ISSN 2232-755X
-Vanredno izdanje-
Glasnik hem. teh. i ek. RS
ISSN 2232-755X
-Vanredno izdanje-
Glasnik hem. teh. i ek. RS
Glasnik hemičara, tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske
Gazette of Chemists, Technologists and Environmentalists of
Republic of Srpska
Izdavač- Publisher
Tehnološki fakultet, Univerzitet u Banjaluci
Faculty of Technology, University of Banjaluka
Za izdavača – For Publisher
Prof.dr Miloš Sorak – Dekan (Dean)
Glavni i odgovorni urednik - Editor-in-Chief
Prof.dr Ljiljana Vukić,
Sekretar – Secretary
Jovanka Todiić
Lektor engleskog jezika - Copy editor for English
Sanja Josifović-Elezović
MeĎunarodni ureĎivački odbor – International Editorial Board
Prof.dr Slavko Mentus, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet za fizičku hemiju, Beograd, Srbija,
Prof.dr Sonja Đilas, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Tehnološki fakultet, Novi Sad, Srbija,
Prof.dr Milan Matavulj, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Novi Sad, Srbija,
Prof.dr Miodrag Lazić, Univerzitet u Nišu, Tehnološki fakultet, Leskovac, Srbija,
Prof.dr Branko Bugarski, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Tehnološko-metalurški fakultet, Beograd, Srbija,
Doc.dr Tatjana Rijavec, Univerza v Ljubljani, Naravoslovnotehniška fakulteta, Ljubljana, Slovenia,
Doc.dr Simona Jevšnik, Univerza v Ljubljani, Akademija za dizajn, Ljubljana, Slovenia,
Prof.dr Todor Vasiljević, Victoria University, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Melburn, Australia.
UreĎivački odbor iz BiH - Editorial Board from B&H
Dr Branko Škundrić, akademik, Prof.dr Jasminka Sadadinović, Prof.dr Midhat Jašić,
Prof.dr Miloš Sorak, Prof.dr Jelena Penavin-Škundrić, Prof.dr Nedeljko Čegar, Prof.dr Mihajlo Ristić, Prof.dr Miloš Šolaja,
Prof.dr Miroslav Grubačić, Prof.dr Radana ĐuĎić, Prof.dr Zora Popović, Prof.dr Milorad Maksimović, Prof.dr Dušanka
Stojanović, Prof.dr Asima Davidović, Prof.dr Zoran Kukrić, Prof.dr Slavica Grujić, Prof.dr Slavica Sladojević,
Prof.dr Ljiljana Topalić-Trivunović, Doc.dr Snjeţana Mandić, Doc.dr Svjetlana Janjić,
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This special edition has been published on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the
Faculty of Technology in Banja Luka. It is dedicated to the 10th Symposium of chemists,
technologists and environmentalists of Republic of Srpska. It includes plenary lectures
and panel sessions lectures.
Editorial Board
Ovaj broj časopisa je objavljen povodom 50 godina od osnivanja Tehnološkog fakulteta u
Banjoj Luci. Posvećen je X Savjetovanju hemičara, tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske
i sadrţi plenarna i sekcijska predavanja
Slavko Mentus:
Baltić Ţ. Milan, Đurić Jelena, Mandić Snjeţana, Pećanac Biljana, Lončina Jasna:
Miroslav Gojo, Tomislav Cigula:
Elvis Ahmetović , Nidret Ibrić, Zdravko Kravanja:
Bjørg Egelandsdal, Milena Bjelanovic, Mamta Khatri and Erik Slinde
Jelka Geršak:
Драгољуб Новаковић, Игор Карловић:
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 1-9, -Vanredno izdanje-
Slavko Mentus
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12, 11185 Belgrade, Serbia
e-mail : [email protected]
ISSN 2232-755X
DOI: 10.7251/GHTE13VI001M
UDC 621.352.035.211
Since ~90ties the expectaions arose that batteries may replace fossil fuels as main energy suppliers in automobiles. The
classic lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries would be unsuitable for such purposes due to their own mass (low
specific energy) and toxicity. Up to 2010th the solution was sought in hydrogen energetics, but in the last several years
the attention was paid to lithium power sources. Initially, the technological solutions taken from the Li-ion cells for
mobile phones were considered, with LiCx as anode and LiNiO2 or LiCoO2 as cathode materials, however, today
primarily LiFePO4 – based materials are considered, thanks to its lower price and environmental friendliness. In this
contribution the overview of characteristics of both classic and contemporary batteries is done. This overview
illustrates how the introduction of Li-ion batteries together with recent nanotechnologies provided considerable
progress in specific energy, and offered the perspective of battery powered cars.
Key words: classical batteries, electrode materials, lithium-ion batteries, specific energy
Batteries are devices composed of two metal conductors –electrodes- dipped into ionic conductor –electrolyte,
enabling the oxidation reaction on the one (anode), and accompanying reduction reaction on the other (cathode)
metal/electrolyte boundary. The electrons deliberated on anode travel through the load to the cathode where they are
consumed, while the movement of ions through electrolyte closes the circular flow of the electricity. The sum of
oxidation and reduction reactions presents the chemical reaction of a battery.
Fig 1. Battery cell on discharge
Fig 2. The cross section of a rechargeable battery for
automobile purposes: the pockets of electrode materials
packed within plate-like current collectors, dipped in common
electrolyte solution, in a common plastic container.
The running force of a battery is the tendency of the chemical reaction to proceed spontaneously, which may be
quantitatively expressed as a change in Gibbs free energy (G). It is simultaneously equal to a maximal electric work
released. Per one mole of reactants it amounts to:
-G = nF
where nF is the charge deliberated by one mole of electrode materials (nF = n 96500 C, n is the change in oxidation
number of reactants, F= 96500 C mol-1, Faraday constant
If discharged battery may be charged to its initial state by help of an outer power supply, it is called rechargeable or
secondary battery. In opposite case, one deals with a primary battery (for single use only).
Among various characteristics significant for practical use, capacity and energy are of primary significance.
Capacity is the amount of electricity available when the battery is completely charged. It may be derived from molar
capacity of either cathode or anode materijal:
QM = nNAe = nF = n·96500 C = n·96500 As = n·96500/3600 Ah = n·26.8 Ah (NA is the Avogadro number, e is the
charge of one electron).
Specific capacity may be calculated if molar capacity (Ah) is multiplied by number of moles in one kg (Q m /Ah kg-1) or
in one dm3 (Qv /Ah dm-3)
Theoretical specific capacity of a battery may be calculated by dividing the capacity of catode or anode material (they
are always adjusted to be identical) by the mass (or volume) of both electrode materials and electrolyte, if it
participates in chemical reaction.
Practical specific capacity of a battery may be calculated by dividing the capacity of cathode or anode material by total
mass of the battery. Practical specific capacity may be several times lower than theoretical one. This is due to the
presence of various other materials in the construction of a battery, which enable its practical use. They are
electronically conductive additives to low-conducting electrode materials, plastic binders, current collectors, separators,
electrolyte and container. An additional latent capacity loss arises when battery is in use. Namely, no construction
provides full utilization of electrode material, and moreover, it decreases with the increase of charging/discharging rate.
The energy of a battery is the product of capacity and voltage. The unit of energy is Joule (1J= 1 C x 1 V = 1As x 1V
= 1Ws ). For practic purposes 3600 times greater unit is used, called wat hour (1Wh = 1Ahx 1V ).
Theoretical specific energy is the product of theoretical capacity and voltage, while practical specific energy is the
product of practical capacity and voltage. Practical specific energy is lower than theoretical one due to the same
factors causing the lowering of practical relative to theoretical capacity.
Table 1. Molar mass (M), theoretical coulombic capacity per mole (QM ), specific capacity (Qm), density (), and
volume capacity (Qv ) of some classic anode and cathode materials
(kg mol-1)
(kg mol-1)
(mol kg-1)
(Ah mol-1 )
(Ah mol-1 )
(mol kg-1)
(Ah kg-1)
(Ah kg-1)
(kg dm -3)
(kg dm -3)
(Ah dm-3)
(Ah dm-3)
The unit of specific energy is Wh kg-1, or Wh dm-3. It is also called energy density.
Many factors influence the practical usability of an electrode materials (aggregate state, corrosivity, toxicity, price,
cyclability of electrode materials), thus only few batteries experinced long term practical use, the mostly used will be
described in continuation.
The lead acid battery was dicovered in 1859 (Plante) [1]. Its anode consists of powdered lead and cathode of lead
dioxide. The powders are fastened by means of binders within the lead grids serving as mechanic support and current
collectors. The plate-formed electrodes are placed in sulfuric acid solution. The discharging assumes the following
cathodic reaction:
PbO2 + HSO4- + 3H+ + 2e- = PbSO4 + 2H2O,
and the followi
Pb + HSO4- = PbSO4 +H+ + 2ewhile chemical reaction of the battery reads:
PbO2 + Pb + 2H2SO4 = 2PbSO4 + 2H2
+ 1.690 – (-0.358 V) = 2.048V)
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 1-9, -Vanredno izdanje-
So called Ni-Cd rechargeable battery was discovered in 1900.[1]. The cathodic material is NiOOH and the anodic
material is powdery Cd. The electrolyte is concentrated KOH solution, which is not the reactant. The chemical reaction
during discharging is
Cd + 2NiOOH + 2H2O = Cd(OH)2 + 2Ni(OH)2
= 1.35 V)
In 1866 Leclanché invented a primary battery consisting of a zinc anode and MnO2 cathode dipped in a jar of
ammonium chloride solution. The chemical reaction in the Leclanche cell is:
2Zn + 4NH4Cl + 4MnO2  ZnCl2 + Zn(NH3)4Cl2 + 4MnOOH
It provided 1.4 volts, and was not rechargeable.
Table 2: Electrode materials, electrolyte, voltage, theoretical and practical energy density and practically achieved
energy density of various batteries.
Energy (Wh
(Wh kg-1 )
(Wh l-1)
Ni- MH
(as MH)
278 – 800
(depends on
Zn- Air
Table 1 shows molar and specific capacities of some classic (Pb, PbO2, Cd, NiOOH, Zn, MnO2, AgO) and some light (H2,
Li) electrode materials. They illustrate that low density materials possess high specific capacity, and thus enable high
specific capacity and specific energy of batteries, as evidenced in Table 2. Hovewer, their use in rechargeable batteries
became technologically possible just in last three decades.
Since 1990ties the mobile telephony experineced explosive growth. Also, the oil crisis came back the idea of
electrically powered cars. This forced extensive research of power sources of high energy density. High specific
capacity of hydrogen attracted the care from 80ties. However, its very low energy density per volume unit presented a
significant limiting factor for commercial use. Some authors proposed the battery of compressed hydrogen as anode
and NiOOH as cathode in KOH solution, in a high pressure container of steel, however this battery did not experience
mass production. Wide practical use found the hydrogen absorbing alloys, so called hydride alloys. Their origin was the
hydride LaNi5H6 (Fig. 3) where hydrogen possesses the
density close to the one of solid hydrogen, however the
elements La and Ni carried practically whole mass of the
electrode material [2]. It suffered from very slow diffusion
coefficeint of hydrogen. The replacement of Ni by some
other metals enabled faster diffusion of H atoms, lower
corrosion ability and higher cycle life. Instead of pure
lantanum, which is expensive, equal results were obtained
with the much cheaper mixture lantanides called Mishmetal
Mm, (typically composed of 50-55 % Ce, 18-28 % La, 1218 % Nd, 4-6 % Pr) [3,4.]) Typical commercially used alloys
of AB5 type consisted of at least six elements for example
Mm(Ni3.6Mn0.4Al0.3Co0.7)1.00. To shorten diffusion path, the
alloy is used as micron sized powder, glued to a nickel or
stainless steel grid.
Fig 3. Hexagonal elemental cell of intermetallic
compound LaNi5. Hydrogen atoms are placed in
positions 3f i 6m [2].
The reactions of charging and discharging of Ni-MH battery are:
M + xNi(OH)2
MHx + xNiOOH
The mean voltage of this battery is 1.2 V. Its energy was shown in Table 2, and one can see a significatly better
characteristic in relation to lead acid and NiCd batteries. Hydride materials were used mostly between 1980 i 1995, for
mobile thelepones. However, they have stepped back from market since a new and strong systems came into sight, Liion batteries.
In another way, hydrogen was planned to be used in pair with oxygen in fuel cells. Due to the slow kinetics of oxygen
and hydrogen electrode reactions, fuel cells require the use of catalyst based on nanodispersed platinum. However, the
idea with fuel cells is temporarily stepped back, not only due to the limited resources of platinum, but primarily due to a
weak hope that the problem of the supply of roads by hydrogen may be solved in near future.
According to the Table 1, lithium possess high specific capacity, and accordingly, may provide high battery energy. Its
first use originated in 70-ties in a form of primary batteries, since elementary lithium was unsuitable for secondary
batteries, due to passivation, reactivity toward electrolyte and dendrite development on cycling. The earliest primary
lithium battery was Li/MnO2 in organic solution of Li salt, with the voltage 3 V [5, 6].
Since late 80ties the materials able to accept and release lithium revesibly were published.
Such behavior displayed
solid materials of layered crystal structure, called hosts, with strong ionic bond inside layer, and weak Van-der-Vaals bond
between layers. Lithium or other chemical species, called guest, inserted between host lattice layers, under consumption
of equivalent charge needed to keep electric neutrality. The compounds of this type have been known in inorganic
chemistry as insertion or intercallation compounds. The intercalate materials LiCoO2, [7] LiNiO2 and LiMn2O4, displayed
excellent electrochemical cyclability, high electrode potential of 4 V against Li/Li + reference electrode (Table 3), and high
electronic conductivity, being thus suitable to serve as cathodes. However, the problem of anode was more serious.
Lithium metal was unsuitable due to the limited cycle life to several cycles only. Just in 1989 Japanese electrochemists
published that graphite can be electrochemically intercalated with lithium (Fig 4). The intercalate with maximum lithium
content, LiC6, displayed electrode potential very close to that of lithium metal, and the electrochemical intercalation was
reversible [8, 9]. Carbon host prevented the appearance of dendrites on cathodic deposition, and several hundred of
lithiation/delithiation cycles became attainable. Due to the participation of carbon, the specific capacity of lithiated
graphite is roughly 10 times smaller (about 370 Ah kg-1) than that of metallic lithium (3862 Ah kg-1), however his cycling
reversibility and long cycle life, provided its dominant application in secondary lithium batteries and enabled a rapid
expansion of lithium batteries in practice. Only few years after the publications of carbon lithiation, three companies
started the commercial production of secondary lithium batteries for mobile electronic devices in which both anode and
cathode were intercalate compounds: Moli Energy Ltd. (C/LiNiO2), Bell Communication Research (Bellcore) (C/LiMn2O4)
and Sony Energytec. Inc., (C/LiCoO2).
Fig 4 The scheme of the LixC crystal lattice
Fig. 5 . The scheme of a Li-ion rechargeable cell. The
direction of charge movement on charging is presented
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 1-9, -Vanredno izdanje-
Typically, lithium-ion battery is composed of graphite anode, lithiated manganese, cobalt or nickel oxide as cathode,
and electrolyte solution, usually LiPF6 dissolved in a solvent mixture ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate. The
work principle of a Li-ion cell is shown in Fig. 5. The active electrode materials, attached by means of polymeric binder
as thin layers on metallic collectors, usually copper foil serving as anode and aluminum foil as cathode collector. The
nanoporous polypropylene membrane separates anode and cathode, and allow the transport of electrolyte. Graphite
and completely lithiated oxide present discharged anode and cathode stages. During the charging, lithium ions insert
into graphite under consumption of electrons, according to the reaction:
6C + Li+ + e- = LiC6
And this is accompanied by the shift of potential toward the one of metallic lithium. At the same time, on the other
electrode, delithiation occurs under electrons deliberation, according to the equation (if, for instance, LiCoO2 presents
the cathode material):
LiCoO2 = Li(1-x)CoO2 + xLi+ + xe- (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)
and simultaneously the potential shifts toward more than 4 V versus lithiated graphite.
Table 3. Molar mass (M), theoretical coulombic capacity per mole (QM ), specific capacity (Qm), density (), and
volume capacity (Qv ) of anode and cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries.
(kg mol-1)
(Ah mol-1 )
(mol kg-1)
(Ah kg-1)
(kg dm -3)
(Ah dm-3)
(kg mol-1)
(Ah mol-1 )
(mol kg-1)
(Ah kg-1)
(kg dm -3)
(Ah dm-3)
Table 4. Li-ion battery type, voltage, theoretical and practical specific energy
Specific Energy
(Wh kg -1)
(Wh kg-1 )
Practical Energy
(Wh dm-3 )
+ LiPF6
+ LiPF6
+ LiPF6
Therefore, during charging, summary chemical reaction is:
6C + LiCoO2 = LixC6 + Li(1-x)CoO2
and the charging should be finished when the potential difference reaches about 4.5 V. Lithium does not exist as metal
but travels between electrode materials through electrolyte as Li ion. This explains the name Li-ion battery. A Li-ion
battery never attains 100% of the theoretical capacity being 372 Ah kg -1 for LiC6. Namely, on changing from fully
intercalated LiC6 to Li0.4C6 and below, the voltage of the battery falls by up to 0.3V. Thus nominal LiC 6 capacity rounds
about 180 Ah kg-1, Moreover, the theoretical capacity of a cell holds at very low currents. As soon as a measurable
current is drawn from a cell it loses voltage and thus the capacity (see Fig 7). The theoretical specific energy of a LiIon
battery amounts between 400 and 450 Wh/kg. The actual specific energy achieved is between 70 and 120 Wh/kg.
However, this is still always much higher than classic lead acid and Ni/Cd batteries, and one should not forget a much
higher environmental friendliness important in gross use. Relatively high capacity and energy density, flexibility in
design enabled the substitution of conventional secondary batteries. Li-ion batteries are now prevailingly used in
portable electronic devices, mobile phones (57 %), notebook computers (31.5%) and cameras (7.4%). Their
application has also been extended to electric vehicles, space application, military vehicles etc.
The compound of olivine structure LiFePO4 was reported in 1997 [10] Thanks to its high theoretical capacity of 170 Ah
kg-1, a very flat plateau (3.5 V vs. Li+/Li) with the iso-structure phase transition LiFePO4 = FePO4 on charging (Fig 6),
environmental appropriateness and low cost compared to LiCoO2, it presents a very desirable cathodic material for Li
ion batteries [10]. In pioneering studies, its low conductivity of nearly 10-9 S cm-1 acted rather discouraging in sense
of its practical use [10,11]. Later, various ways were applied to overcome this drawback: coating the particles with
electronically conductive agent such as carbon [12-18] or Fe2P [19-21], particle size reduction [12, 22], doping with
supervalent cations [23-28], and doping by anions [29, 30]. Fig 8 illustrates how the synthesis of nanoparticles of
LiFePO4 of ~70 nm in diameter, coated by thick carbon layer displayed acceptable capacity loss on enlarging
discharging rate. The C layer enables unrestricted encounter of electrons and lithium ions whenever they cross the
C/electrolyte border. Wang et al. [31] reported the way to apply homogeneous thin C layer by polymerization of
polyaniline over olivine particles and subsequent carbonization of polymer shell. The PANI layer prevented the LiFePO 4
particles to grow over 20-40 nm. The composite delivered 168 mAhg-1 (~theoretical capacity) at the discharging rate
0.6 C, and 90 mAhg-1 at 60C, and only 5% capacity fade after 1100 charging/discharging cycles [31]. A particular
improvement in the rate capability and capacity retention of LiFePO4/C composite was achieved by vanadium doping
Fig. 6. Crystal structure of (a) LiFePO4 and (b) FePO4
Fig 7. The dependence of capacity of LiFePO4/C
composite, with particle size ~70 nm, on
discharging rate (1C = 170 mA g-1) [15]
Fig 8 Core-shell structure of LiFePO4 nanoparticles
enwrapped homogeneously by carbon layer [31].
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 1-9, -Vanredno izdanje-
From 1970ties the reports appeared in the literature that metals or semi-metallic elements alloy with lithium at room
temperature on cathodic deposition from non-aqueous electrolyte, displaying high theoretical capacity, 900 Ah kg-1
and above, [32] compared to graphite which has a theoretical capacity of 372 Ah kg -1. The alloys between Si and Li of
the composition Li22Si5, delivered a theoretical capacity of 4200 Ah kg-1. However, a huge volume change during
charging (up to 250%) was an obstacle for their use in lithium-ion batteries. If we consider the available empty
volume in the cell, compared to the volume expansion of graphite (less than 20%), the Si volume expansion cannot be
tolerated unless reduced below 40%. As a solution, composites of Si nanoparticles and graphite have been
investigated [33] with the capacity over 1000 Ah kg -1 however, the capacity retention was rather weak. Parallel to
silicone, SiO anodes have been widely investigated, under the assumption that it consists of amorphous Si domains
and amorphous SiO2 domains, being both reactive with lithium according to the equations [34]: Si + xLi + + x e_=
LixSi, and SiO2 + yLi+ + ye = Li2O + Li silicates. The Li2O and lithium silicates serve as the amorphous matrix.
