Univerzitet u Zenici
University of Zenica
Bosnia and Herzegovina
FAKULTET ZA METALURGIJU I MATERIJALE
FACULTY OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum
sa međunarodnim učešćem
9th Scientific - Research Symposium
with International Participation
METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI
proizvodnja – osobine – primjena
METALLIC AND NONMETALLIC MATERIALS
production – properties – application
KNJIGA ABSTRAKTA sa elektronskim izdanjem Zbornika radova
BOOK OF ABSTRACTS with electronic edition of Proceedings
Zenica, 23. – 24.04.2012.
UREDNIK/EDITOR
Dr Sulejman Muhamedagić
IZDAVAČ/PUBLISHER
Univerzitet u Zenici
Organizaciona jedinica Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Travnička cesta 1, 72000 Zenica
Tel: ++ 387 401 831, 402 832, Fax: ++ 387 406 903
KOMPJUTERSKA OBRADA TEKSTA
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND DTP
Almaida Gigović-Gekić
Adnan Mujkanović
Diana Ćubela
ŠTAMPA/PRINTED BY
EURO COPY
M.S. Serdarevića 27, Zenica, BiH
TIRAŽ/ISSUE: 100 primjeraka/copies
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„Metalni i nemetalni materijali“, Zenica, BiH, 23. – 24. april 2012.
ORGANIZACIONI ODBOR / ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Dr Sulejman Muhamedagić, President
Dr. Almaida Gigović-Gekić, secretary
Dr Adnan Mujkanović, technical secretary
Dr Diana Ćubela
Dr Marina Jovanović
Dr Ilhan Bušatlić
Amna Beganović
NAUČNI ODBOR
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC/RESEARCH COMMITTEE
Dr Anžel Ivan, SI
Dr Avdušinović Hasan, BA
Dr Begovac Fuad, BA
Dr Beroš Ana, BA
Dr Bikić Suada, BA
Dr Bikić Farzet, BA
Dr Bizjak Mirko, SI
Dr Bogdanović Grozdanka, SP
Dr Botonjić Šefkija, BA
Dr Brdarević Safet, BA
Dr Burzić Zijah, SP
Dr Bušatlić Ilhan, BA
Dr Chumbley Scot, US
Dr Ćubela Diana, BA
Dr Dabić Pero, HR
Dr Delijić Kemal, CG
Dr Drljević Sulejman, BA
Dr Duraković Jusuf, BA
Dr Durman Mehmed, TR
Dr Džonlagić Nusreta, BA
Dr Ekinović Sabahudin, BA
Dr Fidančevska Emilija, MK
Dr Gigović-Gekić Almaida, BA
Dr Gojić Mirko, HR
Dr Hessling Goetz, DE
Dr Hodolič Janko, SP
Dr Holger Frenz, DE
Dr Ivanković Hrvoje, HR
Dr Jenko Monika, SI
Dr Jovanović Marina, BA
Dr Kosec Borut, SI
Dr Krolo Petar,RH
Dr Kurtović Azra, BA
Dr Lamut Jakob, SI
Dr Mirjanić Dragoljub, BA
Dr Medved Jožef, SI
Dr Muhamedagić Sulejman, BA
Dr Mujkanović Adnan, BA
Dr Mujezinović Aziz, BA
Dr Oruč Mirsada, BA
Dr Ostojić Milinko, BA
Dr Pašalić Zakir, BA
Dr Pašić Sead, BA
Dr Pašić Zijad, BA
Dr Petković Darko, BA
Dr Petrovski Petar, BA
Dr Ranogajec Jonjaua, SP
Dr Rizvanović Mirsada, BA
Dr Rusell Alen, US
Dr Salihović Senaid, BA
Dr Senk Dieter, DE
Dr Spužić Sead, AU
Dr Sredojević Jovan, BA
Dr Stanojlović Rodoljub, SP
Dr Subašić Kemal, BA
Dr Sunulahpašić Raza, BA
Dr Šestić Mediha, BA
Dr Šetrajčić Jovan, BA
Dr Tomašević Sreto, BA
Dr Uzunović Faik, BA
Dr Vitez Ivan, HR
Dr Volkov-Husović Tatjana, SP
Dr Vukojević Dušan, BA
Dr Zelić Jelica, HR
Dr Zlokolica Miodrag, SP
Dr Žigić Izet, BA
Dr Živković Dragana, SP
Dr Živković Živan, SP
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„Metalni i nemetalni materijali“, Zenica, BiH, 23. – 24. april 2012.
SADRŽAJ/CONTENTS
stranica/page
UVODNA PREDAVANJA/KEYNOTES PAPERS
1. POSSIBILITIES OF USING NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
METHODS IN THERMAL SHOCK CHARACTERIZATION OF
REFRACTORY CASTABLE
T. Volkov-Husović, S. Martinović, M. Vlahović. J. Majstorović,
A. Devečerski, B. Matović........................................................................ 1
2. PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF SHAPE MEMORY
ALLOYS
M. Gojić, S. Kožuh, B. Kosec, I. Anžel................................................... 11
SEKCIJA METALNI MATERIJALI/SESSION METALLIC MATERIALS
1. Ispitivanje uticaja vremena homogenizacije i zapunjenosti
laboratorijskog mešača na prividnu gustinu prahova
A. Ivanović, S. Dimitrijević, V. Gardić, M. Ignjatović, V. Marjanović,
V. Andrejić, S. Milojević ........................................................................ 27
2. Primjena sinterovanja u proizvodnji austenitnog nehrđajućeg
čelika bez nikla
S. Butković, M. Oruč, S. Muhamedagić ................................................. 28
3. Luženje silikatne rude nikla sumpornom kiselinom na
povišenom pritisku
V. Matković, M. Sokić, B. Marković....................................................... 31
4. Determination of convective variables in free jet melt-spinning process
B. Karpe, B. Kosec, M. Bizjak, B. Markoli, M. Gojić, I. Anžel .............. 32
5. Primena Reokasting procesa za dobijanje klipnih legura
poboljšanih svojstava
M. Ćosić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, B. Nedeljković, Lj.Pavlović33
6. Udaljavanje metalnih elemenata iz taline ciljanom oksidacijom
P. Derviš, J. Lamut, D. Mujagić ........................................................... 35
7. Korelacija in mold postupka i nodulacije uranjanjem Mg žice
Š. Dervišić, N. Mujezinović, S. Mušinović ............................................. 36
i
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„Metalni i nemetalni materijali“, Zenica, BiH, 23. – 24. april 2012.
8. Poboljšanje stepena čistoće otkovaka tretmanima sekundarne metalurgije u
Željezari Zenica
A. Mahmutović, O. Kablar, Š. Žuna, A. Adilović, N. Arnaut,
N. Balihodžić.......................................................................................... 37
9. Mogućnost zamjene atmosferskog zraka tehničkim kisikom kod
predgrijavanja livnih kazana
J. Duraković, M. Imamović.................................................................... 38
10. Hot rolling of duplex stainless steel LDX 2101
B. Arzenšek, F. Tehovnik, B. Žužek, B. Podgornik................................. 41
11. Materials processing by severe plastic deformation
M. Kos, M. Brunčko, I. Anžel ................................................................. 42
12. Control over shape and size during fine-blanking
D. Česnik, B. Kosec, M. Bizjak .............................................................. 43
13. Reduction of weight at surface treatments of billets
M. Torkar, B. Arzenšek, T. Marolt, B. Kumer........................................ 44
14. The influence of the material from metal sheets in the tool design
or blanking and punching
S. Krrabaj, B. Bytyqi, H. Osmani........................................................... 45
15. Identification of the critical places in the design phase for the
stamping and the punching tool
S. Krrabaj, B. Bytyqi .............................................................................. 46
16. Repair welding of the high frequency electric resistance welded joint
R. Maksuti, M. Rama, R. Aliti, H. Mehmeti ........................................... 47
17. Predicting of thermodynamic properties for ternary Al-Ni-Zn
system using general solution model
D. Živković, Y. Du, N. Talijan, A. Kostov, Lj. Balanović....................... 48
18. Calorimetric investigation of some Ga-based binary systems
Lj. Balanović, L. Gomidželović, D. Živković, D. Manasijević,
A. Kostov, Ž. Živković ............................................................................ 49
ii
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„Metalni i nemetalni materijali“, Zenica, BiH, 23. – 24. april 2012.
19. Registrovanje strukturnih promjena metalnog stakla Al85Y4Ni11
Salčinović, A. Hasović, S. Sulejmanović, T. Mihać, A. Šećibović,
S. Bikić ................................................................................................... 50
20. Analiza morfologije i rasporeda karbidne faze u odlivcima od legura
BSEM 647 i HC301 na bazi kobalta
R. Todorović, A. Kostov, A. Milosavljević, Lj. Todorović...................... 51
21. Uticaj aluminijumnitrida na hladnu deformabilnost niskougljeničnog
čelika za izradu vijaka
B. Baručija, M. Oruč, O. Beganović, M. Rimac ................................... 52
22. Uzajamna zavisnost hemijskog sastava, mikrostrukture i osobina
kod nodularnog liva
B. Fakić, E. Kratina, A. Burić................................................................ 53
23. Utjecaj tehnoloških parametara na žilavost debelostijenih
bešavnih cijevi
S. Rešković ............................................................................................. 54
24. Nonmetalic inclusion in stainless steels alloyed with titanium
B. Arh, F. Tehovnik, D. Štainer - Petrovič, F. Vode, M. Klinar............. 55
25. Microstructural changes in SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel
during hot rolling
F. Tehovnik, B. Arzenšek, B. Arh, F. Vode, B. Žužek............................. 56
26. Development of new grade armour steel
J. Bernetič, G. Kosec, M. Marčetič, T. Vuherer, M. Rimac,
Z. Burzić,, B. Kosec................................................................................ 57
27. Uticaj grešaka na kvalitet i materijalni izvadak u preradi
kontinuirano livenih gredica
Š. Žuna, A. Mahmutović, F.Uzunović, A. Adilović, N. Arnaut,
N. Balihodžić.......................................................................................... 58
28. Utjecaj homogenizacijskog žarenja na mikrostrukturu superlegure
Nimonic 80A
D. Mujagić, D. Ćubela, M. Oruč ........................................................... 59
iii
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„Metalni i nemetalni materijali“, Zenica, BiH, 23. – 24. april 2012.
29. Regresijska i korelacijska analiza rezultata tvrdoće u zavisnosti
od sadržaja mangana i kroma u sivom livu
S. Mušinović, Š. Dervišić, N. Mujezinović, ........................................... 60
30. Uticaj termičke obrade na tvrdoću i veličinu zrna superlegure
Nimonic 80A
R. Sunulahpašić, M. Oruč, B. Muminović.............................................. 61
31. Uticaj hladne deformacije vučenjem na osnovne mehaničke osobine
vatrootpornih austenitnih čelika
F. Uzunović , O. Beganović, B. Muminović, B. Fakić, D. Jerković ....... 62
32. Određivanje zaostalih napona zavarene konstrukcije rezervoara
primjenom magnetne metode
F. Islamović, Dž. Gačo, E. Bajramović ................................................. 63
33. Ispitivanje austenitnih i duplex nehrđajućih čelika na piting koroziju
D. Brkić, F. Bikić ................................................................................... 64
34. Korozija implantata na bazi nehrđajućeg čelika u fiziološkoj otopini
A. Dautbašić, S. Ćatić, A. Odobašić, H. Keran...................................... 65
35. An investigation of different types of joints on the electric water heater
A. Nagode, B. Kosec, B. Zorc, L. Kosec, G. Novak................................ 67
36. Characterisation of BaFe12O19 and NiFe2O4 magnetic materials
V. R. Ćosović, N. M. Talijan, T. Žák, B. David, A. R. Ćosović,
D. T. Živković......................................................................................... 68
SEKCIJA NEMETALNI MATERIJALI /SESSION NONMETALLIC
MATERIALS
1. Dubinin-Radushkevich-Kaganerova izoterma za adsorpcione sisteme
odabranih organskih adsorbata na FAU zeolitu i njegovim modifikacijama
S. Sladojević, V. Antunović, J. Penavin-Škundrić, B. Škundrić,
S. Zeljković, D. Bodroža ........................................................................ 71
2. Karakteristike površine Klinoptilolita u procesima adsorpcije
J. Penavin, B. Škundrić, S. Zeljković, Z. Levi, R. Petrović, S. Sladojević,
S. Krnetić................................................................................................ 73
iv
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„Metalni i nemetalni materijali“, Zenica, BiH, 23. – 24. april 2012.
3. Proizvodnja cementa tipa CEM II/B-W 42,5N sa aspekta pouzdanosti
N. Haračić, N. Merdić, I. Bušatlić, Z. Osmanović, N. Bušatlić ............. 75
4. Upotreba granulisane troske visoke peći kao dodatka za proizvodnju
klinkera u Tvornici cementa Kakanj
N. Merdić, N. Haračić, I. Bušatlić, N. Bušatlić, K. Nihad ..................... 76
5. Analiza procesa separacije prašine u industriji cementa
Z. Osmanović, N. Alić, N. Haračić, Dž. Omerdić .................................. 77
6. The possibility of different fillers application in composition of
refractory coatings
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, M. Đuričić, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović .... 78
7. Mogućnosti korištenja recikliranih vlakana u proizvodnji kraft liner
papira u kombinaciji sa sulfatnom nebjeljenom četinarskom celulozom
Š. Botonjić, J. Sadadinović, M. Krgović ................................................ 79
8. Principi racionalizacije u proizvodnji namještaja od punog drveta
N. Rustempašić, V. Islambegović ........................................................... 81
9. Osnove IR spektrometrije
F. Bikić................................................................................................... 82
10. Utjecaj oplemenjivanja na osobine vatrostalne gline „Klokoti“
Marina Jovanović .................................................................................. 83
11. Application of ultrasonic measurements on durability testing of
sulfur concrete
M. M. Vlahović, S. P. Martinović, T. Đ. Boljanac, J. Majstorović,
T. Volkov-Husović.................................................................................. 84
12. Potential strength improvement by controlling delayed formation
of Ettringite crystals in hydrated concrete
S. Lubej, A. Ivanič, I. Anžel, L. Kosec.................................................... 85
13. Uticaj vrste kationa vezanog za sulfatni ion na koroziju
cementnog kompozita
I. Bušatlić, N. Bušatlić, N. Merdić, N. Haračić ..................................... 86
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IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„Metalni i nemetalni materijali“, Zenica, BiH, 23. – 24. april 2012.
14. Modeling of strength degradation during thermal stability testing
of refractory concrete
S. Martinovic, M. Vlahović, T. Boljanac, J. Majstorović,
T. Volkov Husović .................................................................................. 87
15. Mehanizam ojačanja gume aktivnim nanopunilima
A. Mujkanović, P. Petrovski, M. Rizvanović .......................................... 88
16. Primjena UV-VIS spektrofotometrije u procjeni efikasnosti sredstava
za zaštitu od UV zračenja
F. Bikić, M. Rizvanović .......................................................................... 89
17. Kinetic study of Cr (VI) adsorption from aqueous solution on waste
quartz material
A. Štrkalj, Z. Glavaš, M. Sladojević ....................................................... 90
18. Wear-resistant basalt products for application in mining industry
Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, .V. Pavićević, Lj. Andrić, V. Milošević,
S. Milićević, J. Čarapić......................................................................... 91
SEKCIJA ZAŠTITA RADNE I ŽIVOTNE SREDINE I ODRŽIVI RAZVOJ /SESSION
ENVIROMENT PROTECTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1. Interakcija menadžmenta i okoline sa akcentom na okolinsko energijsko
upravljanje u preduzeću
N. Šehić-Mušić, L. Mušić ....................................................................... 95
2. Troškovi životnog ciklusa i analiza troškova životnog ciklusa s osvrtom
na hrvatska poduzeća
P. Čovo, P. Šopić ................................................................................... 97
3. Hemijska analiza čestica zavarivačkog dima metodama AAS i
SEM-EDS
R. Begić, A. Imamović, M. Oruč, A. Salkić ............................................ 98
4. Potencijali za izgradnju mini bioplinskog postrojenja na bazi biorazgradivih
materijala
I. Šišić, S. Hodžić ................................................................................. 101
5. Razvoj i analiza matematskog modela sagorijevanja visokokaloričnog
biogoriva
Z. Osmanović, N. Haračić, D. Babić, A. Osmanović ........................... 102
vi
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„Metalni i nemetalni materijali“, Zenica, BiH, 23. – 24. april 2012.
6. Proizvodnja i primjena biogoriva kao alternativa održivog razvoja
S. Kesić, F. Tarahija ............................................................................ 103
7. Analiza sadržaja izduvnih gasova mineralnog dizela i njegovih smjesa sa
biodizelom iz otpadnog jestivog i suncokretovog ulja
S. Kesić, J. Sadadinović ....................................................................... 104
8. Vodni otisak
E. Trožić, E. Smajić, E. Trožić ............................................................. 105
9. Energija iz obnovljivih izvora- energetski potencijali rijeke Blihe
E. Trožić, E. Smajić, E. Trožić ............................................................. 106
10. Fizikalno-hemijski indikatori kvaliteta vode rijeke Gostović
A. Ćatić, A. Polić.................................................................................. 107
11. Certification manual of wood and wooden products
I. Alagić................................................................................................ 108
12. Adaptibilne ogradne stukture objekta
A. Salihbegović .................................................................................... 109
13. Specifičnosti projektovanja seizmički otpornih zidanih tornjeva
A. Čaušević, N. Kuljuh, A. Damadžić .................................................. 110
14. Povećanje energetske efikasnosti kroz toplotnu izolaciju
Dž. Agić, H. Keran, H. Makić, S. Čatić ............................................... 112
vii
UVODNA PREDAVANJA
KEY NOTE PAPERS
IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
POSSIBILITIES OF USING NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS IN
THERMAL SHOCK CHARACTERIZATION OF REFRACTORY CASTABLE
T. Volkov - Husović
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, POB 3503,
11000 Belgrade, Serbia
S. Martinović and M.Vlahović
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and other Raw Mineral Materials, Franchet d’Esperey
76,11000 Belgrade, Serbia
J. Majstorović
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Djusina 4, Belgrade, Serbia
A. Devecerski and B. Matović
University of Belgrade , Institute of Nuclear Sciences,“ Vinca”, Belgrade
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to investigate possibilities of using non destructive testing
methods for additional thermal shock monitoring of refracory castable. Samples based on
low cement high alumina catsable sintered at 1100 °C with a dwell time of 3 hours will
be used in this paper. Thermal stability of refractory LCC samples will be tested using
standard laboratory procedure of water quench test (ICS 81.080 SRPS B.D8.308 former
JUS B. D8. 306). Program for image analysis Image Pro Plus will be applied for
monitoring destruction at the surface and bulk of the sample before and during testing.
Obtained results will be used for analysis of the level of sample degradation before
testing, as well as level of degradation during testing. Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing
(UPVT) will be applied to measure ultrasonic velocities changes during testing. Based on
obtained results models for strength degradation of the samples during thermal shock
will be proposed. Results of proposed models will be compared with the experimental
values of compressive strength degradation during thermal shock. Based on the obtained
results analysis of monitoring sample behavior due to rapid temperature change will be
given, as well as strength degradation defining life time of the samples.
Keywords: Non destructive testing, Image analysis, UPVT, Low Cement High Alumina
Castable ,
1 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
1. INTRODUCTION
Refractory castable are monolith, thermally untreated composite materials with
refractoriness of 1850°C and more. It is delivered onto the market as dry admixture that is
mixed with water or any other specific liquid mixed in situ of application, solidified at
normal or elevated temperature and have limited property of striction at implementation
temperature [1-10]. Advantages of refractory castable comparing to modeled refractory
products are various, and one of the most important are the following:
Refractory castable masonry are monolith, hence there is no damage on edges (joints)
which can be the case with masonry made of refractory bricks;
• Castable with calcium-aluminates cement form 70–80% of total strength within just 24
hours unlike Portland cement castable which reach this level of strength only after 28
days;
Fast mounting and simple repairing, which is not the case with bricks;
They are excellent replacement for complex forms of refractory bricks;
Simple mounting on hardly accessible places;
Thermal stability of refractory castable is much higher comparing to bricks, which can be
explained by different level of sintering from hot toward cold side. Namely, thickness of
zone treated in kiln is 1-2 cm, behind which is transitional layer and on the cold side,
layer of unkilned material. This structure can reduce strain on thermal shock unlike
masonry made of sintered refractory bricks.
Small warehouse and fast availability of raw materials.
Since the thermal shock resistance of refractory materials determines their application, it
is very important to know thermal stability and behavior of the material during sudden
temperature changes. Due to increasing requirements of iron-steel and metal industry and
nuclear engineering too, modern castable structures should provide resistance on high
thermal stresses for sufficiently long time, after repeatedly heating and cooling under
mechanical loads. Therefore, acquainting with thermal and mechanical behavior of the
castable is of particular importance to application and life time of refractory castable [111,17].
Besides the improvements regarding selection of starting materials, castable
compositions, and installation methods, progress related to the characterization
techniques is very important for determination of castable properties. Based on this
approach, particular attention was given to the non-destructive methods for analyzing and
assessing the castable properties [12-15,17].
Thermal shock behavior of low cement castable sintered for 3 hours at 1100 °C will be
discussed in this paper. Water quench test will be applied as an experimental technique
[1,2]. Degradation of the samples during water quench test will be monitored by using the
image analysis. Ultrasonic measurements for determination Young modulus of elasticity
will be applied in order to monitor changes in ultrasonic velocities related to the
compressive strength degradation during thermal shock.
The primary goal of this paper was to investigate possibility of implementation of nondestructive methods on analysis of thermal shock behavior of the low cement castable.
Implementation of nondestructive test methods as image analysis and ultrasonic
measurements will be applied as they provide powerful methodology for monitoring
changes during thermal stability testing.
2 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
Due to image analysis, more systematic and more accurate measurements have become
possible. Therefore, more objective characterization of concrete related to material properties
is provided [1,2]. Certain properties of concrete using image analysis can be obtained.
Evaluation of various concrete properties, as well as effect of external influences on the
microstructure of concrete can be investigated using these non-destructive methodologies
[1,2].
2. MATERIAL
Preparation of low cement high alumina castable are used the following raw materials:
various fractions of laminated alumina, reactive alumina, calcium-alumina cement,
dispersive alumina and water solution of lemon acid (0,05). As an aggregate for preparing
low cement high alumina castable tested in this thesis was used laminated alumina with
maximal grain size 5 mm whilst contents of matrix included small fractions of laminated
alumina (< 20µm), calcium alumina cement, reactive and dispersive alumina. Matrix
share in content of tested castable was 35%.
Table 1. Properties of the alumina based refractory castable sintered at 1100°C [17]
Property
Mark
Unit
Value
Compressive strength
σc
MPa
59.43 MPa
(20°C/24h)
Compressive strength
σc
MPa
110.003 MPa
(1100°C/24h)
Bending strength
σf
MPa
20.01 MPa
(105°C/24h)
Density
Water absorption
Maximal particle size
Hardness
Refractoriness
ρ
ω
SK
g/cm3
%
mm
Mohs scale
-
*(ICS 81. 080 SRPS D8.302); **ICS 81.080 SRPS B. D8. 300; *** ICS 81.080 SRPS B. D8. 303
3.09
4.5
5
Over 9
>35(1780°C)
The prepared alumina based refractory material used in this investigation had 98.11 % of
Al2O3 and 1.22 % CaO. Relevant properties are given in Table 1.
