I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z VO J E VZ D Ě L ÁVÁ N Í
JAK NAUČIT ŽÁKY MLUVIT
ANEB DISKUSE, KTERÉ FUNGUJÍ
Metodická příručka
k modulu projektové výuky cizích jazyků
Tento projekt je spolufinancován Evropským sociálním fondem a státním rozpočtem České republiky.
Projektová výuka jazyků v praxi aneb učíme se trochu jinak
CZ.1.07/1.3.04/01.0005
Channel Crossings s.r.o.
OBSAH
1. Úvod...........................................................................................................................................................3
2. Diskuse v kostce ........................................................................................................................................4
3. Jak přistupovat k tématu diskuse..............................................................................................................5
4. Příprava na diskuzi.....................................................................................................................................6
5. Průběh diskuse...........................................................................................................................................7
6. Praktické příklady aktivit na rozvoj mluveného projevu ........................................................................8
7. Užitečné odkazy ......................................................................................................................................23
2
Tato metodická příručka vznikla v rámci projektu Projektová výuka jazyků v praxi aneb učíme se
trochu jinak za finanční podpory Evropského sociálního fondu a státního rozpočtu České republiky.
Příručka je určena nejen pro pedagogy základních a středních škol Středočeského kraje, ale pro
všechny zájemce z řad učitelů, kteří chtějí získat novou inspiraci pro výuku cizích jazyků a dále se
profesně rozvíjet.
Věříme, že nejen tato příručka, ale i ostatní metodické materiály pro Vás budou užitečným
pomocníkem a zdrojem nových podnětů pro výuku Vašich žáků.
Tým Channel Crossings
3
Proč vůbec používáme diskuze v hodinách cizích jazyků?
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žáci mají možnost mluvit na jiné téma než je samotná látka, kterou probírají
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dostávají šanci projevit své názory, což se jim ne vždy může podařit mimo hodinu, nebo
třeba i doma
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během takové diskuze máme šanci zjistit, jak na tom jazykově jsou tišší studenti, kteří se
běžně neprojevují
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máme šanci ukázat studentům, jak důležité je, aby vedli diskuzi a aby se naučili vyjadřovat, co
mají na srdci
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šetří nám to čas přípravy, diskuze se dobře „recyklují“ a vyžadují podstatně menší zapojení
učitele než tradiční hodina
-
prakticky vzato pak připravujeme studenty na styl zkoušení a testování, jaké se jim dostane
na středních či vysokých školách a můžeme je pak ušetřit velmi nepříjemného zážitku
-
můžeme směřovat pozornost studentů i jiným směrem než mainstreamem - možná se
začnou zajímat o témata, která nejsou až tolik diskutovaná
4
-
výběr tématu diskuze je pochopitelně stěžejní, což ale ještě neznamená, že se musí jednat o
nějaké obrovské téma „hýbající“ světem
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v případě, že se diskuze běžně v hodinách nepoužívají, je možná lepší vybrat méně zásadní
téma
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téma by mělo být studentům známé, minimálně by měli vědět, že něco takového
existuje/děje se atd.
