15 March 2012
Prof. JUDr. Ján Švidroň, CSc.
LIST OF ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS
(A selection relating to civil law and intellectual property)
I. Monographs and teaching text-books:
In Slovak:
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Tvorba a právo (Creation and law). Bratislava: VEDA SAV, 1991. - 306 pages.
German summary. - ISBN 80-224-0361-X.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Základy práva duševného vlastníctva (Basics of intellecual property law).
Bratislava: Juga, 2000. - 252 pages. - ISBN 80-85506-93-9.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Právnohistorické a právnoteoretické základy práva duševného vlastníctva a jeho
miesto v systéme slovenského práva (Legal-historical and legal-theoretical basics of
intellectual property law and its place in the system of Slovak law). In ŠVIDROŇ, J.,
ADAMOVÁ, Z.:, NÁVRAT, M., ŠKREKO, A. (Ed. Švidroň, J.): Právo duševného vlastníctva
v informačnej spoločnosti a v systéme práva (Law of intellectual property in the information
society and in the system of law). Bratislava: VEDA SAV, 2009. - 675 pages. English
summary. - ISBN 978-80-224-1033-5.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Právo duševného vlastníctva (Law of intellectual property). In Lazar, J.
Občianske právo hmotné. Part 2. Bratislava: Iura edition, 2006, pages 373–570. - ISBN 809078-084-6.
In English:
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Slovak republic: Intellectual property. In International encyclopaedia of laws,
suppl. 14). General editor R. Blanpain; IP editor H. Vanhees. The Hague-London-Boston:
Kluwer Law International, 2001. - 202 pages. - ISBN 90-6544-887-X.
II. Proceedings from international conferences and seminars
ŠVIDROŇ, J., VOJČÍK, P. (Eds./Hrsg.): Duševné vlastníctvo v procese transformácie
právneho systému – Geistiges Eigentum im Prozeß der Transformation der Rechtsordnung.
(Intellectual property in the process of transition). Proceedings from international conference
(participants from Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary and Slovakia). Dies Luby
Iurisprudentiae Nr. 4. Bratislava: Comenius Univerzity, 1997. ISBN 80-7160-089-X.
BLAHO, P., ŠVIDROŇ, J. (Eds./Hrsg.): Kodifikácia, europeizácia a harmonizácia súkromného
práva – Kodifikation, Europäisierung und Harmonisierung des Privatrechts (Codification,
europeanisation and harmonization of private law). Proceedings from international
conference (participants from Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland,
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Slovenia and Slovakia). Dies Luby Iurisprudentiae Nr. 8. Bratislava: Iura Edition, 2005. ISBN
80-8078-054-4.
ŠVIDROŇ, J., TELEC, I. (Eds.): Aktuálne úlohy autorského práva v Slovenskej republike
a v Českej republike pri vstupe do Európskej únie (Current tasks of copyright law in the
Slovak Republic and Czech Republic in the course of entering the European Union). In
Právny obzor, 2005, č. 2-3 (monothematic number of contributions from the seminar).
III. Translations
by ŠVIDROŇ, J.:
From French and English:
UNIDROIT Principles of international commercial contracts / Principes d´UNIDROIT
relatifs au contrats du commerce international. Original work published in English, French,
Spanish, Italian and German. UNIDROIT: Rome, 1994 and 1995.
Slovak editions:
-UNIDROIT Zásady medzinárodných obchodných zmlúv. Bratislava: Iura edition, 1996, 340
pages. – ISBN 80-88715-21-0.
-Zásady UNIDROIT pre medzinárodné obchodné zmluvy. In SOK Vzorová zmluva MOK o
medzinárodnom obchodnom zastúpení (ICC Model Commercial Agency Contract). Bratislava:
Slovenská obchodná a priemyselná komora (Slovak Chamber of Commerce), 2003. - Pages 48–
66. - ISBN 80-89105-12-2.
From German:
DIETZ, A.: Najnovší vývoj autorského práva v Nemecku v rokoch 1989–1993 (Die neueste
Entwicklung des Urheberrechts in Deutschland). Slow. in Justičná revue, 1993, No. 10 (Part
I), No. 11 (Part II), No. 12 (Part III).