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Fig. 1.a. XRD patterns of LCC matrix samples and SEM structures sintered at 1100°C
3. THERMAL STABILITY TESTING
Methods of material testing by destruction are also used for testings conducted at room
and elevated temperatures. Cubes with edges of 40 mm are prepared for compressive
strength test (ICS-81.080 SRPS B. D8. 304) and water quench test (ICS-81.080 SRPS B.
D8. 319) which is used for testing thermal stability. Water quench test (ICS-81.080 SRPS
B. D8. 308) was applies as experimental method. First, the samples (4x4x4 cm) were
dried at 110°C during 24 hours; then put into electrical furnace at 1100°C and left for
another 15 minutes. Then, the samples are cooled down in water for 3 minutes, and dries
before returning to furnace at 1100°C. This procedure is repeated until appearance of first
cracks (fracture). Number of these cycles before appearance of cracks (fracture) is taken
as a measure of material thermal resistance. By a standard fracture is defined as complete
destruction of a sample, or destruction of 50 or more percentages of surface, coherent
prior to this testing. In Figure 1 is shown behavior of sample surface after certain number
of cycles [12-15,17].
3.1. Image analysis
Program for image analysis was used for measuring scope of surface damage and
degradation within the sample, before and during water quench testing. Follow up of
scope of sample damage, i.e. its surface and interior was made by taking images and
micro-images, before and during water quench testing, allowing observation of a
difference between undamaged and damage sections of material. Five surfaces of each
sample was photographed and analyzed, whilst the sixth sample surface was used for
marking, as shown in Figure 2.1. Internal structure degradation of the sample was
followed up by SEM microscope, type JEOL JSM-5800. Changes in appearance of
surface and microstructure are observed and followed up using a program for image
analysis - Image Pro Plus. Porosity level’s been adopted as a measure of internal
degradation of the sample. Surface and internal structure of castable and its damage are
shown as ratio (P/P0) in Figure 2.2 [12-15,17].
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3.2 Degradation of Young modulus of elasticity
Testing by measuring velocity of ultrasonic waves was primarily used on refractory
material in late 50s of the last century. Various publications dealt with practical
application of ultrasonic method for testing material without destruction and testing and
following up of properties of industrial refractory materials. Ultrasonic method is
elaborate in greater detail in literature [2,3,5-7]. In short, pulses of sideline elastic strains,
i.e. their waves are generated by electro-acoustic probe which is placed directly onto
surface of refractory material to be tested. After passing through material, impulses are
received and transformed into electric energy by the second probe. Ultrasonic method
(measuring velocity of ultrasonic waves) is performed by using equipment OYO model
5210 by standard testing procedure (ICS 81,080 SRPS D. B8. 121). Vaseline is used as a
converter, i.e. as a medium for connection between two parallel sides of cylindrical
sample with 1 cm in diameter and 1 cm in height. Ultrasonic velocity is then calculated
from motion of converter and time of wave delay on oscilloscope.
Equation for change of Jung’s elasticity module is based on reduction of velocity in
ultrasonic field with used expression being:
(1)
with: σo-compressive strength before subjecting material to thermal shock testing, Vlsideline ultrasonic velocity after testing, Vlo- sideline ultrasonic velocity before testing, n
is constant of material under given conditions.
This equation uses sideline ultrasonic velocities. Properties of change in material strength
are obtained by assigning three different values for n in previous equation, n=0,488
(model 1), n=0,688 (model 2) and n=0,788 (model 2) [6].
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Figure 1. Sample before and during testing [12-15,17]
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4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results of material testing obtained by using image analysis method
Image analysis using a program Image Pro Plus was used for determining level of
damage of tested sample. Experimental results are shown parallel with results of 3 models
in Diagrams 2.1 and 2.2, as a function of number of cycles of water quenching and scope
of material damage. All results are calculated and compared with ideal surface and they
are shown in percentages with Po being a level of damage before testing and P after
certain number of cycles. Similarly, in case of microstructure analysis, scope of damage
was shown in percentages ((P/Po) • 100%), where P is area of damage structure after
testing, and Po damage of structure before testing, in accordance with ideal analyzed area
of micro-image (area 74μm × 74μm and 31,5μm × 31,5μm).
Equation for following up material damage is:
(2)
As visible from Figures 2.1&2.2, levels of surface damage and interior of the sample are
very similar until the end of 40th cycle. After this point, scope of surface damage
increased faster than damage of interior of the sample. Different level of damage can
bring additional strain and may additionally affect behavior of the samples [6]. This is the
reason for introducing modules according to which we can approximately determine
damage of materials for given conditions. For superficial damage of material the closest
model is model 3 with coefficient n=2,488 (Figure 2.1), whilst for internal damage, the
most suitable model 3 is from Figure 2.2 and coefficient n=5,488.
Fig. 2.1 Strength degradation modeling based
on the surface damage of the sample
Fig. 2.2 Strength degradation modeling
based on the bulk damage of the sample
As visible from Figures 2.1&2.2, levels of surface damage and interior of the sample are
very similar until the end of 40th cycle. After this point, scope of surface damage
increased faster than damage of interior of the sample. Different level of damage can
bring additional strain and may additionally affect behavior of the samples [6]. This is the
reason for introducing modules according to which we can approximately determine
damage of materials for given conditions. For superficial damage of material the closest
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model is model 3 with coefficient n=2,488 (Figure 2.1), whilst for internal damage, the
most suitable model 3 is from Figure 2.2 and coefficient n=5,488.
4.2. Results of ultrasonic measurements
Results of change of ultrasonic velocities are shown in Figure 2.3 as a function of number
of cycles and reduction of the sample’s strength.
Testing of following up damage to the surface and interior of refractory material
subjected to thermal shock by applying method of image analysis didn’t provide results
related to issue of strength degradation in tested refractory material. This is the reason for
adding method of ultrasonic measuring in order to improve quality of standard testing and
prolonging working period of the material.
For calculation of change in material strength was used the following equation:
(3)
Model 1 represents a result of equation with coefficient n= 0,488, model 2 contains value
of equation for coefficient n=0,688, whilst for model 3, in equation was used coefficient
n=0,788. Results for models 1,2&3 are compared to experimental values for strength
obtained during testing and are shown in Diagram 2.3.
Ultrasonic measurement led to the following conclusions:
Changes of ultrasonic velocities are related to the number of cycles and level of
destruction and they reduce proportionally to increase of level of destruction. The best
correlation with experimental results is determined for model 3 with coefficient n being n
= 0,788
4.3. Comparison of the results of models with experimental results
Based on comparative results of ultrasonic methods, internal and external damage and
experimental results can be concluded that methods of bulk (internal) and surfacel
damage result in approximately the same results as experimental, but ultrasonic method
gives the best results. Results of this method can be used as valid data for determining
duration of the material as well as strength degradation due to thermal shock.
Fig. 2.3 Strength degradation modeling
based on the ultrasonic measurements
8 Fig. 2.4 Comparison of the results of
proposed models with the experimental
results
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5. CONCLUSION
Low cement high alumina refractory castable are sintered at temperature of 1100°C for
testing thermal stability, as well as behavior of material during testing. In this sense were
followed up: surface damages, damages of the sample’s interior, as well as strength
degradation of the sample. Objective of this research is to envisage behavior of samples
during thermal shock. The results obtained during testing led to the following
conclusions:
• Testing by water quenching as experimental method is not sufficiently reliable
for evaluating scope of damage and strength degradation during testing.
• Visual inspection during water quench test (ICS-81.080 SRPS B. D8. 319) is
recommended as a method for determining end of testing (50% of surface
damage), implementing quantitative image analysis of the samples for measuring
surface damage and scope of material degradation within the sample could be a
way for improving procedure for quantified evaluation of the sample’s
destruction.
• Implementation of image analysis of the samples before and during testing, as
well as ultrasonic measuring can be applied for estimating behavior of the
samples on thermal shock.
• Change of strength within the sample, as well as external damages can be
envisaged by proposed models. For method of determining external damage the
most accurate is model 3 with coefficient n=2,488, whilst for method of
determining internal damage the most accurate is also model 3 with coefficient
n= 5,488.
The most precise and the most reliable method is still method of ultrasonic
testing with coefficient n=0,788 in model 3.
• Based on calculation of critical strength (40-50% of initial) can be envisaged
critical number of cycles.
• Obtained results showed that for low cement high alumina refractory castable,
better correlation of number of testing cycles with scope of damage (N-(P/Po))
was obtained with n=0,588. This result indicate need to use different values of n
for different types of material, i.e. different sintering temperatures due to
obtaining different phases [6,7].
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to PhD Andreas Buhr, Almatis,
Germany and the Netherlands for supplying the raw materials used in the experiments.
This research has been financed by the Ministry of Science and Environment of the
Republic of Serbiaas a part of the projects III 45012, TR16004 and TR 19016.
6. LITERATURE
[1] I.A. Altun: Cem. Concr. Res., 2001, 31, 1233-1237.
[2] N.M. Khalil, M.F. Zawrah, and M.A. Serry: Ind. Ceram., 2005, Vol. 25, No.2, 104109.
[3] F.A. Cardoso, M.D.M. Innocentini, M.F.S. Miranda, F.A.O. Valenzuela, and V.C.
Pandolfelli: J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 2004, 24, 797-802.
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[4] C. Parr, B. Valdelièvre, and C. Wöhremeyer: Refractories Applications and News,
2002, Vol. 7, No. 3, 17-23.
[5] Refractories Handbook, Published by The Technical Association of Refractories,
Japan a Founding Member of UNITECR, 1998, Japan, 215-221.
[6] S. Banerjee: Monolithic Refractories: a comprehensive handbook, The American
Ceramic Society and World Scientific Publishing, 1998, USA, 58-73.
[7] M.F.M. Zawrah and N.M. Khalil: Ceram. Int., 2001, 27, 689-694.
[8] W.E. Lee and R.E. Moore: J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 1998, 81 [6], 1385-1410.
[9] D.N. Boccaccini, M. Cannio, T.D. Volkov-Husovic, E. Kamseu, M. Romagnoli, P.
Varonesi, C. Leonelli, I. Dlouhy, and A.R. Boccaccini: J. Mater. Sci., 2008, 43, 40794090.
[10] N. Schmitt, J.F. Hernandez, V. Lamour, Y. Berhaud, P. Meunier, and J. Poirier:
Cem. Concr. Res., 2000, 30, 1597-1607.
[11] Robert O. Russell, Gary D. Morrow, Sonic Velocity Quality Control of Steel Plant
Refractories, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 63 (7), (1984) 911-914
[12] S. Martinović, M. Vlahovic, J. Majstorović, M.Dojcinovic, and T. Volkov-Husović,
Applied Ceramic Tecnology, ISSN 0350-820X, (2011), 8 (5) 115-1124
[13] Sanja Martinovic, Marina Dojcinovic, Jelena Majstorovic, Aleksandar Devecerski,
Branko Matovic, Tatjana Volkov Husovic, Journal of European Ceramic Society, ISSN
0955-2219, 30 (2010) 3303–3309
[14] S.Martinovic, J. Majstorovic, V. Vidojkovic and T. Volkov-Husovic, CeramicsSilikaty, 54 (2) 169-175 (2010)
[15] S.Martinović, J. Majstrović, V.Vidojković, T.Volkov-Husović, Processing and
Application of Ceramics, 3 [4] (2009) 191–196
[16] T.Volkov-Husović, S. Martinović, M. Dimitrijević, M. Dojcinovic, J. Majstorović
and B. Matović, Nondestructive evaluation methods for composites: ultrasonic
measurements and image analysis application on testing in extreme conditions, WILEY
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMPOSITES, IN PRESS
[17] S.Martinovic, Ph.D.Thesis, TMF. Belgrade, 2011.
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PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
Mirko Gojić1, Stjepan Kožuh1, Borut Kosec2, Ivan Anžel3
1
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Metallurgy, Croatia
2
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering, Slovenia
3
University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slovenia
ABSTRACT
The shape memory effect is the remembrance of the previously introduced material
shape, and in physical aspect it is the consequence of martensite phase transformation in
the structure of homogenous substance. It is known that a numerous alloys show shape
memory effect, but the three most popular polycrystalline shape memory alloys are: NiTi, Cu-based (Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni etc.) and ferrous alloys (Fe-Pt, Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si
etc.). In this work the review of properties and applications of shape memory alloys
(SMAs) is shown. Furthemore, in this work results of Ni-Ti and Cu-Al-Ni SMAs
investigations are presented.
Key words: Shape memory alloys (SMAs), martensite, nitinol, Cu-based alloys, properties
1. INTRODUCTION
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are relatively a new class of advanced functional materials
which are able to memorize and recover its original shape after being significantly
deformed from heating over the phase transformation temperature. The SMAs are
crystalline materials with unique functional properties (e. g. one-way and two-way shape
memory effect, recovery stress, actuators function etc.). Shape memory effect was first
found in Au-47.5 at.% Cd alloy (Swedish physicist Arne Olander in 1951 year and then
in In-Ti alloy 1953.). However, the possibility for using of SMAs in actual application
was realized for Ti-Ni alloy in 1963. The TiNi alloys are commonly referred as Nitinol
(derived from Ni-Ti Naval Ordinance Laboratories, part of the US Department of
Defence). On the other hand Cu-based shape memory alloys were found to reveal the
shape memory effect in 1964 [1]. The shape memory effect is the remembrance of the
previously introduced material shape, and in physical aspect it is the consequence of
martensite phase transformation in the structure of homogenous substance. Martensite
transformation is a diffusionless phase transformation in the solid state. To enable
memory effect in SMAs, necessary condition is presence of reversible phase
transformation of austenite to martensite. Such phase transformations can be obtained by
mechanical (loading) or thermal methods (cooling and heating). Depending on the
temperature of deformation of the SMAs demonstrate three different types of mechanical
behavior: pseudoelastic, pseudoplastic (one-way shape memory effect) and two-way
shape memory effect. Numerous alloys [2-4] show shape memory effect (Ag-Cd, Au-Cd,
Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Sn, Cu-Zn, Cu-Zn-X, where X=Si, Sn, Al etc., In-Ti, Ni-Al, Ni-Ti, Fe-Pt,
Mn-Cu, Fe-Mn-Si etc.). Among them the three most popular polycristalline shape
memory alloys are: Ni-Ti, Cu-based (Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni etc.) and ferrous alloys (Fe-Pt,
Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si etc.). The other commercial SMAs include Cu-Al-Mn, Cu-Al-Be,
Cu-Zn-Mn, Cu-Zn-Ni, Cu-Al-Fe, Cu-Zn-Sn alloys etc. [5]. Nitinol, as binary SMA, is
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very attractive for industrial and medical applications due to the importance of the shape
memory effect, pseudoelasticity, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However the
most Ti-Ni-based alloys cannot be used at temperatures above 100 oC (Fig. 1) due to the
limitation of the martensite transformation temperatures.
Figure 1. Temperature range applications of SMAs
The main advantage of Cu-based SMAs are their low price compared to other
SMAs. Properties of Cu-Al-Ni alloys are superior to those of Cu-Zn-Al alloys due to their
wide range of useful transformation temperature and small hysteresis. Although Cu-Al-Ni
alloys have a better thermal and electrical stability as well as higher operating
temperatures, their practical applications are sometimes restricted by very small shape
changes due to their poor workability and susceptibility to brittle intergranular cracks.
Their very high elastic anisotropy and large grain size cause brittle and poor mechanical
properties owing to the high degree of order in the parent phase. Typically composition of
Cu-Al-Ni SMA is in the range Cu-(13-15 wt. %) Al-(3-4.5 wt. %)Ni, while Cu-Zn-X
(X=Al, Si, Sn etc.) contained from 38.5 to 41.5 wt. % Zn and a small fraction of X
element. In this work, the review of SMAsproperties and applications is shown.
2. THE TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
The technology of production of shape memory alloys are induction melting, vacuum
melting, followed by vacuum arc melting, hot working (forgeing, rolling) followed by
cold working (wire drawing, rolling), melt-spinning (Fig. 2), continuous casting (Fig. 3)
etc. These techniques combined with heat treatments finally lead to the required products.
Also further of interest is microtechnology for production very thin shape memory alloys
such as melt-spinning or research of thin film production by vapor deposition, magnetron
sputtering etc. The deposition of shape memory alloy films exhibited a good shape
memory effect. Other processing routes productions of SMA are powder metallurgy and
combustion synthesis [6-8].
In order to improve the stability of the passive film on NiTi alloy as well as
reduce the release of nickel out and improve the biocompatibility/bioactivity of NiTi
alloys can be used surface treating techniques (laser surface melting, laser surface
alloying, plasma ion implantation etc.) on the surface NiTi alloy [9]. These techniques
were aimed at creating a uniform, homogenous and thick TiO2-x films up to 30 μm on
NiTi surfaces which don't only act as a barier to nickel release but also enhance biological
performances.
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a)
b)
Figure 2. Schematic illustration of a free jet melt spinner (a) and
photography of ribbons CuAlNi shape memory alloys (b) [10,11]
3. PROPERTIES OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
Phase diagrams are important to understanding properties of shape memory alloys. By
means of the phase diagram it is possible to determine stability of particular phases (Figs.
4 and 5). Figure 4 presents phase diagram of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy [14]. Nickeltitanium alloy can reversibly change between two stable crystal structures. The hightemperature austenite phase has a cubic form with B2 symmetry, while the lowtemperature martensite phase is monoclinic with B19 symmetry. The single phase TiNi
phase with B2 type ordered structure retains upon quenching or slow cooling to room
temperature. By cooling of the NiTi alloy transforms into martensite phase. In this
diagram (Fig. 4) is interested central region between Ti2N and TiNi3 phases. The Ti2N
phase is cubic structure, while the TiNi3 phase has the hexagonal DO24 type ordered
structure. The phase diagram (Fig. 4) is controversial due to presence or absence of
eutectoid decomposition of TiN→Ti2Ni3→TiNi3 at temperature of 630 oC [15].
a)
b)
Figure 3. Shematic illustration of device for continuous casting (a) and photography
of CuAlNi bars shape memory alloy (b) [12, 13]
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Figure 4. Phase diagram of Ti-Ni shape
memory alloy [14]
Figure 5a shows the phase diagram for Cu-Al-Ni ternary alloy, by vertical crosssection at 3 wt. % Ni [16]. In an equilibrium state, at temperature of 565 oC and 11.8 wt.
% Al, the β-phase with body centered cubic (BCC) structure decomposes into α-phase
(primary solid solution of Al and Ni in Cu, FCC structure) and γ2-phase. It is the
eutectoid decomposition. Brittle phases such as γ2 (cubic intermetallic phase Cu9Al4) and
NiAl (ordered BCC structure) began to precipitate during exposure of alloy at
temperature below eutectoid temperature. By rapidly quenching from single β-phase
region, the eutectoid decomposed is suppressed and then the martensite transformations
occur. Depends on temperature and stress conditions the different types of martensite
(β′1-martensite-18R1 type structure, γ′1-martensite-2H type structure) can be occured
[17,18].
A vertical section of the equlibrium phase diagram of the Cu-Zn-Al ternary alloy
system at a constant Al content of 6 wt. % is shown in Fig. 5b [2]. The high temperature
β-phase is disordered BCC, but upon quenching to room temperature ordered B2 or DO3
(or L21) type structure occur, and then transforms into 9R (or 6M) or 18R(6M) martensite
with or without further cooling, depending on the alloy composition. Width higher
aluminium content becomes higher, the β-phase is susceptible to decomposition into α
(the FCC primary solid solution of Cu) and γ (Cu5Zn8 cubic phase) at around 427 oC.
These alloys are usually quenched to retain the β-phase for further transformation to
martensite [19].
By quenching of parent high-temperature phase (β-phase) transform to lowtemperature phase (martensite, Fig. 6). Martensite consists of twin-related, selfaccommodating variants (Fig. 6b).
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a)
b)
Figure 5. Phase diagrams of Cu-Al-Ni (a) and
of Cu-Zn-Al (b) shape memory alloys [2, 16]
The shape change among the variants tends to cause them to eliminate each other.
As a result little macroscopic strain is generated. In the case of stress-induced martensites
or stressed a self-accommodating structure, the variant can transform and yield to the
greatest shape change cause in the direction of the applied stress and becomes dominant
in the configuration (Fig. 6c). This process creates a macroscopic strain which is
recoverable (during heating) as the crystal structure reverts to austenite during reverse
transformation.
Figure 6. Schematic illustration of martensitic transformation [20]
a) β-phase crystal, b) self-accommodating, twin-releated variants A, B, C and D after
cooling and transformation to martensite c) variant A becomes dominant when stress is
applied
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Shape memory alloys show superelasticity when deformed by determined stress
in the temperature range (at temperatures slightly above finish temperature for austenite
transformation on heating) in which thermoelastic martensite is formed. When the stress
is removed the deformation disappers and the material spontaneously returns to the
original phase. The two-way shape memory effect is not an intrisic property of shape
memory alloys but can be obtained by several training methods, most of which are based
on thermomechanical cycling. For example, the stabilized stress-induced martensite can
be obtained by producing γ-precipitates during the training procedure [21].
The martensite transformation (Figs. 7 and 8) occur in the temperature range
from Ms (martensite start temperature upon cooling) to Mf (martensite finish temperature
upon cooling). By heating of products made SMA from As (start temperature for austenite
transformation on heating) to Af (finish temperature for austenite transformation at
heating) the product recovered its original shape. These temperatures (Fig. 7) and
hysteresis (ΔT=Af-Ms) determine the environment in which of SMA may be used.
a)
b)
Figure 7. DSC curves of Ti-Ni (a) and Cu13Al4Ni0.035B shape memory alloys (b) [11,
22]
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SEI
SEI
a)
b)
Figure 8. SEM surface micrographs of Cu-13Al-4Ni-0.02B ribbons obtained by melt
spinner procedure (a) and CuAlNi bars obtained by continuous casting at casting rate of
255 mm/min (b) [12, 23]
4. APPLICATION OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
The applications of the shape memory alloys, as a relatively new functional materials,
have a wide range of applications. These alloys show very good potential in many real
fields of applications (Table 1). Due to their exceptional properties (Table 2), shape
memory alloys find their markets in a lot of industrial sectors, such as mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, aerospace etc. (for example as sensors, actuators,
detectors, fasteners, absorbing component, superelastic elements, connectors, thermal
security etc.) [24].
Nitinol alloys dominate on the commercial market (biomedical, aerospace and
automotive industries etc.), because of their larger shape memory effect, better
pseudoelasticity, and superior properties with respect ductility, fatigue, corrosion
resistance, biocompatibility and biofunctionality as well as recoverable strain. Also grows
interest in the possibility of embedding shape memory alloy wire elements into a
composite matrix in order to alter the vibration frequency of structures, as well as for
shape control of structural elements [25]. Thin films of NiTi shape memory alloys are
promising materials for manufacture of micro devices for micro-electro-mechanical
systems such as micropumps, microwrappers, microvaves, since they exhibit the higest
work output per unit volume compared to other microactuation materials [26, 27].
Table 1. Current examples of applications of shape memory alloys
Aids for disabled
Fire sprinklers
Rock splitting
Aircraft flap/slat adjusters
Gas discharge
Root canal drills
Anti-scald devices
Graft stents
Satelite antenna deployment
Arterial clips
Intraocular lens mount
Scoliosis correction
Automative thermostats
Kettle switches
Solar actuators
Braille print punch
Keyhole instruments
Spectacle frames
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Catheter guide wires
Cold start vehicle actuators
Contraceptive device
Electrical circuit breakers
Fibre optic coupling
Filter struts
Fire dampers
Key-hole surgery
instruments
Micro-actuators
Mobile phone antenns
Orthodonic archwires
Penile implant
Pipe couplings
Robot auctors
Steam valves
Stents
Switch vibration damper
Thermostats
Underwired bras
Vibration dampers
ZIF connectors
SMAs are currently being used as implants in the body. A key properties for
biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are the superelasticity, shape
memory effect and corrosion resistance. For applications in the human body, surface
properties and corrosion resistance are the most important characteristics to evaluate the
biocompatibility of shape memory alloys. NiTi shape memory alloy has been widely used
for medical devices, such as orthodontic wires, medical guide wire for diagnostic and
therapeutic catheters, self-expanding cardiovascular and urological stents, bone plates for
internal fixation in bone fracture surgery, staples etc. [28-32].
