EXOTIC PLANTS USED IN OTTOMAN GARDENS
EHLA 2014 Edirne
International Workshop on Evaluation of Historical Landscapes & Cultural Heritages
Neşem Gülşah GÜNAY
Consultants; Prof. Dr. Murat Ertuğrul YAZGAN, Dr. Ömer Lütfü ÇORBACI
ANKARA UNIVERSITY-FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL- DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Introduction:
The garden culture arising from human- nature relationship has been changed with geographical location, climate, socio-culture structure as well as cultural interactions. This change has
been brought use of exotic plants in Ottoman- Turkish gardens.
Istanbul has left its mark on the landscape with two major tree species, Cupressus sempervirens L. var. «Pyramidalis» ( Mediterranean Cypress) and
Pinus pinea L. (Stone Pine) are Istanbul's two exotic trees. These plants had been known that planted in İstanbul in period of Byzantine by gardeners
(Yaltırık 1997).
Kasr-ı Sadabad was built in the period of Sultan III. Ahmed and Grand Vizier İbrahim Pasha who was the his son-in-law at the same time in Kağıthane. About 40 pieces Citrus sp. (Orange
Tree) in flowerpots have been used in front of the Sadabad. To have completed the similarity between Sadabad and Versailles, these trees had been brought by French Ambassador from France
and they have been gift to Sultan III. Ahmed (Yaltırık 1997).
At Beylerbeyi Palace's garden especially selamlik garden Magnolia grandiflora L.
(Southern Magnolia) and in the garden of harem Cedrus deodora (Himalayan cedar) have
been used in period of II. Abdülhamid. Cephalotaxus harringtonia ((Knight ex Forbes)
k.koch (Cowtail Pine)), Phoenix canariensis hort. Ex.chabaud (Canary Island Palm),
Chamaerops excelsa L. (China Palm tree), Tropaeolum majus L. (Indian cress) are other
exotic species.
At the front garden of Dolmabahçe Palace, around The Saltanat Door Platanus
acerifolia (London Planetree), Mabeyn bahçesinde; Fagus sylvatica «Atropurpurea»
Kırchn. (Purple Beech), Aesculus carnea Hayne. (Red Horse-Chestnut ), Picea
pungens «Glauca Pendula» (Blue Spruce) , Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook. (Chinafir), Washingtonia filifera Linden. ( Desert Fan Palm ) have been used as exotic
plants in period of II. Abdülhamid.
Agave americana (Century Plant) has been brought from France to use in Beylerbeyi
Palace's garden in period of Sultan Abdülaziz. These plants have been using in the bronz
flowerpots at Dolmabahçe Palace's entry door at the present time.
In period of Sultan Reşat Magnolia grandiflora (Southern Magnolia), Picea pungens
Engelm. (Blue Spruce), Taxus baccata L. (European yew), Yucca flamentosa (SilkGrass), Cedrus deodora (Himalayan cedar), Aesculus hippocastanaeum (HorseChestnut ), Araucaria araucana K.Koch. (Monkey Puzzle Tree), Picea smithiana
Boiss.( Morinda Spruce) have been used.
Except from these, Cycas revulata Thunb. (Japanese sago palm), orchid species as
Cybidium sp.( Boat Orchids) and Mittonia sp. have been in Dolmabahçe Palace’s
orangery.
Exotic plants as Aesculus hippocastaneum L. (Horse-Chestnut ), Aesculus carnea Hayne. (Red
Horse-Chestnut), Acer negundo L. var. «Variegatum Jacques» (Silver Leaf Boxelder) ,Sequoia
sempervirens ( California Redwood), Pseudotsuga heterophylla (Douglas-fir), Cupressus
sempervirens L. (Mediterranean Cypress), Calocedrus decurens (California Incense Cedar),
Ginko biloba L. (Mature tree), Taxus baccata L. «Fastigiata» (European yew), Cephalotaxus
harringonia (Cowtail Pine) have been used in Yıldız Palace's gardens in period of II.
Adülhamid.
In the same period, 20 pieces pine, 10 pieces Amaranthus sp. (Amarant) and 10 pieces Swietenia
sp. (Genuine Mahogany) were brought via Washington Ambarassador from New York and also
Quercus suber (Cork Oak) was brought from France to use in Yıldız Palace's gardens.
REFERENCES
• YALTIRIK,F., Ef,A. Ve Uzun A. 1997. Tarih boyunca İstanbul’un park bahçe ve koruları egzotik ağaç ve çalıları
• SEÇEN, E., 2011 Dolmabahçe Sarayı ve Nayıldım Bahçeleri 19.yüzyıl tasarım ilkeleri ve bitkisel restitüsyonu . Ddoktora tezi,
Ankara Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi ,Peyzaj Mimarlığı Bölümü .
• http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki
• http://www.millisaraylar.gov.tr
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