robert e. gudini
hans-diter klingemani
politikuri mecniereba:
disciplina
თბილისი
2014
1
შინაარსი
Sesavali ...........................................................................................3
I politikuri mecniereba, rogorc disciplina.............4
a. disciplinis buneba ..........................................................4
b. ra aris politika? .............................................................8
g. politikis ramdenime mecniereba ................................12
II profesiis simwifis xana ....................................................14
III profesionalizmis kriteriumebi ..................................22
a. klasikuri naSromebi .....................................................23
b. saWirboroto Temebi ......................................................26
IV profesiis konturebi: bibliometruli analizi ..35
daskvna ............................................................................................40
2
Sesavali
interesi warsulisadmi Tavisi bunebiT arCeviTia.
mraval sayuradRebo dakvirvebas Seicavs politikuri
mecnierebis axal saxelmZRvaneloSi Sesul mimoxilvaTa
farTo speqtri. vinc naSromis yvela Tavs mTlianad
waikiTxavs, am wignis mniSvnelobas gacilebiT ukeT
mixvdeba. Tumca, ra Tqma unda, is arasrulia da, garkveuli
TvalsazrisiT, unikaluric. avtorebi iZulebulni iyvnen,
yuradRebis miRma daetovebinaT bevri mniSvnelovani sakiTxi
radgan, is ar Seesatyviseboda wignis struqturas. axali
saxelmZRvanelos avtorebi mogviTxroben imis Sesaxeb, Tu
ra xdeboda politikuri mecnierebis sferoSi ukanaskneli
ori aTwleulis manZilze da maT pretenzia ar aqvT,
srulad gadmoscen mTeli dargis istoria.
SesavalSi gansazRvrulia wignis calkeuli nakveTis
adgili disciplinis saerTo konteqstSi, warmoCenilia
yvelaze saintereso saerTo maxasiaTeblebi. cxadia, es
`mimoxilvaTa mimoxilva~ kidev ufro naklebad SeiZleba
iyos yovlismomcveli, vidre TiToeuli momdevno Tavi.
axali
saxelmZRvanelo
politikuri
mecnierebis,
rogorc
disciplinis,
profesiuli
simwifis
naTeli
dadastureba gamodga. dargis ganviTareba ormxriv xasiaTs
atarebs:
erTi
mxriv,
aSkaraa
kvlevis
aRmavali
diferenciacia sul ufro da ufro safuZvliani, Rrma
gamokvlevebiT, romlebic xorcieldeba qvedisciplinebSi
(da
am
qvedisciplinebis
SigniT
calkeul
viwro
specialobebSic),
meore
mxriv
ki
_
calkeul
qvedisciplinaTa mzardi integracia.
Tuki
mzardi
diferenciacia
da
specializacia
siaxles ar warmoadgens, integracia did gakvirvebas iwvevs.
amasTanave, mkafiod ikveTeba mkvlevarTa interesi momijnave
qvedisciplinebisadmi.
mudmivi
inteleqtualuri
urTierTinteresi aaxloebs calkeul qvedisciplinebs da
iZleva SesaZleblobas, rom Teoriulma inovaciebma swrafad
gadalaxon qvedisciplinebs Soris arsebuli sazRvrebi. am
process sagrZnoblad amartivebs kvlevis meTodologiuri
saSualebebis sul ufro metad unificirebuli kompleqsis
arseboba. Tavis mxriv, izrdeba mecnierTa gundi, romelic
xels uwyobs disciplinis sinTezs, matulobs im mkvlevarTa
ricxvi, romlebsac myarad hqondaT gadgmuli fesvebi erT
3
konkretul qvedisciplinaSi, magram SeswevdaT unari,
esaubraT sxva qvedisciplinasTan gasageb enaze. im mraval
mosazrebas
Soris,
romlebsac
SeamCnevT
axali
saxelmZRvaneloSi, swored es ideebi imsaxurebs Cvens
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas. maT Cven winamdebare TavSi
ganvixilavT.
I politikuri mecniereba, rogorc
disciplina
am Tavis ZiriTadi Tezisia is, rom politikuri
mecniereba, rogorc disciplina, simwifis fazaSi Sevida da
did
profesionalizms1
moiTxovs.
sanam
am
sakiTxs
ganvixilavdeT,
saWirod
migvaCnia,
mokled
SevexoT
ramdenime arsebiT sakiTxs. ra kriteriumebi gamoiyeneba
politikuri
mecnierebis,
rogorc
disciplinis,
gansazRvrisTvis? ra aris politika? politikis Seswavlas
ra TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba, pretenzia hqondes mecnierebis
statusze?
a. disciplinis buneba
Cven miveCvieT, rom akademiuri codnis sxvadasxva
dargi `disciplinebad~ movixsenioT. amasTanave saWiroa
yuradRebis
gamaxvileba
am
terminis
ufro
farTo
oqsfordis
inglisuri
enis
mokle
mniSvnelobaze.
leqsikonSi termini ,,disciplina“ sxvadasxvagvarad aris
ganmartebuli: `swavlebis Semadgeneli nawili; mentaluri
da moraluri wvrTna, romlis ararsebobam ziani SeiZleba
moitanos; samxedro momzadeba, muStra...; wesrigi, romelic
SenarCunebulia
skolis
moswavleebs,
jariskacebs,
1
adre, arc Tu ise iSviaTad da naCqarevad, profesionalizmi
am sferoSi `amerikanizacias~ niSnavda. Tumca, rogorc ukve
aRvniSneT SesavalSi da amas axali saxelmZRvanelos avtorTa
Semadgenlobac adasturebs, politikuri mecnieris profesia
sul ufro met internacionalizacias ganicdis. es Seexeba
rogorc profesiul kontingents, ise profesiul interesebs.
4
patimrebsa da sxvebs Soris; qcevis wesebis sistema;
eklesiis mrevlze ganxorcielebuli kontroli; fizikuri
dasja; (saeklesio) epiTemiis dadeba.~
ukanaskneli ganmarteba naklebad unda miesadagebodes
akademiur disciplinas, magram danarCenebs metwilad aSkara
kavSiri aqvs masTan. akademiuri `disciplina~ yvelaze
naklebadaa dakavSirebuli `dasjis~ cnebasTan, yovel
SemTxvevaSi, am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT (Foucault
1977). Tumca swavluli sazogadoeba, romelic erToblivad
qmnis ama Tu im disciplinas, unda axorcielebdes mkacr
zedamxedvelobiT
kontrols
rogorc
am
sferoSi
moRvaweebze, ise maTze, visac amis gakeTebis ganzraxva aqvs.
amasTan meore SemTxvevaSi aseTi kontrolis xasiaTi
gacilebiT ufro
mkacria. `SenarCunebuli wesrigi~
mocemul SemTxvevaSi, ra Tqma unda, gansxvavdeba samxedro
an saskolo disciplinisagan da mkvlevarTa momzadeba
sulac ar waagavs muStras. da mainc, arsebobs garkveuli
mkacri mniSvneloba imisa (Tumca es droTa ganmavlobaSi
icvleba), Tu ra aris da ra ar aris `kargi~ mocemul
disciplinaSi; arsebobs aucilebeli xerxebis garkveuli
raodenoba,
romelTa
gareSec
SeuZlebelia
mocemul
disciplinaSi `daxelovneba~.
yvela standartuli termini, romelic akademiuri
disciplinebis aRwerisaTvis gamoiyeneba, momdinareobs erTi
da imave konceptualuri wyaroebidan. bevri, magaliTad,
amjobinebs, politikuri analizi miiCnios `xelovnebad~ an
`xelobad~ da ara `mecnierebad~, am sityvis viwro gagebiT
(Wildawski 1979). politikaSi daostateba SesaZlebelia iseve,
rogorc nebismier sxva `xelobaSi~, anu SegirdobiT
(akademiur xelobaSi – `swavliT~), aRiarebuli `ostatis~
xelmZRvanelobiT. sxvebi politikas `mowodebad~2 miiCneven
(Weber 1919/1946). simarTle rom iTqvas, es ufro metad
mowodebaa, vidre xeloba, ufro samuSaoa, vidre hobi.
amasTanave,
rogorc
religiuri,
ise
akademiuri
mniSvnelobiT, mowodeba gulisxmobs samsaxurs raRac
2
am Tvalsazriss emxrobian p. bergeri (Berger: 1963) da p.
medauari (Meadawar: 1989; ix. Tavi 2). SeuZlebelia ar
gavixsenoT f. m. kornfordis Rirseulad dafasebuli naSromi
Microcosmographica Academia (Cornford 1908).
5
uzenaesi Zalisadmi (iqneba es akademiuri sazogadoeba Tu
RmerTi). saboloo jamSi, mravali CvenTagani akademiuri
disciplinebze saubrobs, rogorc `profesiebze~. es azri
SesaniSnavad gamoxata duaiT valdom (Waldo 1975: 123):
`mecnierebam icis, profesionali mkvlevrebi ki aRiareben~.
mecnierebi marTlac aRiareben TavianTi koleqtiuri rwmenis
kodeqss.
ra kuTxiTac ar unda SevxedoT, disciplinebis
udidesi nawili marTlac SeiZleba mivamsgavsoT momTxovn
zedamxedvelebs. Tumca ama Tu im disciplinis tradicia da
praqtika, romelic esoden mkacrad SemozRudul CarCoebSi
gvaqcevs, imavdroulad gvTavazobs axal SemoqmedebiT
SesaZleblobebs. CarCoebi, romlebsac disciplinaruli
tradicia ayalibebs, rogorc Segnebulad, ise uneblied,
mecnieris yuradRebis kvleviTi amocanebisken mimarTavs da
aadvilebs TanamSromlobas. disciplinaruli CarCoebiT
Tavsmoxveuli TamaSis wesebis struqtura saSualebas
iZleva, gadavwyvitoT esa Tu is amocana im myar saZirkvelze
dayrdnobiT, romelic Seqmnes didma mecnierebma, amave dros
gigantebs , SesaZlebloba eZlevaT win wawion mecniereba
Cveulebrivi niWis praqtikosebis Zalisxmevaze dayrdnobiT.3
amgvarad, akademikuri Tu sxva tipis disciplina
TviTSezRudvis meqanizmis klasikur magaliTs warmoadgens.
morCileba disciplinisadmi an, m. doganis TqmiT (ix. qvemoT,
Tavi 3), swavlulTa hibridisadmi, samuSaos xarisxisa da
misi
efeqturobis
ueWvel
gazrdas
iwvevs,
rogorc
individualuri,
ise
koleqtiuri
TvalsazrisiT.
es
marTalia
rogorc
mecnierebis
`varskvlavebisa~
da
`zangebis~,
ise
`axalgazrda
Turqebisa~
da
`WaRarawverosnebis~ SemTxvevaSi.
akademiuri codnis dargebi imdenadvea `profesiebi~,
ramdenadac disciplinebi. pirvel rigSi, unda aRiniSnos,
rom profesionalebs aqvT sakmaod maRali socialuri
statusi.
erovnuli
da
saerTaSoriso
`profesiuli
asociaciebisTvis~ umniSvnelo rodia am statusis dacva, an
mkvlevarTa Semosavlebis uzrunvelyofa. Tumca termini
3
erTdroulad miRweuli mniSvnelovani samecniero Sedegebis
Sesaxeb
ix.
r.
mertonTan
`mravaljerad
aRmoCenebze~
msjelobisas (Merton 1973).
6
`profesionali~
aseve
miuTiTebs
adamianis
garkveul
damokidebulebaze sakuTari samuSaosadmi da es aranakleb
mniSvnelovania. profesia warmoadgens TviTorganizebul
koleqtivs, romelic orientirebulia garkveul, mkafiod
Camoyalibebul amocanebsa da funqciebze. profesiuli
sazogadoeba xasiaTdeba gansxvavebuli amocanebiT da
funqciebiT da mniSvnelovanwilad zRudavs sakuTar Tavs
nebayoflobiT
aRebuli
valdebulebebiT,
daicvas
konkretuli standartebi da qcevis normebi. masSi Sesuli
profesionalebi emorCilebian am standartebs da normebs,
misgan gamosulni fasdebian am sazogadoebaSi miRebuli
kriteriumebis Sesabamisad. am profesiul standartebsa da
normebs emyareba, erTi mxriv, mxolod profesionalTa
urTierTSefaseba, meore mxriv ki, sakuTari miRwevebis
mimarT "kritikuli damokidebuleba".4
ra Tqma unda, standartebisa da normebis specifika
icvleba
profesiidan
profesiamde,
magram
nebismier
profesiaSi
arsebobs
`minimaluri
profesiuli
kompetenciis~
gancda,
romelsac
uzrunvelyofs
`sakvalifikacio gamocdebis~ rituali. es `rituali~
saswavlo programis maRali safexuris dasrulebis Semdeg
unda gaiaron CrdiloeT amerikis axalgazrda swavlulebma,
romelTac miznad aqvT politikis mkvlevarebad gaxdoma.
garda amisa, nebismier profesiaSi arsebobs gansakuTrebul
`pasuxismgeblobaTa rolis~ cneba, romelic samecniero
sazogadoebis
yvela
wevrs
sakuTar
profesiasTan
akavSirebs. swavlulTa am kategoriis profesiuli eTika ar
moicavs sikvdil-sicocxlis problemebs, rogorc es xdeba
eqimebis an iuristebis SemTxvevaSi. praqtikulad yvela
akademiur profesias aqvs sul ufro metad formalizebuli
eTikuri kodeqsebi, romelTa normebic upiratesad exeba
qcevis erTian
standartebTan da kvlevis Sedegebis
gamoqveynebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs. igulisxmeba, rom
4
garkveulwilad, sxvadasxva qveynebis iuridiuli sistemebis
gavrcelebul normebs analogiuri gziT gansazRvravs harti
(Hart 1961). profesiuli sazogadoebebis arsis Taobaze, aseve
maTi wevrebis am sazogadoebebis mimarT damokidebulebis
Sesaxeb ix.: Hughes 1958 da Parsons 1968.
