Time to
Practise
Velká sbírka cvičení
z anglické gramatiky
1
Slovesné jevy
Sarah Peters
Tomáš Gráf
12. Modální slovesa
Úroveň A
can (1–7); must (8–12); have to (13–15); could a may
ve zdvořilostních otázkách (16); vyjadřování nabídek
a návrhů pomocí shall (17–18)
Úroveň B
opisy be able to, be allowed to a have to v různých
časech (19–28); podmiňovací could s přítomným
infinitivem (29–30); should s přítomným infinitivem
(31–34); should v kombinaci s opisy modálních
sloves (35)
Úroveň C
can před see, hear, smell, taste, feel (36–37); vyjadřování možnosti v přítomnosti a budoucnosti pomocí
may/might (38–43); vyjadřování jistoty pomocí
must/can’t (44–47); vyjadřování pravděpodobnosti
pomocí should (48); vyjadřování možnosti, jistoty
a pravděpodobnosti: smíšené příklady (49); volba mezi
must a have to (50); be supposed to a should (51);
had better (52–53); would rather + infinitiv (54)*;
volba mezi would rather a had better (55–56)
Úroveň D
vyjadřování možnosti a jistoty v minulosti prostřednictvím may/might, must, can’t s minulým infinitivem
(57–60); could a needn’t s minulým infinitivem
(61–62); should s minulým infinitivem (63–64);
smíšené příklady užití modálních sloves s minulým infinitivem (65–67); volba mezi could a be able to (68);
volba mezi didn’t have to do a needn’t have done
(69); ought to s přítomným a minulým infinitivem
(70–71); won’t work, wouldn’t work (72–74)
Úroveň E
vyjadřování jistoty pomocí will: přítomný infinitiv (75),
minulý infinitiv (76); přípustkové věty s may/might
(77); should nahrazující konjunktiv (78); should
ve významu snad (79)
* Poznámka. Užití would rather v souvětích s dvěma podměty viz 17. kapitola Podmiňovací způsob, konjunktiv a příbuzné jevy.
Úroveň A
1. Sestavte oznamovací věty s can bez užití stažených tvarů.
a) I – help – them
f) she – not stay – here
b) Anna – choose
g) Ben – not ski – at all
c) we – ask – reception
h) you – try – it
d) they – start – tomorrow
i) Dad – come – with us
e) he – not answer – that
j) that – not be – easy
Ve kterých z utvořených vět by se dal užít stažený tvar?
”
CD2/22
k) they – not decide
l) I – phone – you – later
m) he – not use – it
n) that – happen – anytime
o) we – not leave – today
2. Poslouchejte a opakujte věty tak, že užijete stažený tvar.
Vzor: (nahrávka: I cannot come.) > I can’t come.
a) John cannot speak French.
f) She cannot sleep.
b) I cannot open it.
g) They cannot find it.
c) We cannot start yet.
h) Rob cannot drink wine.
d) She cannot show anyone.
i) Mr Jones cannot see you now.
e) I cannot watch that.
j) We cannot sit here.
3. Yes, they can. No, they can’t. Odpovězte krátce na dotazy pod jednotlivými obrázky.
a) Can John swim?
180
can (1–3)
b) Can Rita cook?
c) Can Clive tell jokes?
d) Can Gary and Gloria dance?
12. Modal verbs
Level A
can (1–7); must (8–12); have to (13–15); could and
may in polite questions (16); expressing suggestions
and offers using shall (17–18)
Level B
periphrastic be able to, be allowed to and have to in
various tenses (19–28); conditional could with present
infinitive (29–30); should with present infinitive
(31–34); should combined with suppletive forms of
modal verbs (35)
Level C
can before see, hear, smell, taste and feel (36–37);
expressing possibility in the present and future using
may/might (38–43); expressing certainty using
must/can’t (44–47); expressing likelihood using should
(48); expressing possibility, certainty and likelihood:
miscellaneous examples (49); choosing between must
and have to (50); be supposed to and should (51);
had better (52–53); would rather + infinitive (54)*;
choosing between would rather and had better
(55–56)
Level D
expressing possibility and certainty using may/might,
must and can’t with perfect infinitive (57–60); could
and needn’t with perfect infinitive (61–62); should
with perfect infinitive (63–64); miscellaneous examples
using modal verbs with perfect infinitive (65–67);
choosing between could and be able to (68); choosing
between didn’t have to do and needn’t have done
(69); ought to with present and perfect infinitive
(70–71); won’t work, wouldn’t work (72–74)
Level E
expressing certainty using will: present infinitive (75),
perfect infinitive (76); clauses of concession using
may/might (77); should in place of subjunctive (78);
should in the sense of snad (79)
* Note. For practice in using would rather in sentences with two subjects see 17. Conditional, subjunctive and related structures.
Level A
1. Form declarative sentences with can without using contracted forms.
a) I can help them.
f) She cannot stay here.
k) They cannot decide.
b) Anna can choose.
g) Ben cannot ski at all.
l) I can phone you later.
c) We can ask at reception.
h) You can try it.
m) He cannot use it.
d) They can start tomorrow.
i) Dad can come with us.
n) That can happen anytime.
e) He cannot answer that.
j) That cannot be easy.
o) We cannot leave today.
In which of your sentences might contracted forms be used?
Stažený tvar by se dal užít ve všech záporných větách, tj.: e) He can’t answer that.; f) She can’t stay here.; g) Ben
can’t ski at all.; j) That can’t be easy.; k) They can’t decide.; m) He can’t use it.; o) We can’t leave today.
2. Listen and repeat using contracted forms.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
John can’t speak French.
I can’t open it.
We can’t start yet.
She can’t show anyone.
I can’t watch that.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
”
She can’t sleep.
They can’t find it.
Rob can’t drink wine.
Mr Jones can’t see you now.
We can’t sit here.
3. Yes, they can. No, they can’t. Give short replies to the questions below the pictures.
a) Can John swim? ~ No, he can’t.
b) Can Rita cook? ~ Yes, she can.
c) Can Clive tell jokes? ~ No, he can’t.
d) Can Gary and Gloria dance? ~ Yes, they can.
can (1–3)
181
12. Modální slovesa
4. Poslouchejte otázky a odpovídejte krátce podle daných nápovědí.
Vzor: a) (nahrávka: Can we start now?) > No, you can’t.
a) no b) yes c) yes d) no e) yes f) no g) yes h) yes i) no j) no
”
CD2/23
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Can we start now?
Can Susan play tennis?
Can you imagine that?
Can you hear me?
Can Tom speak Italian?
5. Tvořte otázky s can.
a) you – wait – here – please
b) I – help – with that
c) you – teach – me – that
d) we – park – here
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
e)
f)
g)
h)
Can your parents come too?
Can I speak to Adam, please?
Can we sit down?
Can you remember that?
Can your wife drive?
Joe – play – the guitar
we – meet – outside
you – be – quiet
anyone – explain – that
i)
j)
k)
l)
you – smell – it
I – bring – a friend
Helen – speak – Czech
they – see – us
6. Doplňte can, nebo can’t a jedno z uvedených sloves. Užijte každé sloveso jen jednou.
begin
buy
decide
enjoy
give
pay
refuse
sell
show
sit
sleep
use
a) You ___________________________ fresh fruit and vegetables much more cheaply at the market.
b) If I drink coffee in the evening I ___________________________ at night.
c) Yes, you ___________________________ in euro if you want to.
d) I think it’s an offer we ___________________________.
e) I’m afraid we ___________________________ you your money back without a receipt.
f) If everyone’s ready the meeting ___________________________.
g) You ___________________________ here if it’s more comfortable.
h) But I ___________________________ it to you if I haven’t got it with me.
i) I ___________________________ which one suits me best.
j) But we ___________________________ it. It’s not ours.
k) She says you ___________________________ it if you’re very careful with it.
l) Sshh! I ___________________________ this music when you’re making all that noise.
7. Sloveso can. Přeložte.
a) Ale tomu nemůžeme věřit.
b) Nemohu uvěřit svým očím.
c) Ona umí maďarsky.
d) Můžeme se sejít po škole.
e) Můžeš mě probudit v šest?
f) Ten den nemohu zapomenout.
g) Můžu mít na sobě džíny?
h) Můžete si vzpomenout, co se stalo?
i) Můžeš mi slíbit jednu věc?
j) Jak tohle můžete poslouchat?
k) Nemůžeš něco navrhnout ty?
l) Víc než tohle nemůžeme očekávat.
m) Nemůžeš se trochu víc snažit?
n) Nemůžeš mi alespoň dát její e-mailovou adresu?
8. Co podle vás říkají tito lidé? Napište ke každému obrázku větu s must.
a)
d)
c)
b)
182
can (4–7); must (8)
e)
12. Modal verbs
4. Listen to the questions and give short replies using the given cues.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
No, you can’t.
Yes, she can.
Yes, I can.
No, I can’t.
Yes, he can.
5. Form questions with can.
a) Can you wait here, please?
b) Can I help with that?
c) Can you teach me that?
d) Can we park here?
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
e)
f)
g)
h)
”
No, they can’t.
Yes, you can.
Yes, you can.
No, I can’t.
No, she can’t.
Can Joe play the guitar?
Can we meet outside?
Can you be quiet?
Can anyone explain that?
i)
j)
k)
l)
Can you smell it?
Can I bring a friend?
Can Helen speak Czech?
Can they see us?
6. Insert can or can’t and one of the given verbs.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
You can buy fresh fruit and vegetables much more cheaply at the market.
If I drink coffee in the evening I can’t sleep at night.
Yes, you can pay in euro if you want to.
I think it’s an offer we can’t refuse.
I’m afraid we can’t give you your money back without a receipt.
If everyone’s ready the meeting can begin.
You can sit here if it’s more comfortable.
But I can’t show it to you if I haven’t got it with me.
I can’t decide which one suits me best.
But we can’t sell it. It’s not ours.
She says you can use it if you’re very careful with it.
Sshh! I can’t enjoy this music when you’re making all that noise.
7. The verb can. Translate.
a) But we can’t believe that.
b) I can’t believe my eyes.
c) She can speak Hungarian.
d) We can meet after school.
e) Can you wake me (up) at six?
f) I can’t forget that day.
g) Can I wear jeans?
h) Can you remember what happened?
i) Can you promise me one thing?
j) How can you listen to that/this?
k) Can’t you suggest something?
l) We can’t expect (any) more than that/this.
m) Can’t you try a little harder/try a bit harder?
n) Can’t you at least give me her e-mail address?
8. What do you think these people are saying? Write a sentence with must for each picture.
např./e.g.:
a) I must hurry (up)/must go/must run.
b) I must go to the dentist/must go and see the dentist.
c) I must go and wash my hands/must wash my hands.
d) I must do the washing up/must do some washing up/must wash these dishes/must wash up.
e) I must come back tomorrow/must come tomorrow.
can (4–7); must (8)
183
12. Modální slovesa
9. Přeložte. Užijte must.
a) To si musím pamatovat.
b) Musíme ho najít. A rychle.
c) Musíte také přijít.
d) Musíme se rozhodnout dnes.
e) Musíš to před nimi schovat.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
Musíme pozvat Whiteovy.
Ale musíš se to snažit pochopit.
Musíme se zase brzo sejít.
Pojď sem, Bobe. Tohle ti musím ukázat.
Ano. Vypadá to opravdu zajímavě. Musím si to někdy
přečíst.
l) Kim má v pátek narozeniny. Musím jí poslat přání.
f) Musíme se někoho zeptat.
10. Co nám přikazují tyto značky? Tvořte věty začínající You must not…
d)
c)
e)
a)
”
CD2/24
”
CD2/25
f)
b)
11. You mustn’t… Poslouchejte a měňte podle vzoru.
Vzor: (nahrávka: Don’t smoke here.) > You mustn’t smoke here.
a) Don’t tell lies.
f) Don’t bring animals in here.
b) Don’t talk in the library.
g) Don’t run on wet floors.
c) Don’t walk on the grass.
h) Don’t believe everybody.
d) Don’t park in this street.
i) Don’t talk to strangers.
e) Don’t drink and drive.
j) Don’t worry so much.
12. Must a mustn’t. Přeložte.
a) Musíš být hodná holka.
b) Nesmíš se smát.
c) Tohle musíš slyšet!
d) Tohle se už nesmí stát.
e) Nesmíš se dívat.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
Tohle prostě musíš zkusit.
Nesmějí si ničeho všimnout.
Doktor říká, že musí zůstat v posteli. [ona]
Nesmějí nás slyšet.
Vím, že nesmím odmítnout.
13. Must a have to. Poslouchejte a měňte podle vzoru.
Vzor: (nahrávka: I must go now.) > I have to go now.
a) I must phone the surgery.
b) She must leave early in the morning.
c) You must open the parcel here.
d) You must take these tablets twice a day, Mrs Smith.
e)
f)
g)
h)
I must speak to James.
She must eat more meat.
We must finish at three today.
I must think about it first.
14. Have to, has to. Přeložte.
a) Nemusíš nic říkat.
b) Ale nemusí být tak netrpělivá.
c) Ne. Nemusíš jim ukázat svůj [cestovní] pas.
d) Dnes nemusím nic dělat.
e) Nemusíte souhlasit, když nechcete.
f) Ne. Nemusíme zaplatit hned.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
Musíte mi kouřit v kanceláři?