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zároveň by ale mělo být zajímavé i pro nás, učíme se navzájem a studenti mohou velmi často
přinést zajímavý pohled na něco, co sami vnímáme zcela jednostranně
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na učiteli musí být vidět zájem o téma, jinak nemusí vůbec žádná diskuze proběhnout –
otázka motivace
5
-
nejdříve musíme vybrat téma podle typu žáků, které máme ve třídě
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nebát se „ožehavých“ témat – jsme generačně jinde a proto může náš pohled na věci být
zcela odlišný
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o tématu nemusíte vědět všechno, ale měli byste mít přehled o neaktuálnějším dění v dané
věci – studenti neočekávají, že budete v roli encyklopedie, pouze že na některé věci budete
mít svůj názor
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pokud se na to necítíte, tak se nepouštějte do „hutných“ témat – málo co člověku zkazí
náladu tak, jako tlupa teenagerů nípajících se v nějakém zásadním tématu
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mějte vždy připravené ukončovací fráze, kterými diskuzi elegantně a nenásilně ukončíte ke
spokojenosti všech zúčastněných
Délka diskuze
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samozřejmě bude záležet na tom, jaké studenty máte ve skupině
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ideální délka se pohybuje kolem deseti minut
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podle studentů můžete vyzkoušet, jak budou reagovat na oznámený časový limit – může
působit motivačně i stresově (teorie tlakového hrnce)
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pokud bude diskuze hezky probíhat a bude zajímavá, tak ji určitě neukončovat, ale oznámit
studentům, že mají dát dohromady posledních pár argumentů a ty představit
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pozor ale na long-run discussions – může dokonale otrávit pro příště
Co s jazykovou stránkou věci
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diskuze jsou skvělým prostředkem jak zjistit opravdovou jazykovou zdatnost studentů
nenásilnou (netestovací) formou a je proto dost zásadní, jak ji vyžijete
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v průběhu diskuze je lepší nezasahovat do samotné jazykové stránky, ale psát si poznámky –
a to jak o chybách, tak o zajímavých slovních spojeních, formulacích a o tom, co studenti
řekla správně
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chyby a správné formulace je zapotřebí probrat ještě ve zpětné vazbě po diskuzi v hodině
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fráze, slovní spojení a podobně je možno využít na další hodině – může z toho vzniknout
velice zajímavá hodina, ve které se studenti hodně naučí a hlavně budou mít možnost toto
využít při další diskuzi
6
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podle počtu studentů ve skupině je rozdělíme na menší skupinky, v počtu max. 4 studentů,
pokud máme ve skupince 12 lidí, je to úplně ideální situace
-
studentům představíme téma nějakou zajímavou formou... „dneska jsem četla v novinách...“,
„viděli jste včera na internetu...?“ a podobně
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po nějaké době už bude všem jasné, že bude diskusní hodina, ale to nemusí být na škodu,
nakonec diskuze mohou probíhat zcela pravidelně, a také by měly
-
studenti se rozdělí do skupin, kdy jedna bude zastávat jeden názor, druhá ideálně názor
opačný a třetí skupina bude „porota“ – budou to ti, kteří budou mít za úkol ve výsledku
rozhodnout, jestli se přiklání spíše k jednomu, nebo druhému názoru a zároveň budou mít za
úkol zaznamenávat si chyby, které uslyší (ušetří vám část práce) a sledovat zajímavé
argumenty, které pak budou muset vyzdvihnout – jde jen o to, aby se v hodině nenudili,
vzhledem k tomu, že zrovna nebudou hrát aktivní roli v dané diskuzi
-
studenti, kteří budou diskutovat, by měli mít pár minut na přípravu svých argumentů, ale
zdůrazněte, že si v tomto čase také musí připravit určité fráze, protože vy se nebudete
diskuze účastnit v roli učitele, takže tradiční „jak se to řekne“ nebude fungovat
-
ve chvíli, kdy jsou studenti připraveni diskutovat, si vylosují, kdo diskuzi zahájí – druhá
skupina musí mít připravené jak svoje argumenty, tak musí reagovat na ty, které zazní
z druhé strany – toto rozvíjí aktivní využití slovní zásoby, schopnost se vyjadřovat, kterou
potřebujeme během diskuzí trénovat
-
v průběhu diskuze byste jak vy, tak studenti měli mít pocit, že diskuze někam směřuje –
pokud se stane, že se začnete „točit v kruhu“ musíte buď zasáhnout – přijít s nějakým svým
názorem, na který budou studenti muset reagovat, nebo diskuzi ukončit
7
WHERE ARE YOU FROM
Aim: energise the Ss (students)
Focus: speaking, whole class
Time: 5 minutes
Materials: T (teacher) says: “I was born in Brno and this is the place of my birth. Could you stand in your places
of birth now? Imagine this is the map of our country, find your place.”
