OAAM),
ɦɢɨɤɥɨɧɭɫ, ɚɬɚɤɫɢʁɚ ɠɞɪɟɛɚɞɢ, ɞɟɝɟɧɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɚ
ɦɢɟɥɨɟɧɰɟɮɚɥɨɩɚɬɢʁɚ,
ɯɟɦɨɮɢɥɢʁɚ
A,
ɚɝɚɦɚɝɥɨɛɭɥɢɧɟɦɢʁɚ,
SCID,
ephiteliogenesis
imperfecta, ɧɨʄɧɨ ɫɥɟɩɢɥɨ. Ʉɨɞ ɨɜɚɰɚ ɥɚɤɨ ɦɨɠɟɦɨ ɞɚ ɨɬɤɪɢʁɟɦɨ ɩɪɟɞɢɫɩɨɡɢɰɢʁɭ ɡɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɭ ɬɡɜ.
80
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɤʂɚɤɚɜɨɫɬɢ (ɤɨɞ ɧɨɜɨɪɨɻɟɧɟ ʁɚɝʃɚɞɢ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚʁɭ
ɧɨɝɟ ɨɞ ɡɝɥɨɛɨɜɚ), ɩɚɬɭʂɚɫɬɨɝ ɪɚɫɬ (ɫɟɦɢɥɟɬɚɥɧɨɪɟɰɟɫɢɜɧɨ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɟ, ɩɪɜɢ ɩɭɬ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜʂɟɧɨ ɤɨɞ
Southdown ɪɚɫɟ, ɝɞɟ ʁɚɝʃɚɞ ɭɝɢʃɚɜɚʁɭ ɭ ɩɪɜɢɯ
ɦɟɫɟɰ ɞɚɧɚ ɨɞ ɪɨɻɟʃɚ), ɫɦɪɬɨɧɨɫɧɨ ɫɢɜɭ ɛɨʁɭ
(ɯɨɦɨɡɢɝɨɬɧɨ ɫɢɜɟ ʁɟɞɢɧɤɟ ɭɝɢʃɚɜɚʁɭ ɛɢɥɨ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ
ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɚ ɢɥɢ ɭ ɩɨɫɬɧɚɬɚɥɧɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɭ, ɫɢɜɚ ɛɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɩɢɫɭʁɟ ɞɟɥɢɦɢɱɧɨ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɧɬɧɨɦ ɝɟɧɭ). Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ, ʁɟɞɧɨɫɬɚɜɧɢɯ ɢ ɛɪɡɢɯ, ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɬɟɦɟʂɟ ɧɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɨʁ ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɢ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɚ ɭ ȾɇK ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɢ. Ɍɚɱɤɚɫɬɟ ɦɭɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɥɚɤɨ ɫɟ
ɞɨɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚ RFLP, SSCP, DGGE ɢɥɢ DSCP
ɦɚɪɤɟɪɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ. Ʉɨɞ ɝɨɜɟɞɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɧɢɡ
ɥɨɤɭɫɚ (CD18, PRG, CHS, PRNP, PYGM, MANB,
MANA, FECH, GAA, TG, UMPS) ɤɨʁɢ ɫɥɭɠɟ ɡɚ
ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɭ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɚ. ɂ ɡɚ ɞɪɭɝɟ
ɜɪɫɬɟ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɻɟɧ ʁɟ ɰɟɥɢ ɧɢɡ
ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɬɟɫɬɨɜɚ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɚ
ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ʁɟɞɧɨɫɬɚɜɧɨ ɭɝɪɚɻɭʁɭ ɭ ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱɤɟ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɟ, ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɤɨɞ ɭɝɪɨɠɟɧɢɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ.
ɉɨɫɟɛɧɨ ɫɭ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɧɬɧɚ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɭ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɝɟɧɫɤɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɡɚɦɟɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɧɢɯ ɝɟɧɚ ɡɞɪɚɜɢɦ, ɱɢɦɟ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɤɨɞ ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢɯ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ (ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɧɢɯ ʁɟɞɧɢɦ ɝɟɧɨɦ) ɩɨɫɬɢɝɥɨ
ɬɪɚʁɧɨ ɢɡɥɟɱɟʃɟ (ɬɡɜ. ɝɟɧɫɤɚ ɯɢɪɭɪɝɢʁɚ). Ɂɚ ɫɚɞɚ,
ɝɟɧɫɤɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɟɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɨ ɧɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ, ɩɪɢ ɱɟɦɭ ɫɟ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨ ɢɫɩɢɬɭʁɟ
ɭɜɨɻɟʃɟ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɚ ȾɇɄ ɭ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɩɭɬɟɦ
ɪɟɬɪɨɜɢɪɭɫɚ.
ɁȺɄȴɍɑȺɄ
Ʉʂɭɱ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɨɝ ɧɚɩɪɟɬɤɚ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɚɜɚ ɮɚɪɦɫɤɢɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ: ɚ) ɬɚɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɢ; ɛ) ɬɚɱɧɨɝ ɞɟɮɢɧɢɫɚʃɚ ɪɟɥɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢɯ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɜɚɠɧɢɯ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɚɜɚ
(ɨɜɞɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ ɡɛɨɝ ɩɪɟɬɟɪɚɧɨɝ ɧɚɝɥɚɲɚɜɚʃɚ ɦɚʃɟ ɜɚɠɧɢɯ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɚɜɚ); ɜ)
ɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ ɩɨɞɚɬɚɤɚ ɨ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɢ ɢ
ʃɟɧɢɦ ɫɪɨɞɧɢɰɢɦɚ (ɩɪɟɬɟɪɚɧɨ ɧɚɝɥɚɲɚɜɚʃɟ
ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢɯ, ɚɥɢ ɢ ɞɚɥɟɤɢɯ ɪɨɻɚɤɚ ɭɫɩɨɪɚɜɚ
ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫ); ɝ) ɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɨɝ ɢɡɛɨɪɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ
ɩɪɨɰɟɧɟ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɟ Ɉȼ ɩɪɢɩɥɨɞɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
(Ɇɟɲɨɜɢɬɢ BLUP ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɻɭʁɭ ɜɢɫɨɤɭ
ɬɚɱɧɨɫɬ ɨɰɟɧɟ Ɉȼ ɢ ɛɪɠɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫ). ɉɪɢɦɟɧɚ
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɨɝ ɢɧɠɟʃɟɪɢɧɝɚ ɭ ɫɬɨɱɚɪɫɬɜɭ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɢ ɦɨɝɥɚ ɛɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚɬɢ ɤɨɪɢɫɧɭ ɞɨɩɭɧɭ ɤɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɚ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɨɩɥɟɦɟʃɢɜɚʃɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ. ɉɪɭɠɚʁɭʄɢ ɭɜɢɞ ɭ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɢ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢʁɭ ɝɟɧɨɦɚ ɢ ɝɟɧɚ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɚɱɧɨ, ɨɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɟ
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɟ ɦɚɩɟ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ
ɦɚɪɤɟɪɢ ɩɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɨɪɭɠʁɟ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɢʁɟ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɟ,
ɭɧɚɩɪɟɻɟʃɚ ɛɢɬɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɯ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɚɜɚ, ɟɥɢɦɢɧɚɰɢʁɟ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɢ ɜɟʄɟ ɩɨɭɡɞɚɧɨɫɬɢ
ɭ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢʁɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɞɭ. ɍɝɪɚɞʃɨɦ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢɯ
ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɚ ɭ ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱɤɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɟ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɟɧɨ ʁɟ ɛɢɪɚʃɟ ɭɡɝɨʁɧɨ ɩɨɝɨɞɧɢɯ ʁɟɞɢɧɤɢ ɭ ɪɚɧɨʁ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨʁ ɞɨɛɢ, ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɧɨ ɨɞ ɩɨɥɚ, ɤɨɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ, ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɲɤɨɝ ɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ, ɩɪɟ
ɧɟɝɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɛɢɬɧɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɚ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɜɚ ɭɨɩɲɬɟ ɢɫɩɨʂɟ. ɇɚɫɥɟɞɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨ ɨɬɤɪɢɜɚʁɭ ɢ ɫɭɡɛɢʁɚʁɭ ɬɟɫɬɨɜɢɦɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɟ
ȾɇɄ ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɝɪɟɲɤɟ ɤɨɞɚ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢɯ ɝɟɧɚ.
ɇɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ʁɟ ɜɚɠɧɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɨɬɤɪɢɜɚʃɚ ɢ ɢɡɥɭɱɢɜɚʃɚ ɯɟɬɟɪɨɡɢɝɨɬɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɧɨɫɢɨɰɢ ɧɟɤɟ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɟ ɝɪɟɲɤɟ. ɉɪɨɜɟɪɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɢɯ
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɚ ɭ ɧɟɤɢɦ ʁɟ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ
ɨɛɚɜɟɡɚ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɱɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɚ, ɬɟ
ɩɪɟɞɭɫɥɨɜ ɡɚ ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩ ɬɪɠɢɲɬɭ ɩɪɢɩɥɨɞɧɨɝ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɢ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɚ. ɋɜɚɤɨʁ ɧɨɜɨʁ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɢ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ
ɩɪɢɜɥɚɱɧɚ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɛɢɥɚ ɩɪɢɯɜɚʄɟɧɚ ɭ ɩɪɚɤɫɢ.
Ⱦɚɧɚɲʃɚ ɧɚɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ ɫɭ ɭɫɦɟɪɟɧɚ ɤɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɭ
ɬɪɚɧɫɝɟɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɫɚ ɛɨʂɢɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɦ
ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢɦɚ ɢ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɢʁɢɦ ɧɚ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɟ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɟ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɱɢɦɟ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɨɫɢɝɭɪɚɨ ɩɪɨɮɢɬ.
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
UDK 619:636.083:636.4
ȳ. Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ, Ȼ. ɋɚɜɢʄ, Ⱦ. Ɋɨɝɨɠɚɪɫɤɢ, ɇ. Ⱦɟɥɢʄ, Ɍ. ɉɟɬɪɭʁɤɢʄ1
ɉɊȿȽɅȿȾ ɈȻɈȴȿȵȺ ɉɊȺɋȺȾɂ ɇȺ ɋɂɋɂ
Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ɍ ɨɜɨɦ ɪɚɞɭ ɞɚɬ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɧɚ ɫɢɫɢ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɚɦɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɫɤɨɝ
ɬɢɩɚ. Ⱦɚɧɚɲʃɚ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɫɤɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɛɚɡɢɪɚ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɫɩɪɨɜɨɻɟʃɭ ɛɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɧɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ
ɪɟɲɚɜɚʃɭ ɟɤɨɥɨɲɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ, ɤɨʁɢ ɡɧɚɬɧɨ ɨɩɬɟɪɟʄɭʁɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ. Ⱦɨɛɪɨ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɫɜɢʃɚ ʁɟ ɭɫɥɨɜ
ɞɨɛɪɟ ɪɟɩɨɪɟɞɭɤɰɢʁɟ,ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɪɟɧɬɚɛɢɥɧɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ. Ɂɞɪɚɜʂɟ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ɭɫɥɨɜɚ ɞɪɠɚʃɚ, ɧɟɝɟ,
ɢɫɯɪɚɧɟ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɟ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɟ. ȼɟɥɢɤɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɟ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɚɦɚ
ɫɜɢʃɚ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢʁɫɤɨɝ ɬɢɩɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɟɭɬɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɩɨʁɚɱɚɧɨɦ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɨɦ ɫɬɪɭɱɧɢɯ ɫɥɭɠɛɢ ɞɪɠɚɬɢ ɩɨɞ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɨɦ. Ɏɥɟɤɫɢɛɢɥɧɨɦ ɫɚɪɚɞʃɨɦ ɜɥɚɫɧɢɤɚ ɮɚɪɦɢ ɫɚ
ɫɬɪɭɱɧɢɦ ɫɥɭɠɛɚɦɚ, ɭɡ ɩɨɲɬɨɜɚʃɟ ɢ ɫɩɪɨɜɨɻɟʃɟ ɫɬɪɭɱɧɢɯ ɫɚɡɧɚʃɚ, ɬɟ ɩɪɢɦeɧɨɦ ɧɢɡɚ ɛɢɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɢɯ
ɦɟɪɚ ɢ ɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟɦ ɚɤɰɟɧɬɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɜɟɧɢɪɚʃɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɚ ɭ ɰɢʂɭ ɩɪɨɦɨɰɢʁɟ ɞɨɛɪɨɝ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ
ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ʁɟ ɭɧɚɩɪɟɞɢɬɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ. Ȼɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɬ, ɞɨɛɪɨɛɢɬ, ɞɨɛɪɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɻɚɱɤɚ ɩɪɚɤɫɚ ɢ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɪɢɡɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɧɢɦ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɧɢɦ ɬɚɱɤɚɦɚ ɫɭ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬɢ ɡɚ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɭ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ ɫɜɢʃɚ. ɉɥɚɧɫɤɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɛɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɧɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ ɩɪɟɫɭɞɧɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɢ ɡɞɪɚɜʂɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɢ ɡɚ
ɭɫɩɟɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ.
Ʉʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɱɢ: ɩɪɚɫɚɞ ɧɚ ɫɢɫɢ, ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ, ɛɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɬ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃa.
J. Bojkovski, B. Saviü, D. Rogožarski, N. Deliü, T. Petrujkiü
REIVEW DISEASE OF SUCKLING PIGLETS
Abstract
Today industrial production of pigs is based on the implementation of biosecurity measures and
addressing environmental problems, which substantially burden the productions. Good health is a condition
for successful pig reproduction and cost-effective production. Health depends on the housing conditions, care,
nutrition, control of health and health care. A large number of disease that are present in the industrial swine
farms, it is possible using prophylactic and therapeutic measures as well as enhanced control of professional
services are in control. Flexible corporation of farm holders with professional service , to respect and
implementation of professional knowledge and application of a number of biotechnical measures and
focusing on prevention of disease of pigs in order to promote the good health of pigs it is possible to improve
production. Biosecurity, welfare, good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis at critical control points
are very important elements for intensive pig production. The planned use of biosecurity measures is crucial
in protecting the health of pigs and production success.
Key words: review disease, suckling pig, biosecurity, production.
1
Ⱦɪ ȳɨɜɚɧ Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ, ɜɚɧɪɟɞɧɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ; ɞɪ Ȼɨɠɢɞɚɪ ɋɚɜɢʄ, ɧɚɭɱɧɢ
ɫɚɪɚɞɧɢɤ, ɇɚɭɱɧɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɋɪɛɢʁɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ; ɞɪ Ⱦɪɚɝɚɧ Ɋɨɝɨɠɚɪɫɤɢ, ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ,
ɉɨɠɚɪɟɜɚɰ, ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ⱦɟɥɢʄ, ɞɪ ɜɟɬ. ɦɟɞ., ɋɬɨɱɚɪɫɤɢ ɢɧɫɬɭɬɭɬ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ; ɞɪ Ɍɢɯɨɦɢɪ ɉɟɬɪɭʁɤɢʄ, ɪɟɞɨɜɧɢ
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɨɪ, Ɏɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɫɤɟ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ. ȿ-mail: [email protected] Ɉɜɚʁ ɪɚɞ ʁɟ ɞɟɨ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɚ
ɤɨʁɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɚ Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɭ ɢ ɧɚɭɤɭ Ɋɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɟ ɋɪɛɢʁɟ, ɛɪɨʁ TR 31071.
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
Koɞ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɧɚ ɫɢɫɢ, ɜɟɥɢɤɚ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɞɚʁɟ ɜɚɪɢʁɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɢɯ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɦɚ,
ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɭ ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚʃɭ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢʁɟ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɥɟɤɨɜɢɦɚ, ɜɟʄ ɡɛɨɝ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ,
ɤɨʁɟ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɧɚ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɭ ɫɥɢɤɭ ɢ ɬɨɤ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɲɬɨ
ɨɬɟɠɚɜɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚʃɟ ɞɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɟ ɢ ɫɩɪɨɜɨɻɟʃɟ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɫɚɤɫɟ (Blackburn, 1995; Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1997; 2005).
ɍ ɩɪɚɫɢɥɢɲɬɢɦɚ ʁɟ ɱɟɫɬɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ ɧɟɨɧɚɬɚɥɧɟ
ɤɨɥɢɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɟ. ɉɨɞ ɧɟɨɧɚɬɚɥɧɨɦ ɤɨɥɢɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɨɦ
ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɱɢɜɨ ɩɪɚɫɟ ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɨ
ɟɧɬɟɪɨɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɢɦ ɫɨʁɟɜɢɦɚ ȿ. coli ɤɨʁɢ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɭɦɧɨɠɚɜɚʃɚ, ɚɞɯɟɡɢʁɟ ɡɚ ɟɩɢɬɟɥ ɰɪɟɜɚ
(ɩɨɦɨʄɭ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɢɥɢ ɜɢɲɟ ɮɢɦɛɪɢʁɚɧɢɯ ɚɞɯɟɡɢɧɚ
(F4, F5 ɢɥɢ F41), ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɢ ɢɡɥɭɱɢɜɚʃɚ ɟɧɬɟɪɨɬɨɤɢɫɧɚ. ȿɧɬɟɪɨɬɨɤɢɫɢɧɢ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬ ɞɚ
ɢɧɯɢɛɢɪɚʁɭ ɟɧɡɢɦɟ, ɮɚɜɨɪɢɡɭʁɭ ɫɬɜɚɪɚʃɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɚɝɥɚɧɞɢɧɚ PGF2Į, ɤojɢ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɲɟ ɦɨɬɨɪɢɤɭ
ɝɥɚɬɤɟ ɦɭɫɤɭɥɚɬɭɪɟ, ɡɚɬɢɦ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɲɟ ɚɞɟɧɢɥɰɢɤɥɚɡɭ, ɱɢʁɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɤɨɧɜɟɪɡɢʁɚ ɚɞɟɧɢɥɬɪɢɮɨɫɮɚɬɚ ɭ ɚɞɟɧɢɥ-ɦɨɧɨɮɨɫɮɚɬ (cAMP). Ɉɧ
ɢɡɚɡɢɜɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɭ ɫɟɤɪɟɰɢʁɭ ɜɨɞɟ ɢ ɟɥɟɤɬɪɨɥɢɬɚ ɭ
ɥɭɦɟɧ ɰɪɟɜɚ. Ⱦɟɛɟɥɨ ɰɪɟɜɨ ɧɢʁɟ ɭ ɫɬɚʃɭ ɞɚ
ɪɟɫɨɪɛɭʁɟ ɨɜɚɤɨ ɜɟɥɢɤɭ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɬɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɚ
ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɨɥɢɝɭɪɢʁɚ, ɚɧɭɪɢʁɚ ɢ ɧɚ ɤɪɚʁɭ ɫɦɪɬ.
Ⱦɟɯɢɞɪɚɰɢʁɚ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɝɭɛɢɬɚɤ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɟ ɦɚɫɟ ɢ
ɫɩɨɪɢʁɟ ɧɚɩɪɟɞɨɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɡɚɯɬɟɜɚʁɭ ɪɟɯɢɞɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɤɨʁɭ ʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɩɟɪɨɪɚɥɧɢɦ ɢɥɢ
ɢɧɬɪɚɩɟɪɢɬɨɧɟɚɥɧɢɦ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ ɚɧɬɢɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɚ, ɧɚʁɛɨʂɟ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɝɪɚɦɭ
(Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2008a; Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, 2010).
ɍ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ ɧɟɨɧɚɬɚɥɧɟ ɞɢʁɚɪɟʁɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ
ɭɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɨɞ 1 ɞɨ 6 ɞɚɧɚ, ȿɌȿC (eɧɬɟɪɨɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɢ
ɫɨʁɟɜɢ ȿ. coli) ɩɪɢɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɝɪɭɩɚɦɚ 08, 09, 064,
0101, 0149, 0157 ɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɢɥɢ ɜɢɲɟ
ɟɧɬɟɪɨɬɨɤɢɫɧɚ Sta, Stb ɢɥɢ Lt, ETEC ɢɡɨɥɨɜɚɧɢ
ɢɡ ɞɢʁɚɪɟʁɢɱɧɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɩɪɟ ɨɞɥɭɱɟʃɚ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ 14.
ɢ 21. ɞɚɧɚ ɭɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɩɪɢɩɚɞɚʁɭ ɫɟɪɨɝɪɭɩɚɦɚ
08, 0115, 0147, ɥɭɱɟ ɟɧɬɟɪɨɬɨɤɢɫɧ Stb ɢ Lt. ɉɨɪɟɞ
ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɢɯ ɫɨʁɟɜɚ ȿ. coli, ɢɡɜɟɫɧɭ ɭɥɨɝɭ ɢɦɚʁɭ
ɫɬɚʃɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɜɚʁɭ ɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɨɫɬ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɚ ɬɨ
ʁɟ ɨɞɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɩɪɨɬɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢɯ ɡɚ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɨɫɬ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ. ɉɪɟɦɚ ɬɨɦɟ, ɫɜɚɤɢ ɱɢɧɢɥɚɰ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɦɚʃɭʁɟ ɭɧɨɲɟʃɟ ɤɨɥɨɫɬɪɚɥɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ ɭ ɩɪɜɢɦ
ɱɚɫɨɜɢɦɚ post partum je ɩɪɟɞɢɫɩɨɧɢɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɡɚ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɚʃɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ. Ɉɞ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ ʁɟ
ɢɫɯɪɚɧɚ ɜɢɫɨɤɨɝɪɚɜɢɞɧɢɯ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ, ɡɚɬɢɦ ɩɪɢɩɪɟɦɚ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɚɲɟʃɟ, ɩɨʁɚɜɚ ɯɢɩɨ- ɢ ɚɝɚɥɚɤɰɢʁɟ,
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɢ ɜɢɬɚɥɧɨɫɬ ɧɨɜɨɪɨɻɟɧɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɢ
83
ɥɨɲɢ ɡɨɨɯɢɝɢʁɟɧɫɤɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢ. ɇɚɩɭɲɬɚʁɭʄɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɰɭ, ɩɪɟ ɧɟɝɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɬɢɝɧɟ ɞɨ ɫɢɫɟ, ɩɪɚɫɟ ɫɟ ɫɪɟʄɟ
ɫɚ ɤɨɧɬɚɦɢɧɢɪɚɧɨɦ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɨɦ ɭ ɛɨɤɫɭ ɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɠɢ
ɜɢɦɟɧɚ, ɲɬɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɢɪɚ ɢɧɝɟɫɬɢʁɨɦ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɚ ɢɡ
ɢɧɬɟɫɬɢɧɚɥɧɟ ɮɥɨɪɟ ɤɪɦɚɱɟ. Ʉɚɞɚ ɩɪɚɫɟ ɭɧɟɫɟ
ɡɧɚɬɚɧ ɛɪɨʁ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɢɯ ɫɨʁɟɜɚ ȿ. coli ɭ ɞɢɝɟɫɬɢɜɧɢ
ɤɚɧɚɥ, ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɤɨɥɢɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɚ. Ɉɜɨɦɟ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɢ
ɪɟɥɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɜɢɫɨɤ pH ɭ ɠɟɥɭɰɭ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ, ɲɬɨ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚ ɥɚɤɨ ɧɚɫɟʂɚɜɚʃɟ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɭ ɩɪɨɤɫɢɦɚɥɧɟ
ɩɚɪɬɢʁɟ ɬɚɧɤɢɯ ɰɪɟɜɚ. ɇɟɨɧɚɬɚɥɧɚ ɤɨɥɢɛɚɰɢɥɨɡɚ
ɦɚɧɢɮɟɫɬɭʁɟ ɫɟ ɞɢʁɚɪɟʁɨɦ ɛɥɟɞɨ-ɠɭʄɤɚɫɬɟ ɛɨʁɟ
ɱɟɫɬɨ ɩɟɧɭɲɚɜɨɝ ɢɡɝɥɟɞɚ. ɉɪɚɫɚɞ ʁɟ ɧɟɜɟɫɟɥɚ,
ɞɟɯɢɞɪɢɪɚɧɚ, ɚ ɨɱɢ ɫɭ ɢɦ ɭɩɚɥɟ. ɉɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢ ɤɚɞɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɭɝɢɧɟ ɰɟɥɨ ɥɟɝɥɨ. Tɟɥɟɫɧɚ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ʁɟ ɧɚ ɞɨʃɨʁ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɲɤɨʁ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɢ, ɚ
ɱɟɫɬɨ ʁɟ ɫɭɛɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɚ. ɋɚɦɨ ɭ ɫɬɚʃɭ ɫɟɩɬɢɤɟɦɢʁɟ,
ɬɟɥɟɫɧɚ ɬɟɦɟɩɪɚɬɭɪɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɜɢɲɟɧɚ. ɍ ɩɟɪɚɤɭɬɧɨɦ
ɫɬɚʃɭ, ɨɛɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɢ ɧɚɥɚɡ ʁɟ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɚɧ. Ⱦɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɚ
ɫɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ ɢɡ
ɚɛɞɨɦɢɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ. ɍ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɫɩɨɪɢʁɟɝ
ɬɨɤɚ, ɥɟɲɟɜɢ ɫɭ ɞɟɯɢɞɪɢɪɚɧɢ, ɚ ɩɟɪɢɧɟɚɥɧɚ ɪɟɝɢʁɚ ɭɩɪʂɚɧɚ ɨɞ ɟɤɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɟɬɚ. ɀɟɥɭɞɚɰ ʁɟ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɨ ɞɢɥɚɬɢɪɚɧ. ɍ ɧɟɤɢɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɧɚɻɭ ɫɭɩɫɟɪɨɡɧɚ ɢ ɫɭɛɦɭɤɨɡɧɚ
ɩɟɬɟɯɢʁɚɥɧɚ
ɤɪɜɚɪɟʃɚ. ɉɨʁɟɞɢɧɢ ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬɢ ɰɪɟɜɚ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ
ɬɢɦɩɚɧɢɱɧɢ.