Musí opravdu vědět všechno? [oni]
Musí to být dnes?
V kolik tam musíme být?
Proč tam musím být i já?
Proč musí o víkendu vždy pršet?
15. Doplňte nejvhodnější výraz.
a) You __________________ talk during the lecture.
A. must B. can C. mustn’t D. don’t have to
b) But it __________________ rain tomorrow. I’m playing golf.
A. can B. must C. mustn’t D. doesn’t have to
184
must (9–12); have to (13–15)
12. Modal verbs
9. Translate. Use must.
a) I must remember that.
b) We must find him. And fast/quickly.
c) You must come too.
d) We must decide today.
e) You must hide it from them.
f) We must ask someone/somebody.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
We must invite the Whites.
But you must try and understand/try to understand.
We must meet again soon.
Come here, Bob. I must show you this.
Yes. It looks really interesting. I must read it some
time.
l) It’s Kim’s birthday on Friday. I must send her a card.
10. What do these signs tell us? Write sentences beginning You must not…
a) You must not smoke here.
b) You must not use your mobile telephone (in) here.
c) You must not drive/go (too) fast here.
d) You must not drink (in) here/bring drinks (in) here.
e) You must not forget.
f) You must not stop (your car) here./Cars must not stop here.
11. You mustn’t… Listen and alter, as in the example.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
You mustn’t tell lies.
You mustn’t talk in the library.
You mustn’t walk on the grass.
You mustn’t park in this street.
You mustn’t drink and drive.
12. Must and mustn’t. Translate.
a) You must be a good girl.
b) You mustn’t laugh.
c) You must hear this!
d) That/This mustn’t happen again.
e) You mustn’t look/watch.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
You mustn’t bring animals in here.
You mustn’t run on wet floors.
You mustn’t believe everybody.
You mustn’t talk to strangers.
You mustn’t worry so much.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
You simply must try this/it.
They mustn’t notice anything.
The doctor says she must stay in bed.
They mustn’t hear us.
I know I mustn’t refuse.
”
13. Must and have to. Listen and alter, as in the example.
a)
b)
c)
d)
I have to phone the surgery.
She has to leave early in the morning.
You have to open the parcel here.
You have to take these tablets twice a day, Mrs Smith.
14. Have to, has to. Translate.
a) You don’t have to say anything.
b) But she doesn’t have to be so impatient.
c) No. You don’t have to show them your passport.
d) I don’t have to do anything today.
e) You don’t have to agree if you don’t want to.
f) No. We don’t have to pay straight away.
e)
f)
g)
h)
I have to speak to James.
She has to eat more meat.
We have to finish at three today.
I have to think about it first.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
Do you have to smoke in my office?
Do they really have to know everything?
Does it have to be today?
What time do we have to be there?
Why do I have to be there too/be there as well?
Why does it always have to rain at the weekend?
”
15. Insert the most suitable expression.
a) C. mustn’t
b) C. mustn’t
must (9–12); have to (13–15)
185
12. Modální slovesa
c) I don’t know why I __________________ do this when I’m so busy with other things.
A. don’t have to B. can’t C. can D. have to
d) There are no buses for another hour. ~ Never mind. We __________________ walk.
A. can B. must C. mustn’t D. can’t
e) You __________________ look for yours. I’ll lend you mine.
A. can’t B. don’t have to C. mustn’t D. must
f) Listen! I __________________ tell you something important.
A. can B. must C. can’t D. mustn’t
g) How does she stay so slim? ~ Perhaps she __________________ cook.
A. must B. can’t C. don’t have to D. has to
h) __________________ be quiet for a while? I’m trying to listen to the news.
A. Can you B. Must you C. Do you have to D. Mustn’t you
i) You __________________ be patient with her. She’s only a child.
A. can B. can’t C. don’t have to D. must
j) __________________ do that every morning? ~ No, fortunately not.
A. Can you B. Do you have to
C. Can’t you D. Mustn’t you
16. Přeložte zdvořilostní žádosti.
16. I. Užijte could.
a) Mohl byste pomoct?
b) Mohl byste tohle zopakovat, prosím?
c) Mohla byste to říct pomaleji?
d) Prosím vás, mohl byste počkat venku?
e) Mohla byste požádat pana Wellse?
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
16. II. Nyní užijte formální may.
k) Smím se posadit, prosím vás?
l) Smím vám o tom psát?
m) Smím otevřít toto okno?
n) Smím se zeptat proč?
o) Smím něco navrhnout?
p) Smím položit jednu otázku?
Mohl byste mi ukázat, jak se to dělá?
Mohla byste odpovědět na všechny mé otázky?
Mohl bys mě přijít navštívit?
Mohl byste to vysvětlit ještě jednou?
Mohla bych dostat šálek kávy, prosím?
17. Shall. Poslouchejte návrhy a měňte je podle vzoru.
Vzor: (nahrávka: Let’s do it now.) > Shall we do it now?
”
CD2/26
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Let’s wait a while.
Let’s watch something.
I’ll show you.
Let’s go to the theatre.
I’ll try something different.
18. Přeložte věty pomocí shall.
a) Mám vám pomoct?
b) Mám upéct koláč?
c) Mám jim zavolat?
d) Mám něco říct?
e) Mám udělat kávu?
f) Mám si to napsat do diáře?
g) Co mám dělat?
h) Koho se mám zeptat?
i) Kam to mám dát?
j) Kdy to mám vrátit?
186
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
Let’s invite Stephen and Becky.
Let’s talk about it later.
I’ll go with you if you like.
Let’s meet on Saturday afternoon.
I’ll spell that for you.
k) Mám vám poslat kopii?
l) Mám jim nabídnout něco k jídlu?
m) Necháme to tady?
n) Co jim zahrajeme?
o) V kolik začneme?
p) Kam si sedneme?
q) Zaplatíme a půjdeme, ne?
r) Půjdeme hledat něco lepšího, ne?
s) Zůstaneme dnes večer doma, ne?
t) Zapomeňme na to, ne?
could a may ve zdvořilostních otázkách (16); vyjadřování nabídek a návrhů pomocí shall (17–18)
12. Modal verbs
c) D. have to
d) A. can
e) B. don’t have to
f) B. must
g) B. can’t
h) A. Can you
i) D. must
j) B. Do you have to
16. Translate these polite requests.
16. I. Use could.
a) Could you help?
b) Could you repeat that, please?
c) Could you say it more slowly?
d) Could you wait outside, please?
e) Could you ask Mr Wells?
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
16. II. Now use the formal may.
k) May I have a seat/take a seat/sit down, please?
l) May I write to you about it?
m) May I open this window?
n) May I ask why?
o) May I suggest something?
p) May I ask one question?
Could you show me how to do it (how it’s done)?
Could you answer all (of) my questions?
Could you come and see/visit me?
Could you explain it (once) again?
Could I have a cup of coffee, please?
17. Shall. Listen to the suggestions and alter them, as in the example.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Shall we wait a while?
Shall we watch something?
Shall I show you?
Shall we go to the theatre?
Shall I try something different?
18. Translate the sentences using shall.
a) Shall I help you?
b) Shall I bake a cake?
c) Shall I phone/ring/call them?
d) Shall I say something?
e) Shall I make (some) coffee?
f) Shall I write it (down) in my diary?
g) What shall I do?
h) Who(m) shall I ask?
i) Where shall I put it?
j) When shall I bring it back/shall I return it?
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
Shall we invite Stephen and Becky?
Shall we talk about it later?
Shall I go with you?
Shall we meet on Saturday afternoon?
Shall I spell that for you?
”
k) Shall I send you a copy?
l) Shall I offer them something to eat?
m) Shall we leave it here?
n) What shall we play (for/to) them?
o) What time shall we start/begin?
p) Where shall we sit?
q) Shall we pay and go?
r) Shall we go and look for something better?
s) Shall we stay at home tonight/stay in tonight?
t) Shall we forget (about) it?
could and may in polite questions (16); expressing suggestions and offers using shall (17–18)
187
12. Modální slovesa
Úroveň B
19. Tvořte věty s be able to…
…v budoucím čase s will:
a) he – explain – everything
b) they – meet – her boyfriend – at last
c) he – not – exercise – several weeks
d) I – not – get up – morning
e) you – carry – it?
f) they – eat – all that?
…v minulém čase:
g) luckily – I – guess – the answer
h) we – stay – with – friends
i) they – not – wait – that long
j) she – not – answer – my question
k) they – leave – on time?
l) you – feel – anything?
…v předpřítomném čase:
m) I – try – it – several times
n) she – see – him – every day – this week
o) we – not – contact – him – yet
p) he – never – forget – her
q) they – find out – the truth?
r) you – book – anything – yet?
20. Opis be able to. Poslouchejte a přeformulujte podle vzoru.
Vzor: (nahrávka: I spoke to everyone.) > I was able to speak to everyone.
(nahrávka: Have you contacted them yet?) > Have you been able to contact them yet?
”
CD2/27
”
CD2/28
188
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
He didn’t hear it.
Will you find their house?
We’ve kept our promise.
They’ll finish soon.
I studied in peace all weekend.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
He hasn’t slept much in the last few days.
You won’t get there by seven.
Did they park the car nearby?
Have you looked at Tim’s e-mail yet?
Will you describe it to her?
21. Tvořte věty s be allowed to…
…v budoucím čase:
a) I – sure – we – go with – them
b) she – says – we – all – use – it
c) he – not – have – visitors
d) I – not – stay out – late – tonight
e) I – sign – it – for you?
f) when – you – use – the car?
…v minulém čase:
g) we – eat – as much – wanted
h) he – do – it – himself
i) I – not – listen
j) we – not – touch – anything
k) you – choose – the colour?
l) you – take – photographs?
…v předpřítomném čase:
m) she – always – wear – what – wants
n) we – often – leave school – early
o) I – not – do – this – before
p) she – never – use – his computer
q) you – not ever – drink – alcohol?
r) he – always – speak – his parents – like that?
22. Opis be allowed to. Poslouchejte a přeformulujte podle vzoru.
Vzor: (nahrávka: We didn’t ask.) > We weren’t allowed to ask.
a) He’ll borrow it next time.
b) I drank whatever I wanted.
c) She didn’t cross the road on her own.
d) No, the children won’t play in your study.
e) Did you drive his company car?
f) Will they choose for themselves?
g) We’ve been staying up late since the holidays started.
h) She hasn’t been smoking at the new flat.
opisy be able to a be allowed to v různých časech (19–22)
12. Modal verbs
Level B
19. Form sentences with be able to…
…in the future with will:
a) He’ll be able to explain everything.
b) They’ll be able to meet her boyfriend at last.
c) He won’t be able to exercise for several weeks.
d) I won’t be able to get up in the morning.
e) Will you be able to carry it?
f) Will they be able to eat all that?
…in the past:
g) Luckily I was able to guess the answer.
h) We were able to stay with (some) friends.
i) They weren’t able to wait that long.
j) She wasn’t able to answer my question.
k) Were they able to leave on time?
l) Were you able to feel anything?
…in the present perfect:
m) I’ve been able to try it several times.
n) She’s been able to see him every day this week.
o) We haven’t been able to contact him yet.
p) He’s never been able to forget her.
q) Have they been able to find out the truth?
r) Have you been able to book anything yet?
20. The periphrastic be able to. Listen and reformulate, as in the example.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
He wasn’t able to hear it.
Will you be able to find their house?
We’ve been able to keep our promise.
They’ll be able to finish soon.
I was able to study in peace all weekend.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
He hasn’t been able to sleep much in the last few days.
You won’t be able to get there by seven.
Were they able to park the car nearby?
Have you been able to look at Tim’s e-mail yet?
Will you be able to describe it to her?
21. Form sentences with be allowed to…
…in the future with will:
a) I’m sure we’ll be allowed to go with them.
b) She says we’ll all be allowed to use it.
c) He won’t be allowed to have visitors.
d) I won’t be allowed to stay out late tonight.
e) Will I be allowed to sign it for you?
f) When will you be allowed to use the car?
…in the past:
g) We were allowed to eat as much as we wanted.
h) He was allowed to do it himself.
i) I wasn’t allowed to listen.
j) We weren’t allowed to touch anything.
k) Were you allowed to choose the colour?
l) Were you allowed to take photographs?
…in the present perfect:
m) She’s always been allowed to wear what she wants.
n) We’ve often been allowed to leave school early.
o) I haven’t been allowed to do this before.
”
p) She’s never been allowed to use his computer.
q) Haven’t you ever been allowed to drink alcohol?
r) Has he always been allowed to speak to his parents
like that?
22. The periphrastic be allowed to. Listen and reformulate, as in the example.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
He’ll be allowed to borrow it next time.
I was allowed to drink whatever I wanted.
She wasn’t allowed to cross the road on her own.
No, the children won’t be allowed to play in your study.
Were you allowed to drive his company car?
Will they be allowed to choose for themselves?
We’ve been allowed to stay up late since the holidays started.
She hasn’t been allowed to smoke at the new flat.
periphrastic be able to and be allowed to in various tenses (19–22)
”
189
12. Modální slovesa
”
CD2/29
23. Tvořte věty s have to…
…v budoucím čase s will:
a) you – read – it – carefully
b) she – rest – a lot – more
c) I – not – cook – all – week
d) he – not – change – his – job – after all
e) we – walk?
f) and – you – give up – drink – coffee?