- Ss stand in their places, T gives a model of a short presentation about his/her place, Ss continue.
Reflection:
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physical type of activity, Ss move – energizer
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Space to all Ss given
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a quick get-to-know activity
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Suitable for any levels and ability
Variations:
Birthday line – Ss line according to the month of their birth and say a few words about how they
celebrate their birthdays.
How long does it take you to get to school? – Ss make a line according to the time they spend on
the way to school and say a few words about how they get there.
Elicit other possibilities and adaptation.
Notes:
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8
WHAT IS MY JOB
Aim: energise the Ss
Focus: speaking, whole class
Time: 10-15 minutes
Materials: cards with job titles
T sticks one card on each student’s back. T says: You have a terrible memory and you cannot
remember what job you do, ask other students to help you to find out. You can only use YES/NO
questions, but your questions are not limited. When you ask one student and the answer is YES, you
can ask another question, if the answer is NO, you have to ask another student. When you find out
what your job is, please go back to your seat.”
(Demonstrate a bad example in first or target language e.g. “Look dude, you are a cop!!!”)
Reflection
- moving around the class activity
Variations:
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Notes:
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DRILLS
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Aim: accuracy (target grammar)
Focus: speaking
Time: 5-10 minutes
Materials: pictures with famous people
Level: Elementary
T shows the pictures to students and asks about their nationality. “Is he British?” etc. Ss answer the
questions. Any supplementary questions can be asked as well, according to the level of students.
Variations:
What have they been doing? (Level: intermediate)
T shows interesting pictures of people who were obviously doing some activity before the picture
was taken (e.g. they have been running, painting, working, studying etc.). T shows the picture and
asks “What have they been doing?” Ss answer with: “They must have been (running).”
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Notes:
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OUGHTS AND CROSSES
Aim: to ensure practice of specific language items
Focus: speaking
Time: 10-15 minutes
Materials: Level: Any
T divides the class into two teams; one represents noughts (o) and the other crosses (x). T puts the
following on the board
this
never
running
their
cannot are
isn’t
play
can
The team selects the square it wishes to play for, and a member of the team has to say a sentence
using the word n that square. If the sentence is correct the square is filled with a nought or a cross,
depending in the team the player comes from.
Variations:
The game can be adapted to any language the T wishes to have practised. The squares could all
contain a question words, or modal auxiliary, frequency adverbs etc. More fun can be added if the T
brings in the game on a card and the squares are all covered. The Ss select a square which the T
uncovers, and the team has to make a sentence with whatever is underneath.
Notes:
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“Pyramid discussion” GOING TO BANGKOK
Aim: fluency
Focus: speaking
Time: 20 minutes (can be longer)
Materials: Level: any
1. All the Ss are asked to write down the ten items they would choose to have in their luggage
if they were going to stay in Bangkok for 3 weeks.
2. When all the Ss have completed their lists they are put into pairs. Each pair has to negotiate
a new list of then items. This will involve each member of the pair changing their original list
to some extent.
3. When the pairs have completed their lists, two pairs are joined together to negotiate a new
list that all four Ss can agree to.
4. Groups can now be joined together and the lists re-negotiated.
Variations:
What are the four most useful things to have with you if you are shipwrecked on a desert island?
Notes:
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ARGUMENTATION
Aim: putting forward arguments
Focus: speaking
Time: 30-40
Materials: Level: Intermediate
1. Divide the class into two even groups and give the topic of the discussion.
2. Group A thinks arguments for and group B thinks of arguments against. Each member of the
group should write down all the arguments that come up in the discussion.
3. When each group has six or seven arguments, bring everyone together again.
4. Elicit ways of disagreeing and introducing counter-arguments, for example: That’s all very
well, but what about …? I am not sure I would agree with that. Don’t you think …? If
necessary suggest some other ways yourself.
5. Pair of learners in such a way that each pair consists of a students from group A and one
from group B. They should sit facing each other, preferably across the table.