The NiTi alloys have a relatively stable, continuous and highly adherent
protective oxide layer consisted from TiO2 on the outher surface, which helps to make
them resistance to corrosion. The formation of the film is spontaneously when fresh TiNi
surface is exposed to air and/or moisture due to titanium is highly reactive and has a high
affinity for oxygen.
However the passive film formed on the NiTi surface is not as stable as that on
the other commonly used implant materials such as Ti, Ti6Al4V, Co-Cr alloys etc.
because of the breakdown of the passive film in physiological conditions. A generally
when a biomaterial is implanted into body, the electrochemical reactions may lead to the
formation degradation products which can be toxic for the surrounding tissues and living
calls. Corrosion of metallic materials by body fluids, causes release of metallic ions for a
long time, which may combine with biomolecules such as proteins and enzymes. Also
tissues in the human body contain water, dissolved oxygen, proteins and various ions,
such are chloride and hydroxide. They present an aggressive environment to materials
used for implantation [33].
Table 2. Comparison of main properties of Cu-Al-Ni alloy in relation to Ni-Ti and Cu-ZnAl shape memory alloys [4, 20, 24]
Cu-Al-Ni
Cu-Zn-Al
Properties of alloys
Ni-Ti alloy
alloy
alloy
o
1020
1250
1000-1050
Melting point, C
80-200
580
400
Yield strength, MPa
500-600
800-1000
500-800
Tensile strength, MPa
15
54
5-7
Ductility, %
270
350
350
Fatigue strength (106), MPa
390-400
450-620
373-574
Specific heat, J/kg oC
o
84-120
8.6-18
Thermal conductivity at 20 C, W/m K 30-75
18 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
Properties of alloys
Transformation enthalpy, kJ/kg
Density, kg/m3
Latent heat, J/kg
Electrical resistivity, 106/Ω m
Thermal expansion coefficient, 10-6/K
Maximum recovery stress, MPa
Normal working stress, MPa
Max. transf. strain, % at N = 1
N < 102
N < 105
N < 107
Normal number of thermal cycles
Young′s modulus, GPa
Shape memory transf. temperature, oC
Hysteresis, oC
Max. one way memory, %
Normal two way memory, %
Maximum overheating temperature,
o
C
Damping capacity, SDC %
Grain size, μm
Melting, casting and composition
control
Forming (rolling, extrusion)
Cold working
Machinability
Corrosion resistance
Biological compatibility
Cost ratio
Cu-Al-Ni
alloy
9
7100-7200
7000-9000
0.1-0.14
17
300-600
70
5-6
4
> 5x103
80-100
-200 to 200
20-40
6
1
300
10-20
25-100
Fair
Difficult
Very difficult
Good
Good
Bad
1.5-20
Ni-Ti alloy
28
6400-6500
1900032000
0.5-1.1
6.6-11
500-900
100-130
6-8
6-8
2-4(3)
0.5
> 105
28-83
-200 to 110
2-50
7
3.2
400
15-20
1-100
Difficult
Difficult
Fair
Difficult
Excellent
Excellent
10-100
Cu-Zn-Al
alloy
7
7540-8000
7000-9000
0.07-0.12
17
400-700
40
4-6
4
> 104
70-100
-200 to 150
5-20
4
0.8
150
30-85
50-150
Fair
Easy
Restricted
Very good
Fair
Bad
1-10
Metals commonly used for orthopaedic implants have a Young's modulus in the
range 100-200 GPa (~110 GPa for titanium, ~190 GPa for stainless steel, ~193 GPa for
Co-based alloys). However NiTi shape memory alloy exhibits an elastic modulus (28
GPa) closer to that of bone (0.3-20 GPa) than any other metallic or ceramic material. This
large stiffness mismatch between the implant material and the surrounding human bone
leads to inhomogenous stress distribution to the bone. This so-called stress shielding
effect may cause bone resorption and weakenin bone locally. Finally, it results in aseptic
implant loosening. Due to the elastic modulus, the application of NiTi shape memory
alloys as an orthopaedic implant material, may reduce, the stress shielding effect. Thus
implantation of NiTi shape memory alloys as a load-bearing bone graft substitute lead to
osseointegration and good bone-implant contact [34].
19 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
Every base-metal/alloy implanted in the body will corrode-the only question is to
what extent? On this way possible to improve TiNi cytocompatibility by decreasing the
risks of toxic and allergic reactions associated to nickel. Thus the corrosion resistance of
metallic implant is very important aspect of its biocompatibility. In addition to the release
of ions in the physiological environment, the corrosion process will also result in the
deterioration of dimensional parameters of the metallic implant. It is particulary important
at small complex-geometry minimally-invasive devices which is susceptible to failure
due to mechanically-assisted corrosion.
Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are more cheaper than TiNi alloys. They are
considered as one of the important functional materials to act as actuator or sensor, socalled smart or intelligent materials. The most important advantages to select these alloys
as an actuation mechanism are: simplicity of mechanism, creation of clean, silent, sparkfree and zero-gravity working conditions, high power/weight (power/volume) rations etc.
[35]. Application of single-crystal Cu-Al-Ni alloys in aerospace field including hinges for
development of booms, locking and latching devices, constant force fasteners and nonexplosive separation devices [36]. Also these alloys can be used as connector pads in
microelectronics chips. Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys can be applied to sensors or
magnetic actuators because of their unique magnetic induced deformation properties [37].
The Cu-Al-Mn-based shape memory alloys have high potential for practical applications
in medical and electrical devices, micromachines and energy-storage technological
applications [38].
5. DEVELOPMENT OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
Development of SMAs is a very intensive. Because the Ni-Ti alloys can be fabricated
into various forms or sizes, it is technically feasible to make them an active element in
various composites [39, 40]. The substitution of copper (7-10 at. %) for nickel in Ni-Ti
alloys has some interesting effect on their shape memory characteristics and other
properties (low composition sensitivity of the Ms temperature, increasing of the
dampening capacity etc.). The NiTi alloy cannot be used at temperatures above 100 oC
due to the limitation of the martensite transformation temperatures. In order to overcome
this disadvantage are developed of ternary nitinol alloys including Ti-Ni-Nb, Ti-Ni-Cu,
Ti-Ni-Hf, Ti-Ni-RE (RE-reath elements) due to wider transformation temperature
hysteresis. Alloying by third elements doesn't influence only to the transformation
temperatures, than also effects on strength, ductility, shape memory characteristics etc.
[41-43]. Adding niobium to binary Ni-Ti alloy results in wider hysteresis SMAa which is
quite desirable for coupling and fixing applications. By substitution of nickel in Ni-Ti
SMAs by Pd, Pt and Au by up to 50 at. % and titanium in Ni-Ti is substituted by Hf and
Zr by up to 20 at. % it could be obtain high-temperature SMAs. From an economical
point of view the Ni-Ti-Hf alloys are most attractive.
Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are very sensitive to the exact composition, grain
size, processing (including heat treatment), loading conditions etc. [44]. The inclusion of
additional elements with a small quantitity may change the properties of the alloys
dramatically. Due to overcome the formation of coarse grains in Cu-Al-Ni alloys new
processing techniques such as melt spinning, compustion synthesis sputtering are used.
But these processes generally yield the material/alloys in small quantitivies. Copper based
20 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
shape memory alloys are usually produced by conventional casting techniques. Products
manufactured by this way have solidification related defects. Coarse grains (25-100 μm)
formed during solidification and after subsequent betatizing treatment of alloys make
them brittle and highly prone for intergranular cracking during working. From this reason
their practical applications are sometimes restricted by very small shape changes due to
their poor workability and susceptibility to brittle intergranular cracks. The Cu-Al-Ni
alloys have poor ductility due to the high degree of order and high elastic anisotropy in
the parent β-phase. Parent β-phase is the most stable for an electron to atom ratio
e/a=1.48. Lower values of e/a will promote first the formation of the ductile α-phase
during cooling, while higher values of e/a will promote the formation of the very brittle
γ2-phase. Therefore, generally lower content of aluminium in Cu-Al-Ni SMA allows
better cold deformation of the alloy. In order to improve the ductility of Cu-Al-Ni alloys
manganese can be added [45], replacing partially the aluminium content due to
manganese is a betastabilising element with e/a ratio equal to 1. In order to overcome the
deleterious effect of coarse grains, grain-refining elements as Ti and B can be added to
Cu-Al-Ni alloys [46,47]. Titanium as micro alloying elements have very low solubility in
the β-matrix and tend to form fine precipitates such as the Cu2AlTi [48]. Also the
addition of Ti and B can refine the grains by forming particles (TiB2) which can hinder
grain growth during annealing. Iron-base shape memory alloys (Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Cr-Ni-MnSi-Co, Fe-Ni-Mn, Fe-Ni-C) are very attractive materials because of low price.
6. CONCLUSION
The shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit the memory effect as the consequence of
martensite phase transformation. They are class of advanced functional materials. Among
them the most popular are: Ni-Ti (nitinol), Cu-based (Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni etc.) and
ferrous alloys (Fe-Pt, Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si etc.). Because of their exceptional properties
these alloys are used in many real fields of applications (technical field, medicine etc,).
Development the alloys are very intensive, expecially in technology of production and
improving of functional properties (high-temperature usage, resistance to corrosion,
biocompatibility etc.).
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„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
[40] W. Cai, X. L. Meng, L. C. Zhao: Recent development of TiNi-based shape memory
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24 METALNI MATERIJALI
METALLIC MATERIALS
IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
ISPITIVANJE UTICAJA VREMENA HOMOGENIZACIJE I ZAPUNJENOSTI
LABORATORIJSKOG MEŠAČA NA PRIVIDNU GUSTINU PRAHOVA
INVESTIGATION OF THE TIME OF HOMOGENIZATION AND FILLING OF
HOMOGENIZERS ON APPARENT DENSITY OF POWDERS
Aleksandra Ivanović1, Silvana Dimitrijević1, Vojka Gardić1, Miroslav Ignjatović1,
Vesna Marjanović1, Vladan Andrejić1, Slavica Milojević2
1
Institut za rudarstvo i metalurgiju, Bor, Srbija
2
TIR-Fabrika bakarne žice, Bor, Srbija
Kategorizacija rada: Prethodno saopštenje
REZIME
Predmet ovog rada je iznalaženje optimalnih uslova homogenizacije prahova za različite
sastave mešavina koje se najčešće primenjuju za izradu sinterfirkcionih proizvoda. U
ovom radu, sastavi šarže su izabrani tako da obuhvate deo mogućih šarži za primenu. U
okviru ovog rada ispitivana je zavisnost prividne gustine od vremena homogenizacije kao
i od zapunjenosti laboratorijskog mešača. Ispitivanja su vršena na osam smeša prahova
(Cu, Sn, Pb, Fe, C, SiO2) različitog procentualnog sastava za deset različitih vremena
mešanja. Prikazani rezultati ispitivanja ukazuju da gustina smeše raste sa povećanjem
procentualnog udela težih komponenata što sa svoje strane uslovljava duže vreme
homogenizacije, kao i da je optimalna zapunjenost mešača 40%, obzirom da su variranja
vrednosti prividne gustine najmanja. Rezultati do kojih se došlo u ovom radu treba da
posluže kao smernice za dalje istraživanje u cilju definisanja optimalnih uslova
homogenizacije prahova za različite sastave mešavina.
Ključne riječi: sinterfrikcioni proizvodi, vreme homogenizacije, prividna gustina
ABSTRACT
The subject of this paper is to find optimal conditions for the homogenization of powders
of different mixture compositions that are commonly used for making sinterfriction
products. In this paper, batch compositions were chosen to cover part of the possible
charge of the application. In this study we investigated the dependence apparent density
from time of homogenization and filling of homogenizers, in order to find optimal
homogenization time since the properties of sinterfriction products largely depend on
how evenly distributed the components of the batch.Studies were performed in eight
mixtures of powders (Cu, Sn, Pb, Fe, C, SiO2) of different percentage composition of ten
different mixing time. The presented experimental results indicate that the density of the
mixture increases with increase in the percentage share of heavier components, which in
turn causes a longer time of homogenization, as well as the optimal filing of mixer 40%,
since the variation in the values of apparent density is lowest. The results reached in this
paper should serve as guidelines for further research to define optimal conditions for the
homogenization of powders of different mixture compositions.
Key words: sinterfriction products, time of homogenization, apparent density
27 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
PRIMJENA SINTEROVANJA U PROIZVODNJI AUSTENITNOG
NEHRĐAJUĆEG ČELIKA BEZ NIKLA
APPLICATION OF SINTERING IN PRODUCING NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC
STAINLESS STEEL
Dr. Samir Butković1 docent
Dr. Mirsada Oruč2vanredni profesor,
Dr. Sulejman Muhamedagić3 vanredni profesor
1
Univerzitet u Tuzli, Mašinski fakultet Tuzla,
2
Univerzitet u Zenici, Metalurški Institut „Kemal Kapetanović” Zenica,
3
Univerzitet u Zenici, Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale,
Kategorizacija rada: Prethodno saopštenje
REZIME
Alergijske reakcije izazvane niklom prisutnim u klasičnim CrNi austenitnim nehrđajućim
čelicima dovele su do razvoja novih austenitnih nehrđajućih čelika u kojima se nitrogen
koristi kao zamjena za nikl. Proizvodnja ovakvog čelika dodavanjem nitrogena leguri u
tečnom stanju, zbog smanjene rastvorljivosti, zahtijeva primjenu visokog pritiska.
Međutim, pošto je rastvorljivost nitrogena u austenitu puno veća nego u tečnoj fazi,
potrebna količina nitrogena u čeliku može biti ostvarena putem apsorbovanja iz
atmosfere sinterovanja koja sadrži nitrogen. S tim u vezi, u radu je predstavljen proces
obrade prethodno legiranog feritnog metalnog praha primjenom tehnologije injekcionog
presanja metalnih prahova (MIM), s ciljem dobijanja austenitnog nehrđajućeg čelika bez
nikla X15CrMnMoN17-11-3. Također, predstavljeni su rezultati ispitivanja gustine i
mikrostrukture dijelova sinterovanih u atmosferi nitrogena i argona pri temperaturi 1200
o
C, vremenu 3 h i parcijalnom pritisku od 400 mbar. Metalografska ispitivanja su
pokazala da je sinterovanjem u atmosferi nitrogena moguće dobiti čelik potpuno
austenitne mikrostrukture sa minimumom zaostale poroznosti.
Ključne riječi: MIM tehnologija, austenitni nehrđajući čelik bez nikla, sinterovanje,
nitrogen
ABSTRACT
Allergic reactions caused by nickel contained in the conventional CrNi austenitic
stainless steels resulted in the development of new austenitic stainless steel, where
nitrogen is used as a substitute for nickel. Adding of nitrogen to the alloy in liquid state,
due to reduced solubility, requires application of high pressure. However, since the
solubility of nitrogen in austenite is much higher than in the liquid phase, the required
amount of nitrogen in steel can be achieved through the absorption from the nitrogen
containing sintering atmosphere. In this regard, injection molding of pre-alloyed ferritic
metal powder, in order to produce nickel free austenitic stainless steel X15CrMnMoN1711-3, is presented in this paper. Also, results of microstructure and density investigation
of parts sintered for 3 h, at temperatures 1200 °C in nitrogen and argon atmosphere with
28 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
partial pressure of 400 mbar, are presented. Metallographic examination showed that
austenitic microstructure with a minimum residual porosity can be achieved using
nitrogen as a sintering atmosphere.
Key words: MIM technology, nickel-free austenitic stainless steel, sintering, nitrogen
29 30 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
LUŽENJE SILIKATNE RUDE NIKLA SUMPORNOM KISELINOM NA
POVIŠENOM PRITISKU
PRESSURE LEACHING OF NICKEL SILICATE ORE
BY SULPHURIC ACID SOLUTION
mr Vladislav Matković, dr Miroslav Sokić, mr Branislav Marković
Institut za tehnologiju nuklearnih i drugih mineralnih sirovina
Beograd, Franše d'Eperea 86, Srbija
Kategorizacija rada: Originalni naučni rad
REZIME
U radu su prikazani rezultati istraživanja mogućnosti prerade silikatne rude nikla
primenom kiselog postupka luženja rastvorom sumporne kiseline na povišenom pritisku u
autoklavu. Karakterizacija uzorka rude u cilju određivanja mineralnog sastava i
strukturno-teksturnih karakteristika vršena je hemijskom i kvalitativnom
mikrostrukturnom analizom primenom optičke mikroskopije. Ispitan je uticaj temperature
i vremena luženja, odnosa faza, koncentracije sumporne kiseline i krupnoće rude na
izluženje nikla i određeni su optimalni parametri procesa pri kojima izluženje nikla iznosi
95%.
Ključne reči: silikatna ruda nikla, luženje na povišenom pritisku, sumporna kiselina
ABSTRACT
The paper shows the research results of the processing possibilities of nickel silicate ore
using acid leaching process by sulfuric acid solution under high pressure in the
autoclave. Characterization of ore samples to determine the mineral composition and
structural-textural characteristics was carried out by chemical and qualitative
microstructural analysis using optical microscopy. The influence of the temperature and
leaching time, phase ratio (S:L), concentration of sulfuric acid and ore granulometry on
the nickel leaching degree were investigated. The optimal leaching parameters were
determined and under these conditions, the nickel leaching degree is 95 %.
Key words: nickel silicate ore, pressure leaching, sulfuric acid
31 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
DETERMINATION OF CONVECTIVE VARIABLES IN FREE JET MELTSPINNING PROCESS
Blaž Karpe, Borut Kosec, Milan Bizjak, Boštjan Markoli
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering
Ljubljana
Slovenia
Mirko Gojić2
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Metallurgy
Sisak
Croatia
Ivan Anžel3
University of Marbor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Maribor
Slovenia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
In the frame of our investigation, mathematical model of heat transfer in free jet melt
spinning process of metallic materials is developed. The calculations show that contact
resistance between metal melts and substrate has a great influence on calculations of
melt cooling and wheel heating rate, and must not be neglected, even if its value is very
low. In our model, new method for determining contact resistance through variable heat
transfer coefficient is introduced which takes into account physical properties of the
casting material, process parameters and contact time/length between metallic melt or
metallic ribbon, and substrate, respectively, and enables cooling and solidifying rate
prediction before the experiment execution.
Key words: rapid solidification, metallic materials, heat transfer balance, heat transfer
coefficient, numerical modeling
32 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
PRIMENA REOKASTING PROCESA ZA DOBIJANJE KLIPNIH LEGURA
POBOLJŠANIH SVOJSTAVA
APPLICATION OF REOCASTING PROCESS FOR OBTAINING PISTON
ALLOYS WITH IMPROVED PROPERTIES
Milena Ćosić, mr.
Tehnikum Taurunum, Nade Dimić 4,
Beograd, Srbija
Zagorka Aćimović-Pavlović, prof.dr.
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Tehnološko-metalurški fakultet, Karnegijeva 4
Beograd, Srbija
Anja Terzić, dr.
Institut za ispitivanje materijala, Bl. Vojvode Mišića 43, Beograd, Srbija
Borislav Nedeljković
Tehnički fakultet Čačak,
Univerzitet u Kragujevcu,
Svetog Save 65,Čačak, Srbija
Ljubica Pavlović, dr.
Institut za tehnologiju nuklearnih i drugih mineralnih sirovina,
Franše d’Eperea 76, Beograd, Srbija
Kategorizacija rada: Originalni naučni rad
REZIME
U radu su prezentirani rezultati ispitivanja promene strukture nadeutektičke Al18%Si
legure dobijene klasičnim postupkom livenja, kao i primenom mehaničkog postupka
mešanja u poluočvrslom stanju - reokasting postupak. Korišćen je mehanički postupak
mešanja pločastim mešačem pri različitoj brzini obrtanja aktivnog dela od 500; 1000 i
1500 o/min. Ispitivan je uticaj efekata mehaničkog mešanja na strukturu legure u oblasti
polučvrstog stanja. Analiziran je uticaj brzine mešanja u intervalu od 500-1500 o/min na
raspodelu faza α-Al čvrstog rastvora i čestica primarnog Si. Zapaženo je da primenom
brzine mešanja 1500 o/min dolazi do najbolje raspodele faza što utiče na poboljšanje
mehaničkih svojstava legure. Čestice α-Al čvrstog rastvora primenom mešanja u
poluočvrslom stanju su promenile morfologiju od dendritne u nedendritnu. Rezultati
istraživanja su pokazali da nova metoda livenja - reokasting proces omogućava promenu
strukture i svojstava klipnih legura što će uticati na poboljšanje kvaliteta ove vrste
odlivaka.
Ključne riječi: reokasting proces, brzina mešanja, kvalitet odlivaka
ABSTRACT
This paper presents the results of changes in the structure hypereutectic Al18% Si alloys
obtained by conventional casting process, as well as by the mechanical mixing procedure
in the state semisolid - reocasting procedure. The mechanical process of mixing with
plate mixer at different speeds of rotation of the active part of 500, 1000 and 1500 r / min
33 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
has used. The mechanical mixing affects the structure of alloys in the field semisolid
state. The effect of mixing speed in the range of 500-1500 r / min at the distribution stage
of α-Al solid solution and primary Si particles has analyzed. It was observed that the
application of agitation speed 1500 r / min the best distribution phase which improves the
mechanical properties of alloys. Particles of α-Al solid solution using the mixing
condition semisolid state have changed the morphology of dendritic into nondendritic.
The results showed that the new method of casting - reocasting process to change the
structure and properties of piston alloys which will help improving the quality of these
types of castings.
Key words: rheocasting process, mixing rate, casting quality.
34 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
UDALJAVANJE METALNIH ELEMENATA IZ TALINE
CILJANOM OKSIDACIJOM
ON SEPARATION OF METAL ELEMENTS FROM HOT METAL BY AIMED
OXIDATION
Pihura Derviš,
“Ljevari BiH”, Zenica, BiH
Lamut Jakob
Univera v Ljubljani, FNT, Odsek za materiale in metalurgijo, Ljubljana, Slovenija
Mujagić Derviš
Univerzitet u Zenici, Metalurški institut "Kemal Kapetanović" Zenica, BiH
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Ciljana oksidacija pojedinih metalnih elemenata iz taline povezuje promjene stanja taline
sa termodinamičnog i kinetičkog stanovišta. Navedeni postupak se koristi za izdvajanje
korisnih elemenata ili ciljano smanjenje, a kod ovoga istraživanja je korištan aplikativn
primjer ciljane oksidacije Mn sa početnih 2,00 % i 4,00 % Mn u talini, pod različitim
uslovima. Istraživanja pružaju mogućnost uvida u proces ciljane oksidacije samo Mn sa
stanovišta mehanizma, termodinamike i kinetike reakcija. Rezultati istraživanja pokazuju
da se povoljna ciljana oksidacije Mn odvija za niske početne temperature, optimalni
sastav troske i dovod kisika, te da se pojavljuje bar jedna kritična tačka promjene
intenziteta odvijanja ciljanog procesa, kod koje se usporava proces ciljane oksidacije
Mn i počinje oksidacija drugih elemenata u talini.
