Български Национален Комитет по
Осветление
Bulgarian National Committee on
Illumination
XV Национална конференция с
международно участие BulLight /
България Светлина 2014
10 – 13 Юни 2014, Созопол, България
“Visual perception is an illusion”.
The effect of light and illumination on visual perception.
Kazim Hilmi Or
Eye Surgeon. Private Office
Member of Turkish National Illumination Comittee
Abstract
An individium cannot explain his visual perception to another individium. To show other people how we see, we need illuisons.
That is the reason why scientific illusions are created.
Visual perception itself is created in the brain. The stimulation in the retinal cells is only the starting point. The brain builds its
individual World. His world is full of illusions. The main reason for that is, that the brain needs a world with borders inside the
perceptual capacity of the eye, photoreceptors and neurons. So, the
The different and illusional aspects of vision and visual perception will be shown with examples of visual illusions.
Keywords: keyword; keyword; keyword; keyword; keyword; keyword; keyword; keyword; keyword; keyword;.
INTRODUCTION
Until today science could’t define what vision (visual
perception) is. The visual perception is subjective.
Nobody can tell anyone else objectively, how he sees.
So to show other people how one sees, scientific
visual illusions are made.
EXPOSITION
In human visual perception we have always visual
illusions.
o
One of them is the blind spot. The blind spot is on 15
temporal (on the ear side) fixing point of the visual
field. The blind spot is oval and has a diameter of 5o
7 . One thinks that we don’t perceive it, because we
have both eyes open.
Please look at Figure 1a. Blind spot would be seen as
black’ Please close the left eye with your left hand. Do
you see any black circle 15o to the temporal of the
visual field.
Figure 1a.
No one sees a black spot there. The brain puts the
texture around the blind spot into the blind spot. So
we don’t perceive it. So the brain perceives the blind
spot as a spot filled with texture.
Figures 1b, 1c and 1d.
In illusions one can show other people, what he sees
different from the physical reality. The illusions today
are created not for fun, but to show scientifically how
one sees.
Visula perception is three dimensional is dynamic. But
in writing or printing we can use onlt two dimensional
images. So in this paper only illusions with this
properties will be shown.
Alhazen
Alhazen is a scientist who lived about 1000 years ago.
He is called the first scientist in Western World
because his knowledge was made by scientific
experiments, which were reproducable.
He wrote the first book about optics in the world:
“Kitab al Manazir”.
One of the findings of Alhazen is, that we need eye
movements to have visual perception. Today we know
that if the eyes stay open without any movement, the
photoreceptors and neurons in the retina are
overflooded with sensation in a short btime (withins
econds) and the visual perception becomes less.
Please fixate on the black point in the center without
blinking for 15-20 seconds. One can perceive that the
colored circles are fading to nil. At the en done can
see only the background.
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Figure 2.
Alhazen showed also that we need also attention,
comparison and memory for visual perception. In the
moon illusion he showed why we see the moon bigger
at horizon and smaller at the zenith.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Figure 3a ve 3b.
In the horizon there are objects to compare with the
moon. And at the zenith there are no objects to
compare. That is the reason why we see the moon
smaller at the zenith than at the horizon.
The illusions which rely on visual perception are
used in technical machines
Alhazen showed also that we have need some time to
perceive things. We cannot see object flying around
us, which move within miliseconds.It is non-existent to
us. We need to see them at least 50 miliseconds. So
there must be 20 images a second. In cinema, TV,
computer screens there is a refreshing rate of 24 or
more frames a seconds, so that we perceive there
motion instead of single frames.
In the 19th century von Helmholz showed that the
eyes optical quality is not good enough for such an
excellent vision. To have this extraordinary visual
perception unintentional inferences.
Contrast perception, perception of nonexistent motion
and other nonexistent perception can be shown at
many illusions, which will be shown in the
presentation.
CONCLUSION
Humans brain makes a virtual visual world from the
perception of the eyes. The yexplain these virtual
world we use the illusions.
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