An Adult Patient who Presented to Emergency Service
with a Papular Purpuric Gloves and Socks Syndrome:
A Case Report
Papüler Purpurik Eldiven ve Çorap Sendromu ile
Acil Servise Başvuran Yetişkin Bir Hasta: Olgu Sunumu
Department of Emergency Medicine, Medeniyet Universty Göztepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul
Rash diseases characterized macules, papules, vesicles and pustules. Many viral infection associated with generalized morbilliform
skin rash. Papular purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS) is a
clinical situation caused by human parvovirus B19. PPGSS occurs at
hands and foot through lesions exhibiting symmetrical gloves and
socks-like erythematous dispersion. Concomitantly, there are lesions and fever at mouth. A 35 years old woman applied with papular symmetrical eruption at hands and foot, oral lesions and fever.
There existed symmetrical rashes at hands and foot and lesions in
mouth during her physical examination. Parvovirus İg M positive
were determined.The patient who was administered symptomatic
treatment was externalized.
Makül, papül, vezikül ve püstüllerle seyreden hastalıklara döküntülü hastalıklar denir. Pek çok viral enfeksiyon, jeneralize
morbiliform deri döküntüleri ile ilişkilidir. Papüler purpurik eldiven ve çorap sendromu (PPGSS), insan parvovirus B19 virüsünün sebep olduğu klinik bir durumdur. El ve ayaklarda simetrik
eldiven ve çorap tarzı lezyonlar ile beraberinde ağızda lezyonlar ve ateş vardır. Otuz beş yaşında kadın hasta el ve ayaklarda
papüler simetrik döküntü, aftöz orofarengeal lezyonlar ve ateş
ile başvurdu. Fizik muayenesinde el-ayaklarda simetrik döküntüler ve ağızda aftöz lezyonlar mevcuttu. Parvovirus Ig M pozitif saptanan hasta semptomatik tedavi uygulanarak taburcu
Key words: Emergency service; erythema infectiosum; papular purpuric
gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS); parvovirus B19.
Anahtar sözcükler: Acil servis; eritema infeksiyozum; papüler purpurik eldiven
ve çorap sendromu (PPGSS); parvovirus B19.
tiosum is the most frequently seen symptom of Parvovirus
B19 infection. It occurs most frequently in children between
4 and 11 years of age. Joint ailments such as arthritis and
arthralgia are seen more in adults.[1,2] Fetal infection results
in hydrops fetalis.
Parvovirus B19 is a single-stranded DNA virus. It causes
acute infection erythema infectiosum in non-immunocompromised individuals, temporary aplastic crisis in patients
with chronic hemolysis, and acquired pure red cell aplasia in
those who have immune deficiency. Rash diseases are characterized by macules, papules, vesicles, and pustules. Many
viral infections are associated with generalized morbilli-form
skin rashes. Erythematous macules and papules, or less often vesicles and petechiae, are usually centrally localized
and leave palms and soles free of disease.[3] Erythema infec[1,2]
Gloves and socks syndrome, and less often hemophagocytosis, acute hepatitis, and cardiomyopathy can be seen due
to this virus. We presented in this case report a gloves and
socks syndrome associated with parvovirus B19 in a 35-yearold female patient who was admitted to the emergency service with skin rashes, oral lesions, and fever.
Submitted: March 27, 2013 Accepted: July 11, 2014 Published online: July 18, 2014
Correspondence: Dr. Vehbi Ozaydın. Medeniyet Universitesi Goztepe Egitim ve
Arastirma Hastanesi, Acil Tip Klinigi, 34720 Istanbul, Turkey.
e-mail: [email protected]
Turk J Emerg Med 2014;14(4):179-181
doi: 10.5505/1304.7361.2014.92259
Turk J Emerg Med 2014;14(4):179-181
Case Report
A 35-year-old female patient had the complaints of rashes on
her hands and feet, sore throat, high fever, and a burn/sting
during urination when she was admitted to the emergency
service. The patient, who did not have any known history
of disease, had itchy hands and feet about five days before
admittance, which sparked a high fever. The patient was
conscious, oriented, and cooperative during her physical examination and her physical findings were TA: 120/80 mmHg,
pulse 102/min, and fever 39.5°C. The patient’s neck stiffness
and lymphadenomegaly could not be measured. There were
aphthous lesions in her oropharyx hyperemic and oral mucosa. She had petechial rashes of the gloves and socks type,
and a macular appearance that did not go pale when pressed
(Figure 1). Her other system findings were ordinary. Before
presenting to the emergency service, she used antibiotics
prescribed to her (gentamicin and cefditoren 200 mg) for
two days. But when her complaints did not regress, she came
to the service. In her tests, the white blood cell count was
6.5 (4.0-10.0 10^3/mm^3), Hemoglobin: 12.1 (11.5-16.0 g/dl),
hematocrit: 37.1 (37-43%), serum reactive protein: 6.38 (0.000.800 mg/dL), and TIT: leukocyte esterase (LE) +++ and her
biochemical tests were considered normal. She had a normal
sinus rhythm in her electrocardiograph with a speed of 102
and there was not any ST-T change. Her troponin I level was
also normal. After the initial diagnosis of gloves and socks
syndrome, a consultation was requested from the infectious
diseases department. The patient was then bedded in the
infectious diseases department. When the B19 lgM Positive: 1.219 (<0.572) and parvovirus B19 lgG Negative: 0.419
(<0.402) was observed, the etiology determined to be a
acute parvovirus infection. The patient was diagnosed with
parvovirus B19-related papular purpuric gloves and socks
Figure 1.In view of the hands and feet macular petechial rash seen.