Accordingly, the volume-expansion ratio is expected to be reduced, compared with Si.
The idea of electric car is very old. For instance, in 1900 a model of electric car was exposed with the electric motors
in the wheels. Hovewer, due to the small autonomy range it did not withstand the competition of cheap fossil fuels.
After the oil crisis in ~90ties the expectations arose that fossil fuel in automobiles may be replaced by emerging type
batteries. Just several years ago, Lithium-ion (Li+) batteries came in focus after fuel cells. Li-ion batteries just
revolutionized the portable electronics market as they offer high energy density, long shelf life, and a wider
temperature of operation over conventional aqueous electrolyte-based battery systems.
To estimate the chance of development of electric
cars powered by Li-ion batteries, one should assume
that an average European car consumes 8.6 l
petroleum per 100 km, which, considering the mean
heat of combustion of gasoline/diesel fuel (of ~ 33.8
MJ dm-3 ~ 9400 kWh dm-3) with roughly 25%
efficiency of engine, corresponds to roughly 20000
Wh of mechanical energy, or 100000 Wh for 500 km
of autonomy. Although theoretical specific energy in
today’s Li-ion batteries is 400-450 Wh kg-1, the
storage of electricity is in praxis limited to 200 Wh
kg−1 or 200000 Wh m−3. Assuming full efficiency of
the electric work to mechanical work conversion,
battery required for a 500 km driving range would
have a weight of 500 kg, a volume of 2.5m3 and
would cost 50 000 Euro (accounting with the today’s
price of nearly 500 Euro per 1 kWh). If such amount
of energy one tries to obtain from lead acid batteries,
about 3000 kg batteries would be required. This is
approx. 3 times the mass of a middle empty car
(1000 kg).
Fig. 9. Estimated course of the prices of Li-ion batteries per
1KWh in the future The bar segments from top downward:
other costs, maintenance costs, utility costs, material costs,
labour costs and investment costs [35]
Since the difference between the theoretical and
todays practical energy, together with oversized initial production costs, leaves the space for further economization,
the planners predicted the decreasing trend of price per one kWh of energy of Li-ion batteries shown in Fig 9. In 2018
one should expect relatively economic electric cars, equivalent to today’s cars with internal-combustion engines [35].
Since car powered by Li-ion batteries is not far from reality, many automobile companies develop their own models,
which do not differ in size and appearance from today’s standard cars.
The Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia supported this study through the project III 450104. Serbian Academy
of Sciences and Arts supported the study through the project F1190.
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[21] Md M. Rahman, J.Z. Wang, R. Zeng, D. Wexler, H.K. Liu, LiFePO4-Fe2P-C composite cathode: An environmentally
friendly promising electrode material for lithium-ion battery, J. Power Sources 206 (2012) 259.
[22] Z.Liu, C.Cao, Enhanced electrochemical performance of nano-sized LiFePO4/C synthesized by an ultrasonic assisted co-precipitation method, Electrochim. Acta 55 (2010) 4694.
[23] S.-Y. Chung, J.T. Bloking, Y.-M. Chiang, Electronically conductive phospo-olivines as lithium storage electrodes,
Nat. Mater. 1 (2002) 123.
[24] D.Y. Wang, H. Li, S.Q. Shi, X.J. Huang, L.Q. Chen, Improving the rate performance of LiFePO4 by Fe-site doping,
Electrochim. Acta 50 (2005) 2955.
[25] J.F. Ni, N.H. Zhou, J.T. Chen, X.X. Zhang, LiFePO4 doped with ions prepared by co-precipitation method, Mater.
Lett. 59 (2005) 2361.
[26] J. Hong, C.S. Wang, X. Chen, S. Upreti, and M.S. Whittingham Vanadium modified LiFePO4 cathode for Li-ion
batteries, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.12 (2009) A33-A38.
[27]. M. Vujković, D. Jugovic, M. Mitric, I. Stojković, N. Cvjetićanin, S. Mentus, The LiFe(1-x)VxPO4 /C composite
synthesized by gel-combustion method, with improved both rate capability and cycle life in aerated aqueous solutions,
Electrochim. Acta, in press, DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2013.07.219
[28 ] L.-L. Zhang, G. Liang, A. Ignatov, M. C. Croft, X.-Q. Xiong, I-M. Hung, Y.-H. Huang, X.-L. Hu, W.-X. Zhang, Y.-L.
Peng, Effect of Vanadium Incorporation on electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4 for Lithium-Ion Batteries, J. Phys.
Chem. C 115 (2011) 13520
[29] X.-Z. Liao, Y.-S. He, Z.-F. Ma, X.-M. Zhang, L. Wang, Effects of fluorine-substitution on the electrochemical
behavior of LiFePO4/C cathode materials, J. Power Sources 74 (2007) 720
[30] C.S. Sun, Y. Zhang, X.J. Zhang, Z. Zhou, Structural and electrochemical properties of Cl-doped LiFePO4/C, J.
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[31] Y. Wang, Y. Wang, E. Hosono, K. Wang, H. Zhou, The design of a LiFePO4 / carbon nanocomposite with a core–
shell structure and its synthesis by an in situ polymerization restriction method, Angew.Chem.Int.Ed. 47 (2008) 74617465.
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 1-9, -Vanredno izdanje[32] M. R. Palacin, Recent advances in rechargeable battery materials: a chemists perspective, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38
(2009) 2565 – 2575
[33] K. T. Lee, J. Cho, Roles of nanosize in lithium reactive nanomaterials for lithium ion batteries, Nano Today 6
(2011) 28 – 41;
[34] H. S. Choi, K.H. Yew, K.Y. Lee, M. Sung, H. Kim, S.S.Kim, Effect of fluoroethylene carbonate additive on
interfacial properties of silicon thin-film electrode, J. Power Sources 161 (2006) 1254-1259
[35]. M&V Group, brochure, http://donar.messe.de/exhibitor/hannovermesse/2011/C11229/m-w-group-presentationmodular-factory-for-li-ion-batteries-eng-134529.pdf
Славко Ментус
Универзитет у Београду, Факултет за физичку хемију, Студентски трг 12, 11185 Београд, Србија,
e-mail : [email protected]
Од ~90-тих интезивирана су очекивања да батерије могу да замене фосилна горива за погон аутомобила.
Класичне оловне и Ni-Cd батерије су непогодне за то због превисоке властите масе (мале специфичне енергије)
и токсичности. До 2010-тих решење је тражено у водоничним горивним ћелијама али последњих неколико
година пажња је сконцентрисана на литијумске батерије. У почетку, техничка решења батерија за мобилне
телефоне пресликавана су на батерије за погон аутомобила, са анодом од LiCx и катодом од LiNiO2 ili LiCoO2,
међутим данас се разматра скоро искључиво композит на бази LiFePO4 – због ниске цене и еколошке
прихватљивости. У овом раду направљен је преглед карактеристика класичних и савремених батерија. Овај
преглед илуструје како је увођење литијум-јонских батерија заједно са савременом нанотехнологијом
обезбедило скоковит напредак у достизању високе специфичне енергије, довољан да омогући прелазак са
мотора са унутрашњим сагоревањем на електричне моторе у аутомобилима.
Кључне речи: класичне батерије, електродни материјали, литијум-јонске батерије, специфична енергија,
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 11-16, --Vanredno izdanje--
Baltić Ţ. Milan1*, Đurić Jelena1, Mandić Snjeţana2, Pećanac Biljana3, Lončina Jasna1
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet veterinarske medicine Beograd, Srbija, http://www.vet.bg.ac.rs/
Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci, Tehnološki fakultet, RS, BiH, http://www.tfbl.org
JU Veterinarski institut Republike Srpske‖Dr Vaso Butozan‖ Banja Luka, RS,BiH, http://www.virsvb.com
ISSN 2232-755X
DOI: 10.7251/GHTE13VI011B
UDC 006.4:[663/664:658.562
Bezbednost i kvalitet hrane, u današnje vreme, igraju značajnu ulogu u odrţavanju zdrаvlja potrošača, kao krajnje
karike u lancu ishrane. Bolesti prenosive hrаnom predstаvljаju problem svakog pojedinca, аli su od posebnog znаčаjа
zа decu, stаrije osobe i imunokompromitovane osobe. Iаko je široko prihvаćena teorija od strаne stručnjаkа za hranu
dа se mnogi slučаjevi bolesti prenosivih hranom jаvljаju kаo posledicа neprаvilnog rukovаnjа i pripreme hrane od
strаne potrošаčа, sаmi potrošаči i dаlje nisu svesni ove činjenice. Ličnа higijenа je dobro poznat nаčin na koji ljudi
mogu dа smаnje rizik od ovih bolesti. MeĎutim, mаlo se znа o stvаrnoj primeni lične higijene i sаnitаrnih ponаšаnjа u
kući. Zadatak mnogih istraţivanja jeste da se procene znanja potrošača u vezi sa bezbednošću hrane i utvrdi dа li
znаnje odgovara primenjenoj praksi. Ovаkve informаcije mogu biti od velike pomoći profesionalcima koji se bave
edukacijom potrošača o bezbednosti hrаne, a sve u cilju dа potrošаči postanu svesni svoje kritične uloge u smаnjenju
rizika bolesti prenosivih hranom.
Ključne riječi: potrošači, rizik, bezbednost hrane
Zdrav ţivot je termin koji se javlja sredinom 20. veka i kao termin se ne pominje u Larusovoj enciklopediji, a označava
nastojanje da se prema sebi i svome telu, načinu ishrane i ţivotu uopšte, odnosimo maksimalno higijenskim u skladu
sa znanjima jednog vremena, običajima koji vaţe u datom društvu i u datom vremenu (1).
Briga za zdravlje prati čoveka od njegovog postanka. Do danas svima poznate, i naučno dokazane, veze izmeĎu
ishrane i zdravlja čovek je iskustveno došao još dok je bio lovac i sakupljač plodova prirode.
Ova veza je i dalje predmet bojnih istraţivanja koja daju, ne tako retko, oprečne rezultate i zaključke. Rezultati ovih
istraţivanja realizuju se različitim preporukama u ishrani, odnosno dijetama. Nesporno je da su dijete delotvorne u
brojnim slučajevima, ali i tu ima pogrešnih koraka. Kada se govori o hrani, treba znati da je hrana pored onog
najvaţnijeg nutritivnog aspekta, čoveku i zadovoljstvo. Hedonski pristup ishrani vodi ka njenoj jednoličnosti,
neizbalansiranosti i neminovno do narušavanja zdravlja. Osnov pravilne ishrane je u raznovrsnosti hrane i umerenosti
kada je u pitanju količina hrane (1).
Čuvari tradicije, najverniji i najbolji su porodice, porodična domaćinstva. To je njihova identifikacija sa rodnim tlom. Tu
tradiciju oni nose sa sobom ma gde ţiveli. Za Srbiju kao seljačku zemlju primarni cilj seoske ekonomije bilo je direktno
odrţanje seoske porodice. Porodica je bila osnovna ekonomska i potrošačka jedinica. Najveći deo tradicionalnih
proizvoda proizvodi se na zanatski način, u malim objektima, a dobar deo njih u porodičnim domaćinstvima. Značajan
deo te proizvodnje namenjen je za sopstvenu, porodičnu potrošnju (2).
Priroda je, konfiguracijom zemljišta, njegovom pedološkom strukturom i klimom omogućila Srbiji da ima velike i
raznolike mogućnosti poljoprivredne proizvodnje. U toj proizvodnji stočarstvo ima posebnu ulogu, s obzirom na dugu
tradiciju gajenja svinja, ovaca i goveda. Za stočarsku proizvodnju vezuje se i izrada stočarskih proizvoda, posebno
hrane, meĎu kojima su i tradicionalni proizvodi od mesa (goveĎeg, ovčjeg, svinjskog). Očuvanje tradicije u izradi
proizvoda od mesa vezuje se, pre svega, za proizvodnju u domaćinstvima i male proizvodne subjekte. Pri tome, bez
obzira gde se proizvode i koliko imaju dugu tradiciju, ovi proizvodi moraju da budu bezbedni po zdravlje ljudi. To se
postiţe, pre svega, poštovanjem principa dobre proizvoĎačke i dobre higijenske prakse i primenom HACCP sistema. U
manjim proizvodnim pogonima primena HACCP sistema zahteva izvesne modifikacije. Za one koji tradicionalne
proizvode pripremaju u domaćinstvima treba doneti posebne propise po ugledu na zemlje Evropske Unije i neke
susedne zemlje, a koji bi ovim proizvoĎačima omogućili da se sa svojim proizvodima naĎu na trţištu (2).
Korespodentni autor: Milan Ţ. Baltić, 1Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet veterinarske medicine Beograd, Srbija, email: [email protected]
Razume se da mondijalizaciju i industrijalizaciju prehrambenih proizvoda prati i potreba standardizacije i ujednačenja
kvaliteta proizvoda, ali i savremeni pristup bezbednosti hrane koji podrazumeva i potpunu kontrolu proizvodnog
procesa u celom lancu proizvodnje („od njive do trpeze―). Propisi o bezbednosti hrane i «politika kvaliteta» treba
čoveku da obezbede hranu koja neće zbog prisustva bioloških, hemijskih i fizičkih opasnosti, iznad propisanih nivoa
(za neke postoji i nulta tolerancija), ugroziti zdravlje potrošača. Nema sumnje, da standardizacija proizvoda olakšava
promet hrane, ali je doprinela i nekim ograničenjima. To se, pre svega, odnosi na neke nacionalne i regionalne
specijalitete kad je u pitanju gotova hrana. Činjenica je da sve što je namenjeno ishrani ljudi mora biti i bezbedno za
njihovo zdravlje (2).
Zbog sve veće zabrinutosti potrošača, ali i drţavnih organa za bezbednost hrane usledile su aktivnosti koje su vodile ka
pooštravanju zakonske regulative i uvoĎenjem standarda koji treba da unaprede upravljanje bezbednošću hranom. Svi
standardi polaze od činjenice da subjekti u lancu hrane posluju u skladu sa lokalnom zakonskom regulativom uz
uvaţavanje meĎunarodno usvojenih pravila. Tako se moţe govoriti o nekoliko nivoa primene različitih pravila: a)
Globalna – smernice svetske zdravstvene organizacije (WHO) i Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC); b) Regionalna –
EC No. 178/2002 (Regulation of the european parliament and of the councilof 28 January 2002 laying down the
general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down
procedures in matters of food safety); c) nacionalna regulativa – Zakon o bezbednosti hrane d) ISO standardi i drugi
standardi iz oblasti bezbednosti hrane – ISI 22000:2005 Food Safety Management System; e) Interni standardi velikih
korporacija – npr McDonalds Food Safety System i dr. (3).
Primena pomenutih standarda u proizvodnji hrane je poţeljna i neophodna u proizvodnji bezbednog proizvoda. Kod
nas ovi standardi su prihvaćeni, a na njihovom uvoĎenju u praksu još uvek se radi.
Pod bezbednom hranom podrazumeva se hrana koja neće škoditi potrošaču, kada se priprema i/ili konzumira u skladu
sa namenom. Kvalitet hrane moţe da se definiše na različite načine. Pod kvalitetom, u širem smislu, a sa stanovništva
propisa koji regulišu ovu materiju, podrazumeva se higijenska ispravnost (bakteriološka i parazitološka ispravnost,
prisustvo štetnih materija, organoleptička ispravnost) i kvalitet u uţem smislu pod kojim se podrazumevaju hemijske,
fizičke i ogranoleptičke osobine. Granice izmeĎu higijenske ispravnosti i kvaliteta ne treba meĎutim postavljati, jer to
često nije moguće. Za higijensku ispravnost i kvalitet namirnica odgovorni su drţavni organi, proizvoĎači (vlasnici) i
potrošači. Danas se bezbednost hrane zasniva na dobroj proizvoĎačkoj praksi (GMP), dobroj higijenskoj praksi (GHP) i
HACCP sistemu u kome se od proizvoĎača traţi da identifikuje opasnosti (hazarde) koji ugroţavaju bezbednost
proizvoda i da ih eliminiše ili kontroliše (4).
Vrednost savremenog pristupa bezbednosti hrane ogleda se u tome što je on primenljiv na sve segmente (karike) u
njenoj proizvodnji ili, kako se to uobičajno kaţe, primenjuje se od ‖farme do trpeze‖. Poslednji kontrolisani segment u
lancu hrane je maloprodaja hrane ili mesto gde hrana postaje dostupna potrošaču (restorani npr.). MeĎutim,
apsolutnu bezbednost hrane, ma koliko sistem bio dobar, funkcionalan, kontrolisan i proveravan nije moguće
obezbediti i garantovati (5).
Razumevanje bezbednosti hrane je koncept koji se odnosi na tehnologije i propise, proizvoĎače i potrošače. Danas,
naročito u razvijenim zemljama, je sve zastupljenija ishrana izvan kuće (brza hrana), kao i upotreba u kući potpuno ili
delimično pripremljene hrane. To nije rezultat popularnosti, već logičan rezultat koji proizilazi iz specifičnog problema
nedostatka vremena potrošača i njihove organizacije svakodnevnog ţivota (1). Stanovništvo SAD-a troši 40-50%
prihoda namenjenih ishrani na tzv. brzu hranu, odnosno ishranu izvan kuće, dok ljudi u Evropi troše oko 26% svojih
prihoda. Tradicionalno shvatanje nabavke namirnica se stalno menja. Učestalost i vrsta alimentarnih infekcija se,
takoĎe, menja. Istraţivanjima je utvrĎeno povećanje virusnih infekcija u odnosu na klasične bakterijske infekcije (6).
Za pravilno razumevanje termina bezbednosti hrane potrebna je jasna koordinacija i edukacija u lancu hrane. Kada je
bezbednost hrane u pitanju, i potrošač i proizvoĎač moraju „govoriti istim jezikom―, odnosno moraju se razumeti. To
znači da se moraju da razmotre propisi i naučni i tehnički principi kako bi se osigurali bezbednost sirovina, ambalaţe, i
drugih sporednih materijala koji se koriste u proizvodnji hrane i njenom prometu. Nepaţnja, nemar, greške ili
neoprezne aktivnosti tokom rada mogu biti fatalne za potrošače (6).
Bolesti prenosive hranom (definisane kao „bolesti infektivne ili toksične prirode uzrokovane, ili one za koje se misli da
su uzrokovane, konzumiranjem hrane i vode) postale su jedan od najrasprostranjenijih javno-zdravstvenih problema u
svetu danas. Bolesti prenosive hranom u vezi sa mikrobiološkim patogenima, biotoksinima i hemijskim kontaminentima
u hrani predstavljaju ozbiljnu opasnost po zdravlje miliona ljudi (7).
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 11-16, --Vanredno izdanje--
U najvećem broju slučajeva bolesti prenosive hranom nisu retkost i vezane su, pre svega, za biološke opasnosti,
odnosno bakterije. Ako su ova oboljenja ljudi epidemijskog karaktera, razumljivo je da ona privlače veliku medijsku
paţnju i izazivaju zabrinutost potrošača. Bolesti prenosive hranom ne predstavljaju samo opasnost po zdravlje i ţivot
ljudi, već prouzrokuju ogromne ekonomske gubitke (bolovanja, lečenja). Pravu učestalost pojava bolesti prenosivih
hranom je teško utvrditi, jer se slučajevi bolesti retko prijavljuju. Iako bolesti prenosive hranom mogu biti ozbiljne i
fatalne, blaţi slučajevi često nisu otkriveni kroz rutinski nadzor. Veruje se da je većina (95%) slučajeva bolesti
prenosivih hranom sporadična. Ovi slučajevi, kao i male epidemije koje potiču iz domaćinstava, po pravilu uključuju
pojedince ili mali broj ljudi i samim tim je manja mogućnost da će biti identifikovane od strane nadleţnih organa za
javno zdravstvo. Dakle, stvarni odnos epidemija izazvanih hranom i pojedinačnih slučajeva poreklom iz domaćinstava
verovatno je mnogo veći nego što je to prijavljeno (8).
Tokom protekle decenije više od 87% prijavljenih bolesti prenosivih hranom u Velikoj Britaniji, Evropi, Australiji,
Novom Zelandu, Sjedinjenim Drţavama i Kanadi bile su u vezi sa hranom koja se priprema ili konzumira kod kuće
(grafikon 1). Istorijski gledano, najčešći uzrok prijavljenih epidemija bolesti prenosivih hranom u vezi sa
domaćinstvima izazvane su salmonelama. Epidemiološke studije su pokazale da sporadični slučajevi ili male epidemije
u domovima čine većinu incidenata trovanja hranom. Procenjeno je da privatna domaćinstva u Velikoj Britaniji čine
više epidemija oboljenja hranom nego sva ostala prijavljena mesta zajedno (7, 8).