Ključne riječi: ciljana oksidacija, oksidacija elemenata, tečno gvožđe
ABSTRACT
Aimed oxidation of some particular metal elements from hot metal is connecting state of
melt from thermodynamics and kinetics point of view. Mentioned process is in use for
separation useful or elimination of elements, and for this examination is used applicative
aimed Mn oxidation with initial Mn content 2,00 % and 4,00 % under different
conditions. All these examinations give possibilities insight into process of aimed Mn
oxidation from the point of view of mechanisms, thermodynamics and kinetics of
oxidation reaction. Examination result indicate that suitable aimed Mn oxidation was
developed under lower stating temperature, optimal slag compositions and oxygen
supply, so that is appearance of at least critical point of change of Mn oxidation intensity
of aimed oxidation process, at which becomes more mark able lowering of Mn aimed
oxidation intensity and increase of oxidation of other present elements in melt.
Key words: aimed oxidation, oxidation of the elements, liquid iron
35 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
KORELACIJA IN MOLD POSTUPKA I NODULACIJE URANJANJEM Mg
ŽICE
CORRELATION OF IN THE MOLD PROCES AND NODULATION BY
IMMERSION OF Mg WIRES
Mr. Šehzudin Dervišić dipl. ing. Nermin Mujezinović dipl. ing
Cimos TMD Casting,
Zenica
Sedad Mušinović dipl. ing
Bosio,
Zenica
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Rad opisuje korelaciju između dva postupka noduliranja taline, in mold postupak i
postupak uranjanjem žice. Eksperimenti su rađeni u pogonu i laboratorijama livnice
Cimos u Zenici. Eksperiment je obuhvatio livenje probnih uzoraka i ispitivanje
mikrostrukturnih i mehaničkih osobina odlivaka. Ispitivanje je obuhvatilo analizu
mikrostrukture, stepen nodulacije, raspored nodula u mikrostrukturi, kao i ispitivanje
osnovnih mehaničkih svojstava, zatezne čvrstoće, tvrdoće i izduženja. Također u radu su
date i osnove obrade taline putem in mold postupka i postupka uranjanjem žice u talinu.
Ključne riječi: tretman taline, in mold, uranjanje žice, mikrostruktura, mehaničke
osobine.
ABSTRACT
The activity describes the relation between two procedures of melt nodulations, in mold
procedure and the one with wire immersion. The experiments are done in the foundry, the
laboratory of Cimos Zenica. It involved the casting of test samples and examining the
microstructural and mechanical features of casts. It also involved the microstructural
analysis, nodulation level and disposition of nodules in microstructure, as well as the
analysing of mechanical features, tensile strength, hardness and strained state. The
activity also included the basic melt processing regarding the in-mold procedure and the
wire immersion into the melt.
Key words: treatment of the melt iron, In the Mold, cored wire, microstructure,
mehanical properties.
36 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
POBOLJŠANJE STEPENA ČISTOĆE OTKOVAKA TRETMANIMA
SEKUNDARNE METALURGIJE U ŽELJEZARI ZENICA
IMPROVEMENT OF STEEL CLEANLEES OF THE FORGINGS BY THE
SECONDARY METALLURGY TREATMENTS IN ZENICA STEELWORK
Dr.sc. Aida Mahmutović, dipl. ing.
Omer Kablar, dipl. ing.
Mr.sc. Šaban Žuna, viši asistent
Admir Adilović, student
Nedžad Arnaut, student
Nusret Balihodžić, student
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Univerzitet u Zenici, 72 000 Zenica
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
U redovnoj proizvodnji čelika danas se sve više teži ka standardizaciji tehnologije i
sistemskom praćenju stepena čistoće i sadržaja uključaka, kako bi se postigla
odgovarajuća svojstva i kvalitet čeličnog poluproizvoda. Željezara Zenica ima izuzetno
dobar potencijal za proizvodnju čistih čelika obzirom da raspolaže sa savremenim
proizvodnim kapacitetima. Rad ima za cilj da predstavi postignuta poboljšanja u
tretmanima sekundarne metalurgije u Željezari Zenica koja su doprinijela znatnom
poboljšanju stepena čistoće u fazi proizvodnje čelika za izradu otkovaka.
Ključne riječi: sekundarna metalurgija, čisti čelik, nemetalni uključci, otkovak
ABSTRACT
The ordinary production of steel is increasingly tends to standardize technology and
systematic monitoring of the degree cleanness and content of inclusions, in order to
achieve adequate properties and quality semi-finished steel. Steelworks Zenica has very
good potential for production of clean steel since that we have modern production
facilities. The work has an aim to improve the performance achieved in the treatment of
secondary metallurgy in Steelworks Zenica, contributing in substantial improvement of
the degree of cleanliness in production of steel for making forgings.
Key words: secondary metallurgy, clean steel, non metallic inclusions, forging
37 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
MOGUĆNOST ZAMJENE ATMOSFERSKOG ZRAKA TEHNIČKIM KISIKOM
KOD PREDGRIJAVANJA LIVNIH KAZANA
THE POSSIBILITY OF REPLACING ATMOSPHERIC AIR WITH TECHNICAL
OXYGEN DURING PREHEATING LADLES
Dr. Duraković Jusuf
Univerzitet u Zenici, Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale Zenica, B&H
Dr. Imamović Mustafa
Univerzitet u Zenici, Mašinski fakultet Zenica, B&H
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Za održavanje kondicione termičke spremnosti livnih kazana u Čeličani ArcelorMittal
Zenica, instalirano je pet sistema za predgrijavanje livnih kazana. Svi sistemi za
predgrijavanje su istog tipa, a sagorijevanje zemnog plina se vrši sa tehnološkim zrakom.
U tehnološkom procesu u ArcelorMittal Zenica se pojavljuje višak kisika. Proizvedeni
višak kisika se trenutno ispušta u atmosferu i to predstavlja gubitak. Da bi se ostvarlile
uštede u potrošnji zemnog plina donesena je odluka da se višak kisika upotrijebi na
sistemima za predgrijavanje livnih kazana. Umjesto sadašnjih gorionika ugradili bi se
novi koji bi za sagorijevanje koristili kisik. Cilj ovog projekta je da se rekonstrukcijom
postojeća dva sistemima za predgrijavanje livnih kazana ugrade novi gorionici i prateća
oprema koja bi omogućila sagorijavanje zemnog plina pomoću kisika. Ovom
rekonstrukcojom bi se korištenjem viška kiska, koji se trenutno ispušta u atmosferu
smanjila potrošnja zemnog plina i na taj način ostvarile uštede smanjivanjem varijabilnih
troškova proizvodnje. Nakon rekonstrukcije gorionika na sistemima za predgrijavanje
livnih kazana predviđa se potrošnje zemnog plina do 30 %.
Ključne riječi: kisik, plin, livni kazan
ABSTRACT
To maintain thermal conditional readiness ladles in the Steel plant ArcelorMittal Zenica,
installed five systems for preheating ladles. All systems for preheating the same are, and
the burning of natural gas is done with air technology. The technological process in
ArcelorMittal Zenica appears an excess of oxygen. Manufactured excess oxygen is
currently discharged into the atmosphere, and it represents a loss. For achieve savings in
the consumption of natural gas made the decision to use the excess oxygen systems for
preheating ladles. Instead of the current burner installed to a new one that would use the
oxygen for combustion. The objective of this project is to reconstructing the existing two
systems for preheating ladles incorporate new burners and associated equipment that
would allow s burn natural gas with oxygen. This reconstruction to use excess oxygen,
which is currently discharged into the atmosphere, reduce the consumption of natural gas
38 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
and thus achieve savings by reducing the variable costs of production. After
reconstruction of the burner systems for preheating ladles predicted natural gas
consumption by 30%.
Key words: oxygen, gas, ladles
39 40 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
HOT ROLLING OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL LDX 2101
Boris Arzenšek
Franc Tehovnik
Borut Žužek
Bojan Podgornik
Institute of Metals and Technology
Lepi pot 11, Ljubljana
Slovenia
Boštjan Pirnar
ACRONI d.o.o.
Cesta Borisa Kidriča 44, Jesenice
Slovenia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
Deformation abilities of duplex stainless steel LDX2101 at rolling temperatures 850 °C
to 1250 °C were investigated. Metallographical and mechanical properties of steel were
examined and influences of rolling temperature and the degree of deformation on the
steels deformation abilities were also examined and the conditions of intermetallic phases
segregation, that can decrease hot formability, were established.
Key words: duplex stainless steel, hot workability, properties of the steel, intermetallic
phases
41 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
MATERIALS PROCESSING BY SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION
Matija Kos
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of materials technology
Universityof Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor, Slovenia
Doc. dr. Miha Brunčko
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Universityof Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor, Slovenia
Prof.dr. Ivan Anžel
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of materials technology
Universityof Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor, Slovenia
Paper categorization: Preliminary note
ABSTRACT
One of the most progressive application of severe plastic deformation (SPD) is the equal
channel angular pressing (ECAP). The process is carried out with a tool consisting of
two channels of equal cross section, intersecting at an angle, typically 900. The ECAP
allows us to introduce very large plastic deformations to a work-piece without altering
the overall geometry of the work-piece. In this paper, we analyse the mechanism of shear
and the position of shear planes during several passages of the billet through the die. For
route A and C we have designed simple graphical presentations of changing the position
of shearing planes. The fundamental mechanisms of grain refinement is also presented.
The microstructural evolution during ECAP process of one phase materials is well known
but not for multiphase materials. In the present paper we analyse the microstructural
evolution of multiphase material and relevance of ECAP tool on the basis of ECAP
experiments carried out oninternally oxidized Cu-0,4%wtAl sampleusing route Ba for
four passes through the die. Characterization of microstructure was made with scanning
electron microscopy (SEM).
Key words: equal-channel angular pressing; severe plastic deformation; mechanism of s
hear; microstructure
42 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
CONTROL OVER SHAPE AND SIZE DURING FINE-BLANKING
Damir Česnik, Borut Kosec, Milan Bizjak
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering
Ljubljana
Slovenia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
Distortion control is one of the most important concerns of the metal processing
industry, which also includes the fine-blanking technology. Fine-blanking of sheet
metal involves metal flow and shearing, which result in complex deformation.
One of important distortion mechanism is uneven forming condition due to different
amount of surrounding material and due to properties of shearing zone. Distortion
occurs during the removal of parts from the tool due to the relaxation of internal
stresses. The distortion of ring type products during fine-blanking was analyzed by
using dimension measurements, microscopic observation and numerical simulation.
Key words: fine-blanking, distortion, residual stresses
43 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
REDUCTION OF WEIGHT AT SURFACE TREATMENTS OF BILLETS
Matjaž Torkar, Boris Arzenšek,
Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tomaž Marolt, Boris Kumer
ŠTORE STEEL d.o.o., Železarska cesta 3, SI-1000 Štore, Slovenia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
Modern ecotechnology demands better knowledge on type and quantity of wastes that
appears during production process. In the frame of investigations of protective coating
for diminution of scaling and decarburisation of spring steel surface the weighing of
billets was performed with precise instrument. The aim of investigation was to determine
the exact weight of billets before and after treatment and reheating. Presented are results
on weighing of billets of spring steel with not treated and with treated surface. Measured
was reduction of weight at surface grinding, shot blasting before reheating and after
heating process in walking beam furnace of 52CrMoV4 and 27MnVS6 steels. It was
established that reduction of weight of as cast billets was between 0.35 % and 0.55 % at
shot blasting, 2.85 % to 3.71 % at grinding and around 2.24 % after heating and
cleaning of surface with shot blasting. The results of weighing enable more accurate
evaluation of different surface treatments of billets on final yield of material, quantity of
waste materials and more precise material flow in the production process. Some of these
waste materials are suitable for recycling.
Key words: billets, grinding, shot blasting, weighting, wastes, material yield
44 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE MATERIAL FROM METAL SHEETS IN THE
TOOL DESIGN FOR BLANKING AND PUNCHING
Samedin Krrabaj,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prishtina, Republic of Kosova
[email protected]
Hysni Osmani
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prishtina, Republic of Kosova
[email protected]
Bajrush Bytyqi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prishtina, Republic of Kosova
[email protected]
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
The development of the modern processes for processing of the sheet in the design phase
requires the support of the FEM numerical methods and powerful CAD software’s. If is
achieved the full integration then are offered to us real conditions and competitive
advantages. The defined model in this paper provides the basis for analysis and
comparison of the experimental results obtained using 3D simulation of the process.
Parallel for each gained size with experimental evidence were simulated and obtained
force values through the simulation. Based on the results that are obtained it can be
concluded that the reviewed material is with high mechanical characteristics and is
appropriate for deep traction of the detail.
Key words: experiments, simulation, quality, durability, metal sheets.
45 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
IDENTIFICATION OF THE CRITICAL PLACES IN THE DESIGN PHASE FOR
THE STAMPING AND THE PUNCHING TOOL
Hysni Osmani,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prishtina, Republic of Kosova
[email protected]
Samedin Krrabaj
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prishtina, Republic of Kosova
[email protected]
Bajrush Bytyqi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prishtina, Republic of Kosova
[email protected]
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
Identification in the design phase of the critical places, as a potential source of damages
enables a partial or the complete elimination of them. Obtained solutions by the finite
elements method provide the distribution of the strain, of the deformation, of the
displacement in the cutting elements of the body, where is clearly seen an overall
distribution of the pressure, but with small strains in the contact zone, which is result of a
constructive expansion of the elements in the part where they relate. Results obtained
with this MEF model can significantly approach the real values if is used the advantage
of the h of the adaptive method.
Key words: damage, strain and deformation, cutting elements, MEF
46 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
REPAIR WELDING OF THE HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTRIC RESISTANCE
WELDED JOINT
Rrahim Maksuti
Mursel Rama
Rrahman Aliti
Faculty of Mining and Metallurgy, University of Prishtina,
rr. Minatori p.n., 40 000 Mitrovica, Kosova
Hamit Mehmeti
UBT-University for Business and Technology
rr. Kalabria p.n., Prishtina, Kosova
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
High frequency electric resistance welding (HFERW) is undoubtedly the fasted and most
efficient process for longitudinal seam pipes production, however in the welded joint
can occur various defects. It is necessary to repair defects that are considered
detrimental to the structural integrity of the steel pipes.
This paper presents the results obtained on a repair welding of high frequency electric
resistance welded joint of steel pipes carried out by manual metal arc welding.
Metallographic analysis and hardness measurements in the repaired weld area show that
the repaired welded joint fulfills the metallurgical and others requirements for steel
pipes.
Key words: weld repair, welded joint, microstructure, hardness.
47 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
PREDICTING OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES FOR TERNARY Al-NiZn SYSTEM USING GENERAL SOLUTION MODEL
D.Živković1, Y.Du2, N.Talijan3, A.Kostov4, Lj.Balanović1
1
University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, Bor, Serbia
State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University,
Changsha, Hunan, China
3
University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy,
Belgrade, Serbia
4
Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor, Serbia
2
Paper categorization: Original scientific paper
ABSTRACT
The results of predicting of thermodynamic properties for ternary Al-Ni-Zn system using
general solution model are presented in this work. The sections with different molar ratio
of Al:Ni, Ni:Zn and Ni:Zn were investigated at the temperature of 2100K. Partial and
integral molar thermodynamic properties in liquid state for Al-Ni-Zn ternary alloys were
determined and discussed.
Key words: thermodynamic of alloys, general solution model, Al-Ni-Zn system
48 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
CALORIMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF SOME Ga-BASED BINARY SYSTEMS
Lj. Balanović1, L. Gomidželović2, D. Živković1, D. Manasijević1, A. Kostov2, Ž. Živković1
1
University of Belgrade, Technical faculty in Bor, VJ 12, 19210 Bor, Serbia
2
Mining and metallurgy Institute, Zeleni bulevar 35, 19210 Bor, Serbia
Paper categorization: Original scientific paper
ABSTRACT
Ga-based alloys are, due to their low melting temperatures, wetting and other
characteristics, widely applied in different fields of technics and technology – as mirrors,
in glass thermometers, nuclear weapon pits, solder materials, dental amalgams,
semiconductors, for energy storage, in pharmacy, jewellery, etc. Therefore, their
thermodynamic characteristics examination is very important, especially for further
phase equilibria investigation and determination of multicomponent Ga-based systems.
The results of calorimetric investigation of four Ga-based binary systems - including GaAl, Ga-Au, Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn, obtained using Oelsen methodology, are presented in this
paper.
Key words: Ga-Al, Ga-Au, Ga-Sn, Ga-Zn, binary alloys, thermodynamics, phase diagram
49 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
REGISTROVANJE STRUKTURNIH PROMJENA METALNOG STAKLA
Al85Y4Ni11
REGISTRATION OF STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF METALLIC GLASS
Al85Y4Ni11
Amra Salčinović*, Aldin Hasović**, Suada Sulejmanović*, Tatjana Mihać*, Amir Šećibović***,
Suada Bikić****
*
Prirodno-matematički fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu, BiH
**
Prva gimnazija Sarajevo, BiH
***
Schaeffler Technologie GmbH, Herzogenaurach, Njemačka
****
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale Univerziteta u Zenici, BiH
Kategorizacija rada: Prethodno saopštenje
REZIME
Metalna stakla na bazi aluminijuma imaju potencijalno veliku praktičnu primjenu zbog
dobrih mehaničkih svojstava, prvenstveno izuzetne čvrstoće te otpornosti prema koroziji.
Metalno staklo je u metastabilnom stanju i podložno je kristalizaciji, što za posljedicu
ima promjenu mnogih fizikalnih svojstava. Poznavanje stukturnih promjena metalnog
stakla stoga je od izuzetnog značaja za moguće aplikacije. Uzorak amorfnog Al85Y4Ni11 je
dobiven melt-spinning metodom. Praćenje strukturnih promjena u uzorku je izvršeno
kontinuiranim mjerenjem električnog otpora d.c. metodom u intervalu od sobne
temperature do 350°C pri čemu su registrovane onset temperature kristalizacije.
Dobiveni rezultati upoređeni su sa rezultatima dobivenim metodom diferencijalne
skenirajuće kalorimetrije (DSC).
Ključne riječi: metalno staklo, amorfne legure, strukturne promjene, kristalizacija,
električni otpor
ABSTRACT
Al-based metallic glasses have a great potential in practical applications because of their
good mechanical properties, especially their high-strength and corrosion resistance. Due
to their metastable states, metallic glasses tend to crystallize, which results in changes of
many physical properties. Therefore is the knowledge of structural changes of metallic
glasses very important for their possible applications. The sample of amorphous
Al85Y4Ni11 metallic glass was prepared by melt-spinning. The structural changes of
amorphous Al85Y4Ni11 were investigated by continuous measuring of electrical resistance
in a temperature interval from room temperature to 350°C using d.c. technique and
according to this results, onset crystallization temperatures were registered. These results
were compared with results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Key words: metallic glass, amorphous alloys, structural changes, crystallization,
electrical resistant
50 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
ANALIZA MORFOLOGIJE I RASPOREDA KARBIDNE FAZE U ODLIVCIMA
OD LEGURA BSEM 647 I HC301 NA BAZI KOBALTA
ANALYSIS OF THE MORFOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF CARBIDE
PHASE IN CASTINGS BESEM 647 AND IHC 301 - ALLOYS BASED on
COBALT
Radiša Todorović, stručni savetnik
[email protected]
Dr Ana Kostov, naučni savetnik
[email protected]
Dr Aleksandra Milosavljević,
naučni saradnik
[email protected]
Ljubinka Todorović, stručni savetnik
Institut za rudarstvo i metalurgiju
Zeleni bulevar 35, 19210 Bor, Srbija
Kategorizacija rada: Originalni naučni rad
REZIME
Oblik i raspored karbidne faze je značajan faktor u definisanju mehaničkih i fizičkih
svojstava dveju legura na bazi kobalta koje se koriste za izradu vrlo odgovornih
proizvoda u avionskoj industriji, od kojih se zahteva nepromenljivost svih karakteristika u
toku eksploatacije.
Oblik, tip, veličina i raspored karbida zavise pre svega od procentualnog sadržaja
ugljenika i legirajućih elemenata koji učestvuju u formiranju karbida, a takođe i od
režima očvršćavanja odlivaka.
Ključne reči: oblik i raspored karbidne faze, BSEM 647, HC 301
ABSTRACT
The shape and distribution of the carbide phase is a significant factor in defining the
mechanical and physical properties of two cobalt-based alloys used for making
responsible products in the aircraft industry, one of which is required invariability of
characteristics during exploatation. The shape, type, size and distribution of carbides
depend primarily on the percentage content of carbon and alloying elements that
participate in the formation of carbides, and also the regime of solidification of castings
Key words: shape and distribution of carbide phase, BSEM 647, HC 301
51 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
UTICAJ ALUMINIJUMNITRIDA NA HLADNU DEFORMABILNOST
NISKOUGLJENIČNOG ČELIKA ZA IZRADU VIJAKA
INFLUENCE OF ALUMINUM NITRIDE ON THE COLD DEFORMABILITY OF
LOW CARBON STEEL INTENDED FOR THE SCREWS PRODUCTION
Dr. Besim Baručija
spoljni saradnik
Prof.dr. Mirsada Oruč, mr. Omer Beganović, mr. Milenko Rimac
Univerzitet u Zenici, Metalurški institut „Kemal Kapetanović“
Zenica, Bosna i Hercegovina
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
U radu je prezentirano istraživanje uticaja aluminijevognitrida na hladnu deformabilnost
niskougljeničnog čelika koji se koristi za izradu vijaka. Istraženi su uticajni faktori na
ojačavanje ferita, veličine zrna, prisustvo azota i precipitata aluminijumnitrida.
Količina, veličina i raspodjela precipitata aluminijumnitrida ima značajan uticaj na
obrazovanje mikrostrukture, a sa druge strane jako utiče na dislokacione procese u
procesu hladne deformacije. Istraživanja su omogućila pravilno projektovanje
termomehaničke obrade i poboljšanje sposobnosti za hladno deformiranje čelika što je
prikazano u radu.
Ključne riječi: aluminijumnitrid, deformabilnost, vruća deformacija, hladna deformacija.
ABSTRACT
In this paper the influence of aluminium nitride on the cold deformability of low carbon
steel intended for the production of screws is presented. Factors having influence on the
strengthening of ferrite such as grain size, the presence of nitrogen and aluminium nitride
precipitates have been investigated.
The quantity, size and distribution of aluminium nitride precipitates have a significant
influence on the formation of the microstructure and also on the dislocation processes
during cold deformation. Research has provided the proper designing of
thermomechanical processing and increasing of cold deformability of the steel as
presented in the paper.
Key words: aluminium nitride, deformability, hot deformation, cold deformation
52 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
UZAJAMNA ZAVISNOST HEMIJSKOG SASTAVA, MIKROSTRUKTURE I
OSOBINA KOD NODULARNOG LIVA
Belma Fakić
Emina Kratina
Adisa Burić
Univerzitet u Zenici
Metalurški institut “Kemal Kapetanović”
Travnička 7, Zenica
Bosna i Hercegovina
Kategorizacija rada: Prethodno saopštenje
REZIME
U ovom radu je istraživana veza između hemijskog sastava, mikrostrukture i osobina
nodularnog liva EN-GJS-600-3 (GGG-60), od koga se izrađuju kočione pločice za liftove.
Provedena su ispitivanja hemijskog sastava, mikrostrukture i tvrdoće kod tri uzorka
kočionih pločica. Kod ispitivanja mikrostrukture analizirana je veličina i raspodjela
nodula grafita u perlitno-feritnom matriksu, te udio i veličina mikropora. Analiza
rezultata je pokazala zavisnost hemijskog sastava i mikrostrukture te ostvarenih osobina
kočionih pločica.