…v minulém čase:
g) she – say – it – in German
h) I – wear – gloves
i) he – not – ask – me – twice
j) I – not – spend – much
k) they – rush?
l) you – show – your ID?
…v předpřítomném čase:
m) I – explain – it – so many – times
n) we – change – all – our – plans
o) I – never – wait – that – long
p) we – never – answer – such – silly – questions
q) you – ever – drive – on – left?
r) you – not ever – take – antibiotics?
24. Opis have to. Poslouchejte a přeformulujte podle vzoru.
Vzor: (nahrávka: We didn’t ask.) > We didn’t have to ask.
a) We bought a new one.
f) That will be a job for Dad.
b) We’ll paint it again.
g) We didn’t change our phone number.
c) I’ve been very patient.
h) Did you work at the weekend?
d) We won’t spend too much time on it.
i) Have you ever given first aid?
e) He’s never worried about that.
j) Alice will take care of that.
25. Které české věty nejlépe odpovídají uvedeným anglickým větám?
a) She can say that.
A. To nesměla říct.
b) She had to say that.
B. To směla říct.
c) She has to say that.
C. To by mohla říct.
d) She wasn’t able to say that.
D. To se jí podařilo říct.
e) She could say that.
E. To může říct.
f) She’ll be able to say that.
F. Tohle nebude muset říct.
g) She didn’t have to say that.
G. To bude moci říct.
h) She wasn’t allowed to say that.
H. Musela to říct.
i) She’ll have to say that.
I. To říct nemusí.
j) She won’t be allowed to say that.
J. To nebude moci říct.
k) She mustn’t say that.
K. To nedovedla říct.
l) She won’t be able to say that.
L. Musí to říct.
m) She was allowed to say that.
M. Tohle nebude smět říct.
n) She was able to say that.
N. Bude to muset říct.
o) She won’t have to say that.
O. To nesmí říct.
p) She needn’t say that.
P. To říct nemusela.
”
CD2/30
190
26. Poslouchejte a vyjádřete opisem. Uveďte všechna možná řešení.
Vzor: (nahrávka: I can) > I’m able to
a) she must
g) I couldn’t
b) we can
h) they may
c) he mustn’t
i) we could
d) she can
j) I must
e) I needn’t
k) it may not
f) he can’t
l) they mustn’t
opisy be able to, be allowed to a have to v různých časech (23–26)
12. Modal verbs
23. Form sentences with have to…
…in the future with will:
a) You’ll have to read it carefully.
b) She’ll have to rest a lot more.
c) I won’t have to cook all week.
d) He won’t have to change his job after all.
e) Will we have to walk?
f) And will you have to give up drinking coffee?
…in the past:
g) She had to say it in German.
h) I had to wear gloves.
i) He didn’t have to ask me twice.
j) I didn’t have to spend much.
k) Did they have to rush?
l) Did you have to show your ID?
…in the present perfect:
m) I’ve had to explain it so many times.
n) We’ve had to change all our plans.
o) I’ve never had to wait that long.
p) We’ve never had to answer such silly questions.
q) Have you ever had to drive on the left?
r) Haven’t you ever had to take antibiotics?
24. The periphrastic have to. Listen and reformulate as in the example.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
We had to buy a new one.
We’ll have to paint it again.
I’ve had to be very patient.
We won’t have to spend too much time on it.
He’s never had to worry about that.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
That will have to be a job for Dad.
We didn’t have to change our phone number.
Did you have to work at the weekend?
Have you ever had to give first aid?
Alice will have to take care of that.
”
25. Which Czech sentence best corresponds to each English sentence?
a) She can say that. – E. To může říct.
b) She had to say that. – H. Musela to říct.
c) She has to say that. – L. Musí to říct.
d) She wasn’t able to say that. – K. To nedovedla říct.
e) She could say that. – C. To by mohla říct.
f) She’ll be able to say that. – G. To bude moci říct.
g) She didn’t have to say that. – P. To říct nemusela.
h) She wasn’t allowed to say that. – A. To nesměla říct.
i) She’ll have to say that. – N. Bude to muset říct.
j) She won’t be allowed to say that. – M. Tohle nebude smět říct.
k) She mustn’t say that. – O. To nesmí říct.
l) She won’t be able to say that. – J. To nebude moci říct.
m) She was allowed to say that. – B. To směla říct.
n) She was able to say that. – D. To se jí podařilo říct.
o) She won’t have to say that. – F. Tohle nebude muset říct.
p) She needn’t say that. – I. To říct nemusí.
26. Listen and express using periphrastic forms. Give all possible answers.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
she has to (she’s got to)
we’re able to, we’re allowed to
he’s not allowed to
she’s able to, she’s allowed to
I don’t have to (I haven’t got to)
he’s not able to, he’s not allowed to
I wasn’t able to, I wasn’t allowed to
they’re allowed to
we were able to, we were allowed to
I have to (I’ve got to)
it’s not allowed to
they’re not allowed to
”
periphrastic be able to, be allowed to and have to in various tenses (23–26)
191
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
12. Modální slovesa
27. Vyberte nejvhodnější variantu.
a) You don’t have to / must continue. I know what you’re going to say.
b) You needn’t / must accept that. There will never be a better offer.
c) You needn’t / have to add any other ingredients. Just warm it up.
d) You mustn’t / don’t have to admit that you were wrong. But couldn’t you at least say you’re sorry?
e) I know she’s the boss, but you mustn’t / don’t have to agree with her.
f) As a parent you needn’t / mustn’t allow such behaviour. It’s simply wrong.
g) When the teacher asks you a question you must / mustn’t always try to answer.
h) But if you’re taking these tablets you must / needn’t avoid drinking. It could be dangerous.
i) You must / needn’t worry. Everything will be alright.
j) You needn’t / not have to go to the library. I can lend you mine.
k) You mustn’t / needn’t say a word to anyone. This is between you and me.
l) Yes, we’ll have to / must invite the Browns as well.
m) You don’t have to / mustn’t cook. I’ll be happy with something cold.
n) We mustn’t / must be late, or they won’t let us in.
o) I really must / don’t have to try and drink less coffee. Five cups a day is too much.
28. Přeložte. Užívejte opisné tvary modálních sloves.
a) Nesměl se hýbat.
b) Musel jsem zavřít oči.
c) Co jim budeš muset říct?
d) Nepodařilo se mi zamluvit stůl.
e) Brzy budeme muset skončit.
f) Jak dlouho už umíš řídit?
g) Ještě jsem se jich nemohl zeptat.
h) Proč musel prodat svou sbírku?
i) Bude nám moct někdo poradit?
j) Ale tak mladá ses vdávat nemusela.
k) Nebudu se tam moct dostat před šestou hodinou.
l) Proč nesměla tancovat s Mattem?
m) Musel jsi někdy zavolat na policii?
n) Nemohli tu situaci změnit.
o) Nikdy jsem nemusel pracovat tak tvrdě jako teď.
p) Nebudou tam smět nic postavit.
q) Bez jejich instrukcí jsme nemohli začít.
r) Budu muset odmítnout, i když to nabídnou.
s) Celou dobu jsem ho musel držet za ruku.
t) Budeme si tam smět vzít psa?
u) Nikdy jsem ho nedokázala milovat tolik, jako on miluje mě.
v) Jak dlouho už smíš užívat auto rodičů?
w) Museli jste si od nich někdy něco objednat?
x) Směl své rodině telefonovat jen jednou za měsíc.
y) Nikdy jsem se žádným klukem chodit nesměla. Toto je poprvé.
z) Nebudu moct upéct Samovi koláč, když nemám vajíčka.
29. Ve kterých větách se užívá could(n’t) jako tvar minulého času?
a) Perhaps you could take them to a concert or a jazz club.
b) We all did what we could.
c) Could you say that again? I didn’t hear you.
d) Marge couldn’t hide the smile on her face, although she tried very hard.
e) I’m not surprised they couldn’t do anything to help.
192
opisy be able to, be allowed to a have to v různých časech (27–28); podmiňovací could s přítomným infinitivem (29)
12. Modal verbs
27. Choose the most suitable option.
a) You don’t have to continue. I know what you’re going to say.
b) You must accept that. There will never be a better offer.
c) You needn’t add any other ingredients. Just warm it up.
d) You don’t have to admit that you were wrong. But couldn’t you at least say you’re sorry?
e) I know she’s the boss, but you don’t have to agree with her.
f) As a parent you mustn’t allow such behaviour. It’s simply wrong.
g) When the teacher asks you a question you must always try to answer.
h) But if you’re taking these tablets you must avoid drinking. It could be dangerous.
i) You needn’t worry. Everything will be alright.
j) You needn’t go to the library. I can lend you mine.
k) You mustn’t say a word to anyone. This is between you and me.
l) Yes, we’ll have to invite the Browns as well.
m) You don’t have to cook. I’ll be happy with something cold.
n) We mustn’t be late, or they won’t let us in.
o) I really must try and drink less coffee. Five cups a day is too much.
28. Translate. Use the periphrastic forms of modal verbs.
a) He wasn’t allowed to move.
b) I had to close my eyes.
c) What will you have to tell them/have to say to them?
d) I wasn’t able to book/reserve a table.
e) We’ll have to finish/stop soon.
f) How long have you been able to drive?
g) I haven’t been able to ask them yet.
h) Why did he have to sell his collection?
i) Will anyone/someone be able to advise us?
j) But you didn’t have to get married/didn’t have to marry so/that young.
k) I won’t be able to get there before six o’clock.
l) Why wasn’t she allowed to dance with Matt?
m) Have you ever had to phone the police?
n) They weren’t able to change the situation.
o) I’ve never had to work as hard as now.
p) They won’t be allowed to build anything there.
q) We weren’t able to begin without their instructions.
r) I’ll have to refuse, even if they offer (it).
s) I had to hold his hand all the time/hold his hand the whole time.
t) Will we be allowed to take the/our dog (there)?
u) I’ve never been able to love/I was never able to love him as much as he loves me.
v) How long have you been allowed to use your parents’ car?
w) Have you ever had to order anything from them?
x) He was allowed to phone/ring/call his family only once a month./He was only allowed to phone/ring/call his
family once a month.
y) I’ve never been allowed to go out with a boy before. This is the first time.
z) I won’t be able to bake Sam a cake if I haven’t got (any) eggs.
29. In which sentences is could(n’t) used as a past form?
ve větách/in sentences: b), d), e), h), j)
periphrastic be able to, be allowed to and have to in various tenses (27–28); conditional could with present infinitive (29)
193
12. Modální slovesa
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
I feel we could wait a few more days, but what do you think?
Could you try to find it, please?
She couldn’t wait for their last holiday to end.
Could I lift that for you?
What a long walk! I could hardly feel my feet.
30. Přeložte věty s podmiňovacím could.
a) Mohlo by se to stát znovu.
b) Mohl bys být aktivnější.
c) Mohli bychom pěstovat rajčata.
d) Jednoduše by to mohlo stát víc.
e) Nemohlo by to být lepší.
31. Tvořte věty s should.
kladné:
a) they – be – sorry
b) we – believe – him
c) you – relax – more
d) we – wrap – the presents
e) you – think – first
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
Mohl bys mi to zazpívat?
Mohlo by to být důležité?
Kam bychom mohli pověsit tenhle obraz?
Nemohlo by to být překvapení?
Cožpak bys nemohl chvíli sedět v klidu?
záporné:
f) it – not – matter
g) they – not – mind – that
h) you – not – encourage – him
i) you – not – kiss – animals
j) we – not – need – that much time
tázací:
k) why – I – stop?
l) what – we – do?
m) who – we – ask?
n) I – tell – him?
o) you – not – wait – a while?
32. What should they do? Vymyslete vhodné komentáře k obrázkům. Užijte should(n’t).
a)
c)
b)
d)
e)
33. Poslouchejte a tvořte k větám z nahrávky komentáře. Vybírejte si z daných údajů a užívejte should.
Vzor: a) (nahrávka: I’ve got an awful headache.) > D. You should go and lie down, then.
A. you – apologize
D. you – go and lie down
G. you – not listen
J. you – explain it to her again
”
CD2/31
194
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
B. you – not – have a beer
E. you – try them on
H. you – not tell anyone
C. you – not – turn around
F. you – go and see a doctor
I. you – go and see her
L. you – take your umbrella with you
K. you – hurry up
I’ve got an awful headache.
I’ve had this sore throat for weeks.
It’s going to rain.
I’m going to be late.
Barbara just doesn’t understand the problem.
I was rude to them.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
I don’t know if they’ll fit me.
My best friend’s in hospital.
Someone’s following me.
I know a secret.
Liza and Bob are having an argument.
I’m driving home tonight.
podmiňovací could s přítomným infinitivem (30); should s přítomným infinitivem (31–33)
12. Modal verbs
30. Translate these sentences with conditional could.
a) It could happen again.
b) You could be more active.
c) We could grow tomatoes.
d) It could easily cost more.
e) It couldn’t be better.
31. Form sentences with should.
positive:
a) They should be sorry.
b) We should believe him.
c) You should relax more.
d) We should wrap the presents.
e) You should think first.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
Could you sing it to/for me?
Could it be important?
Where could we hang this picture (up)?
