Tokyo Model
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- The history and strengths of improving municipal waste management operations November 2014
Supervised by: 23 Cities of Tokyo
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Issued by: Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
SKILLS & PASSION
FOR CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
-1-
Former Conditions
Present Conditions
1930’s
Fukagawa Garbage
Treatment Plant
2010’s
Shin-Koto
Incineration Plant
1957
Bell collection
by handcarts
2010’s
Waste collection
1970’s
Direct landfill disposal
of large-sized waste
2010’s
Landfill site
•
What is the
Tokyo Model?
•
•
“23 Cities of Tokyo” refers to 23 individual municipal authorities which make up an
area within Tokyo Metropolitan (provincial) Area. It is the central area of Tokyo, in
which political, administrative, and economic core functions of Japan are allocated.
The “Tokyo Model” systematically explains municipal waste management systems
and their strengths within 23 Cities of Tokyo.
The main organizations which play a major role in the Tokyo Model are the 23
Cities of Tokyo and Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities(a special-purpose local
government basically to deal with intermediate treatment of municipal solid waste).
Tokyo Metropolitan
(provincial) Area
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
23 Cities of Tokyo
-3-
1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
-4-
Introducing Tokyo
Tokyo is one of the largest cities in the world in terms of its economy, and it has a
high reputation for its environment.
Population
City GDP
Main industries
Approx. 9 M
85,201.6 B Yen
Finance, information
and service industries
(No. 1 city by GDP globally)
The world’s largest city in terms of
its economy
 The Global Power City Index ranks
Tokyo in 1st place in terms of the size
of economy
High reputation in terms of its
environment
 The Global Power City Index ranks
Tokyo in 6th place in terms of its
environment
-
New York: 2nd place
-
New York: 24th
-
London: 4th
-
London: 12th
-
Paris: 7th
-
Paris: 15th
-
Geneva: 10th
-
Geneva: 1th
Note: The population stated here is that for the 23 Cities area of Tokyo, all other data shown are those for the whole of Tokyo Metropolitan (provincial) Area.
Source: Tokyo Statistical Yearbook (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2009), Global Power City Index (MMF, 2011)
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
-5-
1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
-6-
Japan - a country generating low amount of municipal waste
As countries grow, they either become high-polluters or low-polluters, and Japan
produces relatively low amount of waste compared to other countries, despite of its
high economic output.
Relationship between municipal waste output and GDP (values for the year 2000)
Per capita municipal waste output (kg/ year)
800
USA
France
600
Singapore
UK
Germany
Korea
400
Malaysia
Japan
Thailand
Philippines
200
China
Vietnam Indonesia
0
0
10
20
30
40
GDP per capita (Unit: thousand US dollars/ year)
Note: Data are actual values for 2000. Also, municipal waste volumes are adjusted considering differences in the definition of municipal waste among countries.
Source: Masaru Tanaka et al., Estimates of the Volume of Generated Waste throughout the World, and Research on Future Forecasts
(Graduate School, Okayama University 2004)
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
-7-
History of reducing the volume of generated municipal waste in Tokyo
Tokyo has been successful in reducing the volume of per capita waste generation
while maintaining economic growth by taking various measures.
Changes in the volume of generated waste and GDP (1950-2008)
30,000
Per capita GDP of Japan
Per capita municipal waste output in Tokyo
-41%
400
25,000
20,000
15,000
200
10,000
5,000
0
Per capita GDP of Japan(Unit:GK dollars / year)
Per capita municipal waste output in Tokyo (kg/year)
600
0
1950
1955
Commencement of
periodic waste collection
using bins (volume of
approximately 40 liters)
1960
1965
Commencement of
separated collection of
bulky waste
1970
1975
Commencement of
separated collection of
incombustible waste
(such as plastics)
1980
1985
Commencement of Tokyo
SLIM campaign
1990
1995
Establishment of full-scale
waste intermediate
treatment system
2000
2005
Full implementation
of recycling waste
collection project
(used papers,
bottles, and cans)
2008
Actual roll-out of
thermal recycling of
waste plastics
Source: Angus Maddison “Historical Statistics of the World Economy 1-2008 AD“ (University of Groningen) Centurial Chronology of Waste Management by Tokyo Metropolitan Government (Tokyo Environmental
Public Service Corporation, 2000), Statistical Information of Tokyo Metropolitan Government, “The History of Waste Management in 23 Cities of Tokyo” (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities, 2013)
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
-8-
Issues and measures taken at different times
Appropriate measures have been taken as required in dealing with issues which
arose at different times.
Stages
The early
period of
waste issues
Issues
Measures
 Public health measures taken for dealing with the epidemics of
cholera and black plague throughout the world
 Drastic increase in waste volume accompanying the growth of
cities
 Feculence Cleansing Act (1900) was promulgated, asking local
governments to be responsible for municipal waste management.
 Collection contractors were registered. (1900)
 Obligation of waste incineration (1930)



