PREGLED
NAUČNIH I STRUČNIH
REZULTATA
INSTITUTA IMS
U 2012. GODINI
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d.
Beograd, decembar 2012.
PREGLED NAUČNIH I STRUČNIH REZULTATA
INSTITUTA IMS U 2010. GODINI
Izdavač
Institut IMS a.d.
Beograd, Bulevar vojvode Mišića 43
[email protected]
www.institutims.rs
Za izdavača
Dr Vencislav Grabulov
Urednici
Dr Vencislav Grabulov
Dr Aleksandra Mitrović
Goran Petrović
Obrada podataka
Ljiljana Dmitrović
Štampa
Razvojno-istraživački centar grafičkog inženjerstva
Tehnološko-metalurški fakultet, Beograd, Karnegijeva 4
Tiraž
250 primeraka
Na kraju ove, 2012. godine, Institut IMS predstavlja rezultate rada u nauci, kao
i stručnog angažovanja na značajnijim projektima. Rezultati naučnoistraživačkog rada su razvrstani prema klasifikaciji resornog ministarstva.
Tokom godine, Institut za ispitivanje materijala je ostvario ozbiljne naučne i
poslovne uspehe. U okviru tekućeg ciklusa naučnih projekata za period 20112014. godina, 22 istraživača Instituta IMS uključeni su u realizaciju sedam
projekata iz tehnološkog razvoja, jedan integralni projekat i četiri projekta iz
programa osnovnih istraživanja. Ono čime se Institut IMS može ponositi je 14
mladih istraživača upisanih na doktorske studije, čije školovanje finansiramo iz
sopstvenih sredstava. Rezultati istraživačkog rada su u skladu sa dosadašnjim
trendom rasta broja publikacija u međunarodnim časopisima i učešća
istraživača na vodećim međunarodnim skupovima. Institut IMS je organizator
tri naučno-stručna skupa, od kojih dva međunarodnog značaja.
Odabrane stručne reference su, kao i svake godine, impresivne. Uz sve
probleme sa kojima je suočena domaća privreda, a posebno građevinska
industrija, Institut IMS je uspeo da obezbedi učešće u najznačajnijim
projektima u zemlji i regionu. U skladu sa višedecenijskom tradicijom i
ugledom, kao i širokim spektrom usluga koje pružamo, bili smo angažovani na
projektovanju, ispitivanjima i istraživanjima građevinskih objekata, materijala
i proizvoda, primeni tehnologija građenja i sistema prednaprezanja.
Među važnijim objektima na kojima smo bili angažovani u 2012. godini
pominjemo mostove Zemun-Borča, Gazela, novi Žeželjev most u Novom Sadu,
most preko Ade, zaštićeno graditeljsko nasleđe kao što je Pećka patrijaršija ili
Viminacijum, putne objekte na obilaznici oko Beograda i duž autoputeva i
magistralnih i regionalnih puteva u Srbiji, u Rafineriji nafte Pančevo, MK
Mountain Resort na Kopaoniku, hidro i termo-elektrane u regionu, posebno
revitalizacija HE Đerdap 1, mini hidro-elektrane, naselja Stepa Stepanović
i dr Ivan Ribar, vetroparkove, kompleks IKEA, gasovod „Južni tok“, silos
cementare u Kaknju, realizovan pilot-objekat u okviru revitalizacije IMS
tehnologije građenja u Osijeku.
Urednici
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
1
SADRŽAJ
REZULTATI NAUČNO-ISTRAŽIVAČKOG RADA ................................... 5
1. Monografija (M12) ...................................................................................... 5
1. RADOVI U TEMATSKIM ZBORNICIMA MEĐUNARODNOG
ZNAČAJA (M14)............................................................................................ 8
2.
RADOVI
OBJAVLJENI
U
NAUČNIM
ČASOPISIMA
MEĐUNARODNOG ZNAČAJA (M20) ........................................................ 9
Rad u vodećem međunarodnom časopisu M21 ........................................... 9
Rad u istaknutom međunarodnom časopisu M22...................................... 11
Rad u međunarodnom časopisu M23 ........................................................ 13
3. ZBORNICI MEĐUNARODNIH NAUČNIH SKUPOVA (M30) ............ 24
Saopštenje sa međunarodnog skupa štampano u celini (M33) .................. 24
Saopštenje sa međunarodnog skupa (M34) ............................................... 57
4. ČASOPISI NACIONALNOG ZNAČAJA (M50) .................................... 65
Rad u časopisu nacionalnog značaja (M51) .............................................. 65
Rad u časopisu nacionalnog značaja (M52) .............................................. 70
Rad u naučnom časopisu (M53) ................................................................ 72
5. ZBORNICI SKUPOVA NACIONALNOG ZNAČAJA (M60) ............... 75
Predavanje po pozivu na skupu nacionalnog značaja štampano u celini
(M61) ......................................................................................................... 75
Saopštenje sa skupa nacionalnog značaja štampano u celini (M63) ......... 76
Saopštenje sa skupa nacionalnog značaja (M65) ...................................... 89
6. DOKTORSKE DISERTACIJE I MAGISTARSKI RADOVI (M70) ...... 91
Odbranjena doktorska disertacija (M71) ................................................... 91
7. PATENTI, AUTORSKE IZLOŽBE (M90) .............................................. 93
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Realizovani patent, arhitektonsko, građevinsko ili urbanističko autorsko
delo (M92) ................................................................................................. 93
8. ORGANIZACIJA NAUČNO-STRUČNIH SKUPOVA........................... 94
Međunarodni naučno-stručni skupovi ....................................................... 94
Domaći naučno-stručni skup sa međunarodnim učešćem ........................ 96
9. NAGRADE I PRIZNANJA ...................................................................... 97
10. NAUČNI PROJEKTI FINANSIRANI OD STRANE MINISTARSTVA
PROSVETE I NAUKE ................................................................................. 99
ODABRANE STRUČNE REFERENCE ................................................... 104
CENTAR ZA MATERIJALE ..................................................................... 104
CENTAR ZA METALE I ENERGETIKU ................................................. 110
CENTAR ZA PUTEVE I GEOTEHNIKU ................................................. 115
CENTAR ZA KONSTRUKCIJE I PREDNAPREZANJE ........................ 119
SERTIFIKACIONO TELO ......................................................................... 128
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
3
REZULTATI
NAUČNOISTRAŽIVAČKOG
RADA
4
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
5
REZULTATI NAUČNOISTRAŽIVAČKOG RADA
1. MONOGRAFIJA (M12)
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, V. Mitić
DETERMINATION OF APARENT POROSITY LEVEL OF
REFRACTORY CONCRETE USING ULTRASONIC PULSE
VELOCITY TECHNIQUE AND IMAGE ANALYSIS
Mechanical Properties and Performance of Engineering Ceramics and
Composites VI: Ceramic Engineering and Science, Vol. 32, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2011, 151–161.
Aim of this paper is to establish the correlation between sintering process,
porosity and important thermo-mechanical property of refractory concrete, i.e.
creep. Creep deformation was investigated according to standard laboratory
procedure alied at three temperatures: 1200, 1300 and 1400ºC. Corundum and
bauxite based refractory concretes were investigated. The concretes are varying
in chemical and mineralogical composition. Both loss of strength and
degradation of material occur when refractory concrete is subjected to increased
temperature and compressive static load. Measuring of thermo-mechanical
properties can indicate and monitor the changes within microstructure.
Variation of refractory concrete microstructure, as a consequence of sintering
process, during exposure to constant compressive load and constant elevated
temperature during certain time-intervals was investigated using scanning
electron microscope and Image Pro Plus program for image analysis. Obtained
results of the investigation proved that creep can be useful method when type of
refractory concrete is to be chosen for an alication.
Keywords: creep,
microstructure
concrete,
image
analysis,
pore
size
distribution,
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
I. Atanasovska, R. Mitrović, D. Momčilović
EXPLICIT PARAMETRIC METHOD FOR OPTIMAL SPUR GEAR
TOOTH PROFILE DEFINITION
Advanced Materials Research Vol. 633, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
DOI:10.4028, 87–102
The gear tooth profile has an immense effect on the main operating parameters
of gear pairs (load capacity, working life, efficiency, vibrations, etc). In current
engineering research and practice, there is a strong need to develop methods for
tooth profile optimization. In this paper a new method for selecting the optimal
tooth profile parameters of spur gears is described. This method has been named
the Explicit Parametric Method (EPM). The addendum modification coefficient,
radius of root curvature, and pressure angle of the basic rack for cylindrical
gears, have been identified as the main tooth profile parameters of spur gears.
Therefore, the EPM selects the optimal values for these three tooth profile
parameters. Special attention has been paid to develop a method of adjustment
for the particular working conditions and explicit optimization requirements.
The EPM for optimal tooth profile parameters of gears uses contact nonlinear
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for calculation of deformations and stresses of
gear pairs, in addition to explicit comparative diagrams for optimal tooth profile
parameter selection.
Keywords: spur gears, optimization, Explicit Parametric Method (EPM), finite
element analysis
Z. Kovačević,Z. Karastojković, V. Aleksić
ON-SITE METALLOGRAFY & REPLICA METHOD FOR
INSPECTION CONNECTING ROD MATERIAL AND CRACKS
DETECTION
Toyotarity Production Factors, Chapter 3, Dnipropetrovsk, 2011, 41–56.
Testing of materials properties is usually a discipline for the quality assurance
during manufacturing processes. In condition monitoring, certification or
upgrading of existing plants and in failure analysis similar benefits from non
destructive testing of materials properties can be achieved. Another benefit from
the Non Destructive Metallography (NDM) is that the test can be made on-site.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
7
NDM is a well established and proven tool to help determine the integrity of
generator and hydro turbine components during their life-cycle in power plant
environments. On-site metallography of components makes it possible to
evaluate a material's microstructure. It allows microstructural analysis of large
components that are difficult to move or not permitted to be destructively tested,
enabling rapid evaluation of the material.
Here are monitored the microstructural changes and crack detection in St 35
connecting rod steel after aroximately 15 years in service.
The paper includes a short description the replica method as a technique for
microstructural examination of components by using nondestructive testing
method.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
1. RADOVI U TEMATSKIM ZBORNICIMA
MEĐUNARODNOG ZNAČAJA (M14)
M. Vasić, Z. Radojević, Ž. Grbavčić
METHODS OF DETERMINATION FOR EFFECTIVE DIFFUSION
COEFFICIENT DURING CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CLAY
PRODUCTS
Clay minerals in nature – their characterization, modification and alication,
InTech, Hrvatska, 295–312.
The purpose of this chapter is to calculate the effective diffusion coefficient
based on experimentally recorded drying curves for several masonry clays
obtained from different masonry clay units manufacturers. Calculation methods
and computer programs, specially designed for this purpose are developed. First
calculation method is based on the mathematical calculation of the second
Fick's law and Cranck diffusion equation. Second one is based on the analytical
solution of the Efremov differential diffusion equation with a boundary
condition in the form of the flux. In both calculation methods, two program
variations are designed to compute the effective diffusion coefficient. Four
models (A1, A2, B1 and B2) for predicting the drying behaviour are obtained as
the result of cited program calculation. The results presented in this paper show
that the values of the effective diffusion coefficient determined by the designed
computer programs have similar values to those available in the literature for
the same coefficient for different clays. Based on the mathematically
determined prognostic value of the effective diffusion coefficient, it was
concluded that, whatever the initial mineralogical composition of the clay, there
is 90% agreement of the calculated prognostic drying curves with the
experimentally recorded ones. When a shrinkage correction of the masonry
products is introduced into the calculation step, this agreement is even better.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
9
2. RADOVI OBJAVLJENI U NAUČNIM
ČASOPISIMA MEĐUNARODNOG ZNAČAJA
(M20)
RAD U VODEĆEM MEĐUNARODNOM ČASOPISU M21
K. Janković, D. Nikolić, D. Bojović
CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS AND FLAGS MADE WITH CRUSHED
BRICK AS AGGREGATE
Construction and Building Materials, 2012, No. 28, 559–663.
Demolition of old buildings in urban cores has produced a large amount of
waste material. Since they are mostly masonry structures the largest part of the
waste material is ceramic waste. Besides that, ceramic waste is obtained as a
byproduct in the ceramic industry. All of this initiated a research for the
alication of concrete with recycled brick as aggregate. In this paper, the
possibility of using crushed bricks in the production of concrete elements for
the pedestrian zone is shown. The alication of recycled brick as aggregate,
produces concrete of less density and strength, and of increased absorption. All
of this also has an effect on the quality of concrete flags and paving blocks.
Based on the results obtained by testing the resistance to frost of concrete it was
assumed that it is possible to get the products comply with European standards.
The results show that replacing up to a 32.5% of natural aggregate with crushed
brick aggregate produces concrete blocks, and up to 65% of it produces
concrete paving flags which meet the requirements of European standards.
M. Arsenović, Z. Radojević, S. Stanković
REMOVAL OF TOXIC METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL SLUDGE BY
FIXING IN BRICK STRUCTURE
Construction and Building materials, Vol. 37 (2012), 7–14.
http://dx.DOI.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.002
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
The aim of this study was to test utilization possibilities of industrial sludge in
masonry industry, as well
as risk of toxic elements leaching potential. Sludge is generated in a hot-dip
galvanizing process after waste water neutralization. This waste is considered to
be hazardous due to the presence of toxic elements, which can be fixed within
heavy clay matrix after thermal treatment. Relatively large amounts of toxic
metals were found in used raw materials, but their leachability reduces to a
negligible level after firing at 1020 _C. The results show that sludge can be used
to produce eco-friendly bricks
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
11
RAD U ISTAKNUTOM MEĐUNARODNOM ČASOPISU M22
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, S. Grujić
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CORDIERITE-BASED REFRACTORY
COATINGS FOR CASTING ALICATIONS
International Journal of Alied Ceramic Technology (2012), 1–11.
In this study, new refractory coatings based on synthesized cordierite for the
casting alications were developed. The investigation included starting raw
materials characterization, synthesis of the cordierite, design of the refractory
coating as final product and its alication testing. The obtained results pointed
out that coating suspension sediment stability was crucial quality parameter.
Design and optimization of the coatings composition, with controlled
rheological properties included, were achieved by alication of different coating
components, namely different suspension agents and by alteration of the coating
production procedure. Cordierite, used as filler, was obtained by means of
synthesis in the solid state reaction on the basis of talc, kaolin and alumina. The
investigation showed that the alication of these particular types of water/alcohol
based coatings has positive influence on surface quality, structural and
mechanical properties of the castings of aluminum alloys obtained by casting
into sand molds by means of evaporable models method; i.e. evaporate pattern
casting process.
Keywords: refractory coating, cordierite, synthesis, sand casting, evaporate
pattern casting process.
D. Momčilovic, Z. Odanović, R. Mitrović, I. Atanasovska, T. Vuherer
FAILURE ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC TURBINE SHAFT
Engineering Failure Analysis, 2012, Vol. 20, March 2012, 54–66.
This paper describes the analysis of major failure of 28 MW horizontal hydro
turbine shaft. The analysis of load carrying capacity of critical radius and
fractography analysis are presented. Special emphasize is on metallurgical
failure analysis of in-service crack initiation. The analysis of stresses is obtained
12
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
by the finite element method and the developed model and load conditions are
described. Finite element analysis is performed for case of normal service and
start-up regime. Based on the failure analysis and numerical calculations, it
could be concluded that the seal box design led to constant flow of river water
in zone of critical radius which resulted as occurrence of corrosion fatigue
cracks and major failure of turbine shaft. Suggestions for problem solution for
the turbine shaft are also presented.
Keywords: Failure analysis, Shafts, Cracks, Corrosion fatigue
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
13
RAD U MEĐUNARODNOM ČASOPISU M23
M. Ćosić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, B. Nedeljković, Lj. Pavlović
PROCESS PARAMETERS INFLUENCE ON MICROSTRUCTURAL
PROPERTIES OF HYPEREUTECTIC AL-18WT% SI ALLOYS
OBTAINED BY RHEOCASTING PROCESS
Metalurgia International, 2012, Vol. XVII, no. 3, 88–93.
Hypereutectic Al-18wt%Si alloy was obtained by conventional and rheocasting
-1. Samples of rheocasted alloy were
obtained at two stirring speeds 1000 and 1500 rpm. Tests showed that two
major changes of microstructural properties of rheocasting alloy, in comparison
with conventional alloy, are change of dendrite morphology into nondendrite
-Al and Si). Both changes of primary
particles were monitored in area near the stirrer and at a small distance from the
-Al particles decreased with
stirring speed increment, while roundness of particles increased with stirring
speed increment. Stirring speed change led to different degree of primary Si
particles agglomeration. At stirring speed 1000 rpm, Si particles are uniformly
distributed, while at speed 1500 rpm, a tendency to form clusters is more
expressed. Test results were discussed on basis of utilizing fragmentationagglomeration mechanism of primary phase evolution in a semi-solid melt,
which may contribute to explanation of semi-solid structure development.
Keywords: aluminum silicon
rheocasting, mechanical stirring.
alloy,
primary
silicon,
microstructure,
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, M. Đurić, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ALICATION OF THE
FILLER BASED ON CORUNDUM FOR OBTAINING THE CERAMIC
COATS IN FOUNDRY
Metalurgia International, 2012, Vol. XVII, no. 3, 88–93.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
In this work, a possibility to develop new ceramic coats based corundum for
casting alications has been examined. Optimization of coating composition with
controlled rheological properties was attained by alying different coating
components, and by alteration of coating production procedure. As filler,
corundum powder with particle size of 20x10-6 m and 40x10-6 m was used.
The corundum sample was tested by the following methods: X-ray diffraction
analysis and with polarized microscope. The shape and grain size were analyzed
by the program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that alication of this type
of water-alcohol-based coating had a positive influence on surface quality,
structural and mechanical properties of the castings of Fe-C and Al alloys
obtained by casting into sand molds, according to the method of expandable
patterns (EPC process).
Keywords: sand casting, expandable patterns casting process, refractory
coating, corundum.
A. Terzić, Z. Radojević, Lj. Miličić, Lj. Pavlović, Z. Aćimović
LEACHING OF THE POTENTIALLY TOXIC POLLUTANTS FROM
COMPOSITES BASED ON WASTE RAW MATERIAL
Chemical Industry & Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 2012, Vol. 18: no 3,
373−383.
The disposal of the fly ash generated in coal based power-plants may pose a
significant risk to the environment due to the possible leaching of hazardous
pollutants, such as toxic metals. Also, there is a risk of leaching even when fly
ash is built-in the construction composites. Fly ashes from various landfills
were alied in several composite samples (mortar, concrete and brick) without
any physical or thermal pre-treatment. The leachability of the potentially toxic
pollutants from the fly ash based products was investigated. The leaching
behavior and potential environmental impact of the 11 potentially hazardous
elements was tracked: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Ba, Sb and Se. A detailed
study of physico-chemical characteristics of the fly ash, with accent on trace
elements and the chemical composition investigation is included.
Physico/chemical properties of fly ash were investigated by means of X-ray
fluorescence, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods.
Scanning electron microscope was used in microstructural analysis. The results
show that most of the elements are more easily leachable from the fly ash in
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
15
comparison with the fly ash based composites. The leaching of investigated
pollutants is within allowed range thus investigated fly ashes can be reused in
construction materials production.
Keywords: fly ash, construction materials, leaching test, toxic pollutants,
possible reuse.
I. Belić, Z. Acimovic-Pavlovic, A. Terzić
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBSTITUTION OF WEAR RESISTANT LOW
CHROMIUM WHITE IRON RESISTANT WITH BASALT MELT
Metalurgia International, 2012, Vol. XVII, no. 5, 104–107.
In this study the testing results of the possibility of substituting mill lining plates
for ore milling made of low chromium white iron that is resistant to wear with
plates made of basalt melt are presented. Plates made of chromium white iron
with 10% Cr and plates made of basalt from the ore of Kopaonik – Serbia are
both produced by the sand mould casting method. The microstructure
characteristics and properties of metal and basalt plates have been tested
depending on the parameters of the melting and casting process, the cooling
regime and the crystallization of castings. Testing of the alication of basalt
plates in exploitation in industrial conditions has proved to have good results.
Keywords: low chromium white iron, basalt melt, resistance to wear, image
analysis, high temperature material, microstructure.
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, Lj. Andrić, J. Stojanović, A. Terzić
ZIRCON-BASED COATING FOR THE ALICATIONS IN LOST FOAM
CASTING PROCESS
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 2012.
In this work, a possibility to develop a new zircon-based refractory coating for
casting alications was investigated. Optimization of the coating composition
with controlled rheological properties was attained by alication of different
coating components, particularly by alication of a new suspension agent and by
alteration of coating production procedure. Zircon powder with particle size of
25x10-6 m was used as filler. The zircon sample was investigated by means of
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
the following methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis
and polarized microscope. The shape and grain size were analyzed by means of
the PC program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that alication of this type
of water-alcohol-based coating had a positive influence on surface quality,
structural and mechanical properties of the castings of cast iron obtained by
pouring into sand molds by means of the expandable patterns method (Lost
Foam casting process).
Keywords: sand casting, Lost Foam casting process, refractory coating, zircon.
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Z. Radojević, Lj. Miličić
EVALUATION OF CONCRETES WITH STANDARD AND RECYCLED
RAW MATERIALS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE ALICATION
Revista Romana de Materiale / Romanian Journal of Materials, 2012, Vol. 42:
no 2, 143–154.
Concrete undergoing thermal treatment before and during life-service can be
alied as building material for thermal insulation in high-temperature plants.
When such concretes are designed with secondary raw materials they show
satisfying performances. Sintering and microstructural changes occur within
concrete with increasing temperature. Change progression can be monitored by
measuring compressive strength and porosity with destructive and nondestructive tests (ultrasonic pulse velocity technique, image analysis).
Experiment has been performed on standard, corundum concrete and recycled,
bauxite concrete. Samples were thermally treated from 110 to 1500ºC.
Destructive tests were used in compressive strength and porosity investigation.
Non-destructive tests were performed in order to compare results. Creep testing
was conducted to prove sintering process. Results showed that recycled
concrete has equal properties as standard concrete.
Keywords: ultrasonic pulse velocity, sintering, high-temperature concrete,
image analysis, recycling.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
17
S. Dević, M. Logar, M. Cocić
MINERALOGICAL CHARACTER OF LOESS FRAGMENTS FROM
CLAY USED IN BRICK INDUSTRY
Interceram - International Ceramic Review, 2012, 60, 184–185.
Serbia is a rich clay deposits that are used as raw material for the brick industry.
Deposits of brick clay are created in different environments [1-2]. Thus, we
distinguish between alluvial-marsh, alluvial silty-loess, alluvial-lake, the coastal
marine, alluvial loess deposits and other. Loess fragments often occur in the
clays used in brick manufacture. Adequate preparation of such clay to increase
its range of brick products. The paper describes the mineralogical character
loess fragments based on the results obtained by examining the loess of the two
clay alluvial loess deposits in Vojvodina. Some of the clay deposits formed in
the alluvial loess environment (Čelarevo, Zrenjanin, Kovin, Golubinci, Ub).
R. Mitrović, D. Momčilović , O. Erić, I. Atanasovska, N. Hut
STUDY ON IMPACT PROPERTIES OF CREEP-RESISTANT STEEL
THERMALLY SIMULATED HEAT AFFECTED ZONE
Thermal Science, 2012, Vol. 16, No. 2, 513–525.