7
yvela profesionalma zemoTqmuli patiosnad unda daicvas
(APSA 1991).
sxva sakiTxebTan erTad, es Tavis moicavs gazrdili
`profesionalizmis~
Temas
mTlianad
politikur
mecnierebaSi. pirvel rigSi, aq vgulisxmobT Tanxmobas
`erTiani
midgomis~
Sesaxeb,
romelic
aucilebelia
`minimaluri
profesiuli
kompetenciis~
donis
gansasazRvrad. Tavis mxriv, es mocemul dargSi muSaobis
winapirobaa. garda amisa, vgulisxmobT samuSaos Sefasebis
(ufro metad sakuTari, vidre sxvebis Sromis) tendencias
profesiuli daxvewis sul ufro mzardi moTxovnebis
poziciidan.
Tuki
minimalur
standartebTan
dakavSirebiT
garkveuli saerTo warmodgenebi arsebobs, Sexedulebebi
maRali
profesionalizmis
Sesaxeb
mravali
da
sxvadasxvagvaria. da mainc, medicinis msgavsad, politikuri
mecnierebis
TiToeul
qvedisciplinaSi
arsebobs
daostatebis sakuTari Sinagani standartebi, romelTa
safuZvelzec Sesabamisad fasdeba ama Tu im mecnieris
damsaxurebani. medicinis msgavsad, politikur mecnierebas
aqvs prioritetebis garkveuli skala, romelic gvexmareba
ganisazRvros yvela misi Semadgeneli specialobis adgili
da mniSvneloba, romlebic ufro did erTobas qmnian.
b. ra aris politika?
zemoT gamoTqmuli SeniSvnebi, zogadi TvalsazrisiT,
TiTqmis yvela akademiur disciplinas Seexeba. disciplinebi
erTmaneTisgan
gansxvavdebian
mravali
TvalsazrisiT,
pirvel rigSi ki, maT winaSe arsebuli amocanebiTa da am
amocanebis gadawyvetis meTodologiiT. Tumca, rogorc Cven
vcdilobT davamtkicoT, politikur mecnierebaSi arsebobs
araerTi sasargeblo xerxi, romlebsac iyeneben mkvlevrebi
ZiriTad qvedisciplinebSi. alkeri (ix. qvemoT, Tavi 35)
udavod marTalia imis mtkicebisas, rom politikur
mecnierebas
zogierTi
sxva
samecniero
disciplinis
msgavsad, ar gaaCnia sakuTari erTiani meTodologia da igi
ar cdilobs mis winaSe arsebuli amocanebis gadawyvetas
sakuTari meTodologiiT. politikuri mecniereba, rogorc
8
disciplina, ufro metad ganisazRvreba sakuTari kvlevis
sagniT, anu imiT, rom fiqsirebulia `politikaze~, am
ukanasknelis mravalgvari gamovlinebebiT.
`politika~ yvelaze zustad SeiZleba daxasiaTdes,
rogorc socialuri Zalauflebis SezRuduli gamoyeneba. am
gansazRvrebis mixedviT, politikis Seswavla, rogorc
akademiuri wreebis warmomadgenlebis, ise praqtikosi
politikosebis mier, SeiZleboda dagvexasiaTebina, rogorc
am SezRudvebis bunebisa da wyaros, aseve socialuri
Zalauflebis gamoyenebis teqnikis Seswavla. 5
Zalauflebis
terminologiiT
politikis
gansazRvrisas Cven mivsdevT Cveni winamorbedebis gzas.6
dRes kargadaa cnobili, rom `Zalauflebis~ cnebis
konceptualuri gaazreba Seicavs farul safrTxeebs.7 Cven
kargad vicnobT problemis sirTules, amitomac ar gvsurs
CavefloT
unayofo
diskusiebSi.
Zalauflebis
neoveberianuli ganmarteba, romelic r. dalma (Dahl 1957)
SemogvTavaza, dRemde aqtualuria.
amis Sesabamisad, X
flobs Zalauflebas Y-ze, rameTu: 1) X-s ama Tu im gziT
SeuZlia aiZulos Y-s raimes gakeTeba; 2) es Seesabameba X-is
interesebs; 3) TviTon Y-ic sxvagvarad ar moiqceoda.
Cveneuli
analizi
tradicias
scildeba
im
TvalsazrisiT, rom gansazRvravs politikas, rogorc
Zalauflebis SezRuduli gamoyenebis mcdelobas. Cveni
TvalsazrisiT, Zalauflebis SeuzRudavi gamoyeneba sxva
araferia, Tu ara Cveulebrivi uxeSi Zala. mas araviTari
5
amgvari ganmarteba, Tavis mxriv, gamovlinda disciplinis
ormagi fokusirebis saxiT, romlis Sesaxebac saubrobs
almondi (ix. qvemoT, Tavi 2): `politikuri institutebis
maxasiaTeblebisa
da
Cven
mier
maTi
SefasebisaTvis
gamoyenebuli kriteriumebis Sesaxeb~.
6 maT Soris aRsaniSnavia: Weber 1922/1978; Lasswell 1950; Lasswell and
caplan 1950, Dahl 1963 da Duverger 1964/1966. maT msgavsad, Cven
yuradRebas vamaxvilebT swored `socialur Zalauflebaze~,
sxva adamianebze ganxorcielebul Zalauflebaze.
7 raselis, Juvenelisa da dalis (Russel 1938; Jouvel 1948; Dahl 1957,
1961b, 1963) klasikur naSromebs ukanasknel xanebSi daemata
liuksis, beris da morisis Sromebi (Lukes 1974; Barry 1989; Morris
1987).
9
kavSiri ar aqvs politikur ZalauflebasTan, Tu ar
CavTvliT zogierT gadaxras – SezRuduli mniSvnelobis
SemTxvevas. uxeSi, wminda Zala, pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT,
fizikis (an misi socialuri analogebis _ samxedro
mecnierebisa Tu sabrZolo xelovnebis) Seswavlis sagania
da araviTar SemTxvevaSi politikisa.8 politikis arsi, Cveni
azriT, swored politikuri aqtorebisaTvis dakisrebul
SezRudvebsa da im strategiul manevrebSia, romlebic am
SezRudvebiTaa gamowveuli da amave farglebSi xdeba.9
politikis
Seswavlis
centrSi
albaT
swored
am
SezRudvebis analizi dgas: saidan warmodgebian, rogor
moqmedeben da ras moimoqmedeben maTi arsebobis pirobebSi
politikurma agentebi .10
Cven
vlaparakobT,
farTo
gagebiT,
socialuri
Zalauflebis gamoyenebaze (da ara mis gamovlinebaze viwro
gagebiT), manevrirebis im mravalricxovan SesaZleblobebze,
romlebic arsebuli SezRudvebis pirobebSi politikuri
agentebis
gankargulebaSia.
mxedvelobaSi
gvaqvs
ara
mxolod maTi winaswarganzraxuli moqmedebani, aramed is
gauTvaliswinebeli Sedegebic, romlebic SeiZleba mohyves
am mizanmimarTul moqmedebebs (Merton 1936). Cven vgulisxmobT
8
magaliTad, absolutur diqtatorze, romelic SeuzRudavi
Zalauflebis
miRwevas
eswrafvis,
zogjer
savsebiT
marTebulad iTqmis, rom is cdilobs (Tanac yovelTvis
warumateblad) gamovides politikis CarCoebidan.
9 ganvixiloT monaTesave disciplinidan aRebuli analogia:
filosofosebi laparakoben `damarwmunebeli~ mosazrebebis,
`damajerebeli~ argumentebis poziciidan da a.S. (Nozick 1981: 46). magram warmovidginoT iseTi argumenti, romelsac, Tuki
davujerebT, movkvdebiT. Tundac maSin, rodesac es argumenti
damajerebelia,
misi
meSveobiT
raime
poziciis
dacva
warmodgeba WeSmariti filosofiuri disputis Tavisebur
antiTezad, romlis arsic kompromisis Ziebaa. Tu politikis
arss warmoadgens strategiuli manevrireba (Riker 1986), maSin
dauZleveli
Zalebi,
romlebic
adgils
ar
toveben
aucilebeli manevrisaTvis, Seadgenen mis antiTezas (imisgan
damoukideblad, Tu ra warmatebas miaRwevs is, vinc am
dauZlevel Zalebs sxvebis dasamorCileblad marTavs).
10 am SemTxvevaSi Cven mivdevT (Tumca Tavisuflad) kriks (Krick
1962).
10
rogorc
farul
politikur
manipulaciebs,
ise
Ria
politikur TamaSebs (Schattschneider 1960; Goodin 1980; Riker 1986),
aseve _ masSi xelisuflebis aqtiur da pasiur moqmedebas,
qcevis internalizebul normebs da sagareo safrTxeebs
(Bachrach and Baratz 1963; Lukes 1974). garda amisa, es moicavs
avadsaxsenebeli
`mosalodneli
reaqciebis
kanons~,
gadawyvetilebebis armiRebas da xalxis prioritetebis
hegemonur formirebas (Laclau and Mouffe 1985), rasac
gulisxmobs politikis ufro farTo gageba.
aqve unda gamovTqvaT kidev erTi mosazreba am
koncefciasTan dakavSirebiT: politikis definiciisas (da
mis Seswavlisas), Cven ganzrax vemijnebiT `politikis~
lasueliseul (Lasswell 1950) klasikuri formulirebas, anu
wminda distribuciul tradicias – `vin, rodis da ras
iRebs~.11 savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom nebismieri politikuri
aqtis
Sedegi
ama
Tu
im
doneze
dakavSirebulia
keTildReobisa da dovlaTis gadanawilebasTan. SesaZloa,
isic marTalia, rom metwilad swored amiT aixsneba Cveni
interesi mocemuli movlenisadmi. Tumca, im TvalsazrisiT,
Tu ra azri aqvs mocemul aqts sakuTriv aqtorisaTvis,
mravali politikuri qmedeba, yovel SemTxvevaSi sawyis
etapze, aSkarad mowyvetilia gadanawilebis process. aseve
saboloo analizisas zogierTi politikuri interaqciis
socialur mniSvnelobaTa didi nawili, rogorc subieqturi,
ise obieqturi, ar SeiZleba daviyvanoT sazogadoebrivi
`namcxvris~
ganawilebis
banalur
sakiTxebamde.
distribuciul, maregulirebel, redistribuciul (Lowi 1964)
da identurobis ganmsazRvrel (Sandel 1982) politikas aqvs
sakuTari gamorCeuli stili. ganawilebisaTvis brZola,
sayovelTao
keTildReobis
koncefciis
momxre
ekonomistebis
TvalsazrisiT,
mxolod
arafrismomcemi
xmauria imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad miuaxlovda sazogadoeba
paretos mier gansazRvrul mizans. amasTanave, paretos mier
gansazRvruli am sazogadoebis Seqmna TavisTavad sadavo
sakiTxia, romlis gadawyvetac didwilad damokidebulia
aseve istonis (Easton 1965) gansazRvrebis Sesabamisad,
politika ganixileba, rogorc faseulobaTa avtoritaruli
gadanawileba, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac saqme
exeba sazogadoebaSi `faseuli nivTebis~ ganawilebas.