syndrome and she was discharged when her complaints
were gone and after a symptomatic treatment.
There is a spectrum of clinical conditions caused by parvovirus B19. The most apparent clinical signs are erythema
infectiosum, arthritis and arthralgia, intrauterine infection,
and hydrops fetalis. It is a persistent infection involving temporary aplastic crises in patients with hemolytic disease and
chronic anemia in patients with immune deficiency. Myocarditis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and neurologic involvement are less frequently seen conditions.[1,2,4] Parvovirus B19
infection has been observed as common in worldwide studies carried out in various countries.[2] Erythema infectiosum
is the most widely seen clinical symptom of B19 infection.
It is seen more in children between 4 and 11 years of age.
Suddenly emerging rashes is the first clinical symptom of
erythema infectiosum. The rash is a diffuse erythema that
occurs in thin papules grouped on the erythematous surface.[5] Joint ailments such as arthritis and arthralgia are seen
more in adults.[1,2] Anthony D. et al. found that rashes were
seen together with acute arthropathy accompanied by flulike symptoms in females during a parvovirus B19 infection.
They also found that arthritis symptoms were seen less in
males than in females, and males had flu-like symptoms
more often. Arthritis is mostly in the form of synovitis with
a sudden onset, pain and rash. It is usually of a transient and
self-limited character.[6] Although our patient described pain
in her joint regions, we did not find any sign of arthritis. However, fatigue, high fever, and gloves and socks type rashes on
her hands and feet indicated that our patient had gloves and
socks syndrome. This syndrome, which was first defined by
Harms et al. in 1990, is characterized by symmetrical ede-
Ozaydin V et al.
An Adult Patient Who Presented to Emergency Service with a Papular
mas and erythemas on hands and feet that exhibit a gloves
and socks distribution, which is accompanied by fever and
oral lesions. However, its relationship with parvovirus B19
was not known until 1991.[7] Systemic symptoms including
exanthema, mucosal lesions, lymphadenopathy, mild fever,
loss of appetite, and arthralgia are seen in PPGSS. Papularpurpuric lesions on hands and feet accompanied by painful
and itchy symmetrical erythema and edema are its characteristics. Mucosal findings include petechia, pharyngeal erythema, swollen lips, and painful oral aphthous lesions.[8] Vulvar edema and erythema as well as dysuria have also been
described.[9] Often lymphopenia and temporary anemia are
seen in laboratory tests, with a less than often elevation in
liver enzymes.[8] We did not find any anemia, lymphopenia,
or biochemical abnormality in our patient. This syndrome
limits itself to a period of 7-14 days.
Although our patient did not have any chest pain, she had
slight myocarditis, so we took her electrocardiograph. Sinus
tachycardia was detected and Troponin I was requested and
found to be negative. Patients with rashes and a toxic appearance should be questioned for chest pain, and their
electrocardiographs should be taken with follow up appointments.
The specific laboratory diagnosis of parvovirus B19 can be
made by using a B19 antibody, viral antigen, or viral DNA.
However, B19 specific DNA count results can still turn out
positive. It will be useful to test DNA amounts with a RealTime PCR in patients with immune deficiency due to insufficient antibody response.[10] In our case, a final diagnosis
could be established based on the findings parvovirus B19
lgM Positive: 1.219 (<0.572) and parvovirus B19 lgG Negative: 0.419 (<0.402).
A specific antiviral treatment is not available for B19 infection. A symptomatic treatment is hardly required for erythema infectiosum. Most of the time, the disease cures itself
without leaving any sequels. The use of aspirin or ibuprofen
may be necessary in patients who complain from arthralgia
or arthritis.[1,2] There is no vaccine to treat parvovirus B19, but
research ongoing to find a treatment.[1]
In conclusion, we presented a case to remind that childhood
diseases can, although rarely, be seen in adults who present
to emergency services with high fever and rashes.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there is no potential conflicts of interest.
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A Case Report - JournalAgent