ɇɟɤɪɨɬɢɱɧɢ ɟɧɬɟɪɢɬɢɫ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɚɧ ɭ
ɩɪɜɢɯ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɞɚɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɪɚɲɟʃɚ, ɪɟɬɤɨ ɫɟ
ʁɚɜʂɚ ɤɨɞ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɭ ɭɡɪɚɫɬɭ ɨɞ 2 ɞɨ 4 ɧɟɞɟʂɟ.
Ʉɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɧɟɤɪɨɬɢɱɧɨɝ ɟɧɬɟɪɢɬɢɫɚ ʁɟ ɲɢɪɨɤɢ ɞɢʁɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɦɨɪɛɢɞɢɬɟɬɚ ɢ ɦɨɪɬɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ. ɍɡɪɨɱɧɢɤ ʁɟ Cl. perfringens ɬɢɩ ɐ ɫɚ Į ɢ ȕ ɬɨɤɫɢɧɢɦɚ. ɉɨɡɧɚɬɨ ʁɟ ɩɚɪɚɥɢɬɢɱɧɨ ɞɟɥɨɜɚʃɟ ȕ ɬɨɤɫɢɧɚ ɭ
ʁɟʁɭɧɭɦɭ ɢ ɢɥɟɭɦɭ. ɇɚʁɜɟʄɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɭɬɜɪɻɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɭ ʁɟʁɧɭɧɦɭ, ɩɚ ʁɟ ɬɨ ɢɡɝɥɟɞɚ ɢ
ɪɚɡɥɨɝ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɦɚɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɫɤɟ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɟ ɧɚʁɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɢʁɟ ɭ ɨɜɨɦ ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬɭ ɰɪɟɜɚ. Ɍɨɤɫɢɧ ʁɟ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɧ ɭ
ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɭ ɰɪɟɜɚ, ɩɟɪɢɬɨɧɟɚɥɧɨɦ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɭ, ɚ ɦɨɠɟ
ɞɚ ɢɡɚɡɨɜɟ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɟɧɰɚɮɚɥɨɦɚɥɚɰɢʁɭ, ɚɞɪɟɧɨɤɨɪɬɢɤɚɥɧɭ ɧɟɤɪɨɡɭ, ɧɟɮɪɨɡɭ ɢ ɩɭɥɦɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɟɞɟɦ.
Ɉɞ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɢɯ ɚɝɟɧɚɫɚ, ɭ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ ɧɟɨɧɚɬɚɥɧɢɯ
ɟɧɬɟɪɨɩɚɬɢʁɚ, ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢ ɫɭ ɤɨɪɨɧɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɢ ɫɚ ɞɜɚ
ɩɚɬɨɥɨɲɤɚ ɟɧɬɢɬɟɬɚ, ɬɪɚɧɫɦɢɫɢɛɥɢɧɢ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɬɟɪɢɬɢɫ ɢ ɟɩɨɡɨɨɬɢʁɫɤɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɚ ɞɢʁɚɪɟʁɚ
(ɒɚɦɚɧɰ, 2009)
Ɍɪɚɧɫɦɢɫɢɛɢɥɧɢ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɬɟɪɢɬɢɫ ʁɟ ɜɢɫɨɤɨɤɨɧɬɚɝɢɨɡɧɨ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɟ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ. ȼɢɪɭɫ
ɫɟ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɜɚ ɭ ɟɩɢɬɟɥɧɢɦ ʄɟɥɢʁɚɦɚ ɫɥɭɡɨɤɨɠɟ
ɬɚɧɤɢɯ ɰɪɟɜɚ, ɩɪɚʄɟɧ ʁɟ ɤɪɚɬɤɨɦ ɢɧɤɭɛɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɜɢɫɨɤɢɦ ɦɨɪɛɢɞɢɬɟɬɨɦ ɫɜɢɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢʁɚ ɢ ɫɬɨɩɪɨ-
84
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɰɟɧɬɧɢɦ ɦɨɪɬɚɥɢɬɟɬɨɦ ɤɨɞ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɧɚ ɫɢɫɢ ɞɨ
ɫɟɞɦɨɝ ɞɚɧɚ ɫɬɚɪɨɫɬɢ. Ɉɜɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɚ ɭ ɦɨɪɬɚɥɢɬɟɬɭ
ɨɛʁɚɲʃɚɜɚ ɫɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɨɦ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɢɦ ɡɚ ɪɟɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɰɪɟɜɧɨɝ ɟɩɢɬɟɥɚ, ʁɟɪ ʁɟ ɤɨɞ ɫɢɫɚɧɱɚɞɢ ɡɚ
ɬɨ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ 8 ɢ 12 ɞɚɧɚ, ɚ ɤɨɞ ɨɞɪɚɫɥɢɯ
ɢɡɦɟɻɭ 3 ɢ 4 ɞɚɧɚ. ȼɢɪɭɫ ɭɥɚɡɢ ɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɦ ɢ
ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɧɟ ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɬɚɧɤɢɯ ɰɪɟɜɚ.
ȶɟɥɢʁɟ Ʌɢɛɟɪɤɢɧɢʁɟɜɢɯ ɤɪɢɩɬɢ ɧɟ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚʁɭ
ɪɚɫɬ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɩɚ ʃɢɯɨɜɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢʁɚ ɨɛɧɨɜɟ
ɟɩɢɬɟɥɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɚ. Ʉɢɫɟɥɭ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ ɠɟɥɭɰɚ,
ɤɚɨ ɩɪɜɭ ɛɚɪɢʁɟɪɭ, ɜɢɪɭɫ ɫɚɜɥɚɻɭʁɟ
ɫɜɨʁɨɦ
ɨɫɨɛɢɧɨɦ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɚɧ ɧɚ pH 3. ɂɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ
ɟɩɢɬɟɥɧɢɯ ʄɟɥɢʁɚ ɜɢɪɭɫ ɩɨɫɬɢɠɟ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ
ɨɫɨɛɢɧɨɦ, ɚ ɬɨ ʁɟ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɧɚ ɞɟʁɫɬɜɨ ɬɪɢɩɫɢɧɚ.
ȼɚɪɢʁɚɧɬɚ ɰɪɟɜɧɨɝ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢɦɚ ɚɮɢɧɢɬɟɬ ɡɚ
ɩɥɭʄɧɨ ɬɤɢɜɨ. Ɉɜɚ ɜɚɪɢʁɚɧɬɚ ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚ ɟɩɢɬɟɥɧɟ
ʄɟɥɢʁɟ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɢ ɚɥɜɟɨɥɚɪɧɟ
ɦɚɪɤɨɮɚɝɟ, ɚ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɫɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɜɚ ɤɚɨ PRCV
(porcine respiratory corona virus). ɂɧɤɭɛɚɰɢʁɚ ʁɟ
ɜɪɥɨ ɤɪɚɬɤɚ, ɨɞ 18 ɱɚɫɨɜɚ ɞɨ 3 ɞɚɧɚ. Ȼɨɥɟɫɬ ɫɟ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɲɟ ɠɭɬɨ-ɡɟɥɟɧɢɦ ɢɥɢ ɡɟɥɟɧɢɦ ɩɪɨɥɢɜɨɦ,
ɛɪɡɨɦ ɞɟɯɢɞɪɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɜɪɚʄɚʃɟɦ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɛɪɨʁɚ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɯɢɩɨɚɝɚɥɤɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɚɝɚɥɤɰɢʁɨɦ ɢ
ɚɩɫɬɢɧɟɧɰɢʁɨɦ ɨɞ ɯɪɚɧɟ ɤɨɞ ɞɨʁɧɢɯ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ɢ
ɜɢɫɨɤɢɦ ɦɨɪɬɚɥɢɬɟɬɨɦ ɤɨɞ ɧɚʁɦɥɚɻɟ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢʁɟ.
Ɍɟɥɟɫɧɚ ɬɟɦɟɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ʁɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɡɧɚɬɧɨ
ɩɨɜɢɲɟɧɚ. Ʉɨɞ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɭ ɬɨɜɭ , ɮɟɰɟɫ ʁɟ ɜɨɞɟɧɚɫɬ,
ɚ ɝɭɛɢɰɢ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɟ ɦɚɫɟ ɫɟ ɤɪɟʄɭ ɨɞ 4í5 ɩɚ ɢ ɞɨ 10
ɤɝ ɩɨ ɝɪɥɭ. Ȼɨɥɟɫɬ ɨɛɢɱɧɨ ɬɪɚʁɟ 3í7 ɞɚɧɚ, ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɨɞɪɚɫɥɚ ɝɪɥɚ ɜɪɚʄɚʁɭ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɭ ɤɨɧɞɢɰɢʁɭ. ɉɪɚɫɚɞ
ɤɨʁɚ ɩɪɟɛɨɥɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɦɢɫɢɛɥɢɧɢ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɬɟɪɢɬɢɫ ɫɭ
ɤɪɠʂɚɜɚ (ɒɚɦɚɧɰ, 2009).
Ʉɨɞ ɦɚɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɫɤɨɝ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚ ɭɝɢɧɭɥɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɠɟɥɭɞɚɰ ɢ ɬɚɧɤɚ ɰɪɟɜɚ ɫɭ ɫɤɨɪɨ ɩɪɚɡɧɢ,
ɬɢɦɩɚɧɢɱɧɢ ɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɚɪɚɧɬɧɢ. ɍ ɧɟɤɢɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ, ɠɟɥɭɞɚɰ ʁɟ ɢɫɩɭʃɟɧ ɭɝɪɭɲɰɢɦɚ ɦɥɟɤɚ.
Ʉɪɜɧɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɢ ɦɟɡɟɧɬɟɪɢʁɭɦɚ ɢ ɦɟɧɢɧɝɟ ɦɨɡɝɚ ɫɭ
ɢɧʁɢɰɢɪɚɧɢ. ɉɨɫɬɨʁɟ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢ ɤɚɞɚ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɧɚʄɢ
ɟɤɫɬɪɚɜɚɡɚɬɢ ɭ ɥɟɩɨɬɦɟɧɢɧɝɭɫɭ, ɩɚ ɢ ɭ ɦɨɠɞɚɧɨʁ
ɫɭɩɫɬɚɧɰɢ.
ȿɩɢɡɨɨɬɢʁɫɤɚ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɚ ɞɢʁɚɪɟʁɚ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ
ɫɦɪɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɧɚ ɫɢɫɢ ɢɫɩɨɞ 30 ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬɚ,
ɚ ɤɨɞ ɬɨɜʂɟɧɢɤɚ ɬɟɠɢɧɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ 60 ɢ 70 ɤɝ ɢ ɞɨ
10 ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬɚ. ɉɚɬɨɝɟɧɟɡɚ ɚɥɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɚ ɧɚ ɰɪɟɜɧɨɦ ɟɩɢɬɟɥɭ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɦɢɫɢɛɢɭɥɧɨɦ ɝɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɬɟɪɢɬɢɫɭ, ɫ ɬɢɦ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɤɨɞ ɨɜɟ
ɚɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɨɧɢ ɫɩɨɪɢʁɟ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚʁɭ (ɒɚɦɚɧɰ, 2009).