(1900-1955)
Rapid economic
growth issues
becoming
apparent
(1955-1973)
Stable growth
period dealing with
Environmental
issues



Increasing necessity of fundamental
waste measures due to drastic changes
in society and economic situations
Shortage of final disposal site due to
mass production / mass disposal
Acceptance of waste containing high
water content for incineration
Tokyo Waste War(1971)




 Dealing with environmental issues
 Increasing requirement for reuse of waste and converting it into a
resource
 Full operation of new and innovative incineration plant
equipped with pollution measures
 Commencement of separated collection (1973)
 Promotion of recycling campaigns
 The commencement of community-based voluntary collection
 In-depth dialogues with residents through explanatory meetings
and construction / operating committees
 Further rapid increase in waste volumes and changes in quality
such as use of PET bottles
 Commencement of the Tokyo SLIM campaign (1989)
 Progress with waste volume reduction and recycling (3Rs) due
to the amendment of Waste Management and Public Cleansing
Act
(1973-1985)
Significant
increase in
volume of waste
Enactment of the Cleaning Act (1954)
Act on Urgent Measures for Improving the Living Environment and
Related Facilities (1963)
Progress with waste incineration and land-filling of residues
Development and introduction of incineration technologies
Improvement of efficiency in collection and transport
Principle to treat waste within each municipality gained consensus
(1985-1990)
Opening
of 3R era