DIETZ, A.: Autorské osobnostné právo vo svetle harmonizačných zámerov Komisie
Európskeho
spoločenstva
(Urheberpersönlichkeitsrecht
vor
Hintergrund
der
Harmonisierungspläne der EU-Kommission). Slow. in Právny obzor, 1993, No. 6
KATZENBERGER, P.: Rôzne systémy práva dohľadu nad kolektívnym zhodnocovaním
autorských práv (Die verschiedenen Systeme des Aufsichtsrechts über Verwertung von
Urheberrechten). Slow. in Justičná revue, 1994, No. 11–12.
From English:
STRAUS, J.: Legislatíva v oblasti priemyselného vlastníctva ako prvok v trhovom
hospodárstve (Industrial property legislation as an element in market economies). Slov. in
Právny obzor, 1994, No. 1.
OMAN, R.: Budúcnosť duševného vlastníctva po Uruguajskom kole GATT (Intellectual
property after the Uruguay Round). Slov. in Právny obzor, 1994, No. 6.
BONELL, M. J.: Zásady UNIDROIT a Viedenský dohovor – alternatívne alebo doplňujúce sa
nástroje medzinárodného obchodu? (The UNIDROIT Principles of international commercial
contracts and the Vienna sales convention (CISG) – alternatives or complementary
instruments?). Slov. in Právny obzor, 1996, No. 4.
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BONELL, M. J.: Zásady UNIDROIT a Zásady európskeho zmluvného práva – podobné
pravidlá pre zhodné ciele? (The UNIDROIT principles of international commercial contracts
and the principles of European contract law – similar rules for the same purposes?). Slov. in
Právny obzor, 1997, No. 2.
BOELE-WOELKI, K.: Zásady UNIDROIT, Zásady európskeho zmluvného práva
a medzinárodné súkromné právo: Ako aplikovať Zásady na zmluvy s cudzím prvkom? (The
UNIDROIT Principles, The principles of European contract law and international private
law: How to apply them to international contracts). Slov. in Právny obzor, 1998, No. 1 (Part
I), No. 2, 1998 (Part II).
POULAKIS, V., ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Webová brána jazykov otvorená: o programoch výučby
umeleckého prekladu na internete hovorí ich autorka Victoria Poulakis – Translation - a way
to understanding. English translation of interview published in Slovak language in: Knižná
revue (Bratislava – Literárne informačné centrum, ISSN 1336-247X.), 2005, No. 13.
From French:
TOUBON, J.: Najposvätnejšie vlastníctvo (La propriété la plus sacreée). Discours de
bienvenue de Jacques Toubon, Ministre de la culture et de la francophonie, Colloque
mondial de l´OMPI sur l´avenir du droit d´auteur et des droits voisins. Le Louvre, France,
Paris, 1–3 juin 1994. Slov. in Literárny týždenník, 1994, No. 40.
IV. Articles published in academic and other professional press
Právny obzor (Legal horizon), Slovak academic press, Bratislava
Justičná revue, Ministry of justice of the Slovak republic
Právník (The Lawyer), Scientific review for problems of state and law, Prague
Duševné vlastníctvo (Intellectual property), Industrial property office of the Slovak republic
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: K právnej problematike spoločných vydaní literárnych diel (Legal aspects of
co-editions of literary works). In Právny obzor, 1985, No. 6.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Autorské dielo, umelecký výkon a ich hmotný záznam (Work, performance
and their registration on a material support). In Právny obzor, 1986, No. 7.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Právna ochrana výsledkov vedeckej a technickej tvorby (Legal protection of the
products of scientific and technical creation). In Právny obzor, 1987, No. 3.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Právna problematika tvorivosti a plagiátorstva (Legal aspects of creation and
plagiarism). In Právny obzor, 1987, No. 5.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Niekoľko úvah k problematike tzv. práv príbuzných autorskému právu (Some
reflections on neighboring rights of copyright). In Právník, 1987, No. 8–9.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: K autorstvu filmového diela (Authorship of a filmwork). In Právník, 1987,
No.10.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: K právnej ochrane výsledkov duševnej tvorby (Legal protection of products of
intellectual creation). In Právník, 1988, No. 11.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Az Alkotás és a plagium jogi problematikaja (Legal aspects of creation and
plagiarism). In Magyar Jog (Budapest), 35 (1988), No. 9.
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ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Report: Frankfurtský knižný veľtrh – medzinárodné právne stretnutie
(Frankfurt Book Fair – International Frankfurt Rights Meeting). In Právny obzor, 1988, No.