Couldn’t it be a surprise?
Couldn’t you sit still for a while?
negative:
f) It shouldn’t matter.
g) They shouldn’t mind that.
h) You shouldn’t encourage him.
i) You shouldn’t kiss animals.
j) We shouldn’t need that much time.
interrogative:
k) Why should I stop?
l) What should we do?
m) Who should we ask?
n) Should I tell him?
o) Shouldn’t you wait a while?
32. What should they do? Provide a suitable commentary for each picture using should(n’t).
např./e.g.:
a) He should drive more slowly./He should slow down./He shouldn’t go so fast.
b) He should eat less./He should try eating less./He shouldn’t eat so much.
c) He should give up smoking./He shouldn’t smoke so much.
d) She should go to bed./She should sleep more.
e) He should tidy up./He should do some tidying up./He should tidy (up) his room.
33. Listen and comment on the sentences you hear using the given information and should.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
D. You should go and lie down, then.
F. You should go and see a doctor, then.
L. You should take your umbrella with you, then.
K. You should hurry up, then.
J. You should explain it to her again, then.
A. You should apologize, then.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
E. You should try them on, then.
I. You should go and see her, then.
C. You shouldn’t turn around, then.
H. You shouldn’t tell anyone, then.
G. You shouldn’t listen, then.
B. You shouldn’t have a beer, then.
conditional could with present infinitive (30); should with present infinitive (31–33)
”
195
12. Modální slovesa
34. Přeložte. Užívejte should.
a) Měl by sis to jednou provždy zapamatovat.
b) Neměl bys tu stát. Je to nebezpečné.
c) Kde bychom měli bydlet? Ve městě, nebo na venkově?
d) Měl by ses obléknout. Přicházejí už první hosté.
e) Kolik bychom mu měli půjčit?
f) Měli bychom to něčím zakrýt. Je tu hodně prašno.
g) Měli bychom brzy očekávat změnu?
h) Měl bys na něj být pyšný. Je moc statečný.
i) Neměli bychom se bát. Není to tak strašné.
j) Mám jim věřit, nebo ne?
k) Neměli bychom začít později než v pět hodin.
l) Měl bys ten film doporučit Ronovi. Hrozně by se mu líbil.
m) Mami, co bych měl nakreslit tátovi k narozeninám?
n) Měl by ses o sebe více starat. Tvé zdraví je to nejdůležitější.
o) Kdo by to měl vědět lépe než Tom?
p) Neměl bys šeptat. Není to slušné.
q) Proč bych se měl učit, když si myslím, že je to nuda?
r) Podle mě by to alespoň dva týdny nemělo zmizet.
s) Na kolikátou mám připravit večeři?
t) Čím mám umýt okna?
u) Neměl by ses domnívat, že každý chce dělat to samé, co ty.
v) Neměl bys tak dlouho sedět u počítače. Není to dobré na oči.
w) Kolik bych tam měl dát soli?
x) Neměla by ta barva být trochu tmavší?
y) Měl by sis zlepšit angličtinu a pak se můžeš ucházet o lepší místo.
z) Neměl bys tu smlouvu podepisovat, jestli sis ji pečlivě nepřečetl.
35. Přeložte věty s should a opisnými tvary modálních sloves.
a) Pan Spark by se na to měl být schopen podívat zítra.
b) Měli by si smět pozvat, koho chtějí.
c) Ten text bys měl dokázat bez problémů přeložit.
d) Měl bys dokázat to docela jednoduše opravit, budeš-li se řídit návodem.
e) Nikomu by nemělo být dovoleno, aby ho viděl, když je takhle nemocen.
f) Studenti by neměli smět kouřit uvnitř budovy školy.
g) Měli bychom si smět přečíst všechny informace, než se rozhodneme.
h) Neměli bychom muset čekat déle než pár minut.
i) Proč by se někdo měl smět takhle chovat?
j) Proč bys měl muset měnit své plány, když oni nechtějí změnit své?
Úroveň C
36. Doplňte can(’t), nebo could(n’t) a věty přeložte do češtiny.
a) Did you really put wine in this sauce? I _______________ taste it.
b)
c)
d)
e)
You don’t have to hide. I _______________ see you anyway.
All that we _______________ see was fog.
Quiet! I _______________ hear a thing.
I _______________ understand a word of his last lecture. _______________ you?
f) I’ve already taken two tablets but I _______________ feel anything yet.
196
should s přítomným infinitivem (34); should v kombinaci s opisy modálních sloves (35); can před see, hear, smell, taste, feel (36)
12. Modal verbs
34. Translate using should.
a) You should remember that/it once and for all.
b) You shouldn’t stand here. It’s dangerous.
c) Where should we live? In the town/city or in the country?
d) You should get dressed. The first guests are arriving.
e) How much should we lend him?
f) We should cover it (up) with something. It’s very dusty (in) here.
g) Should we expect a change soon?
h) You should be proud of him. He’s very brave.
i) We shouldn’t worry/shouldn’t be afraid. It’s not that terrible.
j) Should I believe them or not?
k) We shouldn’t begin/start (any) later than five o’clock.
l) You should recommend the film to Ron. He’d love it.
m) Mummy, what should I draw for Daddy’s birthday/should I draw Daddy for his birthday?
n) You should look after yourself more/should take better care of yourself. Your health is the most important thing.
o) Who should know (that) better than Tom?
p) You shouldn’t whisper. It’s not polite.
q) Why should I study when/if I think it’s boring?
r) In my opinion, it shouldn’t disappear for at least two weeks.
s) What time should I get (the) dinner/tea/supper (ready) for?/What time should I prepare dinner/tea/supper for?
t) What should I clean the windows with?
u) You shouldn’t assume that everyone wants to do the same (thing) as you.
v) You shouldn’t sit at the computer for so long. It’s not good for the/your eyes.
w) How much salt should I put in/should I add?
x) Shouldn’t the colour be a little darker/a bit darker/a little bit darker?
y) You should improve your English and then you can apply for a better job.
z) You shouldn’t sign the contract if you haven’t read it carefully.
35. Translate the sentences using should and the periphrastic forms of modal verbs.
a) Mr Spark should be able to (have a) look at it tomorrow.
b) They should be allowed to invite who(m)/who(m)ever they like.
c) You should be able to translate the text without any problems.
d) You should be able to repair/mend/fix it quite easily if you follow the instructions.
e) Nobody should be allowed to see him when he’s this/that ill.
f) Students shouldn’t be allowed to smoke inside the school building.
g) We should be allowed to read all the information before we decide.
h) We shouldn’t have to wait (for) more/longer than a few minutes.
i) Why should anyone be allowed to behave like that?
j) Why should you have to change your plans if/when they don’t want to change theirs?
Level C
36. Insert can(’t) or could(n’t) and translate the sentences into Czech.
a) Did you really put wine in this sauce? I can’t taste it. (např.: Opravdu jsi do téhle omáčky dala víno? Já ho
(totiž) necítím.)
b) You don’t have to hide. I can see you anyway. (např.: Nemusíš se schovávat. Já tě stejně vidím.)
c) All that we could see was fog. (např.: Viděli jsme jenom mlhu./Byla vidět jenom mlha.)
d) Quiet! I can’t hear a thing. (např.: Ticho! Vůbec nic neslyším.)
e) I couldn’t understand a word of his last lecture. Could you? (např.: Z jeho poslední přednášky jsem
nerozuměl ani slovu. Co ty?)
f) I’ve already taken two tablets but I can’t feel anything yet. (např.: Vzal jsem si už dvě tablety, ale ještě nic
necítím.)
should with present infinitive (34); should combined with periphrastic forms (35); can before see, hear, smell, taste and feel (36)
197
12. Modální slovesa
g) _______________ you hear that noise? I wonder what it is.
h) I don’t know what else was in it. All I _______________ taste was garlic.
37. Přeložte. V každé větě užijte tvar modálního slovesa can.
a) Byla taková tma, že jsem vůbec nic neviděl.
b) Mohl byste mluvit, prosím, hlasitěji? Moc dobře vás neslyšíme.
c) Ze svého okna vidím Pražský hrad.
d) To je zvláštní. Použila jsem spoustu bylinek, ale vůbec je tam necítím.
e) Žádnou bolest jsem necítil.
f) Poslouchej. Slyšíš v dálce to moře?
g) Neměli bychom ten sýr už vyhodit? Je cítit až z koupelny.
h) Snažil se nám něco říct, ale neslyšel jsem co.
38. Sestavte do česko-anglických dvojic dle významu.
ano (možná) – ne (nejspíše) – ano (určitě) –
ano (nejspíše) – ne (určitě) – ne (možná)
must – can’t – should –
might – shouldn’t – might not
39. Přeformulujte věty tak, že užijete may/might.
Vzor: Perhaps he’s at home. > He might be/may be at home.
a) Perhaps she’s right.
g) It’s possible that she’s unemployed.
b) Perhaps it’s not too late.
h) Maybe he doesn’t remember us.
c) Perhaps they know best.
i) But it’s possible that they don’t own it.
d) Perhaps it doesn’t matter.
j) It’s possible that he simply doesn’t care.
e) Perhaps you disagree.
k) Maybe she doesn’t mean it like that.
f) Perhaps they don’t realize.
l) Maybe it doesn’t worry them.
”
CD2/32
40. Poslouchejte a přeformulujte věty tak, že užijete might.
Vzor: (nahrávka: Perhaps he’s at home.) > He might be at home.
a) Perhaps I’m wrong.
f) Perhaps they’re in a hurry.
b) Maybe she’s asleep.
g) Maybe the price doesn’t include food.
c) Perhaps it’s not important.
h) Perhaps she doesn’t understand why.
d) Perhaps he’s afraid of me.
i) Maybe he doesn’t recognize you.
e) Maybe he’s got another cold.
j) Maybe that doesn’t seem strange to you.
41. Které z těchto vět odkazují na budoucnost (F) a které na přítomnost (P)? Které věty mohou odkazovat jak
na budoucnost, tak na přítomnost (FP)? Věty přeložte do češtiny.
a) I might not accept their offer. F P FP
b) She might believe you. F P FP
c) I might borrow it from you. F P FP
d) He might bring his holiday photos with him. F P FP
e) They might charge you for the service. F P FP
f) They might enjoy it. F P FP
g) We might fly. F P FP
h) I might forget. F P FP
i) They might have another one. F P FP
j) She might not live there any more. F P FP
k) He might not like jazz. F P FP
l) You might be surprised. F P FP
198
can před see, hear, smell, taste, feel (37); vyjadřování možnosti v přítomnosti a budoucnosti pomocí may/might (38–41)
12. Modal verbs
g) Can you hear that noise? I wonder what it is. (např.: Slyšíš ten zvuk? To by mě zajímalo, co to je.)
h) I don’t know what else was in it. All I could taste was garlic. (např.: Nevím, co v tom ještě bylo. Já jsem cítil
jenom česnek.)
37. Translate. Use a form of the modal verb can in each sentence.
a) It was so dark (that) I couldn’t see anything (at all).
b) Could you speak up, please? We can’t hear you very well.
c) I can see Prague Castle from my window.
d) That’s strange. I used lots of/used plenty of herbs but I can’t taste them at all.
e) I couldn’t feel any pain.
f) Listen. Can you hear the sea in the distance?
g) Shouldn’t we throw that cheese away?/throw away that cheese? You can smell it from the bathroom.
h) He was trying to tell us something/trying to say something to us, but I couldn’t hear what.
38. Pair Czech and English expressions of similar meaning.
ano (možná) = might; ne (nejspíše) = shouldn’t; ano (určitě) = must; ano (nejspíše) = should; ne (určitě) = can’t;
ne (možná) = might not
39. Rewrite the sentences using may/might.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
She may be/might be right.
It may not be/might not be too late.
They may know/might know best.
It may not matter/might not matter.
You may disagree/might disagree.
They may not realize/might not realize.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
She may be/might be unemployed.
He may not remember/might not remember us.
But they may not own/might not own it.
He may simply not care/might simply not care.
She may not mean/might not mean it like that.
It may not worry/might not worry them.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
They might be in a hurry.
The price might not include food.
She might not understand why.
He might not recognize you.
That might not seem strange to you.
40. Listen and reformulate using might.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
I might be wrong.
She might be asleep.
It might not be important.
He might be afraid of me.
He might have another cold.