Commencement of charging for all bulky waste(1991)
Act on Special Measures against Dioxins (1999)
Basic act on Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society (2000)
Establishment of various recycling acts
Transfer of municipal waste management duties to 23 Cities(2000)
Development / introduction of gasification furnaces, ash melting
facilities and others (2008)
 Commencement of waste plastic thermal recycling (2009)
 Dealing with environmental issues (dioxins)
 Promotion of a sound recycling-oriented society
 Clearly defining 23 Cities of Tokyo as basic municipal
governments
(1990- present)
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
-9-
Source: Whitepaper using Diagrams on the Environment, a Recycling-Oriented Society and Biodiversity (Ministry of Environment, 2011),
Centurial Chronology of Waste Management by Tokyo Metropolitan Government (Tokyo Environmental Public Service Corporation,
2000), “Analysis of Approaches Taken in Japan and Other Developed Countries to Waste Incineration Technologies and Report on
Research on the Possibility of Applying such Technologies to Developing Countries” (JICA 2012), website of the Clean Authority of
TOKYO 23cities
1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 10 -
An overall picture of the Tokyo Model
Residents, public as well as private sectors worked together in exploring ideal models for
municipal waste management in large cities throughout the history of waste management
improvement over the last century, with a view to implementing such models.
Waste generation
Collection/transport
Incineration/
energy recovery
Final disposal
• Working on reducing waste
volume, sorting waste at
source, and recycling based on
the 3R approach
• Classifying waste inappropriate
for incineration by ensuring
sorting and turning waste into
resources
• Efficiently collect all generated
waste within the day and
transport it to treatment
facilities such as waste
incineration plants
• Collection/transportationcollection rate: 100%
• Waste is treated safely by
brought into incineration plants
situated in the center of cities
• Generating and collecting a
large amount of power and
thermal energy using thermal
recycling technology
• Setting and operating hygienic
management type landfill site
• Newly reclaimed land has
been created by disposing of
incombustible waste,
incineration ash etc. to sea
surface area
The 3R principle
Compact waste collection cars
Waste processing facilities located in
the center of large cities
Sea surface land-filling and land
reclamation
Power Heat
Environmental education provided
to school children
Waste collection visits
for old residents
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Generating power and
thermal energy recovery
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Facilities built on reclaimed land
after the end of landfill service life
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Given that waste volume peaked during the bubble economy period in the 1980s,
good progress has been made in measures for reducing waste generation , sorting
waste and recycling based on the concept of 3Rs.
Main measures for waste volume reduction
and recycling taken since the end of Japanese bubble
1989
Commencement of the Tokyo SLIM campaign
1991
Commencement of charging for all bulky wastes
1993
Starting use of semi-transparent waste bags
1995
Commencing consideration of setting up “Tokyo Rules” (resource
collection, waste collection by waste-generating businesses, and PET
bottle collection)
1996
Commencement of charging for all types of business-related waste
Completion of Keihinjima Island Incombustible Wastes Processing
Center (A system for full-volume intermediate processing of
incombustible waste was established)
1997
Commencement of in-store PET bottle collection
2000
Overall roll-out of resource collection projects (newspapers,
magazines, glass bottles and cans; resource collection to be once
a week)
2009
Actual implementation of thermal recycling of waste plastic and
others
2008
Overview of measures
• Implementing
campaigns using
various types of
media such as TV,
newspapers and
exhibitions during
the 11 years from
1989
•
Break up waste into
small pieces so that it
can be efficiently landfilled
• Select and separate
out iron, aluminum and
other types of metals,
and collect them as
resources
• Approximately 13% of
generated waste is
collected as resources
• The photo on the left
shows a newspaper
magazine collection
vehicle
The background to successful incineration/energy conversion models at present is the fact that stable progress has
been made with separating-out waste inappropriate for incineration, with processing it, and turning it into resources
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Source: Centurial Chronology of Waste Management by Tokyo Metropolitan Government ( Tokyo Environmental Public Service Corporation,
2000), The History of Waste Management in 23 Cities of Tokyo (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities 2013), Suginami City website
- 12 -
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Incombustible waste is transported to an incombustible waste processing center, which is an
intermediate processing facility, and is appropriately processed (pulverization and separation).
In particular, thanks to thermal recycling of waste plastics, which commenced in 2006,
processing volume was significantly reduced by approximately 80%.
Change in incombustible waste processing volumes (volume transported to incombustible waste processing centers)
Processing volume
(unit: thousand tons)
600
500
300
84
441
453
21
77
64
65
462
48
15
459
459
65
66
462
451
54
13 40
Non-ferrous metals
Rubber/ leather
Glass
Plastic
451
39
13 375
15
15 33 7 35 16 37
14
45
17
42
41
11 21 11 47
6 51 6 48 7 25 6 21 6 20 6 18 20 22
14
15
13
20
21
16
32
17
23
21
24
11
21 23
19
15
272
259
277
303
1998
1999
2000
2001
293
295
317
2002
2003
2004
314
237
2007
2008
315
0
2006
Commencement of
a model project
for thermal recycling of
waste plastics
Source: Internal documents of Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
2005
- 13 -
-77%
184
47 6
20 13 106 16 104 9 104
28
12 33
32
14
17
82 4 21 18
20
16 12
200
100
Others
Stones/ pottery
507
400
Iron
2009
2010
Full implementation of
thermal recycling of
waste plastics
2011
7
19
16
13
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
In order to make progress with reducing waste generation, Tokyo is focusing on faceto-face communication, particularly working on education to the next generation of
waste generators, aiming at building a further-improved resource recycling-oriented
society.
Awareness raising and education for residents
Examples of work
Raising awareness of waste generator’s
■ Focusing on face-to-face communication
- Holding briefings with town-based groups and local communities
Planning stage
- Visits by members of staff from waste management offices to residents’
houses, etc.
■ Various types of tools for raising awareness and providing education
- Multilingual advertisements/ leaflet on 3Rs
- Special articles on waste management in newsletters and others issued by
City Offices
■ Building a system with which it will ensured that
announcements are sent to residents
Implementation
stage
(collection/
transport)
Educating the
next generation
Fostering
children’s
awareness on
environment
- Setting up an interactive advice group which gives advice on the way of
waste disposal by waste management administration
Suginami City held 83 sessions on plastic
thermal recycling per year, communicating
with approximately 3,500 residents in total
- Setting up waste volume reduction promotion teams based on residents’
volunteer activities