The steam pipe line (SPL) and steam line material, along with its welded joints,
subject to damage that accumulates during operation in coal power plants. As a
result of thermal fatigue, dilatation of SPL at an operating temperature may lead
to cracks initiation at the critical zones within heat affected zone (HAZ) of
steam pipe line welded joints.
By registration of thermal cycle during welding and subsequent HAZ
simulation is possible to obtain target microstructure. For the simulation is
chosen heat resisting steel, 12H1MF (designation 13CrMo44 according to DIN
standard). From the viewpoint of mechanical properties, special attention is on
impact toughness mostly because very small number of available references.
After simulation of single run and multi run welding test on instrumented
Charpy pendulum. Metallographic and fractographic analysis is also performed,
on simulated 12H1MF steel from service and new, unused steel. The results and
correlation between microstructure and impact toughness is discussed, too.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Keywords: heat resisting steel, heat affected zone, instrumented Charpy test,
impact toughness
D. Jevtić,M. Knežević, D. Bojović
ALICATION OF NEURAL NETWORKS IN DETERMINATION OF
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
Romanian Journal of Materials, 2012,Vol. 42, No.1, 16–22.
This paper presents the optimization of concrete mixtures composition related
to a physical property and the process of production of trial mix design by using
the multi-layered feed-forward neural networks. This optimization was
conducted because there is no clear method of designing concrete mixture
composition and for the purpose of shortening procedure of the trial mix design
of concrete. Mix design depend on many variables and deterministic models
cannot give good results. The goal of the research was to make a model of a
neural network, on the set of available data from 288 trial mix, which would,
with highest accuracy, predict the compressive strength of concrete at the age of
28 days. In order to attain as high accuracy of obtained results as possible, three
levels of input data to the neural networks were considered. On each of the alied
groups of input data, the neural networks with 1 and 2 hidden layers were
formed. On the basis of the adopted neural network, an algorithm for usage of
the network in actual situations was made, alied on an actual model.
Z. Odanović, M. Đurđević, P. Krstić, M. Arsić, B. Katavić
SOME ALICATIONS OF THE IMAGE ANALYSIS IN THE METAL
MATERIAL SCIENCE
Acta Physica Polonica A, Selected peer reviewed papers from the International
Congress on Advances in Alied Physics and Materials Science - APMAS 2011,
Antalys 2011, Vol. 121, No. 1, 2012, 111–113.
In different areas of science such as medicine, biology and engineering the
Image analysis (IA) is widely used. Quantitative measuring by the IA has also
found alication in metal materials science, especially in metallographic
microstructure analysis. The measuring of the linear and area dimensions of the
microconstituents in the metal material structure performed by the image
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
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analysis is presented in the paper. The effects of the heat treatment temperature
on the brittle phase content in the structure of the heat resistant Ni-Cr-Co-W
alloy were analysed. Investigation of the influence of the alloying elements
content in the Al alloys for automotive alication, on dendrite arm spacing in the
cast structure are also presented. Obtained results of the quantitative measured
dimensions have shown direct impact of the process parameters on the analysed
metals microstructure characteristics. All tests were performed by the light
optical microscope with automatic image analyser. Presented experimental
results are based of a large number of measurements. A statistical analysis was
performed and a high correlation of the results was obtained. For the each of the
presented investigations and analyzed phenomenon, a statistical mathematical
model is suggested with the boundary conditions defined by the investigated
intervals of variables.
Keywords: image analysis, quantitative measurement, microstructure.
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, N. Obradović, V. Pavlović, J. Stojanović, Lj. Miličić, Z.
Radojević, M. Ristić
SYNTHESIS AND SINTERING OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE
COMPOSITES BASED ON MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED FLY ASH
Science of Sintering, 2012, Vol. 44, no. 2 135–146.
Amount of fly ash which is and yet to be generated in the coming years
highlights the necessity of developing new methods of the recycling where this
waste can be reused in significant quantity. A new possibility for fly ash
utilization is in high-temperature alication (thermal insulators or/and refractory
material products). As such, fly ash has to adequately answer the mechanical
and thermal stability criteria. One of the ways of achieving it is by alying
mechanical activation procedure on fly ash. In present study, fly ashes from two
different power plants were mechanically activated in a planetary ball mill.
Mechanically treated fly ashes were cemented with two different binders:
standard Portland cement and high-aluminates cement. Physico-chemical
analysis and investigation of mineralogical components of composites are
emphasized, due to the changes occurred in fly ash during mechanical
activation and sintering of composites. Macro-performance of the composites
was correlated to the microstructure of fly ash studied by means of XRD and
SEM analysis. Thermal stability of crystalline phases was investigated with
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
DTA. Highlight was placed on determination of relationship between
mechanically activated fly ash and obtained composites microstructure on one
side and behavior of sintered composites on the other side.
Keywords: Fly ash, Mechanical activation, Sintering, High-temperature
performance, Recycling.
A. Mitrović, M. Zdujić
MECHANOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF SERBIAN KAOLIN CLAY
TO OBTAIN HIGH RECTIVE POZZOLANA
J.Serb.Chem.Soc.,2012.
Mechanochemical treatment of Serbian kaolin clay was carried out in a
planetary ball mill using two different milling media, hardened steel or zirconia
vials and balls. The samples obtained with various milling times were
characterized by the particle size laser diffraction (PSLD), X-ray diffraction
(XRD), differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DTA/TGA) and
Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. Mechanochemical treatment
induced amorphization of the kaolinite phase accompanied by dehydroxylation.
It was found that for the given milling parameters, amorphization mainly took
place in the milling period up to 15 min, and was completed after about 30 min
of milling for both milling media used. The pozzolanic activities were
determined by the Chapelle method. Milling in the hardened steel milling
medium had no significant influence on pozzolanic activity, even though there
was accumulated iron contamination. For both milling media, pozzolanic
activity of 0.79 was obtained for the samples milled for 15 min and it remained
almost unchanged with prolonged milling. The determined pozzolanic activity
values are close to these of commercial metakaolinite or metakaolinite obtained
by the heat treatment (calcination) of the same clay, therefore, indicating
possibility for obtaining high reactive pozzolana by mechanochemical
treatment.
Keywords: Kaolin clay, Kaolinite, Metakaolinite, Mechanochemical treatment,
Pozzolana.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
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M. Đurđević, Z.Odanović, Z. Hennadiy
DETECTION OF DENDRITE COHERENCY TEMPERATURE OF
ALUMINUM ALLOYS USING SINGLE THERMOCOUPLE
TECHNIQUE
Praktische Metallographie-Practical Metallography, 2012, Vol. 49, No. 2, 86–
98.
The Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) temperature refers to the state of a
solidifying alloy at which a coherent dendrite network is established during the
formation of grains. There are three main aroaches for detection of DCP: (i) the
thermal analysis method, (ii) mechanical (or rheological) technique and (iii)
physical method based on the thermal diffusivity measurement technique. There
are two basic variants of the thermal analysis method. In the late 1980’s
Bäckerud developed a method that utilizes two thermocouples. The DCP is
determined by identifying the point of minimum temperature difference at the
– TC). Recently, has been revealed that utilization of the first
derivative curve (dT/dt) plotted versus temperature also allows for analysis of
the α-Al Dendrite Nucleation and Growth characteristics and consequently
determination of the DCT. This paper will illustrate that the dendrite coherency
temperature could be identified by the 1st derivative curve (the onethermocouple method) with the same accuracy as well as by using two
thermocouples technique.
Keywords: dendrite coherency temperature (DCT), thermal analysis, aluminum
alloys.
Z. Slović, Lj. Nedeljković, K. Raić, Z. Odanović
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COMMON OPTICAL BASICITY
MODELS AND THE SULPHIDE CAPACITIES OF CAO-AL2O3-SIO2MGO SLAG
Kovove Mater, 2012, 50, 185–192.
The correlations between the sulphide capacity and the optical basicity models
available in literature are reviewed. The relationship between sulphide capacity
and the optical basicity was investigated on plant data collected from the BOF
plant in the temperature range of 1565–1650◦C. The goal of this work was to
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
compare results given by alying common acceptable Young’s, SosinskySommerville’s, Tsao-Katayama’s and Taniguchi’s optical basicity as well as the
KTH model for calculating the sulphide capacities. The present paper is focused
on the thermodynamic aspect of sulphur refining CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO ladle
slag during LF ladle treatment. Thirty one heats were employed in the present
study in real production conditions of low carbon steels.
Keywords: steels, thermodynamics, analytical methods, optical basicity,
sulphide capacity.
J. Đurđević, H. Sokolowski, Z. Odanović
DETERMINATION OF DENDRITE COHERENCY POINT
CHARACTERISTICS USING FIRST DERIVATIVE CURVE VERSUS
TEMPERATURE
J. Therm Anal Calorim, 2012, Vol. 109, No. 2, 875–882.
The dendrite coherency point (DCP) temperature refers to the state of a
solidifying alloy at which a coherent dendrite network is established during the
formation of grains. Several relatively complex methods for detection of the
DCP temperature have been developed. There are four main DCP temperature
testing aroaches: (i) the rheological technique, (ii) thermal analysis of the
minimum temperature difference between two cooling curves, (iii) thermal
analysis of the second derivative of one cooling curve, and (iv) the thermal
diffusivity measurement technique. This paper follows up the proposed thermal
analysis of one center cooling curve for the determination of the DCP
characteristics such as: temperature, time, instantaneous solidification rate, and
fraction solid. The first derivative of the cooling curve is plotted versus the
temperature and time and the thermal characteristics of all metallurgical
reactions, including the DCP are determined with the same accuracy achieved
using the two thermocouple technique developed by Ba¨ckerud et al. [4, 5].
Statistical analysis of the DCP temperature using the one versus two
thermocouple techniques shows R2 equal to 0.99. This research revealed that
utilization of dT/dt versus the temperature curve methodology also allows for
analysis of the a-Al dendrite nucleation and growth characteristics and
consequent determination of the grain size. On-going work on this new
methodology for characterization of other solidification events will be presented
in subsequent papers.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
23
Keywords: Aluminum alloys, Cooling curve, Dendrite coherency point.
M. Đurđević, G. Huber, Z. Odanović
SYNERGY BETWEEN THERMAL ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION
J. Therm Anal Calorim, 2012.
DOI 10.1007/s10973-012-2389-0
Available databases presently used by commercial simulation software
packages for the aluminum casting industry are usually armed with material
properties for only a few selected standard alloys. In the case of other alloys
with different chemical compositions and refinement or modification treatment,
thermal analysis could be an invaluable tool to gain necessary properties. The
aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential alication of the cooling curve
analysis in the existing simulation software by improving its accuracy.
Keywords: Simulation, Thermal analysis, Aluminum alloys.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
3. ZBORNICI MEĐUNARODNIH NAUČNIH
SKUPOVA (M30)
SAOPŠTENJE SA MEĐUNARODNOG SKUPA ŠTAMPANO U
CELINI (M33)
D. Berisavljević, N. Šušić, S. Ćorić
SETTLEMENTS OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS BASED ON FLAT
DILATOMETER TEST RESULTS
Scientific conference on planning, design, construction and building renewal
INDIS 2012, Novi Sad, 2012.
The Flat dilatometer is in commercial use since 1980. Experience gained
worldwide indicates that dilatometer tests allow to gain more realistic
deformation characteristics of the foundation soil.
Paper presents example calculation of shallow foundation settlement based on
deformation parameters obtained by flat dilatometer (DMT).
Кeywords: dilatometer, constrained modulus, settlements.
M. Arsenović, Z. Radojević, A. Terzić, N. Mijatović, Lj. Miličić
SINTERING OF PRODUCTS BASED ON FLY ASH
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1655–1662.
The purpose of this study was to test utilization possibilities of fly ash as raw
material for building products. Research was done on raw and fired samples
made of landfill fly ash by dry pressing process. The samples were subjected to
ceramic-technological tests, and analytical techniques are also used: SEM,
XRD, DTA/TGA, XRF, AAS. Raw and fired material contains toxic metals, but
the leachability of metals after firing reduces to a negligible level. Compressive
strength increases significantly with firing temperature.
Keywords: Fly ash, Building products, Toxic metals.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
25
A. Terzić, Z. Radojević, Lj. Miličić, M. Arsenović, Lj. Pavlović
UTILIZATION POTENTIAL OF SERBIAN FLY ASH
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1735–1742.
Fly-ash has global utilization potential. Due to the fly-ash quantity generated
and its hazardousness, a new aroach for this disclosed problem became
necessity. Comparative characterization of physico-chemical and
microstructural properties of the fly ash was performed. Grain-size distribution
of the landfilled fly ash was correlated with other characteristics. Investigated
fly ash showed thermal stability which is essence for high-temperature alication.
Negligible level of organic impurities and toxic leachable elements and high
pozzolanic reactivity improve ash utilization potential. Properties improvement
by mechanical-activation was suggested.
Keywords: Fly ash, microstructure, characteristics, utilization potential.
Lj. Pavlović, A. Terzić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović
BUILDING CERAMICS BASED ON SLAG FROM METAL
MAGNESIUM PRODUCTION
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1141–1145.
Alication possibilities of slag from metallurgical process of magnesium
production in the plant „Bela Stena“ Baljevac, as an initial component in
building ceramics composite materials are presented in this paper. The slag
which is by-product from magnesium production belongs to the four
components system Cao-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. The results of investigation of
magnesium production slag alication in the composite materials used for
production building ceramics are very important because of its economical as
well as ecological aspects.
Keywords: Secondary raw materials, slag, composite materials, building
ceramics.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Z. Tanasković
THE ALICATION OF BASALT IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1153–1158.
This paper describes the alication of basalt ores from the mountain of Kopaonik
– Serbia for manufacturing different casting materials for civil engineering.
Plates made of basalt production by the sand mould casting method. The
microstructure characteristics and properties of basalt plates have been tested
depending on the parameters of the melting and casting process, the cooling
regime and the crystallization of castings. The results of the alication of basalt
on frit glaze composition for faience ceramic, described too. Testing was
conducted in the aim of finding a correlation for specific characteristics of
coating glazes based on basalt, ceramic base, the aearance.
Keywords: Basalt, glazes, civil engineering.
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, M. Đuričić, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović
THE POSSIBILITY OF DIFFERENT FILLERS ALICATION IN
COMPOSITION OF REFRACTORY COATINGS
9th Scientific / Research Symposium Metallic and Nonmetallic Materials –
production – properties – alication, Zenica, BiH, 2012, 279–285.
Results of investigation of ceramic powders alication possibilities in production
of coatings for sand molds and cores, as well as the coatings used with other
casting methods with alication of meltable and evaporable patterns are
presented in this paper. Several coatings compositions were defined. Alication
of ceramic fillers (talc, zircon, chromite, corundum) was discussed. In order to
attain cost-effective castings production by the Lost foam casting method, it is
necessary to obtain the balance in the following system: evaporable polymeric
pattern liquid metal - ceramic coating – sand mold during metal inflow,
polymeric pattern decomposition and evaporation, castings formation and
solidification. Usage of ceramic powders for production of coatings and their
alication in the Lost foam casting process decisively depends on the coating
rheological properties, i.e. on the suspension sediment stability. Casting process
technological parameters significantly influence the structure and the castings
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
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properties. Different coating compositions were examined, as well as
component preparation and activation methods aimed at attaining homogeneous
coating suspension, reduction of coating components precipitation and a coating
density reduction. A special attention was paid to detection and analysis of
prospective faults, such as porosity, surface non-coverage, coating take-off from
the pattern surface or dried coating layer cracking. The aim of the investigation
was to establish the correlation between the quality of the castings obtained by
different casting methods and the properties of the ceramic coatings alied, i.e.
the properties of ceramic fillers.
Keywords: ceramic coating, talc, zircon, corundum, chromite, Lost foam
process, casting.
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Lj. Miličić, Z. Radojević
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE
ALICATION BASED ON FLY ASH
GTZ 2012 Tuzla: 2nd International Scientific Meeting: State and Trends of
Civil Engineering and 2nd Conference Geo-Expo 2012, Tuzla, BiH, 103–110.
In this investigation, fly ashes from two different power-plants were subjected
to mechano-activation treatment in a planetary ball mill. Mechano-treated fly
ashes were mixed with binder. Two different binders were used: standard
Portland cement and high-aluminate cement. The investigated fly ash-cement
composites were designed to show satisfying performance when submitted to
high temperature conditions. Chemical composition analysis and detailed
investigation of mineralogical components of cement-fly ash composites are
emphasized, due to the fly ash dependence of its origin. Macro-performance of
the composites was correlated to the microstructure of fly ash studied by means
of XRD and SEM analysis. Thermal stability of crystalline phases was
investigated with DTA. Highlight was placed on determination of relationship
between fly ash mechano-activation and microstructure on one side and fly ash
based products refractory characteristics on other side. Investigated fly ashcement composites proved to be good thermo-insulators and material for lining
for constructive elements of high-temperature furnaces.
Keywords: fly ash, cement, high-temperature performance, realication.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Lj. Miličić, Z. Radojević, Z. Aćimović Pavlović
SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS FOR MANAGING
ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE MATERIALS:
REALICATION OF FLY ASH
2nd International Symposium on Environmental
Management „EMFM 2012“, Zenica, BiH, 167–172.
and Material
Flow
The disposal of the fly ash may pose a significant risk to the environment due to
the possible leaching of hazardous pollutants. The only sustainable economic
solution for the pollution-prevention of the environment is the reuse of fly ash
in building materials. Some of building composites, in which fly ash is
combined with refractory components can withstand high temperatures. In this
investigation testing composites were based on fly ash mixed with highaluminate cement. Investigated fly ashes were previously subjected to mechanoactivation. The leaching behavior and potential environmental impact of
hazardous elements were analyzed. Mineral phase analysis by means of XRD
was accented due to the fly ash high dependence on its origin. Crystalline
phases were investigated by means of DTA. Scanning electron microscopy was
used in microstructure analysis. The leachability of toxic elements was within
allowed range, thus investigated fly ashes can be replicated in building
materials. Investigated fly ash-cement composites proved to have high physicomechanical performances, but also good thermo-insulation characteristics. The
overall results showed that alication of the fly ash in building composites is
sustainable solution for managing this environmentally hazardous waste
material.
Keywords: fly ash, thermo-insulation, toxic elements, realication, building
composites.
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, M. Đuričić, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Z.
Tanasković
LININGS BASED CHROMITE FOR ALICATION IN FOUNDRY
ModTech 2012, 16th International Conference - New face of TMCR Modern
Technologies, Quality and Innovation, Sinaia, Romania, 813–817.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
29
In this work, a possibility to develop new chromite-based refractory linings for
casting alications has been examined. Lining composition optimization with the
controlled reologic properties was achieved by alying different lining
components and by alteration of lining production procedure. As filler, chromite
was used. The chromite sample was tested by the following methods: X-ray
diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis and SEM. The shape and grain
size were analyzed by the program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that
alication of this type of water-alcohol-based lining had a positive influence on
surface quality, structural and mechanical properties of the castings of Fe-C
alloys obtained by casting into sand molds, according to the method of
expandable patterns (Lost foam casting process).
Keywords: refractory linings, chromite, sand casting, Lost foam casting
process, quality of casting.
M. Ćosić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, M. Dojčinović, Lj. Pavlović
THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING COMPOSITE AL18WT%SI/SIC
BY COMPOCASTING PROCESS
ModTech 2012, 16th International Conference - New face of TMCR Modern
Technologies, Quality and Innovation, Sinaia, Romania, 249–253.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various process
parameters on the microstructure of composite materials based on alloys
Al18Wt%Si with the addition of 10Wt%SiC. The effect of stirring speed (1000
and 1500 rpm), stirring time 15 min and casting temperature 565 oC on the
structural and mechanical properties are discussed. It was found that alying the
stirring speed of 1500 rpm in semisolid state the best distribution of SiC
particles in the matrix was achieved, which gave satisfying mechanical
properties. In order to evaluate the quality of obtained composites and their
possible alication in the practice, tests were carried out under conditions of
cavitation. Cavitation damage to the composite samples was determined using
modified vibratory cavitation equipment. Mass loss and surface analysis of
composite samples during the experiment were used as an indicator the level of
cavitation damage. The results showed very good cavitation resistance which
gives the possibility of using these materials in condition where cavitation
resistance is needed.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Keywords: Al–Si alloys, composite, composasting process, cavitation
resistance.
T. Spasojević-Šantić, M. Arsenović, A. Terzić, Z. Radojević
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH MANAGEMENT IN
EUROPE AND SERBIA: ASPECTS AND REGULATIONS
Fourth International Congress on Legal-Economic and Ecological Aspects of
the Environmental Management in the Chemical, Petrochemical and Oil
Industry – CHYMICUS IV, Tara, Serbia, 2012, 1–6.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the fly ash management in Europe
and Serbia, as well as its alication the building materials production, with
special reference to the existing legislation. The draft development remediation
plan is also given, with regard to non conformity with generated and used
amount of fly ash and slag.
Aim of this paper is to point out the importance of ash used as a replacement for
the traditionally building materials, without compromising product quality,
while keeping in mind the economic aspect (reducing the amounts of waste ash
in landfills), and the aspect of environmental protection.
T. Spasojević-Šantić, G. Dražić, Z. Radojević
PHYTOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH HEAVY
METALS
XX International Scientific and Professional Meeting „Ecological Truth“, EcoIst'12, Zaječar, Serbia, 2012, 299–305.
Heavy metals are among the most widespread pollutants of soil and wider
environment. Attention is directed to their toxicity, behavior in the soil and
entering the food chain through plants. Phytoremediation is the use of
biotechnology, which includes plants for the extraction, sequestration and/or
detoxification of pollutants that are present in the soil. Plant species and
genotypes are significantly differ in the ability distribution of heavy metals.
Therefore, in this paper points is on the different options of phytoremediation,
with special emphasis on plant species that are the basis of previous studies
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
31
have shown good results. Still finding species and genotypes and/or creating
them using biotechnological processes can significantly improve the alication of
plants in the remediation of contaminated soil with heavy metals.
Keywords: phytoremediation, heavy metals, hyperaccumulators, biomass.
D. Perović, T. Spasojević-Šantić
BIOREMEDIATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY
XX International Scientific and Professional Meeting „Ecological Truth", EcoIst'12, Zaječar, Serbia, 2012, 315–320.
A large number of analyses of the quality of indoor air indicated that it is very
polluted, even dozens of times from the air in the environment, so it aears socalled "sick building syndrome". Bioremediation is biotechnological method to
purify the air and to reduce the pollution of indoor air. The aim of study is to
highlight the importance of bioremediation of indoor air, with green walls
alication and a mixture of microorganisms, in order to improve health and
enhance the quality of both residential and working environments.
Keywords: bioremediation, microorganisms, green wall, air quality.
A. Abdulrafiu, T. Spasojević-Šantić, B. Eshchanov
THE NIGERIA MINING SECTOR: AN OVERVIEW OF ECONOMIC
IMPLICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND IMPACT
ON CLIMATE CHANGE
34th International Geological Congress (34th IGC), Australia, 2012.
This paper examines the role of mining sector in Nigeria economy,
environmental degradation and impact on climate change and prescribes a series
of recommendations for improving economic and environmental performance
in the era of climate change mitigation. Mining sector in Nigeria has over the
years, played an important strategic role in the economy. The main factors that
come into play are the fiscal contributions and foreign exchange it generates, its
role in attracting external investment to the country and its importance for
employment. However, because of the fact that mining activities involves mass
clearing of forest cover and soil excavation, resulting into vulnerability of most
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
communities in major solid mineral states to impacts of climate change.