Grafikon 1. Prijavljeni slučajevi pojave bolesti prenosivih hranom u vezi sa pripremom hrane u domaćinstvima (8)
Graph 1. Reported cases of foodborne diseases associated with the preparation of food in the households (8)
Oboljenjа koja nastaju konzumiranjem kontaminirane hrаne predstavljaju pretnju po zdrаvlje i dobrobit potrošаčа,
uključujući velike ekonomske gubitke pojedinacа. Iаko većina potrošača imа tendenciju dа se oboljenja vezana za
hranu povezuju sa ishranom izvаn kuće, istrаţivаnjа pokаzuju dа se mnogi slučаjevi trovаnjа hrаnom javljaju upravo
pri pripremi hrane u domaćinstvima. Mnogi od ovih slučаjevа su u vezi sа nаjčešćim greškаmа u primeni higijenske
prаkse pri pripremi hrane kod kuće (9).
Sprečavanje bolesti prenosivih hranom podrazumeva saradnju u svim fazama lanca ishrane. Nijedna faza ne nosi
isključivo krivicu ili odgovornost. Efektivne strategije bezbednosti hrane u cilju smanjenja rizika od kontaminacije
patogenima zahtevaju dvostruki pristup integrisanja edukacije i propisa. Na meĎunarodnom planu prioritet ima
implementacija propisa u svim sektorima različitih prehrambenih industrija i razvoj edukativne svesti potrošača. U
Velikoj Britaniji, primarni ciljevi Organa zaduţenih za bezbednost hrane obuhvataju zaštitu javnog zdravlja i interesa
potrošača. Slično tome, u Sjedinjenim Američkim Drţavama, sistem bezbednosti hrane se zasniva na interakciji izmeĎu
saveznih organizacija, kao što su Departman za agrikulturu, Ministarstvo za hranu i lekove, Sluţba za inspekciju i
bezbednost hrane, Departman za ljudsko zdravlje i usluge, Agencija za zaštitu ţivotne sredine i Inspekcijska sluţba za
zdravlje ţivotinja i bilja. U Australiji i Novom Zelandu, nezavisna organizacija poznata kao ANZFA (Australia and New
Zealand Food Authority) saraĎuje sa drugim organima za zaštitu zdravlja i bezbednosti ljudi kroz odrţavanje
bezbednosti hrane u lancu snadbevanja (10). Kako nije moguće obezbediti i garantovati apsolutnu bezbednost,
neophodno je započeti edukaciju potrošača. Zakon nikada u potpunosti ne moţe da zaštiti društvo.
Kontrola bezbednosti hrane prestaje praktično onog momenta kada hrana dospe u korpu potrošača. Ključni razlozi
velike učestalosti bolesti prenosivih hranom vezani za domaćinstvo odnose se na znanja i informisanost potrošača.
Današnji potrošač treba da poznaje, odnosno da bude informisan o opasnostima u hrani, odrţavanju higijene radnog
prostora i lične higijene, putevima kontaminacije, rukovanju hranom (uslovi čuvanja i rok odrţivosti), načinom
pripreme hrane, kao i čuvanju pripremljene hrane (11).
Znаčаj dobre prаkse pri pripremi hrane u domaćinstvima u vezi sa bolestima prenosivih hrаnom podrţаn je
odgovarajućim epidemiološkim podаcimа. Nedavne epidemije bolesti prenosivih hranom i smrtni slučajevi u vezi sa
komercijalnom pripremom hrane privukle su veliku paţnju medija i javnosti (12). Kao rezultat toga, potrošači pokazuju
povećanu zabrinutost u vezi sa komercijalno pripremljenom hranom. MeĎutim, većina potrošača nije svesna da
najmanje 60% slučajeva trovanja hranom nastaje usled pripreme hrane kod kuće, verujući da je uzrok takvih trovanja
sam proizvoĎač hrane ili ishrana u restoranima (13). TakoĎe, istraţivanja su pokazala da su glavni faktori koji utiču na
pojavu epidemija uzrokovanih trovanjem hranom uglavnom neodgovarajuće skladištenje, neadekvatno kuvanje ili
podgrevanje i unakrsna kontaminacija. TakoĎe, ustanovljeno je da je uzrok u 25% prijavljenih epidemija bolesti
izazvanih hranom neadekvatno rukovanje hranom od strane potrošača, kao i loša praksa pripreme hrane u
domaćinstvima (14). Iаko je široko prihvаćena teorija od strаne stručnjаkа za hranu dа se mnogi slučаjevi bolesti
prenosivih hranom jаvljаju kаo posledicа neprаvilnog rukovаnjа i pripreme hrane od strаne potrošаčа, sаmi potrošаči i
dаlje nisu svesni ove činjenice (11).
Dobra praksa u domaćinstvima zastupa sve higijenske principe i tehnike od kupovine namirnica za pripremu hrane kod
kuće pa sve do utroška hrane pripremljene u domaćinstvu. Najčešći problemi koji se javljaju jesu pogrešno stečene i
ustaljene porodične (lične) navike. U svim dobrim prаksama, osim u Dobroj praksi u domaćinstvima, nalaze se
elementi HACCP sistema, koji čine HACCP sistem glаvnim sistemom u prаksi hrаne dаnаs. Dobra prаksа u
domaćinstvima je i dаlje zаnemаrenа uprkos znаtnom broju bolesti prenosivih hranom koje se jаvljаju u toku pripreme
hrаne u domaćinstvima. U klаsičnoj strаtegiji lаncа ishrаne sve relevаntne аktivnosti su preduzete u cilju dobrobiti
čoveka, аli, izuzimajući ga izvаn sistemа, kаo potrošаčа (15).
Potrošači moraju biti informisani na koji način nastaju unakrsne kontaminacije. Patogeni mikroorganizmi se
kontinuirano unose u kućno okruţenje, naročito putem hrane, ljudi i kućnih ljubimaca. Pored toga, radne površine,
naročito ruke i površine u kontaktu sa hranom, su glavni putevi prenosa patogena (16). Broj bakterija kao što su E.
coli, Clostridium difficile i Schigella mogu da preţive mesecima na suvim površinama, i još duţe na vlaţnim površinama
U novije vreme sve je veće interesovanje potrošača vezano za dobre prakse u domaćinstvima. To je posledicа
saznanja, odnosno svesti potrošača, dа postoji vezа izmeĎu kontаminirаnih površinа, prenosa i nastanka oboljenjа u
kućnom okruţenju, kao što je npr. kuhinja. U kuhinjama je pronaĎen veliki broj pаtogenih bаkterijа, a odreĎena mesta
su visoko kontаminirаna. Higijenska praksa u domaćinstvima, naročito korišćenje vlаţnih sunĎera, krpa, i dţogera
mogu doprineti daljem širenju bаkterija nа radne površine ili direktno nа ruke, što dovodi do unаkrsne kontаminаcije
bаkterijаmа i predstavlja potencijаlnu opasnost dа se bаkterije naĎu u nаmirnicаma.
Značaj adekvatne prakse rukovanja hranom od strane potrošača je široko priznat. Sproveden je veliki broj istraţivanja
u procesima proizvodnje, prerade i distribucije u prehrambenoj industriji. MeĎutim, potrošač je, i dalje, najmanje
proučavana karika u lancu ishrane, a takoĎe, i informacije o potrošaču se smatraju u velikoj meri nepouzdanim. U
domaćinstvima se priprema značajna količina hrane tako da su istraţivanja i edukacija potrošača u pogledu rizika usled
nebezbedne prakse rukovanja hranom suštinski element za sprečavanje bolesti prenosivih hranom (18).
Informacije o načinu rukovanja hranom u domaćinstvima dolaze iz dva glavna izvora: analize pojave epidemija
trovanja hranom i istraţivanja zasnovana na proučavanju potrošača. Istraţivanja zasnovana na proučavanju potrošača
sprovode se kako bi se procenila primena načina bezbednog rukovanja hranom od strane potrošača. Usvojeni su
različiti pristupi istraţivanja, uključujući upitnike i intervjue, diskusije u ciljnim grupama, kao i opservaciona istraţivanja.
Epidemiološke studije daju kvantitativne podatke o doprinosu nebezbednog rukovanja hranom koji rezultira pojavom
slučajeva trovanja hranom. MeĎutim, retrospektivna analiza trovanja hranom daje ograničene informacije o ponašanju
potrošača u vezi sa bezbednošću hrane. Tačnost i dostupnost podataka su ograničeni, jer je ljudima često teško da se
prisete tačnih detalja u vezi sa potrošnjom hrane i praksom rukovanja hranom koji mogu imati velikog udela pri pojavi
bolesti (19).
Svrha ispitivanja potrošača je da se utvrdi koliki je udeo pojave bolesti prenosivih hranom usled nepravilnog rukovanja
hranom u domaćinstvima i da se utvrdi šta potrošači znaju o bezbednosti hrane i zašto se neke prakse bezbednog
rukovanja hranom primenjuju, a neke ne (20).
Procene znanja potrošača, njegovih stavova i ponašanja mogu da obezbede osnovu za formulisanje propagandnih
programa o zdravlju samih potrošača. Samo kada su potrošači upoznati sa praksom vezanom za bezbednost hrane,
moguće je planirati efikasne strategije za podsticanje i jačanje poţeljnog ponašanja potrošača u vezi sa pripremom
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 11-16, --Vanredno izdanje--
hrane u domaćinstvima. Upotreba modela socijalnih saznanja za zdravstvene probleme je omogućila identifikaciju
odnosa izmeĎu stavova, verovanja i ponašanja, kao i promena ponašanja (20).
U sklаdu sа nаvedenim nаglаskom nа proizvodnju hrane, prerаdu i mаloprodаju, relаtivno mаlo istraţivanja izvršeno je
u cilju ispitivanja znanja potrošača o bezbednosti hrаne, znаnjа i primeni dobrih praksi pri pripremi hrane u
domaćinstvima. Potrebno je izvršiti istraţivanja kako bi se utvrdile prаznine u znаnju potrošаčа o bezbednosti hrаne i
higijenskim greškama koje se nаjčešće jаvljаju u domаćim kuhinjаmа, kаko bi obrаzovni progrаmi mogli biti
prilаgoĎeni tаko dа odgovore nа ovа pitаnjа. Većina istraţivanja o bezbednosti hrane protekle decenije obavljena su u
Velikoj Britaniji i Severnoj Irskoj, kao i u Sjedinjenim Američkim Drţavama. Ankete (upitnici i intervjui), su najčešći
način prikupljanja podataka, a korišćeni su u 75 % ispitivanja. TakoĎe su korišćene ciljne grupe, kao i opservaciona
ispitivanja. Sakupljene su ograničene informacije o navikama potrošača i načinima u vezi sa bezbednim rukovanjem
hranom. Postoji značajan broj informacija o znanju potrošača i samostalnom iskustvu pri pripremi hrane. Značajan broj
potrošača često sprovodi nebezbednu praksu rukovanja hranom. Znanje, navike, načini i samostalna iskustva ne
odgovaraju uočenom ponašanju, što ukazuje da su opservaciona ispitivanja bolji pokazatelj higijenskih uslova pri
pripremi hrane u domaćinstvima. Poboljšanje načina rukovanja hranom u domaćinstvima bi trebalo da smanji rizik i
učestalost pojave bolesti prenosivih hranom. Stalna su nastojanja za razvoj i implementaciju strategija o edukaciji
potrošača vezanih za bezbednost hrane u cilju poboljšanja specifičnih ponašanja koja doprinose smanjenju učestalosti
pojave bolesti prenosivih hranom (21).
Mere bezbednosti potrošača imaju ključnu ulogu u prevenciji bolesti izazvanih hranom, jer one čine konačan korak u
procesu pripremanja hrane. Bezbedno rukovanje hranom od strane potrošača u domaćinstvima smatra
se ''poslednjom linijom odbrane '' (15).
Globalna bezbednost hrane će biti ostvarena tek kada svaka karika u lancu ishrane u potpunosti (u unutrašnjoj i
spoljašnjoj sredini) postane svoj gospodar u odreĎenoj oblasti. Na taj način biće osigurano da će aktivnosti koje
prethode i slede u krugu bezbednosti hrane "od njive do trpeze", ne ignorišući potrošača, doprineti proizvodnji
bezbedne hrane. Potrošač treba i dalje da bude svestan potencijalnih rizika, da pravilno rukuje i priprema hranu da bi
osigurao svakodnevno bezbedan i uravnoteţen obrok.
Potrebno je dodatno obrazovanje potrošača u pogledu bezbednosti hrane i oboljenja vezanih za hranu. TakoĎe, bilo bi
korisno posvetiti više paţnje obrazovanju potrošača o manje poznatim patogenima. Ključnu ulogu imala bi edukacija
potrošača javnim putem u oblasti bezbednosti hrane i njene pripreme. Razvoj novih tehnika i metoda će sigurno
pomoći u smanjenju pojedinih opasnosti i odrţavanju kvaliteta ţivota.
Ovaj rad je finansiran sredstvima projekta broj TR 31034 Ministarstva prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja Republike
Baltić, Ţ.M., D.Nedić, Jelena Đurić, Mirjana Dimitrijević, N. arabasil, Nataša Kilibarda: Hrana i večna briga za zdravlje,
Veterinarski ţurnal Republike Srpske X (1) (2010) 5-9.
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od mesa u duhu dobre proizvoĎačke prakse, Simpozijum tradicija i budućnost stočarstva u brdsko-planinskom
području sa posebnim osvrtom na Sjeničko-peštersku visoravan, Zbornik radova Sjenica 23-25. jun 2010., str. 86-107.
Bunčić, S.: Vodič za razvoj i primenu preduslovnih programa i principa HACCP u proizvodnji hrane, MPŠV, Uprava za
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Lagendijk, Emmanuelle, Adrien Assere, Evelyne Derens, Brigitte Carpentier: Domestic Refrigeration Practices with
Emphasis on Hygiene: Analysis of a Survey and Consumer Recommendations, Journal of Food Protection, 71 (9)
(2008) 1898–1904.
Raspor, P. and M. Jevšnik: Good Nutritional Practice from Producer to Consumer, Critical Reviews in Food Science and
Nutrition, 48 (2008) 276–292.
Baltić, Ţ.M., Jelena Đurić, Jasna Lončina, Mirjana Dimitrijević, N. Karabasil, Radmila Marković, Jelena Ivanović: Značaj
dobre proizvoĎačke prakse u domaćinstvima za bezbednost hrane, Zbornik referata i kratkih sadrţaja 22. Savetovanja
veterinara Srbije. Zlatibor, 14-17. septembar 2011., str. 85-94.
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Food Protection, 66 (1) (2003) 130–161.
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Baltić Ţ. Milan1, Đurić Jelena1, Mandić Snjeţana2, Pećanac Biljana3, Lončina Jasna1
Belgrade University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Srbija, http://www.vet.bg.ac.rs/
University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Technology, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
JU Veterinary institute of Republic of Srpska "Dr Vaso Butozan" Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, http://www.virsvb.com
Today, food safety and quality have a key role in maintaining the health of consumers, as the ultimate link in the food
chain. Foodborne diseases represent a problem to every individual, but are particularly important for children, the
elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Although it has been widely accepted by food experts that many cases of
foodborne diseases occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by consumers, the consumers
themselves are still not aware of this fact. Personal hygiene is a well known way by means of which people can reduce
the risk of these diseases. However, little is known of actual implementation of personal hygiene and sanitation
behaviors at home. The task of many studies is to assess the knowledge of consumers in relation to food safety and to
determine whether that knowledge is in accordance with the applied practice. Such information can be of great help to
professionals who deal with education of consumers about food safety, with the aim of making consumers become
aware of their critical role in reducing the risk of foodborne diseases.
Key words: consumers, risk, food safety
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 19-23, -Vanredno izdanje-
Miroslav Gojo, Tomislav Cigula
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Graphic Arts, Zagreb, Getaldiceva 2, Republic of Croatia
ISSN 2232-755X
DOI: 10.7251/GHTE13VI019G
UDC 543:66.017/.018
One of the most commonly used printing technique today is lithography. The printing plate, which is composed of
printing (accept printing ink) and nonprinting (must not accept printing ink) areas is a highly important factor for all
printing processes. Selective ink adsorption on printing plates is usually achieved by geometrical difference between
printing and nonprinting areas, but in lithography it is achieved by their different physical-chemical properties. Printing
areas are oleophilic (hydrophobic) while nonprinting areas are hydrophilic (oleophobic). In the first step of the printing
process, on the printing plate comes fountain solution (water and additives), which is adsorbed only by the nonprinting
areas. Printing ink is applied in the second step and it is adsorbed only by the nonprinting areas (not covered with
fountain solution). The printing plates are mainly built of aluminium strips that are mechanically, chemically and
electrochemically processed in order to make thin and porous film of aluminium oxide (nonprinting areas) and then
coated with photoactive layer (printing areas). The plate making process is by aluminium printing plates, composed of
exposure and developing which remove photoactive layer from nonprinting areas. The aim of this paper is to present
the plate making processes and plate parameters’ measuring methods, for example contact angle measurement,
determination of the roughness parameters and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, as printing
plate-fountain solution interaction is influential for the printing quality, one should define fountain solution’s optimal
chemical composition, for which measurements of pH value, electrical conductivity and surface tension are needed.
Keywords: Graphic technology, printing plate, physical-chemical processes, offset printing
Offset printing is the main representative of lithography. It is characterised by two main features, first the difference
between printing and nonprinting areas on the printing plate is achieved by their opposite physical-chemical properties.
The printing areas are oleophilic (hydrophobic), while nonprinting areas are hydrophilic (oleophobic). Secondly, the
printing ink is from the printing plate to the printing substrate transferred by offset cylinder [1]. These facts make
offset printing a very complex process where all production parameters must be set in a narrow interval in order to
make imprints of high quality.
In the printing process the printing plate is first covered with fountain solution (water with additives), which is
adsorbed only by hydrophilic surfaces – the nonprinting areas. The surface then comes into a contact with the inking
rollers. The printing ink is adsorbed on surface which is not covered with fountain solution – the printing areas.
The printing ink and the fountain solution are transferred from the printing plate to the offset cylinder and from there
to the printing substrate which comes between offset and printing cylinder as presented in Figure 1 [1]. As printing
substrates are usually papers and paperboards one should use fountain solution as little as possible, in order to avoid
deterioration of the substrate’s mechanical properties.
Figure 1. Offset printing unit
Korespodentni autor: Miroslav Gojo, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Graphic Arts, Zagreb, Getaldiceva 2,
Republic of Croatia, e-mail: [email protected]
The printing plates are mainly made of aluminium foils which have to be processed in order to enrich them with
needed surface properties. The processing of the aluminium foils usually consists of several steps: cleaning/degreasing,
roughening, anodic oxidation, finishing, coating with photoactive layer and in the end cutting to wanted dimension.
Roughening of the aluminium surface and forming of thin aluminium oxide film are necessary for a number of reasons:
it enlarges the functional properties of the surface and causes better fountain solution adsorption, better adsorption of
the photosensitive coating, causes better ink adhesion, during the reproduction process it increases stability of the
fountain solution and printing ink on the nonprinting and printing surfaces, respectively. It ensures better mechanical
properties of the printing plates and thus, longer print runs with the plates [2]. The functional properties of the
printing plate are highly influenced by the surface structure and its characteristics, making the topography
characterization very important for many applications since the roughness of the surface is a significant engineering
factor (Figure 2) [3]. Post anodic treatments differ between manufacturers, but generally serve to improve the
hydrophilic properties of non-printing areas [4, 5]. Photoactive coating enables image transfer on the printing plate by
changing its solubility when irradiated by defined electromagnetic irradiation.
Figure 2. Micrograph of the aluminium foil’s surface after roughening and anodic oxidation
Besides the printing plate, for a stable printing process one should also take into account the interaction between
nonprinting areas and the fountain solution as complete coverage of the nonprinting areas with a thin film of the
fountain solution is essential in achieving high printing quality.
Besides its main role (covering completely nonprinting areas), fountain solution also has to improve cleaning the
printing plate of printing ink, ensure fast and complete spreading on the printing plate surface in a thin film, decrease
friction between printing plate and rubber blanket, emulsify in wanted portion with printing ink. Therefore, fountain
solution must be precisely composed of water and additives which will enhance its performances [6].
After preparing aluminium foil to have needed surface characteristics in order to build nonprinting areas (thin and
porous aluminium oxide layer) and printing areas (photoactive coating) one should transfer the image on the printing
plate and make it ready for printing. The plate making process usually consists of two major steps, exposure and
developing. In exposure, the coated aluminium foil is irradiated with defined light source which irradiates wave lengths
compatible with the sensitivity of the photoactive coating. The goal of the exposure is to cause certain chemical
changes in the photoactive layer which will make it soluble (positive working photoactive layers) or insoluble (negative
working photoactive layers) in a defined solvent. Older plate making systems used a positive or negative film as a
mask which enabled only some parts of the photoactive coating to be irradiated. This plate making system is still
present in today’s plate making systems, but not so often in the plate making process for lithography, then for
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 19-23, -Vanredno izdanjeflexography. In lithography the exposure of the plates is mostly conducted in a platesetter which uses laser as a light
source. The wanted areas of the photoactive layer are directly irradiated with a laser beam. One could there
distinguish two groups of photoactive layers, heat-mode layers, which are sensitive to infra-red (IR) irradiation and
photo-mode layers, which are sensitive to the visible light irradiation.