Ensuring that indirect announcements are sent to a larger number of
residents

Patrolling waste collection sites and making reports to government
administrative organizations and bodies
■ Providing education to the next generation of waste
generators
- Providing school children with opportunities to learn about
environment
- Holding “environment summits” with junior high school students,
and handling issues related to environment, energy and others
Suginami City provided a total of 18 opportunities
in 2011 for schoolchildren to learn about
environment, with 3,101 participants; and 21
opportunities in 2012, with 4,992 participants (as
of October 2012)
Activities for awareness raising and education are being continuously provided over a long-term,
and efforts have been made in raising residents’ awareness and shaping their habits
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Source: Interviews to Suginami City, Suginami City website, Internal documents of Suginami City
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Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
In order to achieve a waste collection rate of 100% on a daily basis, 23 Cities are
taking various measures based upon plans by quantitative data as well as on-site
experiences
Measures for collection/transport to assist 100% collection
Planning
Set up plans for
implementing collection and
transport
 Create plans for allocating vehicles
and staff, transportation routes, etc.
based on waste volume estimates,
disposal rules, data such as
population density as well as on-site
experiences
Waste collection vehicles
Compaction of waste using
waste collection vehicles
 There are approximately 1500 waste
collection vehicles covering
approximately 340,000 waste collection
stations (depots)
 70% of the waste collection vehicles are
small-sized trucks with a small turning
circle equipped with compactors which
have a high waste compression ratio
Source: Interviews to Suginami City, Chiyoda City website, internal documents of Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 15 -
Door-to-door collection
Door-to-door collection
 Staff visit homes of elderly and disabled
residents who have difficulty in taking out
waste for collection
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Reference) Procedures for sorting and disposing of waste
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 16 -
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Reference) Procedures for sorting and disposing of waste
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 17 -
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
There are 21 waste processing facilities* in stable and safe operation in city center
areas, where there are a large number of residential and office buildings.
There are 21 waste incineration plants
in city center areas
Kita City
Katsushika
City
Toshima
City
Sumida City
Shibuya
City
Minato City
Incineration
Plants
Incombustible Waste
Processing Center
Pulverization Processing Plant
for Large-sized Waste
Efficient operation of municipal waste management is achieved. This includes reducing collection/transportation
costs by incinerating waste and converting energy close to where it is produced,.
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 18 -
Note: Out of 21 waste incineration plants, those in Suginami and Nerima are currently being rebuilt (as of September 2012)
Source: “Skills & Passion for Clean Environment” (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities)
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Waste incineration plants in Tokyo have introduced newest plants of the day,
achieving safe and stable operation
Reducing harmful gas
emissions
Average measured value of
dioxins:
0.000019ng-TEQ/m3N
(FY2012)
*Regulation limit: 0.1ng-TEQ/m3N
Treating large amount of
waste
High power generation
capacity
Daily treatment capacity:
Total of 7,580 tons
Total power produced:
1.1B kWh
Revenue from power sales:
Approximately 6.3 B Yen
(FY2012)
Reduce the volume of waste by
approximately one twentieth
with incineration
(FY2012)
Long service life
Achieving stable operation
Operating life:
25 to 30 years
Continuous 24-hour operation
• Achieving a long operating life
through appropriate renovation and
repair, and by expanding usable
years of major machines
*Usually it is approximately 15 years
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
• Thanks to advanced automation,
achieving continuous 24-hour
operation while reducing burden on
plant operators
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Note: The 15-year operation period is based on “Technical Guidance “Municipal Solid Waste Incineration” (World Bank, 1999)
Source: Results of questionnaire survey to plant manufacturers, and the website of Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Waste volume reduction and energy recovery (power and heat) through incineration,
and remove harmful substances from emitted gas / wastewater in subsequent
processes
Power generation monitor (kW)
Stack
Furnace
Crane
Central Control Room
Boiler
Waste bunker / crane
Cooling tower
Gas scrubber
Bag filter
Platform
Incinerator
Catalyst reaction
tower
Wastewater treatment facilities
Waste bunker
Incineration/
energy recovery
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 20 -
Removal of harmful substances from emitted gas,
wastewater, and others
Source: Skills & Passion for Clean Environment (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23 cties)
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Incineration reduces waste volume by one twentieth, and contributes to resolving the
shortage issue of final disposal sites.
Waste volume reduction effects through incineration
Change in landfill disposal volumes
● Waste volumes can be reduced by approximately
1/20 through incineration
Before incineration
Landfill disposal volumes (thousands of tons)
Waste volume
1/20
● Landfill volumes have been reduced by an average
of 7% per year due to waste volume reduction
effect of incineration
-
250