ɍ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɭ ɧɟɨɧɚɬɚɥɧɢɯ ɟɧɬɟɪɨɩɚɬɢʁɚ ɤɪɢɩɬɨɫɩɨɪɢɞɢʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɢɦɚɬɢ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɭ ɭɥɨɝɭ. ɇɚɫɬɚʁɟ
ɚɬɪɨɮɢʁɚ ɪɟɫɢɰɚ, ɫɚ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɟɦ ɫɟɤɪɟɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɚɩɫɨɪɩɰɢʁɟ. Ⱦɪɭɝɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɟ
ɭ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɭ ɫɢɫɚʃɚ ɫɭ ɫɬɪɟɩɬɨɤɨɤɨɡɚ, ɯɢɩɨɝɥɢɤɟɦɢʁɚ, ɚɧɟɦɢʁɚ, ɟɤɫɭɞɚɬɢɜɧɢ ɟɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɬɢɬɢɫ, ɨɦɮɚɥɨɮɥɟɛɢɬɢɫ. ɉɨʁɟɞɢɧɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɡɟ (ɢɡɨɫɩɨɪɨɡɚ,
ɤɪɢɩɬɨɫɩɩɨɪɢɞɢɨɡɚ) ɤɨʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɭɝɪɨɡɢɬɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢɯ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɢ ɬɟɪɚɩɟɭɬɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ ɢ ɩɨʁɚɱɚɧɨɦ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɨɦ ɫɬɪɭɱɧɢɯ ɫɥɭɠɛɢ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ʁɟ ɞɪɠɚɬɢ
ɩɨɞ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɨɦ (ɉɚɜɥɨɜɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2004; 2007;
2011; Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2005).
ɍ ɧɟɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɞɨ ɫɜɨɝ ɩɭɧɨɝ ɢɡɪɚɠɚʁɚ ɞɨɥɚɡɟ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɟ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɨ ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚʁɭ ɭ ɨɤɜɢɪɭ
ɬɚɤɨɡɜɚɧɢɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ.
Ɍɚɤɨ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɨɫɬɚʁɭ ɝɥɚɜɧɢ ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɢ ɢ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ. Ʉɨɧɬɪɨɥɚ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɫɜɨɞɢ ɧɚ ɦɟɬɚɮɢɥɚɤɫɭ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɢɯ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚ,
ɭɜɨɻɟʃɟ ɛɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɧɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɚɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ
ɧɟɦɚʁɭ ɭɜɟɞɟɧɟ ɛɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɧɟ ɦɟɪɟ ɢ ɭɜɨɻɟʃɟ
ɧɨɜɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ ɫɜɢʃa (Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ,
2009).
Ɇɨɞɟɥ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɢɨ ɭ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨɦ ɫɜɢʃɚɪɫɬɜɭ, ɚ ɨɡɧɚɱɟɧ ʁɟ ɤɚɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɢɦɭɥɬɚɧɭ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ ɩɥɭʄɧɨɝ ɬɤɢɜɚ ɫɚ ɜɢɲɟ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɚ. Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ʁɟ ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɢ ɬɟɪɦɢɧ ɡɚ ɩɧɟɭɦɨɧɢʁɟ ɤɨɞ
ɫɜɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɢɦɚʁɭ ɦɭɥɬɢɮɚɤɬɨɪɢʁɚɥɧɭ ɟɬɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɭ.
ɂɡɨɥɨɜɚɧɢ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɢ ɜɚɪɢɪɚʁɭ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ ɢ ɭɧɭɬɚɪ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɯ ɡɚɩɚɬɚ (Honnold, 1999; ɂɜɟɬɢʄ ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 2005; Ƚɨɥɢɧɚɪ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2006). Ʉɨɧɬɪɨɥɚ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ʁɟ ɬɟɲɤɚ ɢ
ɤɨɦɩɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɚ. Ɂɧɚɱɚʁ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ
ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɩɨɱɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɚɤɰɢʁɢ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ
ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɚ. ɉɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ ɦɟɻɭɫɨɛɧɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢɯ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɚ ɦɨɪɚ ɫɟ ɭɡɟɬɢ ɭ ɨɛɡɢɪ ɭ ɰɢʂɭ ɢɦɩɥɟɦɟɧɬɢɪɚʃɚ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ.
Ɋɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɚ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ ɚɤɨ ɫɭ
ɭ ʃɢɯɨɜɨʁ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɨʁ ɨɤɨɥɢɧɢ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɢ ɠɢɜɢ
ɚɝɟɧɫɢ ɢɥɢ ɚɤɨ ɭɫɥɟɞ ɧɟɤɨɝ ɡɚ ɧɚɫ ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɬɨɝ
ɭɡɪɨɤɚ ɨɫɥɚɛɢ ɪɟɚɝɨɜɚʃɟ ɨɞɛɪɚɦɛɟɧɨɝ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ
ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ (ɂɜɟɬɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2005).
ɋɚɦɨ ɦɚɥɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɚɛɨɪɬɭɫɚ ɩɨɜɟɡɚɧ ʁɟ ɫɚ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɰɢɦɚ (ɥɟɩɨɬɫɩɢɪɨɡɚ, ɛɪɭɰɟɥɨɡɚ,
ɰɪɜɟɧɢ ɜɟɬɚɪ, ɩɚɪɜɨ ɜɢɪɭɫ, ɫɜɢʃɫɤɢ ɝɪɢɩ,
Ⱥɭʁɟɤɢʁɟɜɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬ).
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
Ʌɟɩɬɨɫɩɢɪɨɡɚ ʁɟ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɟ ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɨɜɚɧɨ
ɝɪɚɦ-ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɢɦ ɫɩɪɨɯɟɬɚɦɚ ɪɨɞɚ ɥɟɩɬɨɫɩɢɪɚ (L.
pomona, L. terasovi,. L. Australis, L. canicola, L.
Icterochemoragicae, L. grypitiphosa). ɉɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ
ɯɪɨɧɢɱɧɟ ɥɟɩɬɨɫɢɪɨɩɡɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɢɬɢ ɩɨɜɟɡɚɧɨ ɫɚ
ɡɧɚɰɢɦɚ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɚ (ɚɛɨɪɬɭɫɢ,
ɦɪɬɜɨɪɨɻɟɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɚɜɢɬɚɥɧɚ ɩɪɚɫɚɞ ɢ ɧɟɩɥɨɞɧɨɫɬ).
Ʌɟɩɨɫɩɢɪɨɡɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɢɨɧɚɥɧɨ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɟ (ɡɨɨɧɨɡɚ). ɍɡɪɨɱɧɢɤ ɫɟ ɢɡɥɭɱɭʁɟ ɭɪɢɧɨɦ. Ⱦɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɚ
ɫɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɢɡɨɥɨɜɚʃɟɦ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɢɡ ɮɟɬɚɥɧɨɝ
ɬɤɢɜɚ. ɉɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɚ ʁɟ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɧɚ
ɫɜɚɤɢɯ ɲɟɫɬ ɦɟɫɟɰɢ ɩɨɥɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɨɦ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɨɦ.
ɍɡɪɨɱɧɢɤ ɰɪɜɟɧɨɝ ɜɟɬɪɚ ʁɟ ɝɪɚɦ-ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɚ
ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢʁɚ (Erysipelorix rhusiopathiae). ɉɪɢɫɭɬɧɚ
ʁɟ ɤɨɞ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɲɢɪɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɚ. ɉɪɟɧɨɫɢ ɫɟ ɨɪɚɥɧɨɧɚɡɚɥɧɢɦ ɩɭɬɟɦ. Ƚɥɚɜɧɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ ɫɭ
ɩɨɛɚɱɚʁɢ. ɉɪɢɫɭɬɧɟ ɫɭ ɩɪɨɦɟɧɟ ɧɚ ɤɨɠɢ, ɚɪɬɢɪɢɬɢɫɢ, ɟɧɞɨɤɪɚɞɫɬɢɬɢɫɢ, ɢ ɦɨɝɭʄɚ ʁɟ ɢɡɧɟɧɚɞɧɚ
ɫɦɪɬ. Ɋɟɫɨɪɩɰɢʁɚ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ ɢ ɦɭɦɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ
ɮɟɬɭɫɚ ɫɭ ɱɟɫɬɢ ɩɪɚɬɢɨɰɢ ɨɩɲɬɢɯ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ
ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ. Ȼɨɥɟɫɬ ʁɟ ɟɩɢɨɡɨɨɬɫɤɨɝ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ. Ⱦɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɢɡɨɥɨɰɢʁɢɦ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɫɟɪɨɥɨɲɤɢ (ȿlisa ɬɟɫɬ). ɉɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɚ ʁɟ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ.
Ɋɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨ-ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢ ɫɢɧɞɪɨɦ ɫɜɢʃɚ
(PRRS). ɍɡɪɨɱɧɢɤ ʁɟ PRRS-ɚ, ɢɡɨɥɭʁɭɟ ɫɟ ɢɡ ɫɟɤɪɟɬɚ ɧɨɫɚ, ɮɟɰɟɫɚ, ɢ ɭɪɢɧɚ. ɂɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɫɟ ɲɢɪɢ
ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɢɦ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɨɦ ɫɚ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚɦɚ,
ɤɚɨ ɢ ɤɚɩʂɢɱɧɨ. ȿɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ
ɩɪɟɧɨɲɟʃɟ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɫɟɦɟɧɨɦ ɧɟɪɚɫɬɚ. ɉɨɪɟɞ
ɬɨɝɚ, ɜɢɪɭɫ ɫɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɩɪɟɧɟɬɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɰɟɧɬɚɪɧɨ
(ɭ ɩɨɫɥɟɞʃɟɦ ɬɪɢɦɟɫɬɪɭ ɫɭɩɪɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ). ɂɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɲɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ ɚɛɨɪɬɭɫɚ ɢ ɧɟɪɟɝɭɥɚɪɧɨ
ɜɪɚʄɚʃɟ ɭ ɟɫɬɪɭɫ.
Ȼɨɥɟɫɬ ʁɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚʃɟɧɚ ɭ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɭ.
Ʉɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɲɟ ɫɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɨɦ ɚɛɨɪɬɭɫɚ, ɩɪɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɦ
ɩɪɚɲɟʃɟɦ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ, ɪɚɻɚʃɟɦ ɦɭɦɭɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɢɯ ɢɥɢ
ɚɜɢʁɚɪɧɢɯ ɩɥɨɞɨɜɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɜɢɫɨɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɨɦ
ɭɝɢɧɭʄɚ ɭ ɩɪɜɢɦ ɞɚɧɢɦɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɪɚɲɟʃɚ.
ɍɡɪɨɱɧɢɤ ɨɛɨʂɟʃɚ ʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫ ɫɜɪɫɬɚɧ ɭ ɮɚɦɢɥɢʁɭ
Arteriviridae, ɪɨɞ Arterivirus, ɪɟɞ Nidovirales
(Cavanaugh,1997). Ʉɥɢɧɢɱɤɚ ɫɥɢɤɚ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɝ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɫɢɧɞɪɨɦɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɜɚɪɢɪɚ ɭ
ɡɚɜɢɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɞ ɜɢɪɭɥɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨʁɚ, ɞɨɡɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ,
ɢɦɭɧɫɤɨɝ ɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ ʁɟɞɢɧɤɟ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɟ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢʁɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɚ ɞɪɠɚʃɚ.