Ključne riječi: kočione pločice, nodularni liv, hemijski sastav, mikrostruktura, tvrdoća
ABSTRACT
In this paper is presented investigation of the connection between chemical composition,
microstructure and properties of ductile cast iron EN-GJS-600-3 (GGG-60) for elevator
brake plates production. The chemical composition, microstructure and hardness tests
were performed of the three samples of brake plate. Microstructure was examined by
analyzing the size and distribution of graphite nodules in the pearlite-ferrite matrix, and
proportion and size of blowholes. Analysis of results showed the dependence of the
chemical composition, microstructure and obtained properties of brake plates.
Key words: brake plates, ductile cast iron, chemical composition, microstructure,
hardness
53 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
UTJECAJ TEHNOLOŠKIH PARAMETARA NA ŽILAVOST DEBELOSTIJENIH
BEŠAVNIH CIJEVI
TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS INFLUENCE ON TOUGHNESS THICKWALLED SEAMLESS PIPE
Stoja Rešković, izv. prof.
Sveučilište u Zagrebu Metalurški fakultet,
Sisak, Hrvatska
Paper categorization: Professional paper
REZIME
Kod proizvodnje debelo-stijenih bešavnih cijevi pilgerovanjem često je žilavost pri niskim
temperaturama nehomogena. Dobiveni rezultati ne zadovoljavaju zahtjeve standarda. U
radu su prikazani rezultati istraživanja utjecaja tehnoloških parametara na žilavost.
Rezultati ispitivanja su pokazali da je nakon pilgerovanja temperatura na početku i na
kraju cijevi značajno različita. Nakon pilgerovanja cijevi se dogrijavaju kako bi se
provela konačna deformacija. Utvrđeno je da raspodjela temperature na cijevi prije
dogrijavanja ima odlučujući utjecaj na žilavost.
Ključne riječi: : žilavost, bešavne cijevi, tehnološki parametri
ABSTRACT
In the production seamless pipe of thick-walled pilgering, toughness at low temperatures
is often inhomogeneous. These results do not meet the standards. The paper presents
results of research on the impact of technological parameters on the toughness. Test
results showed that after pilgering, the temperature at beginning and end of the pipe is
significantly differ. After pilgering, pipes are heated for the final deformation. It was
found that the temperature distribution on the pipe before reheating has a decisive
influence on toughness.
Key words: toughness, seamless pipe, technological parameters
54 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
NONMETALLIC INCLUSION IN STAINLESS STEELS ALLOYED WITH
TITANIUM
Boštjan Arh
Franc Tehovnik
Darja Štainer Petrovič
Franci Vode
Institute of Metal and Technology
Lepi pot 11, Ljubljana
Slovenia
Milan Klinar
Iron work ACRONI Jesenice
Cesta železarjev 8, Jesenice
Slovenia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
To prevent the formation of intergranular corrosion at elevated temperatures, certain
typs of steels are alloyed with titanium. Stabilization of the structure with titanium at low
contents of nitrogen and carbon, prevents the occurrence of intergranular corrosion and
maintain good strain capacity. The influence of process parameters during secondary
treatment of steels as well the analysis of nonmetallic inclusion during production of
AISI316 Ti and AISI321 austenitic stainless steels is presented in the paper.
Key words: Ti-alloyed stainless steel, deoxidization, denitrogenization, oxide, nitride
inclusion
55 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN SAF 2507 SUPER DUPLEX STAINLESS
STEEL DURING HOT ROLLING
Franc Tehovnik, Boris Arzenšek, Boštjan Arh, Franci Vode, Borut Žužek
Institute of Metals and Technology
Lepi pot 11, Ljubljana
Slovenia
Paper categorization: Preliminary note
ABSTRACT
The change of microstructure of super duplex stainless steel SAF 2507 during hot rolling
was investigated. Its evolution during hot deformation was very different in each phase.
The dominant restoration mechanism for ferrite and austenite were dynamic recovery
(DRV) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX), respectively.
Key words: super duplex stainless steel, hot rolling, microstructural evolution, sigma
phase, ageing, hardness
56 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW GRADE ARMOUR STEEL
Jure Bernetič, Gorazd Kosec,
Matjaž Marčetič
Acroni, d.o.o., Jesenice, Slovenia
Tomaž Vuherer
University of Maribor,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Maribor, Slovenia
Milenko Rimac
Metallurgical Institute Kemal Kapetanović, Zenica BiH
Zijah Burzić
Military Technical Institute
Belgrade, Serbia
Borut Kosec
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering
Ljubljana, Slovenia
Paper categorization: Preliminary note
ABSTRACT
Complex theoretical and experimental study of new grade of low heavy weight armour
steel was carried out. In the experimental part of investigation three plates were heat
treated to different states. The first was quenched, the second and the third were
quenched and low temperature tempered at 220 °C and 280°C for 3 hours. Tensile tests,
hardness measurements, and an instrumented Charpy test were performed.
Metallographic analysis was performed by optical microscopy (OM). Ballistic resistance
of all three steel plates were measured, the behaviour of steel was tested using standard
armour piercing projectiles.
Key words: armour steel, hardness, instrumented Charpy test, armour piercing
projectiles
57 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
UTICAJ GREŠAKA NA KVALITET I MATERIJALNI IZVADAK U PRERADI
KONTINUIRANO LIVENIH GREDICA
DEFECTS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY AND YIELD IN CONTINUOUS CAST
BILLETS PROCESSING
Mr. sc. Šaban Žuna, viši asistent, Dr. sc. Aida Mahmutović, vanredni profesor , Dr. sc. Faik
Uzunović, redovni profesor
Adilović Admir, Arnaut Nedžad, Balihodžić Nusret, studenti
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Univerzitet u Zenici, 72 000 Zenica
Bosna i Hercegovina
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Greške na gotovim valjanim čeličnim proizvodima mogu poticati iz procesa proizvodnje
tečnog čelika, kontinuiranog livenja i procesa valjanja. Definisanje nastanka i pojave
grešaka na valjanim proizvodima u pojedinim fazama proizvodnje ima suštinsku važnost
za poboljšanje kvaliteta i smanjenje troškova proizvodnje tečnog čelika i valjanih
proizvoda. U ovom radu je predstavljen uticaj najvažnijih tipova grešaka, prema
nastanku u procesu proizvodnje ili prerade kontinuirano livenih gredica, na kvalitet
gotovih proizvoda – žica/šipka. Glavni ciljevi pri proizvodnji čeličnih proizvoda su
povećanje materijalnog izvatka u proizvodnji čelika i zadovoljavanje sve većih zahtjeva
tržišta za žicom ili šipkom bez defekata.
Ključne riječi: proizvodnja čelika, čelični proizvodi, defekti, vrućevaljana žica,
ABSTRACT
Defects in the finished rolled steel products can be result from the production of liquid
steel, continuous casting and rolling process. Definition of defect forming and
appearance is essential to improving product quality and reducing the cost of producing
liqiud steel and rolled products. In this work, main defects impact on finished product
quality – wire rod/bar according to their origins in continuous cast billet production or
processing is demonstrated. The main goals of the manufacture of steel products are yield
growth in integrated production line and fulfillment increasing market demands on wire
rod or rolled bar without defects.
Key words: steel production, steel products, defects, hot rolled wire rod
58 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
UTJECAJ HOMOGENIZACIJSKOG ŽARENJA NA MIKROSTRUKTURU
SUPERLEGURE NIMONIC 80A
INFLUENCE OF HOMOGENIZATION ANNEALING ON MICROSTRUCTURE
OF SUPERALLOY NIMONIC 80A
mr Derviš Mujagić, dipl. inž.,
Univerzitet u Zenici
Metalurški institut „Kemal Kapetanović“
v. prof. dr Diana Ćubela, dipl. inž., v. prof. dr Mirsada Oruč, dipl.inž.
Univerzitet u Zenici
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Kategorizacija rada: Prethodno saopštenje
REZIME
Legura Nimonic 80A je dizajnirana za rad na povišenim temperaturama i kao takva je
teška za obradu vrućom deformacijom. To je naročito izraženo prilikom obrade ingota.
Tipična struktura ingota Nimonic legure sastoji se iz vrlo uske zone sitnih globularnih
zrna uz zid kalupa, široke zone grubih stubastih kristala i centralne zone grubih ekviosnih
zrna. Cilj rada je bio da utvrdi utjecaj vremena homogenizacijskog žarenja na
mikrostrukturu superlegure Nimonic 80A, kao i u kojoj mjeri vrijeme homogenizacijskog
žarenja ubrzava homogenizaciju mik
rostrukture.
Ključne riječi: Legura Nimonic, homogenizacijsko žarenje
ABSTRACT
Nimonic 80A alloy is designed to operate at elevated temperatures and as such it is
difficult to perform hot deformation. This is especially pronounced when processing the
ingot. Typical ingot structures in the Nimonic alloys consists of a very narrow zone of
small globular grains with mould wall, a wide coarse columnar zone, and coarse
equiaxed grains in the centre of the ingots. The aim of this study was to determine the
effect of time homogenization annealing on the microstructure of superalloy Nimonic
80A, as well as how much time homogenization annealing
improving the homogenization of the microstructure.
Key words: Nimonic alloy, homogenization annealing
59 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
REGRESIJSKA I KORELACIJSKA ANALIZA REZULTATA TVRDOĆE U
ZAVISNOSTI OD SADRŽAJA MANGANA I KROMA U SIVOM LIVU
REGRESSION AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF HARDNESS RESULTS
DEPENDING ON THE MANGANESE AND CHROMIUM CONTENT IN THE
GRAY CAST IRON
Sedad Mušinović dipl. ing
Bosio,
Zenica
Mr. Šehzudin Dervišić dipl. ing, Nermin Mujezinović dipl. ing
Cimos TMD Casting,
Zenica
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Rad opisuje matematičku analizu rezultata tvrdoće u zavisnosti od različitog sadržaja
mangana i croma u sivom livu. Eksperimentalni podaci prikupljeni su u pogonu i
laboratorijama livnice Cimos u Zenici. Eksperiment je obuhvatio livenje probnih
uzoraka, mjerenje tvrdoće i analiza rezultata u zavisnosti od sadržaja mangana i croma.
Ključne riječi: regresija i korelacija, tvrdoća, hemijski sastav, sivi liv.
ABSTRACT
The activity describes a mathematical analysis of hardness results depending on the
different contents of manganese and chromium in the gray cast iron. The experimental
data were collected in facility and the laboratories in Cimos Zenica foundry. The
experiment included the castings of specimens, hardness measurement and analysis of
results depending on the content of manganese and chromium.
Key words: regression and correlation, hardness, chemical composition, gray cast iron.
60
IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
UTICAJ TERMIČKE OBRADE NA TVRDOĆU I VELIČINU ZRNA
SUPERLEGURE NIMONIC 80A
Dr. sc. Raza Sunulahpašić,
Univerzitet u Zenici, Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale,
Travnička cesta 1, Zenica
Dr. sc. Mirsada Oruč,
Univerzitet u Zenici
Fakultetska br.3, Zenica
Dipl. ing. Branka Muminović
Univerzitet u Zenici, Metalurški institut "Kemal Kapetanovic"
Travnička cesta 3, Zenica
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Nimonic 80A je superlegura na bazi nikla sa oko 20% kroma, koja precipitacijski ojačava
dodatkom Al i Ti. Optimalna mikrostrukturna i mehanička svojstva se postižu primjenom
odgovarajuće termičke obrade. Standardi propisuju dva tipa termičke obrade za ovu
leguru. U radu je prikazan uticaj jednog tipa termičke obrade na osobine materijala, koji
je praćen mjerenjem tvrdoće i ispitivanjem mikrostrukture na optičkom mikroskopu,
odnosno veličine zrna i određivanjem prisutnih faza.
Ključne riječi: superlegura Nimonic 80A, termička obrada, tvrdoća
ABSTRACT
Nimonic 80A is a nickel base superalloy with about 20% chromium, which strengthening
precipitation by adding Al and Ti. Optimal microstructure and mechanical properties are
obtained through adequate heat treatment. The standards provide for two types of heat
treatment for this alloy. In this paper describes the effects of one type of heat treatment
on the properties of the material, which is followed by measuring the hardness and
determination of grain size and phases present using an optical microscope.
Key words: superalloy Nimonic 80A, heat treatment, hardness
61 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
UTICAJ HLADNE DEFORMACIJE VUČENJEM NA OSNOVNE MEHANIČKE
OSOBINE VATROOTPORNIH AUSTENITNIH ČELIKA
INFLUENCE OF COLD DEFORMATION-DRAWINGON BASIC
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT-RESISTANT AUSTENITIC STEELS
Uzunović F., Beganović O., Muminović B., Fakić B., i Jerković D.
Univerzitet u Zenici
Metalurški Institut "Kemal Kapetanović"
Zenica
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Hladno vučenje žice i šipki omogućava dobivanje preciznijih dimenzija, glatkije površine
i proizvodi značajno povećanje čvrstoćnih osobina vučenog materijala, u odnosu na sve
procese tople prerade. Spomenuti porast čvrstoćnih osobina je istovremeno praćen
odgovarajućim padom duktilnih osobina. Porast čvrstoće i pad duktilnih osobina sa
porastom stepena hladne plastične deformacije u toku procesa vučenja, tj fenomen
deformacionog ojačavanja, u najvećoj mjeri zavisi od hemijskog sastava i sadržaja
legirajućih elemenata u nekom čeliku. U ovom radu je razmatran uticaj stepena hladne
plastične deformacije vučenjem na osnovne mehaničke osobine visokolegiranog
vatrootpornog austenitnog čelika (25% Cr i 20% Ni) AISI 310, koji se između ostaloga
karakteriše i visokom vrijednošću deformacionog ojačavanja.
Ključne riječi: hladno vučenje, deformaciono ojačavanje, austenitni čelici
ABSTRACT
Except that it allows the production of wires and rods within very narrow tolerances and
with a clean and smooth surface, cold drawing also allows a significant increase in
strength properties of drawn materials. Of course, increasing the strength properties is
followed by the corresponding decrease in ductile properties. The increase of strength
and decrease of ductile properties with increasing of deformation degree during cold
drawing (strain hardening) largely depends on the amount of alloying elements in steel.
This paper discusses the influence of the amount of cold plastic deformation on the
strength and ductile properties of high alloyed heat resistant austenitic steel (25% Cr and
20% Ni) AISI 310 which is characterized with high strain hardening rate.
Key words: cold drawing, strain hardening, austenitic steels
62 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
ODREĐIVANJE ZAOSTALIH NAPONA ZAVARENE KONSTRUKCIJE
REZERVOARA PRIMJENOM MAGNETNE METODE
DETERMINATION OF THE RESIDUAL LOADS OF THE WELDED TANK
CONSTRUCTION BY THE APPLICATION OF THE MAGNETIC METHOD
dr. sc. Fadil Islamović, vanr. profesor
Univerzitet u Bihaću, Tehnički fakultet
Bihać
dr. sc. Atif Hodžić, docent
Univerzitet u Bihaću, Tehnički fakultet
Bihać
dr. sc. Dženana Gačo, docent
Univerzitet u Bihaću, Tehnički fakultet
Bihać
mr. sc. Esad Bajramović, dipl.ing.maš.
Univerzitet u Bihaću, Tehnički fakultet
Bihać
Kategorizacija rada: Prethodno saopštenje
REZIME
Nepoznanica koja značajno utiče na ukupno naponsko stanje zavarene konstrukcije je
koliko montaža rezervoara i izabrana tehnologija zavarivanja utiču na unošenje dodatnih
napona u konstrukciju, odnosno, koliki su zaostali (sopstveni) naponi u zavarenoj
konstrukciji rezervoara nakon montaže i zavarivanja. Uticaj izbora tehnologije
zavarivanja čelika Č0361 na količinu unesene toplote i na akumulaciju zaostalih napona,
je analiziran ispitivanjem izrađenih kompleksnih epruveta koje simuliraju stvarnu vezu
(ugaoni T spoj) pregrade i plašta rezervoara.
Cilj ovih ispitivanja bio je da se preko određivanja zaostalog deformacijskog stanja i
izračunavanja zaostalih (sopstvenih) napona u zavarenoj čeličnoj konstrukciji
(simulirana veza pregrada–plašt rezervoara) da ocjena kako izabrana tehnologija
zavarivanja utiče na naponsko stanje u kritičnim zonama zavarenog spoja, a sve u
interesu izbora najpovoljnije tehnologije zavarivanja.
Ključne riječi: zaostali naponi, rezervoar, tehnologija zavarivanja, kompleksna epruveta,
magnetna metoda, zavareni spoj.
ABSTRACT
Uncertainty that significantly influences the total load condition of the welded
construction is how much tank installation and selected welding technology affect input
of the additional load in the construction, i.e. what are the residual (own) loads in the
welded tank construction after the installation and welding. The influence of the selection
of welding technology for steel S.0361 on the amount of introduced heat and
accumulation of residual load was analyzed by the testing of the created complex test
tubes that simulate the real connection (corner T joint) of partition and jacket of the tank.
The aim of these tests is to, through the determination of the residual strain condition and
calculation of residual (own) loads in the welded steel construction (simulated
connection partition-jacket of the tank), determine how selected welding technology
affects the load condition in welded joint critical areas, and in the interest of selection of
the most favorable welding technology.
Key wordsi stress, welding technology,complex test piece, method, welded joint
63 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
ISPITIVANJE AUSTENITNIH I DUPLEX NEHRĐAJUĆIH ČELIKA NA PITING
KOROZIJU
ESTIMATING OF AUSTENITIC AND DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS AGAINST
TO PITTING CORROSION
Dejana Brkić, dipl.ing.
Doc. dr. sc. Farzet Bikić
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale u Zenici
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
U radu je ispitivana piting korozija austenitnih, ASTM 304L i ASTM 316L, i duplex
ASTM 2205 nehrđajućih čelika. Za ispitivanje piting korozije navedenih čelika korištena
je metoda ciklične polarizacije. Ispitivanja su vršena u 3 % otopini NaCl na dvije
različite temperature, 21 i 40 °C. Za ispitivanje piting korozije nehrđajućih čelika
korišten je uređaj potenciostat/galvanostat PAR 263A–2.
Ključne riječi: piting korozija, nehrđajući čelici, ciklična polarizacija
ABSTRACT
In this paper is tested pitting corrosion of austenitic, ASTM 304L and 316L ASTM, and
duplex ASTM 2205 stainless steels. To test pitting corrosion of steels above was used
method of cyclic polarization. Tests were performed in 3% NaCl solution at two different
temperatures, 21 and 40 °C. Pitting corrosion of stainless steels is tested on instrument
potentiostat/galvanostat PAR 263A-2
Key words: pitting corrosion, stainless steels, cyclic polarization
64 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
KOROZIJA IMPLANTATA NA BAZI NEHRĐAJUČEG ČELIKA U
FIZIOLOŠKOJ OTOPINI
CORROSION OF IMPLANTANTS BASED ON STAINLESS STEEL IN SALINE
Adem Dautbašić, Sead Ćatić, Amra Odobašić, Husejin Keran
Tehnološki fakultet Univerzitet Tuzla
Fehim Korać
Prirodno matematički fakultet Univerzitet Sarajevo
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Teoretska saznanja sugerišu da do pojave korozije metala u živom organizmu dolazi
usljed prisustva Cl- iona, pa je iz tog razloga za praćenje i simuliranje korozije korišten
rastvor za infuziju koji sadrži 0,9 % NaCl. Međutim, s obzirom da u navedenom slanom
rastvoru nedostaju neke komponente koje sadrže tjelesne tekućine, za in vitro ispitivanja
korištena je Ringerova otopina, zbog toga što svojim hemijskim sastavom odgovara
fluidima u ljudskom organizmu. Kao materijal za ispitivanja korišteni su čisti metali koji
ulaze u sastav implantata i nehrđajući čelik AISI 316L (implantat). Elementi koji ulaze u
sastav metalnog implantata na bazi nehrđajućeg čelika su normalno prisutni u
organizmu. To su prije svega Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, i pripadaju grupi esencijalnih elemenata u
tragovima. U ovom radu analizirana su koroziona svojstva koja metalni materijali
moraju posjedovati da bi se mogli primjenjivati za izradu medicinskih implantata. Pored
izuzetne otpornost prema koroziji implantati trebaju da su: netoksični, da imaju veliku
izdržljivost, čvrstoću i žilavost. Također, implatantni metalni materijal na bazi
mehrđajućeg čelika se mora odlikovati izrazitom biokompatibilnošću, odnosno, izrazitim
afinitetom ćelija prema površini metalnog implantata. Voltametrijskom linearnom
anodnom polarizacijom i cikličnom voltametrijom određeno je ponašanje metalnog
implantata na bazi nehrđajućeg čelika kao i čistih metala (Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo) u
Ringerovoj otopini na tjelesnoj temperaturi ljudskog organizma i na temperaturi 250C.
Ključne riječi: Metalni implantat, Ringer otopina, korozija.
ABSTRACT
Theoretical knowledge suggests that corrosion of metal in living organism comes because
of presence of Cl- ions. Because of that reason for following and simulating corrosion
used is solution for infusion, which has 0,9% of NaCl. However, in salty solution there is
a lack of same components which have in body fluids, for in vitro research used is Ringer
solution, because with its chemical ingredients fits to fluids in human body. As a material
for research there have been used pure metals which are ingredients of metal implantant
and stainless steel AISI 316L(implantant). Elements which are ingredients of metal
implantants based on stainless steel are normaly present in organism. Those are Mn,
Mo,Ni, Cr and they belong to group of esential elements in traces. In this research there
have been analysed corrosion properties which metal materials have to got, so they can
be used for making medical implantants. Barring great resistance to the corrosion,
65 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
implantants need to be:
non – toxic, they need to have endurance and
strenhgt.Also,metal material based on stainless steel must be biocompatible and must
have cell afinity to surface of metal implantant. With voltametric linear anode
polarisation and cyclic voltametry is determinated behaviour of metal implantant based
on stainless steel and pure metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo) in Ringer solution at
body temperature and at 250 C .
Key words: metal implantant, Ringer solution, corrosion.
66 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF JOINTS ON THE
ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
Aleš Nagode, Borut Kosec, Borut Zorc, Ladislav Kosec
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering
Ljubljana, Slovenia
Gašper Novak
Acroni, d.o.o., Jesenice, Slovenia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
In the investigation we have received two different welding joints cut off from the electric
water heater which has been in exploitation for almost 2 years. A tank of water heater is
made of stainless steel of Grade 304, while the pipes for the cold water supply and hot
water outlet are made of copper. A research was mainly focused on the welding joints
between different components of the water heater since some of them had been corroding.
Therefore, we have performed a detailed microstructure analysis of the welding joints
and base material using a light microscope as well as a scanning electron microscope
(SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDXS) for microchemical
analysis.
Key words: electric water heater, welding joints, crevice corrosion, chromium depletion,
shrinkage porosity
67 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
CHARACTERISATION OF BaFe12O19 AND NiFe2O4 MAGNETIC MATERIALS
Vladan R. Ćosović
Nadežda M. Talijan
University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy
Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade
Serbia
Tomáš Žák
Bohumil David
Institute of Physics of Materials AS CR, v.v.i.
