Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE)
Vol. 4(2), pp. 27-36, August, 2014
Available online at http://mije.mevlana.edu.tr/
http://dx.doi.org/10.13054/mije.14.41.4.2
A comparative study on the environmental attitudes of 60-66-month-old
children and their mothers
Sema Soydan
Mevlana University, Konya/Turkey, [email protected]
Ayşe Ozturk Samur
Adnan Menderes University, Aydın/Turkey, [email protected]
Article history
Received:
27.03.2014
Received in revised form:
17.04.2014
Accepted:
18.04.2014
Key words:
preschool children, parent,
environmental awareness,
environmental attitude
The aim of this study is to examine the environmental attitudes of 60-66month-old preschool children and their mothers through certain variables
(gender, age and education level) and determine the relationship between
their attitude scores. The sample consists of 178 children and their
mothers. As data collection tools, general information form,
Environmental Attitude Scale and Environmental Awareness and
Attitude Scale for Preschool Children are used. The data are analyzed by
using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient technique,
independent t-test, one-way analysis of variation and LSD test. The
bottom, middle and top scores of the mothers and children’s attitudes
towards environment are obtained through the calculation of frequency,
percentage, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The study reveals
that 60-66-month-old children’s environmental awareness and attitude
and the mothers’ environmental attitude are high. However, there is no
significant relationship between their attitude scores. The study also
shows that female children’s average scores of environmental awareness
and attitude are higher than male children’s and that mothers’
environmental attitude becomes positive as their education level and age
rise.
Introduction
Attitude has been defined as referring to a “psychological tendency that is expressed
by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor” (Eagly & Chaiken,
1993, Değirmenci, 2013). An important quality of attitude is that it is long-term and involves
cognitive, emotional and behavioral forms. These forms have an influence on each other and
are influenced by each other. (Değirmenci, 2013). Attitude is regarded as substantial
explanatory of behavior with its cognitive, emotional and behavioral aspects. (Kağıtçıbaşı,
2010). Environmental attitude is ‘a whole of positive or negative manners and thoughts
regarding people’s environmentally-friendly behaviors such as fear, fury and anxiety caused
by environmental problems, value judgments and readiness for handling environmental
problems’ (Uzun, 2007). Moreover, interests and attitudes are crucial in environmental
education (Gökçe, Kaya, Aktay and Özden, 2007). Poortinga, Steg, and Vlek (2004)
highlight in their study that apart from their knowledge, people’s traits like interests and
attitudes affect their behaviors towards environment. Therefore, the most effective way of
handling environmental problems is to change behaviors in a positive way by informing
people about the causes and consequences of environmental problems, raising public
awareness of environment and building a positive attitude towards environment (Gürbüz,
Kışoğlu and Erkol, 2007). Erten (2005) defines environmental attitude as a whole of positive
A comparative study on the environmental attitudes…S. Soydan & A. O. Samur
or negative manners and thoughts regarding people’s environmentally-friendly behaviors such
as fear, fury and anxiety caused by environmental problems, value judgments and readiness
for handling environmental problems. Developing a positive attitude towards environment at
early ages is, therefore, really important and this is affected by many factors.
Earlier studies indicate that environmental attitude, similar to other attitudes, seem to form a
result of the socialization processes (Gronhoj & Thogersen, 2009; Guastello & Peissig, 1998).
There is also evidence that mothers’ and fathers’ beliefs and behaviors may have differential
effects on their children (Sigel, Stinson, & Flaugher, 1991). Thus the close interaction within
families and, in particular, the parents’ role as primary socialization agents for their children,
might lead to some level of correspondence of environmental attitudes between generations
(Gronhoj & Thogersen, 2009). Analyzing the similarity of children’s and their parents’
attitudes in terms of means (elevation) and correlations (pattern) could yield seemingly
contradictory results. Comparing means across the four groups (father, mother, daughter, and
son) it should be possible to discover whether the younger generation is different from their
parents’ generation in the variables of interest (generation gap). However, even if a generation
gap is found, there may still be substantial consistency between paired parents and children.
For example, the younger generation as a group may have a more negative environmental
attitude than their parents, but across children and their parents there may be clear consistency
in environmental attitudes when compared to the attitudes of their respective cohorts
(Guastello & Peissig, 1998; Gronhoj & Thogersen 2009). According to Basile (2000),
building environmental knowledge and attitude is a process shaped during pre-school
education. Similarly, Wilson (1996) states that environmental education given at early ages
enables students to develop positive attitudes towards environment at later stages.