Developing process is present in almost all plate making processes. The role of developing is to remove soluble parts
of the photoactive layer after exposure. Majority of the photoactive layers use a highly alkaline solution as the
developer. This fact makes it very important to conduct developing in strict conditions as after dissolving photoactive
layer, developer could impair surface of the aluminium oxide as it is soluble in base and acid solutions [7].
As previously mentioned, the plate making process is very complex and one must optimize this process in order to get
the high quality result, which significantly influences the quality of the final product. The most used methods in
characterisation of the printing plate’s surface properties, which have direct influence on the printing process, are
measurement of the contact angle, calculation of the surface energy and its components, determination of the
roughness parameters, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and optical and scanning electron microscopy.
Measurement of the contact angle is a method based on the fact than one could determine wetting characteristics of a
solid surface by examination of the liquid drop on a solid or liquid (if these two do not mix) surface. The contact angle
is defined as the angle between two tangents in a point where all three phases (vapour, solid and liquid) come in
contact, one is tangent on the liquid drop and the other is tangent on the solid surface (Figure 3) [8].
Figure 3. Contact angle determination
Contact angle is described in Young equation:
 lv cos    sv   sl
where γlv is interfacial energy liquid-vapour, γsv is interfacial energy solid-vapour, γsl is interfacial energy solid-liquid
and Θ is the contact angle.
The contact angle of the printing plate could give information about the printing plate making process, for example
duration of the exposure, duration and composure of the developer solution, influence of the printing process on the
printing plate’s surface etc. [9, 10].
Surface energy and its components can be calculated by measuring contact angles of referent liquids on the
investigated solid surface. In the printing plate investigation one could use the Owens-Wendt-Rabel and Kaelble
(OWRK) analysis method. This method is developed from Young equation and the fact that surface tension can be
divided on the polar and dispersive part [11, 12].
where σs is surface tension of the solid, σl is the surface tension of the liquid, σD dispersive part of surface tension, σP
polar phase of surface tension [12].
As fountain solution (water based) must have good spreading on the nonprinting areas, it is of higher interest to see
behaviour of the polar component of the surface energy when changes in the printing plate making process occurs
Electrical impedance spectroscopy is an electrochemical analytical method suitable for measurement of nonconductive
layers on a conductive base, such as varnishes, colour on a metal surface, metal oxides etc. [14]. Electrical impedance
is a resistance in an AC electrical circuit. The electrical impedance is sum of real and imaginary part (3).
Z* = Z' – jZ''
where Z* is the electrical impedance, Z' is real part of the electrical impedance Z'' is imaginary part of the electrical
impedance and j =
Measuring electrical impedance while changing the frequency of the voltage source one could determine changes on
the printing plate surface as the formed aluminium oxide layer and the aluminium base create a double layer which
could be simulated by an electrical circuit [16]. The parameters of the circuit elements imply the change of the
aluminium oxide surface [17 - 19].
The printing plate-fountain solution interaction has a very important role in the printing process. One must define
properties of the fountain solution to determine its optimal composition. On the other hand, fountain solution could get
contaminated in a printing process, and therefore must be constantly observed and if needed corrected with additives
to keep its function in a wanted boundaries.
The parameters which are usually measured during printing process are pH value and electrical conductivity. pH value
must be between 4.5 and 5.5 as this is interval in which aluminium oxide is stable [7], but also this value leads to the
better drying of the printing ink. The electrical conductivity value is not defined as it depends on the various fountain
solution compositions, but it is a parameter which gives signal if some particles of paper, varnish etc. have mixed with
fountain solution and could cause problems in the wetting process.
This paper presents an overview of some chemical processes and measuring methods which are used in graphic
industry connected with the printing plate processing. One could see that the plate making process is full of chemical
processing. Because of their bad ecological impact, investigations are made to develop processes with lower use of
chemicals, but for now they are not keeping up with the needed quality level or durability. Therefore, another way of
improving these processes and lowering negative ecological impact is by defining more precisely energy and chemical
consumption by optimized current processes. Usage of precise measuring methods which enable greater precision in
characterization of the materials and definition of their properties in relation to the chemical processing must be
included in that process.
Wilson, D. G., (2005), Lithography primer, Pittsburg: GATFPress
Brinkman, H.J., Kernig, B. (2003) Aluminium for lithographic applications // ATB Metallurgie R&D Hydro
Aluminium. 43(1-2), pp. 130-135
Dimogerontakis, Th., Van Gils, S., Ottevaere, H., Thienpont H., Terryn, H. (2006) Quantitative topography
characterisation of surfaces with asymmetric roughness induced by AC-graining on aluminium // Surface Coating
Technology. 201, pp. 918-926.
Lin, C.S., Chang C.C., Fu, H.M. (2001) AC electrograining of aluminum plate in hydrochloric acid // Materials
Chemistry and Physics 68 pp. 217-224.
Urano, T., Kohori, K., Okamoto, H. Photosensitive Lithographic Printing Plate and Method for making a Printing
Plate, Patent No.: US 6,689,537 B2, 2004.
Kipphan, H., (2001), Handbook of Print Media, Berlin: Springer.
Pourbaix, M., (1966), Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions, Oxford, London, Paris, Toronto,
New York, Frankfurt: Pergamon Press.
Atkins, P. W., (1998), Physical Chemistry, 6th Ed., Oxford University Press
Baracic, M., Cigula, T., Tomasegovic, T., Zitinski Elias, P. Y., Gojo, M., (2009), Influence of plate making process
and developing solutions on the nonprinting areas of offset printing plates, Proceedigs of the 20th DAAAAM
Symposium "Inteligent Manifacturing & Automation : Focus on Theory, Practice and Education", ed. Katalinić,
Branko, Viena : DAAAAM International.
Mahovic Poljacek, S., Cigula, T., Pintar, N., Gojo, M., (2010), Quality of the Printing Plates as a Function of
Chemical Processing, Annals of DAAAM for 2010 & Proceedings of the 21st International DAAAAM Symposium
"Inteligent Manifacturing & Automation: Focus on Interdisciplinary Solutions", ed. Katalinic, Branko, Viena :
DAAAM International.
Owens, D.K., Wendt, R.C. (1969) Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers // Journal of Applied Polymer
Science, v.13., pp. 1741-1747
Van Oss, C. J.; Giese, R. F.; Li, Z.; Murphy, K.; Norris, J.; Chaudhury, M. K., Good, R. J. (1993) Contact Angle,
Wettability and Adhesion, K. L. Mittal (Ed.), VSP, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Cigula T. (2011), Kvalitativna analiza slobonih površina tiskovnih formi, PhD thesis, Grafički fakultet, zagreb
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 19-23, -Vanredno izdanje14. Mansfeld, F., (1999), Analysis and Interpretation of EIS Dana for Metals and Alloys, Technical report 26, Solartron
15. Monk, P., (2005), Fundamentals of electroanalytical electrochemistry, Chichester: John Wiley&sons Ltd.
16. FOGRA Project No. 22.024, Electrochemische Untersuchungen def Oberfläche von Offsetdruckplatten zur
Aufklärung der Ursachen von Farbannahmeerscheinungen an bildfreien Stellen, Report 2006.
17. Cigula, T., Fuchs-Godec, R., Gojo, M., Slemnik, M. (2012) Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a tool in
the plate making process optimization // Acta Chimica Slovenica 59 3, pp. 513-519
18. Hitzig, J., Jüttner, K., Lorenz, W. J., Paatsch, W., (1984) AC-Impedance Measurements on Corroded Porous
Aluminum Oxide Films, Corrosion Science, 24 (11/12), pp. 945-952.
19. Risovic, D., Mahovic Poljacek, S. Gojo, M., (2009) On correlation between fractal dimension and profilometric
parameters in characterization of surface topographies, Applied Surface Science, 255 (7); pp. 4283-4288.
Miroslav Gojo1, Tomislav Cigula
Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Grafički fakultet, Zagreb, Getaldićeva 2, Republika Hrvatska
Jedna od najzastupljenijih tehnika otiskivanja u suvremenom tisku je tehnika plošnog tiska. Osnova za sve tehnike
tiska je tiskovna forma koja se sastoji od tiskovnih (prihvaćaju bojilo) i slobodnih površina (ne smije prihvatiti bojilo).
Na većini tiskovnih formi je selektivno prihvaćanje bojila postignuto geometrijskom razlikom, no u plošnom tisku se
tiskovne i slobodne površine razlikuju po svojim fizikalno kemijskim svojstvima, odnosno hidrofilnosti i oleofilnosti kao
površinskim pojavama. Tiskovne površine moraju biti izrazito oleofilne (hidrofobne), dok slobodne površine moraju
imati izrazito hidrofilna (oleofobna) svojstva. U procesu tiska se prvo nanosi otopina za vlaţenje (voda s dodatcima) te
se prihvaća samo na slobodne površine. U sljedećem koraku se nanosi bojilo s uljnim otapalima te se ono prihvaća
samo na površine koje nisu prekrivene otopinom za vlaţenje (tiskovne površine). Aluminijski lim od kojeg se najčešće
izraĎuje tiskovna forma, mora se površinski obraditi mehaničkim, kemijskim i elektrokemijskim postupcima kako bi se
na njoj dobila tanka, porozna prevlaka aluminijevog oksida (slobodne površine) koja se na kraju oslojava fotoaktivnim
slojem (tiskovne površine). Izrada takve tiskovne forme se sastoji od osvjetljavanja i razvijanja, čime se sa slobodnih
površina uklanja fotoaktivni sloj. Cilj rada je prezentirati kemijske procese izrade ofsetnih tiskovnih formi, te primjena
različitih metoda kojima se pratite i optimiziraju ti procesi: mjerenja kuta kvašenja, parametara hrapavosti i
elektrokemijske impedancijske spektroskopije (EIS). Nadalje, kako je za proces tiska od izuzetne vaţnosti interakcija
otopine za vlaţenje koja se koristi i tiskovne forme, potrebno je odrediti njen optimalni kemijski sastav prateći pH
vrijednost, električnu provodljivost, te napetost površine.
KLJUČNE RIJEČI: Grafička tehnologija, tiskovna forma, fizikalno-kemijski procesi, ofsetni tisak
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 25- 36 , -Vanredno izdanje-
Elvis Ahmetović1,3, Nidret Ibrić1, Zdravko Kravanja2
Univerzitet u Tuzli, Tehnološki fakultet, Tuzla, Bosna i Hercegovina
Univerza v Mariboru, Fakulteta za kemijo in kemijsko tehnologijo, Maribor, Slovenija
ISSN 2232-755X
DOI: 10.7251/GHTE13VI025A
UDC 628.3:005.642.2
Voda i energija su značajni prirodni resursi koji se obično koriste u velikim količinama u procesnoj industriji. U zadnje
dvije decenije su predloţeni i implementirani različiti pristupi u cilju minimizacije korištenja svjeţe vode, generisanja
otpadne vode i potrošnje energije. Ranije studije su se odnosile na istraţivanje različitih strategija za minimizaciju
svjeţe i otpadne vode u izotermskim mreţama vode (ponovno korištenje vode, prečišćavanje otpadne vode i njeno
recikliranje), ali u skorašnjim pristupima je razmatrana i minimizacija energije zajedno sa minimizacijom svjeţe i
otpadne vode. U ovom radu je predstavljena optimizacija superstrukture kao jedna od metoda za simultanu sintezu
ukupnih mreţa vode, otpadne vode, i energije. U cilju ilustriranja primjenjivosti predloţenog pristupa korišten je
literaturni primjer. Prvo je prezentiran osnovni slučaj problema sinteze mreţe vode. Nakon toga sintetizirane su mreţe
vode korištenjem simultane optimizacije. Dobijeni rezultati su isti ili bolji od rezultata publiciranih u literaturi.
Predstavljena je optimalna neizotermska mreţa vode, koja ima optimalnu potrošnju svjeţe vode, nastajanje otpadne
vode, potrošnju energije i investicije, za slučaj kada su tokovi izmeĎu procesnih jedinica uzeti u obzir za integraciju
Ključne riječi: odrţiva industrija, integracija vode, integracija energije, simultana sinteza, optimizacija superstrukture.
Globalna potrošnja svjeţe vode i energije u svijetu je u stalnom porastu i taj trend će se najvjerovatnije nastaviti i u
budućnosti. U generalnom se moţe reći da je prosječna globalna potrošnja svjeţe vode u poljoprivredi 70%, industriji
20% dok se za potrebe stanovništva koristi oko 10% vode (1). Navedena raspodjela moţe da bude raznolika u
zavisnosti od toga da li se radi o razvijenim zemljama ili zemljama u razvoju. Tako npr. u industrijski razvijenim
zemljama (Kanada, Njemačka, Francuska, Amerika) industrijska potrošnja vode je znatno veća (46-80%) dok je u tim
zemljama potrošnja vode za potrebe poljoprivrede znatno manja (8-42%). Industrijski sektor učestvuje u ukupnoj
potrošnji energije u svijetu sa oko 51% (2).
Pored velike potrošnje vode i energije u industrijskom sektoru (hemijska, prehrambena, petrohemijska, farmaceutska
industrija, industrija proizvodnje papira, itd.) se generišu i velike količine otpadnih tokova koji se iz procesa ispuštaju u
okolinu. U prošlosti procesna industrija je bila usmjerena uglavnom samo na povećanje profita. U zadnje vrijeme zbog
uvoĎenja okolišnih regulativa i strogih ograničenja na ispuštanje otpadnih tokova iz industrijskih procesa u okolinu,
procesna industrija pored profitabilnosti mora zadovoljavati i načela odrţivosti procesa (3-5). U skladu s navedenim,
studije odrţivog upravljanja vodom, otpadnom vodom i energijom u industriji predstavljale su aktuelni istraţivački
problem u zadnjih par decenija i jedan su od glavnih fokusa istraţivanja u narednom periodu (3-10). Cilj tih istraţivanja
je bio minimizirati potrošnju svjeţe vode i energije (topline) u industrijskim procesima kao i količinu otpadnih tokova
koji se iz procesa ispuštaju u okolinu. Ta istraţivanja spadaju u oblast procesne sinteze (sinteze procesa) i procesne
integracije (integracije procesa) koja predstavlja jednu od ključnih oblasti procesnog sistemskog inţenjerstva (PSE).
Cilj procesne sinteze i procesne integracije je istraţiti cijeli proces i razviti strategije za integraciju mase i energije pri
čemu se minimiziraju ukupni troškovi kao i nastajanje otpadnih tokova koji ispuštaju u okolinu. Za postizanje
navedenog cilja mogu se koristiti sistemske metode kao što su pinch tehnologija i matematičko programiranje.
Pinch tehnologija se prvo primjenjivala za integraciju topline (7) a nakon toga za integraciju vode (3-5). U generalnom
ona se sastoji od dvije faze. Kod integracije topline, u prvoj fazi se vrši odreĎivanje minimalne potrošnje energenata
(ogrijevne pare i rashladne vode) prije detaljnog dizajna. Ta procedura je poznata pod terminom "targeting". U drugoj
fazi se dizajnira mreţa izmjenjivača topline za utvrĎenu minimalnu potrošnju energenata utvrĎenu u prvoj fazi. Kod
integracije vode pinch tehnologija se prvo primjenjivala za sintezu mreţe vode koja se sastoji od procesa u kojima se
koristi voda a glavni cilj je bio odrediti minimalnu potrošnju svjeţe vode i minimalnu količinu nastale otpadne vode
prije detaljnog dizajna mreţe vode. Nakon utvrĎivanja minimalne potrošnje vode i minimalnog generisanja otpadne
vode izvršena je sinteza i dizajn mreţe vode.
Metoda matematičkog programiranja se bazira na optimizaciji superstrukture (11). U generalnom superstrukturna
metoda se sastoji od tri koraka. U prvom koraku se vrši razvoj svih fizički mogućih alternativa koje se inkorporiraju u
Korespodentni autor: Elvis Ahmetović, Univerzitet u Tuzli, Tehnološki fakultet, Univerzitetska 8, 75000 Tuzla, Bosna i
Hercegovina. Tel.: +387 35 320756; Faks: +387 35 320741, e-mail: [email protected]
superstrukturu. Ovdje je bitno naglasiti da ukoliko se neke konfiguracije procesnih alternativa ne inkorporiraju u
superstrukturu kao rezultat se moţe imati rješenje koje nije optimalno. U drugom koraku se vrši formulacija
optimizacijskog modela na osnovu sintetizirane superstrukture. Model se sastoji od funkcije cilja i ograničenja. Funkcija
cilja npr. moţe da predstavlja maksimizaciju profita ili minimizaciju ukupnih troškova. Ograničenja mogu da budu tipa
jednakosti i nejednakosti. Pri formulaciji modela koriste se cjelobrojne (obično binarne 0-1 variable) i kontinuirane
varijable. Cjelobrojne varijable omogućavaju odabir procesnih alternativa. Tako npr. ukoliko je odabrana vrijednost
binarne varijable jedan tada je odabrana procesna alternativa, a ukoliko je njena vrijednost nula tada procesna
alternativa nije odabrana u rješenju. Kontinuirane varijable sluţe za odreĎivanje vrijednosti procesnih parametara
(protoci, koncentracije, temperature, itd.). U slučaju da je problem nelinearan i da sadrţi diskretne i kontinuirane
varijable tada se model formuliše kao problem miješanog cjelobrojnog nelinearnog programiranja (MINLP). U trećem
koraku se vrši rješavanje optimizacijskog modela u cilju pronalaţenja optimalnog rješenja sa stanovišta procesne
konfiguracije i procesnih parametara.
Cilj ovog rada je predstaviti osnove korištenja vode u procesnoj industriji, koncept sinteze mreţa vode, otpadne vode i
energije u procesu i na primjeru primjeniti metodu matematičkog programiranja u cilju minimizacije potrošnje svjeţe
vode, otpadne vode i energije.
Na slici 1 je predstavljen opšti prikaz korištenja vode u procesu (12, 13). Sirova voda se prije uvoĎenja u proces obično
prečišćava u sistemu za tretman vode. Nakon toga, svjeţa voda se moţe koristiti u procesu kao procesna voda (za
operacije pripreme/pranja sirovina, separacije, apsorpcije, ekstrakcije, itd.), voda za generisanje energenata (ogrijevna
para, električna energija) i voda za hlaĎenje (rashladna voda) ili pak za druge namjene. Nakon korištenja vode u
procesu nastaje otpadna voda, koja se obično prečišćava u sistemu za tretman otpadne vode prije ispuštanja u okolinu.
S obzirom da skoro svaki proces ima potrebu za energijom (ogrijevna para, električna energija) ili rashladnom vodom
onda je on u direktnoj vezi sa sistemom za generisanje energije i sa sistemom recirkulacije rashladne vode. Ukoliko su
upotrebe svjeţe vode, ogrijevne pare i rashladne vode u procesu veće od minimalnih potreba tada se ima i veća
ukupna potrošnja vode u procesu i veća ukupna količina otpadne vode koja se ispušta u okolinu. U tom slučaju će biti i
veća potrošnja goriva u sistemu za generisanje energije, te takoĎer električne energije potrebne za transport vode u
ukupnom sistemu. Na taj način potrošnja prirodnih resursa (npr. vode, goriva za generisanje energije, ogrijevne pare i
električne energije, iz vode) potrebnih za funkcionisanje procesa je veća. TakoĎer, veća je i količina otpadnih tokova
(npr. otpadna voda, isparena voda u rashladnim tornjevima sistema za recirkulciju rashladne vode, otpadni plinovi,
itd.) koji se iz procesa ispuštaju u okolinu. Takav slučaj funkcionisanja procesa nije ekonomičan a takoĎer ni ekološko
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 25- 36 , -Vanredno izdanje-
Slika 1. Tipično korištenje vode u hemijskoj procesnoj industriji (12, 13).
Figure 1. Typical water uses in the chemical process industries (12, 13).
U cilju postizanja ekonomsko efikasnih i ekološko odrţivih procesa potrebno je smanjiti potrošnju prirodnih resursa
potrebnih za funkcionisanje procesa kao i količinu otpadnih tokova koji se iz procesa ispuštaju u okolinu što predstavlja
osnovni koncept procesne integracije (14). Potrebe procesa za procesnom vodom, energijom (npr. ogrijevna para,
električna energije) i rashladnom vodom će biti manje ukoliko se ima integracija vode i energije u procesnom sistemu.
Cilj integracije vode je smanjiti potrošnju svjeţe vode i generisane otpadne vode a cilj integracije energije je smanjiti
potrošnju energije (topline) u procesu.
Integracija vode u mreţi komponovanoj od procesnih i regeneracijskih (tretman) jedinica se moţe postići ukoliko se
ima ponovno korištenje vode, regeneracija i ponovno korištenje vode, regeneracija i recirkulacija vode (slika 2).