200
-7%
150
100
50
0
1987
After incineration
Source: Waste Report 2012 (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities), internal documents of Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 21 -
In particular, there is a significant year-on-year reduction in
disposal volumes in years in which relevant policies are
implemented
1990
Commencement
of Tokyo SLIM
campaign
1995
2000
Commencement
of charging for all
business-related
waste
2005
2008
Full implementation
of thermal
recycling of
waste plastics
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
By ensuring strict compliance with antipollution standards and sufficient attention
paid to residents as well as surrounding environment, construction and operation of
waste incineration plants within residential areas are made possible.
Anti-pollution measures
Considering residents and the environment
&
Strict standards for anti-pollution
measures
• Stricter standards for anti-pollution measures
are set compared with gas emission regulation
values set by the government and other
municipal authorities.
- Introduction of pollution-prevention facilities
securely ensures the treatment of dioxins,
soot and dust, mercury, hydrochloric acid,
sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides to keep
them under the set value
• Plant operation is immediately stopped if
pollution standard values exceed the set value
■ A thorough communication with residents
- Hold explanatory meetings and construction
committees with residents on multiple occasions at
the time of construction and rebuilding, in order to
gain consensus with them
- Continuously provide follow-up to residents during
plant operation, to ease residents’ mind
- Organize plant tours open to public
■ Environmental conservation at the time of
construction and demolition
Information disclosure systems
- Adopt building designs and color variations
harmonized with local area and use "green" walls
• Environmental measurements are regularly
carried out, and the results are disclosed on the
website
• Real-time display of gas emissions
measurement results, excluding those on
dioxins
- Prevent noise and vibration by limiting entry/exit
times of vehicle, and by adopting low-noise, lowvibration type construction machines
- Adopt a dome-type tent for demolition works
■ Considering the surrounding
environment at the time of operation
- Ensure that measures are taken to prevent
noise, vibration, and odors
- Improvement of routes taken by waste collection
vehicles, and thereby prevent traffic congestion,
etc.
Gas emission measurement value display
(Setagaya Plant)
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 22 -
Source: Results of questionnaire survey to plant manufacturers,
and the website of the Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Incineration heat is efficiently used at each waste incineration plant. In addition to creating
profits from power sales equivalent to that used by approximately 160,000 households, this
efficient use contributes to local communities also by supplying heat to sports centers, warmwater swimming pools, and botanical gardens, as well as elsewhere in the community, as a part
of using excess heat.
Power company, households etc.
Waste incineration plant
Power
Company
Heat
Supplying
Company
Power
In-house use
Sale
Heat
Apartment complex
Hot water
and others
Nearby facilities
Provided for
free or sold
[Results compiling all plants (2012)]
• Total power produced: 1.1B kWh
• Power sold: 574.48 MWh (approximately
equivalent to that for 160,000 households)
• Income from power sales: 6,331.17 M Yen
• Heat supply volume (paid) 546,000 GJ
• Income from heat sales: 183.86 M Yen
The Itabashi Tropical
Environment Museum
Source: Results of questionnaire survey to plant manufacturers, and the website of the Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 23 -
Hot Plaza Harumi
Waste
generation
Collection
/Transport
Incineration
/energy recovery
Final disposal
Controlled-type final disposal sites are built on the sea surface in Tokyo. Ninety per cent (90%)
of municipal waste incineration residue is put into landfill. Reclaimed land areas after service
life are used for regional development such as site for parks.
Final waste disposal in Tokyo
Features
■ Constructed final disposal
sites on the sea surface
- Sea-surface landfill
technology was developed
due to difficulties in securing
inland landfill areas
■ Carrying out environmentfriendly landfill disposal
- Appropriately carry out processing such
as that on seeping water, and
implement stable management
- Collect methane gas to generate
electricity and reduce greenhouse
gases
- Work on increasing operating life
• 100 million tons of waste has been put into landfill at a
total of seven sea-surface disposal sites since 1927
• Currently, the final disposal of 90% of municipal waste
incineration residue is done on the sea surface
■ Using landfill areas
- Construct waste processing
facilities and places such as
tropical gardens and parks, in
landfill areas
Source: “Tokyo Metropolitan Government Landfill Site” brochure (Bureau of Environment , TMG)
Website of Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG)
“Work by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
on forming a recycling-oriented society” (2011)
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 24 -
1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 25 -
Provided services
23 Cities of Tokyo and Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities are collaborating with private businesses
and other entities in providing various options on municipal solid waste management.
Investigation phase for improvement on municipal waste management
• Learning from precedents outside Japan
Collect information
Setting up an
overall plan
Feasibility study/
project formulation
Bidding
- Such as legal systems, facilities
implemented, cost sharing, and
methods of public/private collaboration
• Set up overall plans for enhancing
municipal waste processing projects.
Support options