”
41. Which of these sentences refer to the future (F) and which to the present (P)? Which might refer to
either (FP)? Translate the sentences into Czech.
a) I might not accept their offer. (F) – Možná že jejich nabídku nepřijmu.
b) She might believe you. (FP) – Možná že ti věří/bude věřit.
c) I might borrow it from you. (F) – Možná si to od tebe půjčím.
d) He might bring his holiday photos with him. (F) – Možná s sebou přinese své fotky z dovolené.
e) They might charge you for the service. (F) – Možná ti za tu službu něco naúčtují.
f) They might enjoy it. (FP) – Možná je to baví/bude bavit.
g) We might fly. (F) – Možná poletíme.
h) I might forget. (F) – Možná že na to zapomenu.
i) They might have another one. (FP) – Možná mají/budou mít další.
j) She might not live there any more. (FP) – Možná tam už nebydlí/už nebude bydlet.
k) He might not like jazz. (P) – Možná nemá rád jazz.
l) You might be surprised. (FP) – Možná jsi/budeš překvapen.
can before see, hear, smell, taste and feel (37); expressing possibility in the present and future using may/might (38–41)
199
12. Modální slovesa
”
CD2/33
42. Tvořte věty s might be + -ing a přeložte je do češtiny.
a) she – not expect – it
f)
b) he – feel – lonely
g)
c) they – follow – him
h)
d) she – hide – something – from us
i)
e) it – not rain – more
j)
he – miss – you
they – wait – us
they – have – their lunch
she – not plan – anything
we – do – something – wrong
43. Přeložte. Užívejte might.
a) Třeba je to nebezpečné.
b) Možná mají zavřeno.
c) Třeba si nedělá legraci.
d) Možná budeš mít víc štěstí příště.
e) Vezmi si s sebou svetr. Později může být zima.
f) Možná že se nesmějí tobě.
g) Možná to nebude tak jednoduché, jak si myslíš.
h) Paul možná umí trochu rusky. Zeptám se ho.
i) Becky možná bude znát odpověď.
j) Třeba se ti to jen zdá.
k) Možná radši počkají.
l) Tento nápoj možná obsahuje alkohol.
m) Teď mu nevolej. Možná řídí.
n)
o)
p)
q)
r)
s)
t)
u)
v)
w)
x)
y)
z)
Ale možná se to už nikdy nestane.
Možná ti to řekne sama.
Možná máš nízký tlak.
Možná o tom napíšu panu prezidentovi.
Třeba si na to vzpomenu později.
Dominiku by ta výstava možná zajímala.
Třeba mají zrovna přestávku.
Možná už tě nikdy neuvidím.
Radši bys mu měl zavolat. Třeba to hledá.
Třeba se ti podaří přesvědčit ji.
Ale možná se vdávat ještě nechce.
Možná budeme muset stát frontu.
Možná budou muset začít znova.
44. Přeformulujte věty tak, že užijete must/can’t.
Vzor: Surely he’s at home. > He must be at home.
a) Surely you know what to do.
b) Surely it’s somewhere here.
c) I’m sure he’s sorry now.
d) But surely it costs more than that.
e) Surely you feel something.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
Surely you don’t believe that story.
Surely he doesn’t earn enough for that.
Surely it doesn’t matter to her that much.
But surely he isn’t that silly.
Surely you don’t really mean that.
45. Poslouchejte a přeformulujte věty tak, že užijete must, nebo can’t.
Vzor: (nahrávka: Surely he’s home by now.) > He must be home by now.
a) Surely it’s not that expensive.
f) I doubt they know about it yet.
b) Surely she’s not his mother.
g) Surely he speaks at least a bit of English.
c) Surely there’s a quicker way than this.
h) Ow! I bet that hurts.
d) I’m sure it’s at least six o’clock.
i) I bet she worries about him a lot.
e) I doubt these are John’s keys.
j) But surely you don’t weigh that much.
46. Utvořte větu s uvedeným modálním slovesem a be + -ing. Pak věty přeložte do češtiny.
a) she – avoid – me [must]
f) he – not miss – her – that much [can’t]
b) it – not freeze [can’t]
g) it – not rain – again [can’t]
c) you – joke [must]
h) you – imagine – it [must]
d) she – not go out with – David [can’t]
i) she – expect – an answer [must]
e) they – finish – soon [must]
j) he – have – great time [must]
47. Přeložte. Užijte must a can’t.
a) To určitě není jeho nápad.
b) To musí být úžasný zážitek.
c) Určitě je mu mezi padesáti a šedesáti.
d) Ale to snad nemyslíš vážně.
200
vyjadřování možnosti v přítomnosti a budoucnosti pomocí may/might (42–43); vyjadřování jistoty pomocí must/can’t (44–47)
12. Modal verbs
42. Form sentences with might be + -ing and translate them into Czech.
a) She might not be expecting it. Možná to neočekává. b) He might be feeling lonely. Možná se cítí osamělý.
c) They might be following him. Možná jdou za ním./Možná ho sledují. d) She might be hiding something
from us. Možná před námi něco schovává/tají. e) It might not be raining any more. Možná že už neprší. f) He
might be missing you. Možná se mu po tobě stýská. g) They might be waiting for us. Možná na nás čekají.
h) They might be having their lunch. Možná že obědvají. i) She might not be planning anything. Možná že nic
neplánuje. j) We might be doing something wrong. Možná děláme něco špatně.
43. Translate using might.
a) It might be dangerous.
b) They/It might be closed.
c) He/She might not be joking.
d) You might be luckier next time.
e) Take a jumper with you. It might be cold later.
f) They might not be laughing at you.
g) It might not be as easy/simple as you think.
h) Paul might speak a bit of Russian. I’ll ask him.
i) Becky might know the answer.
j) You might just be imagining it.
k) They might rather wait/might prefer to wait.
l) This drink might contain alcohol.
m) Don’t phone him now. He might be driving.
n)
o)
p)
q)
r)
s)
t)
u)
v)
w)
x)
y)
z)
But it might never happen again.
She might tell you herself.
You might have low blood pressure.
I might write to the President about it.
I might think of it/might remember (it) later.
Dominika might be interested in the exhibition.
They might just be having a/their break.
I might never see you again.
You’d better phone him. He might be looking for it.
You might manage to persuade/convince her.
But she might not want to get married yet.
We might have to queue.
They might have to start again.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
You can’t believe that story.
He can’t earn enough for that.
It can’t matter to her that much.
But he can’t be that silly.
You can’t really mean that.
44. Rewrite using must/can’t.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
You must know what to do.
It must be somewhere here.
He must be sorry now.
But it must cost more than that.
You must feel something.
45. Listen and reformulate using must or can’t.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
It can’t be that expensive.
She can’t be his mother.
There must be a quicker way than this.
It must be at least six o’clock.
These can’t be John’s keys./These keys can’t be John’s.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
They can’t know about it yet.
He must speak at least a bit of English.
Ow! That must hurt.
She must worry about him a lot.
But you can’t weigh that much.
”
46. Form sentences using the given modal verbs and be + -ing. Translate the sentences into Czech.
a) She must be avoiding me. Zřejmě se mi vyhýbá. b) It can’t be freezing. Určitě nemrzne. c) You must be
joking. Ty si snad děláš legraci. d) She can’t be going out with David. S Davidem určitě nechodí. e) They must
be finishing soon. Určitě budou brzy končit. f) He can’t be missing her that much. Zřejmě se mu po ní až tolik
nestýská. g) It can’t be raining again. Snad zase neprší. h) You must be imagining it. Určitě se ti to jen zdá.
i) She must be expecting an answer. Určitě očekává odpověď. j) He must be having a great time. Zřejmě se má
skvěle.
47. Translate. Use must and can’t.
a) That can’t be his idea.
b) That must be an amazing experience.
c) He must be in his fifties.
d) But you can’t be serious./But you can’t mean that.
expressing possibility in the present and future using may/might (42–43); expressing certainty using must/can’t (44–47)
201
12. Modální slovesa
e) Určitě je tu někde pošta.
f) Zřejmě něco dělám špatně.
g) To musí být strašný pocit.
h) Určitě se sprchuje.
i) Tolik práce mít nemůžeš, když máš čas hrát hry na počítači.
j) Lidé, kteří pracují doma, určitě ušetří hodně peněz za dopravu.
k) Zřejmě ví, že něco není v pořádku.
l) Zřejmě se na to moc netěší.
m) Ale to nemůže být správně.
n) Ale něco přece určitě sbíráš.
o) Zřejmě se jim to místo líbí, když tam ještě pořád jsou.
p) Určitě pije pivo, když je to Čech.
q) Zřejmě to nikomu nepatří, když to tady leží.
r) On určitě musí vědět, že ho hledáme.
s) Tuhle knihu určitě nečte. Holandsky nemluví.
t) Chudák. Musí být hodně zklamaný.
u) Musí se ti po tvé staré práci stýskat.
v) Nemůže ho to moc zajímat. Ani nepřišel.
w) Teď se na nás určitě připravují.
x) Po včerejším večírku určitě moc vína nezbývá.
y) Ale s někým určitě chodí. [on]
z) Hraješ moc dobře. Zřejmě hodně cvičíš.
48. Přeformulujte tak, že užijete should.
a) The train will probably be here soon.
b) The library is probably still open.
c) It probably won’t be too difficult.
d) They are probably already on their way.
e) It probably won’t take too long.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
It will probably dry quickly on the balcony.
Yes. I think it’s probably safe.
It will probably never happen again.
The second half will probably be more interesting.
They will probably be able to repair it by Monday.
49. Doplňte must, can(’t), should(n’t) nebo might (not) podle smyslu.
a) What a delicious smell! Someone __________________ be baking a cake.
b) It __________________ be the second street on the left, but I’m not sure.
c) Well he __________________ feel that ill if he’s gone to the pub.
d) He __________________ be a good maths teacher but he can’t teach physics at all.
e) I’m hungry. ~ Dinner __________________ be ready soon.
f) He’s phoned her five times today. He __________________ be in love.
g) Her English __________________ be that good if she doesn’t understand an easy text like that.
h) I __________________ be long at the doctor’s. His waiting room’s usually empty these days.
i) You __________________ know Eric Dalloway. He went to the same school as you.
j) You __________________ hurt yourself if you’re not careful.
50. Must, nebo have/has to? Podtrhněte nejpravděpodobnější variantu.
a) I really have to/must buy myself a new pair of shoes. These ones have got holes in them.
b) If you’re going to the National Theatre you have to/must take the number nine from here.
c) You have to/must come to dinner soon. We haven’t seen you for ages.
d) We have to/must be in the classroom by half past eight in the mornings.
e) They’re not very good results, are they? I have to/must try harder next time.
f) Yes, that’s right. You have to/must put the sugar in next.
g) You have to/must be joking!
h) What a good joke! I have to/must remember it and tell it to Mike tomorrow.
202
vyjadřování pravděpodobnosti s should (48); vyjadřování možnosti, jistoty a pravděpodobnosti (49); volba mezi must a have to (50)
12. Modal verbs
e) There must be a post office here somewhere.
f) I must be doing something wrong.
g) That must be a terrible feeling./That must feel terrible.
h) He/She must be having a shower.
i) You can’t have that much work (to do)/can’t be that busy if you’ve got time to play computer games.
j) People who work at home must save a lot of money on transport.
k) He/She must know that something isn’t right/that something’s wrong.
l) He/She can’t be looking forward to it (very) much.
m) But that can’t be right/correct.
n) But you must collect something.
o) They must like the place if they’re still there.
p) He must drink beer if he’s (a) Czech.
q) It can’t belong to anyone if it’s lying here.
r) He must know we’re looking for him.
s) He/She can’t be reading this book. He/She doesn’t speak Dutch.
t) Poor thing. He must be very disappointed.
u) You must be missing/must miss your old job.
v) He can’t be very interested (in it)/It can’t interest him very much. He hasn’t even come.
w) They must be getting ready for us now.
x) There can’t be much wine left after yesterday’s party.
y) But he must be going out with somebody.
z) You play very well. You must practise a lot.
48. Rewrite using should.
a) The train should be here soon.
b) The library should still be open.
c) It shouldn’t be too difficult.
d) They should already be on their way.
e) It shouldn’t take too long.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
It should dry quickly on the balcony.
Yes. I think it should be safe.
It shouldn’t ever happen again.
The second half should be more interesting.
They should be able to repair it by Monday.
49. Insert must, can(’t), should(n’t) or might (not).
a) What a delicious smell! Someone must be baking a cake.
b) It might be the second street on the left, but I’m not sure.
c) Well he can’t feel that ill if he’s gone to the pub.
d) He might be a good maths teacher but he can’t teach physics at all.
e) I’m hungry. ~ Dinner should be ready soon.
f) He’s phoned her five times today. He must be in love.
g) Her English can’t be that good if she doesn’t understand an easy text like that.
h) I shouldn’t be long at the doctor’s. His waiting room’s usually empty these days.
i) You must/might know Eric Dalloway. He went to the same school as you.
j) You might hurt yourself if you’re not careful.
50. Must or have/has to? Underline the most likely option.
a) I really must buy myself a new pair of shoes. These ones have got holes in them.
b) If you’re going to the National Theatre you have to take the number nine from here.
c) You must come to dinner soon. We haven’t seen you for ages.
d) We have to be in the classroom by half past eight in the mornings.
e) They’re not very good results, are they? I must try harder next time.
f) Yes, that’s right. You have to put the sugar in next.
g) You must be joking!
h) What a good joke! I must remember it and tell it to Mike tomorrow.
expressing likelihood using should (48); expressing possibility, certainty and likelihood (49); must and have to (50)
203
12. Modální slovesa
51. Doplňte (not) be supposed to, nebo should(n’t) ve správném tvaru.
a) Don’t worry. This ____________________________ take too long.
b) But where are you going? You ___________________________ leave the room during the test.
c) You ____________________________ start going to bed earlier. You look very tired.
d) What are you doing here? I thought you ____________________________ be at school.
e) We ____________________________ leave at eight but we had to wait for Helen, as usual.
f) That’s a stupid idea. I think we ____________________________ forget it.
g) We’d better get out of here. You know we ____________________________ to use Dad’s computer.
h) If you need more time in the mornings you ____________________________ get up earlier.
i) If you follow the instructions everything ____________________________ be alright.
j) You ____________________________ at least suggest it and see what he says.