Structured and non-structured interview were used on a sample of 130
respondents from the study area (80 miners and 30 residents) and 20
respondents from government departments. Field observation was used as well
to gather information from the study areas the results showed that there was
intensive environmental degradation due to uncontrolled mining in these areas.
Thus pose great danger to mitigation and adaptation measures. It is concluded
that marked environmental improvements can only be achieved if: (1)
assistance is provided to the environmental compliance monitoring agency
(NESREA) (2) a nationwide sensitization is continuously conducted (3) the
artisanal miners are being organized and (4) report of the 2020 National
technical working group on minerals & metals development is well
implemented.
S. Dević, M. Cocić
MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION SUORT IN MATERIAL
ALICATION IN CONSTRUCTION AND CERAMICS INDUSTRY
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 73 – 77.
The aim of this paper is presenting how mineraligical characterization suorts the
process of detrmination of nature and quality of some materials that are used
also in construction and ceramics industry.The suort is based on results in clay,
zeolitic tuff, and slag research. Methodes used in research process are DTA,
Midroscopy method in reflected and refracted light, and Electron microscopic
method. Depending on sort of materials, different research method are used for
mineralogical characterization of materials.
S. Dević, M. Cocić
MIKROSCOPIC DEMONSTRATION EROSION MAGCHROMIC
REFRACTORY BRICKS FROM CASTING LADLES BY THE ACTION
SLAG
XIV YuCorr International Conference „Exchanging experiences in the fields of
corrosion, materials and enviromental protection“, 2012, Tara, Srbija.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
33
The issue that is treated in this paper refers to the explanation and presentation
of erosion magchromic refractory bricks from casting ladle for steel. Erosion
magchromic refractory bricks formed by the action of slag was investigated
using microscopic methods. Micro-photography are the result of microscopic
examination maghromic refractory bricks, using refracted light. They clearly
show the erosion of refractory bricks. At the micro-photography shows a
gradual penetration of slag in the refractory bricks, its destructive effects and
ultimately the destruction of the structure of refractory bricks.
S. Dević, M. Cocić, M. Logar, S. Erić
USING THE ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPE IN THE IDENTIFICATION
MINERALS AS A FUNCTION OF MINERAL SULEMENT PREMIX
MIXTURES FOR ANIMAL FEED
44 IOC, 44th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, 1-3,
Bor, Serbia, 2012, 55-58.
The aim of this study was that the alication of electron microscopy confirmed
the nature of minerals contained in the premix - mixtures of animal feeds.
Mineral identified in the role of mineral sulement premix is clinoptilolite from
the group of zeolite. Are used for identification and other available methods
such as XRD and DTA, and the results of alication of electron microscopy
confirmed the identification of minerals. Electronic microphotography and
chemical analysis of selected sites clearly showed the presence of primary
minerals clinoptilolite, and less presence of calcite, quartz. After annealing the
sample premix and the loss of the organic composition of the premix are
expressed characteristic features mineral clinoptilolite. These beautifuly
developed forms are shown on the electronic microphotography in this paper.
M. Cocić, M. Logar, M. Pošarac, B. Matović, T. Volkov - Husović, S. Dević, N.
Vušović
THERMAL SHOCK PROPERTIES OF GLASS CERAMICS
SYNTHESIZED FROM A GLASS FRIT
44 IOC, 44th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, 1-3,
Bor, Serbia, 2012, 33-38.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
In this study we investigated the behavior of glass ceramics synthesized from a
glass frit FFW (final flotation waste) thermal shock testing, in order to discuss
the possibility of alication for the production of new material from the group of
ceramics (glass ceramic). Thermal shock of the samples was measured using
standard laboratory procedure, water quench test. Level of surface deterioration
before and during quenching was monitored by image analysis. Ultrasonic
measurements were used as nondestructive quantification of thermal shock
damage in specimens. Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity and strength
degradation were calculated using measured values of ultrasonic velocities
obtained by ultrasonic measurements. It was found that materials exhibited
good thermal shock resistance, and could be good candidate for alication where
this behaviour is required.
K. Đoković, N. Šušić
ESTIMATE LATERAL FORCE FOR LANDSLIDE STABILIZATION
BY PILES USING THE ITO – MATSUI’S METHOD
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1985-1990.
Estimation of the lateral force is an important factor for the stability
analysis,when stabilizing landslide by piles. A reliable method for calculation of
the lateral force acting along the piles in a row, when soil between the piles is in
plastic equilibrium, is the Ito-Matsui method. The lateral force is determined by
this method as the soil impact acting differently on either side of the pile. The
results achieved by this method are in this paper.
Keywords: Piles, lateral force, landslides, remedial works.
K. Đoković, N. Šušić
DEFINING THE CONDITIONS OF COMPACTION AND BUILDING IN
OF CLAYEY SOILS IN CORE OF EARTHFILL DAMS
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1991-1997.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
35
Defining the conditions of embedding clay material, compaction and optimum
conditions, when making earthfill dams depends directly on the geomechanical
properties of the material. Difficulties in the compaction of clayey material are
closely related to the size of the consistency index, where there is a dependency
relationship of natural water content, plastic limit and liquid limits. This paper
analyzes embedding clay materials (CH, CL and CI) obtained based on the
results of laboratory tests conducted on samples of clay core earthfill dams :
Rovni, Selova, Prvonek and Barje.
Keywords: Earthfill dam, compaction, building in.
G. Hadži-Niković, B. Abolmasov, K. Đoković
INTRODUCING LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ON SEISMIC
HAYARDS MAPS
Third International Conference: Seismic Engineering and Engineerings
Seismology, Divčibare, 2012, 41-48.
For the preparation of hazard maps it is necessary to determine a parameter that
allows assessing the liquefaction susceptibility of soil. Because liquefaction
hazard maps typically illustrate the hazard of large areas, they are based on
surficial geologic maps. Due to based on geologic maps, the liquefaction hazard
maps need to assess the degree of liquefaction hazard posed by each geologic
unit. There are qualitative geological criteria that assess the liquefaction
susceptibility of soil, but not liquefaction manifestations on the surface like:
sand boils, ground cracking or lateral spreading. A parameter that permits the
assessment of liquefactions performance on the surface, for each geologic unit,
is a liquefaction potential index, LPI. Computed from penetration tests and field
data and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS), liquefaction
potential index, enhances assessment of liquefaction hazard on the hazard maps.
Keywords: liquefaction potential index, liquefaction surface manifestations,
seismic hazard maps.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
N. Šušić, D. Rakić, K. Đoković, D. Berisavljević
EVACUATION OF WASTE WATERS FROM LANDFILL “SARIĆA
OSOJE” – UŽICE
2nd International Symposium on Environmental and Material Flow
Management „EMFM 2012“, University of Zenica, Zenica, BIH, 2012, 71-76.
The Sarića Osoje landfill of the Užice municipal solid waste is located 3 km NE
of the town in a stream valley section 550 metres long. Drain water from the
landfill mixing with the stream flows across the town into the Đetinja River.
The landfill, in which high groundwater level had been observed, was closed
and the tailings since disposed into another, regional landfill. Aware of the
threat from groundwater in the old landfill, its drainage has been recommended.
Keywords: landfill, geotechnical properties, stability, screen drains .
D. Berisavljević, N. Šušić, Ć. Laslo, K. Đoković
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF AXIALY LOADED PILE
2nd International Scientific Meeting: State and Trends of Civil Engineering
GTZ 2012 and 2nd Conference GEO-EXPO 2012, Vol.1, Faculty of Mining,
Geology and Civil Engineering, University of Tuzla and Geotechnical Society
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Tuzla, BIH, 2012, 517-524.
This paper presents a numerical analysis of the pile that was tested using static
load test at the construction site of the residential & business complex Stepa
Stepanovic in Belgrade. The back analysis of the static load test was performed
with the software package Plaxis where the load-displacement curve obtained
was matched with the curve obtained during static load testing. In this way it
was possible to determine the specific soil parameters required to describe the
elastic-perfectly plastic (MC) model. The shaft friction as a function of
settlement is evaluated thus obtaining critical settlement values required to
develop full mobilization of shaft friction for each layer. All the results are in
accordance with literature data.
Keywords: Static load test, finite element method, back analysis, shaft friction,
critical settlement.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
37
N. Šušić, D. Berisavljević, G. Hadži-Niković
EVALUATING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF HETEROGENEOUS TERRAIN
TO CYCLIC LIQUEFACTION
Third International Conference: Seismic Engineering and Engineerings,
Divčibare, 2012, 77-84.
Liquefaction is a common earthquake hazard related to ground shaking that
accompanies earthquakes, typically magnitude 5.0 or greater. The term
liquefaction refers to the physical change that occurs when certain soils are
shaken and transformed from solid ground capable of suorting a structure to a
quicksand-like liquid with a greatly reduced ability to bear the weight of a
building. The paper presents definitions of flow and cyclic liquefaction and
procedures for complete assessment of the cyclic liquefaction potential
(Robertson, 2010), that means evaluating: susceptibility to cyclic liquefaction,
triggering of cyclic liquefaction and post-earthquake deformations. It is also
estimated susceptibility of sedimentary deposits to liquefaction for terrain that is
composed on saturated cohesive and cohesionless sediments of different deposit
age.
Keywords: susceptibility to cyclic liquefaction, cohesion and cohesionless
saturated soils.
G. Hadži-Niković, N. Šušić, D. Berisavljević
SEISMIC DAMS AND EMBANKMENTS SLOPE STABILITY
Third International Conference: Seismic Engineering and Engineering
Seismology, Divčibare, 2012, 251-258.
Earhquakes produce dynamic loading of slopes, which can reduce the shear
strength of soil and lead to instability. In addition, to the complex and
comprehensive, often complex and expensive dynamic analyses of the slopes,
there are simpler procedures with screening analysis, which can be carried out
in order to determine if detailed dynamic analyses are needed in particular case.
The paper presents the basic principles of pseudostatic screening stability
analyses (Duncan, 2005). In this sense, the quantities: peak ground
accelerations, shear strength and shear strength reduction factor, safety factor
and tolerable displacement are discussed. It also deals with the postearthquake
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
stability analyses. It stands the shear strength loss during the earthquake and
redistribution pore water pressure after earthquake and the impact of their
change in postearthquake slope stability.
Keywords: pseudostatic screening analyses, undrained shear strength, peak
accelaeration, loss of shear strength, redistribution pore water pressure,
postearthquake stability analyses.
Ž. Flajs, N. Milovanović, V. Mladenović, Z. Savić
BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCEMENT CONCRETE COLUMN UNDER
STATIC LOAD TESTING
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 95-102.
In order to determine the capacity of reinforced concrete column 110kV
electricity network carried out the static load testing and testing until fracture.
Testing was conducted on a sample that is built into the high-power network
system for more than 30 years. The current high-power network is currently out
of use, with the plan to carry out higher loads. Test results were used to
determine the column capacity, and ability to accept new designed loads.
Keywords: Static load testing, testing until fracture, reinforcement concrete
column.
N. Milovanović, Ž. Flajs, B. Ivanković, V. Mladenović
CONDITION SURVEY AND REQUIREMENT TESTS PRIOR TO THE
RECONSTRUCTION OF A STRUCTURAL BUILDING
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1287-1294.
The aim of the visual inspection and condition survey is to identify defects and
deficiencies in structures, and therefore to analyse the condition of the structural
building before reconstruction. Condition survey program also includes the
subsequent determination of compressive strength of concrete and soil
mechanics analysis. Testing load program on the structural building is a very
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
39
important part of executive works in order to determine compliance with the
project when documentation is not available.
Keywords: Condition survey, structure condition assessment, testing of
structures.
J. Bleiziffer, A. Balagija, T. Landeka, N. Milovanović
CONDITION SURVEY OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES AT PIVA H
The 8th Central European Congress On Concrete Engineering – Durability Of
Concrete Structures, Plitvice, Croatia, 2012, 197-204.
After more than thirty years of exploitation, testing and condition assessment of
civil structures was conducted within the project of reconstruction and
modernization. Performed works included twelve structures of H: dam body
with galleries and shafts inside, stilling basin, intake structure with valve
chambers, headrace tunnels, powerhouse and transformer premises, draft tubes,
lower surge tank, tailrace tunnel, grouting galleries and 220 kV switchyard. It
pertained to assessment of condition of all structures and equipment. Specialist
services, rendered by climbers and divers were used and dewatering and
cleaning of stilling basin was done to perform the inspections and the tests in
areas hard to reach.
Keywords: hydropower plant, concrete structures, concrete arch dam, condition
survey, testing.
M. Vasić, Z. Radojević
DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL DRYING CONDITION
DURING DRYING OF GREEN MASONRY PRODUCTS
Modtech International Conference, 2012, Sinaia, Romania.
Explanation of the drying process is reduced to the establishment of a series
theoretical and empirical drying models. Complex processes of simultaneous
mass and energy transfer, which are often non-stationary and the distinct nature
and properties of the drying material, complicate even more the description of
the drying process. The aim of this study is to find a way to short drying time, to
find optimal drying conditions, and to preserve good physical and mechanical
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
characteristics of green masonry products. In order to establish optimal,
especially “fast drying” process, it is necessary at the beginning of drying to
slowly heat the products while relative humidity within the dryer is kept high.
Experimental research was performed in the laboratory recirculation dryer. On
the base of laboratory optimization tests, drying process of masonry products in
industrial conditions was proposed and optimized.
Keywords: optimization, drying, fast drying, masonry product.
G. Petrović, N. Milovanović
PILOT BUILDING AS PART OF REVITALIZATION OF IMS
BUILDING TEHNOLOGY IN OSIJEK
Scientific conference on planning, design, construction and building renewal
INDIS 2012, Novi Sad, 2012. 408-417.
This paper presents the alication of the IMS Building Technology in the pilotbuilding in Osijek, Croatia. Numerous important technical improvements of the
system have been implemented. Key differences in comparison to previously
used technology include the alication of prestressed tendons system,
innovations of elements and joints, production in flexible moulds, innovations
of the assembly equipment. Pilot-building was designed according to European
Norms. At this moment, IMS structural elements are being produced, and the
building itself is under construction. Prefabricated three-layer reinforced
concrete façade panels are also featured in the building.
Keywords: industrialization
prestressing, prefabrication.
of
building,
IMS
Building
Technology,
D. Nikolić, K. Janković, G. Ćirović
TWO-LAYER RC BEAMS WITH PARTIAL USE OF UHPC
2nd International Scientific Meeting: State and Trends of Civil Engineering –
GTZ 2012, No. 1, Faculty of Mining, Geology and Civil Engineering,
University of Tuzla, BiH, 2012, 251-258.
Ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) as a modern generation of cement
composites with extremely high compressive strength, has been subject of many
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
41
research and shows a very promising future in engineering alications. The use
of UHPC in construction is limited by high unit cost. In terms of costperformance ratio, UHPC can be alied in a part of structure under high
compressive stress. This Paper summarizes set of equations for flexural capacity
of hybrid two-layer concrete rectangular section beams with UHPC on the
compressive side and high strength concrete on tensile side. Two-layer concrete
beams can be analyzed using conventional methods for concrete elements.
Compatibility conditions between layers is based on the shear deformations
equality on the layers border in a section with maximal depth of the
compression zone. Experimental examination of mechanical properties of high
and ultra high performance concrete is necessary to obtain stress-strain
relationship of composites.
K. Janković
SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBER
REINFORCED CONCRETE
Third International Conference „Seismic Engineering and Engineering
Seismology“, Assosication of Civil Engineers of Serbia, Divčibare, 2012, 289294.
Evaluation of high performance fiber reinforced concrete is given in this paper.
Its properties under load are shown. This type of concrete is ductile, so it found
alication in structural elements for earthquake-resistant structures.
G. Ćirović, S. Mitrović, D. Nikolić
OPTIMIZATION OF SHAPE OF ENERGY – SAVING BUILDINGS –
PROBLEM FORMULATION
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1777-1784.
While buildings and development provide countless benefits to society, they
also have significant environmental and health impacts. Building owners,
designers and builders face a unique challenge to meet demands for new and
renovated facilities that are accessible, secure, healthy, and productive while
minimizing their impact on the environment. The object of this work is to
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
determine the optimum dimensions of the shape of a building of volume V and
height h, as well as the minimum yearly heating costs. Constraints of
optimization problem are also defined.
K. Janković, Lj. Miličić, D. Nikolić, D. Bojović, Lj. Lončar
INVESTIGATION OF THE MORTAR AND CENCRETE RESISTANCE
FOR AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 147-152
Concrete in the agricultural structures is exposed to aggressive influence.
Resistance on corrosion caused by carbamide, lactic and acetic acid was
presented in this paper. The chemical resistance of mortar and concrete was
tested according to the Koch-Steinegger method. As a condition for resistance
in aggressive solution means that flexural strength of mortar prisms no less than
70% of referent prisms cured in water it can be concluded that combination of
cement and additive presented in this investigation is not satisfied for
agricultural structures.
A. Mitrović, D. Nikolić, Lj. Miličić
CONTRIBUTION TO THE SUSTAINABLE CEMENT PRODUCTION
BY USE OF METAKAOLIN OR AMORPHOUS KAOLIN
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012 1117-1123.
Metakaolin (MK) was obtained by thermal treatment and amorphous kaolin
(AK) by mechanochemical treatment of the same kaolin clay from Aranđelovac
basin. They are used for the partial replacement of cement in composite
Portland-cemet. The compressive strength of the cement (CEM II), with
addition of 5 – 35 % by mass of MK, AK and commercial metakaolin (CMK)
after 2, 7 and 28 days of curing, were compared with the strength of Portland
cement (CEM I) used as reference cement. The strengths greater than the
reference cement, after 7 and 28 days, were obtained with addition up to 20% of
MK or with 5% of AK.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
43
Keywords: Metakaolin, amorphous kaolin, composite Portland-cement.
D. Nikolić, K. Janković, A. Mitrović, D. Bojović
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA NIGH PERFORMANCE
CONCRETE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1125-1132.
This paper presents the effect of thermal curing on mechanical properties of
ultra high performance steel fiber reinforced concrete (UHPSFRC).
Compressive and flexural strength were measured on two series of concrete
with different mineral admixtures. The samples were exposed to different
curing regimes (standard water curing, steam curing on 95°C and autoclaving at
8bar and 20bar). The compressive strength varied between 165MPa and
215MPa for the steam cured and autoclaved specimens and between 135 and
150 MPa for the hadn’t been heat treated samples after 28 days. Furthermore,
this paper presents SEM micrographs of C-S-H phase formed after steam curing
and autoclaving.
Keywords: Ultra high performance concrete, steel fiber, steam curing,
autoclaving.
G. Petrović, V. Petrović
SKADARLIJA AND THE OLD BREWERY – URBAN
RECONSTRUCTION CASE STUDY
New Urbanity: Cities vs. Global Challenges, Belgrade, 2012, 382-389.
Skadarlija is a famous ‘bohemian’ street in Belgrade city centre. Once a lively
romantic quarter, it is slowly turning into a fake scenery for elderly tourist
groups. Several years ago, an international real estate company bought the
adjacent old brewery complex, and the largest part of Skadarlija street frontage
with it. This paper gives an analysis of present spatial and social conditions,
prepared to serve as a basis for further work on urban reconstruction of the
whole location. The aim of this analysis was to recognize and clearly define
new values and contemporary social relations, as well as to point out different
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
possible design aroaches to this task. As none of this has been implemented, this
is also a sad story about a deserted premium location, empty shops and
restaurants, building heritage and historical artefacts left to decay and
disintegration – basically, a story of the end of romantic bohemian lifestyle.
B. Ivović, I. Delić-Nikolić, L. Kurešević
UZROCI PROPADANJA I MOGUĆNOSTI ZAŠTITE GROBNICE ILIJE
MILOSAVLJEVIĆA KOLARCA U BEOGRADU
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1177-1185.
Spomen grobnica Iliji Milosavljeviću Kolarcu 1789-1878 trgovcu i velikom
narodnom dobrotvoru je izgrađena od tamno sivog do mrko crnog kamena. U
pitanju je veoma kompaktna, homogena i sitnozrna magmatska intruzivna
stena-gabro. Veći deo poliranog kamena, koji se nalazi na površini spomenika
je u stanju korozije i intenzivne degradacije. Poznato je da se predmetni kamen
odlikuje izuzetno dobrim fizičko mehaničkim osobinama i svojstvima
postojanosti. Zato je njegova intenzivna destrukcija veoma neuobičajena. Jedan
od glavnih razloga za njegovo ubrzano propadanje je najverovatnije nestručna
prethodna restauracija i konzervacija.
D. Rakić, N. Šušić, M. Ljubojev
ANALYSIS OF FOUNDATION SETTLEMENT FROM PROGRESSIVE
MOISTENING OF SILTY CLAY
Mining Enginerering - Rudarski radovi, Mining and metallurgy institute Bor,
No 1/2012, 2012, 1-10.
Examples of visible damage (cracks on the face walls) on the shallow founded
older buildings in Belgrade are not rare. Usually, this is a consequence of
unequal settlement resulting from unexpected moistening of soil under
foundations. Moistening usually occurs locally and in such conditions
differential settlement is inevitable. This paper presents research results, which
indicate that besides the size of the zone of moisture change in soil in horizontal
direction and calculated settlement values, total change of the volume of soil
under foundations should be analyzed.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
45
Keywords: soil moistening, settlement, static penetration, volume change.
D. Berisavljević, N. Šušić
GEOTECHNICAL FIELD INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE NEW BRIDGE
OVER DANUBE AT BESKA
5th International Conference Science and Higher Education in Funcion of
Sustainable Development SED 2012, Uzice, 2012, 3-7.
Bridge over the Danube river at Beška is one of the most important
infrastructural objects in Serbia. In 2009 field investigations have been carried
out in order to determine the spatial position of slip surfaces and the depth of
the existing diaphragm on the right bank in the area of the old bridge over
Danube at Beska. A great contribution on the results had excavation of five
exploratory shafts. Data obtained from them are essential for rational landslide
remediation. The new bridge was opened for traffic in october 2011.
Keywords: slip surface, diaphragm, geotechnical field investigations,
exploration shaft.
V. Grabulov, A. Vukosavljević, Z. Odanović, M. Arsić
INVESTIGATION OF REPAIR WELDING TECHNOLOGY FOR
DISSIMILAR STEEL JOINTS ON A HYDRO POWER PLANT
TURBINE PARTS
8th European Conference - Eurojoin 8, European Federation for Welding,
Joining and Cutting & Croatian Welding Society, Pula, Croatia, 2012, 393-404.
After 40 years of service а revitalization of turbines in hydro power plant
„Djerdap“ on Danube River in Serbia has been performed. New welding
technology had to be developed for different components on hydroelectric rotor
and turbine, including dissimilar welded joints. Performed investigations are
presented in this paper. Special care had been devoted to design of welding
technology, defining process parameters and selection of electrodes. The parent
metals, alied in this investigation, were structural C-Mn steel (GOST St 3) and
stainless steel X10 Cr Ni Mo Ti 18-10. For the repair welding a SMAW (111)
welding process is selected and two basic austenite covered electrodes were
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
analyzed. The first one was electrode of 18-8-6 class, E 18 8MnB22 (EN 1600).
The second electrode was ЭA-395/9 according GOST 9466-750 (ISO
E16.25.6B2). A series of trial welds with different welding heat input and
preheating temperatures were used in this investigation. Tensile tests, impact
energy tests, bend tests and hardness of welded joint cross-section
measurements were performed on trial joints. Sensibility tests for hot, cold and
lamellar cracks occurrence as ”Fisco”,”CTS”, ”Y” and Z-window tests were
alied for chosen electrodes at different welding conditions. Special attention
was alied to the sensitivity to lamellar cracks forming, due to the fact that the
strengthening parts were perpendicularly welded to turbine structural material,
as strengthening ribs. Based on the analysis of the results, optimal welding
technology was chosen.
