Metodologija NIR-a
- drugi dio Prof. dr. Nijaz Bajgorić
[email protected]
www.efsa.unsa.ba/~nijaz.bajgoric
3/10/2008
Naučni radovi i publikacije;
struktuiranje magistarskog rada
(master teze)
3/10/2008
Karakteristični problemi prilikom
strukturiranja istraživanja/magistarskog rada:
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Nedovoljna znanja u smislu naučno-istraživačkih metoda, tehnika
i metodologija
Nepripremljenost u pogledu research metodologije
Pogrešno shvatanje – poistovjećivanje naučnog i stručnog rada
Nedovoljno poznavanje naučnih paradigmi, kvantitativnih i
kvalitatitivnih metoda, tehnika i metodologija
Pogrešne percepcije u smislu šta je to istraživanje i istraživački
rad
Problemi kod definisanja teza, predmeta, cilja, istraživanja
Neadekvatan pregled dostignutog razvoja istraživanja u
odnosnom području
Nepoznavanje savremenih načina korištenja naučnih izvora
Nedovoljna informatička pismenost u smislu korištenja
savremenih softverskih tehnika i alata
Nedovoljna naučno-istraživačka podloga mentora
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Vrste naučnih djela – kratki pregled
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Naučna knjiga
Monografija
Doktorska disertacija (teza)
Magistarska teza
Naučna studija
Naučni rad (članak/paper/article)
Research report
Book review
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Vrste naučnih radova – članaka (scientific
papers)
• Članak u naučnom časopisu (Journal
Paper)
• Članak u editovanoj knjizi (Book Chapter)
• Članak prezentiran na conf., publiciran u
zborniku sa konferencije (Conference
Proceedings)
• Research report
• Technical report
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Vrste naučnih radova
(obično u zbornicima radova)
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Izvorni naučni rad
Prethodno saopštenje
Pregledni članak
Stručni rad
Prikaz
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Kategorije stručnih radova
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Stručni članak
Prikaz
Elaborat
Stručna ekspertiza
Recenzija
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Ostale kategorije publikacija
raspoloživih na Internetu
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Cases
White papers
Success stories
Horror stories
Webcasts/Webinars
Manuals/user’s guides
Technical reports
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Knjiga kao naučno ili naučno-stručno djelo
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Udžbenik (Coursebook, Textbook)
Monografija
Enciklopedija
Leksikon
Praktikum
Rječnik
Zbornik radova
Bibliografija
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Knjiga - Enciklopedija
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Knjiga: monografija i udžbenik
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Autorska knjiga
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Edited Book (zbirka naučnih članaka)
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Kategorije naučnog rada
(scientific paper):
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Research paper
Viewpoint
Technical paper
Conceptual paper
Case study
Literature review
General review
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Primjer naučnog rada
(scientific paper):
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Osnovni metodološki okvir naučnoistraživačkog rada
• Cilj rada
• Metodološki okvir/pristup (kvantitativna,
kvalitativna metodologija, itd.)
• Očekivani rezultati istraživanja
• Ograničenja u istraživanju
• Praktične implikacije
• Originalnost
• Dobiveni rezultati istraživanja
• Pravci daljnjih istraživanja
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Struktuiranje magistarskog/doktorskog rada
• Uvod (Introduction)
• Definiranje problema – problemskog područja
(Problem definition, Problem statement), teorijske
osnove i praktični aspekti
• Definiranje ciljeva rada, postavljenje teze (teza)
• Pregled literature – trenutno stanje istraživanja
koje se odnosi na definirano problemsko područje
(Review of the Literature): navesti šta su drugi
autori radili i dokle su došli u rješavanju odnosnog
ili sličnih problema (Previous studies of similar
peoblems).
• Metodologija koja će se koristiti (Methodology)
• Rezultati istraživanja (results)
• Zaključna razmatranja i preporuke za dalji rad
(Conclusions and Recommendations)
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Literature Review
• Odnosi se na problemsko područje kojim se rad
bavi
• Ne ograničiti se samo na uski (napr. lokalni,
državni okvir) u pogledu relevantnih istraživanja
• Neophodno je sagledati sve relevantne i
najnovije izvore (posljednjih 5-6 godina)
• Naglasak je na korištenju naučnih radova
objavljenih i naučnim časopisima; manje na
klasičnim knjigama
• Značaj tzv. e-sources (online baze, online
časopisi, e-books, itd.)