Whereas the studies on environmental attitudes and factors affecting these attitudes in
primary, secondary and tertiary levels and among teachers are significantly high in number
(Atasoy & Ertürk, 2008; Ay Selanik, 2010; Aydın & Çepni, 2012; Değirmenci, 2013; Erol &
Gezer, 2006; Erten, 2005; Gökçe, Kaya, Aktay & Özden, 2007; Gürbüz, Kışoğlu & Erkol,
2007; Özdemir, 2010; Uzun & Sağlam, 2006; Uzun, 2007), the studies on preschool
children’s environmental attitude are only a few. In these few studies, children’s
environmental attitude is compared based on where they live, their gender, age, family
structure, income level, parents’ age, occupation and education level (Haktanır & Çabuk,
2000; Kesicioğlu & Alisinanoğlu, 2009; Surbrook, 1997). However, we do not encounter
studies on a comparison between parents and children’s environmental attitudes. Thus, this
study is carried out in order to determine 60-66-month-old preschool children and their
mothers’ environmental attitude levels and the relationship between their attitudes. In
addition, mothers and children’s environmental attitudes are examined through certain
variables (gender, age and education level).
Method
Research Pattern
In this study, one of the quantitative research methods called survey is used. A survey
is ideal for large samples and is a study model ‘aiming to collect data to determine certain
qualities of a group’ (Büyüköztürk, Çakmak, Akgün, Karadeniz and Demirel, 2011).
-28
Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 27-36, 1 August, 2014
Sample
The sample of the study consists of 178 children and their mothers. The children are
60-66- month-old children attending independent kindergartens -supervised by the Ministry of
National Education- in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey in the 2012-2013 academic
year.
The female children make up 52% of the sample (n=93) and the male children make up 48%
(n=85). 36% of the mothers (64 mothers) are between the ages of 20 and 30, 58% (103
mothers) are between the ages of 30 and 40 and 6% (11 mothers) are at the age of 40 or over
40. In addition, 33% of the mothers (58 mothers) have finished primary school, 22% (40
mothers) have finished secondary school, 15% (26 mothers) have finished high school, 26%
(26 mothers) have a university degree and 4% (8 mothers) have a master’s degree.
Data Collection Tools and Their Application
As data collection tools, General Information Form, Environmental Awareness and
Attitude Scale for Preschool Children and Environmental Attitude Scale are used.
General Information Form: In the study, a general information form enquiring the gender of
the child, the education level and age of the mother is used to identify the demographic
features of the sample.
Environmental Attitude Scale: The ‘Environmental Attitude Scale’ prepared by Uzun and
Sağlam (2006) is used to determine the mothers’ attitude towards environmental problems.
The scale has two subscales: ‘Environmental Behavior Subscale’ (13 items) and
‘Environmental Thought Subscale’ (14 items). In the Environmental Behavior Subscale,
Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient coefficient a= 0,88 and Spearman Brown reliability
coefficient is found to be 0,81. In the Environmental Thought Subscale, Cronbach alpha
reliability a=.80 and Spearman Brown reliability coefficient is found to be 0,75.
Environmental Awareness and Attitude Scale for Preschool Children
In the study, the ‘Environmental Awareness and Attitude Scale for Preschool
Children’ developed by Soydan and Öztürk Samur is used to determine the children’s
awareness and attitude towards environment. The scale consists of two subscales with 26
items. 44.02% of the total variance is explained in the Environmental Attitude Subscale and
40.94% is explained in the Environmental Awareness Subscale. Both subscales involve
subfactors called consumption, protecting living things and environmental pollution. In the
Environmental Attitude Subscale factor loadings of the items range between .42 and .74 and
in the Environmental Awareness Subscale they range between .39 and .74. The interfactor
correlation coefficients are respectively r=.80, .78 and .83 in the Environmental Awareness
Subscale and r=.70, .79 and .72 in the Environmental Attitude Subscale. As for the reliability
statistics, in the Environmental Attitude Subscale, Spearman Brown reliability coefficient is
calculated to be 0,75 and Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient is calculated to be 0.73; in the
Environmental Awareness Subscale, Spearman Brown reliability coefficient is calculated to
be .65 and Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient is calculated to be .66; and in the overall
scale Spearman Brown reliability coefficient is calculated to be .60 and Cronbach alpha
reliability coefficient is calculated to be .67. According to t-test results concerning the
significance of the difference between the upper and lower 27% of the total scores, there is a
significant difference in favour of the upper group. The item factor correlation coefficients
-29-
A comparative study on the environmental attitudes…S. Soydan & A. O. Samur
for the first factor ranges between 0.34 and 0.47 and between 0.32 and 0.40 for the second
factor. The average item discrimination value of the scale is 38.