TakoĎer, izmjenama opreme u procesu moţe se smanjiti potreba procesa za vodom. Na primjer, rashladni tornjevi koji
koriste vodu mogu se zamijenjeni sa hladnjacima koji koriste zrak, ili u slučaju procesa pranja moţe se povećati broj
stepeni (10, 15). Svjeţa voda se koristi u procesnim operacijama u kojima se na tok vode prenosi maseno opterećenje
kontaminanata i nastala otpadna voda se ispušta iz procesnih operacija (slika 2a). Otpadni tok vode iz jedne procesne
operacije se moţe ponovo koristiti u drugim procesnim operacijama (slika 2b) ukoliko je sadrţaj kontaminanata u toku
manji od maksimalnog dozvoljenog sadrţaja kontaminanata na ulazu u druge procesne operacije ( ponovno korištenje
Slika 2. Ponovno korištenje vode, regeneracija i ponovno korištenje i regeneracija i recikliranje vode (13).
Figure 2. Water reuse, regeneration and water reuse, regeneration and water recycling (13).
TakoĎer tok otpadne vode iz jedne procesne operacije moţe se miješati sa tokom otpadne vode iz druge operacije i/ili
sa tokom svjeţe vode. Pod ponovnim korištenjem vode se podrazumijeva da se tok vode iz jedne procesne jedinice
moţe usmjeriti prema ostalim procesnim operacijama. U slučaju kada se tok vode iz jedne procesne operacije uvodi u
istu procesnu operaciju tada se ima lokalna recirkulacija vode oko procesne jednice. Lokalna recirkulacija moţe
smanjiti ukupnu potrošnju vode. MeĎutim, u nekim slučajevima uslijed lokalne recirkulacije vode moţe se imati
nagomilavanje kontaminanata u procesu pa je u tom slučaju ona nepoţeljna. Otpadni tokovi vode iz procesnih jedinica
se obično usmjeravaju u sistem regeneracije (tretman jedinice) u kome se vrši regeneracija otpadne vode odnosno
djelimično uklanjanje kontaminanata. Nakon toga se prečišćena voda moţe ponovo koristiti u procesu (slika 2c), ali ne
u procesnim operacijama u kojima je bila prethodno korištena ( regeneracija i ponovno korištenje vode). Pored
navedenog regenerirana voda, iz koje su uklonjeni kontaminanti, moţe se reciklirati i koristiti (slika 2d) u svim
procesnim operacijama (regeneracija i recikliranje vode). Navedeni slučajevi predstavljaju osnovne načine minimizacije
svjeţe i otpadne vode koji se koriste pri sintezi mreţa vode u procesima.
Integracija energije (topline) u procesu se moţe postići ukoliko se topli i hladni tokovi integriraju u mreţi izmjenjivača
topline (7) tako da samo ukoliko se ne mogu postići ciljne temperature tih tokova vrši se dodatno grijanje sa
ogrijevnom parom i hlaĎenje sa rashladnom vodom. U skladu s navedenim, u narednom dijelu su predstavljene osnove
koncepta sinteze mreţa vode, otpadne vode i energije.
Jedan od osnovnih ciljeva procesne sinteze i procesne integracije predstavlja smanjivanje potrošnje svjeţe vode,
nastajanja otpadne vode i potrošnje energije u procesu. U skladu s navedenim, neke od značajnih oblasti procesne
sinteze su sinteza mreţe izmjenjivača topline (7), sinteza mreţa vode i otpadne vode (3-6, 16) odnosno sinteza
kombinovanih mreţa izmjenjivača topline i mreţa vode (2, 17-23). Jedan od ciljeva ovog rada je istaknuti značaj
navedenih mreţa u sintezi i dizajniranju ekološko odrţivih industrijskih procesa.
Počeci intenzivnijih istraţivanja u oblasti sinteze mreţe izmjenjivača topline i integracije topline su vezani za porast
cijene energije a datiraju iz 1970 i 80-tih godina (24-32). Navedena istraţivanja su još uvijek popularna jer se
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 25- 36 , -Vanredno izdanjeintegracijom topline smanjuje potreba za pogonskim sredstvima (ogrijevna para, rashladna voda) u procesu i
zadovoljava princip odrţivosti procesa. Mreţa izmjenjivača topline se sastoji od izmjenjivača topline, grijača i hladnjaka
te njihovih meĎusobnih konekcija. U mreţu izmjenjivača topline se uvode topli i hladni procesni tokovi i pogonska
sredstva (energenti). Cilj sinteze je dizajnirati mreţu izmjenjivača topline u kojoj se ima maksimalna rekuperacija
topline, koja se ostvaruje integracijom topline izmeĎu toplih i hladnih tokova. U slučaju da se na taj način ne mogu
dostići ciljne temperature toplih odnosno hladnih tokova vrši se dodatno hlaĎenje ili grijanje tokova sa energentima
(rashladna voda, ogrijevna para). Detaljan prikaz publiciranih radova u vezi sinteze mreţe izmjenjivača topline je
raspoloţiv u preglednom radu (7).
Pored istraţivačkih studija u oblasti minimiziranja potrošnje topline i sinteze mreţe izmjenjivača topline u procesima,
fokus istraţivača je bio usmjeren i na minimiziranje potrošnje svjeţe vode koja se koristi u procesu, minimiziranju
količine otpadne vode koja se iz procesa ispušta u okolinu, te dizajniranju sistema mreţe vode i otpadne vode. Prve
studije i novi sistemski pristupi u toj oblasti datiraju iz početka 1980-tih godina (33) dok veći interes u ovoj oblasti se
javlja sredinom 1990-tih godina (10, 15). U tim studijama razmatrane su opcije ponovnog korištenja vode,
regeneracije i ponovnog korištenja vode, regeneracije i recikliranja vode, te uvoĎenja izmjena u procesu koje bi kao
rezultat imale smanjenje potrošnje vode i nastajanja otpadne vode. U početku istraţivanja su prvo separatno studirane
mreţe vode (mreţe procesnih jednica u kojima se koristi voda) i mreţe otpadne vode (mreţe tretman jedinica u kojima
se prečišćava otpadna voda). Nakon toga su mreţe procesnih i tretman jedinica integrirane u jednu integralnu mreţu i
problem minimizacije svjeţe vode i otpadne vode je riješen za integralnu mreţu. Takav integralni pristup je omogućio
pronalaţenje boljih rješenja u odnosu na sekvencijsko rješavanje problema mreţe vode i mreţe otpadne vode.
Navedena istraţivanja su još uvijek aktuelna i veliki broj radova je publiciran u ovoj oblasti.
S obzirom da u procesu postoje uzajamne interakcije izmeĎu potrošnje energije i vode, daljnja istraţivanja su bila
usmjerena na studiranje veza izmeĎu vode i energije u procesu jer je na takav način moguće istovremeno smanjiti
potrošnju vode i potrošnju energije u procesu. Prva studija u toj oblasti datira iz 1998. godine (34). U tim
istraţivanjima mreţa vode (mreţa procesnih jedinica u kojima se koristi voda) je studirana sa mreţom izmjenjivača
topline. Ta istraţivanja su postala jako aktuelna u periodu nakon 1998. godine (2, 4, 6, 17-23, 35-55). Za sintezu
kombinovanih mreţa vode i izmjenjivača topline korištene su sistemske metode (pinch tehnologija i matematičko
programiranje) i sekvencijske i simultane strategije rješavanja problema sinteze ukupne mreţe. Pri sekvencijskoj
strategiji rješavanja ukupnog problema prvo je riješena mreţa vode a nakon toga mreţa izmjenjivača topline, dok su u
simultanoj strategiji obije mreţe rješavane istovremeno. Prednost sekvencijske strategije je u hijerarhijskoj
dekompoziciji ukupnog problema sinteze na manje probleme, koje je jednostavnije riješiti, a nedostatak što najbolji
kompromis izmeĎu potrošnje vode, potrošnje energije i investicija se ne moţe utvrditi. Prednost simultane strategije je
u integralnom rješavanju problema i sistemskom istraţivanju svih interakcija izmeĎu navedenih mreţa, a nedostatak je
povećana kompleksnost problema i njegovo teţe rješavanje.
Daljni fokus u sintezi toplinsko integriranih mreţa vode bio je usmjeren na studiranje kombinovane mreţe
komponovane od mreţe vode, mreţe otpadne vode i mreţe izmjenjivača topline. MeĎutim do sada je objavljeno samo
nekoliko radova (19, 20, 42, 56) u toj oblasti, i najvjerovatnije to će biti fokus daljnih istraţivanja u ovoj oblasti.
Simultana optimizacija takvih integralnih mreţa omogućava istovremenu optimizaciju potrošnje svjeţe vode, nastajanja
otpadne vode i potrošnje energije u procesu. U narednom dijelu predloţen je i opisan novi konceptualni prikaz takve
mreţe (slika 3). Ukupna mreţa se sastoji od mreţe procesnih jedinica, mreţe izmjenjivača topline, mreţe tretman
jedinica i njihovih meĎusobnih konekcija. Svjeţa voda se moţe direktno uvoditi u mreţu procesnih jedinica ili grijati i/ili
hladiti u mreţi izmjenjivača topline. U mreţi procesnih jedinica sa procesnog toka na tok vode se prenosi maseno
opterećenje kontaminanata pri čemu nastaje otpadna voda.
S obzirom da se procesne jedinice eksploatišu na odreĎenim temperaturama tokovi vode na izlazu iz mreţe procesnih
jedinica mogu da budu topli i/ili hladni. Ti tokovi se uvode u mreţu izmjenjivača topline u cilju integracije topline da bi
se zadovoljila temperaturna ograničenja u ukupnoj mreţi. U slučaju da se integracijom topline nisu postigle ciljne
temperature u mreţi tada se vrši dodatno grijanje i hlaĎenje sa raspoloţivim energentima ili pogonskim sredstvima
(ogrijevna para, rashladna voda). TakoĎer u mreţi procesnih jedinica je moguće ponovno korištenje vode iz jedne
procesne jedinice u drugoj procesnoj jedinici ukoliko su time zadovoljena ograničenja na sadrţaj kontaminanata i
temperaturu u drugoj procesnoj jedinici. Pored navedenog, tokovi otpadne vode iz mreţe procesnih jedinica mogu da
budu usmjereni u mreţu tretman jedinica u cilju tretmana otpadne vode i njenog ponovnog korištenja i recikliranja.
Tokovi vode na izlazu iz tretman jedinica mogu da budu topli i/ili hladni i oni se uvode u mreţu izmjenjivača topline u
cilju integracije topline, te ako nisu dostignute ciljne temperature tokova vrši se dodatno grijanje i/ili hlaĎenje sa
energentima. TakoĎer, tokovi vode na izlazu iz tretman jedinica mogu da budu usmjereni u mreţu za tretman otpadne
vode u cilju regeneracije i ponovnog korištenja odnosno regeneracije i recikliranja vode (vidi sliku 2 c, d) ili kao tok
efluenta ispušteni u okolinu pri čemu mora biti zadovoljeno ograničenje u odnosu na maksimalan sadrţaj
kontaminanata u toku i temperaturu toka koji se ispušta u okolinu.
TakoĎer, istraţivanje integriranosti mreţe procesnih jednica, tretman jedinica i mreţe izmjenjivača topline (slika 3) sa
procesnom mreţom u kojoj se ima reakcijski i separcijski sistem bi moglo da bude fokus budućih istraţivanja u ovoj
Slika 3. Koncept integralne mreţe procesnih jedinica, mreţe izmjenjivača topline i mreţe za tretman otpadne vode.
Figure 3. The concept of an integrated process units network, heat exchangers network, and wastewater treatment
U ovoj sekciji rada je na konkretnom primjeru prikazana primjena metode matematičkog programiranja koja se bazira
na optimizaciji superstrukture. U cilju ilustriranja primjenjivosti navedenog pristupa korišten je literaturni primjer (2,
20). Za navedeni primjer prvo je predstavljena konvencionalna izotermska mreţa procesnih jedinica u kojima se koristi
samo svjeţa voda i nastaje otpadna voda. Nakon toga je dizajnirana izotermska mreţa procesnih jedinica u kojoj se
ima ponovno korištenje vode i utvrĎena je minimalna potrošnja vode. MeĎutim, u praksi procesne jedinice se
eksploatišu na odreĎenim radnim temperaturama, svjeţa voda koja se usmjerava prema procesnim jedinicama je
odreĎene temperature i postavljena su ograničenja na temperaturu otpadne vode koja se ispušta u okolinu. Iz toga je
očigledno da u procesu postoji veza izmeĎu potrošnje vode i potrošnje energije tako da je u narednom dijelu rada
predstavljen dizajn neizotermske toplinsko integrirane mreţe vode koji je dobijen simultanom optimizacijom mreţe
procesnih jedinica i mreţe izmjenjivača topline.
Mreţa procesnih jedinica u kojima se koristi voda se sastoji od tri procesne jedinice čiji su podaci za maseno
opterećenje kontaminanata koje se prenosi na vodu, maksimalnu koncentraciju kontaminanta u ulaznom i izlaznom
toku iz procesne jedinice dati u tabeli 1. Na bazi tih podataka izračunat je granični protok za procesne jedinice.
Procesne jedinice se eksploatišu na radnim temperaturama kako je predstavljeno u tabeli 1.
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 25- 36 , -Vanredno izdanje-
Tabela 1. Podaci za procesne jedinice.
Table 1. Process units data.
Procesna jedinica LPU
Process unit
Granični protok vode
Limiting water flowrate
LPU ‒ Maseno opterećenje kontaminanta/Mass load of contaminant (g/s); cinmax ‒ Maksimalna ulazna
koncentracija kontaminanta/Maximum inlet contaminant concentration (ppm); cout
‒ Maksimalna izlazna
koncentracija kontaminanta/Maximum outlet contaminant concentration (ppm)
Izvor svjeţe vode je bez kontaminanata i temperature 20°C. Voda koja se ispušta u okolinu je temperature 30°C.
Toplo pogonsko sredstvo koje je na raspolaganju je vodena para temperature 120°C. Rashladno pogonsko sredstvo
predstavlja rashladnu vodu čija je ulazna temperatura 10°C i izlazna temperatura 20°C. Cijena svjeţe vode je 0.375 $/t
dok je cijena toplog i hladnog pogonskog sredstva 377 $/(kW∙y) odnosno 189 $/(kW∙y). Ukupni koeficijent prenosa
topline iznosi 0.5 kW/(m2∙K). Investicijski troškovi za izmjenjivače topline sa cijevnim snopom i plaštom su procijenjeni
prema jednačini 8000+1200·A0.6 pri čemu je A površina izmjenjivača topline (m2). Investicijski troškovi za izmjenjivače
topline su svedeni na godišnji nivo. Pretpostavljeno je da se mreţa eksploatiše 8000 h/y, i da je specifični toplinski
kapacitet vode konstantan i iznosi 4.2 kJ/(kg∙K).
Potrebno je prvo dizajnirati izotermsku mreţu procesnih jedinica u kojoj se ima minimalna potrošnja vode i nastale
otpadne vode. Nakon toga predstaviti optimalnu neizotermsku toplinsko integriranu mreţu u kojoj se ima minimalna
potrošnja svjeţe vode i energije, te minimalno generisanje otpadne vode.
Konvencionalni prikaz mreţe procesnih jedinica (slika 4) predstavlja osnovni slučaj kada sve procesne jedinice koriste
samo svjeţu vodu. U procesnim jedinicama se na tok vode prenosi fiksno maseno opterećenje kontaminanata tako da
izlazna voda iz procesnih jedinica predstavlja otpadnu vodu. TakoĎer u ovom slučaju je razmotrena izotermska mreţa
vode pri čemu temperature svjeţe vode, procesnih jedinica i otpadne vode nisu uzete u obzir. Minimalna potrošnja
svjeţe vode u procesnoj jedinici je postignuta kada voda ulazi u procesnu jedinicu sa koncentracijom kontaminata 0
ppm a napušta procesnu jedinicu sa maksimalno dozvoljenom koncentracijom.
Koristeći podatke iz tabele 1 i uzimajući pretpostavku da je isti protok vode na ulazu i izlazu iz procesnih jedinica
odreĎena je minimalna potrošnja vode (132.955 kg/s) koja je jednaka protoku toka otpadne vode koji se ispušta u
okolinu. Konvencionalni dizajn mreţe vode je prikazan na slici 4.
Slika 4. Svjeţa voda je korištena u svim procesnim jedinicama.
Figure 4. Freshwater used in all process units.
Voda na izlazu iz jedne procesne jedinice se moţe ponovo koristiti u drugoj procesoj jedinici ako je zadovoljeno
ograničenje na maksimalno dozvoljenu koncentraciju kontaminanta u ulaznom toku vode u drugoj procesnoj jedinici. U
tom slučaju se moţe smanjiti potrošnja svjeţe vode i nastale otpadne vode u procesu. Optimizacijom modela
superstrukture potrebno je dobiti optimalnu alternativu sa stanovišta minimalne potrošnje svjeţe vode. U cilju
dobijanja optimalne mreţe sa ponovnim korištenjem vode u procesu korišten je optimizacijski model (16) a dobijeni
dizajni mreţe u kome se ima minimalna potrošnja vode (77.273 kg/s) su predstavljeni na slici 5. U tim mreţama tok
vode na izlazu iz procesne jedinice 1 (PU1) je ponovno korišten u procesnim jedinicama PU 2 i PU3, a tok vode na izlazu
iz procesne jedinice PU2 je ponovno korišten u procesnoj jedinici PU3. Dizajn mreţe na slici 5b je jednostavniji jer ima
manje jednu konekciju u odnosu na dizajn prikazan na slici 5a. Kao rezultat ponovnog korištenja vode, potrošnja
svjeţe vode i količina generirane otpadne vode je smanjena za oko 41.9 % (sa 132.955 na 77.273 kg/s).
Slika 5. Optimalni dizajni mreţe vode sa ponovnim korištenjem vode.
Figure 5. Optimal designs of water network with water reuse.
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 25- 36 , -Vanredno izdanje-
U većini realnih situacija u mreţi vode se pored zadovoljavanja ograničenja na sadrţaj kontaminanata moraju
zadovoljiti i ograničenja u odnosu na temperature. U takvim slučajevima se mreţa vode i mreţa izmjenjivača topline
trebaju razmotriti zajedno u cilju minimizacije potrošnje svjeţe vode i pogonskih sredstava (ogrijevna para, rashladna
voda). Ukoliko se integracijom topline u mreţi izmeĎu toplih i hladnih tokova nisu dostigle ciljne temperature tokova
potrebno je vršiti dodatno grijanje i/ili hlaĎenje tokova koristeći pogonska sredstva (ogrijevna para, rashladna voda) u
cilju zadovoljenja postavljenih temperaturnih ograničenja.
U prethodnom slučaju superstruktura mreţe vode je optimirana za izotermske uslove pri čemu je u dizajnu mreţe
(slika 5) minimalna potrošnja svjeţe i nastale otpadne vode bila 77.273 kg/s. S obzirom da se u ovom slučaju pored
ograničenja na sadrţaj kontaminanata u toku koji se uvodi u procesne jedinice moraju zadovoljiti i ograničenja
temperatura potrebno je izvršiti simultanu optimizaciju superstrukture mreţe procesnih jedinica, u kojoj se vrši
integracija vode, i mreţe izmjenjivača topline, u kojoj se vrši integracija topline. Optimizacijom modela superstrukture
(21, 55, 57) potrebno je odabrati optimalnu alternativu sa stanovišta minimalnih ukupnih troškova mreţe koji se
sastoje od troškova svjeţe vode, troškova pogonskih sredstva (ogrijevna para, rashladna voda) i investicijskih troškova
izmjenjivača topline. U ovom slučaju simultanom optimizacijom se istraţuje dizajn mreţe u kome se ima najbolji
kompromis izmeĎu navedenih troškova. Rezultati optimizacije za scenarije superstrukture mreţe (slučajevi 1-4) su
predstavljeni u tabeli 2 (55). Optimalna potrošnja vode, količina nastale otpadne vode, i ukupni godišnji troškovi u
slučajevima 2-4 su manji od istih rezultata za slučaj 1. Na slici 6 je predstavljen optimalni dizajn toplinsko integrirane
mreţe vode (slučaj 4) u kome se imaju dva izmjenjivača topline i dva grijača. Ukupna potrošnja toplog pogonskog
sredstva je 3245.5 kW. Najniţi ukupni godišnji troškovi toplinsko integrirane mreţe vode su postignuti sa najsloţenom
superstrukturom i iznose 2 422 531.7 $/y.
Table 2. Komparacija različitih dizajna toplinsko integrirane mreţe vode
Table 2. Comparison of different designs of heat-integrated water networks.