6. T tells them they will have a table tennis match, playing with arguments instead of a ball. The
subject is: Should prison be abolished? (for example)
Rules: Student A puts forward one argument from their list and student B counters with an
argument from their own list. The argument may be related to the preceding argument of the
opponent, but does not have to be. They choose the argument from their own list in any order,
and expressions for the language of discussion from the board. The pairs should work
simultaneously.
7. When the Ss have used up all the arguments from their list, do not tell them the activity is
over. Allow a free discussion to develop.
8. T reflects their discussion. Exchange the lists. (Option: rank the lists)
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Variations:
This activity is adaptable for any argumentative topic.
One way to have fun with this is to make up a bunch of cards that say agree or disagree. Each
student has to pick up a card and then the topic is read out. It is more fun to have a debate this
way because students don't have to play their true self.
Reflection:
Ss learn to discuss and parry arguments but do not feel personally responsible for them.
More topics
•
American people are friendlier than British people.
•
Classical music is the most relaxing kind of music
•
Friday is the best day of the week for going out.
•
Food that tastes good is usually bad for you.
•
Italian food is the most popular in the world.
•
Dogs make better companions than cats.
•
Females are better students than males. (or drivers)
•
Money doesn’t make you happy.
•
Reading English is more difficult than writing English.
•
People who have red cars usually drive fast and aggressively.
•
Women have a much better sense of style than men.
•
Sports are good role models for young people.
Notes:
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OVER TO YOU
Number of students: non-restricted
Time: up to one lesson
Equipment: cards for each group
Level: post-elementary and above
Focus: speaking
Preparation
Prepare a set of cards for each group: each set of cards should consist of the names of the people in
that group, repeated three of four times.
Procedure
1. Pre-teach turn-taking vocabulary with phrases such as “What do you think about this?” and
“What’s your opinion?”
2. Give each group their pile of cards and ask them to deal them out equally to all players.
3. Ask them to begin the discussion. When the first person has finished speaking, they should
select a card from their hand and lay it on the table, asking the person whose name is on the
card for their opinions on the subject.
4. As each person finishes speaking, they should take a card from their hand and invite the next
player’s opinions on the subject. If you prefer, the cards can be left face down in a pile on
the table instead of being dealt out. They can be turned up one at a time as each player
finishes speaking. If they turn up a card with their own name on it, they should put it at the
bottom of the pile and take another card.
Notes:
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15
LIKES AND DISLIKES
Number of students: non-restricted
Time: 10
Equipment: a copy with Likes and Dislikes for each student
Level: Elementary upwards
Focus: vocabulary, speaking
Each student is given a questionnaire with Likes and Dislikes after they have filled them up they
swap them with their neighbours. The teacher then asks individuals to report something about
their neighbours to the others in order to keep the students’ attention.
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Write these phrases in the correct order on the chart below to express likes and dislikes:
I don’t like I really like I quite like I really love I don’t mind
I hate I really don’t like I like I don’t really like I really hate I love
100%
+ positive
neutral
50%
- negative
0%
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CLASS RECORDS
Aim: present perfect
Focus: speaking, whole class
Time: 20 minutes
Materials: copy of the question sheet, poster size piece of paper
Level: pre-intermediate
Copy the question sheet, adding or deleting questions as necessary and cut it up so there is one
question for each student. Prepare the poster.
1. Give each student one question.
2. Ask them to go around the class and find out how many times everyone in the class had
done these things. They should keep a running total.
3. When they have all finished, collate the information and fill it on the poster. Pin the poster
up on the wall.
Find ho many time people in the group have Find out how many times people in the group
flown in a plane.
have broken their legs.
Find out how many times people in the group Find out how many times people in the group
have drunk champagne.
have been to a pop concert.
Find out how many times people in the group Find out how many countries people in the
have been in hospital.
group have visited.
Find out how many times people in the group Find out how many times people in the group
have been to London.
have won something in a competition.
Find out how many times people in the group Find out how many pets people in the group
have passed an exam.
have owned. What kind of pets?
Find out how many times people in the group
lost something valuable.