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Master vs. PhD Thesis
• There are different expectations for Master's theses and
for Doctoral theses. This difference is not in format but in
the significance and level of discovery as evidenced by
the problem to be solved and the summary of
contributions; a Doctoral thesis necessarily requires a
more difficult problem to be solved, and consequently
more substantial contributions.
• The contribution to knowledge of a Master's thesis can
be in the nature of an incremental improvement in an
area of knowledge, or the application of known
techniques in a new area. The Ph.D. must be a
substantial and innovative contribution to knowledge.
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Postavljanje teze i/ili research question-a:
primjer 1
Naprimjer, u radu
Louis Raymond, Francois Bergeron, Enabling the business strategy of
SMEs through e-business Capabilities: A strategic alignment
perspective, in: Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 108 No. 5,
2008, pp. 577-595
Is the strategic alignment of their e-business activities as critical? Does
this alignment allow manufacturing SMEs to perform better in terms of
growth, productivity, and profitability? Since IT alignment with business
strategy has been shown to significantly contribute to the business
performance of SMEs (Chan and Horner Reich, 2007a), the alignment of
e-business activities on business strategy should also be of the utmost
importance for these organizations.
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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The research question and hypothesis:
• RQ. Can SMEs enhance their performance by
aligning their e-business activities with their
business strategy?
• H1. Greater alignment of e-business
capabilities with business strategy is
associated to greater performance.
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Postavljanje teze i/ili research question-a:
primjer 2
Namchul Shin, The impact of information technology on the
financial performance of diversified firms, objavljeno u:
Decision Support Systems 41 (2006) 698– 707
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H1. There is a positive relationship between gross margin and the
interaction term of IT and strategic direction.
H2. There is a positive relationship between ROA and the
interaction term of IT and strategic direction.
H3. There is a positive relationship between ROE and the
interaction term of IT and strategic direction.
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10/6/2011
Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Postavljanje teze i/ili research question-a:
primjer 3
Tom R. Eikebrokk, Dag H. Olsen , An empirical investigation of competency factors
affecting e-business success in European SMEs, objavljeno u Information &
Management 44 (2007), pp. 364–383
There is general consensus that knowledge and competency are necessary in
developing an IT capability, but there is very little understanding of what the necessary
competencies are, and how they influence IS usage in different contexts. The small and
medium-sized enterprise context is particularly interesting for two reasons: it constitutes a
major part of the economy and it has been relatively unsuccessful in exploiting ebusiness.
We explored the relationship between e-business competency and its success in
European SMEs. A literature review was used to determine factors representing ebusiness competency, and develop hypotheses, which were tested using data collected
from 339 SMEs in Europe. Our results provide evidence on the importance of certain ebusiness competencies on e-business success, and have implications for both research
and practice in the field of SMEs.
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Hipoteze:
• H1a–d. Competency in e-business strategy is positively
associated with e-business success in terms of (a)
efficiency, (b) complementarities, (c) lock-in and (d)
novelty.
• H2a–d. Competency in e-business strategic planning is
positively associated with e-business success in terms of
(a) efficiency, (b) complementarities, (c) lock-in and (d)
novelty.
Itd.
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Rezultati statističke analize:
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Primjer vodiča za master tezu
www.rsm.nl
RSM je jedna od 10 vodećih škola u Evropi (prema FT).
Ima trostruku akreditaciju: EQUIS, AACSB, AMBA
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Primjer sadržaja teze (doktorske ili
magistarske)
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Korištenje literature
Citiranje, navodjenje izvora,
references styles, plagiarism, itd.
3/10/2008
What is a Citation?
• When you bring research (quotations, paraphrases,
facts, statistics, etc.) into your paper, you must give
credit to the source and its author(s).
• Giving credit to a source is also called citing a
source.
• You do this with in-text or parenthetical citations.
They are called parenthetical citations because the
bibliographic information goes inside parentheses.
Izvor: http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/aSGuest7014124422-research-paper-others-misc-ppt-powerpoint/
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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What to Cite
• Quotations: Someone else’s exact words, enclosed
in quotation marks.