Slučaj 1
Slučaj 2
Slučaj 3
Slučaj 4
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
305 913.3
396 966.3
389 679.8
364 449.9
2 631 805.4
2 455 048.1
2 447 761.7
2 422 531.7
Potrošnja svjeţe vode
Freshwater consumption (kg/s)
Potrošnja toplog energenta
Hot utility consumption (kW)
Godišnja investicija
Annual investment ($/a)
Ukupni troškovi
Total annual cost ($/a)
Slučaj 1. Rezultati iz (20); Case 1. Results from (20); Slučaj 2. Tokovi između procesnih jedinica nisu uzeti u obzir za
toplinsku integraciju (57); Case 2. Process-to-process streams were not taken into account for heat integration (57);
Slučaj 3. Neizotermsko miješanje nakon izmjene topline i tokovi između procesnih jedinica nisu uzeti u obzir za
toplinsku integraciju; Case 3. Non-isothermal mixing after matches and process-to-process streams were not taken
into account for heat integration; Slučaj 4. Procesni tokovi su uzeti u obzir za toplinsku integraciju; Case 4. Processto-process streams are taken into account for HI.
Slika 6. Optimalni dizajn toplinsko integrirane mreţe vode kada su tokovi izmeĎu procesnih jedinica uzeti u obzir za
toplinsku integraciju (55).
Figure 6. Optimal design of heat-integrated water network when process-to-process streams are taken into account for
heat integration (55).
U ovom radu je istaknut značaj primjene sistemskih metoda, pinch tehnologije i matematičkog programiranja, u
dizajniranju ekonomsko efikasnih i ekološko odrţivih procesa odnosno njihova primjena u odrţivom upravljanju vodom,
otpadnom vodom i energijom u procesnoj industriji.
Predstavljen je opšti koncept korištenja vode u industrijskim procesima i istaknut je značaj ponovnog korištenja vode,
regeneracije i ponovnog korištenja vode i regeneracije i recikliranja vode u cilju smanjenja potrošnje svjeţe vode kao i
nastajanja otpadne vode.
Nakon toga je diskutovana suština sinteze mreţa izmjenjivača topline, vode i otpadne vode i predstavljen je novi
koncept sinteze kombinovanih mreţa izmjenjivača topline, vode i otpadne vode i date su smjernice za moguća buduća
istraţivanja u toj oblasti.
Na kraju je na konkretnom primjeru prikazana primjena metode matematičkog programiranja, koja se bazira na
optimizaciji superstrukture, i predstavljeni su rezultati za izotermsku i neizotermsku mreţu vode. U prvom slučaju
dobijeni rezultati su isti kao rezultati u literaturi, dok su u slučaju neizotermskih toplinsko integriranih mreţa prikazani
poboljšani rezultati sa stanovišta integriranosti mreţe i ukupnih godišnjih troškova.
Autori se zahvaljuju podršci od strane EM JoinEU-SEE, EM2-STEM i CEEPUS programa za finansijsku podršku u vezi
mobilnosti, sticanja novih znanja i usavršavanja, te za finansijsku podršku od strane Slovenske agencije za istraţivanje
(Program broj: P2-0032).
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Chemical Engineering Transactions, 29 (2012), 1015-20.
Elvis Ahmetović1, Nidret Ibrić1, Zdravko Kravanja2
University of Tuzla, Faculty of Technology, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Maribor, Slovenia
Water and energy are important natural resources which are usually used in significant quantities in the process
industries. Different approaches have been proposed and implemented over the last two decades in order to minimize
freshwater usage, wastewater generation, and energy consumption, within water networks. Earlier studies only
addressed the investigating of various strategies for water and wastewater minimization within isothermal water
networks (water reuse, wastewater treatment and water recycling), whilst more recent approaches have also
considered energy minimization together with freshwater and wastewater minimization. In this work a superstructure
optimization is presented as an approach for the simultaneous synthesis of overall water, wastewater, and energy
networks. An example from literature is used in order to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. A base
case is first presented for the water network synthesis problem. Then the water networks are synthesized using
simultaneous optimization. The obtained results are the same or better than those reported in the literature. An
optimal non-isothermal water network featuring optimal freshwater usage, wastewater generation, energy
consumption, and investment is realized when finally process-to-process streams are taken into account for heat
Key words: sustainable industry, water integration, energy integration, simultaneous synthesis, superstructure
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 37-42 , -Vanredno izdanje-
Bjørg Egelandsdal4, Milena Bjelanovic, Mamta Khatri and Erik Slinde
Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, University of Life Science, Postbox 5003,
ISSN 2232-755X
DOI: 10.7251/GHTE13VI037E
UDC 637.13.05+637.5.05
Meat color is an important quality variable that affects consumers’ willingness to purchase and re-purchase meat. The
importance of meat color has called for extensive research into the mechanism of colour stability. In many cases only
color measurements that relate to how a sample is seen by the human eye, is needed. However, in other situations it
is necessary to know the actual states of myoglobin on meat surfaces. Calculation of myoglobin states is not
straightforward, neither are the principles used for preparing pure myoglobin states; a prerequisite for making the
predictive models. In this presentation, we will discuss the methods used for preparing pure myoglobin states, plus the
most common method used to calculate myoglobin states. In addition, we will introduce a new method of calculating
myoglobin states. This new method uses the complete reflection spectrum instead of just selected wavelengths as
used in the most common method for calculation ofmyoglobin states. The new method gives improved accuracy.
Key words: meat, meat color, myoglobin
Meat color is an important quality variable that affects consumers’ willingness to purchase and re-purchase meat. The
importance of meat color has called for extensive research into the mechanism of color stability.
Colorimeters (like the more common Minolta versions) will only measure tristimulus values (CIE L*a*b*, 1976). Such
instruments are easy to use and will in many cases provide relevant, objective measurements regarding how a surface
is seen by the human eye. The technique quantifies color by measuring three color components which are seen by the
human eye specifically, red, green and blue (also referred to as ―RGB‖).
Figure 1. Left(a) is a picture of Konica Minolta CM 700D with spectral option from 400 - 700nm (resolution 10 nm).
The equipment measures reflection of a surface plus the tristimulus values (CIE L*a*b*). In the middle (b) is the 40 x
40mm2 optiprobe TM system (23 x 23mm illumination area) to be attached to FOSS NIRSystems Model 6500- here
pictured with another remote sensor (c). The probe (b) measures reflectance spectra from 400-1100 nm. The exact
penetration depth of light for these two systems was not measured. FOSS NIRSystems Model 6500 was used to get
reflectance spectra in the papers by Khatri et al. (2012) and Bjelanovic et al. (2013). The image in panel c was
provided by Bjørg Narum Nilsen
Spectrophotometers are more complex instruments that supply spectral analysis with different degrees of resolution.
Spectrophotometers are necessary if one aims at quantifying myoglobin states. Two instruments that can both
measure reflectance spectra are shown below (Figure 1).
Bjørg Egelandsdal , Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, University of Life Science, Postbox
5003, N-1432-Ås, e-mail: [email protected]
In order to calculate the three states of deoxymyoglobin (DMb), oxymyoglobin (OMb) and metmyoglobin (MMb) from
reflectance measurements in the visible range (400 -700 nm), an instrumental calibration is required where pure
states (i .e. DMb, OMb and MMb) are produced and measured with the type of sample, packaging material and
instrumentation to be used in the main experiment. In the main experiment unknown samples are then measured. All
laboratories doing these types of myoglobin state determinations should set up their own calibration before they can
calculate the states of myoglobin of unknown samples.
Adding the chemicals sodium dithionite and potassium ferricyanide (Wilson, Ginger, Schweigert and Aunan, 1959) is
known to produce DMb and MMb, respectively. OMb is readily formed by flushing the surface DMb of meat with 100%
oxygen. Alternatively, meat with DMb, MMb and OMb can be produced with modified atmosphere packaging by
adjusting the partial pressure of oxygen (O2) to zero, low or high concentrations, respectively (Taylor, Down, & Shaw,
1990; Hunt, Sørheim, & Slinde 1999).
No matter which calculation principle will be used later for calculation of myoglobin state, careful and correct
production of pure states are necessary. Table 1 shows the preparation methods that were recommended in the
recent, revised AMSA Meat Color Measurement Guidelines that were released in 2012. Included in Table 1 are the
preparation principles that have been used by Khatri et al. (2012) and Bjelanovic et al. (2013). Their preparation
methods were largely based on the first issue of the AMSA guidelines as well as some amendments that we found
relevant to carry out. Table 1 is not exhaustive and we strongly recommend the readers to consult the actual
references for details about how the preparations were carried out (e.g. packing materials and similar).
In order to calculate myoglobin states surface reflection measurements in the visible range 400-700 nm (or 470-610
nm) must be available for the more common method where transformation of reflectance measurements to K/S values
are used. This transformation is used to improve on linearity and reduce the contribution from scattering and, in
essence, to make the spectra look more like transmission spectra.
Table 1 Comparison of recent preparation methods to prepare 100% pure myoglobin states.
IA -Intact meat–
IB- Intact meat
(AMSA, 2012)*
(Khatri et al., 2012)
potassium ferricyanide
for 1 min, drain, blot
surface, package in
film, store at 2 - 4°C
in 1% oxygen for 48
potassium ferricyanide
for 1 min, drained,
blotted dry, packed in
film, stored at 2 - 4°C
for 12 hours.
days old meat.
Measure in oxygenpermeable film. Use
older meat.
Stored meat at initial
O2 level of 1.5 %
added 60 % CO2/40
% N2 Stored to day 7
at 4°C, (gas: meat=
30 :1).
Examined in oxygenpermeable film. Four
days old meat
II Bmeat
(AMSA, 2012)
Not commented on.
potassium ferricyanide
for 1 min, drained,
blotted dry, packed in
film, stored at 2 - 4°C
Examined in oxygenimpermeable film. Six
to thirteen days old
Flatten it with roller,
pack in 1% O2 and
99% nitrogen. After
48 hours at 4°C, repack and measure in
Not examined
Use older meat.
Store meat in an
atmosphere of 1%
temperature (20°C)
for 6 hours; (gas:
meat > 3 :1), keep at
> 48 hours at 4°C.
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 37-42 , -Vanredno izdanje-
Not commented on
Expose samples at 0 2°C in a high-oxygen
100%), store 24-48
hours at 0 - 2°C,(gasto-meat volume > 3 to
Immerse samples in
about 20°C, 1 -2
minutes, drain, blot
package, and allow to
reduce for 1- 2 hours
at 20°C. Repackage in
scan immediately.
1) Make a fresh-cut
2) Vacuum
samples in
bag, store
hours at 4°C.
24 -48
Meat at 2°C was
flushed with 100%
minutes. Examined in
film. Four days old
Packed in 75 % O2/
25 % CO2,, 4°C, and
measured after 24
hours, C, (gas: meat=
Examined in oxygenpermeable film. Four
days old meat.
Not commented on.
Not examined
dithionite for 2 min,
drained, blotted dry
and vacuum packaged
to reduce for 2 hours
at room temperature.
scanned immediately.
Four days old meat.
Samples were
vacuum-packaged and
kept at 2-4°C for 48
hours, C, (gas: meat=
Ground product can
For ground product,
supported using
screen in a beaker
Packed in 100 % O2
and measured after 45
min, at 4°C.Examined
in oxygenimpermeable film.
Three to thirteen days
old vacuum-packed
meat was used.
Not examined.
Not commented on.
Samples were vacuumpackaged and kept at
4°C for 0-13 days.
Measured after 3 days.
No re-packing.
scanned immediately.
Four days old meat.
Holding the samples
at 20°C for at least
50% of the time
speeds up reduction
time. Scan through
the vacuum packaging
* More details will be found in the references; the table is just to outline some major differences.
Then convert reflectance percentages to K/S values the following equation is used:
K/S = (1 − R)2 ÷ (2R) (eq. 1)
where R = % reflectance.
The values obtained from the pure states enter the calculation as shown in the equation below:
(eq. 2)
Using this equation the fraction of OMb is calculated using the reflectance spectra of pure metmyoglobin and
oxymyoglobin. The deoxymyoglobin state can be calibrated from the reflectance spectra of pure deoxymyoglobin and
oxymyoglobin (AMSA). More equations can be found in AMSA guidelines (2013).
And finally metmyoglobin can be calculated from the difference:
% MMb = 1 - % OMb - %DMb
(eq. 3)
Khatri et al. (2012) used this method where K/ S values, at selected wavelengths (SW), were used to predict
myoglobin states on unknown samples. She compared it with a method where the complete absorbance (A) spectra
were corrected using extended multiplicative scatter correction (EMSC(A)) before the partial least square regression
models was built. EMSC is a pre-processing technique used to isolate and remove complicated multiplicative and
additive effects, such as those caused by light scattering in reflectance spectroscopy (Gallagher, et al., 2005). Partial
least squares regression (PLS regression) is a statistical method used to find the fundamental relations between two
matrices (X and Y, here spectra and myoglobin states), i.e. a latent variable approach to modelling the covariance
structures in these two spaces (Martens H, & Næs, T., 1989). PLS regression is particularly suited when the matrix of
predictors (here absorbance values at many different values) has more variables than observations, and when there is
multicollinearity among X values. This is also the case here as many readings at the different wavelengths are
Method 1
Method 2
Figure 2.The steps in the 2 different mathematical treatments of data used to calculate myoglobin states. Method 1
and 2 were used in the paper by Khatri et al. (2013); Method 2 was used in the paper by Bjelanovic et al. (2013).
After calculations of states from the PLS regression (Method 2), a post-transformation was carried out where the sum
of states was normalized to 1.0 or 100%. This is necessary since we calculated all 3 states (OMb, MMb and DMb)
independently of each other. Therefore, their sum may not be zero since there are errors in the determination of the
states. This problem does not occur if eq. 3 is used.
The hypothesis behind this new approach was that the use of single wavelengths based on isobestic points would be
risky on scattering material (Khatri et al., 2012). This means that we in general question the relevance of isobestic
points on such material as meat.
Table 2. Comparison of predictability of states using different preparation method and regression techniques
Root mean square error of prediction for myoglobin fractions (scale 0-1)*
IB- intact meat (Khatri et al., 2012)
II B- Comminuted meat (Bjelanovic et
al., 2013)
Method 1
Method 2
Method 2
Not tested
Not tested
Not tested
* 1 means 100 % pure
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 37-42 , -Vanredno izdanje-
The recent AMSA guidelines (2012) do not give any indication of the analytical error to be expected. Khatri et (2012)
showed that the use of four so-called isobestic wavelength (474 nm, 525 nm, 572 nm and 610 nm) cannot compete
with Method 2 that used all spectral values from 400 -1100 nm, every second nanometer). It was only the prediction
of MMb that was relatively reliably predicted. This suggests that the preparation method used was good, but also that
the wavelengths picked out for quantification of MMb in by Method 1 were useful.
DMb is difficult to prepare and calculations according to Method 1 would not be useful for this difficult state. A part of
the error could reflect repacking and the fact that DMb quickly picks up oxygen, so that a pure state is never prepared
if there is access to oxygen during measurements of this state. However, our results suggested that it is also more
difficult to measure on comminuted meat than on intact meat. The advice given by AMSA regarding supporting the
mince during measurements (Table 1) is worth being tested. It is necessary to remember that all calibration models
for meats must ultimately be validated by applying it to new, but similar meats.
The oxygen preparation method with packing in high oxygen for 24 hrs in the cold seems to be a good principle, but
our results suggested that shorter incubation times may work as well (Table 1 and 2).
As stated above we do not recommend using only 4 wavelengths for predicting myoglobin states even if the best
possible preparation method for each state is used.
Both Bjelanovic et al. (2013) and Khatri et al. (2012) used the wavelength from 400 to 1100 nm. Bjelanovic et al.
(2013) gave the regression coefficients at all wavelengths: Regression coefficients may give some indication about the
importance of higher (700 nm – 1100 nm) wavelengths. From this we can deduce that the most important region for
prediction myoglobin states is between 400-700 nm. However, we do not know how much the predictability seen in
Table 2 will be reduced by constraining the wavelength region to 400 - 700 nm. The instrument shown in Figure 1
(Minolta CM 700D) returns reflectance readings between 400 - 700 nm (every 10 nm) and at least for MMb it should
give good predictions since this state seems the least dependent of the number of wavelengths used. Also for OMb, it
may be possible to get a reasonable estimate. The DMb state is difficult both to prepare and analyze so it would be
mere speculation how the predictability may be using Minolta CM 700D.
Another issue that is very difficult to handle is the fact that every instrument has different abilities to penetrate the
meat matrix. If penetration is significant this may be an advantage for quantification of DMb state quantification, but a
disadvantage for the 2 other states. The advice is to optimize the routines for preparation of states and measuring so
that the error is minimized.
Recent results regarding quantification of surface myoglobin states on a meat matrix can only be done accurately for
metmyoglobin using a 4 wavelength regression model. More wavelengths and multivariate regression methods in
combination with optimal preparation methods for pure states are needed for the OMb and DMb states. Both our
experiments (with intact and comminuted meat) give very good results in validation of models, but there will always
be a need to adapt the preparation methods for the 100% pure states to the instrument used.
The work was supported by grant no. NFR184846/I10 from the Research Council of Norway and from HERD project
―Comparison of lamb Carcass and meat quality of Breeds in Western Balkan and Norway achieving improved
palatability, sale and sustainability‖.
American Meat Science Association , AMSA Meat Color Measurement Guidelines from American Meat Science
Association (2012) web information at: [email protected] http://www.meatscience.org
American Meat Science Association. (1991). Guidelines for Meat Color Evaluation (AMSA). (M. Hunt, Acton, J.,
Benedict, R., Calkins, C., Cornforth, D., Jeremiah, I. et al., Eds. Proceedings of the Reciprocal Meat Conference, 117.
Bjelanovic, M., Sørheim, O., Slinde, E., Puolanne, E., Isaksson†, T. & Egelandsdal, B. (2013). Determination of the
myoglobin states in ground beef using non-invasive reflectance spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis.
Meat Science, 451-457.
CIE (Commission Internationale de l’E’clairage) (1976). Recommendation on uniform color space-color difference
equations, psychometric color terms. Suppl. 2 to CIE, Publication No. 15 (E-1.3.1) 1971/(TC-1-3), Paris, France
Gallagher, N. B., Blake, T. A., & Gassman, P. L. (2005). Application of extended inverse scatter correction to midinfrared reflectance spectra of soil. Journal of Chemometrics, 19, 271-281.
Khatri, M., Phung, V. T., Isaksson, T., Sørheim, O., Slinde, E., & Egelandsdal, B. (2012). New procedure for
improving precision and accuracy of instrumental color measurements of beef. Meat Science, 223-231.
Martens H, & Næs, T. (1989). Multivariate Calibration. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
Taylor, A., Down, N., & Shaw, B. (1990). A comparaison of modified atmosphere and vacum skin packing for the
storage of red meats. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 98-109.
Wilson, G. D., Ginger, I. D., Schweigert, B. S., & Aunan, W. J. (1959). A Study of the Variations of Myoglobin
Concentration in ''Two-Toned'' Hams. Journal of Animal Science, 1080-1086.
Bjørg Egelandsdal, Milena Bjelanovic, Mamta Khatri and Erik Slinde
Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, University of Life Science, Postbox 5003, N1432-Ås
Boja mesa je veoma vaţna kvalitativna varijabla koja utiče na spremnost potrošača da kupe meso ili na odluku da ga
ne kupe. Značaj boje mesa je uticao na opseţna istraţivanja o mehanizmu stabilnosti boje. U mnogim slučajevima
samo mjerenje boje mesa nam da je informaciju kako tu boju vidi ljudsko oko i takva mjerenja su naravno potrebna.
MeĎutim, u drugim slučajevima neophodno je poznavati trenutno stanje mioglobina na površini mesa. Proračun
stanja mioglobina nije jednostavan, kao što nisu jednostavne metode pripreme stanja čistog mioglobina; to su
preduslovi za buduće modele. U ovoj prezentaciji diskutovaćemo o metodama koje se koriste za pripremu stanja čistog
mioglobina, i o uobičajenoj metodi za proračun stanja mioglobina. Dodatno, predstavićemo novu metodu za proračun
stanja mioglobina. U ovoj novoj metodi se koristi kompletan refleksioni spektar umjesto samo probranih talasnih
duţina, kako je to bilo uobičajeno u proračunima stanja mioglobina. Nova metoda povećava preciznost mjerenja
stanja mioglobina.
Ključne riječi: meso, boja mesa, mioglobin
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 43-49, -Vanredno izdanje-
Jelka Geršak
University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Maribor, Slovenia
[email protected]
ISSN 2232-755X
DOI: 10.7251/GHTE13VI043G
UDC 688.721:640.46
The clothing quality, which meets the demands and expectations of customers, depends on one hand on the aesthetic
appearance and the quality of the material used. This can be regarded as concrete measurements of customers. On
the other hand, clothing quality depends on the properties of produced clothing, which seems to be the crucial
criterion of the end product. Applicable properties of clothing are reflected through the wearing comfort and clothing
behaviour during wearing, i.e. adaptation to body motion and clothing resistance against acting dynamic loading. This
contribution provides an overview of the ease allowance adopted to provide comfort during body motion. For this
purpose the interaction between body motion and clothing as shell are explained. The contribution then discusses the
fit and allowance for comfort and wearability, and also includes a grounded model development and detailed overview
of various kinds of ease allowance for comfort.