Data analysis
The items of the Environmental Attitude Scale developed to determine adults’
environmental attitude are specified as totally disagree (1), disagree (2), partially agree (3),
agree (4) and totally agree (5). The raw scores obtained from the scale are transformed to
standard scores with a bottom score of 27 and a top score of 135. The range of the scores
obtained from the subscales can be summarized as 27-63: Low Range, 64-99: Medium Range
and 100-135: High Range. Based on these data, frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean and
standard deviation are calculated in order to determine the mothers’ environmental attitude.
The items of the Environmental Awareness and Attitude Scale for Preschool Children
developed to determine children’s environmental attitude are specified in the first subscale as
prefer a negative behavior (0), sometimes prefer a positive behavior (1), always prefer a
positive behavior (2) and in the second subscale regarding what is told the items are specified
as state incorrectly (0), state ‘don’t know’ (1), state correctly (2). The raw scores obtained
from the scale are transformed to standard scores with a bottom score of 0 and a top score of
58. The range of the scores obtained from the subscales can be summarized as 0-19: Low
Range, 20-39: Medium Range and 40-58: High Range. Based on these data, frequency,
percentage, arithmetic mean and standard deviation are calculated in order to determine the
children’s environmental attitude.
The analysis of the relationship between the mothers and children’s environmental attitudes is
carried out using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient technique. The
difference in the children’s environmental awareness and attitude scores based on their gender
is evaluated by t-test and the mothers’ environmental attitude scores based on their education
level and age are evaluated by one-way analysis of variation. The cause of significance is
identified by LSD test.
Findings
In this part, the findings of the study are given based on the data obtained.
Variable
Table 1. Mothers and children’s environmental attitude scores
Scores (f/%)
̅
n
Ss
Min Max
Low
Medium
High
Mothers’
environmental 178 1.04
attitude scores
12.9
27
135
0
0
56
31.5
122 68.5
Children’s
environmental 178 46.3
awareness and
attitude scores
6.2
0
58
0
0
17
9.6
161 90.4
When the data on the mothers’ environmental attitude scores in Table 1 are analyzed, it is
observed that more than half (68.5%) are high and 31.5% are medium. Regarding the data on
the children’s environmental awareness and attitude scores, it is revealed that more than half
(90.4%) are high and 9.6% are medium.
-30
Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 27-36, 1 August, 2014
Table 2. Correlation coefficient significance between children’s environmental awareness and
attitude scale scores and mothers’ environmental attitude scale scores
Environmental awareness and
attitude scale
Environmental attitude scale
r
p
n
.03
.61
178
When Table 2 is analyzed, it is seen that there is no significant relationship between the
children’s environmental awareness and attitude and the mothers’ environmental attitude.
Table 3. Independent t-test results regarding the difference in average scores of children’s
environmental awareness and attitude based on gender
Dependent variable
Groups
n
Ss
t
Χ
Children’s
Female
93 47.1720
.64859
environmental awareness and
1,940*
Male
85 45.3647
66754
attitude
* p<.05)
Table 3 indicates the t-test results regarding the comparison of the female and male children’s
average scores of environmental awareness and attitude. Based on a statistical analysis, it is
found out that the children’s average scores of environmental awareness and attitude (t=
1.940; p<.05) significantly differ in favor of the female children.
Table 4. Results of one-way analysis of variation regarding mothers’ environmental attitude
levels based on age
Differences
Groups
n
Ss
F
p
Χ
among groups
aged 20-25 (1) 4
94.75
14.43
aged 26-30 (2) 60
100.90
11.37
1-5*
aged 31-35 (3) 59
104.89
13.74
2.73
.03
2-4*
aged 36-40 (4) 44
106.86
12.97
2-5*
aged 41 and
11
110.36
12.39
over 41 (5)
*p<.05
When Table 4 is analyzed, it is found that the mothers’ environmental attitude levels differ
depending on age using one-way analysis of variation (p<.05).