10.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Report: Internationales Urheberrechtliches Symposium „Urheberrecht im
Prozess der gegenwärtigen wissenschaftlich-technischen und sozialen Entwicklung“. Prague,
Október 1988. In Právny obzor, 1989, No. 4.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Rev.: Centenaire de la Convention de Berne 1886-1986. In Právny obzor,
1988, No. č. 7.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: O právnej ochrane duševného vlastníctva (On legal protection of intellectual
property). In Justičná revue, 1993, No. 6.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: K novým otázkam súťažného práva v nadväznosti na dohodu GATT/TRIPs (On
new questions of competition law after Uruguay Round of GATT). In Dies Luby
iurisprudentiae Nr. 3. Bratislava: Comenius University, 1993.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Pred prípravou nového zákona o kolektívnej správe autorského práva a s ním
súvisiacich práv (The preparation of a new act relating to collective administration of
copyright and neighbouring rights). In Justičná revue, 1994, No. 9-10.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Vývoj práva v oblasti rozhlasového a televízneho vysielania v ČSFR a SR od
roku 1989 (The development of law relating radio- and television broadcasting in CSFR and
SR after year 1989). In Otázky žurnalistiky, 1994, No. 2.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Vývoj rozhlasového a televízneho práva v Československu a na Slovensku od
roku 1948 (The development of law relating to radio- and television broadcasting in
Czechoslovakia and Slovakia after 1948). In Právny obzor, 1994, No. 4.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Ochrana duševného vlastníctva v Slovenskej republike (The protection of
intellectual property in the Slovak Republic). In Duševné vlastníctvo, 1997, No. 2.
ŠVIDROŇ, J., HRIVNÁK, J.: UNIDROIT principles – As a means of interpreting the
applicable domestic law: article 6.1.7.; Principes d'UNIDROIT – Moyen d'interprétation de
la loi nationale applicable: article 6.1.7. In Uniform law review = Revue de droit uniforme :
new series. - Vol. 2, No 3 (1997).
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Pojem, predmet a systém práva duševného vlastníctva (Begriff, Gegenstand
und System des Rechts des geistigen Eigentums). In ŠVIDROŇ, J., VOJČÍK, P. (Zost.):
Duševné vlastníctvo v procese transformácie právneho systému – Geistiges Eigentum im
Prozeß der Transformation der Rechtsordnung. In Dies Luby iurisprudentiae Nr. 4.
Bratislava: Comenius University, 1997.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: K niektorým terminologickým otázkam v oblasti práva duševného vlastníctva
(Some terminological questions in the field of intellectual property law). In Duševné
vlastníctvo, 1998, č. 1.
ŠVIDROŇ, J. Právne vety z GRUR-Int. – Poznámka na úvod (Leitsätze von GRUR-Int. –
Einführung). In Duševné vlastníctvo, 1998, No. 2.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Z galérie tvorcov: Za docentom JUDr. Karolom Rybárikom, CSc. (29.1.1919 –
21.6.1998) – In memory of Karol Rybárik. In Duševné vlastníctvo, 1998, No. 3.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Niekoľko poznámok k otázkam súťažného práva z hľadiska mediálneho práva,
autorského práva, práv príbuzných autorskému právu a trestného práva (Some notes on
questions of media law from the point of view of copyright law, neighboring rights and penal
law). In Duševné vlastníctvo, 1999, No. 1.
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ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Postmoderna, zneužívanie práva a nový slovenský autorský zákon
(Postmodernism, the abuse of law and new Slovak Copyright Act). In Právny obzor, 2000,
No. 6.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Súvislosti práva proti nekalej súťaži s autorským a mediálnym právom
(Connections between the law of unfair competition, copyright law and media law). In
Právny obzor, 2001, No. 5.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Slovak Copyright Law. - La loi slovaque sur le droit d’auteur. - El derecho de
autor en Eslovaquia. - Закон об авторском праве в Словакии - (also in Chinesse). In
UNESCO Copyright Bulletin, XXXV, 2001, No. 4.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Konštituovanie vedy práva duševného vlastníctva v podmienkach Slovenskej
republiky (Establishment of the science of intellectual property law in the conditions of the
Slovak Republic). Inaugural lecture. Bratislava: Veda, 2001 (ISBN 80-224-0683-X).