Žižkova 22, CZ-616 62 Brno
Czech Republic
Aleksandar R. Ćosović
Institute for technology of nuclear and other mineral raw materials
Franse d’ Eperea 86, 11000 Belgrade
Serbia
Dragana T. Živković
Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade
V.J. 12, 19210 Bor
Serbia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
ABSTRACT
Ferrite magnetic materials are one of the most commonly used permanent magnetic
materials with numerous applications. They are preferred over ALNICO magnetic
materials due to lower material and processing costs. Considering the direct relation
between phase composition and microstructure on one side and magnetic properties on
the other, two powder samples of ferrite magnetic materials BaFe12O19 and NiFe2O4 were
characterized using diverse experimental techniques. Phase composition was determined
by the XRD and by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic phase analysis. The temperature
dependence of the total magnetic moment was analyzed using thermomagnetic
measurements. Magnetic properties were measured on the temperature of the ambient, on
VSM (Vibrating sample magnetometer) with magnetic field strength of 800 kA/m. In the
light of the obtained results, properties and quality of the two investigated materials are
compared and discussed.
Key words: ferrites, phase composition, magnetic properties
68 NEMETALNI MATERIJALI
NONMETALLIC MATERIALS
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
DUBININ-RADUSHKEVICH-KAGANEROVA IZOTERMA ZA ADSORPCIONE
SISTEME ODABRANIH ORGANSKIH ADSORBATA NA FAU ZEOLITU I
NJEGOVIM MODIFIKACIJAMA
DUBININ-RADUSHKEVICH-KAGANER ISOTHERM FOR THE ADSORPTION
SYSTEMS OF THE SELECTED ORGANIC ADSORBATES ON THE FAU
ZEOLITE AND ITS MODIFICATIONS
1
Slavica Sladojević, 2 Vesna Antunović, 1 Jelena Penavin-Škundrić, 3 Branko Škundrić,
4
Saša Zeljković, 1 Darko Bodroža
1
Tehnološki fakultet, Banjaluka, Univerzitet u Banjaluci, Bosna i Hercegovina
2
Medicinski fakultet, Banjaluka, Univerzitet u Banjaluci, Bosna i Hercegovina
3
Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Republike Srpske, Bosna i Hercegovina
4
Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Banjaluka, Univerzitet u Banjaluci, Bosna i Hercegovina
Kategorizacija rada: Originalni naučni rad
REZIME
Ispitivanje različitih adsorpcionih fenomena je veoma značajno, kako za adsorpcione
procese tako i za karakterizaciju aktivnih centara na vanjskoj i unutrašnjoj površini
zeolita. U raznim stepenima adsorpcionog (a znači i katalitičkog procesa) uspostavlja se
stalna dinamička ravnoteža između aktivnih centara, sorbovanih reaktanata,
intermedijera i produkata. Izuzetno velika gustina aktivnih centara po jedinici mase, kao i
mogućnost modifikovanja osnovnih osobina ovih materijala odgovarajućim hemijskim,
termičkim i hidrotermičkim tretmanom, čine ih veoma aktivnim i selektivnim. Kao
adsorbensi toksičnih materija organskog i neorganskog porijekla sve širu primjenu
nalaze u prećišćavanju otpadnih voda, kao i u veterinarskoj i humanoj medicini i
farmaciji. U ovom radu je praćena adsorpcija organskih adsorbata, propanske i butanske
kiseline iz vodenog rastvora i metilvioleta, kao test reakcija na sintetičkim FAU zeolitima
- Y i na modifikovanoj formi HY, na 25 0C. Karakterizacija sistema je opisana DubininRadushkevich-Kaganerovom izotermom, koja se primjenjuje za adsorpcione sisteme u
rastvoru, kada su adsorbensi mikroporozne strukture.
Ključne riječi: adsorpcija, zeoliti, propanska i butanska kiselina, metilviolet
ABSTRACT
The study of different adsorption phenomena is very significant, both for adsorption
processes and for characterization of active centers at the outer and inner surface of
zeolite. In different degrees of the adsorption (i.e. catalytic) process, there gets
established a permanent dynamic balance among active centers, sorbed reactants,
intermediates and products. An extremely big density of active centers per mass unit, as
well as the possibility of modification of basic characteristics of these materials by
appropriate chemical, thermic and hydrothermic treatment, makes them very much active
and selective. As adsorbents of toxic substances of organic and inorganic origin, they get
more and more applied in purification of waste water, as well as in veterinary and
humane medicine and pharmacy. This study observes adsorption of organic adsorbates,
71 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
propane and butane acid from aqueous solution and methyl violet, as a test of the
reactions on synthetic FAU zeolites - Y and on the modified form of HY, at 25 0C.
Characterization of the system was described by Dubinin-Radushkevich-Kaganer
isotherm, which is applied for adsorption systems in the solution, when adsorbents are of
a micro porous structure.
Key words: adsorption, zeolites, propionic acid, butyric acid, methyl violet
72 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
DUBININ-RADUSHKEVICH-KAGANEROVA IZOTERMA ZA ADSORPCIONE
SISTEME ODABRANIH ORGANSKIH ADSORBATA NA FAU ZEOLITU I
NJEGOVIM MODIFIKACIJAMA
DUBININ-RADUSHKEVICH-KAGANER ISOTHERM FOR THE ADSORPTION
SYSTEMS OF THE SELECTED ORGANIC ADSORBATES ON THE FAU
ZEOLITE AND ITS MODIFICATIONS
1
Slavica Sladojević, 2 Vesna Antunović, 1 Jelena Penavin-Škundrić, 3 Branko Škundrić,
4
Saša Zeljković, 1 Darko Bodroža
1
Tehnološki fakultet, Banjaluka, Univerzitet u Banjaluci, Bosna i Hercegovina
2
Medicinski fakultet, Banjaluka, Univerzitet u Banjaluci, Bosna i Hercegovina
3
Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Republike Srpske, Bosna i Hercegovina
4
Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Banjaluka, Univerzitet u Banjaluci, Bosna i Hercegovina
Kategorizacija rada: Originalni naučni rad
REZIME
Ispitivanje različitih adsorpcionih fenomena je veoma značajno, kako za adsorpcione
procese tako i za karakterizaciju aktivnih centara na vanjskoj i unutrašnjoj površini
zeolita. U raznim stepenima adsorpcionog (a znači i katalitičkog procesa) uspostavlja se
stalna dinamička ravnoteža između aktivnih centara, sorbovanih reaktanata,
intermedijera i produkata. Izuzetno velika gustina aktivnih centara po jedinici mase, kao i
mogućnost modifikovanja osnovnih osobina ovih materijala odgovarajućim hemijskim,
termičkim i hidrotermičkim tretmanom, čine ih veoma aktivnim i selektivnim. Kao
adsorbensi toksičnih materija organskog i neorganskog porijekla sve širu primjenu
nalaze u prećišćavanju otpadnih voda, kao i u veterinarskoj i humanoj medicini i
farmaciji. U ovom radu je praćena adsorpcija organskih adsorbata, propanske i butanske
kiseline iz vodenog rastvora i metilvioleta, kao test reakcija na sintetičkim FAU zeolitima
- Y i na modifikovanoj formi HY, na 25 0C. Karakterizacija sistema je opisana DubininRadushkevich-Kaganerovom izotermom, koja se primjenjuje za adsorpcione sisteme u
rastvoru, kada su adsorbensi mikroporozne strukture.
Ključne riječi: adsorpcija, zeoliti, propanska i butanska kiselina, metilviolet
ABSTRACT
The study of different adsorption phenomena is very significant, both for adsorption
processes and for characterization of active centers at the outer and inner surface of
zeolite. In different degrees of the adsorption (i.e. catalytic) process, there gets
established a permanent dynamic balance among active centers, sorbed reactants,
intermediates and products. An extremely big density of active centers per mass unit, as
well as the possibility of modification of basic characteristics of these materials by
appropriate chemical, thermic and hydrothermic treatment, makes them very much active
and selective. As adsorbents of toxic substances of organic and inorganic origin, they get
more and more applied in purification of waste water, as well as in veterinary and
humane medicine and pharmacy. This study observes adsorption of organic adsorbates,
73 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
surface of clinoptilolite that were accessible to the molecules of different size for the
phenomenon of surface reactions such as adsorption and catalysis.
Key words: clinoptilolite, isomerization 3,3-DMB-1, adsorption, lauric acid
74 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
PROIZVODNJA CEMENTA TIPA CEM II/B - W 42,5 N SA ASPEKTA
POUZDANOSTI
PRODUCTION OF CEM II/B - W 42,5 N TYPE OF CEMENT FROM
RELIABILITY ASPECT
Mr.sc. Nedžad Haračić dipl.ing
Mr.sc. Nevzet Merdić dipl.ing
Tvornica cementa Kakanj d.d Kakanj
Selima ef. Merdanovića 146
72240 Kakanj
Doc. dr Ilhan Bušatlić
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Prof. dr Zehrudin Osmanović
Tehnološki fakultet u Tuzli
Mr.sc. Nadira Bušatlić dipl.ing
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Cilj ovoga rada jeste da se pokaže u kojoj mjeri je bitna pouzdanost mjerne opreme ili
procedura koje se koriste za ispitivanje različitih vrsta uzoraka. Kao i u drugim
oblastima, tako i kada je riječ o cementnoj industriji pouzdanost analitičkih procedura i
opreme su neophodan preduslov za proizvodnju cementa i kontrolu kvaliteta sa što nižim
finansijskim troškovima. Netačni i nepouzdani rezultati mjerenja mogu uzrokovati
značajne finansijske i materijalne gubitke kako za proizvođača cementa, tako i za
krajnjeg korisnika.
U ovom radu su prikazani rezultati poređenja uzoraka cementa CEM II/B-W 42,5 N koji
su analizirani klasičnom hemijskom metodom prema Evropskom standardu EN 196-2 i
XRF spektrometrijom. Vrijednosti koje su dobivene ispitivanjem pomoću gore navedenih
metoda su upoređene sa referentnim vrijednostima koju su dobivene u akreditovanoj
laboratoriji.
Ključne riječi: Hemijska analiza, cement CEM II/B-W 42,5 N, XRF spektrometar,
Evropske norme (EN 196-2), referentna vrijednost
ABSTRACT
The aim of this paper is to show how much is important the reliability of measuring
equipment and procedures for examination of different kind of samples. Like in other
fields, in cement industry too, reliability of analitical procedures and equipments are an
indispensable prerequisite for cement production and quality with low financial costs.
Innacurate and unreliable results can cause significant financial and materiel losses for
the cement producer and for the end user too.
In this paper are presented results of comaprison cement samples CEM II/B-W 42,5 N
which are analysed by ordinary chemical method according to European standard EN
196-2 and XRF spectrometry. The values obtained by above mentioned methods are
comapred with reference values obtained in accredited laboratory.
Key words: Chemical analysis, cement CEM II/B-W 42,5 N, XRF spectrometer, European
standard (EN 196-2), reference value
75 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
UPOTREBA GRANULISANE TROSKE VISOKE PEĆI KAO DODATKA ZA
PROIZVODNJU KLINKERA U TVORNICI CEMENTA KAKANJ
USAGE OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG AS ADDITION TO
CLINKER PRODUCTION IN CEMENT PLANT KAKANJ
Msc Nevzet Merdić dipl.ing
Msc. Nedzad Haračić
Kakanj cement plant
Selima ef. Merdanovica 146, 72240
Doc. dr.sc Ilhan Bušatlić
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Mr.sc. Nadira Bušatlić dipl.ing
Keran Nihad, dipl. ing.
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
U ovom radu je analiziran uticaj dodatka granulisane troske visoke peći (5 %)
sirovinama za proizvodnju klinkera .Zahvaljujući hemijskom i mineraloškom sastavu
granulisana troska visoke peći može djelimično zamijeniti sirovine u procesu proizvodnje
klinkera. Granlisana troska visoke peći se dodaje zajedno sa ostalim sirovinama za
proizvodnju klinkera u mlin sirovine. Kako granulisana troska visoke peći ne zahtijeva
kalcinaciju, njoj je potrebno malo ili nimalo dodatne energije da bi se pretvorila u
klinker. Kao rezultat toga, najveći efekat dodatka granulisane troske visoke peći za
okolinu predstavlja redukcija emisije CO2 po toni proizvedenog klinkera.
Ključne riječi: granulisana troska visoke peći, sirovine za proizvodnju klinkera, čvrstoća
cementa
ABSTRACT
Influence of addition the granulated blast furnace slag (5 %) to raw materials for clinker
production was studied in this paper. Due to its chemical and mineralogical composition
granulated blast furnace slag can be used to partially substitute raw materials in the
clinker production process.Granulated blast furnace slag adds up together with other
raw materials by conveyer belt into the raw mill. As granulated blast firnace slag does
not require any further calcination, it requires litlle or no additional fuel to convert into
cement clinker. As a result, the most direct enviromental benefit from the addition of
granulated blast furnace slag to cement kiln is the resulting reduction in the CO2
emission per tonne of clinker produced.
Key words: Silica fume, cement, compressive strength
76 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
ANALIZA PROCESA SEPARACIJE PRAŠINE U INDUSTRIJI CEMENTA
ANALYSIS OF DUST SEPARATION PROCES IN CEMENT INDUSTRY
Dr. sci. Zehrudin Osmanović, dipl.ing.
Univerzitet u Tuzli,
Tehnološki fakultet Tuzla
Alić Nermin, dipl.ing.
TQM" d.o.o. Lukavac, Institut za kvalitet, standardizaciju i
ekologiju, Lukavac
Mr.sc. Nedžad Haračić, dipl. ing.
Tvornica cementa Kakanj d.d Kakanj
Dževad Omerdić, dipl.ing.
FC Lukavac
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Prašina predstavlja sitno dispergovane krute čestice u zraku. U hemijskoj industriji,
prašina nastaje u procesima abrazije, drobljenja, mljevenja, utovara, istovara i
transporta materijala. Prekomjerna emisija prašine, osim zdravstvenih problema radnika
može uzrokovati i industrijske probleme kao što su eksplozije i požari, štete na opremi, i
probleme u relacijama s okruženjem.
Najčešće korištene tehnološke operacije u industrijskom okruženju su inercijski
separatori, vrećasti kolektori, mokri skruberi, i elektrostatički otprašivači. U cementnoj
industriji naviše u upotrebi su elektrostatički otprašivači i vrećasti kolektori. Poligon
istraživanja je podsistem za separaciju prašine, odnosno «filtarska linija» sa vrećastim
filtrima za otprašivanje mlina sirovine i peći FC Lukavac. Na osnovu podataka dobivenih
praćenjem procesnih parametra odredit će se koeficijent efikasnosti procesa separacije
sistema sa elektro i vrećastim filterima.
Ključne riječi: cement, industrija, prašina, separacija.
ABSTRACT
Dust represent small stiff dispersed partlices in the air. In chemical industry, dust
originate in processes of abrasion, grinding and milling, loading, unloading and during
the transport of material. Excessive emission of dust, except of emlployees helath
problems can cause some indutrial problems as explosion and fire, demages on
equipment and problems in relation with local community. The most used technology
operations in industrial field are inertial separators, bag collectors, wet scrubers and
electrostatic dedusting device. In cement industry, the most used are electrostatic
dedusting devices and bag collectors. Investigation polygon is subsystem for dust
separation „filter line“ with bag filters for dedusting of raw mill and kiln in FC Lukavac.
On the base of information obtained following the process parameters will be determined
the efficiency coefficient of separation process with electric and bag filters.
Key words: cement, industry, dust, separation
77 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
THE POSSIBILITY OF DIFFERENT FILLERS APPLICATION IN
COMPOSITION OF REFRACTORY COATINGS
Aurel Prstić, mr.
Ami-Beograd, Kneza Miloša 86
Belgrade, Serbia
Zagorka Aćimović-Pavlović, prof. dr.
University of Belgrade, Faculty for Technology and Metallurgy, Karegijeva 4, Belgrade,
Serbia
Milan Đuričić
Faculty for Industrial Management, University Union Belgrade, Hercegovačka 47, Užice,
Serbia
Anja Terzić, dr.
Institute for Materials Testing, Vojvode Mišića Bl. 43
Belgrade, Serbia
Ljubica Pavlović, dr.
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Raw Mineral Materials, Franchet d'Esperey st.76,
Belgrade, Serbia
Paper categorization: Original scientific paper
ABSTRACT
Results of investigation of ceramic powders application possibilities in production of
coatings for sand molds and cores, as well as the coatings used with other casting
methods with application of meltable and evaporable patterns are presented in this
paper. Several coatings compositions were defined. Application of ceramic fillers (talc,
zircon, chromite, corundum) was discussed. In order to attain cost-effective castings
production by the Lost foam casting method, it is necessary to obtain the balance in the
following system: evaporable polymeric pattern liquid metal - ceramic coating – sand
mold during metal inflow, polymeric pattern decomposition and evaporation, castings
formation and solidification. Usage of ceramic powders for production of coatings and
their application in the Lost foam casting process decisively depends on the coating
rheological properties, i.e. on the suspension sediment stability. Casting process
technological parameters significantly influence the structure and the castings properties.
Different coating compositions were examined, as well as component preparation and
activation methods aimed at attaining homogeneous coating suspension, reduction of
coating components precipitation and a coating density reduction. A special attention
was paid to detection and analysis of prospective faults, such as porosity, surface noncoverage, coating take-off from the pattern surface or dried coating layer cracking. The
aim of the investigation was to establish the correlation between the quality of the
castings obtained by different casting methods and the properties of the ceramic coatings
applied, i.e. the properties of ceramic fillers.
Key words: ceramic coating, talc, zircon, corundum, chromite, Lost foam process,
casting.
78 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
MOGUĆNOSTI KORIŠTENJA RECIKLIRANIH VLAKANA U PROIZVODNJI
KRAFT LINER PAPIRA U KOMBINACIJI SA SULFATNOM NEBJELJENOM
ČETINARSKOM CELULOZOM
POSSIBILITIES OF RECYCLED FIBER USAGE IN PRODUCTION OF
KRAFTLINER PAPER IN COMBINATION WITH UNBLEACHED
CONIFEROUS SULPHATE PULP
doc. dr. sc. Šefkija Botonjić
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale Univerziteta u Zenici
dr. sc. Jasminka Sadadinović,
redovni profesor
Tehnološki fakultet
Univerziteta u Tuzli
dr. sc. Milorad Krgović,
redovni profesor,
Tehnološko-metalurški fakultet u Beogradu
Kategorizacija rada: Originalni naučni rad
REZIME
Kraft liner papir zajedno sa šrenc, fluting i test linerom spada u grupu ambalažnih
papira koji se koriste kao sirovina za proizvodnju valovitog kartona. Osnovna sirovina za
proizvodnju kraft liner papira je nebjeljena sulfatna četinarska celuloza, odnosno kraft
celuloza visokog iscrpka. Očuvanje životne sredine, ekonomski trendovi i alarmantno
stanje zaliha drvne sirovinske osnove su sve veći izazov u upotrebi recikliranih vlakana
kod proizvodnje papira bilo da se ona koriste sama ili u kombinaciji sa primarnim
vlaknima. Recikliranje je postupak vraćanja (otpadnih papira) suhih celuloznih vlakana u
ponovni proces proizvodnje papira, koji se temelji na postupcima filtracije vodene
suspenzije. Naučna istraživanja su provedena u cilju utvrđivanja mogućnosti proizvodnje
kraft liner papira, na bazi recikliranih vlakna iz otpadnog papira podgrupe 1.05 i
podgrupe 1.04, u kombinaciji sa celulozom kao osnovnom (primarnom) sirovinom.
Laboratorijska istraživanja su provedena na Institutu za celulozu i papir u Ljubljani,
Republika Slovenija. Dobiveni rezultati potvrđuju opravdanost istraživanja.
Ključne riječi: Sulfatna nebjeljena četinarska celuloza, reciklirana vlakna podgrupe
1.05, reciklirana vlakna podgrupe 1.04
ABSTRACT
Kraft liner paper along with schranz, fluting and testliner belongs to the group of
packaging papers used as raw material in corrugated board production. The basic raw
material for the kraft liner paper production is the unbleached sulphate softwood pulp,
that is, kraft pulp high yield. The protection of the environment, the economic trends and
the alarming situation in wood raw material resources are becoming much more
challenging in the usage of the recycling fibres in paper production whether they are
used alone or in combination with the primary fibres. Recycling is the process of treating
already used (waste paper) dried pulp fibres again, based on water suspension filtration
79 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
procedures. The scientific research is conducted in order to establish the possibilities in
kraft line paper production based on recycling fibres of the waste papers subgroup 1.05
and subgroup 1.04 combined with a pulp as the basic (primary) raw material. The
laboratory research is conducted at the Institute for pulp and paper in Ljubljana,
Slovenia. The results prove validity of the research.
Key words: Sulphate, unbleached softwood pulp, recycling fibres subgroup 1.05,
recycling fibres subgroup 1.04
80 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
PRINCIPI RACIONALIZACIJE U PROIZVODNJI
NAMJEŠTAJA OD PUNOG DRVETA
PRINCIPLES OF RATIONALIZATION IN PRODUCTION
FURNITURE SOLID WOOD
Dr. Nerman Rustempašić, dipl.ing. arhitekture
Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Arhitektonski fakultet Sarajevo
Vedad Islambegović, dipl.ing. arhitekture
Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Arhitektonski fakultet Sarajevo
Kategorizacija rada: Pregledni rad
REZIME
U radu će biti prezentirana iskustva pri projektovanju i izvdedbi komadnog namještaja i
ugradbenih enterijerskih elemenata od punog drveta. Drvo kao jedan od najvećih
resursa Bosne i Hercegovine treba biti racionalno korišteno, da bi se kroz duži
vremenski period ovaj značajni prirodni resurs očuvao i da bi se kroz njegovo korištenje
ostvarila što veća finansijska dobit kroz domaću proizvodnju visokokvalitetnih finalnih
proizvoda. U radu će biti prezentirani principi odabira pravilne vrste, klase i veličine
drvenih elemanata i kao i tehnologija njihovog spajanja u koristan poluproizvod koji se
koristi za izradu finalnih komada namještaja. Također će biti obrađeni sistemi
kvalitetnih veza koji smanjuju rizik "rada" drveta kao organskog materijala.
Racionalizacija je proces koji podrazumjeva mjere i aktivnosti tokom svih faza nastajanja
proizvoda, a radu će naročita pažnja biti posvećena ispravnom projektantskom pristupu
pri izradi finalnog dizajna.
Ključne riječi: recikliranje, racionalizacija proizvodnje, CNC tehnologija, Finger Joint
ploče
ABSTRACT
The paper presents the experience in the design and manufacturing of solid wood
furniture and solid wood elements. Wood as one of the largest resources of Bosnia and
Herzegovina should be rationally used for a longer period of time and preserved in order
to obtain higher financial income through domestic production of high quality products.
This paper presents the principles of selecting the proper type, grade and size of wood
elements and technologies, as well as the principles of assembling wooden parts into a
useful peace of furniture. The principles of making good quality joints that reduce the
risk of deformation of wood as an organic material will also be presented.
Rationalization is a process that includes measures and activities during all phases of
product creation, and special attention will be given to proper engineering and design
approach in preparing the final product design.
Key words: recycle, rationalisation of production, CNC technology, Finger Joint slabs
81 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
OSNOVE IR SPEKTROMETRIJE
BASICS OF IR SPECTROMETRY
Farzet Bikić
Univerzitet u Zenici, Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Kategorizacija rada: Pregledni rad
REZIME
U radu su date osnovne informacije o infracrvenoj spektrometriji kao metodi hemijske
analize uzoraka svih agregatnih stanja. Dati su podaci o podjeli oblasti IR spektra te koja
oblast je najznačajnija s aspekta hemijske analize i zašto. Takođe su dati podaci o
osnovama funkcionisanja IR spektrometara, kao i osnovni podaci o tipovima ćelija i
načinu pripreme uzoraka za analizu. Svi podaci navedeni u radu su uzeti iz novijih
literaturnih podataka koji opisuju navedenu tematiku.