11
11
sruliad sxva saxis politikur manevrebze, romlebic
xSirad, yovel SemTxvevaSi dasawyisSi, aranair kavSirSi
araa ganawilebasTan. magram Tuki mniSvnelovania, rom
politikis Cveneuli gageba exmianebodes ganawilebisTvis
brZolas, maSin mniSvnelovania isic, rom yvela sakiTxi
mxolod am kuTxiT ar gaanalizdes.
g. politikis ramdenime mecniereba
didi Zalisxmeva daixarja imis gasarkvevad, aris Tu
ara politikis Seswavla WeSmariti mecniereba da ras
gulisxmobs es. pasuxi didwilad damokidebulia imaze, Tu
ra Sinaarss CavdebT cnebaSi `mecniereba~. Cven upiratesobas
vaniWebT mecnierebis minimalistur definicias, romlis
mixedviTac, es aris mxolod `sistemuri kvleva, mimarTuli
empiriuli samyaros Sesaxeb mowesrigebuli warmodgenebis
sul ufro metad diferencirebuli kompleqsebisken.~12 am
ganzrax lakonuri terminidan gamomdinare, ar gvaqvs
safuZveli vifiqroT, rom politikis Seswavlas ar SeiZleba
hqondes samecniero pretenzia.
magram bevri am cnebaSi, ra Tqma unda, sxva
mniSvnelobas
debs.
magaliTad,
`mecnierebis”
cnebis
gansazRvrisas logikuri pozitivizmis warmomadgenels
SeeZlo Seedgina `yovlismomcveli kanonebis~ mTeli nusxa,
romelTagan erTis darRvevac ki codnis romelime dargs
waarTmevda am maRali statusis mopovebis saSualebas.
naTelia, rom politikuri mecniereba albaT ver SeZlebda
am
saxis
nusxaSi
CamoTvlili
yvela
pirobis
dakmayofilebas. saqme isaa, rom politikuri mecnierebis
fuZemdeblur WeSmaritebaTa arsebuli sistematizaciis
miuxedavad, mis daskvnebs arsebiTad varaudis forma aqvs
da, rogorc Cans, ganwirulia darCes aseTad. terminebi
es gansazRvreba ukavSirdeba Wissenschaft-is tradiciebs,
odesRac gavrcelebuls germanul universitetebSi, saidanac
politikuri mecniereba amerikelebma XIX saukuneSi sakuTar
qveyanaSi gadaitanes (Waldo 1975: 25-30) da romliskenac
Tanamedrove `politikis mkvlevrebi~ amJamad brundebian (Rivlin
1971).
12
12
`yovelTvis~ da `arasdros~, romlebTanac saqme aqvs
logikos pozitivists, romelic amuSavebs sayovelTao
kanonebs, iSviaTad gamoiyeneba politikis samyaroSi, sadac
movlenebi SeiZleba mxolod `met-naklebi albaTobiT~
moxdes.
amgvari viTarebis amxsnel mizezad ar kmara is, rom
Cveni ganmartebiTi modelebi arasrulyofilia da arc is,
rom TamaSSi CarTulia sxva faqtorebi, romlebic jer ar
gamovlenila. Tumca, ra Tqma unda, es mizezebic arsebobs.
politikuri mecnierebis pozitivistur modelSi amgvari
Secdomebis siRrmiseuli mizezi sakuTriv kvlevis subieqtis
bunebis araswor gagebaSi unda veZeboT. yovlismomcveli
kanonis modeli SeiZleba (an Tu ar SeiZleba, es ukve sxva
problemaa) warmatebiT iyos gamoyenebuli biliardis
burTulebis moZraobis Seswavlisas niutonis meqanikis
kanonebis zemoqmedebiT: am SemTxvevaSi savsebiT zustad
SeiZleba
TiToeuli
moqmedebis
Sedegebis
winaswarmetyveleba da maTi mizezebis garkveva im Zalebis
amowurviT, romlebic zemoqmedeben amgvar `aqtorebze~.
magram adamianebi, miuxedavad imisa, rom, ra Tqma, unda
warmoadgenen garkveuli mizezebis zemoqmedebis obieqtebs,
imave dros arian winaswari ganzraxviT moqmedi aqtorebi,
romlebsac aqvT gacnobierebis da masze damyarebuli
moqmedebis
unari.
`rwmena~,
`mizani~,
`ganzraxva~,
`mniSvneloba~ _ yvela am faqtors gadamwyveti mniSvneloba
aqvs
adamianTa
qcevis
asaxsnelad,
rac
Zireulad
gansxvavdeba
biliardis
burTulebis
`qmedebisagan~.
politikur
mecnierebaSi
Seswavlis
subieqtebi
iseve,
rogorc
nebismier
socialur
mecnierebaSi,
sruliad
gansxvavebuli ontologiuri statusis matareblebi arian,
vidre
biliardis
burTulebi.
aqedan
gamomdinare,
sayovelTao kanonis modeli, SemuSavebuli logikuri
pozitivizmis mier, adamianTa modgmis Seswavlisas sruliad
miuRebelia iseve, rogorc sakuTriv biliardis burTulebis
SemTxvevaSic.13
am sakiTxebis safuZvliani mimoxilvisaTvis ix.: Hollis 1977,
Taylor 1985, politikur mecnierebasTan mimarTebaSi ix.: Moon
1975; Almon and Genco 1977. postpozitivisturi reaqcia amgvar
hermenevtul
problemebze
mkafiod
aisaxa
axali
13
13
imis Tqma, rom politikuri problemebis samecniero
gageba
aucileblad
unda
Seicavdes
komponents,
dakavSirebuls im mniSvnelobasTan, romelsac atarebs
mocemuli aqti aqtorisaTvis, sulac ar niSnavs im faqtis
uaryofas,
rom
politikuri
mecniereba
nebismieri
samecniero codnisaTvis damaxasiaTebel yvela atributs
flobs.
maTematikuri
modelireba
da
statistikuri
Semowmeba dRes iseve aucilebelia, rogorc warsulSi.14
yvelaferi, ris Secvlac saWiroa, aris miRebuli Sedegebis
interpretacia. monacemebi, romlebsac Cven viRebT am
instrumentebis gamoyenebiT, amieridan ganixileba ara
imdenad garegani Zalebis ulmobel zemoqmedebad pasiur
aqtorebze, aramed Cveulebriv pirobebSi Cveulebrivi
adamianebis bunebriv reaqciad. SeiZleba Seicvalos `TamaSis
pirobebi~. kidev ufro metad eqvemdebareba cvlilebas
garegani garemoebebi da am mizeziT politikis sferoSi
aRmoCenili WeSmaritebani ufro naklebad `universaluria~,
vidre niutonis fizikis kanonebi. da miuxedavad amisa,
ramdenadac
mimdinare
cvlilebebis
Sesabamisad
Cven
vapirebT sakuTriv `TamaSis wesebsa~ da garemoebebSi
momxdari cvlilebebis modelirebas (met-naklebi sizustiT),
arsebobs imis varaudis safuZveli, rom dava sakiTxis
Sesaxeb, aris Tu ara codnis es amorfuli da bundovani
dargi WeSmariti mecniereba, TandaTanobiT dasruldeba.
II profesiis simwifis xana
axali saxelmZRvanelos Tavebi, erTad aRebuli,
yvelaze mkafiod metyvelebs politikuri mecnierebis,
rogorc disciplinis, simwifis zrdaze. Tu ramdenad aris
miRweuli `progresi~, rogorc optimisturad SeniSnavs
saxelmZRvanelos mraval TavSi da ganxiluli winamdebare
Tavis III C paragrafSi.
14
marTlac, politikuri mecnierebis zogierTma yvelaze
mniSvnelovanma
Sedegma,
romlebic
ukanasknel
xanebSi
miRebulia maTematikuri meTodebis gamoyenebiT, gamoiwvia
`racionaluri
aqtoris~
modelis
Seqmna.
am
modelis
mamoZravebel Zalas sakuTriv individebis racionaluri
arCevani ufro warmoadgens, vidre garegani mizezebis
zemoqmedeba.
14
gebriel almondi ( ix. qvemoT, Tavi 2), ukve sruliad sxva
sakiTxia.
magram
simwife,
gagebuli
ganviTarebis
tradiciuli
mniSvnelobiT,
rogorc
sxva
adamianebis
TvalTaxedvidan sagnebis danaxvis mzardi unari, arsebiTad
marTlac miRweulia am disciplinis sxvadasxva dargebSi.
yovelTvis
ase
ar
yofila.
`bihevioristuli
revolucia~ Tavisi apogeis dros didwilad axlos idga
iakobinelTa moRvaweobasTan. am analogiis gasagrZeleblad
sulac ar iqneba gadaWarbebuli imis Tqma, rom masze
reaqcia aSkara Termidori iyo. adreuli biheviorizmis
drois revolucionerebi, Tavis mxriv, mowodebulni iyvnen,
moespoT
formalizmi
politikaSi
_
politikuri
institutebi, organizaciuli sqemebi, konstituciuri miTebi
da iuridiuli fiqcia, rogorc wminda wylis sicrue. isini,
romlebic bihevioristulma revoluciam ukan daswia iseve,
rogorc isini, vinc mogvianebiT cdilobda sakuTriv es
midgoma gadaewia ukan, erTnairi gaafTrebiT cdilobdnen
Cirqi
moecxoT
axali
disciplinis
samecniero
pretenziebisTvis da saamisod adrindel moazrovneebs
imowmebdnen.15
erTi Taobis Semdeg istoria ganmeorda, magram
amjerad
revolucionerebis
rolSi
gamovidnen
`racionaluri arCevanis~ momxreebi, romlebic cdilobdnen
bihevioristebis mier fsiqologiidan nasesxebi myife logika
formaluri wesrigiT da maTematikuri sizustiT SeecvalaT.
brZolam kvlavac maniqeisturi xasiaTi (keTili borotis
15
zogierTi bihevioristuli saRi mosazreba SeiZleba inaxos
dalis (Dahl 1961a) da ranis (Ranney 1962) adreul naSromebSi.
institucionalistebis gonivruli msjelobebi, romlebic
bihevioristTa winaaRmdeg gamodiodnen, SeiZleba inaxos
ridlis (Ridley 1975) da jonsonis (Jonson 1989) naSromebSi.
filosofiuri frTis antisamecniero reaqcia yvelaze ukeT
warmodgenilia albaT oukSotTan (Oakshott 1951/1956) da
stretonTan (Stretton 1969). rac Seexeba postbihevioristul
poziciebs,
metad
niSandoblivia
uolinis
(Wolin 1960),
m akkoisa da fliefordis (McCoy and Playford 1968), istonis
(Easton 1969) naSromebi. mecnierebis filosofiis kuTxidan es
tendencia saukeTesodaa warmodgenili j. munis mier (Moon
1975) grinStain-polsbis cnobarSi.
15
winaaRmdeg)
SeiZina.
Seuwynarebeli
iyo
nebismieri
kompromisi. Teoriuli erTianobisa da ekonomiurobis
saxeliT
racionaluri
arCevanis
momxreebi
(yovel
SemTxvevaSi dasawyisSi) cdilobdnen nebismieri politika
viwro
materialuri
interesebis
urTierTqmedebamde
daeyvanaT. am procesSi maT ukuagdes rogorc sazogadoebis
faseulobebi, principebi da pirovnuli midrekilebebi, aseve
xalxTa istoria da institutebi.16 rogorc racionalurma
arCevanma,
ise
bihevioristulma
revoluciam,
mravali
didebuli gamarjveba moipova (Popkin et al. 1976), Tumca
marcxic bevri iyo.
am ori revoluciuri periodisgan gansxvavebiT,
amJamad politikuri mecniereba, rogorc Cans, myarad dadga
sxvadasxva meTodologiuri midgomebis gaerTianebis gzaze.
yvelaze mniSvnelovani wvlili am daaxloebaSi Seitana
`axalma institucionalizmma~, romlis Sesaxebac momdevno
TavebSi visaubrebT. politikuri mecnierebi amieridan ukve
aRar amaxvileben
yuradRebas mxolod agentebze Tu
struqturaze, interesebze Tu institutebze, rogorc
mamoZravebel Zalebze. seriozul mkvlevarTa umravlesoba
ityoda, rom aucilebelia yvela am faqtoris gonivruli
SeTavseba (Rotshtein, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 5; Weingast, ix. qvemoT,
Tavi 6, Majone, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 26, Alt and Alesina, ix. qvemoT,
Tavi 28, Offe, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 29). politologebi ukve aRar
azrovneben
mxolod
bihevioristuli
sqemebiT
Tu
organizaciuli
qartiebiT.
politikuri
mecnierebis
nebismieri mkvlevari amJamad albaT ityoda, rom esaa qcevis
analizis
sakiTxi
arsebuli
institutebisa
da
SesaZleblobebis pirobebSi (Pappi, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 9;
Dunleavy, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 10). politikuri mecnierebi ukve
aRar azrovneben mxolod/an racionalobis an Cveulebis
am saxis adreuli klasikuri gancxadebebisTvis ix.: Mitchel
1969
da
Riker and
Ordeshook 1973.
am
mimarTulebis
warmomadgenelTa Sexedulebebis kritikisaTvis ix.: Goodin
(1976), Sen 1977 da North 1990. mimdinareobs racionaluri
arCevanis modelis srulyofa im (SesaZloa, arasakmaris
doneze, ix. Offe, qvemoT Tavi 29) da SesaZlebeli xdeba maTi
sul ufro xSiri gamoyeneba Tanamedrove gamokvlevebSi
(Kiewiet 1983; Mansbridge 1990; Monroe 1991).