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Sample poster:
As a group we have:
flown in a plane 25 times
been in hospital 10 times
owned 16 cats 2 dogs 3 hamsters
broken our legs 3 times
passed 49 exams
won a competition 7 times
Mini-presentations
Level: Intermediate
You each have one minute to talk about the topic I give you. You must not hesitate, repeat words or
deviate from the topic. If you do, another student can challenge you and take over the topic.
Whoever is talking at the end of the minute gets a point. (You can relax the rules by, for example,
only banning repetition of nouns, or giving the talker two lives)
Pets, music, parties, TV, bears, wine, cars, grammar, London, clothes, computers, smoking,
pasta, work, the teacher, James Bond, the weather, radio, America
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PROJECT WWW - Education
Level: Intermediate
For Ss: work with another student who would like to study the same subject as you. Visit a university
or school website and print out some information.
Find out about courses, fees, entry requirements and other activities available for students.
Project WWW - Fashion
Level: all
For Ss: Write a description of someone you saw today, or an imaginary description of a famous
person you would like to meet. Then work in pairs. Student A, read the beginning of your
description. Student B, ask yes/no questions about what the person was wearing. Then swap roles.
Use the Internet to find a biography of a famous fashion designer. Make notes for a short
presentation. Bring some pictures of his/her designs you feel strongly about. Work in small groups
and show the others what you have brought and why you choose the designer.
Project WWW - Food
Level: pre-intermediate and above
For Ss: Use the Internet to search for “weird food”, e.g. insects, ugli fruit, etc. Bring a printout and
description to the next class. Is small groups, guess how to prepare and eat it.
20
Project WWW - Holiday
Level: all
For Ss: Visit a travel agent’s website and get some information about a variety of different types of
holiday. Work in small groups to choose your favourite holiday. Write at least five questions you
would want to ask before buying the holiday, e.g. Is transport provided from the airport to the
hotel?
Use the Internet to find out about holidays in the UK/USA/Australia/Ireland …
Download a map of the country. Bring the map and the holiday information to class and work in
small groups to plan an itinerary and a budget for a two-week trip.
Bring some holiday photos to class and tell the other students about them.
21
The Game of Risk
Words
past forms
general knowledge
Questions
(Synonyms)
(grammar)
(word chain)
(people)
100
200
300
400
500
800
1000
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Thinking cards:
http://www.tes.co.uk/ResourceDetail.aspx?storyCode=3002521
(Thinking Gards TES)
http://www.elkalearn2speakenglish.com/flashcards-and-role-cards.html
http://www.elkalearn2speakenglish.com/
Breakinf News English
http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/
Inside Out eLessons
http://www.macmillanenglish.com/insideout/html/New_insideout_elessons.htm
http://www.englishclub.com/
http://www.mes-english.com/games.php
http://esl.about.com/od/conversationlessonplan1/Lesson_Plans_for_Speaking_and_Conversatio
n_for_ESL_EFL_Classes.htm
Sample lesson activity FIND SOMEONE WHO
http://www.press.umich.edu/pdf/0472031651-sample.pdf
http://www.learnenglish.de
http://www.learnenglish.de/vocabulary/jobs.htm (jobs)
References:
•
SEYMOUR, D., POPOVA, M. 700 Clasroom Activities. Oxford : MacMillan, 2005. ISBN
1-4050-8001-9
•
HARMER, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. New York. Longman, 1991.
ISBN 0-582-04656-4
•
BLACK, P. et al. Assessment for Learning. Maidenhead [a.j.] : Open University Press, 2003.
ISBN 0-335-21297-2.
•
GRUNDY, P. Beginners. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-437200-6
•
CAMBBELL, C., KRYSZEWSKA, H. Learner-based Teaching, Oxford : Oxford University
Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-437163-8
•
MOON, J. Children Leanring English. Oxford : MacMillan, 2005. ISBN 1-4050-8002-7
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8. Jak naučit žáky mluvit aneb diskuse, které fungují