-

- System design, WTE plant introduction
plans
• Carry out a preliminary study on the
feasibility of new facilities and new
operations
Giving information on history, strengths, and case studies
on overcoming difficulties in Tokyo
Support to build basic waste management plans and facility
installment plans
-

-

-
• Start up related facilities
Facility start-up

- Such as WTE plants and waste
transportation vehicles
-
Operation

2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 26 -
Design and construct facilities at an appropriate level in-line with the situation in the area
where it is to be built without being particular about facility to be high-quality or expensive
Advice on communication with local residents
Advice on safe facility operation and on operations management
-
• Continuously improve operations
Look into the system of evaluating proposals by taking into account considerations
on operating costs, the period of warranty against defects, and the environment
Creating documents on specifications for orders
Starting up the facility/providing advice in-line with the local
situation
-
• Start up WTE plants and commence the
operation of new waste processing
operations
Waste volume estimates, study on the form of waste, investigations into project operating
models, setting up revenue/expense plans, investigating methods of financing (utilizing the
Japan Finance Corporation, international finance, private finance, and others), and setting
up project schedules
Support in investigating appropriate/fair evaluation methods
-
• Hold bidding for vendor selection
Legal system design, setting up various plans, methods of raising awareness amongst
residents and communication with them on facility construction, approaches to waste
separation, methods of cost sharing
Support in feasibility studies through linkages with related
organizations such as the Japanese government
• Create project plans after study
• Decide the bidding system/method of
proposal evaluation
Exchanging human resources and providing training, accepting tours of facilities in
Japan, and others
Operating plants and training on-site technicians
Advice on communication with local residents, waste separation, progress with the 3Rs,
waste volume reduction measures, collection/transport systems, setting up collection plans,
and environmental considerations
Implementation plan
A case of implementation plan
Host country
Japan
Policy dialogue/signing an MOU
Process towards project commencement
HR exchanges
Central government
Government of Japan
(accepting trainees and dispatching technicians)
Acceptance of site visits to Japan
Tokyo
Advice on system and facility plans
(23 Cities of Tokyo, Clean
Authority of TOKYO23cities)
Local governments
Joint formation and participation in feasibility studies
Local companies
Project feasibility study
Participation in
feasibility study  Governments from both
countries/local
governments/companies jointly
conduct study
Participation in
financing/project
Project
Participation in
feasibility study
Participation in
financing/project
commencement
Local public/ private
financial institutions
Loan provision
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Facility construction/ project
operation
 JV consisting of entities from
both countries will build and
operate the facilities
- 27 -
Japanese companies
Loan provision
Governmental / private
financial institutions
of Japan
1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
- 28 -
Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
Participated in a study on an Waste to Energy project in Malaysia
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)
Implementation
period
Study details
Requests
made to Clean
Authority of
TOKYO
23cities
Malaysia