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Slávnostný kongres k 75. výročiu vzniku Medzinárodného ústavu pre
zjednotenie súkromného práva (UNIDROIT) – Svetová harmonizácia súkromného práva
a regionálna ekonomická integrácia (Report: Congress to celebrate the 75th Anniversary of
the founding of the International institute for the unification of private law). In Právny
obzor, 2002, No. 5–6.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Das Recht des geistigen Eigentums in der Slowakischen Republik. In Freiheit
Sicherheit Recht. Festschrift Georg Weissmann. Wien: Manzsche Verlags- und
Universitätsbuchhandlung, 2003.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Report: Congress ATRIP New Delhi, 2002. In Právny obzor, 2003, No. 1.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Záložné právo na predmety duševného vlastníctva v kontexte rekodifikácie
slovenského Občianskeho zákonníka. (Recodification of the Slovak civil code in connection
with the right of lien for subjects of intellectual property). In Duševné vlastníctvo, 2003, No.
1.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Veda a prax pri ochrane osobnosti (Theory and practice of the protection of
personality). In Právny obzor, 2003, No. 6.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Osobnostné aspekty práv na duševné vlastníctvo (Moral aspects of intellectual
property rights). In Duševné vlastníctvo, 2004, No. 1.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Poohliadnutie sa a hľadenie dopredu v slovenskom autorskom práve (A look
back and a look forward in Slovak copyright law). In Právny obzor, 2005, No. 2-3.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Report: Congress ATRIP Montréal, 2005. In Duševné vlastníctvo, 2005, No. 4.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Materiálne a ideálne záujmy v slovenskom a európskom súkromnom práve.
(Materielle und ideelle Interessen im slowakischen und europäischen Recht). In Kodifikácia,
europeizácia a harmonizácia súkromného práva. Kodifikation, Europäisierung und
Harmonisierung des Privatrechts. Dies Luby Iurisprudentiae Nr. 8. Bratislava: University of
Trnava, Iura Edition, 2005 (Hrsg. Blaho, P., Švidroň, J.).
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Rev.: Diritto internazionale privato e diritto comunitario. A cura di Paolo
Picone. In Právny obzor, 2005, No. 6.
ŠVIDROŇ, J. Rev.: Roy Goode - Herbert Kronke - Ewan McKendrick - Jeffrey Wool,
Transnational commercial law. International instruments and commentary. In Právny obzor,
2005, No. 2-3.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Hodnotové zakotvenie slovenského občianskeho právam (Value basics of
Slovak civil law). In Vzťahy a interakcia vnútroštátneho práva, medzinárodného práva
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a európskeho práva z hľadiska krajín Vyšehradskej štvorky po ich vstupe do Európskej únie.
Žilina: University of Trnava, Faculty by Publisher Poradca podnikateľa, 2007 (Ed. Štefanková,
N.).
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Mravné dimenzie občianskeho práva (Moral dimensions of civil law). In
Tradice a inovace v občanském právu. Eds. Hurdik, J., Fiala, J., Selucka, M. Brno: Masarykova
univerzita, 2007.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: História práva duševného vlastníctva na území Slovenska (History of
intellectual property law in the territory of Slovakia). In Právny obzor, 2007, No. 6.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Sádhana prof. PhDr. Ing. Miroslava Tumu, DrSc. alebo O jednej ceste tvorivého
napĺňania života (Life jubilee – 75 year of M. Tuma). In Duševné vlastníctvo, 2007, No. 3.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Technická tvorba a právo na Slovensku v premenách šiestich desaťročí
(Technical creation and law in Slovakia in the metamorphoses of six decades). In Právny
obzor, 2008, č. 4.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Retrospektívne a perspektívne o právnej stimulácii technickej tvorby
(Retrospective and perspective on legal stimulation of technical creativity in Slovakia). In
Duševné vlastníctvo, 2008, No. 3 (Part I); No. 4 (Part II).
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Tvorba vedeckého systému práva duševného vlastníctva - 1. časť: Obdobie do
roku 1989 (The formation of a scientific system of intellectual property law. Part I: Period
before 1989). In Právny obzor, 2008, No 5.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Tvorba vedeckého systému práva duševného vlastníctva - 2. časť: Obdobie po
roku 1989 (The formation of a scientific system of intellectual property law. Part II: Period
after 1989). In Právny obzor, 2008, No. 6.
ŠVIDROŇ, J. Jubilujúci život vyplnený právom duševného vlastníctva – Prof. Dr. Dres. h. c.
Joseph Straus (Live jubilee – 70 years of J. Straus). In Duševné vlastníctvo, 2009, č. 1.
