IF YAYINLARI
GRAMMAR PACK - 3
PASSIVES
IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 3 | PASSIVES
1.
PASSIVE & ACTIVE NEDİR? ......................................................................................................................................................... 2
3.
REVISION .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
2.
SORULARI ÇÖZERKEN NELEREDE DİKKAT ETMEK GEREKİR? .................................................................................. 3
1
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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 3 | PASSIVES
1. PASSIVE & ACTIVE NEDİR?
A. Passive ve Active terimleri gramer içerisinde cümlelerin çatıları ve kuruluş noktalarına işaret eder.
Örneği inceleyelim;
•
•
I broke the window.
Window was broken by me.
B. Active yapılarda eylemi gerçekleştiren kişi önemliyken; Passive yapılarda ise gerçekleştirilen eylem
ön plana çıkmaktadır. Passive yapılarda “BY” ifadesi tarafından şeklinde tercüme edilerek eylemi
gerçekleştiren kişinin de önemli olduğu durumlarda cümlede kendisine yer bulur.
•
The phone was invented by Graham Bell.
C. Peki her cümle PASSIVE olarak dönüştürülebilir mi? Tabi ki hayır! Öncelikli olarak bilmemiz
gereken şey; cümlemizde yer alan FİİLİN geçişli (TRANSITIVE) olması gerekir. Peki bu anlama
gelmektedir? TRANSITIVE VERB yanına nesne alan fiillere denmektedir.
•
I call the police. → the police ifadesi cümlenin nesnesi görevindendir.
D. Bazı filler tek yerine çifft nesne de alabilirler.
•
2
John sent me a letter. → me ilk nesne a letter ise ikinci nesnedir.
E. Bir passive cümle nasıl ortaya çıkar? Unutulmamalıdır ki ACTIVE cümlede yer alan nesne PASSIVE
yapı içinde öne konumuna gelir.
S+V+O
O + V + (BY S)
F. Bir ifadenin passive olabilmesi için gerekli şartlar nedir? Bir cümleye bakınca passive olduğunu
nasıl anlarız? Cümle içerisinde PASSIVE yapı şartlarını aşağı inceleyelim.
be V3 & being V3 & been V3
G. Filllerin V3 halleri genel olarak sıfat işlevi görebilirler.
•
•
My leg is broken. → onun bacağı kırık. (onun bacağı kırıldı şeklinde çevrilmeyebilir.)
This guy is addicted to bonzai. → Bu çocuk bonzai bağımlısıdır.
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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 3 | PASSIVES
2. SORULARI ÇÖZERKEN NELEREDE DİKKAT ETMEK GEREKİR?
A. It + ---- + that tarzı ifadeler;
•
•
Bu ifadeler genel olarak aralarına PASSIVE ifade alırlar. Bu ifadeyi gördüğümüz de cevaplar
arasında PASSIVE aramak yanlış olmayacaktır.
It is known that ----
It is thought that ----
B. That ifadesi noun clauses ile karıştırılmamalıdır.
C. Active ve passive reductionlar kafa karıştırabilir.
•
Cenk is known to act his friends like a cold fish → Cenk is known that he acts his friends like a
cold fish.
D. Öznenin canlı bir varlık mı yoksa cansız bir varlık mı olduğu gerçeği sizi her zaman sonuca
götürmez.
3
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IF YAYINLARI - GRAMMAR PACK – 3 | PASSIVES
3. REVISION
1. By the end of the year, everybody who ---unemployed for over two years ---- on a
training scheme. (YESDİL)
A) is/will be sending
B) was/had been sending
C) has been/will have been sent
D) had been/has been sent
E) will be/is going to send
2. The point on the surface of the Earth
directly above the focus, the point where
the first movement ---- place, ---- the
epicenter of an earthquake. (YESDİL)
A) takes/is called
B) has taken/has called
C) will be taken/has been called
D) was taken/was called
E) is taking/will have called
4
3. The Richter Magnitude Scale, which ---upon the amount of energy released by
the rock movements rather than upon
surface damage, ---- earthquakes on a 1 to
10 scale. (YESDİL)
A) bases/has graded
B) has based/was graded
C) was based/is graded
D) will be based/graded
E) is based/grades
4. Forms of bread ---- as food since
prehistoric times. Probably, the first
bread ---- from acorns or beechnuts.
(YESDİL)
A) were used/has been made
B) will have been used/was making
C) have been used/was made
D) are used/used to make
E) were being used/is made
5. Constantin Brancusi, who ---- by the
French sculptor Rodin, ---- works in
bronze, stone and wood. (YESDİL)
A) influences/was created
B) was influenced/created
C) influenced/has created
D) has been influenced/is created
E) will be influencing/is creating
6. Thatched roofs ....... in London in 1212, but
they ....... to be used elsewhere even today.
(YESDİL)
A) are forbidden/are continued
B) have been forbidden/will continue
C) forbade/have been continuing
D) were forbidden/continue
E) had forbidden/have continued
7. The city of Plovdiv, on the Maritsa River in
Bulgaria, ....... considerably in an
earthquake in 1928. (YESDİL)
A) was damaged
B) is damaged
C) had damaged
D) was damaging
E) has been damaged
8. All video cassettes ---- before they ---- to
the hire shop. (YESDİL)
A) have to rewind/return
B) should be rewound/are returned
C) must have rewound/are returning
D) will be rewound/were returned
E) can rewind/are being returned
9. Miguel de Cervantes ---- the idea for
the novel Don Quixote while in prison.
The second part of the story ---- one
year before he died. (YESDİL)
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
was conceived/was completing
had conceived/has completed
used to conceive/completes
has conceived/must be completed
conceived/was completed
l.C 2.A 3.E 4.C 5.B 6.D 7.A 8.B 9.E
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