Keywords: dissimilar steel joints, repair welding technology, austenite
electrode, weldabillity assessment, hot cracks, cold cracks, lamellar tearing.
M. Arsić, S. Bošnjak, Z. Odanović, V. Grabulov, B. Vistać
INFLUENCE OF PLASTICITY REDUCTION ON STRENGTH AND
FRACTURE OF TURBINE RUNNER COVER IN HYDRO POWER
PLANT DJERDAP 1
First International Conference on Damage Mechanics - ICDM, Belgrade,
Serbia, 2012, 57-60.
Vertical Kaplan turbines, with 200 MW of nominal output power, manufactured
in Russia, are built into six hydro-electric generating units of hydro power plant
„Đerdap 1”. In this paper results of experimental examinations of four
specimens taken from the runner cover which is made of cast steel 20GSL are
presented. These results indicated that values of yield strength, tensile strength
and impact energy for all specimens met the demands of the standard, while two
specimens had significantly lower values of elongation (A5 = 8% and 9%).
Taking into account that values A5 i Z are not universal and the fact that it is
impossible to estimate whether fracture mechanism will be implemented in
material the runner cover was made of, analytical and numerical calculations of
stress state and experimental examinations of fracture mechanics parameters
have been carried out. Obtained results of fatigue crack growth rate da/dN
indicated that internal deformations of circular or elliptical shape (flaws
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
47
detected by ultrasonic testing), of initial size up to 6 mm, enable 29 year long
reliable operation of the runner cover.
Keywords: hydro turbine, runner cover, plasticity, life.
R. Rakin, B. Međo, M. Arsić, Ž. Šarkoćević, V. Grabulov, A. Sedmak
DAMAGE AND FAILURE ASSESSMENT OF PIPES WITH LOCAL
THIN AREAS
First International Conference on Damage Mechanics - ICDM, Belgrade,
Serbia, 2012, 281-284.
The subject of this study is alication of local aroach to ductile fracture in order
to estimate the integrity of pipes with local thin areas (e.g. corrosion defects).
Majority of the procedures for determining the load carrying capacity of such
structures are based on limit loads, i.e., plastic collapse criteria. However, they
can also fail by ductile fracture mechanism, which is modelled in this work
using the complete Gurson model - CGM. This model is alied to predict the
damage development in the pipes with simulated corrosion defects (machined
notches with different sizes). The failure criterion is considered fulfilled when
damage parameter reaches its critical value in the bottom of a notch. Bearing in
mind that one of the main problems in alication of local aroach to fracture is the
mesh sensitivity, a study has been conducted to determine the dependence of
maximum pressure on the size and formulation of the finite elements in the
defect area.
Keywords: pipes with local thin areas, complete Gurson model, failure
criterion, mesh dependence.
M. Rakin, M. Arsić, Ž. Šarkoćević, B. Međo, N. Tomović, A. Sedmak
DAMAGED WELDED PIPES FOR OIL AND GAS RIGS EXPOSED TO
INTERNAL PRESSURE - FAILURE ESTIMATION
19th European Conference on Fracture - ECF 19, Fracture Mechanics for
Durability Reliability and Safety, European Structural Integrity Society – ESIS,
Kazan, Russia, 2012, 1-7.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
The paper deals with the integrity assessment of API J55 steel casing pipes for
drilling rigs, manufactured by high frequency contact welding procedure. The
influence of corrosion defects on the pipeline load carrying capacity is
determined through pressure test of a pipe with corrosion damages simulated by
machining the circular holes. Finite element analysis of the damaged pipe
subjected to internal pressure is used for determining the stress/strain conditions
in the damaged area of the pipe. Also, numerical model was used for
establishing the load carrying capacity of the pipe with different damage levels
(i.e. defect depth and length). Several expressions from the literature are used
for estimation of the maximum pressure in the damaged section of the pipe, and
the solutions are compared with the predictions of finite element models and
experimental results.
Keywords: Casing pipe, Surface defect, Maximum pressure, Finite element
analysis.
M. Arsić, S. Bošnjak, M. Rakin, N. Gnjatović, Z. Savić
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF WELDED JOINTS AT PARTS OF
VITAL STRUCTURES OF BUCKET - WHEEL EXCAVATORS BASED
ON HYPERGEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF DEFECTS
XX International Conference on Material handling, constructions and logistics MHCL ’12, Belgrade, Serbia, 2012, 155-160.
In order to reduce costs of tests that need to be carried out on structural welded
joints and losses in the production due to excavator standstill, a new method for
reliability assessment of welded joints during exploitation of bucket-wheel
excavators has been developed. In this paper a part of non-destructive testing
results for the butt welded joints at bucket-wheel, discharge and counter-weight
boom structure is presented, prior to the repair of the heavily damaged bucketwheel excavator Sch Rs 1760x32/5. It has been in operational mode for 17
years prior to the collapse, in other words it has been subjected to 2.125.000
cycles of variable loading. For the calculation of probability that x welded joints
would be selected out of overall Q, which comprise n welded joints with
defects, hypergeometric distribution has been used, while the reliability
assessment for welded jointed structures of bucket-wheel excavators has been
performed on the basis of defect analysis and probability of the growth of
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
49
fatigue cracks in welded joints. Through the use of this method testing costs
have been reduced by 70 %.
Keywords: bucket-wheel excavator, welded structure, experimental tests,
single selection method, reliabilit.
M. Arsić, S. Bošnjak, B. Međo, M. Burzić, B. Vistać, Z. Savić
INFLUENCE OF LOADING REGIMES AND OPERATIONAL
ENVIRONMENT ON FATIGUE STATE OF COMPONENTS OF
TURBINE AND HYDROMECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AT
HYDROPOWER
International Conference Power Plants 2012, Zlatibor, Serbia, 2012, 1-10.
Horizontal Kaplan turbines, were installed in 10 generating sets units at
„DJERDAP 2“. After 163.411 hours of operation, the fracture of the hydroelectric generating set A6 turbine shaft in the area of high stress concentration
occurred, at the transition radius between the flange and the runner hub. In this
paper the results of the analytical calculation regarding the strength of the
turbine shaft are presented and influence of the corrosive environment, as well
as tests regarding the fatigue. Tensile tests under constant amplitude loading
were carried out on smooth specimens in order to determine fatigue properties
of the base material, as well as bending tests on notched specimens in order to
determine fracture mechanics parameters, or correlation between the crack
growth rate da/dN and the stress intensity factor ΔK. It has been established that
stress values were higher than allowable values, which led to the occurence of
many cracks due to fatigue corrosion. One of those cracks caused the fracture.
Keywords: turbine shaft, stress concentration, corrosion, fatigue, crack.
J. Bernetić, M. Marčetić, G. Kosec, T. Vuherer Z. Burzić, D. Jaković, M. Rimac
BALLISTIC INVESTIGATION BY W – CARBIDE AMMO ON THE
ARMOUR PROTECTION STEEL – PROTAC 500
5th International Scientific conference on defensive technologies „Oteh“,
Belgrade, Serbia, 2012, 1–6.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
The ballistics testing results according to VPAM APR 2007 are represented in
this work. Ballistic testing was done using .308 Win 7.62 x 51 FMJ/FB/WC
ammunition. Two different cartridges from the producer Nammo AP 8 and
Ruag SWISS P AP were used. Both types of ammunition have tungsten carbide
core. Damage – craters, done by the projectiles, were cut and analyzed over the
transverse section by optical and scanning electron microscope. The EDS
analyses of the characteristic areas were also done.
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović
SYNTHESIS OF NEW TYPE OF CORDIERITE COATINGS
Physical Chemistry 2012: 11th International Conference on Fundamental and
Alied Aspects of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 1, Belgrade, Serbia, 2012, 435-437.
New refractory coatings based on synthesized cordierite for the casting
alications were investigated. The investigation included synthesis of the
cordierite and design of the refractory coating as final product. Design and
optimization of the coating composition, with controlled rheological properties
included, were achieved by alication of different coating components, namely
different suspension agents and by alteration of the coating production
procedure. Cordierite, used as filler, was obtained by means of synthesis in the
solid state reaction on the basis of talc, kaolin and alumina. The investigation
showed that the alication of these particular types of coatings has positive
influence on surface quality, structural and mechanical properties of the castings
of aluminum alloys.
Keywords: refractory coating, cordierite, synthesis.
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, J. Stojanović, Z. Radojević
REFRACTORY COMPOSITES BASED ON WASTE MATERIAL: XRD
INVESTIGATION OF PHASE CHANGES WITH TEMPERATURE
44th International October Conference on Mining and Metallurgy, Tehnicki
fakultet Bor, Institut za rudarstvo i metalurgiju, Bor, Serbia, 2012, 259-264.
Refractory composites based on waste material were investigated. Two
composite mixes were prepared as follows: (1) 70 % of standard Portland
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
51
cement and 30 % of fly ash originating from coal combustion; (2) 70 % of highaluminate cement and 30 % of fly ash. Fly ash was previously mechanoactivated. The phase changes of the composites influenced by increasing
temperature were investigated by means of XRD. The addition of fly ash
decreased sintering temperature, but excellent composite thermal resistance
maintained unchanged. XRD showed that crystallinity of composites improved
with increasing temperature. The formation of rankinite, gehlenite, anorthite
and cristobalite in contributed to thermal stability of composites.
Keywords: XRD, fly ash, thermal behavior, cement, recycling.
D. Jevtić, A. Mitrović, D. Zakić, B. Ilić
THE INFLUENCE OF METAKAOLIN AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT
OF CEMENT ON MORTAR AND CONCRETE PROPERTIES
19. Slovenski kolokvij o betonih: Doseganje Posebnih Lastnosti Betonov z
Uporabo Odpadnih Materialov, Ljubljana, 2012, 41-50.
This paper deals with the properties of mineral materials which may be used as
partial replacement of cement and their influence on properties of cementitious
composite materials – mortar and concrete. The use of by-products like fly ash,
granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, rice husk ash and metakaolin in
cement based composites has recently gained significant importance due to the
growing requirements in the fields of environmental protection and sustainable
construction. Some of the research results obtained during testing of composite
materials made with commercial metakaolin, but also with domestic metakaolin
types made in Serbia, are presented and discussed. These results indicate that
the addition of metakaolin generally contributes to higher compressive strength,
reduction of shrinkage and improvement of freeze-thaw resistance of
cementitious composites.
Keywords: cement, mortar, concrete, mineral materials, metakaolin, cement
replacement, research, sustainable construction.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Z. Radojević, M. Arsenović, A. Terzić, N. Vuković
INVESTIGATION OF THE NATURE AND CAUSE OF DEFECTS ON
VISIBLE SURFACE OF CERAMIC TILES EMBEDDED ON FAÇADE
OF A FACILITY
Scientific conference on planning, design, construction and building renewal
INDIS 2012, Novi Sad, 2012.
Results of the investigation and specific testing on the visible surface of ceramic
tiles are presented in this paper. The investigation was conducted with the goal
to determine the nature and cause of defects aearing on the glazed tiles. Glazed
ceramic tiles, sizing 120 x 60 cm, were previously embedded on façade of the
„Banja Komerc” facility in Aranđelovac. Influenced by atmosphere, certain
defects aeared on visible surface of glazed ceramic tiles. Defects were shaped as
dark-brown dots surrounded by yellow halo. Investigation was conducted on the
tiles which were previously embedded on the façade, as well as on the ceramic
tiles from the package, which were not embedded nor installed in any other
way. With an aim to obtain answer on the question of defects origin,
investigation has been conducted in accordance with standard SRPS ISO 10545:
determination of dimensions and surface quality; determination of moisture
expansion; determination of chemical resistance; and determination of
resistance to stains. Also, microstructural analyses were conducted by means of
optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with
energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) device. Analysis of the obtained results
highlighted possibility of defects cause being carbon and iron as impurity, both
present in raw material used for glaze production.
Keywords: ceramic tiles, glaze, defects, impurities, microstructural analysis.
V. Aleksić, Z. Kovačević
TESTING OF UER RING OF GUIDING AARATUS DURING
REVITALIZATION OF A6 AGGREGATE AT HE DJERDAP 1
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 1255-1261.
In present paper, rejection of the uer ring of the guiding aaratus (URGA) during
revitalization of the A6 aggregates at HE Djerdap 1 has been presented.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
53
Rejection was conducted after 37 years of exploitation based on the decisions
made after testing, both NDT and DT, and unsuccessful recovery using various
welding technologies.
V. Aleksić, Lj. Milović, Z. Kovačević
THE FAILURES OF A SUORTING STRUCTURE OF A COALRELOADING BRIDGE AND METHODOLOGICAL AROACH TO
RECOVERY OF THE DAMAGES
The 7th International Symposium „KOD 2012“, Balatonfüred, Hungary, 2012,
105-108.
In present paper, methodological aroach to the analysis of the failures and
recovery of the damages has been presented on an example of fracture and
damage of a structure of the reloading bridge. The aroach presented can be alied
to various types of similar structures, and its alication in preventive
maintenance would contribute to extension of exploitation life of the reloading
bridges.
Z. Kovačević, Z. Karastojković, V. Aleksić, Z. Janušević
MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND CRACK DETECTION IN
TURBINE BLADES AFTER PROLONGED EXPOSURE IN PLANT
The 7th International Symposium „KOD 2012“, Balatonfüred, Hungary, 2012,
507-510.
Turbine blades are one of the most important machine parts in every power
generator. Corrosion and/or erosion attack on blades are also available in
moisture atmosphere, because the wet water vapour is an usual working media
in low pressure turbine. After long time in service, the initial structure is
changed. Some pores were metallographically detected and their aggregation
combined with probable coagulation around non-metallic inclusions is
observed. Those pores can lead to the crack formation. Serious problems may
arise due to these non-metallic inclusions since they are surrounded by a
number of individual pores or even characteristic “clouds” of pores are formed
around inclusions. From the aspect of blade vibrations, the crack will be
expected only at some positions. This kind of crack usually is initiated at the
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
blade surface. In another case, when an aggregation process of pores occurs, the
coagulation and coarsening of pores may provoke the crack initiation not on the
surface, but in the bulk of the blade material. Metallographic investigations
were performed using light microscope.
J. Ćirilović, N. Vajdić, G. Mladenović, C. Queiroz
DEVELOPMENT OF A PREDICTION MODEL FOR THE UNIT COST
OF ROAD REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 2319-2326.
Cost estimations with a satisfactory level of accuracy at the planning stage of
road network rehabilitation and reconstruction are perceived as one of the most
influential factors to the success of such programs. In order to ensure stable
financing during the realization of the project it is important to estimate the
costs as accurately as possible in early stages, when minimum project
information is available. In this paper an effort is made to develop a cost
prediction model using limited project information which is alicable to a wide
range of projects in different countries.
Keywords: Cost estimations, road rehabilitation and reconstruction projects.
J. Ćirilović, N. Vajdić, G. Mladenović, C. Queiroz
DEVELOPMENT OF PREDICTION MODELS FOR THE COST OF
ROAD WORKS USING MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION ANALYSIS
EPAM, Malmo, Sweden, 2012.
The average unit costs of road works vary substantially between countries, and
even between projects in the same country, due to a number of factors. In this
paper an effort is made to develop prediction models for the unit costs of road
works that could be alied for a wide range of conditions in different countries.
A specialized dataset is used, which was generated under a World Bank study
for a sample of road works contracts from 14 countries in Europe and Central
Asia (ECA). The data sample covers 200 completed or on-going road works
contracts signed between the years 2000 and 2010. The database classifies road
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
55
work activities into the following categories, commonly found in the contracts
included in the study: rehabilitation/reconstruction, new construction, asphalt
pavement overlays and periodic maintenance. A multivariate regression analysis
is used to evaluate the determinants of the cost per km of the above road works.
The dependent variable is the actual cost per km of the specific road work. The
explanatory variables that are tested in the model include variables related to oil
prices, variables that are country specific, a variable indicating the climate
conditions and variables that are project specific.
The important factors that contribute significantly to the regression equations
are highlighted. The variables included in the analyses were chosen in view of
their potential explanatory power. The resulting regression equations are
expected to be useful in the strategic analysis of road networks, including the
optimization of road maintenance and rehabilitation where specific project data
is very limited.
J. Ćirilović, N. Vajdić, G. Mladenović, C. Queiroz
PREDICTION MODEL FOR THE COST OF ROADREHABILITATION
AND RECONSTRUCTION WORK
Second International Conference on Road and Rail Infrastructure, Croatia,
2012, 389-395.
Maintenance of existing road network represents a challenge for public road
authorities who seek a balance between available budgets and the need for
maintaining level of service at a satisfactory level on existing road sections. For
this reason, prediction of cost for road rehabilitation and reconstruction works
represents one of key inputs for the objective analysis of projects and available
budgets and optimization of road maintenance alternatives. However, the
average unit costs of road rehabilitation and reconstruction vary substantially
between countries, and even between projects in the same country, due to a
number of factors. In this paper an effort is made to develop a prediction model
that could be alied for a wide range of conditions in different countries. A
specialized dataset is used, which was generated under a World Bank study for
a sample of road works contracts from 14 countries in Europe and Central Asia,
signed between the years 2000 and 2010. The data sample for the analysis
covers 94 projects of rehabilitation and reconstruction of flexible pavements. A
multivariate regression analysis is used to evaluate the determinants of the cost
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
per kilometer of the road rehabilitation or reconstruction. The explanatory
variables that are tested in the model are divided in three groups: variables
related to oil prices, variables that are country specific and variables that are
project specific. The variables included in the analyses were chosen in view of
their potential explanatory power. The resulting regression model is expected to
be useful in the strategic analysis of road networks, including the optimization
of road maintenance alternatives.
Keywords: Road rehabilitation and reconstruction works, cost prediction
model, multivariate linear regression analysis.
G. Mladenović, J. Ćirilović
PERFORMANCE OF ASPHALT MIXTURES WITH INCREASED
RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT (RAP) CONTENT
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012.
Recycling of an asphalt pavement makes both environmental and economic
sense. RAP rates between 10 and 20% are commonly used in asphalt mixes and
according to previous studies, asphalt mixtures with these RAP rates perform
similarly to conventional mixtures. The use of higher RAP rates, up to 50 %,
would lead to more sustainable pavement structures with lower energy and
natural resources consumption, having also positive effects from the economic
point of view. The research presented in the paper shows improved moisture
susceptibility and rutting performance of asphalt mixes with RAP contents of
15% and 30%.
Keywords: asphalt mixes, reclaimed asphalt pavement, moisture susceptibility,
rutting.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
57
SAOPŠTENJE SA MEĐUNARODNOG SKUPA (M34)
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, N. Obradović, V. Pavlović, Z. Radojević, Lj.Miličić, Z.
Aćimović-Pavlović
EVALUATION OF FLY ASH PYSICO-CHEMICAL
CHARACTERISTICS AS COMPONENT FOR ECO-CERAMIC AND
SINTERED MATERIALS
Advanced Ceramic and Alication, Sebian Ceramic Society, Belgrade, Serbia,
2012, 32.
The aim of the presented study is to evaluate utilization potential of the fly ash
which is the main residue from the coal combustion thermal-plants. Decades
long high production of fly ash represents extreme hazard for the environment.
The storage problem of this waste material is also alerting. Thus, recycling and
realication of fly ash in construction materials industry is the only economic
solution. The well-knows examples of fly-ash realication as a component in
cement, mortar, concrete, bricks and tiles are not enough in means of reusing
extreme amounts of this waste material. Therefore, new alications in ash-based
composites have to be developed: eco-ceramic materials and sintered materials
for refractory performances. In this investigation, characterization of three
different fly ash capacities was used as base for further fly ash utilization
possibilities analysis. Accent was on the investigation of the fly ash
mineralogical and chemical composition. Thermal stability of crystalline phases
was investigated with DTA. Macro-performance was correlated with the
microstructure of fly ash studied by means of XRD and SEM analysis.
Furthermore, content of trace elements, physico-chemical characteristics and
leaching toxicity tests were carried out. Comparing the properties of
investigated fly ashes with standard values, it could be presumed that fly ash
originating from Serbian power plants can be potentially useful for high value
products - eco-ceramic and refractory/sintered materials manufacturing.
Keywords: fly ash, microstructure, potential reusing, eco-ceramic, sintering.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović
THE PRINCIPLES OF CHOICE OF REFRACTORY COATINGS USED
IN LOST FOAM CASTING PROCESS
Advanced Ceramic and Alication, Sebian Ceramic Society, Belgrade, Serbia,
2012, 33.
For production of the castings with favorable properties refractory coatings with
the advance quality setting must be used. During the casting, the basic role of
coating is creation of an efficient refractory barrier between sandy substrate and
liquid metal flow. The coating properties required (refractoriness, favorable gas
permeability, easy alication and adhesion to sand mold surfaces and polymer
model surfaces in the Lost foam casting process, easy adjustment of thickness
of the coating layer, high drying rate without cracking or removal of the dried
coating layers) were achieved by optimization of coating composition and their
production technology. As refractory coating fillers, cordierite, talc, mica,
zircon and mullite were chosen due to their properties: (1) low heat spread
coefficient; (2) relatively high melting temperature; (3) no soaking up with
liquid metal; (4) no gas production when in contact with liquid metal. The
sediment stability of coating suspension is an important coating property.
Different kinds and quantities of additives were tested, as well as their
activation procedures, with an aim to enable easy additive absorption to the
refractory filler particles, maintenance of the filler in a dispersed state and
prevention of the filler building up. Bonding agents within the coating was
chosen in regard to the size and shape of the refractory filler particles and in
order to enable connection between the particles and to secure good adhesion of
refractory particles to the observed surface of either the sandy mold or polymer
model. Alcohol was used as a liquid solvent, as well as water. It was concluded
that the optimal density of refractory coating was 2 g/cm3.
Keywords: refractory coating, Lost Foam casting process, quality of castings,
high temperature material.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
59
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, N. Obradović
MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES IINITIATED BY SINTERING OF
REFRACTORY CONCRETE BASED ON RECYCLED BAUXITE
AGGREGATE
3rd International Samsonov Memorial Conference „Materials Science of
Refractory Componds“, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2012, 73.
Concretes whose structure and final properties are shaped during thermal pretreatment or during life-service at elevated temperatures can be alied as
construction material for thermal insulation and/or refractory linings in hightemperature-operating plants. Refractory concretes designed with waste raw
materials show satisfying performances in comparison with standard concretes.
Sintering initiates microstructural changes within concrete. Concrete
microstructure further develops with increasing temperature. Change
progression can be monitored by means of destructive and non-destructive tests:
either by investigating change of compressive strength or aarent porosity of
concrete samples. Destructive tests, in this study, were alied in compressive
strength investigation, while non-destructive tests were performed for results
comparison. Experiment has been conducted on corundum (standard) concrete
and recycled bauxite (experimental) concrete. Samples underwent thermal
treatment from 110 to 1500 ºC. Macro-performance of the final refractory
concrete was correlated to the microstructural change detected by means of
XRD and SEM analysis. Creep testing was conducted to prove sintering
process. Results showed that recycled concrete has equal if not better properties
in comparison with standard refractory concrete and can be used as thermoinsulation or refractory material.
Keywords: refractory concrete, sintering, microstructural change, image
analysis, recycling.