52. Tvořte věty s had better a přeložte je do češtiny.
a) we – decide – now
b) you – be – more patient
c) I – leave – straight away
d) we – hide
e) you – behave
f) we – not oversleep
g) you – not try – that
h) I – not be – late
i) we – not laugh
j) you – not look
”
CD2/34
53. Poslouchejte a přeformulujte věty tak, že místo should užijete had better.
Vzor: (nahrávka: We should go back now.) > We’d better go back now.
a) We should leave soon.
f) You should stay in bed for a few days.
b) You shouldn’t rely on it.
g) I shouldn’t expect too much.
c) I feel I should wait.
h) We should try and avoid that.
d) We should warn everybody.
i) You should order it as soon as possible.
e) You shouldn’t mention it to her.
j) We shouldn’t admit it.
54. Tvořte věty s would rather.
a) I – be poor – but healthy and happy
b) I – not risk – it
c) I – thank – them – myself
d) I – be early – than – miss – it
e) I – not hear – the details
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
I – not stay – here – alone
or – you – eat – out – tonight?
you – not show – it – us?
where – you – sit?
what – you – do?
55. Přeložte. Užívejte would rather, nebo had better.
a) Je hodně oblíbený. Myslím, že bychom si ty vstupenky měli zamluvit raději co nejdříve.
b) Nevím, co ty, ale já bych si radši koupil lístek. Všude jsou revizoři.
c) Asi bychom měli pokračovat raději zítra. Zdáte se hodně unavení.
d) Tohle číslo by sis radši měl zapsat. Může být užitečné.
e) Samozřejmě že bych to raději nevyhazovala, ale já už to používat nikdy nebudu.
f) Beth říká, že by mnohem radši tancovala s Ronem než s Michaelem.
g) Radši bych si měla něco udělat s vlasy, co? Vypadají strašně.
h) Tenhle sýr bychom měli radši vyhodit. Moc pěkně nevoní.
i) Radši by se nevdávala vůbec, než si vzít někoho takového jako její otec.
j) Ten paragon by sis měl raději schovat. Možná ho budeš potřebovat.
204
be supposed to a should (51); had better (52–53); would rather + infinitiv (54); volba mezi would rather a had better (55)
12. Modal verbs
51. Insert (not) be supposed to or should(n’t) in the correct form.
a) Don’t worry. This shouldn’t take too long.
b) But where are you going? You’re not supposed to leave the room during the test.
c) You should start going to bed earlier. You look very tired.
d) What are you doing here? I thought you were supposed to be at school.
e) We were supposed to leave at eight but we had to wait for Helen, as usual.
f) That’s a stupid idea. I think we should forget it.
g) We’d better get out of here. You know we’re not supposed to use Dad’s computer.
h) If you need more time in the mornings you should get up earlier.
i) If you follow the instructions everything should be alright.
j) You should at least suggest it and see what he says.
52. Form sentences with had better and translate them into Czech.
a) We’d better decide now. Raději bychom se měli rozhodnout teď.
b) You’d better be more patient. Raději bys měl být trpělivější.
c) I’d better leave straight away. Raději bych měl odejít hned.
d) We’d better hide. Raději bychom se měli schovat.
e) You’d better behave. Raději by ses měl dobře chovat.
f) We’d better not oversleep. Raději bychom neměli zaspat.
g) You’d better not try that. To bys raději neměl zkoušet.
h) I’d better not be late. Raději bych neměl přijít pozdě.
i) We’d better not laugh. Raději bychom se neměli smát.
j) You’d better not look. Raději by ses neměl dívat.
53. Listen and express using had better in place of should.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
We’d better leave soon.
You’d better not rely on it.
I feel I’d better wait.
We’d better warn everybody.
You’d better not mention it to her.
54. Form sentences with would rather.
a) I’d rather be poor but healthy and happy.
b) I’d rather not risk it.
c) I’d rather thank them myself.
d) I’d rather be early than miss it.
e) I’d rather not hear the details.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
You’d better stay in bed for a few days.
I’d better not expect too much.
We’d better try and avoid that.
You’d better order it as soon as possible.
We’d better not admit it.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
I’d rather not stay here alone.
Or would you rather eat out tonight?
Would you rather not show it to us?
Where would you rather sit?
What would you rather do?
”
55. Translate. Use would rather or had better.
a) He’s very popular. I think we’d better book (the) tickets as soon as possible.
b) I don’t know about you, but I’d rather buy a ticket. There are inspectors everywhere.
c) Perhaps we’d better continue tomorrow/better carry on tomorrow. You seem very tired.
d) You’d better write this number down/better write down this number. It might be useful.
e) Of course I’d rather not throw it away/throw it out, but I’m never going to use it again.
f) Beth says she would much rather dance with Ron than (with) Michael.
g) I’d better do something about/with my hair, hadn’t I? It looks terrible.
h) We’d better throw this cheese away/out. It doesn’t smell very nice.
i) She’d rather not marry at all/not get married at all than marry someone like her father.
j) You’d better keep the receipt. You might need it.
be supposed to and should (51); had better (52–53); would rather + infinitive (54); would rather and had better (55)
205
12. Modální slovesa
56. Had better, nebo would rather? Doplňte nejpravděpodobnější výraz.
a) You ___________________________ concentrate so you don’t make any mistakes.
b) I ___________________________ avoid alcohol tonight, although of course I’d love a glass.
c) I do like Prague, but I ___________________________ live in the country.
d) I’d love to stay longer, but I ___________________________ not. I’m getting up early tomorrow.
e) I suppose I ___________________________ take the doctors’ advice for a change.
f) I ___________________________ not talk about work now, if you don’t mind.
g) There have been so many road accidents lately that I ___________________________ go by train.
h) We ___________________________ cook something vegetarian if Claire’s coming.
i) I ___________________________ find a new job for less money than be unhappy here.
j) You ___________________________ disappear before someone sees you here.
Úroveň D
57. Přeformulujte. Použijte might/may a minulý infinitiv.
a) Maybe it confused him.
b) It is possible that she did not attend the same school.
c) Perhaps they’ve arranged something different.
d) Maybe that hasn’t occurred to them.
e) Perhaps she grew up abroad.
f) Maybe you reminded her of someone.
g) Perhaps it existed some time in the distant past.
h) It’s possible he hasn’t got rid of his collection after all.
i) Maybe they didn’t have much in common.
j) Was he perhaps feeling jealous?
58. Přeformulujte. Použijte must, nebo can’t a minulý infinitiv.
a) It looks as if she’s overslept.
b) I bet his article about it didn’t help the situation.
c) But surely he had at least some influence on you.
d) It’s clear that you’ve left something out.
e) But surely he didn’t hear me. I was whispering.
f) I bet it shocked her to hear that.
g) I’m sure that frightened him.
h) But I can see you didn’t comb it. Look in the mirror!
i) It seems the goods weren’t checked carefully enough.
j) Surely she didn’t say that. She’s always such a polite child.
k) If it’s not here then I’ve probably thrown it away.
l) It’s clear she wasn’t paying attention while the teacher was explaining it.
59. Poslouchejte a přeformulujte. Použijte might, must, nebo can’t a minulý infinitiv.
Vzor: (nahrávka: Maybe she was right.) > She might have been right.
”
CD2/35
206
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
Maybe they attempted to change things.
I’m sure they produced millions of them.
But surely Adam didn’t draw that. He’s only three.
Perhaps they’ve blamed the wrong person.
I’m sure it was a terrifying experience.
Surely there weren’t any witnesses. The shop was empty.
I’m sure they were pretty surprised to hear that.
Maybe a barking dog woke him.
Maybe he was woken by a barking dog.
volba mezi would rather a had better (56); vyjadřování možnosti a jistoty pomocí may/might, must, can’t s minulým inf. (57–59)
12. Modal verbs
56. Had better or would rather? Insert the most likely expression.
a) You’d better concentrate so you don’t make any mistakes.
b) I’d better avoid alcohol tonight, although of course I’d love a glass.
c) I do like Prague but I’d rather live in the country.
d) I’d love to stay longer, but I’d better not. I’m getting up early tomorrow.
e) I suppose I’d better take the doctors’ advice for a change.
f) I’d rather not talk about work now, if you don’t mind.
g) There have been so many road accidents lately that I’d rather go by train.
h) We’d better cook something vegetarian if Claire’s coming.
i) I’d rather find a new job for less money than be unhappy here.
j) You’d better disappear before someone sees you here.
Level D
57. Rewrite using might/may and perfect infinitive.
a) It might/may have confused him.
b) She might/may not have attended the same school.
c) They might/may have arranged something different.
d) That might/may not have occurred to them.
e) She might/may have grown up abroad.
f) You might/may have reminded her of someone.
g) It might/may have existed some time in the distant past.
h) He might/may not have got rid of his collection after all.
i) They might/may not have had much in common.
j) Might/may he have been feeling jealous?
58. Rewrite using must or can’t and perfect infinitive.
a) She must have overslept.
b) His article about it can’t have helped the situation.
c) But he must have had at least some influence on you.
d) You must have left something out.
e) But he can’t have heard me. I was whispering.
f) It must have shocked her to hear that.
g) That must have frightened him.
h) But you can’t have combed it. Look in the mirror!
i) The goods can’t have been checked carefully enough.
j) She can’t have said that. She’s always such a polite child.
k) If it’s not here then I must have thrown it away.
l) She can’t have been paying attention while the teacher was explaining it.
59. Listen and alter. Use might, must or can’t and perfect infinitive.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
They might have attempted to change things.
They must have produced millions of them.
But Adam can’t have drawn that. He’s only three.
They might have blamed the wrong person.
It must have been a terrifying experience.
There can’t have been any witnesses. The shop was empty.
They must have been pretty surprised to hear that.
A barking dog might have woken him.
He might have been woken by a barking dog.
would rather and had better (56); expressing possibility and certainty using may/might, must and can’t with perfect infinitive (57–59)
”
207
12. Modální slovesa
60. Přeložte. Použijte might, must, nebo can’t a minulý infinitiv.
a) To ji možná rozzlobilo.
b) Možná že na tom trval.
c) To vás muselo pobavit!
d) Zřejmě mu hodně důvěřovala, když mu řekla tohle.
e) Možná že ten balíček ještě nedoručili.
f) Zřejmě si uvědomil, že něco není v pořádku.
g) Ale dnes ve škole určitě nebyla. Potkal jsem ji v centru.
h) Zvířata jsi určitě nenakrmil. Podívej se, jak jsou hladová.
i) Zřejmě se jí to moc nelíbilo, když to hned prodala.
j) Nevím, kde ten zub je, ačkoliv jsem ho určitě nespolkl.
k) Ale možná si to vymýšlel.
l) Zřejmě to plánovali vydat nejdříve anglicky.
61. Tvořte pokračování pomocí údajů v závorkách dle vzoru. Rozhodujte se mezi could have a needn’t have.
Vzor: It wasn’t exactly impossible. (but – it – be – a lot – easier) > But it could have been a lot easier.
a) You mean you put the nail in your mouth? (but – you – swallow – it!)
b) It was a beautiful day. (we – take – our umbrellas)
c) What a relief that you’re alright! (you – hurt – yourself)
d) Oh, it’s in your pocket. Why didn’t you put it in your bag? (you – lose – it)
e) Why did you say that? (you – make – any – promises)
f) You mean you let her walk all that way? (you – offer – her – a lift)
g) Are they really not coming after all, then? (I – tidy up)
h) Why did he do that? (he – cause – crash)
i) What a shame. It’s too late now. (you – remind – me)
j) All the questions were very easy. (I – study – so hard)
k) There isn’t much traffic, is there? (we – set out – this early)
l) I don’t know why they didn’t act immediately. (it – be – too late)
m) In the end the teacher was late. (we – hurry – like that)
n) But she tried so hard. (you – give – her – bit – praise)
o) Not many people came. (we – provide – so much – food – drink)
62. Přeložte. Užijte could(n’t) have a needn’t have.
a) Mohli té nehodě zabránit.
b) Mohla zareagovat trochu jinak.
c) Nemusel nás obtěžovat.
d) Lépe jsi to vyjádřit nemohl.
e) Nemuselo to tak být.
f) Nemusel jsi s ní být tak netrpělivý.
g) Mohla před zkouškou alespoň trochu opakovat.
h) Nemuselo to způsobit takovou škodu.
i) Mohl jsi zamést podlahu, než přijeli.
j) Mohli nám poskytnout víc informací.
k) Ale nemusel mi dát pokutu.
l) Nemusela jsi to vyhazovat. Já bych to byl použil.
m) Jednodušší už to být nemohlo.
n) Nemusel jsi to posílat dnes. On je stejně na dovolené.
o) To víno jsi kupovat nemusel. V ledničce máme ještě tři láhve.
p) Ale nemusel ses s ním přece hádat, když jsi věděl, že má pravdu!
q) Nerad myslím na to, co se mohlo stát.
r) Ale za tu dobu se dalo dosáhnout mnohem více.
s) Žádní z těch nejlepších hráčů tam nebyli. Nemusel jsem tak pilně trénovat.