Ʉɥɢɧɢɱɤɚ ɫɥɢɤɚ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ ɧɚ ɫɢɫɢ ɫɟ ɧɚʁɱɟɲʄɟ
ɢɫɩɨʂɚɜɚ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɞɚɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɩɪɜɢɯ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ ɤɨɞ ɤɪɦɚɱɟ. ɍ ɜɟʄɢɧɢ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɚ, ɧɚɫɬɚʁɭ
ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɢ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɢ í ɤɚɲɚʂ, ɢɧɚɩɚɬɟɧɰɚ,
85
ɩɨɞɪɯɬɚɜɚʃɟ, ɰɢʁɚɧɨɡɚ ɭɲɢʁɭ, ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɨɫɬ ɤɨɧʁɭɧɤɬɢɜɚ, ɨɬɨɰɢ ɨɱɧɢɯ ɤɚɩɚɤɚ ɢ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁɢ ɭ ɩɨɧɚɲɚʃɭ. Ⱦɢʁɚɪɟʁɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɚ ɭ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ
ɞɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɚɩɢʁɭ, ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ
ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɞɟɯɢɞɪɚɰɢʁɟ. ɉɨʁɚɜɚ ɬɪɨɦɨɰɢɬɨɩɟɧɢʁɟ, ɩɪɨɞɭɠɟɧɨ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɤɨɚɝɭɥɚɰɢʁɟ ʁɟ ɭɡɪɨɤ ɱɟɫɬɢɯ ɢɧɬɪɚɞɟɪɦɚɥɧɢɯ ɤɪɚɜɚɪɟʃɚ, ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ
ɧɚɤɨɧ ɭɛɨɞɚ ɢɝɥɟ. Ɇɨɪɛɢɞɢɬɟɬ ɢ ɦɨɪɚɬɥɢɬɟɬ ɫɭ
80 ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬɚ (Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ, 2008ɚ, ɛ; Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ,
2009). ɉɪɜɨ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɬɢ ɩɪɨɦɟɧʂɢɜ ɚɩɟɬɢɬ (ʁɟɞɚɧ
ɞɚɧ ʁɟɞɭ, ʁɟɞɚɧ ɞɚɧ ɧɟ ʁɟɞɭ). ɇɚ ɤɪɚʁɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ
ɩɨɬɭɧɨ ɢɡɝɭɛɢ ɚɩɟɬɢɬ. Ɍɟɥɟɫɧɚ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
ɢɡɧɨɫɢ 410C. ɀɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɭɥɚɡɢ ɭ ɥɟɬɚɪɝɢʁɭ ɢ
ɞɟɩɪɟɫɢʁɭ. Ʉɚɲɚʂ ɧɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɭɜɟɤ ɛɢɬɢ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɚɧ
ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦ. ɉɨʁɚɜɚ ɰɪɜɟɧɢɥɚ ɞɨ ɰɢʁɚɧɨɬɢɱɧɨɝ ɩɪɟɛɨʁɚɜɚʃɚ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɧɚ ɤɨɠɢ, ɭɲɢɦɚ, ɪɢɥɭ, ɥɟɻɢɦɚ,
ɡɚɞʃɢɦ ɟɤɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɟɬɢɦɚ, ɩɟɪɢɚɧɚɥɧɨʁ ɪɟɝɢʁɢ ɢ
ɜɭɥɜɢ. Ɇɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɭ ɩɪɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɨɪɨɻɚʁɢ ɢɥɢ
ɚɛɨɪɬɭɫɢ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧ ɛɪɨʁ ɚɜɢɬɚɥɧɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ,
ɦɭɦɢɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɢɯ ɩɥɨɞɨɜɚ ɢ ɦɪɬɜɨɪɨɻɟɧɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ. ɍ ɧɚɪɟɞɧɨɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɭ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ ʁɚɜɟ ɧɟɪɟɝɭɥɚɪɧɢ ɟɫɬɪɭɫɢ ɯɢɩɨ ɢ ɚɝɚɥaɤɰɢʁɚ, ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɝɭɛɢɬɚɤ
ɧɨɜɨɪɨɻɟɧɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ (Ɋɚɞɨʁɢɱɢʄ, 2002; 2003;
2009). Ɋɟɬɤɨ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɭɝɢɧɭʄɚ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɢɯ
ɨɞ PRRS, ɚɥɢ ɤɨɞ ɚɤɭɬɧɨɝ PRRS ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ɢ
ɧɚɡɢɦɢɰɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬ ɭɝɢɧɭʄɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɢɡɧɨɫɢ 8
ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬɚ (Blackburn, 1995). ɋɦɚɬɪɚ ɫɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ
PRRS ɜɟɨɦɚ ɫɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬ, ɩɚ ʁɟ ɢ ʃɟɧɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɚ ɫɚɦɚ ɩɨ ɫɟɛɢ ɫɥɨɠɟɧɚ. ɋ ɨɛɡɢɪɨɦ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ
ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɩɪɟɧɨɲɟʃɚ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɚɧ
ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬ ɫɚ ɨɛɨɥɟɥɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɨɦ, ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ʁɟ ɤɚɤɨ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɢɬɢ ɡɞɪɚɜ ɡɚɩɚɬ ɨɞ ɭɧɨɲɟʃɚ
ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ. Ɇɟɪɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ ɡɚɲɬɢɬɟ ɨɞ ɭɧɨɲɟʃɚ ɢ ɫɜɢɯ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɭ ɡɚɩɚɬ
ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɫɟ ɢ ɨɜɞɟ. Ɉɧɟ ɨɛɭɯɜɚɬɚʁɭ ɧɚɛɚɜɤɭ ɫɜɢʃɚ
ɫɚɦɨ ɢɡ ɡɚɩɚɬɚ ɫɥɨɛɨɞɧɢɯ ɨɞ PRRS, ɫɬɪɢɤɬɧɨ
ɩɨɲɬɨɜɚʃɟ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɤɚɪɚɧɬɢɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɛɭ ɭ
ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ PRRS-ɚ ɦɨɪɚɨ ɞɚ ɬɪɚʁɟ ɧɚʁɦɚʃɟ 60 ɞɚɧɚ,
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫ ɫɜɟ ɭɧɭɬɪɚ í ɫɜɟ ɧɚɩɨʂɟ,
ɩɪɚʃɟ ɢ ɞɟɡɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ ɨɛʁɟɤɚɬɚ ɩɪɢ ɫɜɚɤɨɦ
ɭɧɨɲɟʃɭ ɧɨɜɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɭɧɢɲɬɚɜɚʃɟ ɝɥɨɞɚɪɚ
ɢ ɩɬɢɰɚ, ɩɪɚʃɟ ɢ ɞɟɡɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɢɯ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɨ. Ɉɞ ɨɫɬɚɥɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɱɭʁɟ
ɫɟ multi site ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɝɚʁɟʃɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɩɚɪɰɢʁɚɥɧɨ
ɪɚɧɨ ɡɚɥɭɱɟʃɟ, ɞɟɩɨɩɭɥɚɰɢʁɚ ɨɞɝɚʁɢɜɚɥɢɲɬɚ ɢ
ɦɟɞɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɪɚɧɨ ɡɚɥɭɱɟɧɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ.
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢʁɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɫɚɱɢʃɟɧɚ
ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɭ ɮɚɪɦɭ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɨ. ɇɟ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɡɚɥɧɢ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ, ɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ ɨɞ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɚ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ
ɛɭɞɟ ɡɚɫɧɨɜɚɧ ɧɚ ɟɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢʁɢ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ, ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɚɤɚɬɢɜɚɧ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɦɢ, ɫɨɩ-
86
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɫɬɜɟɧɢɦ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ ɢ ɦɟɧɚʇɦɟɧɬɭ (Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ
ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2010ɚ).
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɚ ɥɟɤɨɜɢɬɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɚ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɢ
ɫɩɪɟɱɚɜɚʃɭ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤɚ ɫɟɤɭɧɞɚɪɧɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ.
ɍɫɥɟɞ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɚ ɭ ɚɧɬɢɝɟɧɫɤɨʁ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢ,
ɱɚɤ ɢ ɭ ɨɤɜɢɪɭ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɮɚɪɦɟ, ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɞɚɥɚ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬ. ȿɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɩɨʁɟɞɧɢɯ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚ ɢɡɧɨɫɢ ɨɞ 30 ɞɨ 70 ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬɚ ɢ ɧɟ
ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɩɪɟɱɢ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɤ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ. ȿɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬ
ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɟ ɨɝɥɟɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɝɥɚɜɧɨɦ ɭ ɫɦɚʃɟʃɭ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɥɨɫɬɢ ɩɨʁɚɜʂɢɜɚʃɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɢ ɭɛɥɚɠɚɜɚʃɚ
ɤɥɢɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚ.
ɍ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢ ɢɧɮɥɭɟɧɰɟ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ʁɟɞɧɭ ɨɞ ɧɚʁɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɢʁɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ. ȿɮɢɤɚɫɧɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɚ ɨɜɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚ ɫɟ ɧɚ
ɜɢɫɨɤɨɦ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɭ ɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɫɜɢɯ ɫɨʁɟɜɚ Ɇ.
hiopneumoniae ɩɪɟɦɚ ɫɩɢɪɚɦɢɰɢɧɭ, ɬɢɚɦɭɥɢɧɭ,
ɫɩɟɤɬɢɧɨɦɢɰɢɧɭ, ɥɢɧɤɨɦɢɰɢɧɭ, ɬɢɥɨɡɢɧɭ, ɤɥɢɧɞɚɦɢɰɢɧɭ, ɨɤɫɢɬɟɬɪɚɰɢɨɤɥɢɧɭ, ɢ ɯɢɧɨɥɢɧɫɤɢɦ
ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɢɦɚ.
ɉɚɪɜɨ ɜɢɪɭɫ ɫɜɢʃɚ ʁɟ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚʃɟɧ,
ɩɪɟɧɨɫɢ ɫɟ ɨɪɨɧɚɡɚɥɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɰɟɧɬɪɚɧɨ.
ɂɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ 10. ɢ 30. ɞɚɧɚ
ɝɟɫɬɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɬɚɞɚ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɪɟɫɨɪɩɰɢʁɟ ɟɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ
ɢ ɜɪɚʄɚʃɟ ɭ ɟɫɬɪɭɫ ɭ ɧɟɪɟɝɭɥɚɪɧɨɦ ɢɧɬɟɪɜɚɥɭ.
ɂɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ 30. ɢ 70. ɞɚɧɚ
ɝɪɚɜɢɞɢɬɟɬɚ ɞɨɜɨɞɢ ɞɨ ɦɭɦɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɩɥɨɞɚ.
ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɧɚɫɬɚʁɟ ɩɨɫɥɟ 70. ɞɚɧɚ, ɜɟʄɢɧɚ ɮɟɬɭɫɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɻɚ ɡɞɪɚɜɚ. Ⱦɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɢɦɭɧɢɮɥɭɪɟɫɰɟɧɬɢɦ ɬɟɫɬɨɦ (IFAT) ɢɥɢ
ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢɡ ɭɡɨɪɚɤɚ ɩɥɭʄɚ ɦɭɦɢɮɢɰɢɪɚɧɢɯ ɮɟɬɭɫɚ. ɉɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɚ ʁɟ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ
ɢɧɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɚɧɨɦ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɨɦ.
ɉɫɟɭɞɨɪɚɛɢʁɟɫ (morbus Aujcki) ɭɡɪɨɤɭʁɟ ɚɥɮɚ
ɯɟɪɩɟɫ ɜɢɪɭɫ. ɋɜɢʃɟ ɫɭ ʁɟɞɢɧɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɧɢ. Ɉɫɬɚɥɟ ɜɪɫɬɟ ɞɨɦɚʄɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ (ɝɨɜɟɞɚ,
ɨɜɰɟ, ɤɨɡɟ, ɩɫɢ ɢ ɦɚɱɤɟ) ɦɨɝɭ ɫɟ ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɚɬɢ.
ɉɪɟɧɨɫ ɡɚɪɚɡɟ ɤɪɨɡ ɡɚɩɚɬ ɫɟ ɨɛɚɜʂɚ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɧɢɦ
ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɦ. ɍ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ
ɩɪɜɟ ɬɪɟʄɢɧɟ ɝɪɚɜɢɞɢɬɟɬɚ, ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɪɟɫɨɩɰɢʁɟ
ɩɥɨɞɨɜɚ ɢ ɞɨ ɩɨɜɪɚɬɤɚ ɭ ɟɫɬɪɭɫ. ɍ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɞɚ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɢ ɭ ɞɪɭɝɨʁ ɢɥɢ ɬɪɟʄɨʁ ɬɪɟʄɢɧɢ
ɝɪɚɜɢɞɢɬɟɬɚ, ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɞɨ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɚɛɨɪɬɭɫɚ, ɦɪɬɜɨɪɨɻɟɧɟ ɢɥɢ ɫɥɚɛɟ ɚɜɢɬɚɥɧɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ. Ⱦɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɚ ɫɟ
ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɟ ɜɢɪɭɫɚ ɢɥɢ ɬɟɫɬɨɦ
ɮɥɭɪɨɫɰɟɧɬɧɢɯ ɚɧɬɢɬɟɥɚ. ɉɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɚ ɫɟ ɜɪɲɢ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɨɦ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɟ (Ʌɨɧɱɚɪɟɜɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1997)
Ʉɥɚɫɢɱɧɭ ɤɭɝɭ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɩɪɨɭɡɪɨɤɭʁɟ pesti ɜɢɪɭɫ.
Ɍɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɰɟɧɬɚɪɧɚ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɫɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɨɞɜɢʁɚɬɢ ɭ
ɛɢɥɨ ɤɨʁɨʁ ɮɚɡɢ ɝɪɚɜɢɞɢɬɟɬɚ. ɍ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɞɚ ʁɟ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɚ ɧɚɫɬɚɥɚ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ 50. ɢ 70. ɞɚɧɚ ɝɪɚɜɢɞɢɬɟɬɚ, ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɞɨɻɟ ɞɨ ɪɚɻɚʃɚ ɜɢɪɟɦɢɱɧɟ ɩɪɚɫɚɞɢ. Ⱦɢʁɚɝɧɨɡɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɢɡɨɥɚɰɢʁɟ
ɭɡɪɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɛɨʁɟʃɚ ɮɥɭɨɪɟɫɰɟɧɬɧɢɯ ɚɧɢɬɟɥɚ.
ɉɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɫɚ ʁɟ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɫɚ ɢɧɚɤɬɢɜɢɫɚɧɢɦ ɢ
ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɨɜɚɧɢɦ ɜɚɤɰɢɧɚɦɚ, ɚɥɢ ʃɢɯɨɜɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɚ ʁɟ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɫɚɧɚ ɭ ɫɜɚɤɨʁ ɞɪɠɚɜɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɨ
(Ʌɨɧɱɚɪɟɜɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1997).