Ključne riječi: infracrvena spektrometrija, hemijska analiza, molekulske vibracije, FT-IR
ABSTRACT
In paper are given basic information about infrared spectrometry as a method of
chemical analysis of samples of all three aggregate states. Provide data on distribution of
IR spectrum and which area is most important in terms of chemical analysis and why.
They also provide data on basis o functioning of IR spectrometer, as well as basic
information about types of cells and method of sample preparation for analysis. All data
in paper are taken from recent literature data describing such matters.
Key words: infrared spectrometry, chemical analysis, molecular vibrations,FT-IR
82 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
UTJECAJ OPLEMENJIVANJA NA OSOBINE VATROSTALNE GLINE
„KLOKOTI“
BENEFICIATION EFFECT ON THE FIRECLAY “KLOKOTI”
Marina JOVANOVIĆ
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale, Zenica, FBiH
Kategorizacija rada: Originalni naučni rad
REZIME
Vatrostalna glina „Klokoti“ je oplemenjena mokrom metodom i uklonjena je frakcija
iznad 20 µm. Promjene nastale oplemanjivanjem su određene preko kemijske analize,
DTA/TG, RDA, žarnog mikroskopa i vatrostalnosti. Oplemenjivanjem je povećan sadržaj
glinenih minerala što je rezultiralo povećanjem vatrostalnosti gline. Uklonjeni dio gline
sadrži oko 70% kvarca. Iz ispitivane gline bi se adekvatnom pripremom mogle dobiti
dvije kvalitetne sirovine: vatrostalna glina povećane vatrostalnosti i kvarcni pijesak.
Ključne riječi: glina, oplemenjivanje, mineraloški sastav
ABSTRACT
Fireclay “Klokoti” was beneficiated by wet method removing fraction over 20 µm.
Chemical analyses, DTA/TG, RDA, heating microscope and examination of refracoriness
were used to determine changes arised from beneficiation process. Beneficiation process
increased content of clay minerals which resulted in enhencing refractoriness of clay.
Removed part consists 70% of quartz. Appropriate preparations of examinated clay could
result in two quality raw materials: fireclay enhanced refractoriness and quartz sand.
Key words: clay, beneficiation, mineral composition
83 IX Naučno - stručni simpozij sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. - 24. april 2012.
APPLICATION OF ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS ON DURABILITY
TESTING OF SULFUR CONCRETE
Milica M. Vlahović, Sanja P. Martinović, Tamara Đ. Boljanac
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials
86 Franchet d’Esperey Blvd., Belgrade
Serbia
Jelena Majstorović
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology
7 Djusina St., Belgrade
Serbia
Tatjana Volkov-Husović
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy
4 Karnegijeva St., Belgrade
Serbia
Paper categorization: Original scientific paper
ABSTRACT
Sulfur concrete samples were synthesized and then treated with 10% solution of HCl in
order to investigate their durability by using standardized method for mechanical
strength testing and ultrasonic measurements. Ultrasonic measurements were performed
with the aim to determine the Young modulus of elasticity. Changes in mechanical
strength and Young modulus of elasticity of the samples were monitored periodically
during the immersion time of 180 days in the above mentioned solution. Mechanical
strength degradation of the samples was calculated by the model based on ultrasonic
velocity changes during the testing and compared with the experimentally obtained
values.
Key words: sulfur concrete, mechanical strength, ultrasonic measurements
84
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
POTENTIAL STRENGTH IMPROVEMENT BY CONTROLLING DELAYED
FORMATION OF ETTRINGITE CRYSTALS IN HYDRATED CONCRETE
Samo Lubej
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Maribor
Smetanova 17, 2000, Maribor
Slovenia
Andrej Ivanič
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Maribor
Smetanova 17, 2000, Maribor
Slovenia
Ivan Anžel
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor
Smetanova 17, 2000, Maribor
Slovenia
Ladislav Kosec
Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering, University of Ljubljana
Aškerčeva cesta 12, 1000, Ljubljana
Slovenia
Paper categorization: Original scientific paper
ABSTRACT
Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) is a chemical reaction with proven damaging effects
on hydrated concrete. Ettringite crystals can cause cracks and their widening due to
pressure on crack walls caused by the positive volume difference in the reaction.
Concrete may show improvements in strength at early ages but further growth of cracks
causes widening and spreading of these cracks through the concrete structure. In this
study, a potential to utilise the positive volume difference in DEF in order to improve
mechanical properties of hydrated fine grained concrete is investigated. Finely dispersed
crystallization nuclei achieved by adding air-entraining agent (AEA) and short vibration
of specimens is presented as the main prerequisite for such improvements. The study
presents the method and mechanism for obtaining the required crystallisation nuclei.
Controlling long-term DEF by providing AEA-induced crystallisation nuclei prevented
excessive and rapid initial strength improvements, and resulted in a 6% increase of
compressive strength of fine grained concrete with only marginally lower density.
Key words: Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF), controlled DEF, ettringite crystals,
aerated concrete, hydrated concrete, strength improvement
85 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
UTICAJ VRSTE KATIONA VEZANOG ZA SULFATNI ION NA KOROZIJU
CEMENTNOG KOMPOZITA
INFLUENCE OF A TYPE CATIONS BONDED TO THE SULPHATE ON
CORROSION OF CEMENT COMPOSITES
Merdić Nevzet
Haračić Nedžad
Tvornica cementa Kakanj d.d.
Ilhan Bušatlić
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Nadira Bušatlić
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
U radu su prikazani rezultati ispitivanja utjecaja dodatka letećeg pepela, kao i vrste
kationa na sulfatnu koroziju cementnog kompozita. Na početku su dati rezuzltati
ispitivanja fizičko-hemijskih osobina polaznih sirovina (klinkera i letećeg pepela).
Ispitivanja sulfatne otpornosti su izvršena na šest uzoraka cementa koji su se razlikovali
u sadržaju letećeg pepela koji se kretao od 0 do 50 mas. %. Kao koroziona sredina
korišteni su 4,4 %-tni rastvori: natrijum-sulfata, magnezijum sulfata i amonijum sulfata.
Ključne riječi: cement, leteći pepeo, sulfatna korozija
ABSTRACT
This work presents the results of the inpact of the fly ash, and the types of cations on
sulphate corrosion of cement composites as well. At the beginning of the investigation the
results of physico-chemical properties of raw materials were given (clinker and fly ash).
Sulphate resistance tests were performed on six samples of cement, which differed in the
content of fly ash that ranged from 0 to 50 wt. %. As a corrosive environment 4,4 %
solutions were used: sodium sulphate, magnesium sulphate and amonium sulphate.
Key words: cement, fly ash, sulphate corrosion
86 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
MODELING OF STRENGTH DEGRADATION DURING THERMAL
STABILITY TESTING OF REFRACTORY CONCRETE
Sanja Martinovic, Milica Vlahović, Tamara Boljanac
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials
86 Franchet d’Esperey Blvd, Belgrade
Serbia
Jelena Majstorović
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology
7 Djusina St, Belgrade
Serbia
Tatjana Volkov Husović
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy
4 Karnegijeva St, Belgrade
Serbia
Paper categorization:Original scientific paper
ABSTRACT
Thermal stability of refractory concrete samples sintered at 1300 ºC will be tested by
using the standard laboratory procedure of water quench test (ICS 81.080 SRPS
B.D8.308 former JUS B.D8.306). Ultrapulse velocity measuring was used as nondestructive testing method with the aim to monitor degradation level during thermal
shock inside the bulk of the sample. Obtained results were used for modeling strength
degradation during thermal stability testing. Results of proposed models will be
compared with the experimental values of compressive strength determined by standard
laboratory procedure. Based on the calculated values, analysis of the samples behaviour
during thermal stability testing will be given, as well as strength degradation that define
life time of the refractory sample.
Key words: thermal stability, modeling of strength degradation, refractory castable
87 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
MEHANIZAM OJAČANJA GUME AKTIVNIM NANOPUNILIMA
REINFORCEMENT MECHANISM OF ACTIVE NANOFILLERS IN RUBBER
COMPOUNDS
Adnan Mujkanović, Petar Petrovski , Mirsada Rizvanović
Univerzitet u Zenici
Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijala
Kategorizacija rada: Pregledni rad
REZIME
Fizičko-mehanička svojstva produkata od gume su uvjetovana interakcijom između
osnovnih komponenata gume, odnosno elastomera i punila. U proizvodnji gume, a
posebno u industriji automobilskih guma, daleko najveću primjenu imaju dva punila: čađ
i silika. Unatoč različitom hemijskom sastavu, njihova struktura i mehanizam ojačanja
gume vrlo su slični. To su materijali kompleksne strukture izgrađene od primarnih čestica
reda veličine nanometra, koje se fizičkim i hemijskim vezama povezuju u više strukturne
nivoe. U ovom radu dat je pregled najvažnijih tipova interakcija između punila i
elastomera, odgovornih za efekat ojačanja gume i svojstva finalnih produkata.
Ključne riječi: guma, mehanizam ojačanja, nanopunila
ABSTRACT
The interactions between elastomeric matrix and filler, main rubber compound
components, are responsible for physical-mechanical properties and performance of final
products. The by far most widely used fillers in rubber compounding, particularly in tire
industry, are carbon black and silica. Despite its inherent chemical composition, their
structure and the reinforcement mechanism in the rubber matrix are very similar. Their
complex structure is consisted of nano-sized primary particles aggregated into clusters
due to physical and chemical forces. This paper presents a review of the most important
interactions between filler and elastomer that are relevant for reinforcement effect and
properties of rubber products.
Key words: rubber compound, reinforcing mechanism, nanofillers
88 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
PRIMJENA UV-VIS SPEKTROFOTOMETRIJE U PROCJENI EFIKASNOSTI
SREDSTAVA ZA ZAŠTITU OD UV ZRAČENJA
APPLICATION OF UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY IN ASSESSMENT OF
EFFICIENCY OF PROTECTION FROM UV RADIATION
Farzet Bikić
Mirsada Rizvanović
Univerzitet u Zenici, Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
U radu su prikazani rezultati ispitivanja efikasnosti zaštite od UV zračenja nekoliko
krema koje su porijeklom od različitih Europskih proizvođača čija imena nisu navedena u
radu. Upotrijebljene su kreme različitih zaštitnih faktora, a nabavljene su s prodajnih
mjesta u BiH. Uzorci navedenih krema su otpani u izo-propanolu i skenirani na UV–VIS
spektrofotometru u intervalu talasnih dužina od 600–250 nm. Na osnovu oblika krivih
apsorbancije u zavisnosti od talasne dužine, te intenziteta apsorbancijskog maksimuma,
izvršena je procjena efikasnosti njihove zaštite. Za ispitivanja je upotrijebljen uređaj UV–
VIS spektrofotometar, PerkinElmer, Lambda 650.
Ključne riječi: kreme, zaštita, UV zračenje, apsorbancija, UV–VIS spektrofotometar
ABSTRACT
The paper presents results of testing efficiency of protection from UV radiation several
creams that are originated from different European manufacturers whose names are not
listed in the paper. Creams were used various protective factors, and were purchased
from retail outlets in BiH. Samples of these creams are dissolved in iso-propanol, and
scanned on the UV-VIS spectrophotometer in range of wavelengths from 600-250 nm.
Evaluating of UV protection is performed over the curves of absorption depending on
wavelength. For testing using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, PerkinElmer, Lambda 650.
Key words: creams, protection, UV radiation, absorbance, UV-VIS spectrophotometer
89 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
KINETIC STUDY OF Cr (VI) ADSORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON
WASTE QUARTZ MATERIAL
KINETIČKA STUDIJA ADSORPCIJE Cr (VI) IZ VODENE OTOPINE NA
OTPADNOM KVARCNOM MATERIJALU
Anita Štrkalj, Ph.D, Zoran Glavaš, Ph.D
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Metallurgy,
Aleja narodnih heroja 3, 44 000 Sisak, Croatia
Milan Sladojević, B.Sc
Applied Ceramics d.o.o., Braće Kavurića 10b, 44 000 Sisak, Croatia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
REZIME
Ovo istraživanje usmjereno je na otpadni kvarcni materijal kao alternativni adsorbens za
uklanjanje Cr (VI) iona iz vodenih otopina. Otpadni kvarcni materijal potječe od
mehaničke obrade kvarcnih diskova za CVD opremu. Adsorpcijski proces praćen je kroz
različiti vrijeme kontakta adsorbens-adsorbat. Dobiveni rezultati pokazuju da je otpadni
kvarcni materijal vrlo dobar adsorbens za uklanjanje Cr (VI) iz vodene otopine.
Usporedba kinetičkih modela primijenjenih za adsorpciju Cr (VI) iona na otpadnom
kvarcnom materijalu je vrednovana s modelima pseudo prvog reda, pseudo drugog reda,
Elovichevim modelom, modelom unutar čestične difuzije i modelom prijenosa mase.
Rezultati pokazuju da model pseudo drugog reda najbolje opisuje adsorpciju Cr (VI) na
otpadnom kvarcnom materijalu.
Ključne riječi: otpadni kvarcni material, Cr (VI) ioni, adsorpcija, kinetika
ABSTRACT
This study was focused on waste quartz material as an alternative adsorbent for the
removal of Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions .Waste quartz material originates from
mechanical treatment of quartz discs for CVD equipment. The adsorption process was
monitored by various contact time adsorbent – adsorbat. The obtained results show that
the waste quartz material was very good adsorbent for removal Cr (VI) from aqueous
solution. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of Cr (VI) ions on the
waste quartz material was evaluated by the pseudo first-order, the pseudo second-order,
Elovich, intraparticle diffusion kinetic model and mass transfer model. The results show
that the pseudo second-order kinetic model best described the adsorption of Cr (VI) on
waste quartz material.
Key words: waste quartz material, Cr (VI) ions, adsorption, kinetic
90 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
WEAR-RESISTANT BASALT PRODUCTS FOR APPLICATION IN MINING
INDUSTRY
Zagorka Aćimović-Pavlović, Vladimir Pavićević
University of Belgrade, Faculty for Technology and Metallurgy,
Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Ljubiša Andrić, Vladan Milošević, Sonja Milićević, Jelena Čarapić.
Institute for Technology of Nuclear and other Mineral Raw materials,
Franše d’Epere 86, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Paper categorization: Professional paper
REZIME
U radu su prikazani rezultati istraživanja mogućnosti substitucije obložnih ploča mlinova
za mlevenje rude izrađenih od nisko-hromnog belog gvožđa otpornog na habanje sa
pločama izrađenim od bazalta dobijenih livenjem i sinterovanjem.
Ključne riječi: Bazalt, metalni materijali, otpornost na habanje, rudarstvo
ABSTRACT
In this paper the testing results of the possibility of substituting mill lining plates for ore
milling made of low chromium white iron that is resistant to wear with plates made of
basalt cast and basalt sintered, are presented.
Key words: basalt, metal materials, wear resistant, mining industry
91 92 ZAŠTITA RADNE I ŽIVOTNE SREDINE
I ODRŽIVI RAZVOJ
PROTECTION ENVIROMENT AND
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. -2 4. april 2012.
INTERAKCIJA MENADŽMENTA I OKOLINE SA AKCENTOM NA
OKOLINSKO ENERGIJSKO UPRAVLJANJE U PREDUZECU
INTERACTION OF MANAGMENT AND ENVIRONMENT WITH EMPHASIS
ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGETIC MANAGMENT (IN INDUSTRY
AND SOCIETY)
Nafija Šehić-Mušić, Mr.sci.
Privredna/gospodarska Komora Federacije BiH
Branislava Đurđeva 10-Sarajevo
Lejla Mušić, Mr.sci.
Fakultet političkih nauka
Skenderija 70-Sarajevo
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Okolinski problemi savremenog svijeta izostrili su svijest o tome da se svaka organizacija
koja funkcionira kao otvoreni tehnoloski sistem, mora dinamicki prilagodavati sirim
ekonomsko socijalnim i okolinskim komponentama. Buduci da se cesto radi o
kompleksnim, a ponekad i protivurijecnim ciljevima, veoma je vazna uloga menadzmenta
koji se danas definira kao sistematican nacin upravljanja poslovima i organizacijom,
ljudskim i drugim resursima, organizacijom proizvodnje i usluga. Okolina pred
organizaciju stavlja izazove neizvjesnosti i ovisnosti. Neizvjesnost okoline ovisi o broju
sudionika, broju promjena i nepredvidivosti tih promjena što čini socijalnoekološku
dimenziju problema okolinskog upravljanja. Organizacije uzimaju inpute (resurse) iz
većeg sistema (okoline), prerađuju ih korištenjem operacija, procesa obrade, tehnologije,
menadžmenta, te vraćaju okolini u obliku transformiranog outputa (proizvoda, ili usluge)
Opstanak organizacija ovisi o njihovoj sposobnosti prilagodbe potrebama okoline.
Proces prilagodbe okolini uvijek utječe i na njene aktere, a gubitak veze s prirodom
rezultira u alijeniranosti, blaziranosti odnosno otuđenja humane egzistencije uslijed
napretka tehnologije. UTJECAJNI faktori (STAKEHOLDERS) direktno utječu na
aktivnosti kao što i organizacijske odluke te izbori direktno pogađaju utjecajne skupine i
njihovo ponašanje. Posljednjih godina u općoj okolini sve je izraženiji i segment
prirodne okoline, te se alternativno umjesto PEST modela koristi i naziv STEEP model
(Socijalna, Tehnološka, Ekološka (ekološko-prirodna), Ekonomska, Političko-pravna
okolina). Rad je multidisciplinarnog karaktera i naglašava značaj primjene naprednih
ekoloških tehnologija, prelaskom koncept glokalnih strategija i ekofeminističke
intervencije putem etike brige u bioregionalnim odnosima suradnje.
Ključne riječi: steep, ekofeminizam, socijalnoekološki, alijenacija, blaziranost,
bioregionalizam, stakeholders, upravljanje, menadžment, energija
ABSTRACT
Contemporary environmental problems sharpened the consciousness that every
organisation that functions as opened technological system must be dynamically adjusted
95
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. -2 4. april 2012.
to wider complex, and sometimes even contradicted goals, the role of management
defined as systematically approach of job governing and organization, human and other
recourses, organization of production and offer. Environment sets the challenges of
uncertainty and dependence. Uncertainty of environment depends on number of actors,
number of changes, and uncertainty of those changes that form the social ecological
dimension of environmental management. Organisation takes inputs(recourses) out of
more complex system(environmental), they reform it using the operations, formative
processes, technologies, management, and return them back into the environment in form
of transformed output(result, or offer). The survival of organisation depends on
capability of adjustment to needs of environment. Process of adjustment to environment
always influences its characters, and destruction of relation between human and nature
results in alienation, blaze identities because of improved technology. Important factors
(stakeholders) directly influence the activities as organisational decisions directly
influence groups and their behaviour. Lately, in general surroundings the part of natural
environment is more noticeable, therefore the alternative to PEST model, STEEP model
is used. This model involves social, technological, ecological, economical, and politicallaw environment). The work is multidisciplinary and emphasizes the importance of
applying the advance ecological technologies, and transition to concept of glocal
strategies and ecofeminist interventions with ethic of care in bioregional relations of
cooperation.
Key words: steep, ecofeminism, social ecological, alienation, blaze, bioregionalism,
stakeholders, management, energy
96
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. -2 4. april 2012.
TROŠKOVI ŽIVOTNOG CIKLUSA I ANALIZA TROŠKOVA ŽIVOTNOG
CIKLUSA S OSVRTOM NA HRVATSKA PODUZEĆA
LIFE CYCLE COST AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS WITH REFERENCE
TO CROATIAN ENTERPRISES
Mr. sc. Petar Čovo
Petra Šopić, mag. oec
Sveučilište u Zadru
Zadar
Kategorizacija rada: Originalni naučni rad
REZIME
Rad opisuje troškove životnog ciklusa i analizu troškova životnog ciklusa kao alate koji
pružaju pomoć kod odlučivanja prilikom planiranja, projektiranja, rada i održavanja,
uklanjanja ili zamjene projekta/sustava. Svrha rada je prikazati troškove životnog ciklusa
(LCC) i analizu troškova životnog ciklusa (LCCA) unutar poduzeća te ispitati koriste li se
i u kojoj mjeri u hrvatskim poduzećima. Kako bi se dobio odgovor na istraživačka pitanja,
provedeno je originalno anketno istraživanje na uzorku od 100 hrvatskih poduzeća.
Ključne riječi: troškovi životnog ciklusa, analiza troškova životnog ciklusa, poduzeća,
anketno istraživanje na uzorku poduzeća
ABSTRACT
This article describes life cycle cost and life cycle cost analysis as tools which assist in
decisions on planning, designing, working and maintaining, eliminating or replacing the
project/system. The aim of the paper is to show the life cycle cost and the life cycle cost
analysis within an enterprise, as well as examining whether these are used in Croatian
enterprises, and in what proportions. In order to answer research questions, the original
survey research was conducted on the sample of 100 Croatian enterprises.
Key wordsi: lice cycle cost, cycle cost analysis of enterprise, research questions, survey
research on the sample of enterprises
97
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. -2 4. april 2012.
HEMIJSKA ANALIZA ČESTICA ZAVARIVAČKOG DIMA METODAMA AAS i
SEM-EDS
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WELDING FUME PARTICLES WITH AAS and
SEM-EDS METHODS
Razija Begić, doc.dr.sc.
Tehnički fakultet
Bihać, B&H,
Azra Imamović, prof.dr.sc.
Farmaceutski fakultet
Sarajevo, B&H
Mirsada Oruč1, prof.dr.sc.
Arif Salkić1, mr.sc.
1
Metalurški institut
,,Kemal Kapetanović“
Zenica, B&H
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Zaštita i mjere za poboljšanje zaštite zdravlja zavarivača u toku rada datiraju još od
1930. godine. Prva istraživanja zavarivačkih dimova su se počela izvoditi oko 1945.
godine. Između mnogobrojnih postupaka zavarivanja, kod REL postupka zavarivanja
generiše se velika količina zavarivačkog dima [1]. Za plinovite i čestične tvari, poznate u
industrijskim medicinskim znanostima zbog iritativnog učinka na kožu i membrane od
sluzokože, njihovi otrovni ili kancerogeni efekti ili potencijal da uzrokuju alergijske
reakcije, definirano je ograničenje praga vrijednosti izloženosti zavarivača štetnim
tvarima sadržanim u zavarivačkim dimovima [2]. Kvalitativnu i kvantitativnu analizu
hemijskog sastava čestica zavarivačkog dima moguće je odrediti pomoću metoda
analitičke hemije. Postoji više tehnika za analizu hemijskog sastava čestica, a time i
čestica zavarivačkog dima. U radu su prikazani rezultati hemijske analize čestica
zavarivačkog dima dobiveni pomoću metoda atomske apsorpcione spektrometrije AAS i
spektroskopske metode SEM-EDS. Svaka od metoda ima područja primjene u kojima
pokazuje bolje efekte. Kod ispitivanja čestica zavarivačkih dimova metoda AAS se
pokazala primjenjivija u odnosu na SEM-EDS metodu.
Ključne riječi: čestice zavarivačkog dima, hemijske analize, AAS, SEM-EDS
ABSTRACT
Protection and measures to improve the health of welders during welding is dating from
1930. year. The first study of welding fumes have begun to run around 1945. year. Among
the many methods of welding, the arc welding process generates a large amount of
welding fumes [1]. For gaseous and particulate matter, known in medical science for
industrial irritative effect on the skin and mucous membranes, their toxic or carcinogenic
effects or the potential to cause allergic reactions, defined the threshold limit value of
exposure of welders to harmful substances contained in welding fumes [2]. Qualitative
and quantitative analysis of chemical composition of welding fume particles can be
determined using the method of analytical chemistry. There are several techniques for
analyzing the chemical composition of particles, and thus the welding fume particles.