ŠVIDROŇ, J.: Rozvíjanie tradície česko-slovenskej vedeckej spolupráce v oblasti autorského
práva s mozaikou osobných spomienok (Development of the tradition of the Czech- and
Slovakian scientific cooperation in the field of copyright law with a mosaic of personal
memories). In Právny obzor, 2010, No. 4.
V. The most recent publications synthesizing author´s more than 20-years of scientific
and pedagogic activity:
1. Švidroň, J., Adamová, Z., Návrat, M., Škreko, A. (Editor: Švidroň, J.) Intellectual
property law in the information society and in the system of law. Bratislava, VEDA,
publisher SAV, 2009, 680 pages, ISBN 978-80-224-1035-5.
By means of this publication, the team of scientific workers of the Institute of intellectual
property at the Law Faculty of Trnava University in Trnava, established in 2007, was presented
to the public. Its establishing team consists of the editor of this book and his former PhD
students. Since its publication, the book has received wide scholarly response, as evidenced by
numerous reviews and two independent proposals to award a Slovak Literary Fund prize for
scientific literature. My monograph in the book: Švidroň, J. Legal-historical and legaltheoretical basics of the intellectual property law and its place in the system of Slovak law.
2. Švidroň, J. Moral dimensions of civil law. Paper prepared on the basis of invitation to the
international scientific conference “Traditions and innovations in the civil law”, which was
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held at the Law Faculty of Masaryk University in Brno on 25. September 2007; published in
Hurdík, J., Fiala, J., Selucká, M. Traditions and innovations in the civil law. Brno: PrfMU,
2007.
3. Švidroň, J. Technical creation and law in Slovakia in metamorphoses of six decades.
Paper prepared on the basis of invitation for pedagogues, presented at Material-technology
faculty of Slovak technical university in Trnava on 22. May 2008; published in Právny obzor,
Vol. 91, 2008, no. 4.
4. Švidroň, J. Development of the tradition of the Czech- and Slovakian scientific
cooperation in the field of copyright law (with the mosaic of personal memories). Opening
paper presented at the II. Czech– and Slovakian scientific seminar on copyright law, organized
by the Institute of State and Law SAV with the cooperation of the Institute of intellectual
property law of the Law Faculty of Trnava University in Trnava, in the congress center SAV in
Bratislava on 10. June 2010; published in the monothematic number of contributions from this
seminar in Právny obzor, Vol. 93, 2010, no. 4.
5. Švidroň, J. Alternative view on the „private“ law after twenty years of works on the
new codification of civil law in the Slovak Republic. Paper prepared on the basis of
invitation to the international scientific conference “Days of law 2010”, which was held at the
Law Faculty of Masaryk University in Brno on 10. – 11. November 2010; published in Dny
práva – 2010 – Days of Law. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2011.
6. Švidroň, J. New challenges for legal science based on comparison of goals established in
1989 with those achieved by 2011. The article responds to several professionally interrelated
events, proposals, and challenges relevant to the field of legal science and other social
sciences: 1. The colloquium, “British system of evaluation of scientific organizations and
possibilities of common evaluation of research at the Slovak universities and the Slovak
Academy of Sciences (SAV)”, which took place on April 5th, 2011 in Bratislava, under the
auspices of the Minister of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR, and the chairman
of the SAV; 2. The international scientific conference organized by the Institute of State and
Law of SAV on the topic “Law and its environment”, which was held in Tatranská Štrba from
April 6th – 8th, 2011; 3. The evaluation colloquium of the SAV Institute of Social and Cultural
Science, which took place on April 12th – 13th, 2011, in Bratislava; 4. The new document of
the European Commission entitled “GREEN PAPER: From Challenges to Opportunities:
Towards a Common Strategic Framework for EU Research and Innovations funding”. This
document provides an explanatory introduction by the principal investigator of the Institute of
State and Law SAV – APVV-0340-10 grant project, “Law in the dynamics of social
development and its theoretical reflections”, to be implemented from 2011 – 2014. Published in
Právny obzor, 2011, No. 3.
7. Švidroň, J. 15 years since the first Slovak edition of the UNIDROIT Principles. Paper
prepared on the basis of invitation to the international scientific conference “Law-TradeEconomics”, which was held in Štrbské Pleso on 26.10.–28.10. 2011. Published in Právoobchod-Ekonomika. Košice: Univerzita P. J. Šafárika, 2011.