16
16
cnebebiT. racionaluri arCevanis modelis nebismieri
seriozuli
momxre
amJamad
saTanadod
afasebs
im
SezRudvebs, romelTa pirobebSic adamianebi axorcieleben
politikur qmedebebs da sakuTar konceptualur modelebs
politikuri fsiqologebis daskvnebiT amdidreben (Pappi, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 9; Grofman, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 30). politikuri
mecnierebi ukve aRar azrovneben mxolod realizmisa da
idealizmis cnebebiT, interesebiT an ideebiT istoriis
mamoZravebeli Zalebis mimarT. mkvlevrebi aRiareben orive
maTganis arsebiT rols (Goldmann, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 16; Sanders,
ix. qvemoT, Tavi 17; Keohane, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 19; Nelson, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 24; Majone, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 26). politikuri
mecnierebi ukve aRar azrovneben mxolod movlenaTa
aRwerilobiT da yovlismomcveli, farTo xasiaTis kvleviT
an guldasmiT SerCeuli TavisTavad unikaluri case-study*-iT.
faqtobrivad, yvelasTvis Rirebulia lokaluri detalebis
gaTvaliswineba da sistematuri, statistikur gamoTvlebze
damyarebuli
kvlevis
SesaZleblobebi
yvelaze
mcire
masStabis sakvlev situaciebSic ki. (Whitehead, ix. qvemoT,
Tavi 14; Ragin et al. ix qvemoT, Tavi 33). arc erTi seriozuli
politikis mkvlevari
ukve
aRar azrovnebs mxolod
mecnierebis istoriis terminebiT, rasac ukiduresobamde da
gamouval sirTuleebamde mihyavda xisti determinacia.
ekonometriis ricxobrivad sakmaod Semcirebuli momxreebic
ki
dRes
iZulebulni
arian,
aRiaron
SefasebiTi
procedurebis
Rirseba,
romelic
metad
mgrZnobiarea
`paturi~ efeqtebisadmi (Jackson, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 32). adre
arsebuli
politikur-ekonomikuri
urTierTqmedebis
gamartivebuli
modelebi
ukanasknel
xanebSi
mniSvnelovanwilad daixvewa (Hofferbert and Cingranelli, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 25; Alt and Alesina, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 28).
am mimarTulebiT poziciebi erTmaneTs dauaxlovda.
Tumca gacilebiT mniSvnelovania, ra gziT iqna es miRweuli.
mniSvnelovania is suliskveTebac, romliTac ganimsWvala
saxecvlili disciplina. miuxedavad imisa, rom calkeuli
*
samecniero
Tvisobrivi
meTodi,
tipologizaciisagan
gansxvavebiT,
Seiswavlis
unikalur
da
individualizebul
SemTxvevas
SeniSvna).
romelic,
calkeul,
(mTargmn.
17
mecnieri Tu kvleviTi jgufi elementTa sxvadasxvagvar
kombinacias
uWers
mxars,
umTavresia
is,
rom
urTierTdaTmobasa da SeTanxmebas Sexvdnen sixaruliT da
ara ukmayofilebiT. yovelive es ar gamomdinareobda
pluralizmis ideidan
_ `icxovre da sxvebsac mieci
cxovrebis saSualeba~, arc postmodernuli nihilizmidan.
Tanxmobisa da Sualeduri kompromisebis Camoyalibebas
xeli Seuwyo arsebuli situaciis gacnobierebam, naTelma
warmodgenam im Sedegebis Sesaxeb, romlebic SesaZlebeli
alternatiuli
gadawyvetilebebidan
da
gonivruli
kombinaciebis mkafio gaazrebidan momdinareobs.17 Sedegi
ueWvelad ekleqturia, magram es ufro mowesrigebuli
ekleqtikaa,
vidre
wminda
wylis
popuri
sxvadasxva
meTodebisa.
am mimarTulebiT poziciebi erTmaneTs dauaxlovda.
Tumca gacilebiT mniSvnelovania, ra gziT iqna es miRweuli.
mniSvnelovania is suliskveTebac, romliTac ganimsWvala
saxecvlili disciplina. miuxedavad imisa, rom calkeuli
mecnieri Tu kvleviTi jgufi elementTa sxvadasxvagvar
kombinacias
uWers
mxars,
umTavresia
is,
rom
urTierTdaTmobasa da SeTanxmebas Sexvdnen sixaruliT da
ara ukmayofilebiT. yovelive es ar gamomdinareobda
pluralizmis ideidan
_ `icxovre da sxvebsac mieci
cxovrebis saSualeba~, arc postmodernuli nihilizmidan.
Tanxmobisa da Sualeduri kompromisebis Camoyalibebas
xeli Seuwyo arsebuli situaciis gacnobierebam, naTelma
warmodgenam im Sedegebis Sesaxeb, romlebic SesaZlebeli
magaliTisaTvis gasaTvaliswinebelia fiorinas (Fiorina 1995)
modus operandi: `me Cems studentebs vaswavli, rom racionaluri
arCevanis modelebs yvelaze meti sargebeli moaqvs im
SemTxvevaSi, rodesac fsoni sakmaod maRalia da SemTxvevaTa
ricxvi – mcire. es aaSkaravebs im qmedebaTa araracionalobas,
romlebic mimarTulia maqsimizaciisaken im SemTxvevebSi,
rodesac saqme exeba Cveulebriv Sedegebs an/da sadac Tqvens
sakuTar qmedebebs araviTari mniSvneloba ar eniWeba...
amgvarad,
masebis
qcevaze
muSaobisas
me
viyeneb
racionalurobis minimalistur cnebebs (Fiorina 1981: 83), maSin,
roca elitebis Sesaxeb muSaobisas vuSveb racionalurobis
ufro maRal dones (Fiorina 1989: chaps.5, 11)
17
18
alternatiuli
gadawyvetilebebidan
da
gonivruli
kombinaciebis mkafio gaazrebidan momdinareobs.18 Sedegi
ueWvelad ekleqturia, magram es ufro mowesrigebuli
ekleqtikaa,
vidre
wminda
wylis
popuri
sxvadasxva
meTodebisa.
politikur
mecnierTa
Tanamedrove
Taoba,
winamorbedebTan
SedarebiT,
individualurad
da
mTlianobaSi, aRWurvilia instrumentebis ufro mdidari
arsenaliT. maTi mcire nawili, vinc 70-ian wlebSi
ganaTleba miiRo saxelmoxveWil institutebSi, SemdgomSi
SeiZleba
usafuZvlod
SeaSinos
(an
aRafrTovanos)
bihevioristul fsiqologiaSi, empiriul sociologiaSi an
maTematikur
ekonomikaSi
gamoyenebulma
Teoriebma
an
meTodebma. SesaZloa, vinme ama Tu im Teorias aniWebdes
upiratesobas, Tumca dRes TiToeuli maTgani imdenad iqneba
daxelovnebuli
am
meTodologiur
tradiciebSi,
rom
SeZlebs, garemoebaTa Sesabamisad isesxos an miiTvisos,
uaryos an ukuagdos isini.19
arsebobs disciplinis istoriis gadmocemis mravali
xerxi. ganmeorebiT moyolili istoria ki gvaswavlis, Tu
rogor avaridoT Tavi uaress, raTa mivaRwioT ukeTes
magaliTisaTvis gasaTvaliswinebelia fiorinas (Fiorina 1995)
modus operandi: `me Cems studentebs vaswavli, rom racionaluri
arCevanis modelebs yvelaze meti sargebeli moaqvs im
SemTxvevaSi, rodesac fsoni sakmaod maRalia da SemTxvevaTa
ricxvi – mcire. es aaSkaravebs im qmedebaTa araracionalobas,
romlebic mimarTulia maqsimizaciisaken im SemTxvevebSi,
rodesac saqme exeba Cveulebriv Sedegebs an/da sadac Tqvens
sakuTar qmedebebs araviTari mniSvneloba ar eniWeba...
amgvarad,
masebis
qcevaze
muSaobisas
me
viyeneb
racionalurobis minimalistur cnebebs (Fiorina 1981: 83), maSin,
roca elitebis Sesaxeb muSaobisas vuSveb racionalurobis
ufro maRal dones (Fiorina 1989: chaps.5, 11)
19
amgvari daxelovnebis SesaniSnav nimuSebad SeiZleba
CaiTvalos elsteris “teqnikuri cvlilebebis axsna” (Elster
1983) da patnemis “momuSave demokratia” (Putnam 1993). elsteri
da patnemi uCveulo niWiT dajildoebuli moRvaweebi arian,
romlebic saukunis miwurulis politikuri mecnierebis Tu
ara tipur, WeSmarit warmomadgenlebad mainc SeiZleba
miviCnioT.
18
19
Sedegebs samomavlod. erT-erTi maTgani, Tuki aRmasvlisa
da daSvebis terminebiT vityviT, SeiZleba `gurus~ gzas
SevadaroT.
Tanamedrove
politikuri
mecnierebis
winaistoriis
araproduqtiuli
periodebisaTvis
iseve,
rogorc
XIX
saukunis
Sua
xanebis
politikuri
filosofiisaTvis,
damaxasiaTebeli
iyo
samecniero
sazogadoebis gansakuTrebuli organizaciis forma
_
`guruebi~ da maT garSemo Tavmoyrili mimdevrebis banakebi.
amasTanave, kontaqti metrebs Soris minimaluri iyo, maT
momxreebs Soris ki praqtikulad arc arsebobda.20 yruTa es
dialogi
produqtiul
TanamSromlobaze
damyarebul
saqmianobad iqca mxolod mas Semdeg, rac gancalkevebul
jgufebad dayofas Caenacvla gancda saerTo saqmisa da
dRis wesrigSi dadga saerTo disciplinaruli problemebi.21
imdroindelma viTarebam sxva ramec gvaswavla _
urTierTgageba,
ris
safuZvelzec
SesaZlebeli
gaxda
erToblivi moRvaweoba, rogorc
sakuTriv liberalur
politikaSi (Rawls 1993), ise liberalur xelovnebaSi ufro
zogadi mniSvnelobiT, miRweul iqna modus vivendi, rac
20
SeadareT. doganis (Dogan, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 3) mier saukunis
miwurulis sociologebis _ diurkeimis, veberis, tionisis _
“urTierTugulebelyofis” ganxilva, agreTve 1930-ian wlebSi
Cikagosa da harvardis skolebs Soris metoqeobis zimelisa
da valdoseuli aRwera (Waldo 1975: 47-50), pareCis (Parech, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 21) mier saukunis Sua xanebis filosofiis
analizi
21 marTlac, rogorc aRniSnavs mileri (Miller, ix. qvemoT, Tavi
10), am movlenaTa adreuli etapisTvis – am SemTxvevaSi
igulisxmeba
bihevioristuli
revolucia
–
agreTve
damaxasiaTebeli iyo swored am tipis disciplinaTaSorisi
dialogi. igive SeiZleba iTqvas `sazogadoebrivi arCevanis~
moZraobaze,
romelic
Camoyalibda
da
ganviTarda
sazogadoebrivi finansebis ekonomistTa (biukeneni, olsoni),
iuristebis (taloki), politikuri mecnierebis (raikeri,
ostromi) da sociologebis (kolemani) TanamSromlobis
safuZvelze. swored isini Caudgnen saTaveSi “Public Choice
Society”-is,
rac
politikuri
mecnierebis
yvela
qvedisciplinisaTvis
saerTo
safuZvlebis
SemuSavebis
dasawyiss moaswavebda. amis Taobaze ix. Almond 1990 da Easton
and Schelling 1991.
20
sakmarisia
nayofieri
TanamSromlobisaTvis
akademiuri
disciplinis
farglebSi
da
SesaZlebelia
mxolod
analizisa
da
ganzogadebis
qveda
doneebze.
sruli
sisulele iqneboda ama Tu im xerxiT danawevrebul da
sxvadasxva poziciaze mdgom swavlulTa sazogadoebisTvis
fuZemdebluri
sakiTxebis
Sesaxeb
mcdari
da
myife
konsensusis
Tavsmoxvevis
mcdeloba,
iqneboda
es
gamoxatuli mecnierebis filosofiis WeSmariti cnebebiT
(logikuri pozitivizmiT an misi alternativebiT) Tu
sazogadoebis erTaderTi WeSmariti TeoriiT (struqturuli
funqcionalizmiT,
sistemebis
TeoriiT,
racionaluri
arCevaniT Tu sxva).
dausrulebeli diskusia safuZvlebis Sesaxeb sulac
araa aucilebeli da, agreTve araproduqtiulia. mecnierebis
`TiToeuli WanWikis~, mecnierebis saSeni masalis Sesaxeb
SeTanxmebidan
disciplinis
urTierTgaziarebuli
mniSvnelobis sayovelTao aRiarebamde grZeli gzaa (Elster
1989). TiTqmis yovelTvis SeiZleba disciplinis erT-erT
sferoSi
Tavdapirvelad
Camoyalibebuli
xerxebis,
instrumentebisa da Teoriebis gadatana sxva garemoebebze –
mutatis mutandis. mravalricxovan mutacias, adaptacias da
xelaxal interpretacias marTlac xSirad moeTxoveba
nasesxebi xerxebis misadageba axali amocanebisadmi. magram
sesxeba,
urTierTgamdidreba,
hibridizacia
da
konceptualuri sivrce, romelic faravs sesxad aRebisa da
gacemis urTierTobis orive mxares, swored isaa, rac,
rogorc Cans, gansazRvravs Tanamedrove epoqaSi samecniero
progresis (Dogan, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 3).