Key words: body shape, clothing, ease allowance, fit, wearing-comfort
Clothing is apparently something basic to civilization (1). It is a term referring to a covering that is worn to cover the
body or to keep warm. It is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The kind
and type of clothing worn depends on functional considerations (such as the need for warmth or protection from the
elements) and social considerations (2).
Clothing quality is not only defined through its aesthetic and functional properties, but also as mechanical and
physiological of wear, e.g. the feeling of well-being in wearing, its proper drape and fit (3). While constructing highquality clothing, such as those that have to satisfy the requirements of individuality, e.g. in fulfilling high standards of
comfort in wearing, it is necessary to pay special attention to obtain high-quality appearance (clothing form), as well
as to fit the clothing to the anatomic part of the human body in question. The last two factors as performance
attributes are directly linked to the investigations of fabric mechanics, meaning its ability to the processed from twodimensional cutting patterns to a three-dimensional form of an article of clothing, and requirements for ease allowance
for comfort and wearability. These performance attributes are very complex. No theory can be developed without the
knowledge of experimentally defined basic constants and a comprehensive verification against existing experimental
data. Theoretical and experimental investigation must always go hand-in-hand to provide important interacting
Starting points for qualitative evaluation of clothing appearance quality are the study of the influence of fabric
mechanical properties on the assurance of clothing appearance quality level, as well as definition of the elements for
qualitative evaluation of the quality of clothing appearance (3). The quality elements of a clothing visual appearance
are defined on the basis of evaluation of clothing drape quality, resp. clothing fall (fall of the front/back part and
sleeves, adjustment of different components and materials), assurance of 3D shape (quality of a form, its spatial
characteristic, fullness, for instance of the front part, voluminal adjustment, shoulder and sleeve form etc.), quality of
clothing fit (fit of the shoulder to the contour of the body, fit of the front part and collar, etc.) and visual appearance of
the quality of produced seems, such as seam puckering, seam flotation, shear-deformed seam, and so on, Fig. 1 (3, 4).
Fig. 1 The elements of the qualitative evaluation of clothing appearance quality
In addition to the quality of the clothing appearance, wearing comfort requires a special attention. Wearing comfort is
one of the key features of any article of clothing. Human body is in a constant motion. During this motion, the parts of
the body undergo dynamic change, meaning that the ability to move is determined and limited by more than just the
static dimensions of the body.
Considering the comprehension of issues, in this work we will present fit and allowance for comfort and wearability,
where design criteria for fit and ease allowance for comfort and wearability must be unequivocally specified. It must
also be noted that wearing comfort can only be realistically planned on the basis of the role and function of the
clothing, which can affect the extent of body motion and the resulting changes on the surface of the body. These
changes play a role in determining the requirements for ease allowances and also affect the loads that act on clothing
during wearing.
It is well known that dynamic anthropometrics variables, which refer to the different working postures of human body,
are important information about movement amplitude in the joints, reach field of the hand, as well as about muscular
strength. When the human body is bent by different working postures the body tissue is stretched (5). The more body
tissue is stretched the further the distance to the axis of the bending.
Changes in body shape during motion and/or work and the behaviour of individual parts are determined by the type of
activity being undertaken. Some typical positions used to assess mobility are shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 Typical positions of the body
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 43-49, -Vanredno izdanjeDetermining the extent of dynamic loading acting on clothing during wearing is a complex problem, and requires an
understanding of the interaction between changes in body posture, body surface measurements during motion, and
the deformation of clothing. The analysis of dynamic loading acting on a clothing during wearing showed that the
changes of dimensions of the body surface directly affect loaded garment parts. The acting loading was shown as
clothing deformation, or fabric extension, Table 1, respectively (6).
Table 1 The average values of measurement of stretching force F and deformation
different body movements (6)
Body posture
Contracted arms on shoulder
specific extension  for jacket at
Stretch force
Specific extension
F /N
 /%
On sleeve
On shoulder blade
In the middle of the back
On sleeve
In the middle of the back
Measuring position
Resulting clothing deformations depend on the body posture at the moment of the movement, respectively, on the
resulting changes of body surface, number of cyclic repetitions of the movements and fabric properties. On the other
hand, the intensity of acting dynamic loading depends on body constitution and clothing style. These insights are
important for designing clothing fit and allowance for comfort, and wearability.
Clothing should be designed to be able to adapt to this type of changes. A key criterion of wearability can therefore be
defined as the ability to move in the clothing without effort, or clothing must take account of the activities of the
human body, and not interfere with movements such as walking, sitting, standing, bending, stretching. In addition,
they must also permit the body to perform normal physiological activity. This means the blood must circulate, the body
must sweat and breathe. This freedom of motion of clothed persons is dependent on both the fabric used and the
construction of the clothing. Clothing must able to stretch to the same degree as skin. If clothing is not in direct
contact with the skin it must allow greater extension.
In view of interaction between body motion and clothing as a shell, it can be seen that changes in body position
during motion reflected as dimensional changes of body surface, which act on the clothing in a form of stretching load.
Different types of clothing adapt to resulted changes of dimensions of body surface during the motion in very different
ways. These changes depend on body constitution, as well as on kind and fastness of a movement. Knitwear, for
example, is able to adapt very well to dimension changes of body surface, thanks to its elastic structure; under loading
condition, the force is transferred from the clothing to the material - knitted fabric. In contrast, clothing produced from
ordinary woven fabric does not adapt so easily to these changes, therefore it must be achieved through the ease
allowances for movement or allowances for comfort, i.e. suitable looseness and possible gliding along the body.
In terms of clothing adaptation to dimensional changes of body surface it is important that the fabric used for clothing
must be able to cope with the difference between the changing dimensions of the surface of the body and the
dimensions of the clothing as a shell. This can be achieved through appropriate ease allowances, which allow clothing
to slide over the surface of the body when dimensional changes occur. This means that clothing is able to adapt to
new dimensions and should fit the body smoothly with enough space to move easily, i.e. provide the wearer with the
required level of comfort and mobility.
Fit of the clothing with body is an important factor that needs to be taken into account in the design of comfortable
and functional clothing. Clothing fit is a complex property, determined by a combination of ease, line, grain and
balance (7, 8). It is also influenced by fashion and style, clothing size variation, and by perception of the
Wearing comfort is one of the key properties of any article of clothing. It depends not only on body measurements and
construction of the clothing, but on mechanical and structural properties of the selected fabric and importantly also on
the allowance for comfort. Allowance for comfort, called also ease allowance for movement, is the amount of ease
allowance of clothing, defined as the difference in space between the clothing and the body, resp. between the
measurement of the pattern or clothing in a given area and the measurement of the body. It can be considered in the
pattern by increasing the area along its outline. The amount of ease allowance required depends on the clothing type,
design, the fabric, the body type, the function of clothing as well as on personal preference (9). In terms of function, it
can be considered at two levels, namely:
ease allowance that is added to achieve improved comfort and wearability, and
design ease allowance that is added by the designer to create a particular style or look.
The first type is employed to enable the wearer to move, bend, breathe, sit, raise the arms and walk without the
clothing being over pulled, pinched, bent, stretched, or strained beyond a natural relaxed position (10). Contrary to
this, the design ease allowance is based on the aesthetic considerations and personal preferences, and represents
ease allowance added by creating different styles or look according to fashion trends and personal preference.
A successful design should include the following steps in order to identify basic requirement for comfort and
problem recognition,
problem definition,
objective set-up,
 defining the style, type of fit, personal preference and functional requirements of the clothing,
 defining the level of mobility,
 defining the degree of free movement,
 defining the additional requirement for wearing comfort, including the physiological and psychological
aspects on one hand, and the mechanical and ergonomic on the other,
d) design ease allowance / technical solution,
 the choice of materials,
 defining the structural and mechanical properties of materials,
 defining of an adequate garment pattern construction,
 defining the seam performance and position on clothing,
 defining the clothing position on body,
 defining the kind and amount of ease allowances for comfort,
e) ease allowance for comfort – selection guidelines, including:
 design specification,
 prototype construction,
 prototype development,
f) evaluation / modification,
g) checking the kinetic and ergonomic features of clothing – comfort wear test / testing in actual use,
h) evaluation of the final solution and implementation of ease allowance for comfort within clothing.
A schematic representation of the ease allowance within the clothing design process can be seen in Fig. 3. It is
obvious that these complex requirements should be met when designing wearing comfort from the point of ease
allowance, material characteristics, design, seam performance and clothing position on body. In practice, there are
actually four types of the ease allowance for comfort and wearability (10-14):
standard ease allowance,
dynamic ease allowance,
mechanical ease, also called fabric ease allowance, and
ergonomic ease allowance.
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 43-49, -Vanredno izdanje-
Fig. 3 Ease allowance within the clothing design process
Standard ease allowance, based on the standard human body shape for a standing posture or sitting posture, is the
difference between the maximal and minimal perimeter of the wearer’s body (11). Dynamic ease allowance,
sometimes referred to as kinetic comfort, is defined as the ability to allow wearers to move (extreme movements and
postures). It provides sufficient space to the wearer, so in the case of non-standard body shapes (thin, fat, big hip,
etc.) as during their movement as walking, jumping, running, sprinting, and so on (15).
Mechanical ease allowance, also called fabric ease, which refers to the mechanical comfort for wear, takes into
account the influence of mechanical properties of fabrics used in the clothing. Mechanical comfort is expressed by a
limited range of mechanical parameters of fabric tensile and shear deformation, such as fabric tensile strain in warp
EMT1 and weft EMT2 direction measured with KES-FB standard condition (16), the relation between fabric tensile
strain in the weft and warp direction α (α = EMT2/EMT1), linearity LT, tensile resilience RT, shear rigidity G and shear
hysteresis 2HG5 (13, 17).
Ergonomic ease allowance is expressed by constructive solution of clothing as lightweight clothing system that will
allow unhindered movement and work, and involves the adjustment of the design, structure and construction of the
clothing. The clothing should be ergonomically designed, in accordance with the dynamic anthropometric conditions of
use and functionality, while still allowing wearing comfort and a high degree of free movement, as well as
uninterrupted and safe work activities. All possible conditions of use must be taken into account, for example carrying
tools, devices, and so on (14).
In addition to the mentioned ease allowance, clothing positioning on body concerning the gradual order of the clothing
to be worn plays a significant role in designing comfortable and functional clothing. F. Burgo (18), who studied the
impact of different elements on ease allowance, concluded that the value of the wideness determining ease allowance
was variable in function with three elements:
the line of the clothing (the line determines the style of the pattern), which can be:
 the classic line – able to satisfy the taste and practice of a modern woman,
 the fitted line – characteristically hugs the body,
 loose fitting line – asks for more ease allowance and can be fitted with gathers, pleats or flaring;
degree of clothing (in gradual order of the clothing to be worn);
thickness of the material (thick or less thick, the fabric in the seam allowance occupies space and reduces ease
From the point of gradual order that the clothing is worn, F. Burgo (18) described the following degrees of clothing:
zero degree – clothing worn directly in contact with the skin, such as underwear and bathers,
first degree – clothing worn directly on top of the underwear,
second degree – clothing worn on top of the first degree of clothing,
third degree – very heavy weighty clothing, and
fourth degree – clothing with lining, such as fur or quilting.
An example of the values for individual degree ease allowance according to the clothing positioning on the body,
suggested by Burgo (18) is shown in Tab. 2.
Table 2. Ease allowance according to the clothing positioning on body (18)
Ease allowance /cm
Control dimension
Zero degree
First degree
2nd degree
3rd degree
4th degree
Chest girth
from -4 to 0
from 2 to 6
from 6 to 12
from 12 to 16
from 16 to 24
Bust girth
from -4 to 0
from 2 to 6
from 6 to 12
from 12 to 16
from 16 to 24
Waist girth
from -4 to 0
from 2 to 6
from 6 to 12
from 12 to 16
from 16 to 24
Hip girth
from -4 to 0
from 2 to 6
from 6 to 12
from 12 to 16
from 16 to 24
Shoulder width
from -4 to 0
from 1 to 3
from 1 to 3
from 4 to 6
from 4 to 6
Breast distance
from -0.5 to 0
from 0.25 to 0.75
from 0.75 to 1.5
from 1.5 to 2
from 2 to 3
Lowering arm hole
from -1 to 0
from 0.25 to 1.5
from 1.5 to 3
from 3 to 4
from 4 to 8
from -0.25 to 0
from 0.25 to 0.75
from 0.75 to 1
from 1 to 2
from 2 to 3
The contribution gives an overview of the body shape variation, interaction between body motion and clothing as shell,
the role of ease allowance, and shows the grounded model development of the ease allowance for comfort and
wearability. Ease allowance, as the difference in space between the clothing and the body, is an important criterion of
wearing-comfort. Fashion threads affect the accepted amount of wearing ease, however, regardless of the design, the
finely balanced ease allowance is imperative for clothing to fit and hang well on the body, and to allow necessary
comfort and mobility to the wearer.
Comprehensive investigations have been carried out in the field of anthropometry and in garment construction and
design, and extensive results obtained, permitting the development of efficient methods for determining the required
ease allowance for suitable comfort. However, advanced 3D computerised technologies and rapid development in
virtual simulation in the garment industry (where not only the 3D shape of the garment is presented but also the
mechanics of fabric behaviour), combined with an increase in the producing of made-to-measure garment, require still
more flexible and precise methods of garment planning and determining adequate values for the ease allowance for
New methods will have to be aimed at optimising garment design with precisely defined values of the ease allowance
for comfort. They will have to be flexible enough and easily adaptable to human body morphology, which has changed
considerably in the course of the last century, but they should also follow the requirement of the contemporary
clothing market. There are still many possibilities in modelling suitable ease allowances as well as many methods of
ease allowance estimation for personalization of clothing design.
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 43-49, -Vanredno izdanje-
Hollander, A. L.: Seeing through Clothes, Berkeley: University of California Press (1993), p. 1.
Geršak, J.: Design of clothing manufacturing processes: A systematic approach to planning, scheduling and
control, Woodhead Publishing, Series in Textiles, no. 147, Cambridge (2013), p. 1.
Geršak, J.: Development of the system for qualitative prediction of garments appearance quality. International
Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 14 (3/4) (2002), 169-180.
Geršak, J.: Study of the relationship between fabric mechanics and garment appearance quality level. 1st
International Textile, Clothing & Design Conference ITC&DC 2002, book of proceedings, Dubrovnik, October 6th
to October 9th, 2002, Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb, str. 353-358.
Schmid, U. and Mecheels, J.: 'Kräfte an Textilien und Nähten der Kleidung in Abhängigkeit von Körperbewegungen
und Kleidungsschnitt', Bekleidung und Wäsche, 33 (1981), 77-82.
Geršak, J.: Determination of dynamic loading acting on a garment during wearing. Proceedings of The 78th World
Conference of The Textile Institute and The 5th Textile Symposium of SEVE and SEPVE, Thessaloniki, Greece,
Manchester, The Textile Institute, 1997, vol. 2, 371.
Erwin, M. D., Kinchen, L.A.: Clothing for moderns, 4th edition, New York, Macmillan, 1969.
Yu, W.: Subjective assessment of clothing fit, Clothing appearance and fit: Science and technology, Cambridge,
2004, Woodhead Publishing Limited.
Cooklin, G.: A New Approach to 'Making the Grade', Apparel International, 28 (11) (1997), 10-11.
Myers-McDevitt, P. J.: Complete Guide to Size Specification and Technical Design, New York, 2004, Fairchild
Publications, Inc.
Chen, Y., Zeng, X., Happiette, M., Bruniaux, P.: A new method of ease allowance generation for personalization of
garment design, International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 20 (3) (2008), 161-173.
Ng., R., Liu, W., Yu, W.: Dynamic stress distribution on garment. Tekstil, 56 (2) (2007), 123-127.
Geršak, J.: Designing a garment system from the point of view of thermophysiological comfort. Annals of DAAAM
for 2001 & Proceedings of the 12th International DAAAM Symposium "Intelligent Manufacturing & Automation:
Jena University of Applied Sciences, Jena, Germany, Vienna, DAAAM International, (2001), 157-158.
Geršak, J., Marčič, M.: The complex design concept for functional protective clothing. Tekstil, 62 (1/2) (2013),
Ng,, R., Yu, W., Cheung, L.F.: Single Parameter Model of Minimal Surface Construction for Dynamic Garment
Pattern Design, Journal of Information and Computing Science, 2 (2) (2007b), 145-152.
Kawabata, S.: The Standardization and Analysis of Hand Evaluation, 2nd Edition, The Hand Evaluation and
Standardization Committee, Textile Machinery Society of Japan, Osaka Science & Technology Center Bld., Osaka,
July 1980.
Kawabata, S.: Kawabata, S., Niwa, M., Yamashita, Y. A Guide Line for Manufacturing Ideal Fabrics’, Proceedings
of the 27th Textile Research Symposium at Mt. Fuji, Shizuoka, (1998), 349-355.
Burgo, F.: Il Modellismo – Tecnica del modello sartoriale e industrial donna – uomo – bambino/a, Milano, Burgo
Istituto professionale per la mode, 1998.
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 51-56, -Vanredno izdanje-
Драгољуб Новаковић5, Игор Карловић
Факултет техничких наука, Графичко инжењерство и дизајн, Нови Сад
ISSN 2232-755X
DOI: 10.7251/GHTE13VI051N
UDC 655.1/.3:621.9
Графичке технологије су изузетно пропулзивне технологије које прате савремене информатичке промене.
Подручја развоја су везана за изузетно софистицирана истраживања од подручја нано технологија до
савремених информатичких технологија. Интернет технологије у последњих неколико година развиле су нове
трендове штампе која ће донети промене у индустрији штампе. Овим се мењају трендови и начин на који
компаније послују од дизајна до штампе и завршних операција обраде. Светска економска криза утиче додатно
на штампу и медије, посебно у традиционалним медијима (новине и комерцијална штампа), а отвара нове
медијске канале за дистрибуцију. Графичка индустрија има посебан задатак у односу на све индустријске
гране јер их промовише а у одређеним подручјима као што је графичка амбалажа даје им и најзначајнију
компоненти – изглед. Дигитализација је мегатренд са великим могућностима за штампање амбалаже. У
подручју развоја штампе прелази се из микро у нано подручје штампе. То само доказује да су иновације и
технолошки продор и главна покретачка снага за економски раст и решавања проблема. Такође, постоји јасан
тренд где се на писане речи све више репродукују кроз дигиталне мултимедијалне уређаје као што су таблети,
а са друге стране штампа се све више користи за израду модела, са електронским штампаним колима и
3Дштампом.У раду ће сумирати најважније нови трендови и промене у графичким технологијама.
Кључне речи: дигитална штампа, дигитализација, трендови
Иновације и технолошки промене су главна покретачка снага за економски расти решавања проблема на нивоу
држава. Технолошке промене се могу имплементирати у граничне оквире али оно што треба посебно нагласити
је процес глобализације који захтева одређена структурна прилагођавања.
Процеси се могу глобално посматрати на нивоу различитих индустријских грана које су међусобно технолошки
повезане посебно развојем информатичких технологија. Једна посебна специфичност се везује за графичку
индустрију као индустријску грану која је значајна за велики број различитих индустријских грана. Нпр. она
амбалажом "облачи" производе дајући им њихов финални изглед који је често пресудан у пласману производа.
Појава дигиталне штампе као нове технике штампе ствара нове могућности преноса информација и постаје
техника за производњу роба и специфичнихпроизвода, и отвара нови сегмент штампе на готово свим физичким
подлогама.Појава нових преносних уређаја као што су мобилни телефони, дигиталних уређаја за електронско
издаваштво додатно проширује медијско тржиште, и омогућује дигитализују и пренос различитих врста
података. Штампа амбалаже има изузетно стабилан и захтеван раст и развој уз примену нових технологија
штампе, уз употребу тзв паметних технологија које дају информације о производима као што је активна и
интелигентна амбалажа.За подручје амбалаже која прати производе, технике штампе и обликовања - дизајна,
ће се усавршавати и мењати али дугорочно посматрано са аспекта процеса штампе само ће се још више
проширивати због трендова потребе пласмана производа и проширења тржишта.