LSD test is used to identify the source of difference. The average environmental attitude
scores of the mothers aged 20-25 are considerably higher than the mothers aged 41 and over,
and similarly, the average scores of the mothers aged 26-30 are considerably higher than the
mothers aged 36-40 and 41 and over (p<.05). In other comparisons of two groups, no
significant difference is found.
Table 5. Results of one-way analysis of variation regarding mothers’ environmental attitude
levels based on education level
Differences
Groups
n
Ss
F
p
Χ
among groups
-31-
A comparative study on the environmental attitudes…S. Soydan & A. O. Samur
Primary School (1)
Secondary School (2)
High School (3)
University and master’s
degree (4)
58
40
26
96.41
101.07
106.96
17.7
54
113.37
.000
1-2**
1-3**
1-4**
2-3**
2-4**
3-4**
**p<.01
The analysis of Table 5 reveals that the mothers’ environmental attitude levels differ based on
their education level as a result of one-way analysis of variation (p<.01). LSD test is used to
identify the source of difference. The average environmental attitude scores of the mothers
who finished primary school are found to be lower than the average scores of the mothers
who finished secondary school, high school and university (p<.01). In addition, the average
scores of the mothers who finished secondary school are higher than the average scores of the
mothers who finished high school and university, and the average scores of the mothers who
finished high school are higher than the average scores of the mothers who finished university
and have a master’s degree. These results indicate that the mothers’ environmental attitude
average scores increase significantly as their education level rises. In other comparisons of
two groups, no significant difference is found.
Discussion
According to the results obtained in the study, the mothers’ environmental attitude
average scores and the children’s environmental attitude and awareness average scores are
high. However, 90% of the children display a highly positive attitude towards environment,
whereas 68% of the mothers display such a positive environmental attitude. The findings of
the study also reveal that the environmental awareness of the children at early ages is
relatively high compared with the adults. This may result from the environmental education
given to children at school in early years. In addition, findings are available which show that
the young generation display a more positive attitude towards environment than their families
(Diamantopoulos, Schelegelmilch, Sinkovich, and Bohlen 2003; Uyeki & Holland, 2000).
However, in order to maintain attitudes and behaviors which they gain through their education
at school, young children need to observe and have an opportunity to apply similar behaviors
in their family environment. Therefore, the families must be involved in the environmental
education programs prepared for the children at early ages. Thus, the children gain a positive
attitude and behavior towards environment permanently and the adults who are more
influential on environmental problems are educated on the issue.
Another finding of the study is that there is no significant relationship between the children
and their mothers’ environmental awareness and attitude. The previous research findings
regarding the fact that there is no relationship between mothers and children’s environmental
attitude support the current result (Malkus, 1992; Musser & Diamond, 1999). Although a
relationship is expected between mothers and children’s attitudes, it is not surprising that
there is not such a relationship. Because attitudes cannot be observed; instead, children must
infer attitudes from a wide variety of observed behaviors (Bandura, 1986). Although parents
may place a high value on qualities such as environmental conservation, the child must infer
those values and attitudes from the parents’ behaviors (Goodnow, 1992). Furthermore, parents
should not be considered as the only source of children’s attitudes. The reason for this is
children also observe other models such as their siblings, elderly family members, teachers
and the models they see on television or books. In addition, there are findings which show
-32
Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 27-36, 1 August, 2014
that formal education enables individuals to develop a positive attitude towards environment
(Özdemir, 2010; Taşkın, 2005; Domka, 2004; Palmer, 1995). According to Ballantyne and
Packer (2002), the environmental education applications carried out in schools can contribute
to the children’s correct and realistic perception of their environment and development of
responsible behaviors. The environmental education applications carried out in schools
particularly contribute to the children’s development of responsible behaviors towards their
environment (Ay, 2010).
On the other hand, there are studies which reveal a positive relationship between children and
their families’ environmental interest and responsibility (Gronhoj & Thogersen, 2009;
Guastello & Peissig, 1998; Sutherland & Ham, 1999; Vaughan, Gack, Solorazano, & Ray,
2003). It is discovered that the samples of these studies consist of age groups from primary
and above levels. The findings of these studies show that as children grow up they take the
attitude and behaviors of their family as models more. These findings support our view on the
necessity of involving families in environmental education -which is given to children at early
ages- for a permanent quality.