Tumca sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, aris Tu ara yovelive es
`mecniereba~, am sityvis mkacri gagebiT, umjobesia Riad
davtovoT da
misi saboloo gadawyveta im dromde
gadavdoT, rodesac sakuTriv mecnierebis filosofosebi
daasruleben gauTavebel diskusias da SeTanxmdebian
mecnierebis
`WeSmariti~
bunebis
raobaze. mecnierebis
umkacresi definiciis standartebiT, romelTac qvemoT
gTavazobT (paragrafi IC) _ `sistematuri kvleva, romelic
mimarTulia empiriuli samyaros Sesaxeb mowesrigebuli
warmodgenebis
sul
ufro
metad
diferencirebuli
kompleqsis Seqmnisaken~ _ SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cvenma
disciplinam ufro samecniero xasiaTi SeiZina. ueWvelia,
21
rom is amJamad ufro diferencirebulia rogorc Sinagani
struqturis,
ise
samyaros
Sesaxeb
Camoyalibebuli
debulebebis TvalsazrisiT.
amasTan erTad, Riad rCeba kidev erTi kiTxva – xels
uwyobs Tu uSlis samecniero codnis zrda sinamdvilis
WeSmaritad mecnierul gacnobierebas. es kiTxvad mainc Riad
rCeba,
miuxedavad
imisa,
ramdenad
ukeT
vecnobiT
garemomcvel samyaros misi danawevrebisas. meti sulac ar
niSnavs
ukeTess.
metafizikosebi
sakuTar
amocanas
gansazRvraven, rogorc `sinamdvilis Semadgenel nawilebad
dayofas~. mecnierebis Teoriuli safuZvlebis Seqmnisas
mkvlevrebs yovelTvis emuqrebaT safrTxe, ara marto
mTlianobis danawevrebisa, aramed Semadgeneli nawilebis
zedmetad
Warbi raodenobis miRebisa. yoveldRiurobis
rutinuli problemebis gansjis msgavsi arafrismomtani
Teorizacia, iseve SeiZleba iqces seriozul winaRobad
politikuri mecnierebis WeSmariti gagebisaTvis, rogorc
sxva
mravali
socialuri
da
sabunebismetyvelo
mecnierebisaTvis.
maTi
daniSnuleba,
vinc
qvedisciplinebSi
profesionalebad
miiCneva
da
visac
mecnierebis
integrators vuwodebT, amgvari ukiduresobebis gadalaxvaa.
maT rTul amocanas Seadgens samecniero codnis calkeuli
nawilebisgan Sesaswavli sagnis garkveuli saerTo suraTis
Seqmna. qvemoT (ix. paragrafi IV) naCvenebia, rom Cveni
TvalsazrisiT, maT SesaniSnavad gaarTves Tavi am rTul
saqmes.
III profesionalizmis kriteriumebi
profesiuli daostatebis zrda sxvadasxvagvarad
mJRavndeba. albaT umniSvnelovasia is, rom sxvadasxva
sferoSi moRvawe praqtikosi mkvlevrebi, sul mcire,
eyrdnobian erTsa da imave meTodologiur teqnikas da
iyeneben erTsa da imave fuZemdeblur naSromebs. yovelive es
aTasgvaradaa
uzrunvelyofili
swavlebis
maRal
safexurze umaRles saswavleblebSi, miCiganisa da eseqsis
zafxulis
skolebSi,
aseve
profesiul
saqmianobaSi,
swavlebasa da kvleviT muSaobaSi. am saerTo monacemTa
siRrme da detalebi umniSvnelod varirebs qveynis an
22
konkretuli dargis mixedviT.22 miuxedavad amisa, yvela
Tanamedrove politologi mSvenivrad aRiqvams regresiul
tolobebs da nebismieri maTgani, yovel SemTxvevaSi,
kargad
mainc
icnobs
dargis
klasikad
aRiarebul
naSromebis korpuss.
a. klasikuri naSromebi
politikuri mecniereba, rogorc sxva nebismieri
sabunebismetyvelo da socialuri mecniereba, sul ufro
metad
xdeba
gamoqveynebul
naSromebze
dafuZnebuli
disciplina.
Tumca
yvelaze
mniSvnelovani
kvlevebis
Sedegebi
kvlavindeburad
wignis
formiT
gamoicema,
akademiur JurnalebSi gamoqveynebuli zogierTi statia ki
arasdros gardaiqmneba monografiad da mravali seriozuli
samecniero diskusia mxolod Jurnalebis furclebze
rCeba.23
Cveni
profesiis
saerTo
monapovari,
Cveni
disciplinis lingua franca da momavali winsvlis safuZveli
Semdegi naSromebia: almondisa da verbas samoqalaqo
kultura (Almond and Verba 1963); kempbelis, konversis,
mileris da stoukis amerikeli amomrCeveli (Campbell,
Converse, Miller and Stokes 1960); dalis vin marTavs (Dahl 1961b);
darendorfis klasi da klasobrivi konfliqti industriul
sazogadoebaSi (Dahrendorf 1959); doiCis mTavrobis nervebi
(Deutsch 1963) daunsis demokratiis ekonomikuri Teoria
(Downs 1957); istonis politikuri cxovrebis sistemuri
analizi (Easton 1965); hantingtonis politikuri wesrigi
cvlad sazogadoebebSi (Huntington 1968); kis pasuximgeblobis
mqone eleqtorati (Key 1966); leinis politikuri ideologia
(Lane 1962); lindblomis demokratiis goni (Lindblom 1965);
22
saerTo meTodologiuri monacemebis Camoyalibeba yvelaze
kargad ganxilulia galtungis (Galtung 1967) da kingis,
qeoheinisa da verbas (King, Keohane and Verba 1994) SromebSi.
23
magaliTad,
marSali
am
disciplinas
ganixilavs
omisSemdgomi periodis empiriuli (am SemTxvevaSi, britanuli)
sociologiis aTi `klasikuri~ naSromis poziciidan (Marshall
1990).
23
lipsetis
politikuri
adamiani
(Lipset 1960);
muris
diqtaturisa da demokratiis socialuri safuZvlebi (Moore
1966); noiStadtis prezidentis Zalaufleba (Neustadt 1960) da
olsonis koleqtiuri moqmedebis logika (Olson 1965).24
politikuri mecnierebis axali profesionalizmis
erT-erT ganmsazRvreli gamovlinebaa `erTbaSad klasikad
qcevis~
fenomeni.25
esaa
wignebi,
romlebic
TiTqmis
gamoqveynebisTanave xvdeba kanonikur naSromTa ricxvSi,
romelTa
Sesaxeb
codnac,
gagonilis doneze
mainc,
TavisTavad karg tonad iTvleba. didxans darCeba Tu ara es
`erTbaSad klasikad qceuli~ naSromebi fuZemdebluri
axali
Sromebis
ricxvSi,
jerjerobiT
ucnobia.
saxelmZRvanelos
TiToeul
TavSi
gamoyenebuli
literaturis analizisas TvalSisacemia, rom calkeuli
qvedisciplinis
specialistebi
Tanamedrove
naSromTa
umravlesobidan mxolod uaxles gamocemebs eyrdnobian.
axal saxelmZRvaneloSi CamoTvlili publikaciebis sam
meoTxedze meti, rogorc es Cans damatebidan 1 , ibeWdeboda
oci wlis manZilze Zveli saxelmZRvanelos 1975 wlis
gamocemis Semdeg, 30 procentze meti ki gamoqveynda
ukanaskneli xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi.26 viRacam SeiZleba
SeniSnos, rom amgvari msjeloba wminda wylis nayvaa.
sxvebma, ufro keTilganwyobilebma, SeiZleba miiCnion, rom
24
wina TaobisaTvis amgvaradve umniSvnelovanesi naSromebi iyo:
diuverJes politikuri partiebi (Duverger 1951/1954); kis
politika, partiebi da zewolis jgufebi (Key 1942) da
samxreTis politika (Key 1950); Sumpeteris kapitalizmi,
socializmi da demokratia (Shumpeter 1943) da saimonis
administraciuli qceva (Simon 1951).
25 pirvelad es SeniSna braian berim (Barry 1974) hirSmanis odnav
adre gamocemul naSromTan dakavSirebiT (Hirschman 1970).
26
es faqti nawilobriv SeiZleba aixsnas imiT, rom axali
saxelmZRvanelos pirveli sami seqciis TiToeuli qveTavis
avtorebs sTxoves, yuradReba gaemaxvilebinaT 1975 wels
grinStein-polsbis saxelmZRvanelos gamoqveynebis Semdeg
wamoWril problemebze (mxolod `TiToeuli seqciis `Zveli
da axali~ Tavebis avtorebs sTxoves ufro adrindeli
movlenebis
gaTvaliswinebac).
gviandeli
faqtebi
ar
SeiZleboda axsniliyo konteqstidan mowyvetiT.
24
amgvari mdgomareoba gardauvlad asaxavs Zveli miRwevebis
safuZvelze
axali
codnis
dagrovebis
process
da
axasiaTebs nebismieri samecniero disciplinis ganviTarebas.
amasTan erTad, saidanac ar unda momdinareobdes es
fenomeni,
TvalsaCino
WeSmaritebas
warmoadgens,
rom
zogierTma naSromma, romelTa Sesaxebac farTo diskusiebi
gaimarTa, SemdgomSi, profesiuli TvalsazrisiT, arsebiTad
dakarga aqtualoba.27
ukanaskneli meoTxedi saukunis manZilze disciplinis
arsebiTi ganviTarebis mokled warmosaCenad saukeTeso gza
im `mniSvnelovani wignebis~ CamonaTvalia, romlebmac
aRniSnul periodSi xeli Seuwyves dargSi samecnieroprofesiul zrdas. sia grZelia, cxadia, arasrulic da,
nebismier SemTxvevaSi, sadavoa misi sazRvrebi. rogorc es
zogadad
xdeba
socialur
mecnierebaSi,
CamonaTvali
mkacrad
inglisurenovania
da
didwilad
SeerTebul
Statebzea orientirebuli. Tumca, nebismieri midgomis
gaTvaliswinebiT, am Tanamedrove klasikur naSromebSi unda
Sediodes:
· grehem alisonis gadawyvetilebis arsi (Allison
1971);
· robert
aqselrodis
TanamSromlobis
evolucia (Axelrod 1984);
· semuel barnesis, maqs kaazesa da sxvaTa
politikuri qmedeba (Barnes, Kaase et al. 1979);
· moris
fiorinas
amerikis
nacionalur
arCevnebSi xmis micemis retrospeqtiva (Fiorina
1981);
· ronald inglehartis uxmauro revolucia
(Inglehart 1977);
27
SesaZloa, ukanaskneli oci wlis ganmavlobaSi gamocemul
amgvar naSromTa yvelaze TvalsaCino nimuSebs warmoadgens
lindblomis “politika da bazrebi”: (Linblom 1977) da taftis
“politikuri kontroli ekonomikaze” (Tufte, 1978). orive
farTod ganixileboda aRniSnuli periodis dasawyisSi, magram
axali saxelmZRvanelos TavebSi maTi damowmeba, ramdenadac
sakvirveli ar unda iyos, iSviaTad xdeba sxva uaxles
literaturasTan SedarebiT, romlebsac xsenebuli naSromebis
gavlenis kvali aSkarad etyobaT.
25
·
elinor ostromis TemTa mmarTveloba (Ostrom
1990);
· Teda skokpolis saxelmwifoebi da socialuri
revolucia (Skokpol 1979);
· sidnei verbas da norman nais politikuri
monawileoba amerikaSi (Verba and Nie 1972);
ukanaskneli ori-sami wlis ganmavlobaSi yvelaze
farTod ganxilul wignebs Soris, romlebic zemoT
moyvanil sias SeiZleba daerTos, aris kingis, qeoheinis da
verbas socialuri gamokvlevis dagegmareba (KKing, Keohane
and Verba 1994) da robert patnemis momuSave demokratia
(Putnam 1993).
b. saWirboroto Temebi
Cven politika ganvsazRvreT, rogorc socialuri
Zalauflebis SezRuduli gamoyeneba. zemoT aRvniSneT, rom
nebismieri siaxle, romelic SeiZleba moicvas am definiciam,
mTavar aqcents akeTebs SezRudvaze, rogorc politikis
gagebis gasaRebze. magram es siaxle mxolod Cveni
gamogoneba
araa.
politika,
rogorc
SezRudva
da
SezRuduli politika ama Tu im saxiT ukanaskneli
meoTxedi saukunis ganmavlobaSi politikuri mecnierebis
fuZemdebluri Tema iyo.28
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, wignis yvela momdevno Tavi
miuTiTebs
politikur
cxovrebaSi
institucionaluri
faqtorebis mniSvnelobis xelaxal aRiarebaze. `axali
institucionalizmis~ aRmavlobas Tan daerTo isic, rom
Camoyalibda
istoriis,
SemTxveviTobis,
wesebisa
da
reJimebis, rogorc politikis SemzRudvelebis, axleburi
gageba. ra Tqma unda, am disciplinis Seqmnamdec arsebobda
Tvalsazrisi, rom `istorias angariSi unda gaewios~.
maTTvis, visac sakuTari profesiuli TvalTaxedvidan eWvi
28
sxva TvalsazrisiT, aseve vlindeba mzardi interesi
saxelmwifo aparatis mier Tavisi funqciebis Sesrulebis
unaris Semcirebisadmi. ix.: Rose and Peters 1978; Norlinger 1981 da
Flora 1986.