Ʉɨɧɬɪɨɥɚ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɧɚ
ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɭ ɟɮɢɤɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɫɩɪɨɜɟɞeɧɚ ɧɚ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɚɧ ɧɚɱɢɧ. Ȼɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɧɟ ɦɟɪɟ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚɬɢ ɤɪɨɡ ɱɢɬɚɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ.
ɉɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ʁɟ ɨɞ ɤʂɭɱɧɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ. ɉɚɠʂɢɜɨ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɚɬɢ ɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɫɩɪɨɜoɞɢɬɢ
ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɱɤɟ ɦɟɪɟ. ɋɜɚɤɚ ɮɚɪɦɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ
ɢɡɝɪɚɞɢ ɫɜɨʁ ɫɨɩɫɬɜɟɧɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɛɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɧɢɯ
ɦɟɪɚ. ɇɟɤɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ, ɤɚɨ, ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
ɩɫɟɭɞɨɪɚɛɢʁɟɫ ɢ ɤɥɚɫɢɱɧɚ ɤɭɝɚ ɫɜɢʃɚ, ɦɨɪɚʁɭ
ɛɢɬɢ ɩɨɞ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɨɦ, ɚ ɡɚ ɬɚɤɨ ɧɟɲɬɨ ɦɨɪɚʁɭ
ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚɬɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɜɢ (Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ ɢ ɫɚɪ.,
2011ɚ, ɛ).
ɍɆȿɋɌɈ ɁȺɄȴɍɑɄȺ
ɍ ɢɧɬɟɧɡɢɜɧɨʁ ɫɜɢʃɚɪɫɤɨʁ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɚ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢʁɟ ɡɚɩɚɬɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɨɫɧɨɜ
ɞɨɛɪɟ ɪɟɧɬɚɛɢɥɧɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɟ. ɇɚ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢʁɭ
ɫɜɢʃɚ ɭɬɢɱɭ ɛɪɨʁɧɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɢ, ɨɞ ɤɨʁɢɯ ɫɟ ɤɚɨ
ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɢ ɢɡɞɜɚʁɚʁɭ: ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɪɠɚʃɚ, ɢɫɯɪɚɧɚ,
ɝɨɞɢɲʃɚ ɞɨɛɚ, ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁ ɮɚɪɦɟ, ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬ,
ɫɩɪɨɜoɻɟʃɟ ɛɢɨɫɢɝɭɪɧɨɫɧɢɯ ɦɟɪɚ, ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɡɚɩɚɬɚ, ɡɞɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɨ ɫɬɚʃɟ ɡɚɩɚɬɚ (ɩɪɢɫɭɫɬɜɨ ɭɡɝɨʁɧɢɯ, ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɡɚɪɚɡɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ), ɬɟɥɟɫɧɚ
ɤɨɧɞɢɰɢʁɚ, ɧɚɱɢɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɨɝ ɨɫɟɦɟʃɚɜɚʃɚ (Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 1994; 1996; Ʌɨɧɱɚɪɟɜɢʄ ɢ
ɫɚɪ., 1997). Ⱦɭɛɨɤɨ ɡɚɦɪɡɧɭɬɨ ɫɟɦɟ ɧɟɪɚɫɬɨɜɚ ɫɟ
ɞɚɧɚɫ ɜɢɲɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɭ ɫɜɟɬɭ. Ƚɟɧɟɬɫɤɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥ
ɫɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɦ ɞɭɛɨɤɨ ɡɚɦɪɡɧɭɬɨɝ ɫɟɦɟɧɚ ɱɭɜɚ
ɞɭɠɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɫɤɢ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɟɝɨ ɤɨɞ ɤɪɚɬɤɨɬɪʁɚɧɨ
ɤɨɧɡɟɪɜɢɫɚɧɨɝ ɫɟɦɟɧɚ. ɉɨɪɟɞ ɬɨɝɚ, ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɦ
ɞɭɛɨɤɨ ɡɚɦɪɡɧɭɬɟ ɫɩɟɪɦɟ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɨ ɫɟ ɫɦɚʃɭʁɟ
ɪɢɡɢɤ ɨɞ ɭɧɨɲɟʃɚ ɛɨɥɟɫɬɢ ɭ ɡɚɩɚɬ. Ⱥɤɬɭɥɟɧɢ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ʁɚɜʂɚ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ʁɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ
ɫɟɡɨɧɫɤɟ ɧɟɩɥɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ɭ ɬɨɤɭ ɥɟɬʃɢɯ
ɦɟɫɟɰɢ (ɉɟɬɪɭʁɤɢʄ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2000; 2009; 2011).
Ⱦɚɧɚɫ ɫɟ ɫɜɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɩɚɠʃɟ ɨɛɪɚʄɚ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɤɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ ɫɬɪɟɫɚ ɫɜɟɞɟ ɧɚ ɧɚʁɧɢɠɭ ɦɨɝɭʄɭ ɦɟɪɭ.
Ɏɚɪɦɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɜɨʁ ɦɟɧɚʇɦɟɧɬ ɬɟɤ ɪɚɡɜɢʁɚʁɭ ɢɦɚʁɭ
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɜɟʄɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɫɚ ɫɬɪɟɫɨɦ ɧɟɝɨ ɮɚɪɦɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɢɦɚʁɭ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɭ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɬɧɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞʃɭ. ȼɢɫɨɤ
ɧɢɜɨ ɤɨɪɬɢɤɨɫɬɟɪɨɢɞɚ ɭ ɤɪɜɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ
ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɟ ɫɬɪɟɫɭ ɞɟɥɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɫɦɚʃɟʃɟ ɨɬɩɨɪɧɨɫɬɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɢʃɚ, ɚ ɬɢɦɟ ɢ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚ ɞɚ ɨɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɭ
ɜɢɫɨɤɨɩɪɢʁɟɦɱɢɜɟ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢʁɟ. ɉɪɟɝɨʁɟɧɟ ɤɪɦɚɱɟ ɤɨʁɟ ɧɨɫɟ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɩɥɨɞɨɜɚ ɢ ɭɡ
ɬɨ ɤɨɧɡɭɦɢɪɚʁɭ ɜɟɥɢɤɭ ɤɨɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɯɪɚɧɟ, ɭ ɨɛʁɟɤɬɢɦɚ ɝɞɟ ɫɭ ɩɨɜɟʄɚɧɢ ɜɥɚɝɚ ɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ, ɩɨɤɚɡɭʁɭ ɡɧɚɤɟ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɝ ɞɢɫɬɪɟɫɚ ɢ ɩɨɞɥɨɠɧɢʁɟ ɫɭ ɫɬɪɟɫɭ. Ɍɟɥɟɫɧɚ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɭ ɜɟɥɢɤɨʁ
ɦɟɪɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɭɬɢɱɟ ɧɚ ɥɚɤɬɚɰɢʁɭ. ɉɨɲɬɨ ɬɟɥɟɫɧɚ
ɬɟɦɟɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɞɟɥɨɦ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɢ ɨɞ ɫɩɨʂɚɲʃɟ
ɬɟɦɟɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ, ɜɢɫɨɤɚ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɨɛʁɟɤɬɚ ɫɢɝɭɪɧɨ ɦɨɠɟ ɭɬɢɰɚɬɢ ɧɚ ɥɚɤɬɚɰɢʁɭ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ. ɍɨɱɟɧɨ ʁɟ
ɞɚ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɚ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɦ ɯɪɚɧɨɦ ɦɨɠɟ
ɩɨɜɟʄɚɬɢ ɥɚɤɬɚɰɢʁɭ ɡɚ 10 ɩɪɨɰɟɧɚɬɚ. Ɍɚɤɨɻɟ ɫɟ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭʁɟ ɪɟɫɬɪɢɤɬɢɜɚɧ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɟ ɤɨɞ
ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ɫɟɞɚɦ ɞɚɧɚ ɩɪɟɞ ɩɪɚɲɟʃɟ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɨ
ɩɨɜɟʄɚʃɟ ɨɛɪɨɤɚ ɧɚɤɨɧ ɩɪɚɲɟʃɚ ɞɨ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ
ɩɨɫɬɢɡɚʃɚ ɢɫɯɪɚɧɟ ɞɨʁɧɢɯ ɤɪɦɚɱɚ ɩɨ ɜɨʂɢ.
Ɉɬɤɪɢɜɚʃɟ ɧɨɫɢɥɚɰɚ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢʁɚ ɧɚɪɨɱɢɬɨ ɢɦɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɨɝ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ ɭ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɢɦɚ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɨɝ ɨɫɟɦɟʃɚɜɚʃɚ. ɇɚɲɚ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɤɚ ʁɟ ɞɚ
ɮɚɪɦɟ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢɫʁɤɨɝ ɬɢɩɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɢ ɡɚ
ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢʁɭ ɢ ɜɟɲɬɚɱɤɨ ɨɫɟɦɟʃɚɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɟ
ɭɜɨɻɟʃɭ ɰɢɬɨɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɤɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɚɜɚʁɭ ɨɬɤɪɢɜɚʃɟ ɧɨɫɢɥɚɰɚ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢʁɚ (Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ 1994; Ȼɨʁɤɨɜɫɤɢ ɢ ɫɚɪ., 2010a, b, c).
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ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɍɉɍɌɋɌȼɈ ȺɍɌɈɊɂɆȺ
ɉɨɲɬɨɜɚɧɢ ɱɢɬɚɨɰɢ, ɛɭɞɭʄɢ ɚɭɬɨɪɢ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɨɜɨɝ
ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ, ɭ ɬɟɤɫɬɭ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɥɢʁɟɞɢ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɢ ɫɭ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢʁɭɦɢ ɡɚ ɩɢɫɚʃɟ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ
ɨɜɨɝ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ.
ɉɪɢɥɨɡɢ:
1. Ʉɪɢɬɟɪɢʁɭɦɢ ɡɚ ɢɡɞɚɜɚʃɟ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ
2. ɍɩɭɬɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɭɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢɯ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ
ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ
Ⱥ í Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɢ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢʁɭɦɢ
1. Ⱦɚ ɫɟ ɭ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɭ ɨɛɟɡɛʁɟɻɭʁɟ ɜɢɫɨɤ ɧɚɭɱɧɢ
ɧɢɜɨ ɢ ɞɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɚɭɤɭ ɭ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɨʁ
ɧɚɭɱɧɨʁ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɭ ɩɪɟɞ
ɞɨɦɚʄɨɦ ɢ ɢɧɨɫɬɪɚɧɨɦ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɦ ʁɚɜɧɨɲʄɭ.
2. Ⱦɚ ɢɦɚ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢʁɭ ɫɚɫɬɚɜʂɟɧɭ ɨɞ ɢɫɬɚɤɧɭɬɢɯ
ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɪɚɞɧɢɤɚ ɭ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɭ ɩɨɤɪɢɜɚ.
3. Ⱦɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɭ ɨɛɟɡɛɢʁɟɻɟɧɚ ɲɢɪɚ ɫɚɪɚɞʃɚ
ɢɫɬɚɤɧɭɬɢɯ ɫɬɪɭɱʃɚɤɚ ɢɡ ɨɞɪɟɻɟɧɟ ɧɚɭɱɧɟ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɟ.
4. Ⱦɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɢ ɢɡɛɨɪɭ ɱɥɚɧɚɤɚ ɩɪɢɦʁɟʃɭʁɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɪɟɰɟɧɡɢʁɟ ɬɟɤɫɬɚ.
5. Ⱦɚ ɫɟ ɪɚɞɨɜɢ ɭ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɭ ɨɛʁɚɜʂɭʁɭ ɩɪɜɟɧɫɬɜɟɧɨ ɧɚ ɟɧɝɥɟɫɤɨɦ, ɢɥɢ ɧɟɤɨɦ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ
ɫɜʁɟɬɫɤɨɦ ʁɟɡɢɤɭ, ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɪɟɞɨɜɧɚ
ɩɪɚɤɫɚ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɛʁɚɜʂɭʁɭ ɩɪɢɥɨɡɢ ɧɚ
ɫɬɪɚɧɢɦ ʁɟɡɢɰɢɦɚ.
6. Ⱦɚ ɢɡɥɚɡɢ ɪɟɞɨɜɧɨ.
7. Ⱦɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɨɻɟɧ ɍɩɭɬɫɬɜɭ ɡɚ ɭɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ
ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢɯ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ.
Ȼ í ɍɩɭɬɫɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɭɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢɯ
ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ
Ɉɜɢɦ ɭɩɭɬɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɟ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɲɟ ɭɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɟ
ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢɯ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ ɭ ɫɤɥɚɞɭ ɫɚ
ɡɚɯɬʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɦɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɢɯ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɞɚ ISO.
