avtoris stili daculia
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti
humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakulteti
qarTuli literaturis istoria
nino xidiSeli
XX saukunis qarTuli biografiuli romani
(k. gamsaxurdias, v. WeliZis, o. CxeiZis r. WeiSvilis, e. TavberiZis,
Dda r. CxeiZis Semoqmedebis mixedviT mixedviT)
filologiis doqtoris (Ph.D)akademiuri xarisxis mosapoveblad warmodgenili
d i s e r t a c i a
samecniero
xelmZRvaneli _ filologiis mecnierebaTaAdoqtori,
asocirebuli profesori rusudan niSnianiZe
Tbilisi
2014
Sinaarsi
Sesavali .................................................................................................................................. 3
Tavi I
konstantine
gamsaxurdia
_
biografiuli
romani
,,goeTes
cxovrebis
romani“ da germanulenovani saazrovno sivrce ................................................................. 15
Tavi II
vaxtang WeliZis ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa" ....................................................... 43
Tavi III
oTar CxeiZis ,,romani da istoria" ......................................................................... 71
Tavi IV
rezo WeiSvilis ',,rkinis saxkomi"............................................................................ 87
Tavi V
elguja TavberiZis ,,airevi iveria‟‟................................................................................................ 118
Tavi VI
rostom CxeiZis
,,bedi pavle ingoroyvasi‟‟ ....................................................... 131
Tavi VII
rostom CxeiZis
,,burji erovnebisa" ..................................................................... 152
Tavi VIII
rostom CxeiZis
,,mze da mwuxri‟‟ ........................................................................... 176
naSromis ZiriTadi daskvnebi .................................................................................... 190
gamoyenebuli literatura ......................................................................................... 193
Sesavali
Cveni
sadisertacio
naSromis
Temis
sagani
aris
XX
saukunis
qarTuli biografiuli romanebis gamorCeuli nimuSebi. sakvlev masalad
warmodgenilia konstantine gamsaxurdias ,,goeTes cxovrebis romani‟‟,
vaxtang WeliZis ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa‟‟, oTar CxeiZis ,,romani da
istoria”, rezo WeiSvilis ,,rkinis saxkomi”, elguja TavberiZis ,,airevi
iveria‟‟,
rostom
CxeiZis
ramdenime
prozauli
teqsti:
,,bedi
pavle
Cvens
mier
ingoroyvasi”, ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟ da ,,mze da mwuxri‟‟.
problemis
gansaxilvelad
mecnieruli
warmodgenil
gamocemebSi
arsebobs
gamoxmaureba.
naSromSi
Seswavlis
istoria:
biografiul
calkeuli
romanebze
statiebi,
gaTvaliswinebulia
periodul
dawerilia
yvela
araerTi
kritikuli
werili,
romelic sakvlevi TematikisaTvis saintereso aRmoCnda. Sesabamisad, es
Txzulebebi garkveulwilad Seswavlili da gaanalizebulia. Tumca kidev
araerTi problematuri sakiTxi darCa AyuradRebis miRma. winamdebare
sadisertacio naSromSi SevecadeT, zemoT dasaxelebul literaturul
teqstebze kvleva farTod da srulyofilad warmogvedgina.
sadisertacio naSromi miznad isaxavs Cvens mier ganxiluli qarTuli
biografiuli
romanebis
siRrmiseul
kvlevas,
analizs,
TiToeuli
nawarmoebis mTavari personaJis (visac eZRvneba biografiuli romani _
n.x.) Sesaxeb arqivebSi, wignebSi, Jurnalebsa Tu gazeTebSi arsebuli
sxvadasxva saxis masalis gacnobas da amis Semdgom, maT Sedarebas Cvens
mier warmodgenil mxatvrul teqstebTan. Ees meTodi xels
Sesabamisi
daskvnebis
gamotanas
sakvlev
masalaze,
uwyobs
msjelobis
gafarToebas.
Temis
aqtualoba:
Cauyara iona meunargiam
saqarTveloSi
biografiul
romans
safuZveli
mxatvruli teqstebiT: ,,cxovreba da Rvawli
grigol orbelianisa‟‟ da ,,cxovreba da poezia nikoloz baraTaSvilisa‟‟.
amis Semdgom qarTul mwerlobas am JanrSi Seqmnili araerTi teqsti
Seemata.
3
rogorc
wesi,
TiToeuli
avtori
irCevs
personaJs, gansxvavebuli rangis da dargis
sruliad
sxvadasxva
moRvawes; iqneba es mwerali,
mecnieri, revolucioneri Tu avantiuristi; xatavs ara mxolod mxatvrul
saxes, aramed Tanmimdevrulad maT biografiasac hyveba. nawarmoebebSi
gadmocemulia
romelime
gamoCenili,
cnobili
adamianis
araerTi
biografiuli pasaJi maTi cxovrebisa. mwerlis an sazogado moRvawis
SemTxvevaSi,
am
yvelafers
emateba
literaturuli
memkvidreobis
warmoCena.
biografiul romanebSi gamoyenebulia dokumenturi, istoriuli Tu
saarqivo masala, mogonebebi, memuarebi, werilebi da piradi baraTebi.
ganxilul
ucnob,
wignebSi
vecnobiT
gamouqveynebel
mkiTxveli
saintereso
sazogadoebisTvis
masalas,
romelTa
manamde
meSveobiTac
srulyofilad, amomwuravad ikveTeba ama Tu im pirovnebis cxovreba da
es yovelive mxatvrul qargaSia moqceuli.