26
Sehqonda lipsetis da rokanis (Lipset and Rocca 1967) `gayinul
azrTa sxvadasxvaobis~ cnebebSi an muris (Moore 1966)
komunizmis da faSizmisa Tu saparlamento demokratiis
ganviTarebis modelebSi, Tundac bernemis (Burnham 1970)
`kritikuli gardaqmnis~ TeoriebSi, mxolod umniSvnelo
siaxles warmoadgenda is azri, rom warsulis gadamwyvet
momentebSi koaliciur struqturebs SeeZlo mravalwliani
perspeqtiviT winaswar ganesazRvra politikuri cxovrebis
mdinareba. Tumca amJamad axali institucionalisturi
Temebi
centralurad
iqca
mTlianad
politikuri
mecnierebis disciplinaSi. am TvalsazrisiT, umTavres
magaliTs warmoadgens ori Tanamedrove klasikuri naSromi
politikis istoriaSi: skokpolis jariskacebisa da dedebis
dacva: socialuri politikis safuZvlebi SeerTebul
StatebSi (Skocpol 1992) da orenis dagvianebuli feodalizmi:
Sroma, kanoni da liberaluri ganviTareba SeerTebul
StatebSi (Orren 1991).
amrigad, istoriis memkvidreoba warmoadgens erT-erT
SezRudvas,
romelzec
migviTiTebs
axali
institucionalizmi. meore Cabudebuli da CaduRabebulia
socialuri wesebisa da reJimebis bunebaSi, maT praqtikasa
da SesaZleblobebSi. socialuri cxovrebis am modelSi,
romelic
rusul
Tojinas
(`matrioSkas~)
SeiZleba
SevadaroT,
zedapirTan
SedarebiT
axlos
aRmoCndeba
Cveulebrivi maqinaciebi. Tumca, Tuki yvelaze martiv
samarTlebriv magaliTs aviRebT, wesebi, romlebsac Cven
vaxsenebT, gamoiyvaneba konstituciuri xasiaTis ufro
maRali donis principebidan. rogorc axlaxans bevrma
aRmoaCina, konstituciis Semoqmednic ar arian bolomde
Tavisufalni, `uzenaesi~ kanonebic ki emyareba raRac ufro
maRal principebs, wesebsa da procedurebs, romelTa
warmomavlobac yovelTvis rodi atarebs iuridiul xasiaTs.
savsebiT
marTebulad,
igive
SeiZleba
iTqvas
yvela
danarCeni tipis praqtikul moRvaweobaze, procedurebze,
wesebsa da reJimebze, romlebic erToblivad gansazRvraven
sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis
CarCoebs.
maTgan
aravinaa
Tavisufali, yvela da yvelaferi gansazRvrulia maTi
cnebebiT, isini yvelganaa da SeWrilia analogiuri
procedurebis danarCen tipebSi, wesebsa da reJimebSi.
yovelTvis arsebobs raRac uzenaesi instancia.
amgvar
27
urTierTobaTa TiToeul kompleqss ukavia garkveuli
adgili kidev ufro fundamenturi da avtoritaruli
wesebisa
da
reJimebis,
praqtikuli
moRvaweobisa
da
procedurebis aRmaval ierarqiaSi (North 1990; Tsebelis 1990;
Easton 1990; Weingast, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 5; Alt and Alesina, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 28; ix. Braybrooke and Lindblom 1963).
ra Tqma unda, am myarad fesvgadgmuli wesebisa da
reJimebis, praqtikuli moRvaweobisa da procedurebis ukan
dgas
Cveulebrivi
socialur-ekonomikuri
SezRudvebi.
SesaZloa, socialuri organizaciis yvelaze Rrma aspeqtebi
myaria mxolod im mizeziT, rom sociologiurad kargad
nacnobi da xelSesaxebad produqtiulia. amitom, saboloo
jamSi,
maTi
Zlierebis
pirveladi
wyaro
SeiZleba
ganixilebodes, rogorc erTgvari SezRudva socialuri
Zalauflebis gamoyenebisas. metwilad socialuri wesrigis
es Rrmad gamjdari aspeqtebi SeumCnevlad mJRavndeba da
zegavlenas axdens adamianTa cxovrebaze Zaldatanebisa da
zedmeti kiTxvebis gareSe. maTi Zlierebis pirveladi
wyaroebi SemzRudvelebis saxiT arasodesaa TvalSisacemi
(Granovetter 1985).
sxvadasxva dros socialuri Zalauflebis gamoyeneba
ganisazRvreboda da izRudeboda socialur-ekonomikuri
ZalebiT,
romlebic socialuri cxovrebis zedapirze
moqmedebdnen. es SeiZleba moyirWebul Temad mogveCvenos,
romelsac dausruleblad ubrundebia yvela marqsidan (Marx
1852/1972b; 1871/1972a) da birdidan (Beard 1913) moyolebuli.
miuxedavad amisa, is kvlavac iwvevs Tanamedrove klasikosTa
interess formalizaciisa da ganviTarebis poziciebis
TvalsazrisiT, rac aisaxa iseT naSromebSi, rogoricaa
lindblomis politika da bazrebi (Lindblom 1977) da taftis
ekonomikis politikuri kontroli (Tufte 1978). gasakviria,
magram jer kidev bevria saTqmeli am Temebis Sesaxeb, Tuki
vimsjelebT iseTi uaxlesi naSromebidan gamomdinare,
rogoricaa przevorskisa da Spragis qaRaldis qvebi
(Przeworski and Sprague 1986), sadac ganxilulia socialurekonomikuri logika, romelic zRudavs eleqtoraluri
socializmis perspeqtivebs, da rogovskis komercia da
koaliciebi (Rogowski, Commerce and Coalitions, 1989), romelSic
Sina koaliciebis struqtura ganixileba sagareo savaWro
interesebis poziciebidan.
28
socialuri
Zalauflebis
gamoyeneba
aseve
SezRudulia kidev erTi garemoebiT, romelsac mxolod
axlaxans miaqcies yuradReba politikuri mecnierebis
sxvadasxva dargSi. aq nagulisxmevi SezRudvebi kognituri
xasiaTisaa da dakavSirebulia wminda (ufro sworad
praqtikuli)
gonebis
SezRudul
SesaZleblobebTan.
politikis sociologebma da fsiqologebma ukve didi xania
yuradReba miaqcies politikuri cxovrebis iracionalur da
araracionalur aspeqtebs. es warmodgenilia naSromebSi
socializaciisa da ideologiis meqanizmebis Sesaxeb masebis
cnobierebis sistemebis SigniT (Jennings and Miemi 1981; Converse
1964).
Tumca
dRes
racionaluri
arCevanis
modelis
momxrenic
ki
saTanadod
afaseben
analitikur
SesaZleblobebs, romlebsac gza gaexsna
informaciis
sisrulisa da absolutur racionalobaze pretenziebis
Sesustebis pirobebSi (Simon 1954; 1985; Bell, Raiffa and Tversky
1988; Popkin 1991; Pappi, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 9, GRofman, ix. qvemoT,
Tavi 30). cxadia, imas, rasac politikuri ekonomistebi
informaciis naklebobad afaseben, sxvebi fsiqologiur
Stampebs
uwodeben.
magram
disciplinis
ganviTarebis
TvalsazrisiT
problemebisadmi
midgomisas
amgvari
gansxvavebebi imdenad araa mniSvnelovani, ramdenadac
sakuTriv
problemis
arsebobis
saerTo
aRiareba.
praqtikulad yvela mimarTulebis politikuri mecnieri
umniSvnelovanesad
miiCnevs
xalxis
cnobierebasa
da
rwmenebs, aseve imas, rac yovelive amis ukan dgas.
is, rac adamianebis warmodgeniT WeSmariti da
mniSvnelovania, rac maTi rwmeniT kargi da faseulia, ara
marto warmarTavs, aramed zRudavs kidec maT socialur
qmedebebs (Offe, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 29). es rwmena-warmodgenebi,
Tavis
mxriv,
emyareba
warsulis
moZRvrebebsa
da
gamocdilebas.
am
moZRvrebebisa
da
gamocdilebis
SezRudvebs
SeuZlia
gansazRvros
xalxis
rwmenawarmodgenebis CarCoebi da Rirebulebebi, da aqedan
gamomdinare, ganapirobos misi politikuri arCevani (Neustadt
and May 1986; Edelman 1988). am SezRudvebiT manipulacia iseve,
rogorc manipulacia am SezRudvebis SigniT mcxovrebi
adamianebiT, warmoadgens Rrmad politikur aqts, romelic
imsaxurebs da sul ufro metad ipyrobs analitikosTa
yuradRebas. uaxles naSromTa Soris unda dasaxeldes
29
alisonis (Allison 1971) Sroma `konceptualuri rukebis~
Sesaxeb, marCisa (March 1972) _ `modelis gamrudebis~
Taobaze, aqselrodis (Axelrod 1976) _ sqemebis Teoriaze,
jervisis (Jervis 1976) _ aRqmis rolze saerTaSoriso
urTierTobebSi da aseve mravali gamokvleva politikuri
komunikaciebis Sesaxeb (Nimmo and Sanders 1981; Swanson and
Nimmo 1990; Graber 1993).
axali politikuri mecnierebis kidev erTi Tema,
romelsac kvlavac ubrundebian da romelic am axal
saxelmZRvaneloSi ganixileba, aris mzardi gacnobiereba
imisa, rom ideebs garkveuli Sedegebi mosdevs. es sakiTxi
drodadro wamoiWreba sajaro politikasTan dakavSirebul
diskusiebSi. Zveli problemebis axali rakursiT ganxilva,
moqmedebis axali gzebis moZieba, axali samoqmedo gegmebis
dasaxva _ yovelive es sajaro problemebTan mimarTebaSi
politikuri aqtiurobis kvintesencias warmoadgens (Olsen
1972; Nelson, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 24; Majone, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 26).
igive
midgoma
savsebiT
gamosadegia
krosnacionalur
konteqstSi: gavrceleba demokratizaciis ideebisa, aseve
konkretuli mosazrebebisa imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda
moxdes ama Tu im tipis reJimebis demokratizacia, ueWvelad
ukanasknel dros msoflioSi ganviTarebuli yvelaze
dramatuli movlenebis centraluri Tema iyo (Whitehead, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 26). isev aRmavlobas ganicdis saerTaSoriso
urTierTobaTa sferoSi idealizmi, romelic TiTqmis
hegelianur masStabebs aRwevs (Goldmann, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 16;
Sanders, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 17; Keohane, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 18).
`politikis, rogorc socialuri Zalauflebis SezRuduli
gamoyenebis~ gagebis, CarCoebSi es manevrebi cvlian an
gardaqmnian arsebul SezRudvebs. aSkaraa, rom es naklebad
konfrontaciulia, vidre Zalauflebis ganxorcielebis sxva
magaliTebi,
magram
nebismier
SemTxvevaSi
es
mainc
Zalauflebis ganxorcielebaa.
bolos, politikuri mecnierebis praqtikidan qreba
faqtebisa da maTi Sefasebis urTierTdapirispireba, rac
bihevioristuli revoluciis `safrTxobelas~ warmoadgenda
misi arsebobis yvelaze pozitivistur fazaSi. arsebobs
uamravi metaTeoriuli mizezi, romlebic abrkolebs amgvar
gansxvavebebs da im SemTxvevaSi, Tu aseTi gansxvaveba
saerTod gaurkvevlia, Cndeba eTikuri xasiaTis mizezebi,
30
romliTac
warmoCindeba
RirebulebaTa
primati
an
`konkretuli poziciidan amosul politikur mecniereba~
(Goodin 1980; 1982). Tumca sabolood danamdvilebiT gaimarjva
mosazrebam, rom politikuri agentebi imavdroulad eTikuri
aqtorebic arian (Taylor 1967; 1985). isini iTaviseben
Rirebulebebs, moqmedeben maT safuZvelze da zogjer
(SesaZloa, politikis filosofosebis zegavleniT) isini
rwmundebian
sxva,
ukeTesi
Rirebulebebis
SeTvisebis
saWiroebaSi.