The results of the study suggest that the female children’s environmental awareness and
attitude levels are higher than the male ones’. However, some studies carried out about
preschool children reveal that male children have a more positive attitude towards
environment than female ones (Kesicioğlu & Alisinanoğlu, 2009) and some state that gender
has no significance for environmental attitudes (Musser & Diamond, 1999; Haktanır &
Çabuk, 2000).
Also the studies regarding older age groups show that male children have a lower
environmental attitude (Alp, Ertepinar, Tekkaya and Yılmaz, 2006; Erol & Gezer, 2006;
Hornsey, McAuliffe and Hogg, 2006; Zelezny, Chua and Aldrich, 2000; Çabuk &
Karacaoğlu, 2003; Deniş & Genç, 2007; Atasoy & Ertürk, 2008; Değirmenci, 2013), male
children have a more positive environmental attitude than female ones (Aydın & Çepni, 2012)
and that gender have no significance for environmental attitudes (Gülay, 2011; Musser &
Diamond, 1999; Teodori & Luloff, 2002). All these researches with different results make us
ponder about the effects of the other variables on environmental awareness and attitude as
well as the gender variable.
The analysis of the mothers’ environmental attitude scores based on their age indicates that
the average scores of the mothers aged 20-25 are remarkably lower than the mothers aged 41
and over and the average scores of the mothers aged 26-30 are much lower than the mothers
aged 36-40 and 41 and over. It can be suggested that the average environmental attitude
scores of the mothers aged 36 and over are considerably higher than the mothers aged 20-30.
This finding shows that adults develop a more positive attitude towards environment as they
become older. Erol and Gezer (2006) have found out the attitudes of people over 21 are
relatively positive compared to the people below 21. Diamantopoulos, Schelegelmilch,
Sinkovich, and Bohlen (2003) have pointed out the elderly take more responsibility for
recycling. Also there are studies which show the elderly’s behavior towards green is at a
higher level (Schahn and Holzer, 1990; Vining and Ebreo, 1990; Scott and Willits, 1994, akt.
Diamantopoulos, Schelegelmilch, Sinkovich, and Bohlen, 2003). These results indicate a rise
in environmental attitude levels based on aging.
The analysis of the mothers’ environmental attitude sores based on their education level
reveals that the mothers’ environmental attitude scores increase significantly as their
education level rises. The findings of the study on the positive relationship between the
-33-
A comparative study on the environmental attitudes…S. Soydan & A. O. Samur
education level and environmental attitude carried out by Atasoy & Ertürk, (2008); Teodori &
Luloff (2002); Yücel, Uslu, & Peker Say, 2003; Yücel, Uslu, Altunkasa, Güçray and Peker
Say, 2006) support the results of the study. This finding can be interpreted as the development
of positive environmental attitudes through education. When environmental education is
considered as a lifelong interdisciplinary approach (Deniş & Genç; 2007), it can be stated that
environmental attitude and skills should be gained from early ages onwards through various
disciplines. Finally, the finding that the mothers’ environmental attitude rises based on their
age and education level can be explained with the environmental attitude and skills lasting
through life and developing through education.
References
Alp, E., Ertepinar, H., Tekkaya C. & Yilmaz, A. (2006). A statistical analysis of childrens
environmental knowledge and attitudes in Turkey. International Research in
Geographical and Environmental Education, 15(3), 210 – 223.
Atasoy, E., & Ertürk, H. (2008). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin çevresel tutum ve çevre bilgisi
üzerine bir alan arastırması. [A field study about environmental knowledge and
attidudes of elementary scool students] Erzincan Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 10 (1),
105-122.
Ay Selanik, T. (2010). Sosyal bilgiler dersinde çevre bilinci kazandırmada medya
ürünlerinden yararlanmaya ilişkin öğrenci görüşleri. [Social studies course student
views on environmental awareness gaining media products to exploit] Uluslararası
Avrasya Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 1 (1), 76-93.
Aydın, F., & Çepni, O. (2012). İlköğretim ikinci kademe öğrencilerinin çevreye yönelik
tutumlarının bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. [Examining attitudes of
secondary school students’ towards environment in terms of some variables] (Karabük
İli Örneği). Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 18, 189-217.