• The ideas, opinions, and theories of someone
else—even if you restate them in your own words in a
paraphrase or summary.
• Facts and statistics - unless they are common
knowledge and are accessible in many sources.
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Quoting
• When you quote, you borrow an author’s exact
words.
• Use a quotation when…
– the wording is so memorable or expresses a point so
well that you cannot improve or shorten it without
weakening it;
– when the author is a respected authority whose opinion
supports your own ideas;
– when an author challenges or disagrees profoundly with
others in the field.
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Paraphrasing
• Paraphrasing is putting material (including major
and minor points) into your own words and
sentence structure.
• You can paraphrase a theory, an idea, the results
of a study, or a passage in an original source, as
long as you use your own words to describe it.
• A paraphrase is often the same length as the
original, but it is in your own words.
3/10/2008
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Example of a Paraphrase
• Original Text (from James C. Stalker, “Official English or English Only”)
“ We cannot legislate the language of the home, the
street, the bar, the club, unless we are willing to set up a
cadre of language police who will ticket and arrest us if
we speak something other than English” (21).
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Paraphrase
Stalker points out that in a democracy like the United
States, it is not feasible to have laws against the use of a
language and it certainly would not be possible to make
police enforce such laws in homes and public places
(21).
Example taken from Pocket Keys for Writers
by Ann Raimes
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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What is Plagiarism?
• It is fine to bring the words and ideas of other
writers into your paper.
• However, when you do so, you must
acknowledge your debt to the writers of these
sources.
• If not, you are guilty of plagiarism, a serious
academic offense.
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Avoiding Plagiarism
• In order to avoid plagiarism, be sure that you not
only give credit where credit is due, but that you
follow the appropriate formats, often either MLA
(Modern Languages Association) or APA
(American Psychological Association) styles of
documentation.
• There are also several good publications
available with which students should be familiar.
They will be mentioned later in this presentation.
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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Creating a “References” Page
• A “References” page contains the full
bibliographic information to which you have been
referring in the body of your paper.
• The “References” page is…
• the last page of your paper
• double-spaced
• alphabetized
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Reference
journal article
one author
Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American
Psychologist, 48, 674-576.
journal article
five authors
from a
database
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L.
A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor
performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449.
Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.
book with
editors
Fox, R. W., & Lears, T. J. J. (Eds.). (1993). The power of culture:
Critical essays in American history. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
online document
private
organization
no date
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Greater New Milford (Ct) Area Healthy Community 2000. Task Force
on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.) Who has time for a family
meal? You do! Retrieved October 5, 2000, from http//:www.family
Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
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fakultet u Sarajevu
mealtime.org
MLA - style of referencing
• If you are writing a research paper in English,
foreign languages, or other humanities
classes, use MLA-style documentation.
• MLA stands for the Modern Language
Association.
• The MLA publishes the MLA Handbook for
Writing Research Papers. This book contains
all of the rules that govern MLA-style
documentation.
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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• While this presentation attempts to give a brief
introduction to MLA, it cannot cover all aspects of
it.
• If you still have questions, it is best to consult the
MLA Handbook for Writers, which is available in
the Academic Support Center, or any of the
English handbooks mentioned in this
presentation.
• You can also visit MLA’s web site at
http://www.mla.org/. Click on MLA-Style.
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Prof. dr. N. Bajgorić, Ekonomski
fakultet u Sarajevu
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APA-Style Referencing
http://www.apastyle.org
• What is APA?
• How To Integrate Research Into the
Body of Your Paper
• How to Create a “References” Page
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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What is APA?
• If you are writing a paper for the sciences or
social sciences, follow APA-style
documentation.
• APA stands for the American Psychological
Association. This organization publishes the
The Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association, which offers
complete guidelines for manuscript style and
citation in APA.
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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• APA Style calls for a list of references instead of
a bibliography
• In general, the list of references is doublespaced and listed alphabetically by first author's
last name.
• Fine, M. A., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections
on determining authorship credit and authorship
order on faculty-student collaborations.
American Psychologist, 48, 1141–1147
• http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html
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fakultet u Sarajevu
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Metodologija NIR-a - drugi dio - - Ekonomski fakultet