Tanamedrove
literaturaTmcodneobaSi metad mniSvnelovani da
sayuradReboa biografiuli romanebis mecnieruli analizi, miT ufro,
roca ukanasknel xans am Janris araerTi mxatvruli teqsti gamoqveynda,
xolo vrceli monografiuli kvleva jer kidev ar arsebobs qarTul
biografiul romanebze. rogorc zemoT mivuTiTeT, arsebobs calkeul
nawarmoebebze mxolod saintereso recenziebi.
disertaciis
mecnieruli
siaxle
mdgomareobs
imaSi,
rom
ganxiluli romanebis NmTavari personaJebis: iohan volfgang goeTes,
ivane maCablis, sergo orjonikiZis, vasil barnovis, solomon aSordias,
pavle ingoroyvas, iakob gogebaSvilisa da Sio aragvispirelis cxovrebamoRvaweoba ar warmovaCineT mxolod naSromSi gamokvleuli mxatvruli
teqstebis mixedviT. Cven gamovkveTeT sxvadasxva kritikuli naazrevi,
Sefasebani
literaturis
ama
Tu
im
personaJze,
istoriaSi.
romlebic
vfiqrobT,
arsebobs
mniSvnelovania
qarTuli
isic,
rom
biografiul romanebSi gaTvaliswinebuli mravali dokumenturi wyaro,
romelic personaJis an imdroindeli garemos zusti asaxvisaTvis aqvs
gamoyenebuli
avtors,
(ramdenadac
mogveca
Cven
amis
araerT
saarqivo
saSualeba-n.x.),
masalasTan
raTa
SevadareT
met-naklebad
gansazRvruli yofiliyo, sad mTavrdeboda realoba da sad iwyeboda
4
mwerlis
mxatvruli
sayuradReboa,
gamonagoni.
rom
am
Sesabamisi
meTodiT
daskvnebic
biografiuli
warmovadgineT.
romanis
kvlevac
mecnieruli siaxlea qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi.
kvlevis meTodologia: naSromSi gamoyenebulia rogorc aRweriTi,
deskrifciuli,
tradiciuli
aseve,
Sepirispirebis
literaturuli
warmovadgineT teqstis
meTodic
meTodebis
da
sinTezi.
mocemulia
Aaseve,
am
kvlevaSi
garkveuli monakveTebis naratologiuri analizi.
naSromis mecnieruli da praqtikuli Rirebuleba: naSromi SeiZleba
saintereso
iyos
XX
saukunis
qarTuli
literaturis
istoriiT
dainteresebul mkvlevarTaTvis, studentebisa da mkiTxvelebisTvis.
axla
romani
msjelobas
konkretulad
sakvlev
Temaze
SemogTavazebT.
didi formis TxrobiTi nawarmoebia. is farTo, mravalferovani
TematikiTa da rTuli struqturiT xasiaTdeba. igi, iseve rogorc bevri
sxva
literaturuli
ganapirobebs
is,
Janri,
Tu
sxvadasxva
TxzulebaSi
saxisaa.
romeli
am
momentia
saxesxvaobas
dominirebuli,
upiratesad sinamdvilis romel mxares xatavs mwerali. amis mixedviT
arsebobs
socialuri,
fsiqologiuri,
filosofiuri,
istoriuli,
saTavgadasavlo, fantastikuri da sxva romani. ,,is xasiaTdeba cxovrebis
ganviTarebis procesis asaxviT, situaciebisa da epizodebis simravliT,
siuJetisa da kompoziciis sirTuliT, mravalricxovani personaJebiTa da
maTi
cxovrebis
gansaxierebis
yovelmxrivi
mxriv
warmosaxviT.
gansakuTrebuli
igi
epoqis,
adamianebis
SesaZleblobebis
Janrs
warmoadgens‟‟(alania 1966:118).
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom saxelwodeba ,,romani‟‟ Sua saukuneebSi
gamoCnda da am terminiT aRiniSneboda mxatvruli nawarmoebi, romelic
Seqmnili
iyo
franguli
Tu
dabali
fenis
romelTac
romelime
espanuri.
romanul
XII-XIII
cxovrebis
imisTvis,
rom
enaze,
rogorebicaa:
saukuneebSi
amsaxveli
laTinur
mcire
enaze
italiuri,
iwereboda
sazogadoebis
TxrobiTi
nawarmoebebi,
Seqmnili
Txzulebebisgan
ganesxvavebinaT da gamoeyoT, romanuls uwodebdnen. Uukve mogvianebiT,
romanis
saxelwodebiT
moixsenieba
didi
formis
TxrobiTi
Janris
nawarmoebi.
5
rac
Seexeba
konkretulad
biografiul romans,
is dokumentur-
epikur Janrs ganekuTvneba.