Ballantyne, R. & Packer, J. (2002). Nature based excursions: school students‟ perceptions of
learning in natural environments. International Research in Geographical and
Environmental Education, 11(3), 218–236.
Basile, C. G. (2000). Environmental education as a catalyst for transfer of learning in young
children. The Journal of Environmental Education, 32(1), 21–27.
Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel, F. (2011).
Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (8.baskı). Bilmenin yolları, bilimsel yöntem,
araştırmaların sınıflandırılması, araştırma etiği, problem tanımlama, örnekleme
yöntemleri, veri toplama teknikleri, nicel ve nitel araştırma desenleri, APA
raporlaştırma. [Ways of learning, scientific method, classification of the studies,
research ethics, identification of problem, sampling methods, data collection methods,
qualitative and quantitative research designs] Türkiye. Pegem.
Çabuk, B., & Karacaoğlu, Ö. C. (2003). Üniversite öğrencilerinin çevre duyarlılıklarının
incelenmesi. [Examining environmental sensitivity of university students] Ankara
Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 36 (l-2), 189-198.
Değirmenci, M. (2013). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin çevreye karşı tutumlarının farklı
değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. [An investigation of primary school students’
environmental attitudes in terms of different variables] (Kayseri İli Örneği). Middle
Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research, 3,59-68.
Deniş, H., & Genç, H. (2007). Çevre bilimi dersi alan ve almayan sınıf öğretmenliği
öğrencilerinin çevreye ilişkin tutumları ve çevre bilimi dersindeki başarılarının
karşılaştırılması. [Comparing attitudes towards the environment of primary school
teaching students who take and who do not take environmental science course and
-34
Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 27-36, 1 August, 2014
comparing their success in environmental science course] Mehmet Akif Ersoy
Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 13, 20-26.
Diamantopoulos, A., Schelegelmilch, B., Sinkovich, R., & Bohlen, G. (2003). Can sociodemographics still play a role in profiling green consumers? A review of evidence and
an empirical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 56, 465–480.
Domka, L. (2004). Environmental education at pre-school. International Research in
Geographical and Environmental Education, 13(3), 258-263.
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich.
Erol, G. H. ve Gezer, K. (2006). Teachers' attitudes toward environment and environmental
problems. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 1(1), 65 –
77.
Erten, S. (2005). Okul öncesi öğretmen adaylarında çevre dostu davranışların araştırılması.
[Investigation of preservice preschool teachers’ behaviors related to environmental
awareness] Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 28, 91-100.
Gökçe, N., Kaya, E., Aktay, S. & M. Özden. (2007). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin çevreye
yönelik tutumları. [Primary school students’ environmental attitudes]. İlköğretim
Online. 6(3), 452-468.
Goodnow, J. J. (1992). Parents' ideas, children's ideas: Correspondence and divergence. In I.
Sigel, A. McGillicuddy-DeLisi, & I. J. Goodnow (Ed.), Parental belief systems: The
psychological consequences for children (2nd ed.. pp. 293-318). Hillsdale. NJ:
Erlbaum.
Gronhoj, A., & Thogersen, J. (2009). Like father, like son? Intergenerational transmission of
values, attitudes, and behaviours in environmental domain. Journal of Environmental
Psychology, 29, 414–421.
Guastello, D., & Peissig, R. (1998). Authoritarianism, environmentalism, and cynicism of
college students and their parents. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 297–410.
Gülay, H. (2011). Reliability and Validity Studies of the Turkish Version of the Children’s
Attitudes toward the Environment Scale-Preschool Version (CATES-PV) and the
Analysis of Children’s Pro-environmental Behaviors According to Different
Variables. Asian Social Science, 7 (10), 229-240.
Gürbüz, H., Kışoğlu, M., & Erkol, M. (2007). Biyoloji öğretmeni adaylarının çevreye yönelik
tutumlarının informal ve formal eğitim ortamları açısından değerlendirilmesi.
[Assesment of the biology teacher candidates' environmental attitudes for informal and
formal learning surroundings] Atatürk Üniversitesi Bayburt Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,
2 (3), 74-84.
Haktanır, G., & Çabuk, B. (2000). Environmental perception of preschool children. In IV.
Science Education Congress Abstract Book (pp. 76–81). Ankara: Hacettepe
University, Faculty of Education.
Hornsey, J. J., McAuliffe, B. J., & Hogg, M. A. (2006). The impact of individualist and
collectivist group norms on evaluations of dissenting group members. Journal of
Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 57–68.
Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2010). Günümüzde insan ve insanlar: Sosyal psikolojiye giriş. [Human and
humans today; Introduction to social psychology] (12. Basım). İstanbul: Evrim
Yayınevi.
Kesicioğlu, S., & Alisinanoğlu, F. (2009). Investigation of environmental experiences of
preschool children. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 8(29), 2–14.
Malkus. A. J. (1992). Children's attitudes toward the environment: Relatioanship with
parents' environmental attitudes, family environmental practices and children's
personality characteristics (Master's thesis). Purdue University, West Lafayette. IN.
-35-
A comparative study on the environmental attitudes…S. Soydan & A. O. Samur
Musser, L. & Diamond, K. (1999). The children's attitudes toward the environment scale
forpreschool children. Journal of Environmental Education, 30 (2), 23-29.
Özdemir, O. (2010). Doğa deneyimine dayalı çevre eğitiminin ilköğretim öğrencilerinin
çevrelerine yönelik algı ve davranışlarına etkisi. [The effects of nature-based
environmental education on environmental perception and behaviour of primary
school students] Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 27, 125-138.
Palmer, J. A. (1995). Environmental thinking in the early years: Understanding and
misunderstanding of concepts related to waste management. Environmental Education
Research. 1(1), 35-45.
Poortinga, W., Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2004). Values, environmental concern and environmental
behavior: a study into household energy use. Environment and Behavior, 36, 70–93.
Sigel, I.. Stinson, E. T. & Flaugher, J. (1991). Socialization of representational competence
in the family: The distancing paradigm. In L. Okagaki &R. Sternberg (Eds.).
Directors of development: Influences on the development of children's thinking (pp.
121-144). Hilladale. NJ: Erlbaum.
Surbrook, A.N. (1997). Children’s exposure to the natural environment and their
environmental attitudes (Master’s Thesis), Michigan State University.
Sutherland, D. & Ham, S. (1999). Child-to-parent transfer of environmental ideology in Costa
Rica Families: An ethnographic case study. Journal of Environmental Education, 1(1),
30–31.
Taşkın, Ö. (2005). An evaluation of the studies on environmental attitude and knowledge.
Eğitim ve Bilim, 30 (138), 78-85.
Teodori, G. L. & Luloff, A. L. (2002). Position on Environmental Issues and Engagement in
Proenvironmental Behaviors. Society & Natural Resources, 15 (6), 471-482.
Uyeki, E., & Holland, L. (2000). Diffusion of pro-environment attitudes? American
Behavioral Scientist, 43, 646–662.
Uzun N. & Sağlam N. (2006). Orta öğretim öğrencileri için çevresel tutum ölçeği geliştirme
ve geçerliliği. [Development and validation of an environmental attitudes scale for
high school students] Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, (30), 240-250.
Uzun, N. (2007). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin çevreye yönelik bilgi ve tutumları üzerine bir
çalışma. [A study on the secondary school students' knowledge and attitudes towards
the environment] (Doktora tezi). Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara.
Vaughan, C., Gack, H., Solorazano, H., & Ray, R. (2003). The effect of environmental
education on school children, their parents, and community members: A study of
intergenerational intercommunity learning. Journal of Environmental Education,
34(3), 12–21.
Wilson, R. A. (1996). Environmental education programs for preschool children. Journal of
Environmental Education, 27(4), 28-33.
Yücel, M., Uslu, C., & Peker Say, N., (2003). Çukurova Üniversitesi Personel ve
Öğrencilerinin Çevre Duyarlılıklarının Belirlenmesi. [Identifying environmental
sensitivity of the staff and students of Çukurova University] Çukurova Üniversitesi
Ziraat Fakültesi Araştırma Projesi, Proje No: BAP – PM 2002-01. Adana.
Yücel, M., Uslu, C., Altunkasa, F., Güçray, S.S., & Peker Say, N.(2006). Adana’da çevre
duyarlılığı düzeyinin ve geliştirme olanaklarının araştırılması. [Investigation on the
environmental awareness level and its developing possibilities in Adana] Akdeniz
Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(2), 217-228.
Zelezny, L. C., Chua, P., & Aldrich, C. (2000). Elaborating on gender differences in
environmentalism. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 443–457.
-36
Download

A comparative study on the environmental attitudes of 60-66