ɍɪɟɞɧɢɰɢ ɢ ɢɡɞɚɜɚɱɢ ɩɪɢɦɚɪɧɢɯ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ
ɨɛɚɜɟɡɧɢ ɫɭ ɞɚ ɫɟ, ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ ɭɪɟɻɢɜɚʃɚ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ,
ɩɪɢɞɪɠɚɜɚʁɭ ɫʂɟɞɟʄɢɯ ɭɩɭɬɫɬɚɜɚ ɢ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢʁɭɦɚ.
1. ɍ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɭ ɫɟ ɨɛʁɚɜʂɭʁɭ ɱɥɚɧɰɢ
ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɫɚɧɢ ɤɚɨ:
ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɧɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɢ ɪɚɞɨɜɢ,
ɩɪɟɬɯɨɞɧɚ ɫɚɨɩɲɬɟʃɚ,
ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɧɢ ɱɥɚɧɰɢ,
ɫɬɪɭɱɧɢ ɱɥɚɧɰɢ,
ɩɪɢɥɨɡɢ ɫɟ ɧɟ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɲɭ.
Ɉɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɫɬ ɡɚ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ ɫɧɨɫɢ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢʁɚ
ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ (ɭɫɥɨɜɢ ɡɚ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢʁɭ ɞɚɬɢ ɫɭ ɭ
ɩɪɢɥɨɝɭ 1).
ɑɥɚɧɰɢ ɦɨɪɚʁɭ ɞɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɟ ɫʂɟɞɟʄɟ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬɟ:
ɧɚɫɥɨɜ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ,
ɢɦɟɧɚ ɚɭɬɨɪɚ,
89
ɚɞɪɟɫɚ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢʁɟ ɚɭɬɨɪɚ,
ɞɚɬɭɦ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɚ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ ɭ ɭɪɟɞɧɢɲɬɜɨ,
ɍȾɄ ɨɡɧɚɤɚ,
ɤʂɭɱɧɟ ɪɢʁɟɱɢ ɢɥɢ ɞɟɫɤɪɢɩɬɨɪɟ,
ɪɟɡɢɦɟ ɧɚ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɦ ʁɟɡɢɤɭ,
ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɢ ɢɧɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɬɨɪ,
ɨɡɧɚɤɚ ɤɥɚɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ.
ɇɚɩɨɦɟɧɚ: Ɉ ɫɜɚɤɨɦ ɩɨʁɟɞɢɧɨɦ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬɭ ɜɢɞʁɟɬɢ
ɭ ɩɪɢɥɨɝɭ 2.
2. ɋɜɚɤɚ ɫɜɟɫɤɚ ʁɟɞɧɟ ɫɟɪɢʁɫɤɟ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɧɚɫɥɨɜɧɭ ɫɬɪɚɧɭ ɢɥɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɭ
ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɡɚɦʁɟʃɭʁɟ ɤɨɪɢɰɟ, ɫɚ ɫʂɟɞɟʄɢɦ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬɢɦɚ:
ɧɚɫɥɨɜ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ,
ɍȾɄ ɨɡɧɚɤɚ ɡɚ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫ,
ɨɡɧɚɤɚ ɫɟɪɢʁɟ ɚɤɨ ɢɯ ɢɦɚ ɜɢɲɟ,
ɛɪɨʁ ɫɜɟɫɤɟ,
ɦʁɟɫɬɨ ɢɡɞɚɜɚɱɚ,
ɢɡɞɚɜɚɱ,
ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɢɡɞɚɜɚʃɚ,
ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɚ ɦɚɧɲɟɬɚ.
ɍ ɫɜɚɤɨɦ ɛɪɨʁɭ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ ɧɚ ɢɫɬɨɦ ɦʁɫɬɭ ɦɨɪɚʁɭ
ɛɢɬɢ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɢ ɫʂɟɞɟʄɢ ɩɨɞɚɰɢ:
ɧɚɡɢɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɚ ɡɚ
ɢɡɞɚɜɚʃɟ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ,
ɫɚɫɬɚɜ ɭɪɟɞɧɢɲɬɜɚ,
ɚɞɪɟɫɚ ɭɪɟɞɧɢɲɬɜɚ,
ɫɚɫɬɚɜ ɢɡɞɚɜɚɱɤɨɝ ɫɚɜʁɟɬɚ,
ɲɬɚɦɩɚɪɢʁɚ,
ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɫɜɟɫɤɟ.
ɇɚɩɨɦɟɧɚ: Ɉ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɢɦɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ
ɛɪɨʁ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ ɜɢɞʁɟɬɢ ɭ ɩɪɢɥɨɝɭ 3.
ɉɪɢɥɨɝ 1.
1. Ɉɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɧɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɢ ɱɥɚɧɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɚɬɟ
ɢɡɜɨɪɧɢɯ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ. ɇɚɭɱɧɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɟ ɭ ɪɚɞɭ ɦɨɪɚʁɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɨɛɪɚɻɟɧɟ ɢ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɟ
ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɟɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢ ɩɨɧɨɜɢɬɢ ɢ
ɩɪɨɜʁɟɪɢɬɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɢ ɡɚɤʂɭɱɰɢ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɟ
ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢ ɡɚɫɧɢɜɚʁɭ.
2. ɉɪɟɬɯɨɞɧɨ ɫɚɨɩɲɬɟʃɟ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɟ ɱɢʁɢ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɡɚɯɬɢʁɟɜɚ ɯɢɬɧɨ ɨɛʁɚɜʂɢɜɚʃɟ, ɚɥɢ ɧɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɨɦɨɝɭʄɢ ɩɪɨɜʁɟɪɭ ɢ ɩɨɧɚɜʂɚʃɟ ɢɡɧɟɫɟɧɢɯ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɚ.
3. ɉɪɟɝɥɟɞɧɢ ɱɥɚɧɚɤ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɰʁɟɥɨɜɢɬ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞ ɧɟɤɨɝ ɩɨɞɪɭɱʁɚ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ
ɜɟʄ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɨɝ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɭ
ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɭ ɫɚɤɭɩʂɟɧ, ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɚɧ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɚɜʂɚɧ.
4. ɋɬɪɭɱɧɢ ɱɥɚɧɚɤ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɚɧ ɩɪɢɥɨɝ ɢɡ ɩɨɞɪɭɱʁɚ ɫɬɪɭɤɟ, ɱɢʁɚ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɤɚ
ɧɢʁɟ ɜɟɡɚɧɚ ɡɚ ɢɡɜɨɪɧɚ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ. ɋɬɪɭɱ-
90
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɧɢ ɪɚɞ ɫɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɜʁɟɪɭ ɢɥɢ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢʁɭ ɭ ɫɜʁɟɬɥɭ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢɯ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɚɧ ɦɚɬɟɪɢʁɚɥ ɭ ɫɦɢɫɥɭ
ɲɢɪɟʃɚ ɡɧɚʃɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɨɻɚɜɚʃɚ ɢɡɜɨɪɧɢɯ
ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɚɦɚ ɧɚɭɤɟ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɫɟ.
Ʉɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢʁɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɢ ɫɬɪɭɱɧɢɯ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ
ɞɚɬɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɤɚɦɚ UNESCO-ɚ.
ɉɪɢɥɨɝ 2.
1. ȿɥɟɦɟɧɬɢ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ ɫɭ:
ɇȺɋɅɈȼ, ɡɚʁɟɞɧɢɱɤɢ ɧɚɫɥɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɞɧɚɫɥɨɜ,
ɤɨʁɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɫɚɠɟɬɨ ɞɚ ɨɡɧɚɱɢ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ, ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ
ɥɚɤ ɡɚ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɭ ɭ ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɚɦɚ ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ
ɤɨʁɟ
ɢɡɞɚʁɭ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɟ ɫɥɭɠɛɟ.
ɇɚɫɥɨɜ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɩɪɚɬɢ ɩɨɞɧɚɫɥɨɜ, ɤɨʁɢ
ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɫɚɦɨ ɞɨɩɭɧɫɤɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɟ, ɢ ɨɧɢ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ʁɚɫɧɨ ɪɚɡɞɜɨʁɟɧɢ, ɧɩɪ. ɩɨɦɨʄɭ
ɞɜɨɬɚɱɤɟ.
ɂɆȿɇȺ ɂ ȺȾɊȿɋȿ ȺɍɌɈɊȺ
ɂɦɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɡɢɦɟ ɚɭɬɨɪɚ ɫɟ ɧɚɜɨɞɢ ɭ ɩɭɧɨɦ
ɨɛɥɢɤɭ, ɚ ɩɪɟɡɢɦɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɬɢɩɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɢ
ɢɫɬɚʄɢ. ɂɦɟ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɞɚɨ ɚɭɬɨɪ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɪɟɞ ɢɦɟɧɚ ɚɭɬɨɪɚ ɭ ɝɪɭɩɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɩɨɲɬɨɜɚɧ ɨɞ
ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɭɪɟɞɧɢɤɚ.
Ʉɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɚɭɬɨɪ ɤɨɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɬɢʁɟɥɨ, ɬɪɟɛɚ
ɧɚɜɟɫɬɢ ɭ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨɫɬɢ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɡɜɚɧɢɱɧɨ ɢɦɟ,
ɚ ɚɞɪɟɫɭ ɫɬɚɜɢɬɢ ɭ ɮɭɫɧɨɬɭ ɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɤɪɚʁɭ
ɱɥɚɧɤɚ, ɞɨɤ ɫɤɪɚʄɟɧɢ ɨɛɥɢɤ ɢɦɟɧɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ
ɫɟ ɞɚ ɭ ɡɚɝɪɚɞɚɦɚ.
ȾȺɌɍɆ ɑɅȺɇɄȺ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɜɚ ɞɚɬɭɦ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɚ
ɤɨɧɚɱɧɟ ɜɟɪɡɢʁɟ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ.
ɌȿɄɋɌ ɑɅȺɇɄȺ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɥɢʁɟɞɢ ɥɨɝɢɱɚɧ
ɢ ʁɚɫɚɧ ɩɥɚɧ. Ɍɪɟɛɚ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɬɢ ɪɚɡɥɨɝ ɡɚ ɪɚɞ ɢ
ʃɟɝɨɜ ɨɞɧɨɫ ɩɪɟɦɚ ɫɥɢɱɧɢɦ ɩɪɟɬɯɨɞɧɢɦ
ɪɚɞɨɜɢɦɚ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɟ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɨɩɢɫɚɬɢ
ɧɚ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɞɚ ɱɢɬɚɥɚɰ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɢɯ ɩɨɧɨɜɢ.
Ɋɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɟ ɢ ɞɢɫɤɭɫɢʁɭ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɤɟ, ɩɨɠɟʂɧɨ ʁɟ ɨɞɜɨʁɟɧɨ ɩɪɢɤɚɡɚɬɢ.
Ɏɭɫɧɨɬɟ ɫɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɭ ɢɡɭɡɟɬɧɢɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɟɜɢɦɚ ɢ ɫɚɞɪɠɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɞɨɞɚɬɧɢ ɬɟɤɫɬ, ɚ
ɧɢɤɚɞɚ ɚɤɬɭɟɥɧɟ ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɟ ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɟ,
ɚɥɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɞɚ ɭɩɭʄɭʁɭ ɧɚ ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɟ ɭ ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɢ.
ɂɅɍɋɌɊȺɐɂȳȿ ɂ ɌȺȻȿɅȿ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ
ɧɭɦɟɪɢɫɚɧɟ ɢ ɫɧɚɛɞʁɟɜɟɧɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢɦ ɧɚɫɥɨɜɨɦ. ɋɜɟ ɢɥɭɫɬɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ ɬɚɛɟɥɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ
ɢɦɚʁɭ ɭɩɭɬɧɢɰɟ ɭ ɬɟɤɫɬɭ.
ɉɊɂɅɈɁɂ ɫɚɞɪɠɟ ɫɩɨɪɟɞɧɟ, ɚɥɢ ɜɚɠɧɟ
ɩɨɞɚɬɤɟ, ɤɚɨ ɧɩɪ. ɦɟɬɨɞɟ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ, ɤɨɦɩʁɭɬɟɪɫɤɟ ɢɫɩɢɫɟ, ɥɢɫɬɭ ɫɢɦɛɨɥɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɞɨɞɚɬɤɟ,
ɢɥɭɫɬɪɚɰɢʁɟ ɢɥɢ ɬɚɛɟɥɟ. ɉɪɢɥɨɡɢ ɫɟ ɫɬɚɜʂɚʁɭ ɧɚ ɤɪɚʁ ɬɟɤɫɬɚ ɩɨɫɥɢʁɟ ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɟ ɢ
2.