Дизајн производа и захтеви који се пред њега постављају су увек добар показатељ шире и дубље промене у
развоју производа и графичких процеса који су неминовни пратилац. Графичка индустрија је увек била
покретач развоја почев од проналаска штампе која је омогућила ширење писмености до развоја нових
амбалажних материјала као што је таласасти картон. Појавом интернета и нових информатичких технологија
често се говорило о смањењу обима штампе, међутим трендови утрошка папира и графичких материјала у
процесима штампе говоре супротно. То се догађало у свим преломним тренуцима појавом нових медија од
проналаска радија, телевизије, рачунара, интернета. Подлоге за штампу су и даље остале дуготрајни и поуздан
чувар записа. Развојем нових технологија брже су се развијали графички процеси али они се нису
имплементирали значајнијом динамиком из разлога што су одређене технике штампе пратиле високовредне
машине за чије замене су биле потребне значајније инвестиције што је успоравало процес промена. У
временима економске кризе која погађа индустрију проблеми се преносе посебно на пратећу индустрију у
смислу смањеног инвестирања, што се одражава и на графичку индустрију. Са овим је одвија и директан утицај
на развој посебновисоковредних машина. У тим процесима долази и до смањења одређених потреба што утиче
Korespodentni autor: Dragoljub Novaković, Факултет техничких наука, Графичко инжењерство и дизајн, Нови
Сад, e-mail: [email protected]
на развој машина погодних за мање тираже као што су машине дигиталне штампе и дигитализацију. Криза је
значајно убрзала тренд консолидације графичке индустрије уиндустријски развијеним земљама. Доста се
улажеу оптимизацију укупних процеса посебно развојем софтвера заснованих на праћењу свих радних токова.
Одређена истраживања као што су истраживања Британске истраживачке асоцијације за графичку индустрију
(1) највећи тренд раста имају амбалажни производи (слика 1) уз претпоставку трендова у наредном периоду.
Слика 1. Процене прираштаја графичких производа према врсти производа
Figure 1. Estimates of growth of graphic products by product type
За очекивати је да ће доћи и до промена одређених техника штампе које ће пратити пораст одређених
производа (слика 2). Процене указују на пораст потреба за амбалажом што ће резултирати значајнијим уделом
флексо технике штампе.
Слика 2. Удео и процене примене техника штампе
Figure 2. Share and assessment of the implementation of printing techniques
Значајан показатељ трендова развоја графичких технологија се представља на највећем светском сајаму
графичке индустрије ДРУПА који се одржава сваке четврте године (последњи је одржан у мају 2012. године). У
оквиру последње манифестације посебну пажњу је изазвао тренд ка примени нано технологија у графичким
процесима. Технологија која је највише привукла пажњу је Ланда компаније (слика3).
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 51-56, -Vanredno izdanje-
Слика 3. ЛандаS10 nanographic штампа(Copiright HSPRmediji)
Figure 3. LandaS10 nanographic print (Copyright HSPRmediji)
Основа наноштампе је тзв. LandaNanoInk™ нанос боје који се састоји се од честица пигмента величине само
неколико десетина нанометара који показују посебна својства у односу на светлост која омогућује процес
виђења боје.
Landa Nanographic процес штампе карактеришу ултра-оштре растерске тачкице значајно високе униформности,
високог сјаја и верности упалети процесних боја.
Добијена слика се преноси на одређене врсте подлога, премазане или непремазне подлоге, као и на
амбалажне подлоге без потребе за претходном припремом.Nano Inkбоја се тренутно везује за површину,
формирајући чврст,отпоран слој боје без потребе за додатним сушењем. Наравно да је ово нови изазов за
развој и поређење квалитета отисака добијених одређеним техникама штампе посебно приказа које ова
компанија упоређује техникама које су највише у употреби компарирањем растерске структуре отисака (слика
Слика4. Растерско поређење Nanographi и других техника штампања
Figure 4. Raster comparison of Nanography and other printing techniques
Трендови развоја графичких технологија могу се повезати са одређеним процесима свеукупног друштвеног
развоја. Овај развој је условљен развијеношћу друштва у којем се разматра стање графичких технологија и
графичке индустрије.
Графичка индустрија дели судбину укупног друштвеног стања у којем је основна претпоставка друштвени
напредак. Развој ће бити диктиран низом захтева који ће бити условљени одређеним претпоставкама које се
могу синтетизовати кроз спиралу развоја (слика 5) у којој се могу извести одређене предпоставке:
рашће стандард људи и са тим потребе за различитим графичким производима,
рашће потребе за различитим производима а самим тим и конкуренција,
потреба за различитошћу производа условиће развој производних система ка системима високе
доминантну улогу у графичким системима ће преузети нове технологије,
нове технологије ће захтевати нове високо образоване стручњаке,
нови стручни људи ће донети нове идеје и наставити раст и развој.
Слика 5: Претпоставке трендова развоја графичке производње у будућности
Figure 5: The assumptions of the trends of graphic production development in the future
Праћење и анализа тренутних економских интереса код инвестирања у нову опрему је важан корак који ће
умногоме утицати на способност фирме у графичкој индустрији да остане конкуретна у брзим савременим
тржишним условима. Препознавање нових трендова и технологија као стратешка одлука позиционирања мора
да укључује добру одлуку о технолошкој инвестицији, пошто лош одабир технологије или чекање на неку
технологију која је тек у развоју може да уназади пословање. Једно од решења је да се производ на тренутак
измести из фокуса пажње, и да се она преусмери на произвођача опреме. Индентификација апликације која је
потребна за профитабилну производњу, треба да садржи анализу произвођача опреме и њихов приступ
тржишту и начину пословања. Важно је одабрати произвођача опреме који континуирано улаже у своје машине
и који прави производе који подупиру реалне, а не пројектоване или замишљене тржишне потребе, и који
може да пружи пуну подршку за дату апликацију. Последњих неколико година може се констатовати да је
графичка индустрија претрпела доста промена од којих се могу издвојити:
ДТП (Desk Top Publisching или стоно издаваштво) технологија је постала много софистициранија,
Филм је доста брзо нестао са тржишта са развојем ЦтП (Computer to Plate или од компјутера до штампе),
Офсетне машине постижу бржа припремна и производна времена,
Дигиталне технологије штампе и уређаји су имали динамичан развој и пораст квалитета отисака,
ДИ (DirectImage или директно осликавање) технологије су се развиле и усавршиле,
Интернет револуција у графичкој индустрији је унапредила процесе, са настављањем убрзаног развоја,
Пораст је тзв.онлине трговине и аутоматизације процеса,
Порастао је утрошак папира за потребе штампе без обзира на раст електронских медија.
У графичким процесима је присутна свеопшта компјутеризација графичке производње, са
дигитализацијомскоро свих сегмената графичког процеса. Поред ове свеопште дигитализације неколико
трендова је могуће индентификовати како за аналогне тако и за дигиталне технологије и то:
Напуштање стандардних формата штампе,
Дигитално штампање из ролне са широком лепезом дигитланих техологија,
Висока аутоматизација и интегрисани системи за завршну графичку обраду,
Развој технологија за сушење отисака и предности додатногоплемењивања,
Оптимизација решења у премедијима и штампарским радним токовима.
Инкјет технологија добија нови замах са бројним побољшањима.
Glasnik hemičara,tehnologa i ekologa Republike Srpske, (2013) 51-56, -Vanredno izdanjeКористи се у многим различитим графичким процесима, штампи амбалаже и индустријских производа од веома
различитих врстао преме и материјала.
Дигитална штампа којој припада и Инкјет, може бити корисна у заштити посебно на штампаној амбалажи, уз
употребу УВ флуоресцентних компоненти које се стављају у боје.
Графичка индустрија јеу потрази за новим могућностима. Штампа електронских кола и РФИД технологијасе
постепено претварау аутентичну и поуздану опцију за идентификацију производа.
3Д штамп ашири своје могућности примене посебно у изради модела за доста широк спектар различитих
Електронско издаваштво публикација са развојем нових медија отвара нове корисничке навике. Са појавом
мобилних уређаја и таблета, уз електронска издања класичних књига и часописа долазе нове промене. Продаја
електронских књига је у порасту. Развој комуникационе технологије се креће ка повезаном свету путем
Графичка индустрија у свакој развијеној земљи има значајно место у профиту који остварује. У земљама које
пролазе транзициони период за очекивати јепозитиван тренд развоја и раста. Свака држава која жели бити на
развијеном тржишту мора посветитипажњу развоју графичке индустрије јер је она са својим производима
главни репрезент производаосталих индустријских грана.У примени графичких технологија за очекивати је
интензивније инвестирање у нове технологије усвим фазама графичке производње од припреме, штампе и
завршне графичке обраде.У свим фазама графичке производње до изражаја ће доћи стандардизација процеса.
Наставиће серазвој формата штампе изван тзв. стандардних формата. Дигитална штампа ће наставити тренд
примене и развоја посебно у подручју тиража којима ће се узимати део тржишта које сада припада неким
другим техникама штампе. Иновације и истраживања у техникама штампе ће се продубити у подручју нано
технологија са интеграцијом у информатичком развоју и аплицирању у процесе и машине. Примена ЦтП
технологија ће постати доминантна. У завршојграфичкој обради ће се наставити интензивна аутоматизација
ових система. Са развојем материјалаза оплемењивање отисака развијаће се нови уређаји и технике.
Стандардизација у графичким процесима, радним токовима ће значајније ући у примену и даље развојне
токове. Снага технологија и иновација указује на позитивне развојне трендовеграфичке индустрије.
Истраживања представљена у раду су сегмент истраживања која се реализују у оквиру пројекта број 35027
"Развој софтверског модела за унапређење знања и производње у графичкој индустрији" које финансира
Министарство просвете и науке Републике Србије.
[1]AccuVal Associates: Industry Factors Weaken Printing Equipment’s Secondary Market (Online) Доступно на
detail.php?ID=65. (1.6.2013)
[2]European Commission: EU Manufacturing Industry:What are the Challenges and Opportunities for the Coming
Years? (Online) Доступно на http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/industrial-competitiveness/economic
crisis/files/eu_manufacturing_challenges_and_opportunities_en.pdf (4.6.2013)
[3]Flood A.:Huge rise in ebook sales offsets decline in printed titles , (Online) Доступно на
http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/may/02/rise-ebook-sales-decline-print-titles. (14.6.2013)
[4]Messe Dusseldorf: drupa 2012 sends out Trendsetting Impulses for the Print Sector, press realase 16.05.2012
(Online) Доступно на http://www.drupa.de/cgi-in/md_drupa/custom/pub/content.cgi?lang=
2&oid=16479&ticket=g_u_e_s_t&ca_page=en%2F1410_4639.htm. (1.7.2013)
[5]Nanowerk :Landa's Breakthrough Nanographic Printing Press Changes the Face of Mainstream Print Markets with
Versatility of Digital and Qualities of Offset‖ (Online) Доступно на
http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=25272.php (4.7.2013)
[6]Smyth S.:The Future of Inkjet Printing – post drupa review (Online) Доступно на
http://whattheythink.com/articles/58279-future-inkjet-printing-post-drupa-review/. (4.7.2013)
Dragoljub Novaković, Igor Karlović
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department of Graphic Engineering and Design,
Novi Sad
Graphic technologies are highly propulsive technologies that accompany modern information changes. Areas of
development are related to the highly sophisticated research areas, from nano technology to modern information
technologies. Internet technology in recent years have developed new printing trends that will bring about changes in
the press industry. These trends are also changing the way companies do business, from design to printing and final
processing operations. The world economic crisis additionally affects the printing and the media, particularly in the
traditional media (newspaper and commercial printing), and opens new media distribution channels. Printing industry
has a special task in relation to all industries because it promotes them, and in certain areas such as the graphic
packaging also gives them the most important component - appearance. Digitization is a mega trend with great
possibilities for packaging printing. In the field of printing development we go from micro to nano print area. This only
proves that innovations are both technological breakthroughs and a major driving force for the economic growth and
problem solving. Also, there is a clear trend where the written word becomes increasingly reproduced by digital multi
media devices such as tablets, and on the other hand, the press is being increasingly used for developing models, with
electronic printed circuits and 3D printing. This paper will summarize the most important new trends and changes in
graphic technologies.
Keywords: digital printing , digitizing , trends
1. Glasnik hemičara, tehnologa i ekologa RS objavljuje radove koji podlijeţu recenziji i svrstavaju se u sljedeće
originalni naučni radovi
kratka saopštenja
prethodna saopštenja
pregledni radovi
stručni radovi
izlaganja sa naučnih skupova
Autori predlaţu kategoriju svojih radova, ali konačnu odluku o tome donosi Uredništvo na osnovu mišljenja
Originalni naučni radovi sadrţe rezultate izvornih istraţivanja. Naučne informacije u radu moraju biti
obraĎene i izloţene tako da se mogu eksperimenti ponoviti i provjeriti analize i zaključci na kojima se
rezultati zasnivaju.
Kratka saopštenja sadrţe rezultate kratkih ali završenih istraţivanja ili opise izvornih laboratorijskih
tehnika. (metoda, aparata itd)
Prethodno saopštenje sadrţi naučne rezultate čiji karakter zahtijeva hitno objavljivanje, ali ne mora da
omogući provjeru i ponavljanje iznesenih rezultata.
Pregledni rad predstavlja cjelovit pregled nekog područja ili problema na osnovu već publikovanih
materijala koji je u pregledu sakupljen, analiziran i raspravljen
Stručni rad predstavlja koristan prilog iz područja struke, a čija problematika nije vezana za izvorna
istraţivanja. Stručni rad se odnosi na provjeru ili reprodukciju poznatih istraţivanja i predstavlja koristan
materijal u smislu širenja znanja i prilagoĎavanja izvornih istraţivanja potrebama nauke i prakse.
Kategorizacija naučnih i stručnih radova data je prema preporukama UNESKO-a
Radovi svrstani u ove kategorije podlijeţu ocjenjivanju dvaju recenzenata. Recenzije su dvosmjerno anonimne,
odnosno recenzentima se ne otkriva identitet autora i obratno. Rad će se objaviti jedino na osnovu pozitivnih
recenzija , o čemu će Uredništvo obavjestiti autora. Recenzenti se biraju meĎu stručnjacima u neposrednom
području istraţivanja na koja se odnosi rad predloţen za objavljivanje. U pravilu recenzent ne moţe biti autorov
saradnik niti pretpostavljeni.
2. Glasnik hemičara, tehnologa i ekologa RS objavljuje radove koji ne podlijeţu recenziji:
mišljenja i komentari
prikazi i saopštenja iz prakse u obliku dopisa ili prevoda stranih članaka
3. Glasnik hemičara, tehnologa i ekologa RS moţe uključivati dodatke sa kongresa, savjetovanja ili simpozijuma.
4. Autor je u potpunosti odgovoran za sadrţaj rada. Uredništvo pretpostavlja da su autori prije podnošenja rada
regulisali pitanje objavljivanja sadrţaja rada saglasno pravilima ustanove ili preduzeća u kojem rade.
5. Brzina kojom će se rad objaviti zavisiće o tome koliko rukopis (tekst) odgovara uputama.
Radovi koji zahtijevaju veće prepravke ili dopune biće vraćeni autoru na preradu prije recenzije.
Rad se dostavlja Uredništvu časopisa elektronski (e-mailom ili na CD-u poštom) s tekstom pripremljenim
isključivo pomoću programa za obradu teksta Microsoft Word.
Ukoliko se rad šalje poštom, ispis rada zajedno sa CD-om poslati na adresu: Uredništvo "Glasnika
hemičara, tehnologa i ekologa RS" Tehnološki fakultet, Vojvode Stepe Stepanovića 73, 51000
Rad treba da ima najviše 10 strana i da sadrţi sljedeće dijelove na jednom od jezika Bosne i Hercegovine ili
na nekom od priznatih evropskih jezika: naslov, spisak autora i ustanova, saţetak, uvod, materijal i
metode rada, rezultati i diskusija, zaključak, literatura, naslov na engleskom jeziku, spisak
autora i rezime na engleskom jeziku.
Naslov rada pisati centrirano i velikim slovima (Times New Roman, 14 pt, bold, Caps Lock), autore pisati
centrirano bez titule i sa nazivom ustanove (Times New Roman, 10 pt, normal). Podnaslove pisati centrirano,
(Times New Roman, 12 pt, bold). Ostale dijelove rada treba pisati sa obostranim ravnanjem redova (Times
New Roman, 12 pt), jednostranim proredom sa jednim praznim redom iznad, izmeĎu podnaslova i izmeĎu
pasusa, sa marginama od 2.54 cm (1"). Početak pasusa kucati od početka reda.
Saţetak treba da ima 100-250 riječi, a stoji izmeĎu zaglavlja rada (koji čini naslov rada, i podaci o autorima) i
ključnih riječi, nakon kojih slijedi tekst rada.
Ukoliko je rad napisan na maternjem jeziku, saţetak na engleskom jeziku se daje u proširenom obliku, kao
tzv. rezime i treba da sadrţi do 500 riječi.
Tabele uraditi u WORD-u, a grafike u EXCEL-u izuzev posebnih slučajeva kada to tehnički nije moguće, i treba
da budu jasne, što jednostavnije i pregledne. Naslov, zaglavlja (tekst) i podtekst u tabelama i grafikama treba
da budu napisani fontom Times New Roman – normal, Font Size 10 pt. Tabele se stavljaju na odreĎeno
mjesto u tekstu. Tabele ne bi smjele sadrţavati više od deset okomitih kolona i više od petnaest vodoravnih
redova. Ukoliko autor ocjenjuje da podatke mora prikazati u većem broju kolona i redova, potrebno je sadrţaj
tabele podijeliti u dvije ili više manjih tabela ili je dostaviti u posebnom prilogu. Moraju se izraditi prema
kompjutorskom predlošku (Insert Table), a ne pomoću razmaka, tački i tabulatora.
Jednačine pisati u grafičkom editoru za jednačine, isključivo u Microsoft Equation i postaviti je na početak
teksta. Na desnom rubu teksta, u redu na kojem je pisana jednačina, u zagradi treba naznačiti njen broj,
počevši od broja 1.
Fotografije moraju biti pripremljene za crno-bijelu štampu tj. ako je izvorna slika u bojama koje se u crno
bijeloj štampi ne razlikuju, boje se moraju zamijeniti ―rasterom‖ tj. različitim grafičkim znakovima koje je
potrebno objasniti u legendi. U slike se unosi samo najnuţniji tekst potreban za razumijevanje kao što su
mjerne varijable s njihovim dimenzijama, kratko objašnjenje na krivuljama i sl. Ostalo se navodi u legendi
ispod slike. Maksimalna veličina slike je 13 cm x 17 cm.
Fotografije, crteţe, sheme (izvorni format faila - TIF, JPG sa 300 dpi, ili vektorski format sa slovima
pretvorenim u krive – CDR) i grafikone, osim u tekstu na predviĎenom mjestu, dati i u posebnom prilogu.
Radi uspješnog uključivanja radova objavljenim na jednom od jezika Bosne i Hercegovine u meĎunarodne
informacione tokove, dijelove rukopisa treba pisati na jeziku autora i na engleskom jeziku, i to: tekst u
tablicama , slikama, dijagramima i crteţima , njihove naslove i oznake.
Pri slanju rada navesti i punu sluţbenu adresu, telefon i e-mail svih autora i naglasiti autora s kojim će
Uredništvo saraĎivati. Ove obavjesti priloţiti na posebnom listu.
Eksperimentalna tehnika i ureĎaji opisuju se detaljno samo onda ako znatno odstupaju od opisa već
objavljenih u literaturi. Ukoliko su tehnike i ureĎaji poznati navodi se samo izvor potrebnih obavjesti.
Simbole fizičkih veličina treba pisati kurzivom (Times New Roman, 12 pt. – italik), a mjerne jedinice
uspravnim slovma, npr. V, m, p, t, T, ali m3, kg, Pa, 0C, K.
Veličine i mjerne jedinice se moraju upotrebljavati u skladu sa MeĎunarodnim sistemom jedinica (SI).
Literaturne citate numerisati onim redom kojim se pojavljuju u tekstu. Citati se u tekstu označavaju
arapskim brojevima u zagradi ( ). Kratice za časopise moraju biti strogo u skladu sa kraticama kako ih navodi
Chemical Abstract. Literaturu treba citirati na sljedeći način:
Primjer citiranja naučnog časopisa:
Moreno, S., T. Scheyer, C.S. Romano, A.A. Vojnov: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked
to their polyphenol composition. Free Radical Research, 40 (2) (2006) 223–231.
Primjer citiranja knjige:
Banks, W., and C.T. Greenwood: Starch and its Components, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh (1975) p. 98.
Primjer citiranja poglavlja u knjizi:
Fogarty, W. and C. Kelly: Pectic enzymes, in Microbial Enzyme and Biotechnology. Eds. Fogarty, W. Applied Science
Publishers, London (1983) pp. 131-182.
Primjer citiranja rada u zborniku:
Ţabić, M., i Z. Kukrić: : Inhibicija aktivnosti tripsina ferocenom i njegovim derivatima, VIII Savjetovanje hemičara i
tehnologa Republike Srpske, zbornik radova, Banjaluka, 27. i 28. novembar 2008., str. 75-84.
Primjer citiranja magistarskih radova i disertacija:
Petrović, R.: Dehidratacija etera na mordenitnim katalizatorima. Magistraski rad, Univerzitet u Banjaluci, Tehnološki
fakultet, Banja Luka, 2001.
Primjer citiranja patenta:
Ehrenfreund J.: (Ciba Geigy A.–G.): Eur.Pat.Appl. 22748, 21 Jan (1981) 7078
Primjer citiranja web stranice:
Environment Agency: Leachte Treatment (Online). Dostupno na:
(19. 09. 2011.)
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