,,biografia‟‟
berZnuli
sityvaa
da
niSnavs
cxovrebis
aRweras,
romlis sxvadasxva xerxi arsebobs: mecnieruli, mxatvruli...
biografiul
romanSi
mxatvruladaa
aRwerili
gamoCenili
pirovnebis cxovreba da moRvaweoba damyarebuli mogonebebsa, istoriul
wyaroebsa Tu saarqivo masalebze. aseT nawarmoebSi naCvenebia adamianis
fsiqologiuri portreti, cxadad aris asaxuli misi xasiaTi, dadebiTi
Tu uaryofiTi Strixebi, zneobrivi mxare.
msoflio literaturam araerTi biografiuli romanis nimuSi icis.
mwerlebze,
mxatvrebze,
kompozitorebze
da
amgvar
gamorCeul
pirovnebebze dawerili prozauli teqstebi dRemde Zalian popularulia.
iwereba
wignebi,
gamokveTilia
maT
cxovrebaze
qarTul
iReben
literaturaSic,
filmebs.
xolo
es
ucxour
Janri
ukve
mwerlobaSi
didi xnis tradicia gaaCnia. sanimuSod davasaxeloT: stefan cvaigis
,,balzaki”, ,,mariam stiuarti”, andre moruas
,,baironi”, ,,sami diuma”,
,,olimpio anu viqtor hiugos cxovreba”, irving stounis
sicocxlisa”,
,,mezRvauri unagirze” da sxvebi, xolo qarTul
kostantine gamsaxurdias
,,cxovreba
,,wyurvili
ivane
prozaSi:
,,goeTes cxovrebis romani”, vaxtang WeliZis
maCablisa‟‟,
oTar
,,italiuri dRiurebi baironisa‟‟,
CxeiZis
,,romani
akaki baqraZis
da
istoria”,
,,kardu anu grigol
robaqiZis cxovreba da Rvawli‟‟, elguja TavberiZis ,,airevi iveria‟‟,
,,nislis
tixari‟‟,
orbeliani”,
,,akakis
,,yazbegiana”,
,,mdinaresa zeda qsnisasa”,
landi‟‟,
,,iase
rostom
ianusi”,
,,bedi
CxeiZis
,,aleqsandre
pavle
ingoroyvasi”,
,,werilebi itriis wisqvilidan”, ,,agvistos
Svilebi‟‟, ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟, ,,mze da mwuxri”,
mzeSi‟‟,
,,zrdis
,,mzis
raindi‟‟,
bedniereba
anu
naira
gelaSvilis
mxatvari
paula
,,mgzavri TibaTvis
,,fridrix
hiolderlini‟‟,
moderzon-bekeri‟‟,
Sorena
lebaniZis ,,es me var _ firosmani‟‟ da sxvebi.
Bbiografiul romanSi Serwymulia mwerlis warmosaxvis cocxali
niWi
da
mkvlevaris
sizuste.
Aavtori
wesisamebr,
qmis
saintereso,
damajerebel fabulas. igi istoriaSi cnobil pirovnebaze werisas mis
6
cxovrebas acocxlebs,
mxatvrulad warmoaCens da Sesabamisad, am Janris
nawarmoebSi mxolod ,,mSrali‟‟ faqtebi araa mowodebuli.
biografiul romanSi, rogorc wesi, naCvenebia cnobili adamianis
cxovrebis gza. pirovnebis formireba ki istoriul epoqaSi xdeba, amdenad
istoriuli warsulis asaxva, misi peripediebi, sxvadasxvva faqtisa Tu
movlenis
detaluri
warmoCena,
am
saxis
nawarmoebis
aucilebel
komponents Seadgens.
sxvadasxva
wlebSi
ramdenime
mecnierma
saintereso
mosazreba
gamoTqva biografiuli romanis Sesaxeb. Qqronologiis principis dacviT
warmovadgenT
amonaridebs
CvenTvis
sayuradRebo
literateraturuli
werilebidan.
aleqsandre quriZe statiaSi ,,erTi Janris specifikis gamo‟‟ wers:
,,mxatvruli
fantazia
biografiul
romanSi
ara
marto
nawarmoebis
siuJetis ganviTarebaSi monawileobs, aramed TviT faqtis ufro Rrma
warmosaxvasac emsaxureba. Aam Janris teqstSi
gamonagoni isea Caqsovili,
rom mkiTxvelisaTvis SeumCneveli rCeba, sad mTavrdeba dokumenti da sad
iwyeba
avtori...
mxatvruli
fantaziis
gareSe
biografiuli
romanis
nacvlad, romelic Cafiqrebuli aqvs mwerals, Tavs iCens literaturuli
montaJi. Amwerali eqceva dokumentis tyveobaSi. igi meqanikurad cdilobs
daukavSiros
faqtebi
erTmaneTs.
kerZod,
igi
dokumenturi
masalis
garkveul raodenobas anawilebs qronologiuri TanmimdevrobiT: gmiris
bavSvoba, siymawvile, xandazmulobis wlebi da maT Sesaxeb arsebul
cnobebs aRwers‟‟(quriZe 1981:112-113).