208
vyjadřování možnosti a jistoty pomocí may/might, must, can’t s minulým inf. (60); could a needn’t s minulým inf. (61–62)
12. Modal verbs
60. Translate. Use might, must or can’t and perfect infinitive.
a) That might have annoyed her/might have made her cross.
b) He might have insisted (on it).
c) That must have amused you/must have been amusing for you!
d) She must have trusted him a lot if she told him that.
e) They might not have delivered the parcel yet.
f) He must have realized something wasn’t right.
g) But she can’t have been at school today. I met her in the centre.
h) You can’t have fed the animals. Look how hungry they are.
i) She can’t have liked it (very) much if she sold it straight away.
j) I don’t know where the tooth is, although I can’t have swallowed it.
k) But he might have been making it up.
l) They must have been planning to publish it in English first.
61. Provide continuations using the information in brackets, as in the example. Choose between could have
and needn’t have.
a) You mean you put the nail in your mouth? But you could have swallowed it!
b) It was a beautiful day. We needn’t have taken our umbrellas.
c) What a relief that you’re alright! You could have hurt yourself.
d) Oh, it’s in your pocket. Why didn’t you put it in your bag? You could have lost it.
e) Why did you say that? You needn’t have made any promises.
f) You mean you let her walk all that way? You could have offered her a lift.
g) Are they really not coming after all, then? I needn’t have tidied up.
h) Why did he do that? He could have caused a crash.
i) What a shame. It’s too late now. You could have reminded me.
j) All the questions were very easy. I needn’t have studied so hard.
k) There isn’t much traffic, is there? We needn’t have set out this early.
l) I don’t know why they didn’t act immediately. It could have been too late.
m) In the end the teacher was late. We needn’t have hurried like that.
n) But she tried so hard. You could have given her a bit of praise.
o) Not many people came. We needn’t have provided so much food and drink.
62. Translate. Use could(n’t) have and needn’t have.
a) They could have prevented the accident.
b) She could have reacted a bit differently.
c) He needn’t have bothered us.
d) You couldn’t have expressed it better.
e) It needn’t have been like that.
f) You needn’t have been so impatient with her.
g) She could at least have revised a bit before the exam.
h) It needn’t have caused so much damage.
i) You could have swept the floor before they arrived.
j) They could have provided us with/could have supplied us with/could have given us more information.
k) But he needn’t have fined me/needn’t have given me a fine.
l) You needn’t have thrown it away/thrown it out. I would have used it.
m) It couldn’t have been easier/simpler.
n) You needn’t have sent it today. He’s on holiday anyway.
o) You needn’t have bought the wine. We’ve still got three/We’ve got another three bottles in the fridge.
p) But you needn’t have argued with him if you knew he was right!
q) I don’t like to think (about) what could have happened.
r) But a lot more/But much more could have been achieved in/during that time.
s) None of the best players were there. I needn’t have trained so hard.
expressing possibility and certainty using may/might, must and can’t with perfect infinitive (60); could and needn’t with
perfect infinitive (61–62)
209
12. Modální slovesa
t)
u)
v)
w)
x)
y)
z)
Mohli jsme vyrazit trochu dříve, ale nakonec jsme se tam stejně dostali včas.
Kdo to mohl vědět?
Nemusel jsem si jich vůbec všímat, ale já si jich všímal.
Kam jsem to jen mohl dát?
Kam to jen mohla přede mnou schovat?
Proč jen nemohlo být více času?
Mohli jsme být opatrnější a tohle se pak nemuselo stát.
63. Reagujte na mluvčího v těchto situacích větami obsahujícími should(n’t) a minulý infinitiv.
Vzor: She’s really cross with me. (not lend Jim her new CD) > You shouldn’t have lent Jim her new CD.
a) I feel rather sick. (not eat all that cake)
b) Oh, no! I’m going to be late again. (get up earlier)
c) I’ve got such a headache. (not mix your drinks last night)
d) Everyone knows about me and Tracy. (keep quiet about it)
e) There’s always something wrong with my car. (get rid of it a long time ago)
f) The boss has given her notice. (not make so many private phone calls from the office)
g) But the girls were laughing about my haircut. (ignore them)
h) I can’t put my telephone back together. (not take it apart in the first place)
i) Jenny’s still not talking to me. (apologize to her ages ago)
j) And then I drove into a field. (look where you were going)
64. Přeložte.
a) Měla proti takovému chování protestovat.
b) Neměl jsi pokračovat, když už sis ten problém uvědomil.
c) Já si myslím, že ho za to měli potrestat.
d) Neměli jsme zkontaktovat tolik lidí.
e) Za tu dobu jsem toho měl dosáhnout mnohem víc.
f) Tak jsi to měl zařídit sám, když jsi tak chytrý.
g) Neměla ho to nutit jíst. Mně to také nechutnalo.
h) Měli jsme je ujistit, že jsou tu vždy vítáni.
i) Neměli jsme o tom diskutovat před dětmi.
j) Měl jsi poslouchat, co říkají.
65. Vyberte z nabídky ke každému obrázku vhodný komentář.
a)
b)
c)
e)
d)
1. It could have been a BMW. 2. It needn’t have bitten you. 3. We were able to sleep longer. 4. You shouldn’t
have eaten so much. 5. He can’t have seen us. 6. You can’t have left some for me. 7. It could have bitten you.
8. I must have pressed the wrong button. 9. We needn’t have got up so early. 10. It can’t have been my fault.
210
should s minulým infinitivem (63–64); smíšené příklady užití modálních sloves s minulým infinitivem (65)
12. Modal verbs
t)
u)
v)
w)
x)
y)
z)
We could have set out/set off a bit earlier, but in the end we got there on time anyway.
Who could have known (that)?
I needn’t have taken any notice of them, but I did (take notice).
Where could I have put it?
Where could she have hidden it from me?
Why couldn’t there have been more time?
We could have been more careful and then this needn’t have happened.
63. Respond to the speakers in these situations with sentences containing should(n’t) and perfect infinitive.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
I feel rather sick. ~ You shouldn’t have eaten all that cake.
Oh, no! I’m going to be late again. ~ You should have got up earlier.
I’ve got such a headache. ~ You shouldn’t have mixed/have been mixing your drinks last night.
Everyone knows about me and Tracy. ~ You should have kept quiet about it.
There’s always something wrong with my car. ~ You should have got rid of it a long time ago.
The boss has given her notice. ~ She shouldn’t have made so many private phone calls from the office.
But the girls were laughing about my haircut. ~ You should have ignored them.
I can’t put my telephone back together. ~ You shouldn’t have taken it apart in the first place.
Jenny’s still not talking to me. ~ You should have apologized to her ages ago.
And then I drove into a field. ~ You should have been looking where you were going.
64. Translate.
např./e.g.:
a) She should have protested against behaviour like that/against such behaviour.
b) You shouldn’t have carried on/have continued once you’d realized the problem.
c) I think they should have punished him for it.
d) We shouldn’t have contacted so many people.
e) I should have achieved a lot more/achieved much more in/during that time.
f) You should have arranged it (for) yourself, then, if you’re so clever.
g) She shouldn’t have forced him to eat it. I didn’t like it either.
h) We should have assured them they are/were always welcome here.
i) We shouldn’t have discussed it/have been discussing it in front of the children.
j) You should have listened to/have been listening to what they were saying.
65. Choose a suitable caption for each picture.
a) 8. I must have pressed the wrong button.
b) 4. You shouldn’t have eaten so much.
c) 5. He can’t have seen us.
d) 9. We needn’t have got up so early.
e) 7. It could have bitten you.
should with perfect infinitive (63–64); miscellaneous examples using modal verbs with perfect infinitive (65)
211
12. Modální slovesa
66. Přeformulujte. Užijte modální sloveso s minulým infinitivem.
a) Surely she didn’t mean it seriously.
b) You didn’t have to wait outside.
c) It was silly of me to throw it away.
d) I wonder why they didn’t choose something less expensive.
e) She’s left already? But surely that’s not possible.
f) Why didn’t you warn me?
g) Why didn’t I listen to you?
h) It wasn’t really necessary for us to hurry like that, was it?
i) It seems I said something wrong.
j) Perhaps he was expecting a different answer.
67. Doplňte vhodná modální slovesa. Užijte každé sloveso jen jednou.
can’t
could
couldn’t
might
might not
must
needn’t
should
shouldn’t
a) It’s such a small town that we _________________ have bought this map.
b) We _________________ have started earlier and we’d be finished by now.
c) They _________________ have reached an agreement yet if they’re still in the room talking.
d) But if they stayed together that long surely they _________________ have had something in common.
e) But no one _________________ have guessed that was the case.
f) But he _________________ have been innocent. We will never know.
g) You _________________ have just stood there. Why didn’t you offer to help?
h) I wonder why he took so long. ~ He _________________ have realized how urgent it was.
i) Thank you. It’s wonderful. You _________________ have chosen me a better gift.
68. Could, nebo was/were able to? Podtrhněte nejpravděpodobnější variantu.
a) I couldn’t/wasn’t able to stand mushrooms when I was a child.
b) Luckily the shop was still open, so we could/we were able to buy a few things for the weekend.
c) Could you/Were you able to get a lift home last night?
d) I was sure I could/was able to smell burning plastic.
e) Unfortunately I couldn’t/wasn’t able to say goodbye to them. They’d left by the time I got up.
f) It’s hard to believe Smetana composed music like this when he couldn’t/wasn’t able to actually hear.
g) And could you/were you able to speak to him after yesterday’s performance?
69. Ve které větě z každé dvojice je lepší užít needn’t s minulým infinitivem a ve které didn’t have to s infinitivem přítomným? Doplňte.
a) We _______________ (BUY) all this suncream. The holiday’s nearly over and we’ve hardly seen the sun!
x We _______________ (BUY) any suncream. We still had plenty from the year before.
b) I knew that Mike was going to be away so I _______________ (SEND) him an invitation.
x I _______________ (SEND) that invitation to Mike. I’ve just heard he’s going to be away.
c) I didn’t realize we had all this food in the house. I _______________ (DO) all this shopping, then.
x I _______________ (DO) any shopping. I knew we had plenty of food in the house.
d) I _______________ (WORRY) so much. In the end it was a very easy exam.
x I _______________ (WORRY) too much. I’d always found language exams easy.
e) She _______________ (COOK). She knew Ben would be eating out with his boss.
x It’s a shame she didn’t know Ben would be eating out with his boss. She _______________ (COOK).
212
smíšené příklady užití modálních sloves s minulým infinitivem (66–67); volba mezi could a be able to (68); volba mezi didn’t
have to do a needn’t have done (69)
12. Modal verbs
66. Rewrite using modal verbs with perfect infinitive.
a) She can’t have meant it seriously.
b) You needn’t have waited outside.
c) I shouldn’t have thrown it away.
d) They could/should have chosen something less expensive.
e) But she can’t have left already.
f) You should/could have warned me.
g) I should have listened to you.
h) We needn’t really have hurried like that, need we?
i) I must have said something wrong.
j) He might/may have been expecting a different answer.
67. Insert modal verbs as appropriate. Use each verb only once.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
It’s such a small town that we needn’t have bought this map.
We should (could) have started earlier and we’d be finished by now.
They can’t have reached an agreement yet if they’re still in the room talking.
But if they stayed together that long surely they must have had something in common.
But no one could have guessed that was the case.
But he might (could) have been innocent. We will never know.
You shouldn’t have just stood there. Why didn’t you offer to help?
I wonder why he took so long. ~ He might not have realized how urgent it was.
Thank you. It’s wonderful. You couldn’t have chosen me a better gift.
68. Could or was/were able to? Underline the most likely option.
a) I couldn’t stand mushrooms when I was a child.
b) Luckily the shop was still open, so we were able to buy a few things for the weekend.
c) Were you able to get a lift home last night?
d) I was sure I could smell burning plastic.
e) Unfortunately I wasn’t able to say goodbye to them. They’d left by the time I got up.
f) It’s hard to believe Smetana composed music like this when he couldn’t actually hear.
g) And were you able to speak to him after yesterday’s performance?
69. In which sentence in each pair would you use needn’t and perfect infinitive, and in which would you use
didn’t have to with present infinitive? Fill in the gaps.
a) We needn’t have bought all this suncream. The holiday’s nearly over and we’ve hardly seen the sun!
x We didn’t have to buy any suncream. We still had plenty from the year before.
b) I knew that Mike was going to be away so I didn’t have to send him an invitation.
x I needn’t have sent that invitation to Mike. I’ve just heard he’s going to be away.
c) I didn’t realize we had all this food in the house. I needn’t have done all this shopping, then.
x I didn’t have to do any shopping. I knew we had plenty of food in the house.
d) I needn’t have worried so much. In the end it was a very easy exam.
x I didn’t have to worry too much. I’d always found language exams easy.
e) She didn’t have to cook. She knew Ben would be eating out with his boss.
x It’s a shame she didn’t know Ben would be eating out with his boss. She needn’t have cooked.
miscellaneous examples using modal verbs with perfect infinitive (66–67); choosing between could and be able to (68);
choosing between didn’t have to do and needn’t have done (69)
213
12. Modální slovesa
70. Doplňte ought to a vhodné sloveso ve tvaru přítomného infinitivu. Užijte každé sloveso jen jednou.
be able to
not carry on
get
check
not interrupt
not praise
prepare
not trust
vary
warn
a) There are going to be huge storms. We ______________________ them before they set off.
b) The director’s coming to inspect our work. We ______________________ all the materials carefully.
c) The engine sounds strange. We ______________________ the oil level.
d) This old carpet really smells. We ______________________ rid of it.
e) If these tablets give you a headache you ______________________ using them.
f) But you ______________________ overcome simple problems like this without our help.
g) You ______________________ the guide when he’s talking.
h) You ______________________ him for every little thing he does.
i) You ______________________ everyone you meet.
j) These exercises are getting boring. We ______________________ them a bit.