8. Švidroň, J. Legal aspects of the cultural development of society. Published in Časopis pro
právní vědu a praxi (Brno, Masarykova univerzita), No. 4, 2011.
9. Švidroň, J. Can we learn from political and legal history? In this contribution dedicated
to the 60th Jubilee of Prof. Karel Schelle, the author is generally summarizing the political and
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legal situation in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic more than twenty years since the
socialistic ideological model (1948–1989) was abandoned. Also discussed is the liberalization
of Slovak and Czech societies on the economic grounds of the free market re-established after
the year 1989 on the basis of privatization of the state sector, which had been created when
private property was nationalized after 1948. The author aims to confront the former concept
of law, which was during his legal studies monopolistically ideologized by the socialist
doctrine of state and law, with the current liberal concepts. He is considering its effects on
practical life more than twenty years since the end of the socialist era in his country. Within a
historical context he critically considers the question of “a constant (unchanging) human
nature” as stated by Renaissance political thinker Niccolo Machiavelli, who also touched on
this concept in his writings.
10. Švidroň, J. Human longing for knowledge and its application to human health at the
threshold of the third millennium. The science popularizing essay on the Ivan Humeník´s
monograph “Protection of personality and medicine law“ (Bratislava-Žilina: Paneurópska
vysoká škola práva and Eurokódex, s. r. o., 2011; ISBN 978-80-89447-58-9). The author
prepared this contribution for the conference “Biomedicine research – legal, ethical,
philosophical“ (Slovak Republic, Košice, 3 May 2012) and dedicated it to the 15th anniversary
of the founding of the Slovak journal Duševné vlastníctvo / Intellectual Property (published
by the Industrial Property Office of SR, Banská Bystrica). It is a continuation of his
publications in recent years where he offered an alternative view of “private law“, as regards its
content and form. In the years 1948-1989, civil law in the legal environment of Central and
East Europe was ideologically created under the uncompromising influence and supervision of
the dominant socialist materialist ideology, and in particular political economics, putting
emphasis on property rights and relations. However, this emphasis on property did not
substantially diminish in Slovak civil law, including the liberalistic social model that was
developed on the free market economic system after the year 1989. While Ivan Humeník´s
monograph focuses on the positive legal issues of this subject, the author of the essay considers
it from an idealist philosophical perspective, while appreciating the contributions of the
monograph, particularly in regard to strengthening the personality-law dimensions of civil law
rather than purely property dimensions. But he pays special attention to issues of intellectual
property law in relation to the protection of human health, and integrates pharmaceutical issues
into the context of Humeník´s monograph. He notes that, in the areas of Slovak Republic
intellectual property and competition law, all criteria resulting from the EU and other
international commitments, especially the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual
Property Rights (TRIPS), were fulfilled in the process of transformation from a socialist to a
liberalistic social model. However, he questions the degree of social satisfaction engendered by
this process after more than two decades. It has long been known that investments in research
and development in the pharmaceutical industry are among the highest achievements. But the
question of the return from these investments cannot be separated from these achievements.
How can the amounts invested be “recovered“? Basically only by successful commercialization
of all new developed drug substances and marketed medicines. However, their marketing is
preceded by the implementation of strict medical procedures that are subject to relentless
supervision by competitors in this sector, applied through the mutual relations of
pharmaceutical companies oriented to research and development, between these
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pharmaceutical companies and companies oriented to generics, and between pharmaceutical
companies oriented to generics. In a competitive environment, codes of ethics also have great
importance in the process of commercialization. All this is an integral part of a developed
market economy. But if we want to understand human health first of all, we confront
a dilemma: on one hand, there is a “return on investment“ that may be expressed in a fully
liberal market environment by advertisements arguing to the effect : “The more medicines are
sold, the higher return on investment in research and development of new drugs will be
achieved. So practitioners please prescribe, patients please buy and health insurance companies
please reimburse for these medicines! In the interests of all our health.“ But this type of
promotion should not be regarded as awkward joking when such a serious and sensitive subject
is discussed. Instead the author raises the question of how and with what effects „trade“
influences what should be the primary concern of protecting human health and promoting
healthy ways of living. He ends his contribution by asking a specific question that addresses
another aspect of this dilemma and which is also relevant to other forms of industry and trade:
What should be the ratio of investment in research and development of new drugs to
investment in promoting healthy lifestyles and preserving healthy environments?
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