vaJa CoCias mosazrebiT: ,,Cveulebrivi romanis dawera ufro iolia,
vidre biografiulis. Ppirvel SemTxvevaSi gahyvebi Sens qargas, Tu ginda,
gamogonil epizodebsac CaurTav. Bbiografiul romanSi ki... rogor ginda,
amdeni cxovrebiseuli detalis gaTvaliswineba, Casma siuJetur qargaSi
da erT mTlianobad warmodgena da ara mxolod gmiris cxovrebisa,
aramed saerTod im epoqisa, romelSic igi moRvaweobda. Ees didi niWis,
didi Sromisa da mamuliSvilobis Sedegia‟‟(CoCia 2011:48).
iona meunargias Txzulebanis I tomi gamomcemlobaSi ,,artanuji‟‟
2010 wels daistamba. wigns win erTvis rostom CxeiZis vrceli werili:
,,biografosis xvedri da vali‟‟ (silueti iona meunargiasi), sadac avtori
7
damajereblad msjelobs qarTveli mwerlis, kritikosis nawarmoebebze da
iqve,
CvenTvis
profesiuli
karnaxiT
saintereso
Cveva
unda
ki
edo
is
mosazrebas
gaxldaT,
Tavs
gamoTqvams:
rom
iona
biografiuli
,,movaleoba
meunargias
Janris
da
bedisweris
dasamkvidreblad
mondomebuli da didad warmatebuli mcdeloba qarTul sazogadoebrivkulturul
cxovreba
(da
ara
dasavlur
dokumenturobisaken
martoden
literaturul)
literaturas
rom
realobaSi...
TandaTan
ubiZgebda,
iona
sul
meunargia
axali
ufro
_
meti
rogorc
im
samwerlo procesebSi Rrmad gaTviTcnobierebuli pirovneba _ ahyveboda
am talRas da mTlianad biografiul Janrze gadaerTveboda im sayrdenTa
Sesaqmnelad, romelsac am Janris momavali unda dafuZndeboda qarTul
samwerlo
mdinarebaSi‟‟(CxeiZe
2010:5).
amdenad,
rogorc
rostom
CxeiZe
miuTiTebs, cnobili moRvawis biografiulma romanebma: ,,cxovreba da
Rvawli
grigol
baraTaSvilisa‟‟
orbelianisa‟‟
XIX
da
,,cxovreba
saukuneSi
da
safuZveli
poezia
Cauyares
nikoloz
aRniSnul
literaturul Janrs. swored miTiTebuli Txzulebebis Semdeg daiwera
momdevno qarTuli biografiuli romanebi.
salome
kapanaZe
literaturul
werilSi
,,zneobis
gakveTilebi‟‟ zemoT xsenebul Janrze msjelobisas
maradiuli
sayuradRebo daskvnas
gvTavazobs: ,,im zogadi kanonebis miRma, romliTac biografiuli romani
imarTeba,
rasakvirvelia,
yovelTvis
dgas
mwerlis
aRqmis
manera,
mxatvruli droisa da sivrcis organulad ganfenis unari, fsiqologizmi,
analitikuri
refleqsia,
nacionaluri
da
interkulturuli
msoflmxedveloba. Tu ramdenad kargad iqneba epikos-mTxrobelis mier
garanduli romanis xveulebi, swored am ostatobazea damokidebuli...
qarTuli
romanis
biografiuli
sasicocxlo
arteria
romanis
wyalobiT
iZens
erovnul-fsiqologiuri
yofisTvis
istoriul
wilobrivad
Seucvlel
swored
funqcias.
pirovnebaTa
Cveni
cxovrebis
ganmxatvrulobas normatiuli misia eniWeba, vinaidan biografiul roamani
yovelTvis
Tanaarsebobs
gancdaTa
erToblioba,
romelic
ers
msoflmxedvelobrivi krizisis safrTxisgan gamoixsnis‟‟(kapanaZe 2012:1).
giorgi lobJaniZe Cvens sakvlev Temaze saubrisas Semdegs aRniSnavs:
,,biografiuli romani, albaT, mwerlobis erT-erTi rTuli Janria, radgan
8
avtors uamravi SemoqmedebiTi plastis gamoyeneba uwevs da es plastebi
ise unda gadadiodes erTmaneTSi, rom mkiTxvels siyalbis gancda ar
Seuqmnas.
amisTvis
avtori
Tavis
TavSi
unda
aerTianebdes
rogorc
beletristis, aseve mecnieris saukeTeso Tvisebebs da, rac mTavaria,
kargad icodes ara mxolod romanis personaJis cxovrebis uwvrilesi
detalebi, aramed, zogadad, personaJis sacxovrebeli garemos, epoqis,
imdroindeli
saazrovno
Tu
yofiTi
tendenciebis
mravali
realia‟‟(lobJaniZe 2013:94).
axla mokled visaubrebT ucxouri biografiuli romanebis Sesaxeb,
romelnic
gacilebiT
literaturuli
mecnieruli
adre
tradicia
daskvnebis
Seiqmna
gaaCniaT.
da
da
rogorc
Ees
mxatvruli
iTqva,
gamogvadgeba
Sefasebis
maT
garkveuli
ganzogadebisTvis.
gamovyofT literaturaTmcodneobaSi yvelaze aRiarebul da popularul
teqstebsa da avtorebs. Ees Janri gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo evropul da
amerikul mwerlobaSi bolo aTwleulebiSi gamravalferovnda.