A. Terzić, Ljubica Pavlović, Nina Obradović, Vladimir Pavlović, Ljiljana
Miličić, Z. Radojević
SYNTHESIS AND SINTERING OF FLY ASH BASED COMPOSITES
FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE ALICATION
3rd International Samsonov Memorial Conference „Materials Science of
Refractory Componds“, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2012, 60.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Fly ash, as the main residue in coal combustion in thermal-plants, represents
extreme hazard for the environment. Recycling and realication of fly ash in
building materials industry proved to be the only economic solution for the ongoing problem with air, water and soil pollution. In present study, fly ashes
from two different landfills were subjected to mechano-activation treatment in a
planetary ball mill, and the treated fly ashes were cemented with a binder. Two
different binders were used: standard Portland cement and high-aluminate
cement. The goal of the investigation was to obtain fly ash-cement composite
with satisfying performances for high temperature alication. Chemical
composition analysis and detailed investigation of mineralogical components of
cement-fly ash composites are emphasized, due to the fly ash dependence of its
origin. Macro-performance of the composites was correlated to the
microstructure of fly ash studied by means of XRD and SEM analysis.
Furthermore, thermal stability of crystalline phases was investigated with DTA.
Highlight was placed on determination of relationship between fly ash
mechano-activation and microstructure on one side and fly ash based products
refractory characteristics on other side.
Keywords: fly ash, refractory compounds,
performance, recycling.
cement, high-temperature
A. Prstić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović
REFRACTORY LININGS BASED ON MULLITE FOR ALICATION IN
FOUNDRY
3rd International Samsonov Memorial Conference „Materials Science of
Refractory Componds“, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2012, 74.
Various possibilities for the development of the new mullite-based refractory
linings which can be alied in casting process were investigated and presented in
this paper. Optimization of the refractory lining composition design with the
controlled reologic properties was achieved by alication of different lining
components and by alteration of lining production procedure. Mullite was used
as a high-temperature filler. The mullite sample was tested by the following
methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis and scanningelectron microscopy. The shape and grain size were analyzed by the program
package for image analysis OZARIA 2.5. It was proved that alication of this
type of water-alcohol-based lining had a positive influence on surface quality,
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
61
structural and mechanical properties of the castings of Fe-C alloys obtained by
casting into sand molds, according to the method of expandable patterns (Lost
foam casting process).
Keywords: refractory lining, sintering, microstructural change, image analysis,
mullite, Lost foam casting process.
M. Arsenović, L. Pezo, Z. Radojević
CLAY BRICK COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND WATER
ABSORPTION PREDICTION USING NON-LINEAR REGRESSION
AND ANN
Advanced Ceramic and Alication, Serbian Ceramic Society, Belgrade, Serbia,
2012, 13 (S 2.6).
Heavy clay samples used in this research were collected at 84 locations in
Serbia. The effects of chemical composition, various firing temperatures, and
several shape format of laboratory samples on the compressive strength and
water absorption were investigated in this paper. Prediction of compressive
strength and water absorption was done by non-linear regression analysis and
five artificial neural networks. Analysis of variance showed significant effects
(p<0.05) of all processing factors. The statistical comparison methods such as
r2, χ2, MBE and RMSE were used to explore the confidence level of the
models. Developed models were able to predict compressive strength and water
absorption in a wide range of chemical composition and temperature treatment
data, and the highest average regression coefficient (r2) of 0.993 for
compressive strength was obtained, while r2 for water absorption was 0.996.
Obtained ANN model performs better when compared to developed empirical
non-linear multivariable regression model. The wide range of processing
variables were considered for the formulation of this model, and its easy
implementation in a spreadsheet using a set of equations, makes it very useful
and practical for compressive strength and water absorption prediction.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Z. Odanović, M. Đurđević, V. Grabulov, M. Arsić
EFFECTS OF STEELMAKING PROCESS AND HEAT TREATMENT
PROCEDURES ON THE ULTRA HIGH STRENGH STEEL
PROPERTIES
22nd Congress of Chemists and Technologists of Macedonia with international
participation, 2012, Ohrid, Macedonia, M-7.
An investigation of the effects of the steelmaking process on the tensile and
fracture toughness properties of the ultra high strength steel (UHSS) is
presented in this work. Three different steelmaking technologies were
performed for production an UHSS - Maraging steel with 18% Ni. Air induction
melting followed by electron beam (EB) remelting, vacuum induction melting
followed by EB remelting and vacuum induction melting followed by electric
slag remelting (ESR) were alied for steel production. Obtained steel ingots were
forged to bars and were heat treated according the standard procedure for
maraging steel as quenching followed with aging. The influence of steelmaking
procedures on basic mechanical properties and fracture toughness (KIc) as well
as dynamic fracture toughness (KId) is assessed. Steels produced by all three
steelmaking procedures show a good combination of high tensile properties and
fracture toughness. Vacuum induction melting followed by ESR showed better
operational features than the other two steelmaking procedures.
Keywords: UHSS, maraging steels, steel production, steel properties.
A. Terzić, Lj. Miličić, Z. Radojević, M. Arsenović, Lj. Pavlović, Z. AćimovićPavlović
POSSIBILTIES OF USING FLY ASH AS COMPONENT IN
COMPOSITES REGARDING TOXIC ELEMENTS LEACHING
PREVENTION
22nd Congress of Chemists and Technologists of Macedonia with international
participation, 2012, Ohrid, Macedonia, 170.
Fly ash, which is the residue from coal combustion in plants-operating-at-hightemperature, is severe hazard for the environment. The disposal of the fly ash
may pose a significant risk to the environment due to the possible leaching of
hazardous pollutants, such as toxic metals. The only economic and sustainable
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
63
solution for the pollution-prevention of the air, water and soil is the realication
of fly ash as one of the components in construction material composites. There
is a risk of leaching even when fly ash is built-in the construction composites
and the goal of this investigation was to prove that leaching concentrations of
number of toxic elements is in range assigned by actual regulations. Fly ashes
from various landfills, afterwards storage in closed silos, were alied in several
composite samples (mortar, concrete and brick) without any physical or thermal
pre-treatment. Testing composites were based on fly ash mixed with binder or
with binder and aggregate. The leachability of the potentially toxic elements
from the fly ash based products was investigated. The leaching behavior and
potential environmental impact of the 11 potentially hazardous elements was
tracked: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Ba, Sb and Se. A detailed study of
physico-chemical characteristics of the fly ash, with accent on trace elements
and the chemical composition investigation is included. Investigation of
mineralogical constituents of the fly ash is emphasized, due to the fly ash
dependence of its origin. Thermal stability of crystalline phases was
investigated with DTA. The microstructure of the fly ash and fly ash based
composites was studied by means of SEM analysis. The overall results showed
that most of the elements are more easily leachable from the fly ash in
comparison with the fly ash based composites. The leaching of investigated
toxic elements is within allowed range thus investigated fly ashes can be reused
in construction materials production.
Keywords: leaching, toxic elements fly ash, realication, construction
composites.
A. Mitrovic, M. Zdujić
ACTIVATION OF POZZOLANIC ACTIVITY OF KAOLINITE CLAY:
THERMAL AND MECHANOCHEMICAL TREATMENT
22nd Congress of Chemists and Technologists of Macedonia with international
participation, 2012, Ohrid, Macedonia, I-21, 238.
This paper compares the pozzolanic activity of metakaolin obtained by thermal
treatment and amorphous kaolin obtained by mechanochemical treatment.
Optimal thermal treatment parameters are temperature 650 °C and heating time
120 min during which pozzolanic activity of 0.45 gCa(OH)2/g Pozz is obtained.
To increase activity metakaolin was milled 5 min after which pozzolanic
64
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
activity rose to 0.70. Mechanochemical treatment was performed in a Herzog
oscillating mill for 15–120 min. The highest pozzolanic activity of 0.74 was
obtained by milling clay for 2 h.
The starting material used is Serbian kaolinite clay „Miličnica“ which is by
means of kaolinite content and loss of ignitation medium-quality raw material.
Beside kaolinite, the other main mineral constituent is quarz. According to
Aparicio-Gala’n-Ferrell - AGFI s method the clay is medium degree of
orderness.
The results indicate that both processes might be alied for obtaining reactive
pozzolana from investigated kaolinite clay. It is evident that alied
mechanochemical treatment results in higher value for pozzolanic activity,
comparable with those obtained for commercial metakaolin. Use of the
mechanochemical treatment has additional benefits, alied technology is
favourable in the view of environmental protection, and throught the lower
production cost.
Keywords: metakaolin, amorphous kaolin, calcination, mechanochemical
treatment, pozzolanic activity.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
65
4. ČASOPISI NACIONALNOG ZNAČAJA
(M50)
RAD U ČASOPISU NACIONALNOG ZNAČAJA (M51)
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Lj. Miličić, Z. Radojević, Z. Aćimović Pavlović
PROPERTIES OF REFRACTORY BONDING AGENT BASED ON
WASTE MATERIAL
Građevinski materijali i konstrukcije, 2012, No. 2. vol. 55, 47-57.
The fly ash disposal on open landfills poses significant risk to the environment.
Sustainable solution for the pollution-prevention is reuse of fly ash in building
materials. Building composites – high temperature bonding agents, in which fly
ash is combined with refractory components is new option for realication of this
waste material. In this study, investigated bonding agent was based on fly ash
mixed with high-aluminate cement. Fly ash previously underwent mechanical
activation. Mineral phase analysis of the composite by means of XRD was
accented due to the changes occurring with increasing temperature. Processes
taking place during composite thermal treatment from 20 up to 1100 ºC were
identified by means of DTA method. The leaching behavior and potential
environmental impact of hazardous elements were analyzed. Investigated fly
ash-cement composite proved to have high physico-mechanical performances,
but also good thermo-insulation characteristics. The overall results showed that
alication of the fly ash in high-temperature bonding agents is sustainable
solution for managing this environmentally hazardous waste material.
Keywords: building composites fly ash, thermo-insulation, toxic elements,
realication, building composites.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
W. Schütt, М. Drpić
NEW REGULATIONS FOR THE BUILDING SECTOR
COOPERATION BETWEEN MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND
SPATIAL PLANNING, SERBIAN SECTOR EXPERTS, SERBIAN
SECTOR ASSOCIATION AND INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUCOUNTRIES
Technics, special edition, LXVII 2012, 124 – 128.
Energy efficiency in household and buildings leads to most important energy
savings. In order to promote energy-efficient buildings, and declaration of
energy efficiency and alication of minimum requirements to energy
performance of buildings, in Serbian laws and regulatory documents will see
more changes, which leads to new laws and proposals (rules) as well as new
global aroach into field of reduction of energy consumption. Each project in this
way shall be essentially suorted by EPBD-requirements. This Directive with set
of standards must be a basis. But the technical work has to be suorted by new
ways of cooperation between the public and private sector. Organization of
problem solving was vary important. In this Project, the main objective was to
define necessary energy efficiency measures on the level of a building, in all
phases of urban planning (where alicable) and architectural designing process.
This includes: determination of technical conditions for the design of urban
systems; determination of technical conditions for the design of buildings;
determination of recommendations to be included in other building regulations
which would be affected by the need of implementation of energy efficiency in
the building practice; determination of glossary of terms regarding energy
efficiency in the field of architecture and urban planning; definition of
methodology for energy consumption calculation; definition of methodology to
arrive to planned levels. The used methodology includes identification of
relevant EU standards (i.e.: EN standards), directives and other regulatory
documents which should set criteria that should be posed and achieved in the
future EE regulations in Serbia, as well as a thorough research of present
Serbian building regulations and norms and pointing out parts that should be
changed or adjusted according to the future Serbian energy efficiency
regulations. The main technical suort was made through study tours to
institutions and industrial companies in Germany, workshops and presentations.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
67
The first three Proposals (i.e.: Rules) - drafts are: Rule on energy efficiency of
buildings; Rule on certification of buildings; Rule on certification of subjects,
which participate in certifications processes. The first draft – recast of our
standard SRPS U.J5.600, Part 1- Thermal technique and energy efficiency in
buildings – Technical conditions for the design and construction of buildings, is
prepared for Serbian Institute for Standardization (ISS – Belgrade). The final
planned deadline for all works in this Project-Phase is stated with the end of
2010.
Keywords: energy-efficient building; energy performance; minimum
requirements; EPBD-Directive; law; global aroach; energy consumption;
organization of problem solving; rule; standard.
D. Bojović, D. Nikolić, K. Janković, Lj. Lončar
EVAULATION OF AIR CONTENT ON CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH WITH CLASSICAL AROACH AND NEURAL
NETWORKS
Građevinski materijali i konstrukcije, 2012, vol. LV, No. 1, 47-54.
Many parameters influence on the characteristics of fresh and hardened
concrete. One of the most important characteristic of concrete is its porosity.
Measure the porosity of fresh concrete is measured by the amount of entrained
air. The effect of entrained air in concrete on compressive strength investigated
by many authors. On the bases these works we have two formulas alicable in
practice. Soft programming techniques especialy neural networks and the
formation of databases related to the testing in laboratories for concrete opened
up new aroaches in predicting the impact of the quantity of entrained air in
concrete on compressive strength.
S. Dević, M. Cocić
MIKROSKOPSKI PRIKAZ EROZIJE MAGHROMOTNE
VATROSTALNE OPEKE LIVNOG LONCA USLED DEJSTVA
TROSKE
Zaštita materijala, God. 3, br. 3. (2012), 221-225.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Problematika koja je tretirana u ovom radu odnosi se na objašnjenje i prikaz
erozije maghromitnih vatrostalnih opeka livnog lonca za čelik. Erozija
maghromitnih vatrostalnih opeka nastala usled dejstva troske ispitana je
primenom mikroskopske metode. Mikro snimci su rezultat mikroskopskog
ispitivanja maghromitnih vatrostalnih opeka u propuštenom svetlu. Oni jasno
prikazuju eroziju vatrostalne opeke. Na mikro snimcima se vidi postepen prodor
troske u vatrostalnu opeku, njeno destruktivno dejstvo i na kraju rušenje
strukture vatrostalne opeke.
A. Mitrović, D. Nikolić
PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND-COMPOSITE CEMENTS WITH
METAKAOLIN: COMMERCIAL AND MANUFACTURED BY
THERMAL, ACTIVATION OF SERBIAN KAOLIN CLAY
MATEC Web of Conferences 2, 01002 (2012)
http://www.matec-conferences.org/
Portland-composite cements (CEM II) were prepared with addition of 5 to 35%
of metakaolin (MK), manufactured by thermal activation/calcination of Serbian
kaolin clay, and commercial matakaolin (CMK). Performance of the composite
cements was evaluated, through the setting time (initial and final), compressive
strengths (for ages 2, 7, 28, 90 and 180 days) and soundness, and compared
with control cement (Portland cement – CEM I).
Setting time (initial and final) is accelerated in Portland-composite cements, for
both metakaolins used. The acceleration is higher in cement with addition of
commercial metakaolin.
Lower compressive strength is obtained after 2 days of curing for all Portlandcomposite cements in comparison with control cement, since pozzolanic
reaction still did not show its effect.
After 7 days, pozzolanic reaction show its effect, manifested as compressive
strength increase of Portland-composite cements with addition of up to 35% of
CMK, and 25% in the case of cements with MK.
After 28 days compressive strength was higher than that for control cement for
cements prepared with addition of CMK, and with addition of up to 25% MK.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
69
After 90 days increased compressive strength was noticed with addition of 10 20% of CMK, and with 10 and 15% of MK, while after 180 days addition of
both metakaolins influences compressive strength decrease.
The results of the soundness, 0.5 mm for CEM I, and 1.0 mm in most Portlandcomposite cements indicate soundness increase with addition of metakaolins.
Generally, better performance of Portland-composite cements was obtained
with addition of commercial metakaolin, which may be attributed to the
differences in the pozzolanic activity of the alied metakaolins, 20.5 MPa and
14.9 MPa for CMK and MK, respectively. By our previous findings pozzolanic
activity of the thermally activated clay may be increased by subsequent milling
of the metakaolin manufactured by thermal activation process.
Keywords: Portland-composite cements, metakaolin, setting time, compressive
strength, soundness.
70
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
RAD U ČASOPISU NACIONALNOG ZNAČAJA (M52)
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Z. Radojević, Lj. Miličić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović
BUILDING MATERIALS BASED ON FLY ASH AS POSSIBLE
SOLUTION FOR REDUCTION OF AIR POLLUTION CAUSED BY
EMISSIONS FROM POWER-PLANTS
Tehnika, 2012, No. 2, 311-317.
Most frequent environmental pollution sources are emissions caused by
technological processes taking place at power-plants. High production of fly
ash, the main residue in coal combustion, represents extreme hazard for the
environment. Air pollution is taking proportions that require special attention,
thus certain regulations are being imposed. The goal of the legislation is to
reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere by imposing standards for air
quality and maximum emissions from various sources. Besides regulations,
option of realication of fly ash in building materials industry is another solution
for on-going problem. Fly ash can be used as component in cement, mortar,
concrete, bricks, tiles, asphalt. Using produced fly ash capacities is sustainable
solution for saving natural resources and environmental protection, but also a
basis for designing new building materials from recycled nusproducts.
Keywords: fly ash, pollution, regulations, building materials.
J. Ćirilović, N. Vajdić, G. Mladenović, C. Queiroz
PROCENA TROŠKOVA REHABILITACIJE I REKONSTRUKCIJE U
SISTEMIMA ZA UPRAVLJANJE ODRŽAVANJEM PUTEVA
Put i saobraćaj, 2012, II, 5-13.
Prosečni jedinični troškovi radova u projektima rekonstrukcije i rehabilitacije
(RiR) puteva se značajno razlikuju među državama, ali i u okviru različitih
projekata u istoj državi, i to usled mnogobrojnih faktora. U okviru ovog rada,
formiran je model kojim bi bilo moguće predvideti troškove radova RiR u
različitim državama i koji bi mogao da se primeni u analizama u sistemima za
upravljnje održavanjem puteva na strateškom nivou i na nivou programiranja
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
71
radova održavanja. Definisan model je formiran od promenljivih koje značajno
doprinose regresiji. Izabrane su one promenljive kojima je moguće što bolje
opisati zavisnu veličinu tj. jedinične troškove RiR puteva. Dobijena regresiona
zavisnost bi mogla da bude korisna na nivou strateških analiza mreža i
optimizacija planiranih radova RiR.
Ključne reči: procena troškova, rehabilitacija i rekonstrukcije puteva, sistemi
za upravljanje održavanjem, složena regresiona analiza.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
RAD U NAUČNOM ČASOPISU (M53)
M. Arsić, S. Bošnjak, Z. Odanović, M. Mladenović, N. Milovanović
STATE ANALYSIS OF THE UER RING OF THE TURBINE RUNNER
GUIDE VANE AARATUS OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING SET
A6 ON HYDRO POWER PLANT DJERDAP 1
Energija, ekonomija, ekologija, Vol. 14, br. 1-2, 2012, 197-202.
During the refurbishment of the hydroelectric generating set A6 on H „Djerdap
1”, for the state analysis and assessment of the level and causes of degradation
of the structure of the vertical Kaplan turbine runner guide vane aaratus nondestructive tests and inspections, as well as destructive tests of base material
and welded joints, have been carried out. Results of non-destructive tests
performed on welded joints are presented in this paper (magnetic particle and
ultrasonic inspection), as well as results of destructive tests of the base material
and welded joints (testing of tensile properties, impact testing, metallographic
analyses of the structure). A large number of crack type line indications were
detected by magnetic particle inspections, while the occurrence of partial
penetration in roots of welded joints was detected by ultrasonic inspections, as
well as lamellar tearing of the base material. Tensile properties of tested
samples taken in longitudinal and transverse direction fulfilled the requirements
of the standard with certain deviations, which does not stand for samples taken
in z-direction with significantly lower values of contraction of the cross-section
than minimum prescribed values, which proves that base material is not
resistant to the occurrence of lamellar cracks. Metallographic tests performed on
specimens taken from the base material in longitudinal and transverse direction
showed that the microstructure is stripe-shaped and ferrite-pearlite with nonmetallic inclusions of oxide, sulphide, silicate and aluminate type, while
metallographic tests performed on specimens taken from welded joints showed
that their microstructure is stripe-shaped and ferrite-pearlite with non-metallic
inclusions of oxide type. On the basis of results of experimental tests the
analysis of the causes of occurrence of lamellar tearing of the base material and
crack type defects in welded joints has been carried out.
Keywords: hydro turbine, welded structure, degradation of material, crack.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
73
M. Arsić, B. Vistać, Z. Savić, Ž. Šarkočević, Z. Anđelković
DAMAGE CAUSE ANALYSIS AND REPARATION OF THE
SYNCHRONOUS VALVE CASING OF HYDROELECTRIC
GENERATING SET A1 ON HYDRO POWER PLANT PIROT
Energija, ekonomija, ekologija, Vol. 14, br. 1-2, 2012, 227-232.
Corrosion, erosion and cavitation have a significant influence on parts of
turbine and hydromechanical equipment in exploitation. The same can be said
when it comes to damaging of surfaces of the synchronous valve which is a part
of the vertical Francis turbine runner of the hydroelectric generating set A1 at H
’’Pirot’’, with nominal power of 40 MW. Casing of the synchronous valve has
been made of structural steel 422.712.5, while stiffening ribs have been made of
Cr-Ni steel 17246. Both types of steel have been produced in Czech Republic.
Conical valve seat has been surface welded with bronze. Effect of corrosion on
structural steel in high humidity conditions, because of the presence of
freshwater, causes damaging of metal due to the occurrence of initial cracks and
their propagation, which can lead to failure due to the effect of variable loads in
a short period of time. Presence of solid particles in the fluid, which occurs due
to corrosion and wearing of components, causes the surface erosion. Rate of
metal erosion depends on a large number of influential factors: dimensions of
particles, particle velocities, particle concentration, physical and mechanical
properties of particles, material that wears out etc. The most dangerous
mechanism of liquid erosion is cavitation, which comprises formation and
implosion of bubbles within the fluid. Cavitation causes the formation of
cavities, or in other words space hollowed out on the surface of metal. Process
of removal of material from the surface is called cavitation erosion, and the
resulting damage is cavitation damage. Erosion of surfaces of hydraulic
machine components exposed to the effect of cavitation can become a large
scale problem in a short while, while depths of cavities can reach up to 100 mm.
The methodological aroach to determination of the state of damaged
components of turbine and hydromechanical equipment on hydro power plants
(runner, synchronous valve, pre-turbine disc shutter, ...) is presented in this
paper through the example of the synchronous valve of the hydroelectric
generating set A1 at H ’’Pirot’’.
Keywords: synchronous valve, damage, reparation, surface welding.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
M. Arsić, B. Vistać, Z. Odanović, A. Đorđević, Z. Savić
REPAIR WELDING METHODOLOGY FOR THE TURBINE SHAFT
AT THE HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT “DJERDAP 2 WITHOUT
DISASSEMBLING THE HIDROELECTRIC GENERATING SET
Research & Development (Istraživanje i razvoj), 2012, Vol. 18, No. 3, 73-80.
Horizontal Kaplan turbines, made in Russia, were installed in 10 hydroelectric
generating units at „DJERDAP 2“. Nominal power of each is 28 MW. After
163.411 hours (aroximately 22 years) of operation, the fracture of the hydroelectric generating set A6 turbine shaft in the area of high stress concentration
occurred, at the transition radius R80 between the flange and the runner hub.