3.
4.
5.
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢ ɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ, ɛɪɨʁɟɜɢɦɚ
ɢɥɢ ɡɚɝɥɚɜʂɟɦ.
ɐɢɬɢɪɚʃɟ ɭ ɬɟɤɫɬɭ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɫɤɥɚɞɭ ɫɚ
ISO 690/1987.
ȻɂȻɅɂɈȽɊȺɎɂȳȺ
Ʌɢɫɬɚ ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɢ ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɢ ɧɚ ɱɥɚɧɤɟ
ɰɢɬɢɪɚɧɟ ɭ ɬɟɤɫɬɭ ɧɚɥɚɡɢ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɤɪɚʁɭ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ,
ɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɢɡɪɚɻɟɧɚ ɭ ɫɚɝɥɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɚ
ISO 690/1987. Ʌɢɫɬɚ ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɢ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ ɫɚɦɨ
ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɟ ɨɛʁɚɜʂɟɧɟ ɭ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɢɦɚ. ɍ
ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɰɢɬɢɪɚɧɢɯ ɢɡ ɫɟɤɭɧɞɚɪɧɢɯ
ɢɡɜɨɪɚ, ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɚ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɧɚ ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɭ, ɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɡɧɚ, ɢ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɩɪɨɩɪɚʄɟɧɚ ɢɡɪɚɡɨɦ „ɰɢɬɢɪɚɧɨ ɭ“ ɩɚ ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɚ ɫɟɤɭɧɞɚɪɧɨɝ ɢɡɜɨɪɚ.
Ɉɞ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ʁɟ ɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɭ ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɭ ɭɤʂɭɱɢ ɢ ɥɢɫɬɚ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɟ ɡɚ ɱɢɬɚɨɰɟ.
ɋɜɢ ɱɥɚɧɰɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɫɧɚɛɞʁɟɜɟɧɢ ɪɟɡɢɦɟɨɦ, ɢ ɬɨ ɧɚ ʁɟɡɢɤɭ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ, ɤɚɨ ɢ ɧɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɦ ʁɟɡɢɤɭ (ɟɧɝɥɟɫɤɢ, ɮɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɢ). Ɋɟɡɢɦɟɢ
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɭɪɚɻɟɧɢ ɭ ɫɚɝɥɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɚ ISO
214.
ɋɜɢ ɱɥɚɧɰɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɭ ɩɪɚʄɟɧɢ ɍȾɄ
ɨɡɧɚɤɚɦɚ ɢ ɤʂɭɱɧɢɦ ɪɢʁɟɱɢɦɚ. ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɢ ɬɟɡɚɭɪɭɫ ɡɚ ɬɭ ɨɛɥɚɫɬ, ɞɟɫɤɪɢɩɬɨɪɢ
ɢɦɚʁɭ ɩɪɟɞɧɨɫɬ ɧɚɞ ɤʂɭɱɧɢɦ ɪɢʁɟɱɢɦɚ.
ɋɜɚɤɨɦ ɱɥɚɧɤɭ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɨɞɢʁɟɥɢɬɢ ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɢ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɢ ɛɪɨʁ í BIBLID,
ɤɨʁɢ ɫɥɭɠɢ ɡɚ ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɭ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɭ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ. Ɉɧ ɫɟ ɫɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɞ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɬɨɪɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɜɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɦ ɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ
ɥɚɬɢɧɢɰɟ BIBLID ISO 9115/87 ɢ ɤɨɞɚ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɞɭɠɢɧɟ, ɚ ɫɚɫɬɚɜʂɟɧ ʁɟ ɨɞ ɫɥɨɜɚ,
ɛɪɨʁɟɜɚ ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɯ ɨɡɧɚɤɚ ɡɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɭɧɤɰɢʁɭ. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɤɨɞɚ ɫɟ ɫɚɫɬɨʁɢ ɨɞ ISSN
ɨɡɧɚɤɟ (ɛɟɡ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɬɨɪɚ ɤɨɞɚ ISSN), ɡɚɬɢɦ ɨɞ ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɢɡɞɚʃɚ, ɤɨʁɚ ɫɟ ɩɢɲɟ ɚɪɚɩɫɤɢɦ ɰɢɮɪɚɦɚ ɭ ɡɚɝɪɚɞɢ (ɱɟɬɢɪɢ ɰɢɮɪɟ).
ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɧɟɦɚ ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɢɡɞɚʃɚ, ɩɢɲɟ ɫɟ ɩɪɚɡɧɚ ɡaɝɪɚɞɚ, ɚ ɡɚɬɢɦ ɫɥɢʁɟɞɢ ɨɡɧɚɤɚ ɡɚ ɜɨɥɭɦɟɧ ɢɥɢ ɛɪɨʁ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɜɚ ɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ ɢɥɢ
ɚɪɚɩɫɤɢɦ ɰɢɮɪɚɦɚ (ɩɪɟɦɚ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɭ). ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ʁɟ ɛɪɨʁ ɫɜɟɫɤɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɟɧ ɫɥɨɜɢɦɚ, ɤɨɪɢɫɬɟ
ɫɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɩɪɜɚ ɱɟɬɢɪɢ ɫɥɨɜɚ. ɉɪɜɢ ɫɬɟɩɟɧ
ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟʃɚ ɫɟ ɨɞɜɚʁɚ ɞɜɨɬɚɱɤɨɦ ɨɞ ɞɪɭɝɨɝ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɚ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟʃɚ. Ʉɚɨ ɱɟɬɜɪɬɢ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬ
ɤɨɞɚ ɫɬɨʁɢ ɩɚɝɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ, ɤɨʁɨʁ ɩɪɟɬɯɨɞɢ ɨɡɧɚɤɚ
„p.“ ɢ ɛɪɨʁɟɜɢ ɨɞ ɩɨɱɟɬɧɟ ɞɨ ɩɨɫʂɟɞʃɟ
ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ.
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɚʃɟ ɫɜɟɫɤɟ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ. ɋɜɚ ɢɡɞɚʃɚ ɫɟɪɢʁɫɤɟ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɦɨɪɚʁɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɢɫɬɨɝ ɮɨɪ-
ȼȿɌȿɊɂɇȺɊɋɄɂ ɀɍɊɇȺɅ ɊȿɉɍȻɅɂɄȿ ɋɊɉɋɄȿ – Veterinary Journal of Republic of Srpska
ɦɚɬɚ ɡɛɨɝ ɩɨɜɟɡɚ ɢ ɫɦʁɟɲɬɚʁɚ. ɇɚɭɱɧɢ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɢ ɦɨɪɚʁɭ ɪɟɞɨɜɧɨ ɞɚ ɨɛʁɚɜɟ ɧɚʁɦɚʃɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ
ɧɚɭɱɧɢ ɪɚɞ, ɞɨɤ ɨɫɬɚɥɢ ɱɥɚɧɰɢ ɦɨɝɭ ɩɪɢɩɚɞɚɬɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢʁɚɦɚ, ɡɚɜɢɫɧɨ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɚ.
Ɂɚɝɥɚɜʂɚ ɡɚ ɫɩɟɰɢʁɚɥɧɟ ɨɛɥɢɤɟ, ɤɚɨ ɚɩɫɬɪɚɤɬɢ, ɧɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɞɢɫɤɭɫɢʁɟ ɦɨɝɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɧɚɛɪɨʁɚɧɢ ɩɨɫɥɢʁɟ ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɧɢɯ ɱɥɚɧɚɤɚ.
6. Ⱥɤɨ ʁɟ ɥɢɫɬɚ ɫɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɟɦ ɩɪɟɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɧɚ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɢɥɢ ɜɢɲɟ ʁɟɡɢɤɚ, ɩɪɟɩɨɪɭɱɭʁɭ ɫɟ ɨɞɜɨʁɟɧɟ ɥɢɫɬɟ ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɢ ɞɚ ɫɥɢʁɟɞɟ ɢɡɚ
ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɧɨɝ ɥɢɫɬɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ. ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɟ ɱɥɚɧɤɟ ɧɚ ɜɢɲɟ ʁɟɡɢɤɚ,
ɬɪɟɛɚ ɨɡɧɚɱɢɬɢ ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɧɢ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ
ɱɥɚɧɚɤ (ɟɧɝɥɟɫɤɢ, ɮɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɢ ɢɬɞ.).
Ⱥɤɨ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɚ ɥɢɫɬɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ, ɩɪɟɜɨɞɢ
ɧɚɫɥɨɜɚ ɫɟ ɞɚʁɭ ɩɨɫɥɢʁɟ ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɧɢɯ
ɧɚɫɥɨɜɚ.
Ʌɢɫɬ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ, ɚɤɨ ɧɟ ɫɬɚɧɟ ɧɚ ʁɟɞɧɨʁ, ɧɚɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɫʂɟɞɟʄɨʁ ɫɬɪɚɧɢ.
Ʌɢɫɬ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁɚ ɫɚɞɪɠɢ:
ɧɚɫɥɨɜ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ í ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɚ
ɦɚɧɲɟɬɚ,
ɡɚɝɥɚɜʂɟ „ɋɚɞɪɠɚʁ“,
ɩɨɩɢɫ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ ɫɚ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɢ
BIBLID-ɨɦ.
Ɂɚ ɩɨɩɢɫ ɱɥɚɧɚɤɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢ ɫɟ ɫʂɟɞɟʄɢ ɪɟɞɨɫɥɢʁɟɞ:
ɢɦɟ ɚɭɬɨɪɚ ɤɚɤɨ ʁɟ ɞɚɬɨ ɭ ɡɚɝɥɚɜʂɭ
ɱɥɚɧɤɚ,
ɩɭɧ ɧɚɫɥɨɜ ɢ ɫɜɢ ɩɨɞɧɚɫɥɨɜɢ (ɡɚ ɱɥɚɧɚɤ
ɭ ɧɚɫɬɚɜɰɢɦɚ, ɧɚɫɥɨɜ ʄɟ ɛɢɬɢ
ɩɪɨɩɪɚʄɟɧ ɫɚ „ɧɚɫɬɚɜɢʄɟ ɫɟ“, „ɧɚɫɬɚɜɚɤ“
ɢɥɢ „ɤɪɚʁ“, ɤɚɤɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨ),
91
ɛɪɨʁ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɨʁ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɩɨɱɢʃɟ ɢ ɛɪɨʁ
ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɨʁ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɡɚɜɪɲɚɜɚ, ɩɨɜɟɡɚɧ
ɰɪɬɨɦ.
ɍɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɱɥɚɧɚɤ ɧɢʁɟ ɲɬɚɦɩɚɧ ɭ ɤɨɧɬɢɧɭɢɬɟɬɭ,
ɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɫɟ ɩɚɝɢɧɚɰɢʁɚ ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬ ɱɥɚɧɤɚ ɢ
ɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɢ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɬɨɪ BIBLID ɡɚ ɫɜɚɤɢ
ɱɥɚɧɚɤ.
ɋɩɢɫɚɤ ɪɟɥɟɜɚɧɬɧɢɯ ISO ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɞɚ
1. ISO 690/1987 Bibliographic references Content, form and structure. (Ȼɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɟ ɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɟ í ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ, ɨɛɥɢɤ ɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ).
2. ISO 18/1981 Contents list of periodicals. (Ʉɪɚɬɚɤ ɫɚɞɪɠɚʁ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɧɢɯ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɚɬɚ).
3. ISO 215/1985 Presentation of contributions to
periodicals and other serials. (ɍɨɛɥɢɱɟʃɟ
ɱɥɚɧaɤɚ ɭ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɧɢɦ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ).
4. ISO 3297/86 International standard serial
numbering ISSN. (Ɇɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɢ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɞɧɢ
ɛɪɨʁ ɡɚ ɫɟɪɢʁɫɤɟ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ).
5. ISO 4/1984 Rutes for the abbreviation of title
words and titles of publications. (ɉɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɡɚ
ɫɤɪɚʄɢɜɚʃɟ ɪɢʁɟɱɢ ɢɡ ɧɚɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɧɚɫɥɨɜɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ).
6. ISO 9115/1987 Bibliographic identification
(BIBLID) of contributions in serial and books.
(Ȼɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɫɤɚ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ ɱɥɚɧɚɤɚ ɭ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɧɢɦ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚɦɚ ɢ ɤʃɢɝɚɦɚ).
7. ISO 214/1976 Abstracts for publications and
documentation. (Ⱥɩɫɬɪɚɤɬɢ ɡɚ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɢ
ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢʁɭ).
8. ISO 7275/1985 Presentation of titles information of series. (ɉɪɟɡɟɧɬɨɜɚʃɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢʁɚ
ɢɡ ɧɚɫɥɨɜɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɧɢɯ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ).
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