Tavdapirvelad visaubroT stefan cvaigis Txzulebebze. is gaxldaT
avstrieli
mwerali.
,,impresionistuli
moixveWa
Mman
literaturuli
lirikiT”,
novelebiTa
werda
da
piesebs,
eseebiT.
Mmisi
moRvaweoba
magram
daiwyo
msoflio
novelebis
saxeli
didi
nawili
gaerTianebulia ciklSi ,,jaWvi”. mweralma Seqmna eseebis samtomeulic.
amasTanave,
igi
avtoria
ramdenime
saintereso
gamovyofT or maTgans: ,,mariam stiuarti” da
nawarmoebis
mTargmneli,
,,biografiuli
romanis
uzadoa
am
JanrSi.
akaki
cvaigiseuli
cvaigis
romanisa,
wignebi
Soris
,,balzaki”. Aam ukanaskneli
gelovani
stili
maT
aRniSnavs
sruliad
balzakze,
Semdegs:
Taviseburi
magelanze,
da
mariam
antuanetaze, fuSeze da ase Semdeg _ esaa sxarti, maxvilgonivruli,
saxovani, dokumenturad swori da saimedo Sromebi. SeiZleba SevniSnoT
erTgvari simkacre, rac zRudavs fantaziis met Tavisuflebas: ar aris
dialogi. SemaerTebeli epizodebi, bindiT moculi suraTebis aRdgenis
cda,
rac
gaamdidrebda
isedac
mxatvrul
naSroms”(cvaigi1963:7).
upirveles yovlisa, yuradRebas gavamaxvileb stefan cvaigis romanze
,,mariam
stiuarti”,
romelic
germanul
enaze
pirvelad
1935
wels
gamoqveynda.
9
viciT, rom mraval mwerals da istorikoss izidavda Sotlandiis
mefis, iakob
mexuTes
asulis, mariam stiuartis cxovreba. igi TiTqos
bednier varskvlavze iyo dabadebuli: 6 wlisa Sotlandiis dedofali
gaxda,
17
wlisa
_
safrangeTis
dedofali
da
inglisis
taxtis
pretendenti, magram bolos man dakarga taxtic, gvirgvinic... da sicocxle
eSafotze daasrula. Mmas 1587 wels inglisis dedoflis, elisabedis
brZanebiT Tavi mohkveTes foteringeis cixeSi. Aam ori adamianis qiSpi da
mtroba mxolod piraduli xasiaTis ar yofila. elisabedisdroindeli
inglisi
TandaTan
Zlieri
burJuaziuli
saxelmwifo
xdeboda,
feodalurad daqucmacebuli Sotlandia metoqeobas ver gauwevda mas.
rogorc
miuTiTeben,
dapirispireba
dedoflebs
Soris
samkvdro-
sasicocxlo brZolad iqca kaTolicizmsa da protestantizmzs Sorisac.
Sotlandieli pirveli ledis tragizmiT aRsavse cxovreba mraval
mxatrul nawarmoebs daedo safuZvlad. Aamjerad mxedvelobaSi maqvs
stefan
cvaigis
biografiuli
romani
,,mariam
stiuarti”.
Pprozaul
teqstSi mwerali aidealebs mariam stiuarts. igi namdvili, WeSmariti
ostatis funjiT gvixatavs mis moRvaweobas.
rac
Seexeba
aRwerilia
amave
realisturi
Semoqmedeba.
qmnilebaTa
mwerlis
biografiul
romanis
fuZemdeblis,
mimoxilva
mocemulia
romans
,,balzaki”,
balzakis
mokled,
aq
moRvaweoba,
ise,
rom
mkiTxvels ar moawyens da ar wyvets kiTxvas did adamianze.
esaa didi erudiciiT dawerili wigni mweralze, mxatvrul romlis
fantaziasac Seqspirs adareben. is aris frangi mwerali, mis Semoqmedebas
mTels msoflioSi icnoben. igi mraval enazea Targmnili. Mman moaswro 85
romanisa da moTxrobis dawera, amasTanave, datova xuTamde Txzulebis
met-naklebad sruli monaxazi.
stefan cvaigi gviambobs SemoqmedebiT procesze, Tu rogor qmnis
balzaki
ironiiTa
romans.
da
Aaqve
sinanuliT
igi
mis
xasiaTs
laparakobs
aRadgens,
frangi
aseve,
mwerlis
pirovnul sisusteebze, risi meSveobiTac Semoqmedi
gulTbili
snobistur
Tu
realisturad asaxavs
mis cxovrebas.
nawarmoebSi reliefurad Cans didi romanistis namdvili pirovnuli
da SemoqmedebiTi sidiade. romanSi gacocxlebulia araerTi epizodi
10
mwerlis
moRvaweobisa,
xatovnadaa
aRwerili
misi
satrfialo
Tavgadasavlebi.
stefan cvaigs uzadod aqvs daxatuli balzakis portreti, Tumca
mkrTalia
epoqis
politikuri
da
foni.
wignSi
literaturuli
naklebadaa
gaSuqebuli
Tvalsazrisi,
misi
romanistis
megobrebis
wre,
kavSir-nacnoboba hiugosTan, hainesTan, SopenTan, sandTan, lamartinTan.
amisda miuxedavad, rogorc literaturismcodneebi aRniSnaven, ,,balzaki”
frangi mwerlis SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreobis Sedevrs warmoadgens.
gavrcelebuli mosazrebaa, rom andre moruam, romlis namdvili
saxeli da gvaria emil erzogi, biografiuli romanis Janri daamkvidra
dasavleT
evropul
adamianis
saintereso,
,,arieli
anu
cxovreba”.
literaturaSi.