That occurrence caused the use of non-destructive testing methods (visual
inspection, dye-penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, ultrasonic testing) in
order to determine the state of welded joints and base material of all other
turbine shafts. It was established that there is a large number of surface cracks at
all shafts along the circumference, in the transition radius area, which could be
repaired through the use of the repair welding technology, although the
individual cracks were 430 mm long and 20 mm deep. Hollow turbine shafts
have been assembled by welding together 3 separate parts. Cylindrical parts
were made of steel 20GS, while the flange area of the shaft and flange itself
were made of steel 20GSL In order to extend the service life and save the time
regarding the disassembling and assembling of the turbine shaft, the repair
welding methodology without disassembling the hydroelectric generating set
has been developed. Repair welding methodology for turbine shafts, due to their
structural solution and function in exploitation, has to embrace a large number
of details, carefully consider them and, as well, ensure that their execution is
performed with high precision. If any of these details would be overlooked,
underestimated or incorrectly perceived, significant problems in turbine
operation could arise. This paper, due to specificity of the methodology used for
shaft repairing, apart from the welding technology also presents the procedure
for shaft preparation with the order of operations.
Keywords: Turbine shafts, tests, crack, repair welding methodology.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
75
5. ZBORNICI SKUPOVA NACIONALNOG
ZNAČAJA (M60)
PREDAVANJE PO POZIVU NA SKUPU NACIONALNOG
ZNAČAJA ŠTAMPANO U CELINI (M61)
D. Nikolić
OPTIMIZACIJA GREDNIH NOSAČA OD BETONA ULTRA VISOKIH
ČVRSTOĆA PRIMENOM GENETSKIH ALGORITAMA
Savremena građevinska praksa, Andrevlje, Fakultet tehničkih nauka Novi Sad,
2012, 235-251.
Beton ultra visokih čvrstoća (UHPC) poseduje izuzetno visoka mehanička
svojstva i u poređenju sa konvencijalnim betonima predstavlja superioran
materijal kako u pogledu mehaničkih svojstava, tako i u pogledu trajnosti. Da bi
se moglo predvideti ponašanje grednih nosača od UHPC, prvo su izvršena
eksperimentalna istraživanja mehaničkih svojstava samog kompozita sa 2% i
4% zapreminskog udela čeličnih vlakana. Nakon toga, četiri gredna nosača
dužine 2m su ispitana na savijanje do loma sa opterećenjem u trećinama
raspona. Dve grede su bile amirane samo mikro čeličnim vlaknima, dok su dve
grede sadržale i klasičnu armaturu. Na osnovu eksperimentalnih ispitivanja i
predloženih preporuka AFGC za UHPC, modelovano je ponašanje grednih
nosača i izvršena je optimizacija primenom genetskih algoritama (GA) prema
kritrijumu minimalne cene. U radu je takođe ukazano na odnos jedinične cene
grednih nosača od UHPC mikroarmiranih čeličnim vlaknima u odnosu na grede
koje sadrže i klasičnu ili prednapregnutu armaturu.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
SAOPŠTENJE SA SKUPA NACIONALNOG ZNAČAJA
ŠTAMPANO U CELINI (M63)
O. Vušović, I. Delić-Nikolić, B. Ivović
MINERALOŠKO-PETROLOŠKI SASTAV I TEHNIČKE
KARAKTERISTIKE STENSKE MASE SA LEŽIŠTA ČOKONJAR
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 2165-2173.
Mnoga svojstva stene su povezana sa njenim mineralnim sastavom. Takođe
tekstura, struktura i vrsta cementa ili matriksa koji povezuje zrna utiču na njene
fizičko-mehaničke karakteristike.
Ključne reči: minerali, struktura, tekstura, matriks.
I. Delić-Nikolić, B. Ivović, O. Vušović
ODREĐIVANJE POLIRANJA KAMENOG AGREGATA (PSV)
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 67-73.
Poliranje kamenog agregata je karakteristika koja određuje stepen otpornosti
krupnog kamenog agregata prema polirajućem dejstvu automobilskih guma u
uslovima sličnim onima koji se javljaju na površini puta. Uticaj automobilskih
guma na površinu puta ogleda se u uglačavanju habajuće površine, stepen
uglačanosti, odnosno ispoliranosti je jedan od glavnih faktora koji utiču na
otpornost prema klizanju.
Ključne reči: poliranje kamenog agregata, agregati za asfaltne mešavine.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
77
M. Drpić, D. Ivanišević
ZAŠTITA OD POŽARA ZIDANIH KONSTRUKCIJA U SKLADU SA
TEHNIČKOM REGULATIVOM U SRBIJI I U EVROPI
Zidane konstrukcije zgrada i tehnička regulativa, Građevinski fakultet
Univerziteta u Beogradu, 2012, 183–191.
Zaštita od požara zidanih konstrukcija u skladu sa tehničkom regulativom u
Srbiji propisana je u okviru nekoliko pravilnika i SRPS standarda. U
međuvremenu, preuzet je veliki broj EN standarda – kao SRPS EN.
Evrokodovi, u formi SRPS EN standarda, se preuzimaju. Uz njih treba da budu
izrađeni odgovarajući nacionalni prilozi.
Ključne reči: zaštita od požara; zidana konstrukcija.
M. Drpić, D. Ivanišević
MATERIJALI KOJI SE PRIMENJUJU U OBLASTI ZIDANIH
KONSTRUKCIJA ZGRADA I NJIHOV UTICAJ NA TOPLOTNU
IZOLACIJU
Zidane konstrukcije zgrada i tehnička regulativa, Građevinski fakultet
Univerziteta u Beogradu, 2012, 87–100.
Toplotna izolacija materijala koji se primenjuju u oblasti zidanih konstrukcija
zgrada u svojim osnovnim parametrima određena je postojećom tabelom
standarda SRPS U.J5.600, koja je uvršćena i u (novi) Pravilnik o energetskoj
efikasnosti zgrada. Pravilnik se poziva i na neke od SRPS EN standarda, kojima
se takođe propisuju osnovni parametri – toplotna (i parodifuzijska) svojstva
materijala i proizvoda za zidanje. Često postoji potreba za izradom Nacionalnih
priloga uz odgovarajući SRPS EN standard. Pravci za neophodna usaglašavanja
su: inoviranje – posebno za nove materijale; uspostavljanje kontrola
proizvodnje i/ili uvoza; akvizicija podataka – stvaranje baze podataka materijala
za (novi) softverski paket, oslonjen na Pravilnik. Nacionalni prilozi SRPS EN
standarda treba da budu izrađeni na bazi prethodno usvojene metodologije i po
principu neselektivnosti. Parametri treba da budu odobreni u skladu sa opštim –
propisanim nivoom pouzdanosti.
Ključne reči: materijali; zidana konstrukcija; zgrada; toplotna izolacija.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
M. Drpić, D. Ivanišević
TOPLOTNA SVOJSTVA ELEMENATA ZA ZIDANJE OD PEČENE
GLINE
Primena proizvoda od gline u izgradnji energetski efikasnih zgrada, Beograd,
2012, 47–58.
U radu se razmatraju toplotna svojstva glinenih zidarskih proizvoda u
termičkom omotaču zgrade. Daju se pravila za određivanje toplotne
provodljivosti i/ili toplotne otpornosti. Određeni građevinski proizvod može da
ima različite projektne toplotne vrednosti, saglasno planiranoj primeni.
Pokriveni su: puni elementi za zidanje, elementi za zidanje koji sadrže
oblikovane šupljine i kompozitni elementi za zidanje.
Ključne reči: toplotna svojstva, glineni proizvod, termički omotač, zgrada,
toplotna provodljivost, toplotna otpornost, projektna vrednost, zidana
konstrukcija, zidarski proizvod, planirana primena.
D. Berisavljević, N. Šušić
OSNOVE ISPITIVANJA INTEGRITETA ŠIPOVA S PRIMERIMA IZ
PRAKSE - BASIS OF PILE INTEGRITY TESTING WITH FEW CASE
HISTORIES
Građevinski materijali i konstrukcije, br. 1, Društvo za ispitivanje i istraživanje
materijala i konstrukcija Srbije, Beograd, 2012, 55-64.
U poslednjih nekoliko godina, ispitivanje integriteta ugrađenih šipova postalo je
veoma popularno na gradilištima u našoj zemlji. Pri tom, posebno mesto
zauzima zvučna metoda, „Sonic Integrity Test“ kao pouzdana, jeftina i
vremenski malo zahtevna, a namenjena ispitivanju kvaliteta izvedenih šipova. U
radu su prikazane osnove metode, teorijske postavke i nekoliko primera iz naše
prakse.
Ključne reči: SIT, integritet, šip, signal.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
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N. Šušić, D. Berisavljević
DINAMIČKO ISPITIVANJE ŠIPOVA
Simpozijum Društva građevinskih konstruktera Srbije, Vrnjačka Banja, 2012,
309-314.
U radu su opisane dve metode dinamičkog ispitivanja šipova, sonic integrity
testing (SIT) i Dynamic load testing (DLT). Osnovni zadatak DLT metode je
određivanje nosivosti šipa, zadatak SIT metode je da se odredi integritet šipa.
Ključne reči: SIT, DLT, integritet, nosivost.
M. Ćosić, Z. Aćimović-Pavlović, A. Terzić, B. Nedeljković, Lj. Pavlović
PRIMENA RHEOCASTING PROCESA ZA DOBIJANJE KLIPNIH
LEGURA POBOLJŠANIH SVOJSTAVA
IX Naučno–stručni simpozijum sa međunarodnim učešćem Metalni i nemetalni
materijali - proizvodnja – osobine – primjena, Zenica, BiH, 2012, 53-59.
U radu su prezentirani rezultati ispitivanja promene strukture nadeutektičke
Al18%Si legure dobijene klasičnim postupkom livenja, kao i primenom
mehaničkog postupka mešanja u poluočvrslom stanju - reokasting postupak.
Korišćen je mehanički postupak mešanja pločastim mešačem pri različitoj
brzini obrtanja aktivnog dela od 500; 1000 i 1500 o/min. Ispitivan je uticaj
efekata mehaničkog mešanja na strukturu legure u oblasti polučvrstog stanja.
Analiziran je uticaj brzine mešanja u intervalu od 500-1500 o/min na raspodelu
-Al čvrstog rastvora i čestica primarnog Si. Zapaženo je da primenom
brzine mešanja 1500 o/min dolazi do najbolje raspodele faza što utiče na
-Al čvrstog rastvora
primenom mešanja u poluočvrslom stanju su promenile morfologiju od
dendritne u nedendritnu. Rezultati istraživanja su pokazali da nova metoda
livenja - reokasting proces omogućava promenu strukture i svojstava klipnih
legura što će uticati na poboljšanje kvaliteta ove vrste odlivaka.
Ključne reči: reokasting proces, brzina mešanja, kvalitet odlivaka.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
T. Spasojević-Šantić, G. Dražić, Z. Radojević
BIOREMEDIJACIJA ZEMLJIŠTA ZAGAĐENOG TEŠKIM
METALIMA, 7. SIMPOZIJUM “RECIKLAŽNE TEHNOLOGIJE I
ODRŽIVI RAZVOJ
7. Simpozijum „Reciklažne tehnologije i održivi razvoj“, 7. SRTOR, Soko
Banja, 2012, 472-477.
Usled naglog industrijskog razvoja i povećane poljoprivredne proizvodnje
dolazi do kontaminacije zemljišta teškim metalima kao što su kadmijum, živa,
nikl, olovo i dr. Brojna istraživanja ukazuju na njihovu toksičnost, ponašanje u
zemljištu i ulaženje u lanac ishrane preko biljaka. Sve to utiče na smanjenje
funkcije zemljišta i onemogućavanja sposobnosti samoprečišćavanja životne
sredine. Bioremedijacija se može definisati kao biološki proces u kome se
koriste mikroorganizmi ili njihovi enzimi za vraćanje narušene životne sredine
u originalno stanje. Mikroorganizmi mogu različitim mehanizmimima vršiti
dekontaminaciju zemljišta i voda zagađenih teškim metalima. Cilj ovog rada je
da se ukaže na potrebu bioremedijacije zemljišta zagađenih teškim metalima
kako bi se izvršila revitalizacija degradiranih područja i povećala stabilnost
ekosistema.
Ključne reči: bioremedijacija, teški metali, degradirana područja.
D. Perović, T. Spasojević-Šantić
UTICAJ ISTROŠENIH BATERIJA NA ŽIVOTNU SREDINU I
ZDRAVLJE LJUDI
7. Simpozijum „Reciklažne tehnologije i održivi razvoj“, 7. SRTOR, Soko
Banja, 2012, 206-211.
Nelegalnom dekompozicijom istrošenih baterija na komunalnim deponijama
dolazi do kontinuirane kontaminacije lokaliteta u dužem vremenskom periodu.
Teški metali i ostale toksične materije iz istrošenih baterija dospevaju u životnu
sredinu (podzemne i površinske vode, zemljište, biljke, životinje) a samim tim i
u ljudski organizam. Istrošene baterije se smatraju izvorom sekudarnih sirovina
jer sadrže metale koji mogu biti reciklirani, odnosno izdvajanjem ovih metala
koji se ponovo koriste čuvaju se prirodni resursi i smanjuje se zagađenje životne
sredine. Republika Srbija nema postrojenje za reciklažu baterija, ali se započelo
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
81
sa njihovim prikupljanjem i privremenim skladištenjem radi slanja na dalji
tretman u ovlašćena postrojenja u zemlje EU. Stoga je u ovom radu posebno
naglašena potreba za uspostavljanjem organizovanog sistema upravljanja
istrošenim baterijama kako bi se smanjio negativan uticaj na životnu sredinu i
povećao procenat recikliranja.
Ključne reči: baterije, teški metali, životna sredina, zdravlje.
Z. Radojević, M. Vasić
PROIZVODI OD GLINE – ASORTIMAN, KVALITET I TEHNIČKA
REGULATIVA
Primena proizvoda od gline u izgradnji energetski efikasnih zgrada, Beograd
Srbija, 2012.
U ovom radu su razmatrani proizvodi od gline koji se izrađuju u Srbiji.
Predstavljeni su asortimani iz dve osnovne grupe proizvoda od gline: proizvodi
za preklopno pokrivanje krovova (crepovi) i elementi za zidanje od gline (opeke
i blokovi). Dat je prikaz sadašnjeg stanja i u naznakama budućeg razvoja
industrije glinenih proizvoda u Srbiji saglasno zahtevima koje postavlja
energetski efikasna gradnja i osnovni zahtevi održivog razvoja. Analiziran je
kvalitet proizvoda iz različitih pogona a ispitivanja su izvršena u skladu sa
zahtevima SRPS i EN standarda. Prikazane su karakteristike opekarskih
blokova značajne za ocenu toplotnih performansi zidova u koje se ugrađuju. U
radu je obrađena i tehnička regulativa vezana za ovu grupu proizvoda.
Ključne reči: crepovi, blokovi od gline, kvalitet, tehnička regulativa.
M. Vasić, Z. Radojević
UTICAJ BRZINE, TEMPERATURE I VLAŽNOSTI VAZDUHA NA
PROCES KONVEKTIVNOG SUŠENJA OPEKA
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 405-412.
U radu je ispitivan uticaj brzine, temperature i vlažnosti vazduha za sušenje na
proces konvektivnog sušenja opekarskih proizvoda sa ciljem izračunavanja
koeficijenata prenosa toplote i efektivnog difuzionog koeficijenta.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Eksperimentalna istraživanja su izvršena na uzorcima pločica od gline
(120x50x14mm) u laboratorijskoj recirkulacionoj sušnici za unapred definisane
vrednosti temperature (40-70 0C), vlažnosti (40-80 %) i brzine (1-3 m/s)
vazduha za sušenje. Temperature površine proizvoda kao i temperature,
vlažnosti i brzine vazduha za sušenje su registrovane u pravilnim vremenskim
intervalima (1-5 min.). Na bazi eksperimentalnih istraživanja uspostavljene su
zavisnosti kritične vlažnosti i efektivnog difuzionog koeficijenta u funkciji
temperature, vlažnosti i brzine vazduha za sušenje.
Ključne reči: Sušenje, opekarski proizvodi.
M. Vasić, M. Arsenović, Z. Radojević
USPOSTAVLJANJE REŽIMA BRZOG SUŠENJA U
LABORATORIJSKIM USLOVIMA
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 397-403.
U radu je u kratkim crtama dat prikaz opsežnog istraživanja procesa sušenja
nekoliko opekarskih sirovina sprovedenih u laboratorijskoj recirkulacionoj
sušnici. Na osnovu prikupljenih podataka projektovan je i uspešno uspostavljen
optimalni režim brzog sušenja opekarskih proizvoda. Opekarske sirovine
okarakterisane kao slabo osetljive na sušenje se ne mogu koristiti u ovom
procesu, dok su one okarakterisane kao jako osetljive adekvatne za upotrebu pri
brzom sušenju.
Ključne reči: Brzo sušenje, opekarski proizvodi, osetljivost na sušenje.
M. Vasić, Z. Radojević
USPOSTAVLJANJE OPTIMALNOG REŽIMA SUŠENJA U
INDUSTRIJSKIM USLOVIMA
4th International Conference Civil Engineering – Science and Practice, Žabljak,
Crna Gora, 2012, 413-420.
U radu je u kratkim crtama na primeru šupljeg bloka sa horizontalnim
šupljinama dimenzija 190x250x190mm, dat prikaz istraživanja optimalnog
procesa sušenja u industrijskim uslovima. Istraživanja su sprovedena u
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
83
komornim sušnicama tipa „Caeleti“ jednog renomiranog domaćeg proizvođača
opeke. Za prikupljanje eksperimentalnih podataka korišćeni su rezultati merenja
određenih parametara procesa sušenja koji su očitani pomoću fiksnih /
ugrađenih mernih sondi koje pripadaju sušnici i pokretnog CeryDry „Data
loggera“ koji služi za kontinualno registrovanje: Temperature, relativne
vlažnosti i linearnog skupljanja proizvoda. Na osnovu prikupljenih podataka
projektovan je i uspostavljen optimalni režim sušenja opekarskih proizvoda.
Ključne reči: Sušenje, opekarski proizvodi, komorna sušnica.
G. Ćirović, S. Mitrović, K. Janković, D. Nikolić
OPTIMIZACIJA FRP/AB GREDA PRIMENOM KUKU PRETRAGE
XXXIX SYMOPIS, Visoka građevinsko-geodetska škola, Tara, 2012, 159-162.
U radu je prikazana primena „Kuku“ pretrage (Cuckoo Search-CS), nove
metaheurističke metode optimizacije sa jedinstvenim karakteristikama i u
kombinaciji sa Levy-jevom raspodelom verovatnoće(Levy flights). Razmatran
je problem optimalnog dimenzionisanja i ojačanja grednog nosača sa FRP
materijalima opterećenog na savijanje. Analizirana je inicijalna jedinična cena
grednog nosača za različite vrednosti momenta savijanja, a potom i cena
primene FRP materijala pri povećanju eksploatacione odnosno granične
nosivosti za 15%. Ojačanje grede za 15% povećanja opterećenja povećava
jediničnu cenu utroška materijala čak i preko 300%.
D. Berisavljević, N. Šušić, M. Joka
KONTROLA KVALITETA ŠIPOVA „SIT“ METODOM-PRIMERI IZ
PRAKSE
Pola veka na putevima, Novi-Pazar – put, Novi Pazar, 2012, 257-261.
Rad ukazuje na značaj kontrole kvaliteta izvedenih šipova SIT metodom
prikazom nekoliko slučajeva iz prakse. U radu su data ograničenja i oprema za
ispitivanje integriteta šipova SIT (Sonic integrity test) metodom.
Ključne reči: SIT, integritet, šip, signal.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
M. Živanović, N. Šušić, K. Božić-Tomić
NEOPHODNOST PROJEKTANTSKOG NADZORA NAD
IZVOĐENJEM SANACIJE KLIZIŠTA
Pola veka na putevima, Novi-Pazar – put, Novi Pazar, 2012, 255-256.
U našoj zemlji postoji mnogo klizišta (prema nepreciznim procenama 35.00036.000). U dnevnim novinama i stručnoj literaturi se pominju samo najveća, pri
čemu se njihova veličina meri brojem ili značajem ugroženih - srušenih
objekata ili veličinom površine pokrenute zemljane mase. Sa ostalim klizištima
je upoznat mnogo uži krug ljudi, bilo da su to meštani koji žive u blizini ili na
klizištu, ili stručnjaci koji imaju zadatak da projektuju ili izvode njegovu
sanaciju.
Periodično, posle dugih perioda kišnih padavina i/ili topljenja snega sa
odmrzavanjem i zamrzavanjem što prouzrokuje vodozasićenje zemljanih masa,
istovremeno se formira više klizišta u područjima izloženim ovim padavinama.
Poslednji takav period je zabeležen 2005.-2006. godine. Mnogi putni pravci su
tada bili na više deonica suženi ili čak i prekinuti, a mnoga domaćinstva su
pretrpela velika oštećenja. Ne treba naglasiti koliko je, posebno u ovim
okolnostima, hitno saniranje klizišta i povratak u redovno stanje.
M. Arsić, M. Mladenović, D. Jaković, Z. Kovačević, Z. Savić
OTPORNOST NA LOM POKLOPCA RADNOG KOLA TURBINE NA
HIDROELEKTRANI ĐERDAP 1
XVIII Konferencija o međulaboratorijskim ispitivanjima materijala, Užice, Bela
Zemlja, 2012, 42-46.
Mehaničke osobine materijala predstavljaju samo polaznu osnovu za ocenu
otpornosti na lom poklopca radnog kola turbine agregata A6 na hidroelektrani
Đerdap 1, izrađenog od čeličnog liva 20GSL. Za ocenu njegovog integriteta i
procenu veka neophodno je izvršiti i proračun čvrstoće (analitički, numerički)
na osnovu naponskog stanja i u nekim slučajevima eksperimentalna ispitivanja
parametara mehanike loma. U radu su dati rezultati analize hemijskoog sastava,
merenja tvrdoće i metalografskih ispitivanja u uzdužnom i poprečnom preseku
dva uzorka, isečenih iz epruveta ispitanih zatezanjem u Centralnoj laboratoriji
fabrike LMZ (Sankt Peterburg, Rusija). Utvrđeno je da hemijski sastav ispitanih
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
85
uzoraka odgovara zahtevima standarda GOST 977/88, da tvrdoće po Vikersu
(HV10) i po Brinelu HB 2,5/7500/20", kao i mikrotvrdoće po Vikersu (HV1)
odgovaraju definisanim Tehničim uslovima, ali da oba uzorka imaju dendritnu
mikrostrukturu, koja može da dovede do loma.
Ključne reči: čelični liv 20 GSL, mehaničke osobine, otpornost na lom.
A. Terzić, Lj. Pavlović, Z. Radojević, Lj. Miličić, N. Mijatović, Z. AćimovićPavlović
INVESTIGATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE INDUCED PROCESSES
IN FLY ASH BASED COMPOSITES USING DTA METHOD
7th Symposium“Recycling Technologies and Sustainable Development“ with
international participation, Soko Banja, Srbija, 2012, 17-23.
Ispitivana su visoko-temperaturno otporna veziva na bazi otpadnih materijala.
Pripremljne su dve kompozitne mešavine: prva je sadržala 70 % standardnog
Portland cementa i 30 % letećeg pepela dobijenog sagorevanjem uglja, a druga
70 % visoko-aluminatnog cementa i 30 % letećeg pepela. Leteći pepeo je
prethodno podvrgut mehano-aktivaciji. Reakcije dehidratacije i termička
svojstva materijala su praćena od trenutka dodavanja vode (pri mešanju
komponenti) do temperature na kojoj bi materijal bio normalno u funkciji.