Tu Cven gvsurs am adamianebis qcevis axsna, maSin
unda gavaanlizoT maTi rogorc amJamindeli Rirebulebebi,
aseve is Rirebulebebi, romelTa SeZenac maT SeuZliaT.
magaliTad, jeims skoti glexobis moralur ekonomikaSi
(Scott 1976) cdilobda martivad aexsna glexuri amboxebebi
samxreT-dasavleT aziaSi maTTvis, vinc politikas `akeTebs~.
misi axsniT,
es iyo xalxis reaqcia im politikis
winaaRmdeg,
romelsac
isini
usamarTlod
miiCnevdnen
samarTlianobis
Sesaxeb
adgilobrivi
warmodgenis
Sesabamisad. barington muri usamarTlobaSi (Moore 1978)
Seecada ganezogadebina es debuleba. amis msgavsad,
demokratiuli idealebis gavrceleba samxreT evropaSi,
Semdeg laTinur amerikaSi, Semdeg ki aRmosavleT evropaSi
SeiZleba SevafasoT, rogorc politikur procesi, romlic
eyrdnoba warmodgenas kargis Sesaxeb da es Sezavebulia
SesaZlebelTan (Dalton, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 13; Whitehead, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 14). mentaluri procesebisa da politikuri
procesebis dinamikis Seswavlisas faqtebis Camocileba maTi
Sefasebidan srul ugunurebas warmoadgens.
imavdroulad
politikuri
mecnierebi
mudmivad
cdiloben, gamoiyenon kompleqsuri kvleviTi meTodebi
sistemurad
urTierTkavSirSi
myof
struqturebTan,
procesebTan da SedegebTan mimarTebaSi. amisaTvis maT
esaWiroebaT iseTi Teoriuli CarCo, romelic analizis
yvela am dones moicavda da maT integrirebas SesaZlebels
gaxdida. albaT, swored am SesaZleblobis SeqmnaSia
racionaluri
arCevanis
koncefciisa
da
axali
institucionalizmis didi Zala da amiTve aixsneba am
inteleqtualuri dRis wesrigis warmmarTveli mdgomareoba
mTlianad Tanamedrove politikur mecnierebaSi (ix. qvemoT,
IV nawili). amave dros, es kompleqsuri kvleviTi midgoma
31
iTvaliswinebs struqturebis, procesebisa da Sedegebis
normatiul Sefasebas, risTvisac cdiloben normatiuli
politikuri filosofiis integrirebas oRond ise, rom
lamis anaTemas gadascemen wina Taobebis memkvidreobas. am
mizeziT SeiZleba aixsnas samarTlianobis Sesaxeb roulzis
naSromebis (Rawls 1971; 1993) popularoba da isic, rom
dReisaTvis yvelaze xSirad imowmeben iseTi normativistebis
naSromebs, rogoricaa beri, dali da roulzi, romlebic
yvelaze
xSirad
damowmebul
da
mniSvnelovan
`integratorebad~ SeiZleba CaiTvalon (ix. danarTi 1C, 1D
da 1E).
g. axali xmebi
Cven feministebisagan, dekonstruqcionistebisagan da,
ufro zogadad, postmodernistebisagan viswavleT, rom
yuradReba
unda
gamoviCinoT
`miCumaTebis~,
anu
im
problemebis mimarT, romlebic ugulebelyofilia da
romelTa Sesaxebac ar laparakoben. mTlianad disciplinis
mimoxilvisas yovelTvis rTulia imis gaazreba, Tu ra aris
iseTi, rac am disciplinas aklia.
ueWveli WeSmaritebaa, rom yvela disciplinas aqvs
aRzevebisa da dakninebis xana. ukanasknel dros sajaro
samarTalsa
da
sajaro
administrirebas
politikuri
mecnierebis
mTlian
konteqstSi
SedarebiT
naklebi
yuradReba eqceva (Wildavsky 1964; 1979; Wilson 1973), Tumca aris
garkveul niSnebi imisa, rom dRes mdgomareoba icvleba
(Drewry, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 6; Peters, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 7; Peters and
Wright, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 27). adre gamorCeulad dafasebuli
zogierTi qvedisciplina axal saxelmZRvaneloSi sustadaa
warmodgenili, rac albaT, maTi avtorebis TvalTaxedviT,
Seesabameba
im
mniSvnelobas,
romelic
eniWeba
am
qvedisciplinebs uaxles istoriaSi. sajaro politikis
specialistebi sul ufro iSviaTad cdiloben asaxon
saqalaqo politikis problematika (Banfield and Wilson 1963;
Banfield 1970; Katznelson 1981); saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa
specialistebi strategiuli kvlevebis Sesaxeb dRes ufro
naklebad
laparakoben
(Schelling 1960; Freedman 1981);
institutebis
mkvlevrebi
gacilebiT
iSviaTad
weren
warmomadgenlobis problemis Sesaxeb (Eulau and Wahlke 1978;
32
Fenno 1978); biheviorizmis specialistebi uwindelze ufro
naklebad msjeloben politikuri gavlenis (Banfield 1961),
politikuri
komunikaciebisa
da,
ufro
zogadad,
politikuri monawileobis Sesaxeb (Pappi, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 9;
Dalton, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 13; Grofman, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 30; da
McGraw, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 34). dabolos, unda aRiniSnos, rom
politikuri mecnierebis anglocentrul mimarTulebaSi
yovelTvis
naklebi
yuradReba
eqceoda
marqsistul
Teoriebs da ucxoenovan wyaroebs, Tumca am mxriv amJamad
mdgomareoba Seicvala (Whitehead, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 14; Apter,
ix. qvemoT, Tavi 15; von Beyme, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 22; Offe, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 29).
im mimdinareobebs Soris, romlebic Tanamedrove
politikur mecnierebaSi uwindelze ukeTaa warmodgenili,
unda aRiniSnos postmodernizmi da feminizmi. dRes im
gamorCeuli rolis Sesaxeb, romelsac qalebi asruleben
politikaSi, mxolod mravalricxovani Sromebi rodi
arsebobs (Nelson and Chowdhury 1994),
aramed ismis qalTa
gansxvavebuli xmac, gansakuTrebiT politikur TeoriaSi
(Pateman 1988; Shanley and Pateman 1991; Young, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 20),
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebsa (Tickner, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 18) da
sajaro politikaSi (Nelson, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 24).
zogadad postmodernizmi ufro mokrZalebuladaa
warmodgenili, rac nawilobriv aixsneba imiT, rom misi
centraluri koncefciebi maRali Teoriuli abstraqciis
donisaa
(White
1991).
miuxedavad
amisa,
politikis
Teoretikosebi, cxadia, interess amJRavneben mis mimarT
(Young, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 20; von Beyme, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 22).
ufro metic, postmodernistuli Teoriebi mdidari wyaro
aRmoCnda
STagonebisaTvis
e.w.
`axali
politikuri
moZraobebis Seswavlisas~ (Dunleavy, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 10;
Dalton, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 13; Young, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 20) da
Zveli saerTaSoriso wesrigis rRvevis kvlevisas (Tickner, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 18). im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac warsulis mkafio
politikuri struqturebi gaqra (an daiSala mraval
erTmaneTidan
gaTiSul
elementad),
poststruqturul
Teoriul analizs savsebiT SeuZlia axsnas, Tu ra xdeboda
da rogor.
33
imisgan damoukideblad, aris Tu ara Tanamedrove
politikuri mecniereba mTlianad postmodernistuli, is
arsebiTad postpozitivisturia im TvalsazrisiT, rom bevri
iswavla
hermenevtikuli
kritikisagan.
politikuri
cxovrebis subieqturi faqtorebi, politikur aqtorTa
Sinagani
mentaluri
samyaro,
mniSvnelobebi,
rwmenawarmodgenebi, ganzraxvebi da Rirebulebebi – yovelive amas
dRes centraluri adgili ukavia politikuri analizis
nebismier mimarTulebaSi (Edelman 1964; Scott 1976; Ricer 1986;
Popkin 1991; Kaase, Newton and Scarbrough 1995). es miRwevebi
didwilad
aisaxa
axali
saxelmZRvanelos
calkeul
TavebSi.29
ufro
zogadi
TvalsazrisiT,
politikuri
meTodologia, rogorc Cans, Sedis ganviTarebis garkveul
postmodernistul fazaSi. albaT meTodologTa Soris ar
moiZebneba bevri iseTi enTuziasti, rogoricaa, magaliTad,
alkeri (Alker, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 35), romelic moindomebda am
procesis gaazrebas. Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, dRes bevri
mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs konteqstualizaciisa da konkretul
arCevanze damokidebulebis ganmartebebis aucileblobas
(Jackson, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 32; Ragin et al., ix. qvemoT, Tavi 33). es,
garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, ama Tu im politikuri movlenis
axsnisas niSnavs uaris Tqmas saerTo meTodologiaze
kerZos
sasargeblod,
universalizmze
konkretuli
situaciebis sasargelod. am mniSvnelobiT, politikuri
meTodologiis uaxlesi miRwevebi SeiZleba ganixilebodes,
rogorc `postmodernuli Semobruneba~.
marTlac, Tuki mivudgebiT disciplinis istorias,
rogorc
`teqsts~,
postmodernuli
teqnika
SeiZleba
dagvxmareboda, dagvenaxa Cveni koleqtiuri warsulis
mravali SesaZlebeli varianti da, Sesabamisad, aRmogveCina
momavali ganviTarebis araerTi SesaZlo mimarTuleba
(Dryzek, Farr and Leonard 1995). is, vinc mijaWvulia `didi
Weingast, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 5; Pappi, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 9; Dunleavy,
ix. qvemoT, Tavi 10; Whitehead, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 14; Tickner, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 18; von Beyme, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 21; Hofferbert and
Cingranelli, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 25; Majone, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 26; Offe,
ix. qvemoT, Tavi 29; Grofman, ix. qvemoT, Tavi 30; Alker, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 35.
29
34
mecnierebis~ sworxazovani progresis xedvaze, SeiZleba
gaawbilos sxvadasxva traeqtoriebiT ganviTarebis sruliad
gansxvavebulma SesaZleblobebma.30 Tumca doganis (Dogan, ix.
qvemoT, Tavi 3) TavSi disciplinis progresis Sesaxeb `axali
mimdinareobebis~ gavrceleba politikur mecnierebs Soris
didad mowonebulia, vinaidan es qmnis qvedisciplinaTa
hibridizaciis nayofier SesaZleblobebs.
IV profesiis konturebi:
bibliometruli analizi
SesaZloa, disciplinis bunebis Sesaxeb am xmamaRali
gancxadebebis dasabuTebis saukeTeso gza, rogorc amas
axali saxelmZRvanelo gviCvenebs, masSi damowmebuli
literaturis ufro guldasmiTi bibliometruli analizia.
am saxis analiziT vlindeba naSromTa anda, ufro xSirad,
konkretuli
avtorebis
naSromTa
citirebis
sixSire.
miuxedavad imisa, rom am meTods aqvs garkveuli xarvezebi,
is mainc metad sasargebloa ama Tu im TvalsazrisiT:
calkeuli individebisa da kvleviTi departamentebis
reputaciisa da mdgomareobis garkvevisas profesiis SigniT,
ama Tu im tipis konkretuli naSromis an konkretuli
mkvlevris naSromebis gamoyenebis sixSiris gamosavlenad da
a.S.31
ufro met interess ki arsebul situaciaSi iwvevs is,
Tu
rogor
xdeba
erTi
qvedisciplinis
mkvlevarTa
naSromebis SeWra sxva qvedisciplinaSi da amis Sedegad
30
gansakuTrebulad
mkafiod
politikuri
mecnierebis
ganviTarebis sxva gzebi vlindeba erovnul sazogadoebebSi.
amaSi dasarwmuneblad sakmarisia, erTmaneTs SevadaroT
SeerTebuli Statebis istoriis klasikuri gamocema (Somit and
Tanenhaus 1967) da sxva gadmocemebi (Easton, Gunnel and Graziano
1991; Wagner, Wittrock and Whitley 1991; Dierkes and Biervert 1992; Rokkan
1979 da Chester 1986).
31
aSS-Si
moRvawe
mkvlevarTa
da
aSS-is
kvleviTi
departamentebis SefasebisaTvis ix.: Klingemann 1986. uaxlesi
monacemebi klingemanis mier warmodgenili iqneba moTxovnis
mixedviT.
35
mTlianad
disciplinis
integracia.
am
mizniT,
Cven
vamjobineT yuradReba gagvemaxvilebina ara konkretul
teqstSi naxsenebi avtorebisa da naSromebis raodenobaze,
aramed imaze, Tu ramdenjeraa esa Tu is avtori an naSromi
dasaxelebuli axali saxelmZRvanelos sxva nawilebis
literaturis siaSi. (Sedegebis ganmeorebisagan Tavis
asarideblad, es gaTvla ar iTvaliswinebs Cveni winamdebare
Tavis bolos motanil literaturis sias32). es midgoma,
miuxedavad Sedegebis garkveuli damaxinjebisa, rogorc
Cans, yvelaze ukeT Seesabameba Cvens amocanas.33
amgvari bibliometruli analizis Sedegad mravali
mniSvnelovani sakiTxi ikveTeba. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom
32
es aucilebelia, raTa Tavi avaridoT garkveul gadaxras im
daskvnebis
sasargeblod,
romelTa
miReba
SesaZlebeli
gaxdeboda Cvens mier dawerili Tavis literaturis siis
gamoyenebiT. garda amisa, rogorc es miRebulia, Cven
gaTvlebidan gamovricxeT wignis avtorTa mier damowmebuli
sakuTari naSromebi (mocemul SemTxvevaSi es damatebiT
siZneleebs
Seqmnida,
vinaidan
axali
saxelmZRvanelos
avtorebi gamoiricxebodnen im Tavebis analizidanac ki,
romelTa avtorebic ar arian). TanaavtorobiT daweril
naSromTa damowmebebisas yvela avtori gaTvaliswinebulia
Tanabari proporciiT (anu ise, TiTqos TiToeuli maTgani
konkretuli
naSromis
erTaderTi
avtori
yofiliyo).