Selis
cocxali
saxe.
cxovreba”,
,,olimpio
anu
Mman
Seqmna
Aam
TvalsaCino
nawarmoebebidan
,,baironi”,
viqtor
mravali
,,lelia
hiugos
anu
cxovreba”,
cnobilia:
JorJ
sandis
,,sami
diuma”,
,,balzakis cxovreba” da sxvebi. AamasTanave, igi avtoria istoriuli
gamokvlevebisa,
literaturul-kritikuli
eseebis,
novelebisa
da
fsiqologiuri romanebisa.
andre
popularuli,
moruas
biografiul
saintereso
wignia,
romani
romelic
,,sami
diuma”
mogviTxrobs
sakmaod
saxelovani
frangi mwerlebis: aleqsandr diuma-mamis da aleqsandr diuma-Svilis
cxovrebaze. amave dros gvacnobs metad koloritul pirovnebas, diumaTa
winapris,
general
Toma-aleqsandr
diumas
moRvaweobas.
Aaqedanaa
nawarmoebis saTauric ,,sami diuma”. mniSvnelovania, rom am sami didi
adamianis boboqar cxovrebas fonad TiTqmis saukunenaxevriani istoria
udevs, istoria, romelic xSirad scildeba safrangeTis sazRvrebs.
andre
moRvaweobis
morua
aRniSnavs,
Seswavlisas
rom
uamrav
JorJ
axal
sandisa
masalas
da
viqtor
waawyda
hiugos
diuma-mamis
Sesaxeb da wers: ,,mizezic es gaxlavT, rom romantikosebis cxovrebis
amsaxvel Cems galereas aleqsandre diumas portretic mivumate”(morua
1982:3).
mwerali ,,sami muSketeris‟‟ avtoris literaturul memkvidreobas
maRal Sefasebas aZlevs.
,,sam diumaSi” gamoyenebulia diuma-Svilze manamde gamouqveynebeli
uamravi
masala,
werilebi,
dRiurebi,
ramac
mis
naklebadcnobil
11
cxovrebas naTeli mohfina da mkiTxvels daexmara diuma-umcrosis,
gacnobaSi.
nawarmoebSi
aseve,
asaxulia
general
diumas
ukeT
samxedro
moRvaweobac sxvadasxva biblioTekasa Tu arqivSi dacul dokumentur
masalaze dayrdnobiT.
amerikeli mwerali irving stounis
ocdaxuTi wignis avtoria (Tu
ar CavTvliT mis piesebsa da uamrav deteqtiur novelas), maT Soris aTi
biografiuli romania, iqneba es dokumenturi Tu mxatvruli, romlebic
msoflios
araerT
enaze
iTargmna.
mravalferovania
mwerlis
gmirTa
galerea. Eeseni arian: van gogi, jek londoni, mxatvari jon nobeli,
reiCel jeksoni, miqelanjelo, froidi da sxvani.
gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsi ki misi sami romania: ,,wyurvili
sicocxlisa‟‟,
,,agonia
da
eqstazi‟‟
da
,,gonebis
vnebani‟‟.
pirvelad
dasaxelebuli nawarmoebi mwerlis ,,SemoqmedebiTi naTlobaa‟‟, romelmac
irving stouns didi saerTo aRiareba da warmateba moutana. sainteresoa
misi
daweris
istoria:
Mman
parizSi,
rozenbergis
galereaSi
Tavdapirvelad naxa van gogis saocari tiloebi, romelTac dauviwyari
STabeWdileba moaxdines masze.
mogvianebiT, stounma amasTan dakavSirebiT dawera: ,,msgavsi gancda
cxovrebaSi ar mqonia,
galereidan gamovedi
Tu
ara, vigrZeni, rom ar
SemeZlo kidev rame ar Semetyo van gogis Sesaxeb. gadavikiTxe yvelaferi,
rac frangulad da holandiurad
mifiqria,
van gogze
momxvda xelSi. maSin sulac ar
wigni damewera, magram
masze fiqri mosvenebas ar
maZlevda‟‟(stouni1974:552).
axal gatacebas isev evropaSi mogzauroba mohyva. Mman TiTqmis yvela
is qveyana Semoiara, sadac ki van gogi yofila, raTa zogi faqtobrivi,
zogic monayoli masala Seekriba vinsentis moRvaweobaze. Bbiografiul
romanSi ,,wyurvili sicocxlisa‟‟, romelic 1934 wels daibeWda, avtori
emyareba
faqtobriv
masalas.