This paper presents the results of chemical analysis of welding fume particles were
98
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23. -2 4. april 2012.
obtained using the method of atomic absorption spectrometry AAS and spectroscopic
methods SEM EDS. Each method has applications in areas which show better results. In
the test particle welding fumes AAS method proved applicability with respect to the SEMEDS method.
Key words: welding fume particles, chemical analysis, AAS, SEM-EDS
99
100 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
POTENCIJALI ZA IZGRADNJU MINI BIOPLINSKOG POSTROJENJA NA
BAZI BIORAZGRADIVIH MATERIJALA
RESOURCES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MINI BIOGAS PLANT-BASED
BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL
Ifet Šišić, dr. sc., v. prof
Univerzitet u Bihaću, Biotehnički fakultet
Bihać
Sebila Hodžić, dipl. inž., ass.
Univerzitet u Bihaću, Biotehnički fakultet
Bihać
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Unsko-sanski kanton broji 300.153 stanovnika. Broj stanovnika na općini Bihać u
2003.godini iznosio je 60.707. Poznavanjem činjenice da je ukupna procijenjena
prosječna količina otpada (nereciklirarana) u Bihaću, na godišnjoj bazi, 12.950 t i to u
periodu 2002-2006, procjenom povećanja produkcije otpada u gradu Bihaću i USK-u
do 2012. godine, ukupna količina proizvedenog otpada (neselektiranog) povećala bi se sa
12.950 t na 13.611 t/god. Promatrajući U-S kanton projekcija razvoja pokazuje da bi
količina otpada u 2012. godini iznosila 44.438 t čvrstog, i to pretežno, komunalnog
otpada. Za potrebe analize iskorištenja i postavljanja materijalnog bilansa valorizacije
korisnog otpada, dati podaci se mogu koristiti u nivou predinvesticione dokumentacije.
Ključne riječi: organski otpad, selekcija, energetsko iskorištenje.
ABSTRACT
Una-Sana Canton has 300.153 inhabitants. The population of Bihac municipality in 2003
was 60.707. Knowing the fact that the Bihac, on an annual basis, has total estimated
average quantity of waste (not recycled) of 12.950 T in the period 2002-2006, estimating
increased production of waste in Bihac and USK till year of 2012, total waste produced
(unselected) would increase from 12.950 T to 13.611 T / yr. Looking at the U-S canton
the developement projections show that the waste quantity in 2012 would be increased at
44.438 T of solid waste, predominantly municipal. For analysis of utilization and
material balance installation as well as evaluation of useful waste, the data given here
can be used in the level of prefeasibility documentation.
Key words: organic waste, selection, utilization of energy.
101 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
RAZVOJ I ANALIZA MATEMATSKOG MODELA SAGORIJEVANJA
VISOKOKALORIČNOG BIOGORIVA
DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL
COMBUSTION OF HIGH CALORIFIC BIOFUELS
Dr. sci. Zehrudin Osmanović, dipl.ing. tehn.
Tehnološki fakultet,
Tuzla
Mr.sc. Nedžad Haračić, dipl. ing.
Tvornica cementa Kakanj d.d
Kakanj
Damir Babić, dipl. ing. maš.
Kovan M.I.d.o.o.
Gračanica
Amra Osmanović
Tehnološki fakultet,
Tuzla
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME:
Sagorijevanje je složen fizičko hemijski proces, pri kome se iz gorive materije oslobađa
hemijski vezana toplina. Mehanizam sagorijevanja je vrlo složen i s termodinamičkog
stanovišta spada u nepovratne procese. U eksperimentalnom dijelu rada određeni su
parametri procesa sagorijevanja visokokaloričnog biogoriva, peleta, pomoću
automatskog analizatora plinova Vario Plus Industrial i formiran matematski model
procesa u programskom softveru Mathcad. Valorizacijom matematskog modela na
osnovu eksperimentalnih podataka analizirana je mogućnost podešavanja parametara
vođenja procesa sagorijevanja u funkciji cilja, emisiji plinova u skladu sa zakonskim
ograničenjima.
Ključne riječi: matematski model, sagorijevanje, bio-goriva
ABSTRACT
Combustion is complex phisyco-chemical process where from combustible materia
release chemical bounded heat. Mechanism of combustion is very complex and from
thermodinamic point of view belong to irretrievable process. In experimental part of this
paper are determined parameters of combustion process for high calorific bio-fuels,
pellets by using automatic gas analyser Vario Plus Industrial and formed mathematical
model of process in software Mathcad. By valorisation of mathematical model on the
base of experimental information is analysed adjustment possiblity of parameters for
control combustion process in function of aim, emission of gases according to legal
limitations.
Key words: mathematical model, combustion, bio-fuels
102 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
PROIZVODNJA I PRIMJENA BIOGORIVA KAO ALTERNATIVA ODRŽIVOG
RAZVOJA
PRODUCTION AND APPLIED OF BIOFUELS AS ALTERNATIVE OF
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Suvad Kesić, dipl. inž. tehnolog
Univerzitet u Zenici
Metalurški Institut "Kemal Kapetanović"
Zenica
Fahrudin Tarahija, dipl. inž. tehnolog
Univerzitet u Zenici
Metalurški Institut "Kemal Kapetanović"
Zenica
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Svijet je više nego ikada ovisan o cijenama nafte. Sve više se ulaže u istraživanje i
upotrebu alternativnih goriva – biogoriva. Temelj proizvodnje biogoriva je biomasa.
Biomasa je obnovljiv izvor energije koji se temelji na ugljikovom ciklusu, za razliku od
ostalih prirodnih izvora kao što su nafta, ugljen i nuklearna goriva. Biogoriva mogu biti
proizvedena neposredno iz biljaka ili posredno iz industrijskog, komercijalnog, domaćeg
i poljoprivrednog otpada. Oni bi teoretski mogli zamijeniti fosilna goriva, ali budući da
bi bila potrebna prilagođavanja strojeva, najčešće se koriste u mješavini s fosilnim
gorivima. Biogoriva imaju potencijal usmjeren smanjivanju produkcije ugljičnog
dioksida CO2. To se prvenstveno temelji na činjenici da biljke, iz kojih se proizvode
biogoriva, apsorbiraju CO2 prilikom svog rasta, koji se pak oslobađa prilikom
sagorijevanja biogoriva. Globalno, biogoriva se najčešće koriste za prijevoz i u
kućanstvu.
Ključne riječi: biomasa, biogoriva, bioalkoholi, biodizel
ABSTRACT:
More then ever the world depends of petrol prices. People invest more and more in
researching and using of alternative fuels – biofuels. Base of production of biofuels is
biomass. Biomass is renewed source of energy which is based on carbon,s cyclus, in
difference of other nature source like oil, coal and nuclear fuels. Biomass can be
produced directly from plants or indirectly from industrial, commercial, domestic and
agricultural waste (garbage). Teoreticly they could substitute fosil fuels, bat because
adapting of machines (engines), the most often we use mixture by fosil fuels. Biofuels
have potential directed to reducting of CO2 fundamentaly it,s based onfact that plants
from which we preduce biofuels absorbs CO2 in time of their gronthing which is geting
free on this occasion combustion of biofuels. Globaly, biofuels the most often are used in
transport and in housekeeping.
Key words: biomass, biofuels, biomasa, biogoriva, bioalcohol, bio diesel fuel
103 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
ANALIZA SADRŽAJA IZDUVNIH GASOVA MINERALNOG DIZELA I
NJEGOVIH SMJESA SA BIODIZELOM IZ OTPADNOG JESTIVOG I
SUNCOKRETOVOG ULJA
ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST GAS COMPOSITION OF MINERAL DIESEL FUEL
AND ITS MIXTURES WITH BIODIESEL FROM EDIBLE AND SUNFLOWER
OIL
Suvad Kesić, dipl. inž. tehnolog
Univerzitet u Zenici
Metalurški Institut "Kemal Kapetanović", Zenica
Prof. Dr. Jasminka Sadadinović, dipl. inž. tehnolog
Univerzitet u Tuzli
Tehnološki Fakultet, Tuzla
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Najviše energije u svijetu se troši u transportu. Korištenje nafte kao glavnog izvora
energije, između ostalog rezultira onečišćenjem okoline. Zato je svijet krenuo u
istraživanja alternativnih goriva. Biodizel je jedino alternativno gorivo koje se može
koristiti na konvencionalnim dizel motorima uz male modifikacije na motoru. Biodizel
ima svojstva jednaka onima koja ima mineralni dizel, a može se koristiti kao zamjena za
mineralni dizel ili u određenoj smjesi sa njim. U ovom radu, biodizel je sintetizovan u
laboratoriji iz otpadnog jestivog ulja i repičinog ulja, a zatim napravljene smjese
pomenuta dva biodizela sa mineralnim dizelom. Nakon toga smjese su pojedinačno
ubačene u dizel motor i mjereni ispusni gasovi. Na kraju je izvršena analiza izduvnih
gasova mineralnog dizela i smjesa biodizela, kako bi se utvrdilo u kojem obimu smjese
utiću na izduvne gasove.
Ključne riječi: Biodizel, Mineralni dizel, izduvni gasovi.
ABSTRACT
The most energy in the world is spending in transportation. Using petroleum as the main
source of energy among, has resulting impure of environment. So the world began to
research alternative fuels.
Biodiesel is only alternative fuels which can be used in conventional diesel engine, whit
few engine modification. Biodiesel has the same atributes as mineral diesel, and it can be
used as substitute for mineral diesel or in definite mixtures with it. In this work, the
biodiesels were synthesised in laboratory from waste eatable oils and sonflower oils, and
then made mixtures above mention two biodiesels with mineral diesel. After then, the
mixtures were injected one after one into diesel engine and measured emited gases. At the
end was audited analyses of emited gases of mineral diesel and mixtures of biodiesels,
however to be established in which amplitude mixtures influenced on emited gases.
Kew words: bio diesel fuel,mineral diesel fuel, waste gases.
104 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
VODNI OTISAK
THE WATER FOOTPRINT
Emir Trožić, diplomirani inženjer građevinarstva
JKP « Vodovod i kanalizacija «
Sanski Most, BiH
Edin Smajić, diplomirani inženjer građevinarstva
Općina Hadžići
Hadžići, BiH
Enver Trožić, diplomirani profesor informatike-specijalist
O. škola Vrhpolje
Sanski Most, BiH
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
U svijetu se zagovara racionalno korištenje vode. Ekonomi isplativost proizvodnje
određenih prizvoda računaju i preko količine potrošene vode u postupku proizvodnje. Na
konkretnom primjeru, će se izračunati vodni otisak jedne aktivnosti prosječnog građenina
Bosne i Hercegovine. Danas u svijetu čista voda a naročita voda za piće postaje biti
predmetom interesovanja ogromnog broja naroda. Vode za piće je sve manje, a potrebe
za njom su sve veće. Kod izračunavanja vodnog otiska se koriste Globalne prosječne
količine vode u litrima za pojedine artikle. Tabela je preuzeta iz Water Footprint Network
(www.waterfootprint.org).
Ključne riječi: voda za piće, vodni otisak, racionalno korištenje, proizvodnja.
ABSTRACT:
In the world advocating rational use of water. Economical cost of production of certain
produces calculated over the amount of water consumed in the manufacturing process.
In this particular example, to calculate the water footprint of the average one activity
građenina Bosnia and Herzegovina. Today, the world's clean water and especially
drinking water becomes a subject of interest to be a huge number of people. Drinking
water is less, a need for it are increasing. In calculating the water footprint is used in
global average amount of water in liters for individual items. The table is taken from the
Water Footprint Network (www.waterfootprint.org).
Key words: drinking water, water footprint, rational use of, production.
105 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
ENERGIJA IZ OBNOVLJIVIH IZVORA
- ENERGETSKI POTENCIJALI RIJEKE BLIHE RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY POTENTIAL OF THE BLIHE
Emir Trožić, dipl. ing. građ., JKP « Vodovod i kanalizacija « Sanski Most, BiH
Edin Smajić, dipl. ing. građ., Općina Hadžići, BiH
Enver Trožić, dipl. prof. informatike-specijalist, O. škola Vrhpolje, Sanski Most, BiH
Kategorizacija rada: Pregledni rad
REZIME
U nedostatku interesa društvene zajednice ogromne količine energije iz obnovljivih
izvora, ostaju ne iskorištene. Sve većim intenzitetom se uništava šumski fond i koriste
drugi izvori energije koja kao nus produkt ima emisiju štetnih plinova. Ogromne su
mogućnosti primjene solarmih, hidro, vjetro, geotermalnih potencijala kao i
potencijala biomase u proizvodnji energije. Na primjeru, rijeke Blihe moguće je
uraditi grubu procjenu hidro potencijala. Uporedba ukupne energetske vrijednosti
hidro potencijala sa energetskom iskoristivosti drveta može pokazati za koliko se može
smanjiti emisija štetnih plinova i koliko se šume može sačuvati.
Ključne riječi: obnovljivi izvori energije, emisija štetnih plinova, šumski fond, hidro
potencijal, kraška rijeka.
ABSTRACT:
In the absence of interest of the community enormous amounts of energy from renewable
sources, remain unused. Increasing intensity, destroying the forest fund and use other
sources of energy as a by-product emissions. Enormous opportunities are applying
solarmih, hydro, wind, geothermal resources and potential of biomass in energy
production. For example, river Bliha it is possible to do a rough assessment of hydro
potential. Comparison of the total energy value of the hydro potential of the energy
efficiency of wood can show how much it can reduce emissions and how forests can be
preserved.
Key words: renewable energy sources, emissions, forest stock, hydropower potential,
karst rivers.
106 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
FIZIKALNO-HEMIJSKI INDIKATORI KVALITETA VODE RIJEKE
GOSTOVIĆ
PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF WATER QUALITY OF THE
GOSTOVIĆ RIVER
Adis Ćatić, mr. sc. dipl. ing., Adis Polić, mr. sc. dipl. ing.
Zavidovići
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Tokom proljeća 2010. godine su određeni fizičko-hemijski parametri kvaliteta vode rijeke
Gostović, na sedam mjernih profila, za dva različita protoka. Analiza rezultata mjerenja
gotovo svih fizičko-hemijskih parametara ukazuje na I/II klasu kvaliteta vode, prema
Uredbi o kategorizaciji vodotoka-Zakona o vodama BiH, jedino za vrijednost HPK na tri
mjerna profila su zabilježene vrijednosti za IV klasu kvaliteta. Na osnovu svih
posmatranih parametara možemo zaključiti da rijeka Gostović ima vodu
zadovoljavajućeg kvaliteta.
Ključne riječi: Kvalitet vode, zagađenje, rijeka Gostović
ABSTRACT
Physical-chemical parameters of Gostović river water quality were determined during
the spring of the year 2010, at seven measuring profiles for two different flow rates.
Analysis of the results of measurements of almost all the physico-chemical parameters
indicates I/II class of water quality, in accordance to the Regulation on river basin
categorization in BiH, only the HPK value of the three measuring profiles were recorded
value for the IV quality class. Based on all observed parameters, we can conclude that
the river water has Gostović satisfactory quality.
Key words: Water quality, Physical-chemical parameters, pollution, river Gostović
107 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
CERTIFICATION MANUAL OF WOOD AND WOODEN PRODUCTS
Ismar Alagić, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Municipality of Tešanj / University of Zenica, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Tešanj/Zenica
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paper categorization: Review paper
ABSTRACT
The role of products from the forest and the companies that process and sell them in BiH
is enormous. The strategic importance of BiH’s wood industry is internationally
recognized.
Most countries in the European Union have their own institute or ‘centre’ for the Wood
& Wood Products Industry. Most of these were originally supported and often founded
by government or regional states and have over time developed their own test facilities. A
number of Centers now offer their own Quality Marks for national and international
recognition. Certification, product and material testing, accreditation and quality criteria
are a feature of trading within the EU and the EEA. They can be mandatory, as from the
EC, or opportunistic, as from trade and business intent on meeting perceived consumer
demands. Both routes result in commercial success. This article presents short
information about role of certification, labelling, marking and standardisation for wood
processing in EU countries and importance of this issue for wood processing industry in
B&H with regard to EU market access requirements. This article provided a summary of
the certification manual of wood and wooden products as key factors related to the
competitiveness of the wood processing sector in BiH. This Manual was completed by
Author during his research study within project titled “Strengthening of research,
development and training capacities, Wood industry, Bosnia & Herzegovina” in
University of Applied Sciences Berne -Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering, Biel,
Switzerland.
Key words: certification, accreditation, manual, wood, wooden products.
108 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
ADAPTIBILNE OGRADNE STUKTURE OBJEKTA
ADAPTABLE FENCE STRUCTURES
mr Amira Salihbegović, dipl.ing.arh.
Arhitektonski fakultet
Sarajevo
Kategorizacija rada: Pregledni rad
REZIME
Za obezbjeđene ugodnog ambijenta u arhitektonskom objektu, odnosno pshiofizioloških,
higijenskih i estetskih potreba čovjeka, u skladu sa principima održive gradnje, danas
imamo ekspanziju inovacija u pogledu materijalizacije ogradnih struktura. Adaptibilne
ogradne stukture su koncepti inspirisani prirodom, čiji je osnovni princip baziran na
prilagodljivosti višeslojnih multifunkcionalnih modula, membrana, različitim unutrašnjim
i vanjskim uvjetima. Termička zaštita, akumuliranje toplote, kontrolisano uvođenje
dnevne svjetlosti, selektivno i efektivno korištenje energije sunca, te zvučna zaštita, su
funkcije ovog koncepta, koji doprinosi reduciranju energetskih potreba objekta i emisije
CO2.
Ključne riječi: adaptabilne ogradne strukture, ugodan ambijent, održiva gradnja,
reduciranje energetskih potreba i emisije CO2.
ABSTRACT
The pleasant atmosphere provided by the existing building, or psychophysiological,
hygienic and aesthetic needs of people, in accordance with the principles of sustainable
construction, we now have an expansion in terms of innovation materialize fence
structure. Adaptable fence structures of the concepts inspired by nature, whose basic
principle is based on the adaptability of multi-layer multifunctional module, the
membrane, different internal and external conditions. Thermal protection, accumulation
of heat, controlled introduction of daylight, selective and effective use of solar energy,
and sound insulation are the functions of this concept, which contributes to reducing
building energy requirements and CO2 emissions. .
Key words: adaptable fence structures, pleasant ambient, sustainable construction,
reduction of needs for energy and emissions of CO2
109 IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
SPECIFIČNOSTI PROJEKTOVANJA SEIZMIČKI OTPORNIH ZIDANIH
TORNJEVA
SPECIFIED FEATURES OF DESIGN FOR SEISMIC-RESISTANT MASONRY
TOWERS
Dr. Amir Čaušević, d.i.g.
Nadira Kuljuh, d.i.a.
Asja Damadžić, d.i.a.
Arhitektonski fakultet
Sarajevo
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
Početak čovjekovog bavljenja podizanjem građevina, posebice tornjeva, karakteriše uzak
krug ljudi koji su poznavali graditeljske tajne zasnovane na geometrijskim odnosima.
Vremenom je došlo do razvoja nauke o čvrstoći materijala, teorije elastičnosti, novih
tehnologija i procesa prefabrikacije, savremenog pristupa procesu projektovanja. Danas
znanje više nije privilegija jako uskog kruga ljudi, tajnih društava. Iz kvantiteta je
proistekao i kvalitet, pooštreni su kriteriji, preispituje se sve, pa tako i znanja vezana za
zidane konstrukcije.Sa današnjeg gledišta povećano interesovanja za ovu vrstu zidanih
konstrukcija, pored ostalog, nastalo je povećanjem zahtjeva za restauracijom i sanacijom
tornjeva i minareta građevina historijskog i kulturnog naslijeđa, tako da mnogi istraživači
pokušavaju razviti sofisticiranije procedure kako bi bili u mogućnosti projektovati u
okviru ovakvih intervencija. Aseizmičko projektovanje podrazumijeva/obezbjeđuje:
zaštitu ljudskih života, ograničenost oštećenja i upotrebljivost objekata značajnih za
zaštitu ljudi.
Ključne riječi: zidani tornjevi, aseizmičke konstrukcije, dinamičke karakteristike, spektar
odgovora
ABSTRACT
High vertical form through the time became crucial element in the repertoire of forms that
serves as landmark for orientation and identification and marking of space and aura in the
centre of urban area. Beside that it is also used as element in design to balance and anchor
dome shapes. Tower is term that is closes defining architectural vertical and
materialization of the same. The importance of the towers has to be emphasised because
towers are simply irresistible and are very interesting to observe. Therefore, besides
fulfilling certain functions (practical ones), emphasised are the feelings of beauty and its
manifestation. Masonry objects towers are very often, actually, the main bench marks of
urban complex, which dominate over the other structures and form recognisable image of
the city. The statics model of such a structure is the cantilever, fixed at the lowest point,
bearing the vertical central self weight load and the continuous horizontal stresses over
the entire height of the building (usually caused by earthquakes and wind). It is necessary
to take in account risk of possible occurrence of impacts (mostly seismicity forces) on
observed object.
110
IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
Key words: masonry objects tower, dynamic characteristics, aseismic constructions,
range of answers
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IX Naučno - stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem
„METALNI I NEMETALNI MATERIJALI“ Zenica, BiH, 23-24. april 2012.
POVEĆANJE ENERGETSKE EFIKASNOSTI KROZ TOPLOTNU IZOLACIJU
INCREASING THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY BY THERMAL INSULATION
Dž. Agić1, H. Keran2, H. Makić3, S. Čatić2
1- Centar za ekologiju i energiju, Tuzla, M.Ž. Crnogorčevića 8
2- Tehnološki fakultet, Univerzitet u Tuzli, Univerzitetska 8, 7500 Tuzla
3- Biotehnički fakultet, Univerzitet u Bihaću, Kulina bana 2, 77 000 Bihać
Kategorizacija rada: Stručni rad
REZIME
U današnjem modernom životu, nepotrebni troškovi predstavljaju veliko opterećenje
svakog domaćinstva. Međutim, troškovi koji se odnose na energetske uštede se praktično
zanemaruju ili se vrlo malo o njima vodi računa. Smanjenje troškova je moguće kroz
analizu, pronalazak razloga svih gubitaka i racionalno planiranje i ulaganje u njihovo
saniranje. Cilj rada je identifikacija gubitaka toplinske energije, te povećanja njene
uštede kroz smanjenje toplinskih gubitaka izolacijom objekta. Dobijeni rezultati pokazuju
da je moguća značajna ušteda u smislu potrošnje energije ukoliko se napravi detaljan
energetski audit i preduzmu prioritetne finanansijski prihvatljive mjere koje će dovesti do
najvećih ušteda.
Ključne riječi: energeteska efikasnost, audit, toplina
ABSTRACT
In modern life, non-necessary costs present a big loading for each household. However,
costs related to energy saving, are either practicly negligible or they are considered by
the way. It is possible to reduce costs, through analyses, searching all losses and
rational planning and investment in their fixing. The aim of this work is to identify losses
of heat energy, as well as its saving through thermal isolation. Obtained results have
showed that savings are possible if detailed energy audit is conducted and preventive
measures as improvement program start.
Key words: energy effeciency, audit, heat energy
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Knjiga abstrakta MNM2012 - Fakultet za metalurgiju i materijale