Cveulebriv, es miRebuli araa, magram, Cveni azriT, amgvari
midgoma didwilad Seesabameba avtorTa Sefasebis Cveneul
amocanas, romlis drosac veswrafvodiT ara imdenad maTi
reputaciis gamyarebas, ramdenadac disciplinis potenciuri
integratorebis gamovlenas.
33 gansakuTrebiT gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Tuki gvinda Tavi
avaridoT
SefasebiT
uzustobas,
ufro
mosaxerxebelia,
gaviTvaliswinoT teqstebisa da
avtorebis damowmebaTa
sixSire literaturis siaSi, vidre maTi citireba konkretuli
Tavebis farglebSi. amis Sesaxeb gvafrTxilebda berlini
(Berlin 1953), rodesac saubrobda gasxvavebaze `zRarbebs~ da
`meliebs~ Soris da aRniSnavda am ukanasknelTa upiratesobas
(`zRarbebma~ mxolod erTi didi sfero ician an dawerili
aqvT erTi didi wigni, `meliebma~ ki metnaklebad bevr
sferoSi ician raRac da dawerili aqvT mravali wigni Tu
statia, romelTac sxvebi imowmeben ).
36
politologTa udidesi nawili, pirvel rigSi, warmoadgens
sakuTari qvedisciplinis specialists. avtorebisa da
damowmebuli
naSromebis
didi
umravlesoba
axali
saxelmZRvanelos mxolod erTi qvedisciplinis TavSia
naxsenebi. marTlac (rogorc naCvenebia danarTSi 1B),
avtorTa TiTqmis ori mesamedi naxsenebia mxolod erTxel,
mxolod erTi Tavis damowmebuli literaturis siaSi.34
sxva
mxriv,
sakmaod
bevri
mkvlevari
xSirad
moixsenieba axali saxelmZRvanelos Tavebis literaturis
siaSi. 35 avtori (CamoTvlilia danarTSi 1C) aTze metjer
aris moxseniebuli. ar arsebobs prioritetebis miniWebis
konkretuli kriteriumi am `Rirsebis ligis~ avtorTa
Soris. Cven saqme gvaqvs mxolod ubralo magaliTTan,
literaturis nakrebTan, romelic damowmebulia 34 Tavis
literaturis siaSi. Tumca miuxedavad imisa, rom ama Tu im
avtoris adgili am avtoritetTa siaSi dauzustebelia da
bolosken naxsenebi saxelebi sakmaod sadavoa, es sia mainc
gvexmareba, ganvsazRvroT, Tu romeli naSromebi iwvevs
interess disciplinis sxvadasxva dargebSi.
siaSi warmodgenili saxelebis da, gansakuTrebiT,
yvelaze xSirad naxseneb naSromTa gacnoba (danarTi 1 )
TvalsaCinod
aCvenebs
inteleqtualur
problematikas,
romelic dRes dominirebs politikur mecnierebaSi. Cven
TvalnaTliv
vxedavT
Tanamedrove
profesiaSi
`ori
revoluciis~_ bihevioristuli da racionaluri arCevanis
revoluciaTa _ nakvalevs. yvelaze farTod damowmebuli
naSromebis siis gadaTvalierebisas Cven kvlavindeburad
vxvdebiT iseT klasikur naSromebs, rogoricaa kempbelis,
34
am Sedegis gulis gamacruebeli interperatacia, danarTis 1A
monacemebTan erTad isaa, rom mkvlevarTa umravlesobis
wvlili metad mcirea, rac male daviwyebas miecema. Tumca
unda gvaxsovdes, rom axali saxelmZRvanelo warmoadgens
gasuli ori aTwleulis umTavresi naSromebis uaRresad
SerCeviT mimoxilvas. am mizeziT naSromi, romelic imsaxurebs
am wignis furclebze xsenebas, TavisTavad ukve warmoadgens
sakmaod mniSvnelovan miRwevas. Tu am poziciidan gamomdinare
vimsjelebT, maSin Cveni analizis Sedegebi imis dadasturebaa,
rom Cveni disciplinis sxvadasxva dargebSi esoden mravali
specialisti muSaobs.
37
konversis, milerisa da stoukis amerikeli amomrCeveli
(Campbell, Converse, Miller and Stoke, American Voter); almondisa da
verbas samoqalaqo kultura (Almond and Verba, Civic Culture);
lipsetisa da rokanis partiuli sistemebi da amomrCevelTa
gamijvna (Lipset and Rokkan, Party Systems and Voter Alignement),
Tumca damowmebaTa sixSiris mixedviT isini ukve siis qveda
mesamedSi moxvda. am siaSi pirveli sami adgili ukavia
meore,
racionaluri
arCevanis,
revoluciasTan
dakavSirebul
iseT
naSromebs,
rogoricaa
daunsis
demokratiis ekonomikuri Teoria (Downes, Economic Theory od
Democracy) da olsonis koleqtiuri qmedebis logika (Olson,
Logic of Collectiv Action), maT ki daemata ufro gviandeli
ostromis TemTa marTva (Ostrom, Governing the Commons).
racionaluri arCevanis `putCi~ aSkarad warmatebuli iyo.
Tanac racionalurma arCevanma ki ar daamxo Zveli
bihevioristuli orTodoqsia, aramed mniSvnelovani adgilis
dakava mis gverdiT.35 aRsaniSnavia isic, rom gardasul
revoluciaTa ideebi jer kidev arsebiT zegavlenas axdenen
disciplinis ganviTarebaze. cinikosebi acxadeben, rom
samecniero revoluciebi mxolod modis Wirveulobis
nayofia. Tu es asea, maSin axali modis gamoCenasTan erTad,
Zveli ukvalod unda gaqres. miuxedavad amisa, aSkaraa, rom
ase ar momxdara. aris Tu ara es codna kumulaciuri,
SesaZloa, sxva msjelobis sagania. yovel SemTxvevaSi, axali
revoluciebis Sedegad axali warmodgenebis damkvidrebiT
Zveli warmodgenebi sulac ar qreba.
imave cxrilebze dakvirvebisas Cven aseve vxedavT
momdevno revoluciis sul ufro mkafiod gamokveTil
konturebs: esaa `axali institucionalisturi~ moZraoba,
romelic
nawilobriv
dakavSirebulia
racionaluri
arCevanis
moZraobasTan.
es
kavSiri
yvelaze
xSirad
damowmebul wignebs Soris saukeTesod gamoixata ostromis
35
beris naSromSi sociologebi, ekonomistebi da demokratia
(Barry,
1970/1978),
romelic
uSualod
am
cvlilebis
mimdinareobisas
daiwera,
orive
movlena
daundobeli
logikuri kritikis qarcecxlSia gatarebuli. 1978 wlis
gamocemis winasityvaobaSi berim xazi gausva gasuli rva wlis
ganmavlobaSi `sociologiuri~ (bihevioristuli) paradigmis
rolis STambeWdav Semcirebas.
38
naSromSi TemTa marTva da nortis kvlevaSi institutebi,
institucionaluri cvlilebebi da ekonomikuri miRwevebi
(North, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance). sxva
avtorTa
publikaciebSi
institucionalizmi
mkafiod
gamoxatul sociologiur da antiracionalur xasiaTs
iZens. es mimdinareoba araerTxel damowmebul sxva wignebs
Soris warmodgenilia marCisa da olsenis naSromiT
institutebis xelaxali aRmoCena (March and Olsen, Rediscovering
Institutions) da skokpolis kvleviT saxelmwifoebi da
socialuri revoluciebi (Skocpol, States and Social R evolutions).
profesiis bibliometruli analizis Semdegi etapia
disciplinis yvelaze xSirad damowmebul avtorTa Soris
mTlianad
disciplinis
`integratorebis~
Zieba.
Cven
“integratorad” miviCnevT nebismiers, romelic, sul mcire,
erTxel mainc xvdeba damowmebuli siebis naxevarSi (rac
gvaZlevs maT damowmebas xuTjer da metjer) axali
saxelmZRvanelos
rva
subdisciplinur
nawilSi.
1630
avtoridan,
romlebic
warmodgenilia
axali
saxelmZRvanelos damowmebebSi mxolod 72 (4,4%) gvxvdeba 5
an met TavSi. maTgan mxolod 21 warmoadgens disciplinis
integrators, im gagebiT, rom maTi gavlena vrceldeba
axali
saxelmZRvanelos
subdisciplinuri
nawilebis
naxevarze
metze.
es
21
“integratori”
CamoTvlilia
danarTSi 1E 36
didwilad imave meTodebis gamoyenebiT Cven vxedavT,
Tu
ramdenad
kargadaa
TiToeuli
qvedisciplina
integrirebuli mTliani disciplinis farglebSi. Cven
SevecadeT, TiToeul qvedisciplinaSi gamogveyo avtorebi,
romlebsac yvelaze xSirad damowmebul avtorTa cxrilSi
pirveli sami adgili ukaviaT (isini CamoTvlilia cxrilSi
1F). imis saCveneblad, Tu ramdenad kargadaa qvedisciplina
36
mxolod 21 integratoris gamoyofam aseulobiT mkvlevridan,
romlebic
amJamad
aqtiurad
moRvaweoben
politikuri
mecnierebis sferoSi, SeiZleba Seqmnas STabeWdileba, rom
disciplinis integracia SedarebiT Wirs. Tumca arsebobs
sapirispiro mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac, disciplinis
specialistTa koleqtiuri fokusireba ramdenime gamorCeul
mkvlevarze da maT naSromebze ufro meti integraciis
maCvenebelia.
39
integrirebuli mTlinad disciplinaSi, Cven davsvamT or
kiTxvas (danarTSi 1G): ramdenad xSiradaa qvedisciplinaSi
yvelaze
xSirad
moxseniebuli
avtorebi
citirebuli
mTlianad disciplinaSi (yvelaze xSirad damowmebulTa
pirveli
aTeulis
mixedviT)?
ra
adgili
ukaviaT
qvedisciplinis yvelaze xSirad moxseniebuli avtorebs
mTlianad disciplinis integratorTa Soris?
ori
qvedisciplina
(komparatiuli
politikuri
mecniereba da politikuri ekonomia) am orive kriteriumis
mixedviT, gansakuTrebiT kargadaa integrirebuli mTlianad
disciplinaSi. sxva disciplinebis (magaliTad, sajaro
politikisa da administrirebis da politikuri Teoriis)
avtorebi xSirad gvevlinebian mTlianad disciplinis
integratorebad. amavdroulad, sxva dargebis, pirvel rigSi
ki, politikuri institutebis kvlevebis warmomadgenlebi,
romelTac ar hyavT sakuTari integratorebi, yvelaze
xSirad imowmeben avtorTa naSromebs, romlebic yvelaze
metad
arian
warmodgenilni
mTlianad
disciplinaSi.
arsebobs mxolod erTi qvedisciplina, kerZod, politikuri
meTodologia,
romlis
yvelaze
xSirad
citirebuli
avtorebi ar Sedian arc disciplinis integratorTa
ricxvSi da arc yvelaze xSirad citirebul avtorTa
ricxvSi.
mecnierebis
es
dargi
albaT,
garkveuli
TvalsazrisiT,
gancalkevebiT
dgas
da
SedarebiT
37
damoukideblad viTardeba.
daskvna
axali
saxelmZRvanelos
34
Tavis
analizis
safuZvelze Seqmnili suraTi, sakmaod optimisturia, radgan
masSi aisaxeba swrafadcvalebadi codnis sfero, romelic
warmodgenilia TvalsaCino da qmediTunariani mkvlevrebis
mier. isini mudmivad cdiloben im barierebis gadalaxvas,
romelic odesRac hyofda disciplinis calkeul dargebs.
adre moaruli Sexeduleba garkveuli erTiani mecnierebis
37
Cvens xelT arsebuli monacemebze dayrdnobiT, ver SevZeliT
gagveanalizebina
urTierTobebi
politikuri
mecnierebis
qvedisciplinebsa da sxva mecnierebebs Soris. maTi kavSiris
Sesaxeb ix. axali saxelmZRvanelos Tavi 3.
40
Seqmnis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb qimerad rCeba (Neurath et al.
1955). magram XX saukunis miwuruls, Cven mecniereba
potenciurad gaerTianebadi mecnierebaa. inteleqtualuri
energia, cnobismoyvareoba da Riaoba, rac saWiro gaxda am
faqtis gasacnobiereblad, ukve TavisTavad warmoadgens
miRwevas.
41
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politikuri mecniereba: disciplina