Mmisi
ZiriTadi
wyaro
aris
van
gogis
Zmisadmi miwerili werilebi. irving stounma mxatvris megobrebisa Tu
Tayvanismcemlebis
monaTxrobic
SesaniSnavad
CaurTo
TxrobaSi
da
aRiarebuli fermweris mRelvare, dramatuli cxovrebis suraTebi daxata.
nawarmoebSi Semoqmedis WeSmariti, damajerebeli saxea mocemuli,
sadac logikurad viTardeba yoveli misi moqmedeba. rogorc Txzulebis
12
mTargmneli
manana
anTaZe
aRniSnavs:
,,romanSi
saTuTadaa
SerCeuli
gmiris metyvelebis leqsika, maSinac ki, rodesac wydeba faqtebis jaWvi.
stouns
da
Svelis
gmiris
mxatvruli fantaziis Zlieri unari,
xasiaTis
metismetad
Rrma
biografis alRo
codna‟‟(stouni
1974:553).
mniSvnelovania amerikeli mwerlis biografiuli romani ,,mezRvauri
unagirze‟‟. Aaq aRwerilia jek londonis moRvaweoba. Aavtorma Tavisi
wignisTvis gamoiyena rogorc jek londonis mimowera, ise megobarTa da
axlobelTa memuarebi.
cnobilia, rom igi gaecno
dauaxlovda
Tanamedroveebs,
mwerlis
imdroindel gazeTebs,
romlebic
XX
saukunis
30-iani
wlebis bolos, roca es wigni iqmneboda, jer kidev cocxlebi iyvnen.
irving stouni iswrafvoda, iseTi nawarmoebi daewera londonis
Sesaxeb, romelic damajerebeli iqneboda da warmtaci sakiTxavic, rasac
miaRwia kidec.
romanis bolosityvaSi miTiTebulia Semdegi: ,,miuxedavad wignis
dokumenturi
mxatvruli
masaliT
gamdidrebisa,
biografiaa.
Aaqedan
,,mezRvauri
gamomdinare,
igi
unagirze‟‟
Seicavs
mainc
mxatvruli
gaazrebis elementebsac‟‟(stouni 1974:411).
avtorma warmosaxvis wyalobiT Seavso mwerlis biografiis ucnobi
detalebi.
amasTanave,
man
uxvad
gamoiyena
pasaJebi
misi
araerTi
nawarmoebidan. tyuilad rodi gvafrTxilebs igi wignis SesavalSi, rom
,,esaa moTxroba jek londonze, gadmocemuli misive sityvebiT‟‟(stouni
1974:15).
biografma
ambavi
warmtacad
da
momxiblavad
asaxa,
aseve,
man
SeZlo, Cawvdomoda SesaniSnavi amerikeli mwerlisa da adamianis ZiriTad
Tvisebebs.
Semoqmedma
sworad
gaigo
jek
londonis
warmatebisa
da
warumateblobis mizezebi. ,,mezRvauri unagirze‟‟ _ uaRresad saintereso
wigni,
pirvelidan
ukanasknel
gverdamde
ganmsWvalulia
gulwrfeli
siyvaruliT didi da niWieri mwerlisadmi. Ees nawarmoebi aris erT-erTi
saukeTeso naSromi jek londonis cxovrebisa.
dasasruls
ki
davZenT,
rom
adamianis
pirovneba
misi
Tanamedroveobis fonze _ es aris irving stounis biografiuli romanis
ZiriTadi
xazi.
Mmas
swams,
rom
mxolod
Rrma
humanizmi
aniWebs
13
literaturul nawarmoebs Rirebulebas, rac TiToeul sityvaSi
naTlad
SeigrZnoba da xiblavs mkiTxvels.
Aamrigad,
Cvens
mier
gaanalizebuli
ucxouri
biografiuli
romanebidan warmoCinda, rom TiToeuli mwerali sxvadasxva gamoCenil
adamians irCevs nawarmoebis mTavar personaJad, aRwers maTi cxovrebis
gzas,
literaturul
istoriul
memkvidreobas.
warsulsac,
roca
ama
Semoqmedi
Tu
im
srulyofilad
gmirs
mouwia
asaxavs
moRvaweoba.
aRniSnuli Janris nawarmoebebSi gamoyenebulia saarqivo Tu dokumenturi
masala, memuarebi, mogonebebi, werilebi, rac mkiTxvels exmareba, sruli
suraTi
Seuqmnas
didi
pirovnebis
cxovrebaze.
sazRvargareTuli
biografiuli romanis Camoyalobebas, mis istorias, ganviTarebas didi
tradicia gaaCniaT. ETanamedrove evropul literaturaSic dokumenturepikuri
prozis
midrekileba
nawarmoebebi
TvalnaTliv
mniSvnelovania
warmovadgenT
sakmaod
igrZnoba
da
gavrcobis
Cvens
kvlevas,
am
aqtualuria
kuTxiT.
saSualebas
msjelobas
Ees
iZleva.
qarTuli
da
mkiTxvelis
sakiTxi
metad
Aamjerad
ki
literaturis
gamorCeul biografiul romanebze. Cven gavecaniT xsenebuli Janris sxva
mxatvrul
teqstebsac,
magram
amjerad
mxolod
am
nimuSebiT
SemovifarglebiT naSromis farglebSi (moculobis gaTvaliswinebiT).