71. Nahraďte should modálním slovesem ought to.
a) The doctor should have examined her more carefully.
b) You should have slowed down if she was frightened.
c) This should have been thrown out a long time ago.
d) I should have contributed more to the discussion.
e) You shouldn’t have put up with that.
f) I shouldn’t have entered without knocking.
g) You shouldn’t have gambled all his money away like that.
h) You shouldn’t have claimed that if it wasn’t true.
72. It won’t… Tvořte věty s won’t podle obrázků a přeložte je do češtiny.
c)
a)
d)
b)
73. Dokončujte věty. Vždy užijte wouldn’t a jedno z daných sloves.
answer
help
join
lend
listen
look at
show
a) I repeated the question several times but he…
b) I warned her again and again but she…
c) I asked them to be quiet but they…
d) He could see how much I had to do but he…
e) I wanted to see his holiday photos but he…
f) …and then I wanted to show him my photos but he…
g) I wanted to borrow a couple of CDs but she…
h) We invited Tim to play as well but he…
i) I told him he was going much too fast but he…
j) They offered her the best food they had but she…
214
ought to s infinitivem (70–71); won’t work, wouldn’t work (72–73)
slow down
stop talking
touch
12. Modal verbs
70. Insert ought to and an appropriate verb in its present infinitive form. Use each verb only once.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
There are going to be huge storms. We ought to warn them before they set off.
The director’s coming to inspect our work. We ought to prepare all the materials carefully.
The engine sounds strange. We ought to check the oil level.
This old carpet really smells. We ought to get rid of it.
If these tablets give you a headache you ought not (to) carry on using them.
But you ought to be able to overcome simple problems like this without our help.
You ought not (to) interrupt the guide when he’s talking.
You ought not (to) praise him for every little thing he does.
You ought not (to) trust everyone you meet.
These exercises are getting boring. We ought to vary them a bit.
71. Replace should with the modal verb ought to.
a) The doctor ought to have examined her more carefully.
b) You ought to have slowed down if she was frightened.
c) This ought to have been thrown out a long time ago.
d) I ought to have contributed more to the discussion.
e) You ought not (to) have put up with that.
f) I ought not (to) have entered without knocking.
g) You ought not (to) have gambled all his money away like that.
h) You ought not (to) have claimed that if it wasn’t true.
72. It won’t… Write a sentence with won’t for each picture. Translate the sentences into Czech.
a) The window won’t shut. To okno nejde zavřít. b) The car won’t start (up). To auto nejde nastartovat. c) The
door won’t open. Ty dveře nejdou otevřít. d) The pen won’t write. Ta propiska nepíše.
73. Complete each sentence using wouldn’t and one of the given verbs.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
I repeated the question several times but he wouldn’t answer.
I warned her again and again but she wouldn’t listen.
I asked them to be quiet but they wouldn’t stop talking.
He could see how much I had to do but he wouldn’t help.
I wanted to see his holiday photos but he wouldn’t show (them to) me…
…and then I wanted to show him my photos but he wouldn’t look at them.
I wanted to borrow a couple of CDs but she wouldn’t lend them to me.
We invited Tim to play as well but he wouldn’t join us.
I told him he was going much too fast but he wouldn’t slow down.
They offered her the best food they had but she wouldn’t touch it.
ought to with infinitive (70–71); won’t work, wouldn’t work (72–73)
215
12. Modální slovesa
74. Přeložte. Užívejte wouldn’t.
a) Ten fotoaparát nešel zapnout.
b) To auto nešlo nastartovat.
c) Ta zásuvka se nedala otevřít.
d) Ta skvrna se nedala vyprat.
e) Ta televize nefungovala.
f) Dveře od garáže nešly zavřít.
g) Řekl jsem, že by mu to chutnalo, ale on to ani nechtěl zkusit.
h) Ať už jí řekli cokoliv, ona jejich rady prostě nechtěla brát. [No…]
i) Stěžoval jsem si, že ta hudba je moc hlasitá, ale oni ji odmítli ztlumit.
j) Ten stroj nepřestával vydávat podivné zvuky.
Úroveň E
75. Will k vyjadřování logických domněnek. Doplňte uvedené sloveso. Užijte will s infinitivem přítomným,
nebo minulým dle smyslu.
a) I think I just heard the doorbell. ~ Yes, that ____________ (BE) the postman.
b) I’ll phone and ask them straight away. They ____________ (FINISH) their lunch by now.
c) But there ____________ (BE) any tickets left now. We should have booked them weeks ago.
d) I don’t think you ____________ (REMEMBER) Ian, although I did introduce him to you once.
e) I wonder how Ruth did in her exams. I should think they ____________ (SEND) her the results by now.
f) A red Ford’s just stopped outside. ~ Ah, that ____________ (BE) Simon and his new girlfriend.
g) As most of you ____________ (ALREADY KNOW), I shall be leaving the company at the end of next month.
h) As most of you ____________ (ALREADY HEAR), I shall be leaving the company at the end of next month.
76. Will k vyjadřování logických domněnek ohledně minulosti. Každou větu dokončete tak, že přeložíte
obsah závorek. Užijte minulý infinitiv.
Vzor: [Jak jste si již určitě všimli], it’s not that easy. > As you will have noticed, it’s not that easy.
a) [Jak jste si již určitě všimli], there isn’t much I can tell you on this topic.
b) I am the black sheep of the family, [jak vám již určitě došlo].
c) [Jak jste se v mém vlastním životopise již určitě dočetli], my childhood was not a happy one.
d) [Jak ti už jistě došlo], his name is not to be mentioned in Bill’s company.
e) We will be introducing a new system by the end of the year, [jak jste všichni již určitě slyšeli].
f) [Jak jste již určitě odhadla], we have had to rethink our whole strategy.
g) The gallery has recently purchased several works by this artist, [jak si naši návštěvníci již určitě všimli].
h) [Jak jste se již určitě dočetli v naší zprávě], there has been a slight decrease in production costs.
i) [Jak ses do teď jistě už dozvěděl], Gareth and Melissa are getting married on 2nd August.
j) [Jak vám již bylo určitě řečeno], Mr Robins will be leaving the department at the end of the month.
77. Přepište podle vzoru. Začněte přídavným jménem. Přeložte do češtiny.
Vzor: Although it might seem strange, Bryan and Ted are actually brothers. > Strange as it might seem, Bryan and
Ted are actually brothers.
a) However unlikely it may sound, it really is true.
b) It might look simple, but this is actually one of the most complex of all his works.
c) Although you might find it incredible, the theory is quite an easy one to prove.
d) It sounds funny, but it’s actually a real word.
e) Although it might be hard for some people to believe, it really is a true story.
216
won’t work, wouldn’t work (74); vyjadřování jistoty pomocí will (75–76); přípustkové věty s may/might (77)
12. Modal verbs
74. Translate. Use wouldn’t.
a) The camera wouldn’t come on/wouldn’t switch on.
b) The car wouldn’t start (up).
c) The drawer wouldn’t open.
d) The mark/spot wouldn’t wash out.
e) The television wouldn’t work.
f) The garage door(s) wouldn’t shut.
g) I said he would like it, but he wouldn’t even try it.
h) No matter what they told her, she simply wouldn’t take their advice.
i) I complained (that) the music was too loud but they wouldn’t turn it down.
j) The machine wouldn’t stop making strange noises.
Level E
75. Will in logical assumptions. Insert the given verb. Use will with either present or perfect infinitive, as
appropriate.
a) I think I just heard the doorbell. ~ Yes, that’ll be the postman.
b) I’ll phone and ask them straight away. They’ll have finished their lunch by now.
c) But there won’t be any tickets left now. We should have booked them weeks ago.
d) I don’t think you’ll remember Ian, although I did introduce him to you once.
e) I wonder how Ruth did in her exams. I should think they will have sent her the results by now.
f) A red Ford’s just stopped outside. ~ Ah, that’ll be Simon and his new girlfriend.
g) As most of you will already know, I shall be leaving the company at the end of next month.
h) As most of you will already have heard, I shall be leaving the company at the end of next month.
76. Will in logical assumptions about the past. Complete each sentence by translating what is in the brackets.
Use the perfect infinitive.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
As you will have noticed, there isn’t much I can tell you on this topic.
I am the black sheep of the family, as you will have realized/gathered.
As you will have read in my autobiography, my childhood was not a happy one.
As you will have realized, his name is not to be mentioned in Bill’s company.
We will be introducing a new system by the end of the year, as you will all have heard.
As you will have guessed, we have had to rethink our whole strategy.
The gallery has recently purchased several works by this artist, as our visitors will have noticed.
As you will have read in our report, there has been a slight decrease in production costs.
As you will have found out by now, Gareth and Melissa are getting married on 2nd August.
As you will have been told, Mr Robins will be leaving the department at the end of the month.
77. Rewrite as in the example. Always begin with an adjective. Translate into Czech.
a) Unlikely as it may sound, it really is true. Ač to zní nepravděpodobně, je to pravda.
b) Simple as it might look, this is actually one of his most complex works. Ač vypadá jednoduše, je to vlastně
jedno z jeho nejsložitějších děl.
c) Incredible as you might find it, the theory is quite an easy one to prove. Ač se ti to může zdát neuvěřitelné,
je celkem jednoduché tu teorii dokázat.
d) Funny as it sounds, it’s actually a real word. Ač to zní legračně, jde o skutečné slovo.
e) Hard as it might be for some people to believe, it really is a true story. Ač pro některé lidi může být těžké
tomu uvěřit, jde skutečně o pravdivý příběh.
won’t work, wouldn’t work (74); expressing certainty using will (75–76); clauses of concession using may/might (77)
217
12. Modální slovesa
78. Nahraďte konjunktiv pomocí should.
a) They request that we be present at the investigation.
b) They demand that we refund all their expenses.
c) He suggests that we give it another few days.
d) We ask that you pay for all the damage you have caused.
e) Some doctors recommend that children do not receive the vaccine before the age of six.
f) The organizers ask that cars be parked only on the company’s premises.
g) The situation might require that I stay in my office for several days in the coming week.
h) Mr Bryson requires that we be notified of any change in the current situation.
i) I am afraid I have to insist that head office be informed first.
j) I have written to Mr Hedges to propose that he approach Mrs Lombard.
k) I suggest that we put off making our final decision until next week.
l) The police have ordered that there be no contact between them.
m) It is absolutely essential that the information is not disclosed to anyone outside this institution.
n) It is imperative that you carry out the full procedure every time you leave the building.
79. Přeložte. Použijte if a should.
a) Kdybys mě snad potřeboval, budu ve své kanceláři.
b) Kdyby sis to náhodou rozmyslel, dám ti ještě jednu šanci.
c) Kdyby se to snad stalo znovu, budeme vědět, co dělat.
d) Kdybys snad někoho potkal, jen řekni, že jsem tě poslal já.
e) Kdybys snad slyšel nějaké povídačky o Iris a Murdochovi, nevěř ani slovu.
f) Kdybyste náhodou požadoval dodatečné informace, budu k dosažení na níže uvedeném čísle.
g) Kdybys tu snad náhodou našel nějaké brýle, jsou moje.
h) Kdyby snad oprava trvala déle než dva dny, poskytneme jiné vozidlo.
218
should nahrazující konjunktiv (78); should ve významu snad (79)
12. Modal verbs
78. Replace the subjunctive using should.
a) They request that we should be present at the investigation.
b) They demand that we should refund all their expenses.
c) He suggests that we should give it another few days.
d) We ask that you should pay for all the damage you have caused.
e) Some doctors recommend that children should not receive the vaccine before the age of six.
f) The organizers ask that cars should be parked only on the company’s premises.
g) The situation might require that I should stay in my office for several days in the coming week.
h) Mr Bryson requires that we should be notified of any change in the current situation.
i) I am afraid I have to insist that head office should be informed first.
j) I have written to Mr Hedges to propose that he should approach Mrs Lombard.
k) I suggest that we should put off making our final decision until next week.
l) The police have ordered that there should be no contact between them.
m) It is absolutely essential that the information should not be disclosed to anyone outside this institution.
n) It is imperative that you should carry out the full procedure every time you leave the building.
79. Translate. Use if and should.
a) If you should need me I’ll be in my office.
b) If you should change your mind I’ll give you one more chance.
c) If it should happen again we’ll know what to do.
d) If you should meet anyone just tell them I sent/I’ve sent you.
e) If you should hear any rumours/tales about Iris and Murdoch, don’t believe a word of it/them.
f) If you should require (any) additional information I can be contacted on the number below.
g) If you should happen to find/If by any chance you should find any/some glasses here, they’re mine.
h) If the repair(s) should take longer than two days we will provide another vehicle/provide a different vehicle.
should in place of subjunctive (78); should in the sense of snad (79)
219
Download

Ukázka