PRAGMATICS
What is Pragmatics?
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the study of speaker’s meaning.
the study of contextual meaning.
Pragmatics is concerned with our understanding of
language in context.
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Two Kinds Of Context
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linguistic context: the discourse that
precedes the phrase or sentence to be interpreted
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situational context: everything nonlinguistic in the environment of the
speaker.
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Two Kinds Of Context
Why linguistic context is important
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Within a discourse, preceding sentences affect the meaning of sentences
that follow them in various ways. For example, the reference or meaning of
pronouns often depends on prior discourse.
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Prior discourse can also disambiguate words like bank in that the
discussion may be about rafting on a river or interest rates.
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Two Kinds Of Context
Why situational context is important
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Situational context is the nonlinguistic environment in which a sentence or
discourse happens. It is the context that allows speakers to seamlessly,
even unknowingly, interpret questions like Can you pass the salt? as requests
to carry out a certain action and not a simple question.
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Situational context includes the speaker, hearer, and any third parties
present, along with their beliefs and their beliefs about what the others
believe. It includes the physical environment, the social milieu, the subject
of conversation, the time of day, and so on, ad infinitum. Almost any
imaginable extralinguistic factor may, under appropriate circumstances,
influence the way language is interpreted.
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Deixis
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In all languages, the reference of certain words and expressions relies
entirely on the situational context of the utterance, and can only be
understood in light of these circumstances. This aspect of pragmatics is
called deixis.
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Deixis
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In all languages, the reference of certain words and expressions relies
entirely on the situational context of the utterance, and can only be
understood in light of these circumstances. This aspect of pragmatics is
called deixis.
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Deixis
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Deixis
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Deixis
Some other expressions that are deictic
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Deixis
Some other expressions that are deictic
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Deixis
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Deixis
A test to identify deictic elements in a sentence.
In reported speech, deictic terms occurring in the original utterance
(the utterance being reported) may be translated into other,
possibly non-deictic, terms in order to preserve the original reference.
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A summary of Deixis
Deictic expressions are those which take some element of their
meanin directly from the immediate situation of the utterance in which
they are used (e.g. from the speaker, the hearer, the time and place of
the utterance).
Examples of deictic words are I, you, here, now, come.
We have three types of deixis:
a) Person deixis
b) Temporal deixis
c) Spatial deixis
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Conversational Implicature
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Conversational Implicature
In conversation we sometimes infer or conclude based not only on
what was said, but also on assumptions about what the speaker is
trying to achieve.
Such inferences are known as implicatures. Implicatures are
inferences that are not made strictly on the basis of the content
expressed in the discourse.
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Conversational Implicature
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Conversational Implicature
Implicature is not a form of inference that can be predicted solely
from a knowledge of the system of sense relations between
sentences.
How does a hearer make reasonable inferences from an
utterance when the actual sentence uttered does not in
fact entail some of the inferences he makes?
The answer is that when a speaker says something, we usually
assume that the speaker tries to be cooperative. This is called the
Cooperative Principle.
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Cooperative Principle
The Co-operative Principle can be stated simply as ‘be as
helpful to your hearer as you can’. The fact that speakers are
assumed to follow this principle is used by hearers in making
inferences from the utterances they hear.
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Cooperative Principle
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Cooperative Principle
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Cooperative Principle
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Maxims of Conversation
When speaker’s are deducing an implicature, they usually assume that
the speaker is not violating any of these maxims.
Unless speakers are being deliberately uncooperative, they adhere
to these maxims and to other conversational principles, and assume
others do too.
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Maxims of Conversation
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Maxims of Conversation
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Maxims of Conversation
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Maxims of Conversation
Which maxims does Hamlet violate?
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Maxims of Conversation
Man: Does your dog bite?
Woman: No.
(The man reaches down to pet the dog, and the dog
bites the man.)
Man: Ouch! Hey! You said your dog does not bite!
Woman: He doesn’t. But, that is not my dog.
What is the maxim that is violated by the woman here?
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Speech Acts
You can use language to do things. You can use language to make promises,
lay bets, issue warnings, name boats, place names in nomination, or offer
congratulations.. The theory of speech acts describes how this is done.
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Speech Acts
You can use language to do things. You can use language to make promises,
lay bets, issue warnings, christen boats, place names in nomination, or offer
congratulations.. The theory of speech acts describes how this is done.
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Speech Acts
You can use language to do things. You can use language to make promises,
lay bets, issue warnings, christen boats, place names in nomination, or offer
congratulations.. The theory of speech acts describes how this is done.
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Speech Acts
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Speech Acts
PERFORMATIVES VS. CONSTAIVES
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Speech Acts
PERFORMATIVES VS. CONSTAIVES
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Speech Acts
PERFORMATIVES VS. CONSTAIVES
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Speech Acts
PERFORMATIVES VS. CONSTAIVES
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Speech Acts
PERFORMATIVES VS. CONSTAIVES
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Speech Acts
PERFORMATIVES VS. CONSTAIVES
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Speech Acts
PERFORMATIVES VS. CONSTAIVES
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
These answers show that the speech act approach to meaning promises
a unified account of the utterance of sentences of all types, declarative,
interrogative, and imperative. All perform acts of some kind or other. And,
furthermore, sentences of each type, when uttered, tend to carry out
typical linguistic acts. The pattern is summarized in the chart below.
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
In questions (2)–(5), you were asked to suggest perlocutionary
effects for given utterances. Now state the illocution of each of those
utterances, selecting from the list given in the above definition, and
assuming normal circumstances.
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Speech Acts
PERLOCUTIONS AND ILLOCUTIONS
In questions (2)–(5), you were asked to suggest perlocutionary
effects for given utterances. Now state the illocution of each of those
utterances, selecting from the list given in the above definition, and
assuming normal circumstances.
Feedback (1) condoling (2) recommending (3) complaining
(4) admitting (5) accosting
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PRAGMATICS