Conceptual design (investigating specification)

Survey and future estimates on forms of waste

Explanations on activities for reaching
agreements with residents
Apr – Nov, 2012
Study type
A study hosted by Ministry of Economy, Trade,
and Industry, Japan on setting up private
sector-development infrastructure projects
Study overview
Participants
Provided services
A study on an Waste to Energy project
JGC Corporation, Hitachi Zosen Corporation,
Hitachi Ltd., JX Nippon Oil & Energy
Corporation, Smart Energy Co., Ltd., and
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Collecting waste
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Waste characteristics
survey
Meeting
- 29 -
Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
Participation in a study on a municipal waste management project using a cement
kiln in Vietnam.
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)
Implementation
period
Study details
Requests
made to Clean
Authority of
TOKYO
23cities
Vietnam
May 2012 – March 2013
Study type
Study overview
Provided services
A study hosted by the Japanese Ministry of
Environment for overseas advancement
A study on a municipal waste processing
project using a cement kiln

Explanation on municipal waste management in Tokyo

Proposal on model pilot on waste collection and
transport

Explanations on activities for consensus building with
residents

Explanations on environmental systems and extracting
items for considering the environment
Collecting waste
Participants
Disposal site
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Marubeni, Clean
Authority of TOKYO 23cities
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Meeting
- 30 -
Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
Participation in a study on a local-friendly waste management in Brazil
Project overview
Study details

Location
(Country/ city)
Implementation
period
Brazil
Requests

made to Clean
Authority of

TOKYO
23cities
Aug 2012 – Feb 2013
Study type
Study overview
A study on local-friendly waste management
Participants
Provided services
A study hosted by Ministry of Economy, Trade,
and Industry, Japan on setting up private
sector-led infrastructure projects
Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Nippon Koei,
Japan Consulting Institute, Clean Authority of
TOKYO 23cities
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Understanding the local situation of waste processing
at the relevant area
Making proposals for raising awareness on separation
and recycling, as the measures to promote them
Explanations on activities for reaching agreements
with residents
Providing information related to analyzing the types of
waste
Collecting waste
Disposal site
- 31 -
Meeting
Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
Cooperated in a study on an Waste to Energy project in Kazakhstan
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)
Implementation
period
Study details
Kazakhstan
Requests
made to Clean 

Authority of
TOKYO

23cities
Sep 2013 – Feb 2014
Study type
Study overview
A study on an Waste to Energy project
Participants
Provided services
A study hosted by Ministry of Economy, Trade,
and Industry, Japan on setting up private
sector-development infrastructure projects
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Environmental &
Chemical Engineering Corporation, EX
Research Institute, Japan Consulting Institute,
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Introduction and explanations on Tokyo Model
Survey on forms of waste
Survey on items for considering environmental society
Meeting
Waste characteristics survey
- 32 -
Disposal site
Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
Participated in a study on a comprehensive energy recovery from municipal solid
waste in Russian Federation
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)
Implementation
period
Study details
Russia
Requests
made to Clean