Termičke promene i sinterovanje kompozita na bazi letećeg pepela su praćeni
metodom diferencijalne termičke analize (DTA) pri brzini zagrevanja of 10
˚C/min. Pri tome temperature je povećavana od 20 do 1100 ˚C. Primećeno je da
dodatak letećeg pepela utiče na sniženje temperature sinterovanja, ali ne menja
odličnu termičku otpornost kompozita.
Ključne reči: DTA, leteći pepeo, termička svojstva, cement, reciklaža.
V. Aleksić, B. Vistać, Lj. Milović
ISPITIVANJA TURBINSKIH VRATILA U FUNKCIJI DONOŠENJA
ODLUKE O SANACIJI, 2
Održavanje 2012, Zenica, BIH, 2012, 73-80.
Nakon preko 20 godina rada agregata na HE Đerdap II, u cilju utvrđivanja
stanja turbinskih vratila izvršena su detaljna ispitivanja metodama IBR. Na svim
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
vratilima utvrđene su površinske prsline različitih dužina i dubina, po čitavom
obimu vratila, u zoni prelaznog radijusa, između cilindričnog dela vratila i
velike prirubnice. Na jednom vratilu je utvrđena i prolazna prslina kroz koju je
curilo ulje iz sistema regulacije. Materijal velike prirubnice sa mesta
procurivanja je iskorišćen za izradu epruveta i mehanička ispitivanja radi
utvrđivanja uzroka nastanka prolazne prsline na turbinskom vratilu.
Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata i analiza pristupilo se izradi tehnologije sanacije
vratila bez njihove demontaže. Do sada je uspešno sanirano 5, a u narednom
periodu planira se sanacija još 3 vratila, dok su 2 zamenjena novim.
M. Vasić
PRIKAZ METODA ZA IZRAČUNAVANJE EFEKTIVNOG
KOEFICIJENTA DIFUZIJE PRI SUŠENJU GLINENIH PROIZVODA
50. Savetovanje Srpskog hemijskog društva, 2012, Beograd, Srbija.
U prošlosti a u nekom stepenu i današnjici, mnoge operacije sušenja su bile više
zasnovene na praktičnom, iskustvenom znanju u odnosu na teorijski dostupna
saznanja. U savremenom svetu, široko je prihvaćeno mišljenje da je nemoguće
efikasno osušiti proizvode od gline bez posedovanja kompletnih i preciznih
ispitivanja kako fizičko-hemijskih parametara same glinene sirovine tako i
mehanizama transporta vlage unutar oblikovanih proizvoda. Složeni procesi
istovremenog prenosa mase i energije, koji su često nestacionarnarnog
karaktera, kao i različita priroda i osobine materijala (higroskopnost,
kapilarnost, distribucija i veličina pora, pojava skupljanja prilikom sušenja i
prslina prilikom sušenja glina i drugih keramičkih materijala) još više
komplikuju opis načina procesa sušenja. Zbog toga jedinstvena teorijska
postavka sušenja, koja bi univerzalno opisala ovaj proces za različite tipove
glinenih materijala još uvek nije razvijena. Proces difuzije, posmatran kao
transport materije usled nasumičnog kretanja molekula, je svojstven za sušenje.
Tranfer vlage unutar čvrstog tela na određenoj temperaturi, obavlja se usled
različitog sadržaja vlage u unutrašnjosti i na površini čvrstog tela. Brzina
masenog transfera čistom difuzijom je prema tome proporcionalana gradijentu
koncentracije sadržaja vlage, pri čemu difuzioni koeficijenat predstavlja faktor
proporcionalnosti. Poznavanje difuzivnosti vlage proizvoda je ključno za proces
simulacije i optimizacije procesa sušenja. Difuzivnost vlage je kompleksna i
sistemski specifična funkcija koju pored čiste difuzije, karakteriše i postojanje
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
87
drugih, sekundarnih tipova unutrašnjeg masenog prenosa, kao što su površinska
difuzija, Knudsenova difuzija kapilarni tok, isparavanje i kondenzacija,
termodifuzija idr. koji u određenom manjem iznosu utiču na sveobuhvatni
proces prenosa mase. Proces difuzije je najčešće najdominantniji transportni
mehanizam prilikom sušenja opekarskih proizvoda1. Njegov matematički opis
se karakteriše relativno jednostavanom i opšte poznatom jednačinom drugog
Fikovog zakona. Opis celokupnog transporta vlage prilikom sušenja opekarskih
proizvoda može se matematički opisati na isti način kao i proces čiste difuzije, s
tim što se umesto koeficijenta difuzije uvodi efektivni koeficijenat difuzije, koji
predstavlja zbirnu konstantu proporcionalnosti u zakonu difuzije, i koji u sebi
sadrži sve moguće transportne mehanizme prenosa vlage kroz opekarski
proizvod. U literaturi se srećemo sa malim brojem radova u kojima se razmatra
proces sušenja samo keramičkih, odnosno glinenih materijala. Tako je
Efremov2, proučavajući sušenje cigli, dao analitičko rešenje diferencijalne
jednačine difuzije sa graničnim uslovima u formi fluksa. Nadovezujući se na ta
istraživanja M. Vasić i saradnici3 su razvili model sušenja na osnovu
modifikacije Efremove jednačine i kompjuterski program za određivanje
efektivnog koeficijenta difuzije. Chemki i Zagrouba4 su ispitivali proces
sušenja glina, a njihov doprinos se ogleda u izučavanju uticaja difuzionih
koeficijenata, određenih na osnovu izgleda krivih sušenja, na proces sušenja. F.
Zagrouba i saradnici5 su razvili model sušenja, pokušavši da opišu objedinjeni
toplotni i maseni prenos, kao i deformacije koje nastaju prilikom sušenja
pločastih uzoraka od gline. U njihovom radu je dat i prikaz načina određivanja
vrednosti koeficijenta prenosa toplote i efektivnog koeficijenta difuzije. Zanden
i Kerkhof6 su izvršili obimna istraživanja izotermskog transporta mase
mehanizmima difuzije, isparavanja i kondenzacije, prilikom sušenja glinenih
proizvoda. U radovima Skansija i saradnika7 date su osnove „fitovanja“
eksperimentalnih podataka sušenja glinenih crepova pomoću tankoslojnih
modela, kao i određivanja efektivnog koeficijenta difuzije, koeficijenta preosa
toplote i konstante sušenja.
A. Kostić, V. Radak, M. Vasić
INDUSTRIJA GLINENIH PROIZVODA
XXXIX simpozijum o operacionim istraživanjima SYM-OP-IS, Beograd, 2012,
167-170.
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U radu je prikazana proizvodnja glinenih proizvoda koji se izradjuju u Srbiji,
kao grana industrije koja ostvaruje dinamički razvoj. Fokusirali smo se na uticaj
regulative na proizvodnju sledećih proizvoda od gline: puna cigla, šuplja cigla,
fasadna cigla, šuplji blokovi, monta blokovi i uložna cigla, zatim na ukupnu
proizvodnju, kao i uticaj regulativa na prodaju ovih proizvoda na drugim
tržištima. Primenom matematičkih modela u domenu vremenskih serija
napravićemo projekciju proizvodnje za naredni period.
Ključne reči: Proizvodi od gline, dekompozicija vremenske serije, deskriptivna
statistika, test tačaka zaokreta,normalnost vremenske serije.
V. Jokić, A. Đorđević, J. Ćirilović
ASFALTNE MEŠAVINE SA DODATKOM GRANULATA
RECIKLIRANE GUME PO “SUVOM” POSTUPKU – AKTUELNA
ISKUSTVA
7. Simpozijum „Reciklažne tehnologije i održivi razvoj“, 7. SRTOR, Soko
Banja, 2012.
Granulat gume može biti upotrebljen u proizvodnji asfaltnih mešavina ili kao
modifikator bitumenskog veziva („mokar“ proces), ili kao zamena za odreneni
procenat kamenog agregata („suvi“ proces). U radu je dat opis “suvog”
postupka proizvodnje asfaltnih mešavina sa osvrtom na aktuelna iskustva kod
nas i u svetu. Takone su prikazani rezultati laboratorijskih ispitivanja
prethodnog sastava asfaltne mešavine sa dodatkom granulata reciklirane gume
po “suvom” postupku koja je proizvedena i ugranena 2011.godine na sportskim
terenima OŠ “Dragan Lukić” na Novom Beogradu.
Ključne reči: „suv“ proces, asphalt mixture, granulat gume.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
89
SAOPŠTENJE SA SKUPA NACIONALNOG ZNAČAJA (M65)
M. Arsić, B. Vistać, Z. Odanović, V. Milčić, Z. Savić
METODOLOGIJA SANACIJE OŠTEĆENJA UNUTRAŠNJIH
POVRŠINA KRIVAJA LOPATICA USMERNOG APARATA TURBINE
A4 NA HIDROELEKTRANI ĐERDAP 1
Zavarivanje 2012, Divčibare, 8.
U toku revitalizacije agregata A4 na hidroelektrani Đerdap 1, u cilju utvrđivanja
stanja tubine izvršena su eksperimentalnim ispitivanjima metodama bez
razaranja svih njenih delova. Tako su utvrđena oštećenja i prsline na
unutrašnjim površinama krivaja lopatica usmernog aparata. Krivaje su izrađene
od čeličnog odlivka oznake 25L. U radu je data metodologija sanacije
oštećenjih unutrašnjih površina krivaja lopatica usmernog aparata.
Metodologijom sanacije krivaja je, zbog njihovog konstrukcijskog rešenja i
funkcije u eksploataciji, trebalo veliki broj detalja precizirati, pažljivo razmotriti
i koordinisano izvršiti u cilju sigurnosti za njihovo ponovno korišćenje, jer
ukoliko se samo neki od njih previde, podcene ili nepravilno sagledaju mogu
nastati značajni problemi u radu kompletne turbine.
Ključne reči: hidroturbina, krivaja, oštećenja, metodologija sanacije.
M. Arsić, D. Karišić, M. Mladenović, B. Vistać, Z. Savić
PRIMENA ISPITIVANJA BEZ RAZARANJA ZA TEHNIČKU
DIJAGNOSTIKU STANJA I PROCENU INTEGRITETA TURBINSKEI
HIDROMEHANIČKE OPREME
IBR 2012, Divčibare, 8.
Tehnička dijagnostika u slučaju turbinske i hidromehaničke opreme treba da se
zasniva na određenim procedurama ispitivanja, istoriji upotrebe turbinske i
hidromehaničke opreme hidroelektrana uz ekspertsko poznavanje konstrukcije i
uslova rada, kao i analizi rezultata tima stručnjaka sa odgovarajućim iskustvom
i znanjem iz oblasti projektovanja, konstruisanja, eksploatacije, održavanja,
pouzdanosti, mehanike loma i dr. Degradacija osobina materijala i/ili zavarenih
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spojeva konstrukcija i delova turbinske i hidromehaničke opreme hidroelektrana
izazvana je istovremenim uticajem velikog broja tehnološko - metalurških,
konstrukcijskih i eksploatacijskih faktora. U radu je dato više primera gde su
ispitivanja bez razaranja omogućila utvrđivanje uzroka degradacije osnovnog
materijala ili zavarenih spojeva i identifikujaciju elementa neophodnih za
ekspertsko odlučivenje o metodologiji koju treba primeniti za revitalizaciju
delova turbinske i hidromehaničke opreme (reparaturno zavarivanje, primena
novih materijala i tehnologija i izmena postojećih konstrukcionih rešenja) da bi
se unapredile njihove tehničke karakteristike i produžio radni vek
hidroagregata.
Ključne reči: hidroturbina, ispitivanja bez razaranja , degradacije osnovnog
materijala, integritet konstrukcija.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
91
6. DOKTORSKE DISERTACIJE
I MAGISTARSKI RADOVI (M70)
ODBRANJENA DOKTORSKA DISERTACIJA (M71)
D. Nikolić
PRIMENA GENETSKIH ALGORITAMA U OPTIMIZACIJI GREDA
OD BETONA VISOKIH I ULTRA VISOKIH ČVRSTOĆA SA ASPEKTA
NOSIVOSTI NA SAVIJANJE I SMICANJE
Fakultet tehničkih nauka Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, 2012.
Istraživanja u okviru doktorske disertacije su pokazala da potencijalna
opravdanost primene betona ultra visokih čvrstoća direktno zavisi od uspešnosti
procesa optimizacije. U okviru eksperimentalnog rada dobijen je cementni
kompozitni materijal sa čvrstoćom pri pritisku većom od 200 MPa, spravljen sa
komercijalnim komponentnim materijalima dostupnim na domaćem tržištu.
Na osnovu prikazanih odnosa granične nosivosti i jedinične cene grednog
nosača primećuje se da povećan udeo čeličnih vlakana povećava mehanička
svojstva UHPC, ali i dalje nedovoljno da bi mogla prihvatiti značajnije
vrednosti opterećenja bez primene konvencijonalnog načina armiranja.
U okviru eksperimentalnog rada prikazano je ponašanje greda od UHPC
opterećenih na savijanje. Nakon dostizanja vrednosti čvrstoće pri zatezanju u
najudaljenijem donjem vlaknu grede, pojavile su se prsline upravne na pravac
dejstva zatežuće sile. Time je pokazano da UHPC u grednim nosačima ima
sposobnost redistribuiranja napona unutar grede sve do pojave višestrukih
prslina i čupanja vlakana iz cementne matrice.
Na nosivost grede opterećene na savijanje utiče sadržaj čeličnih vlakana, ali bez
primene klasične armature ili prethodnog naprezanja ne mogu se prihvatiti
velika opterećenja. Primećeno je da sadržaj čeličnih vlakana znatno manje utiče
na veličinu elastičnih deformacija u odnosu na izraženu vrednost krajnjih
deformacija. Nosivost hibridnog preseka sa jednom trećinom visine od UHPC u
donjoj zoni je odstupala za samo 15% u odnosu na gredu V2 spravljenu sa
mešavinom US2Sf4.
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Na osnovu prikazanih odnosa granične nosivosti i jedinične cene grednog
nosača pokazano je da povećan udeo čeličnih vlakana povećava mehanička
svojstva UHPC, ali i dalje nedovoljno da bi mogla prihvatiti značajnije
vrednosti opterećenja bez primene konvencijonalnog načina armiranja. Izražena
je višestruko veća nosivost pri primeni prednapregnute armature. Generalni
zaključak je da primena UHPC bez primene prethodnog naprezanja kod grednih
nosača nije ekonomski prihvatljiva.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
93
7. PATENTI, AUTORSKE IZLOŽBE (M90)
REALIZOVANI PATENT, ARHITEKTONSKO,
GRAĐEVINSKO ILI URBANISTIČKO AUTORSKO DELO
(M92)
Ž. Kara-Pešić, P. Napijalo, G. Petrović
RASKLAPAJUĆA PRENOSIVA JEDINICA ZA STANOVANJE, RAD,
POSLOVANJE, TRGOVINU, RAZNE USLUGE I SL.
Pronalazak se odnosi na rasklapajuću prenosivu jedinicu-kuću za
stanovanje, rad, poslovanje, trgovinu i sl. koja se sastoji od dva zglobno
spojena pod-kontejnera, odnosno dva osnovna dela, i različitih manjih
pokretnih delova, koji su tokom transporta međusobno fiksirani u jedan
monolitni veliki kontejner. Jedinica je izgrađena od metalnog skeleta i
lake obloge. Pored toga što je uslov efikasnog utovara/istovara, lakoća
elemenata dopušta njihovo rasklapanje i dovođenje u definitivan položaj
pomoću radne snage koja nije snabdevena posebnim alatima, niti je za
potrebne operacije posebno obučavana.
Pronalazak rešava problem lake prenosivosti (kako težinski, tako i
dimenziono) svim raspoloživim sredstvima transporta više od pedeset
kvadratnih metara korisne površine; brzog postavljanja na mesto,
stavljanja pod krov i priključivanja na infrastrukturu (tokom jednog
radnog dana); prevazilaženja oskudnog raspona svih poznatih
kontejnerskih jedinica za boravak i svedene mogućnosti da se u tako
tesnom prostoru razvije funkcija kojoj je namenjen, uveća upotrebna
vrednost i organizuje dugotrajno korišćenje.
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8. ORGANIZACIJA NAUČNO-STRUČNIH
SKUPOVA
MEĐUNARODNI NAUČNO-STRUČNI SKUPOVI
Istraživanja u oblasti građevinskih materijala i konstrukcija
Međunarodna konferencija povodom obeležavanja 60 godina rada DIMK
Srbije
Građevinski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu, svečana sala, 19.10.2012.
Organizator skupa: Institut IMS
Suorganizator:
Društvo za ispitivanje i istaživanje materijala i konstrukcija (DIMK) Srbije
Društvo za ispitivanje i istraživanje materijala i konstrukcija Srbije je nastavilo
rad ranijeg društva JUDIMK koje je nastalo iz Saveza jugoslovenskih
laboratorija (SJL). Savez jugoslovenskih laboratorija je osnovan u Beogradu
1952. godine. Ove godine se navršava 60 godina uspešnog rada i tim povodom
je DIMK Srbije donelo odluku da obeleži ovu godišnjicu organizovanjem
jednodnevne međunarodne konferencije.
Na konferenciji su eminentni predavači po pozivu prezentovali dostignuća i
rezultate najnovijih istraživanja u oblasti materijala i konstrukcija zemalja
regiona – sa prostora bivše Jugoslavije. Takođe, prezentovani su i pravci daljih
istraživanja i razvoja novih materijala i konstrukcija u narednom periodu.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
95
Treće naučno-stručno međunarodno savetovanje
„Zemljotresno inženjerstvo i inženjerska seizmologija“
Divčibare, 22-24.5.2012.
Organizator skupa: Institut IMS
Suorganizatori:
Savez građevinskih inženjera Srbije, Beograd
Društvo za zemlljotresno inženjerstvo Srbije, Beograd
Saobraćajni institut CIP, Beograd
Vujić Valjevo
Naša zemlja spada u seizmički aktivna područja, pa se pri projektovanju i
građenju objekata različite namene moraju primeniti propisi i metodologije
kojima se obezbeđuje njihova seizmička otpornost. U tom smislu, u prvom
redu, potrebno je korstiti adekvatne ulazne podatke koji zavise od lokalnih
uslova terena i seizmičnosti pojedinih područja, a zatim i adekvatne metode
projektovanja i građenja. U tom smislu koriste se informacioni sistemi, baze
podataka, zapisi i iskustva iz dogođenih zemljotresa i tehnički propisi i
preporuke pojedinih udruženja. Sada je veoma aktuelno prilagođavanje naših
tehničkih propisa Evropskim normama – Evrokodovima EN 1998 iz 2004.
godine.
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DOMAĆI NAUČNO-STRUČNI SKUP
SA MEĐUNARODNIM UČEŠĆEM
Primena proizvoda od gline u izgradnji energetski efikasnih zgrada
Institut IMS, svečana sala, 27.4.2012.
Organizator skupa: Institut IMS
Suorganizatori:
Udruženje savremene industrije glinenih proizvoda (SIGP), Beograd
Društvo za ispitivanje i istaživanje materijala i konstrukcija (DIMK) Srbije
Zgrade u kojima je osnovni materijal opeka su najzastupljenije kako u prošlosti
tako i u savremenoj građevinskoj praksi. Materijal proizveden na bazi gline je
ekološki načistiji materijal, što sa aspekta zdravlja omogućava kvalitetno
življenje u tako izgrađenim objektima. Veoma važan aspekt u izgradnji objekata
je toplotna i i zvučna izolacija. Danas ciglarska industrija Srbije nudi proizvode
različitih oblika i dimenzija sa malim koeficijentom toplotne provodljivosti.
Njihova primena i kvalitetna ugradnja, uz preduzimanje ostalih mera, doprinosi
racionalnoj potrošnji energije pri eksploataciji zgrada.
Radove za ovaj skup pripremili su afirmisani stručnjaci i naučni radnici iz naše
zemlje i inostranstva. Savetovanje prevashodno ima cilj da se projektantima i
ugrađivačima ukaže kako primenom opeka, blokova i crepa, kao prirodnog
materijala, u izgradnji zgrada može da se dobije kvalitetan i siguran objekat sa
aspekta življenja, što podrazumeva kvalitetnu zaštitu od požara, dobru zvučnu i
toplotnu izolaciju, to jest energetski efikasnu zgradu.
Skup je okupio i vodeće proizvođače opeke, blokova i crepa, projektanske kuće
i građevinska preduzeća koja izvode radove na izgradnji objekata gde se
primenjuju navedeni proizvodi.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
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9. NAGRADE I PRIZNANJA
N. Šušić, D. Rakić
SANACIJA KLIZIŠTA UGRADNJOM GEO-STENTOVA
(GEO-STENTS TO STABILIZE LANDSLIDES)
32. International Exhibition of Inventions, New Technologies, Design and
Nations Cup of Young Innovation, 2012, Beograd.
Srebrna medalja sa likom Nikole Tesle, Pronalazaštvo, 2012, Beograd
Savez pronalazača i autora tehničkih unapređenja Beograda
Klizišta zahtevaju svestrano proučavanje i istraživanje. Vrsta i obim
proučavanja i istraživanja klizišta se prilagodjavaju veličini klizišta, opasnosti i
šteti koju ona izazivaju. Pri rešavanju problema sanacije klizišta primenjuju se
različita projektna rešenja. Izbor projektnog rešenja ne zavisi samo od uzroka
klizanja, već i od tehničkih i ekonomskih mogućnosti izvodjenja sanacionih
radova. U poslednje vreme ekonomski faktor postaje sve dominatniji pri izboru
i izvodjenju mera sanacije.
Da bi se sprečilo dalje klizanje terena potrebno je nekim merama povećati otpor
tla, tj. ojačati zonu klizne površi. Ugradnjom novih geo-konstruktivnih
elemenata, tj. geo-stentova postiže se ovaj efekat.
Geo-stent je novi geo-konstruktivni element koga čine dva dela: valjkasti
prstenovi i ispuna prstenova. Geo-stent se ugradjuje tako što se tehnikom
bušenja postavljaju kontinualni valjkasti prstenovi (betonski, čelični i sl.) u zoni
iznad i ispod klizne površi. Zatim se šupljina prstenova popunjava sa betonom,
drobljenim agregatom ili šljunkom. Na ovaj način postiže se da se krutom
konstrukcijom, geo-stentom, preseče klizna površ i time prihvati sila klizanja i
prenese se u stabilno tlo ispod klizne površi. Geo-stentovi su ugradjeni i
zarobljeni u tlo samo u zoni klizne površi (npr. po 2 m iznad i ispod klizne
površi).
Suština ugradnje geo-stentova je da oni prihvate sile klizanja i prenesu ih na
stabilno tlo ispod klizne površi i na taj način ojačaju zonu klizne površi. Za
razliku od standardnih načina sanacije klizišta gde ojačanje tla i konstrukcija se
radi za celo tlo, od klizne površi pa do površine terena, geo-stentovi su
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
konstrukcije i ojačanja tla samo u zoni klizne površi. Na taj način troši se
mnogo manje materijala i rada pri izvodjenju sanacionih mera, pa samim tim su
i troškovi mnogo manji.