Authority of
TOKYO
23cities
Sep 2014 – Mar 2015
Study type
Study overview
Provided services
Ministry of the Environment, Japan
Study on Advancement of Material Cycle
Businesses to Overseas
Study on Integrated Energy Recovery from
Municipal Solid Waste
Explanation on municipal waste management in Tokyo
Meeting
Disposal site
Participants
Toyota Tsusho Corporation , Hitachi Zosen
Corporation ,EX Research Institute, Japan
Consulting Institute , Clean Authority of
TOKYO 23cities
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Collecting waste
- 33 -
Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
Inviting Malaysian Government officials and implemented a training course aiming at capacity
development related to waste management.
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)
Malaysian government
Implementation
period
Dec 03 – Dec 14, 2012
Oct 21 – Nov 1, 2013
Oct 20 – Oct 30,2014
Implementation
scheme
Training jointly hosted by the Japan
International Corporation Agency (JICA) and
the Government of Malaysia by use of
Japan/Malaysia Economic Partnership
Program (EPP)
Photos
President Nishikawa and participants
Training
overview
Provided services
Lectures: The history of waste collection projects
in 23 Cities of Tokyo, waste management and
recycling policies as part of environmental policies
in Japan, consensus building with residents, etc.
Observations: waste incineration plants,
incombustible waste processing centers,
collection sites etc.
Workshop
Participants
Officials from the Malaysian government
(National Solid Waste Management
Department, Ministry of Housing and Local
Government; Waste Management and Public
Cleansing Corporation)
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
施設見学
- 34 -
Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
JICA Partnership Program is implemented, targeting Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)
Implementation
period
Photos
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Dec 2013 – Mar 2016
Implementation
scheme
Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA)
Meeting
Partnership Program
Training
overview
Provided services
Partnership Building with Local Residents on
Waste Management in Malaysia
【Exchange program between residents】
○Acceptance of Kuala Lumpur citizens
One of target areas
○Dispatch of 23 Cities citizens to Kuala Lumpur
Participants
4 Residential Associations in Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysian Society of Waste Management and
Environment
Arakawa City, Koto City, Setagaya City,
Sumida City
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Waste collection
- 35 -
Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support
A workshop on solid waste management was held in Jakarta, Indonesia
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)
Implementation
period
Photos
Indonesia Jakarta
Mar 4,2014
Implementation
scheme
Implemented jointly with Ministry of the
Environment, Japan and Japan International
Cooperation Agency(JICA).
Keynote Speech
Training
overview
Provided services
①Keynote Speech (Deputy Minister, Ministry of
Environment, Republic of Indonesia)
②Presentations(Bureau of Cleansing, Capital City of
Jakarta, Clean Authority of TOKYO 23 cities)
③Discussion Topic:”Vision on Solid Waste
Management in Indonesia, Advantages of Japan and
Support”
Participants
Government of Indonesia (Ministry of
Environment, Ministry of Public Works),
Capital City of Jakarta, Economic Research
Institute for ASEAN and East Asia,
Residential Representatives of Japanese
Trading Companies , Study Council members
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Discussion
Workshop participants
- 36 -
For your inquiries:
The “Tokyo Model” that we have now introduced systematically explains an institutional framework of municipal solid
waste management implemented in 23 Cities of Tokyo as well as its strengths/advantages.
Once, Tokyo indeed has faced various difficulties on waste management, but we had made efforts in our step by
step approach to solve such issues one after another, which eventually brought us to our on-going municipal solid
waste management. We would say, with proud, that the “Tokyo Model,” at the moment, is the goal of what we had
worked for.
Your countries / cities might be struggling with various difficulties regarding municipal solid waste management.
We would be happy to be your good partner to tackle issues in your countries / cities based upon our strengths of
municipal solid waste management carried out in Tokyo, despite of limitations on our side to work with you through
our budget alone by itself.
International Cooperation Office for Waste Management,
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
12th floor, Tokyo Kusei Kaikan, Iidabashi 3-5-1,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0072, Japan
TEL
: +81-3-6238-0572
FAX
: +81-3-6238-0580
E-Mail
: [email protected]
2014© Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
[THINGS BY WHICH WE CAN COLLABORATE WITH YOU]
・Site visit to incineration plants
・Feasibility Study
・Acceptance of training course participants
/ Implementation of training courses
・Counseling Service, etc
- 37 -
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