Landslides need to be thoroughly researched and studied. The type and volume
of research and study of a landslide will be adjusted to its size, threat and the
damage it may cause. Designs for slide stabilisation may be different as related
not only to the cause but also to the technical feasibility and economic
practicability. The selection of the works and their construction is increasingly
depending on the economic factor.
A landslide will be prevented by increasing the soil resistance or strengthening
the zone of the sliding surface. This effect may be accomplished by
incorporation of new geo-structural elements, the geo-stents.
Geo-stent is a new geo-structural element composed of tube-rings and filling.
The tube-rings, or short cylindrical (concrete, steel or the like) units, are
incorporated in a bored hole through the zone above and beneath the sliding
surface, and then filled with concrete, crushed aggregate or gravel. This rigid
structure, geo-stent, through the sliding surface is receiving the sliding force and
transferring it into the stable soil under the sliding surface. Geo-stents are
incorporated and captured only in the sliding surface zone (for example, two
above and two under the sliding surface).
The function of geo-stents is essentially in receiving the sliding forces and
transferring them into stable soil under the sliding surface, thus reinforcing the
weak sliding zone. Unlike the conventional soil stabilizations, designed to
strengthen the whole mass of soil from the sliding to the ground surface, geostents are constructions and soil reinforcement in the sliding surface zone alone.
They use less material and labour and thus are more cost-effective.
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
10. NAUČNI PROJEKTI
FINANSIRANI OD STRANE
MINISTARSTVA PROSVETE I NAUKE
Ev.
broj
Naziv projekta
Tehnološki razvoj
35002
Razvoj novih metodologija
revitalizacje turbinske i
hidromehaničke opreme
hidroelektrana u zavisnosti od
uzroka degradacije materijala
Dr Miodrag Arsić,
rukovodilac projekta
Dr Vencislav Grabulov
Dr Zoran Odanović
Nebojša Milovanović
36014
36017
35011
Geotehnički aspekti istraživanja
i razvoja savremenih tehnologija
građenja i sanacija deponija
komunalnog otpada
Dr Nenad Šušić,
rukovodilac projekta
Istraživanje mogućnosti primene
otpadnih i recikliranih materijala
u betonskim kompozitima, sa
ocenom uticaja na životnu
sredinu, u cilju promocije
održivog građevinarstva u Srbiji
Dr Aleksandra Mitrović
Integritet opreme pod pritiskom
pri istovremenom delovanju
zamarajućeg opterećenja i
temperature
Mr Dejan Momčilović
Mr Ksenija Đoković
Dušan Berisavljević
Dr Ksenija Janković
Dragan Nikolić
Dragan Bojović
Ljiljana Lončar
Mr Vujadin Aleksić
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
35006
Održivost i unapređenje
mašinskih sistema u energetici i
transportu primenom
forenzičkog inženjerstva, eko i
robust dizajna
Dr Miodrag Arsić
35029
Razvoj metodologija za
povećanje radne sposobnosti,
pouzdanosti i energetske
efikasnosti mašinskih sistema u
energetici
Mr Dejan Momčilović
35040
Razvoj savremenih metoda
dijagnostike i ispitivanja
mašinskih struktura
Željko Flajs
Integralni projekti
45008
Razvoj i primena
multifunkcionalnih materijala na
bazi domaćih sirovina
modernizacijom tradicionalnih
tehnologija
Dr Zagorka Radojević
Dr Anja Terzić
Milica Arsenović
Miloš Vasić
Ljiljana Miličić
Ivana Delić
Osnovna istraživanja
186010 Minerali Srbije: sastav, struktura, Dr Snežana Dević
geneza, primena i doprinos
održanju životne sredine
172005 Uticaj nano i mikrostrukturnih
konstituenata na sintezu i
karakteristike savremenih
kompozitnih materijala sa
metalnom osnovom
Dr Zoran Odanović
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
174004 Mikromehanički kriterijumi
oštećenja i loma
Dr Vencislav Grabulov
172057 Usmerena sinteza, struktura i
svojstva multifunkcionalnih
materijala
Dr Anja Terzić
101
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
103
ODABRANE
STRUČNE
REFERENCE
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Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
ODABRANE
STRUČNE REFERENCE
U ovom odeljku dat je pregled ključnih usluga koje je Institut IMS izvršio u
2012. godini. U skladu sa multidisciplinarnom organizacijom Instituta, usluge
obuhvataju izradu investiciono-tehničke dokumentacije, ispitivanja na terenu i u
laboratorijama, stručni nadzor nad izvođenjem radova, studije, ekspertize i
drugo u praktično svim oblastima građevinarstva i energetike. Pregled referenci
dat je po organizacionim celinama.
CENTAR ZA MATERIJALE
R.b. Referenca
Laboratorija za kamen i agregat
1.
Laboratorijsko ispitivanje u cilju realizacije geoloških istraživanja
ležišta kamena, šljunka i peska
2.
Ispitivanje istorijskih maltera (Viminacijum, Pećka Patrijaršija)
3.
Brojne analize kamena i kamenog agregata
4.
Ispitivanje uzoraka sa fasade zgrade Narodnog muzeja u Beogradu
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
105
106
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Laboratorija za građevinsku keramiku
5.
Elaborat o oceni kvaliteta opekarske sirovine sa ležišta Crvenačka
kosa ciglane IGM Jedinstvo, Crvenka
6.
Studija o oceni kvaliteta opekarske sirovine, definisanje parametara
procesa proizvodnje opekarskih proizvoda u ciglani u Srpskom
Miletiću
7.
Studija o utvrđivanju prirode i uzroka defekata na vidnoj površini
keramičkih pločica sa fasade građevinskog objekta Banja komerc u
Aranđelovcu
8.
Veštačenje za Privredni sud u Somboru – Nalaz sa mišljenjem o
količini zemlje koja je utrošena za proizvodnju opekarskih proizvoda u
periodu 2006 - 2009. godina u jednoj domaćoj ciglani
9.
Veštačenje za Viši sud u Somboru – Nalaz sa mišljenjem o količini
pune opeke koja može da se proizvede od definisane količine zemlje u
konkretnoj ciglani (nizak nivo tehnologije i opreme)
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
107
Laboratorija za beton
10.
Početni nadzor fabrike i fabričke kontrole proizvodnje za SC
Europrefabricate, Temišvar, Rumunija
11.
Prethodna ispitivanja, kontrola kvaliteta betona i sastavnih delova
betona na izvođenju radova na projektu: Obilaznica oko Beograda,
deonica Dobanovci-Bubanj Potok, za Energoprojekt-Niskogradnja,
Beograd
12.
Kontrola kvaliteta betona na RTB Bor, za EnergoprojektVisokogradnja , Bor
13.
Kontrola kvaliteta betona na mostu preko reke Pek u selu Miljevići za
Ingrap-omni, Valjevo
14.
Pomoćni nadzor za praćenje betonskih radova na rehabilitaciji
postojećih mostova na deonici Paraćin – Straža od km 742+289 do km
766+358, za JP Putevi Srbije
15.
Isptivanja sastavnih delova betona i betona za betonsku bazu u
Preševu, na deonici Autoputa Levosoje-granica BRJ Makedonija,
Putevi Užice
16.
Projekat betona za objekat MHE Ljuti Do, za Energy & Construction
Park
17.
Projekat betona za objekat Centralno postrojenje za prečišćavanje
otpadnih voda Vrbas i Kula u Vrbasu, za Millennium team, Vrbas
18.
Projektovanje betonskih mešavina za objekat Drumsko - železnički
most (Žeželjev most), Novi Sad, za TKK, Srpenica, Slovenija
19.
Naknadno utvrđivanje kvaliteta betona u konstrukciji za objekat Javna
garaža Zaječar, za Kolubara
20.
Naknadno utvrđivanje kvaliteta betona u konstrukciji za objekat Hotel
Grand, Kopaonik za MK Mounteen Resort
108
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
21.
Naknadno utvrđivanje kvaliteta betona u konstrukciji za objekat
Kompleks FCC Rafinerija nafte Pančevo, za Steel Plus
22.
Proizvodna sposobnost fabrike betona za Lafarge beton, Zemun
23.
Završne ocene kvaliteta betona za objekte izvedene u Srbiji za firmu
Širbegović grupa – GMT Konstrukcije, Gračanica, BiH
24.
Završne ocene kvaliteta betona za montažnu konstrukciju poslovnog
objekta Proma factory LOT 3, Kragujevac, za IMP Balkan
25.
Elaborat o tehničkom nadzoru u procesu proizvodnje prefabrikovanih
konstruktivnih elemenata za montažnu konstrukciju poslovnog objekta
Inveco Dztech, Niš, za IMP Balkan
26.
Kontrola kvaliteta betona na projektu Most Zemun-Borča, za China
Road and Bridge Corporation – Serbia
Laboratorija za akustiku i vibracije
27.
Monitoring buke i akustično zoniranje na području grada Pančeva
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
109
110
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
CENTAR ZA METALE I ENERGETIKU
R.b. Referenca
Investitor
1.
PD HE Đerdap d.o.o.
Ispitivanje i ocena stanja turbinske i
hidromehaničke opreme agregata A4
IBR (VT, VTδ, MT, PT UT, RT, HT,
Replika)
HE Đerdap 1,
Kladovo
IR (mehaničko-tehnološke osobine, hemijski
sastav, metalografija)
Prijem opreme i kontrola tehničke
dokumentacije hidroagregata i generatora u
fabrikama u Srbiji i inostranstvu
Izrada tehnologije zavarivanja, izbor
elektrode i ispitivanje metala šava,
ispitivanje za WPS
procena preostalog veka
konsalting usluge
2.
Reparacija – popravka prelaznog radijusa
turbinskih vratila A5
Reparaturno zavarivanje turbinskog vratila
Kaplan turbine, sa IBR ispitivanjem (VT,
VTδ, MT, PT, UT, HT, Replika)
3.
Ispitivanje bez razaranja na tekućem i
interventnom održavanju postrojenja
PD HE Đerdap d.o.o.
HE Đerdap 2,
Negotin
PD TE Nikola Tesla
d.o.o., ogranak B
Ušće
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
111
112
4.
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Ispitivanje i ocena stanja turbinske i
hidromehaničke opreme agregata A1 i A2
PD HE Đerdap d.o.o.
HE Pirot, Pirot
IBR (VT, VTδ, MT, PT UT, RT, HT,
Replika)
Ispitivanje i ocena stanja dovodnog
cevovoda
5.
Ispitivanje metala metodama sa i bez
razaranja opreme i parovoda
PD TE Nikola Tesla
d.o.o.,
IBR (VT, VTδ, MT, PT, UT, RT, HT,
Replika)
TE Kolubara A, Veliki
Crljeni
IR (mehaničko tehnološke osobine, hemijski
sastav, metalografija)
Prijem opreme i kontrola tehničke
dokumentacije
6.
Usluge ispitivanja metala sa i bez razaranja
– Panpnske termoelektrane i toplane – Novi
Sad
Kontrol Inspekt d.o.o.
Beograd
7.
Ispitivanje metala bez razaranja na terenu i
ispitivanje metala sa razaranjem za potrebe
TERMOELEKTRANE „B“ i KOPA
DRMNO u 2012 god.
PD TE KO Kostolac
d.o.o.,
Parovodi B1 i B2 (RA, RB, RC), napojna
voda (RL), međupovezni parovodi (MP1MP2 i P2-P3)
IBR (VT, VTδ, MT, PT, UT, RT, HT,
Replika)
IR (mehaničko tehnološke osobine, hemijski
sastav, metalografija)
TE Kostolac B,
Kopovi, Drmno
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
113
114
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
8.
IBR (VT,MT,PT, UT) i nadzor pri
zavarivanju pri izradi donjeg prstena
usmernog aparata agregata A5 za HE
Đerdap 1
DSD Noell – Vircburg,
Nemačka
9.
Ispitivanje metodama bez razaranja opreme
rotornih bagera i ispitivanje metodama sa
razaranjem po dostavljenom uzorku na PK
Drmno
PD TE KO Kostolac
d.o.o.,
TE Kostolac A,
Kostolac
IBR (VT, VTδ, MT, PT, UT, RT, HT,
Replika)
IR (mehaničko tehnološke osobine, hemijski
sastav, metalografija)
Prijem opreme i kontrola tehničke
dokumentacije
10.
Kontrolisanje metodama IBR
(VT,MT,PT,UT) i IR (mehaničkotehnološke osobine) pri izradi lopatica
radnog kola i lopatica usmernog aparata
agregata A4 u Litostroju, Ljubljana,
Slovenija
PD HE Đerdap d.o.o.,
HE Đerdap 1, Kladovo
11.
Kontrolisanje metodama IBR
(VT,MT,PT,UT) i IR (mehaničkotehnološke osobine) pri izradi turbinskog
poklopca agregata A4 u Bruno Presezzi-u,
Milano, Italija
PD HE Đerdap d.o.o.,
HE Đerdap 1, Kladovo
12.
Utvrđivanje stanja račve A6 cevovoda na
HE Perućica
EP CG, HE Perućica,
Nikšić, Crna Gora
IBR (VT, MT, PT, UT, RT), IR (mehaničkotehnološke osobine)
procena preostalog veka
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
115
CENTAR ZA PUTEVE I GEOTEHNIKU
Odeljenje za geotehniku
R.b. Referenca
1.
Ispitivanje šipova opitom statičkog probnog
opterećenja na lokacijama:
Most Zemun – Borča,
naselja StepaStepanović i Nanocentar u
Beogradu
2.
Ispitivanje Integriteta šipova metodom
SIT-a na lokacijama:
Žeželjev most u N.Sadu, naselja Stepa
Stepanović, dr Ivana Ribara, obilaznica oko
Beograda,
3.
Investitor
Fundament, Deneza M,
PMC Inženjering,
Energoprojekt, Ratko
Mitrović Dedinje, SET
Šabac, Napred,
Gradina, Grading
Deneza M, Geosonda,
PMC Inženjering,
Grading, Exing b&p,
RatkoMitrović
niskogradnja,
Dilatometarska ispitivanja na lokacijama:
odlagalište PK Tamnava – Istočno polje,
Vetropark Plandište,
RB Kolubara d.o.o.
4.
Geotehnička ispitivanja i izrada geotehničke
dokumentacije za potrebe izgradnje Trafo
stanica u Srbobranu i Smederevu
Elektromreža Srbije
5.
Geotehnička ispitivanja i izrada Geotehničke
dokumentacija za potrebe izgradnje
kompleksa Ikea na B.Kosi – Novi Beograd
6.
Geotehnička dokumentacija analize
stabilnosti padine za potrebe izgradnje Plaza
centra u Beogradu
MK Fintel wind
Mašinoprojekt
Leisure group
116
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Odeljenje za projektovanje
6.
Veštačenje o tehničkoj ispravnosti i
ispunjenosti uslova za upotrebu izvedenog
objekta, I faza radova Auto-put E-70/E-75
Obilaznica Beograda deonica DobanovciBubanj Potok: Sektori 1,2 i 3
JP Putevi Srbije
7.
Veštačenje o tehničkoj ispravnosti i
ispunjenosti uslova za upotrebu izvedenog
objekta, I faza radova Auto-put E-70/E-75
Obilaznica Beograda deonica DobanovciBubanj Potok: Sektor 4
JP Koridori Srbije
8.
Tehnička kontrola glavnih projekata druge
faze radova Auto-put E-70/E-75 Obilaznica
Beograda deonica Dobanovci-Bubanj Potok:
Petlja Orlovača, Petlja Petlovo Brdo i Sektor
3 zona mosta
JP Putevi Srbije
Odeljenje za nadzor i terenska ispitivanja
9.
Nadzorna asfaltna i geomehanička
laboratorija na rehabilitaciji magistralnog
puta M-5, deonica Paraćin - Zaječar
JP Putevi Srbije
10.
Nadzorna asfaltna i geomehanička
laboratorija na izgradnji autoputa E-80,
deonica: Niš-Dimitrovgrad
Eptisa
11.
Stručno-tehnički nadzor na održavanju,
rekonstrukciji i izgradnji lokalnih i
nekategorisanih puteva na teritoriji opštine
Sombor
Direkcija za izgradnju
grada Sombor
12.
Terenska asfaltna i geomehanička ispitivanja
prilikom izgradnje državnih puteva I i II
reda, lokalnih i gradskih saobraćajnica
Beogradput, Putevi
Užice,Vojput Subotica,
Kolubara Gradjevinar
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
117
118
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Laboratorija za puteve i geotehniku
13.
Laboratorijska kontrolna geomehanička Roughton international
ispitivanja i nadzor na rehabilitaciji 160 km
magistralnih puteva u Srbiji
14.
Laboratorijska geomehanička ispitivanja za
potrebe izgradnje vetrogeneratora na terenu
Vetroparkova Košava i Plandište
Građevinski fakultet
15.
Laboratorijska geomehanička ispitivanja za
potrebe izrede idejnog i glavnog projekta za
magistralni gasovod „Južni tok“ na teritoriji
Republike Srbije
Srbija gas
16.
Kontrolna geomehanička ispitivanja
pristupnih puteva mostu Zemun –Borča
China Road and Bridge
Corporation Serbia
Branch
17.
Kontrolna geomehanička ispitivanja
pristupnih puteva mostu na Adi
Vlado Baumachinen
Institut za
vodoprivredu
Jaroslav Černi
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
119
CENTAR ZA KONSTRUKCIJE
I PREDNAPREZANJE
Odeljenje za prednaprezanje
R.b. Referenca
1.
2.
Investitor
Izvršeni radovi prednaprezanja
Silos br.3 cementnog klinkera cementare
Kakanj, BIH
Radnik gradnja,
Lukavac
Nadvožnjaci i mostovi na koridoru X,
deonica Sukovo-Dimitrovgrad
Alpine d.o.o. Beograd
Bulevar Evrope u Novom Sadu
Inter-kop, Šabac
Nadvožnjaci na deonici LOT A2
Dobanovci-Batajnica
Inter-kop, Šabac
Most Obarska kod Bijeljine
PGP Graditelj,
Bijeljina
Primena sistema prednaprezanja
Instituta IMS
Sanacija mosta Gazela sa prilaznim
konstrukcijama
Mostogradnja,
Beograd
Koridor XI, deonica Ub – Lajkovac
Putevi Užice
Stambeno-poslovni objekat u Osijeku
(IMS tehnologija građenja)
Gradnja, Osijek
120
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Odeljenje za arhitektonsko i građevinsko projektovanje
R.b. Referenca
1.
Revitalizacija IMS tehnologije građenja u
pogonu Gradnja Osijek
Investitor
Gradnja Osijek
Nadzor, tehnička pomoć, obuka u
proizvodnji i u izgradnji pilot-objekta
Potvrđivanje usaglašenosti proizvedenih
elemenata sa tehničkim specifikacijama
2.
Nadzor nad izvođenjem radova
Most preko reke Pepeljuše kod
Aleksandrovca
JP Putevi Srbije
MHE Džep, Vladičin Han
NEPC, Surdulica
MHE Ljuti Dol, Bosilegrad
NEPC, Surdulica
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
121
122
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Odeljenje za sanacije
R.b. Referenca
1.
Investitor
Projekti sanacije mostova
Most na autoputu E75 preko saobraćajnice
T6 u Beogradu
JP Putevi Srbije
Most na autoputu E75 kod KBC u Beogradu
JP Putevi Srbije
Most na autoputu E75 kod Hitne pomoći u
Beogradu
JP Putevi Srbije
2.
Glavni projekat rekonstrukcije mosta Češka
ćuprij” na kanalu Bezdan – Vrbas, na
prostoru KO Bački Monoštor sa
rekonstrukcijom saobraćajnice od L-405 do
mosta i od mosta do Bačkog Monoštora
JP Putevi Srbije
3.
Pregled konstrukcije i obezbeđivanje
podataka za izradu glavnog projekta sanacije
krune kotla bloka 2 TE Kostolac
Energoprojekt-Oprema
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
123
124
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
Laboratorija za ispitivanje konstrukcija
R.b. Referenca
Investitor
1.
Ispitivanje probnim opterećenjem mosta
preko reke Zapadna Morava u Kraljevu
Putevi Užice
2.
Ispitivanje grupe ab. mostova probnim
opterećenjem u sklopu Dobanovačke petlje
Inter-kop
3.
Ispitivanje ankera antenskih stubova na više
lokacija
Kodar inženjering,
4.
Ispitivanje geotehničkih sidara u sklopu HE
Trebinje
Georad
5.
Ispitivanje grupe čeličnih mostova probnim
opterećenjem na više lokacija
Ingrap-Omni Valjevo
6.
Ispitivanje prilaznih čeličnih konstrukcija
probnim opterećenjem u sklopu mosta
"Gazela" u Beogradu
GP Mostogradnja u
restruktuiranju
7.
Ispitivanje probnim opterećenjem glavnog
raspona mosta "Gazela" u Beogradu
GP Mostogradnja u
restruktuiranju
8.
Ispitivanje ankera na zvučnim barijerama
kod Careve ćuprije
MBA Miljković
9.
Merenje težine bagera S400
Prim d.o.o Kostolac
10.
Ispitivanje rešetkastog krovnog čeličnog
nosača u okviru Aqua park-a u Bijeljini
FinalProm d.o.o
Bijeljina
11.
Ispitivanje probnim opterećenjem mosta
preko reke Zapadna Morava u Kraljevu
Putevi Užice
12.
Ispitivanje ankera konstrukcije spuštenog
plafona na Kompleksu objekata Nove USA
ambasade u Beogradu
Framaco Kolin Epik,
Beograd
Amiga, Kraljevo
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
125
126
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
13.
Ispitivanje nosećih fasadnih i krovnih
sendvič panela sa ispunom od
polyisocyanurate
Trimo inženjering,
Beograd
14.
Ispitivanje prstenaste krutosti spiralno
motanih cevi prečnika 2500mm
Krušik plastika,
Osečina
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
127
128
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
SERTIFIKACIONO TELO
R.b. Referenca
Sertifikacija proizvoda prema harmonizovanim evropskim
standardima – Redovni nadzor fabrike i fabričke kontrole proizvodnje
(FPC)
1.
ROCKWOOL ADRIATIC, Potpićan, Hrvatska
2.
URSA SLOVENIJA, Novo Mesto, Slovenija
3.
TRIMO INŽENJERING, Beograd, Srbija
4.
S.C. EUROPREFABRICATE S.R.L., Rumunija
Pregled naučnih i stručnih rezultata u 2012. godini
129
130
Institut za ispitivanje materijala a.d. Beograd
FOTOGRAFIJE
Fotografije su iz arhiva Instituta IMS.
Strana 105.
Detalj laboratorijske opreme, autor G. Petrović.
Strana 109.
Stubovi mosta Zemun – Borča u izgradnji, arhiva Laboratorije za beton.
Strana 111.
Detalj, arhiva Centra za metale i energetiku.
Strana 113.
Peskarenje, autor M. Drča.
Strana 117.
Detalj, arhiva Centra za puteve i geotehniku.
Strana 121.
IMS konstrukcija u fazi montaže u Osijeku, autor N. Milovanović.
Strana 123.
Ispitivanje konstrukcije Aqua parka u Bijeljini, autor V. Mladenović.
Strana 125.
Ispitivanje konstrukcije mosta Gazela, snimak iz helikoptera
(www.helivideo.rs).
Strana 127.
Ispitivanje konstrukcije mosta Gazela, arhiva Laboratorije za ispitivanje
konstrukcija.
Strana 129.
Ispitivanje fasadnih sendvič-panela, arhiva Laboratorije za ispitivanje
konstrukcija.
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PREGLED NAUČNIH I STRUČNIH REZULTATA