14
Tavi I
konstantine gamsaxurdia _ biografiuli romani ,,goeTes
cxovrebis romani“ da germanulenovani saazrovno sivrce
konstantine gamsaxurdia _ XX saukunis udidesi romanisti da
uaRresad
originaluri
stilis
Janrobrivad
mravalferovania.
,,Tbilisuri
saRamo‟‟,
mwerali
gaxldaT.
klasikosis
,,berlini‟‟,
kalams
,,parizi
1919
misi
Semoqmedeba
ekuTvnis
wels‟‟,
leqsebi:
,,saqorwino‟‟,
,,feradi, feradi!‟‟, novelebi: ,,zarebi grigalSi‟‟, ,,porcelani‟‟, ,,lil‟‟,
,,fotrografi‟‟,
marjvena‟‟,
,,tabu‟‟,
trilogia
romanebi:
,,mTvaris
,,dionisos
motaceba‟‟,
Rimili‟‟,
..didostatis
tetralogia
,,daviT
aRmaSenebeli‟‟, literaturuli werilebi, eseebi, drama. igi nayofier
mTargmnelobiT saqmianobasac
eweoda, qarTvel mkiTxvels saSualebas
aZlevda mSobliur enaze gacnoboda evropis umdidres literaturul
memkvidreobas. is Tanamedroveobis ideebiT STagonebuli Semoqmedi iyo,
romelmac
didad
gaamdidra
Cveni
enis
leqsikuri
maragi
uZvelesi
qarTuli mwerlobis, hagiografiuli da saerTod, sasuliero xasiaTis
Zeglebidan Tu saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis cocxali
aseve,
Taviseburi
elferi
misca
poetur
sintaqss,
metyvelebidan.
sityvaTa
wyobas.
besarion JRentis mosazrebiT, klasikosma mweralma: ,,Tavis saukeTeso
nawarmoebebSi saocrad daaaxlova da daanaTesava erTmaneTTan poeziisa
da
prozis
ena,
liriuli
da
epikuri
sawyisebi.
epikuri
Janris
TxzulebebSi farTo gza gauxsna lirikul nakads“(JRenti 1964:171).
Kkonstantine
gamsaxurdia
mxatvruli
literaturul-kritikul gamokvlvebSic
sazRvargareTis
kulturis
SemoqmedebaSi
da
aSuqebs mSobliuri, amasTanave,
mraval
umniSvnelovanes
problemas,
sainteresod msjelobs evropuli, rusuli, qarTuli literaturisa da
xelovnebis
sakiTxebze.
amis
dasturad
sakmarisia
kostantine gamsaxurdiam werilebi, narkvevebi
aRiniSnos,
rom
miuZRvna SoTa rusTavels,
sulxan-saba orbelians, vaJa-fSavelas, ilia WavWavaZes, ivane javaxiSvils,
15
lado gudiaSvils, daviT kakabaZes, platon ioselians, simon janaSias,
niko lorTqifaniZes,
aleqsandre abaSels, Salva dadians, korneli
kekeliZes,
tabiZes,
galaktion
goeTes, lev
tolstois,
simon
Ciqovans,
leonardo da vinCs,
giorgi
natroSvils,
dante aligiers, bairons,
Tomas mans, artur laists, rainer maria rilkes...
qarTuli
sityvis
pirovnebaSi
erTmaneTs
novelistisa da
niWi.
CvenSi
Seafasa
didostatis,
is
erwymis
literaturaTmcodnis,
saliteraturo
fasdaudebeli
saqmianobam
iqonia
SeiZleba
mniSvnelovani
gamoeTqvas
rom
mkvlevari
azri
am
da
mTargmnelisa
da publicistis
kritikam
didi
sityvakazmul
ar
xania
Rirseulad
misma
mravalmxrivma
cotad
bevrad
romelsac
prozaikosis
cnobilia, araerTi sayuradRebo gamokvleva mis
Tamamad
Tu
literaturisa,
originaluri
lirikosis,
mwerlobaze.
darCenila
Cveni
gamsaxurdias
romanistisa
mniSvneloba, romelic
qarTul
iTqvas,
konstantine
mdidar
ar
Semoqmedebaze.
literaturul
memkvidreobaze. Cven zogierT maTgans gamovyofT.
sergi
Wilaia
rvatomeulis
kritikul
gamocemis
werilSi
,,konstantine
gamsaxurdias
werda:
,,konstantine
gamsaxurdias
gamo‟‟
damaxasiaTebeli stiluri Tvisebaa yuradRebis gadatana ara imdenad
siuJetis gamogonebaze, ramdenadac xatvaze, suraTovnebaze. Ggamsaxurdia
xatvis ostatia upirveles yovlisa. xasiaTis gamosaxva, movlenisa da
sagnis aRwera sityvier xatovnebas efuZneba. amitom is udides yuradRebas
uTmobs sityvieri masalis SerCevas; aq sityva efuZneba ara imdenad
xedvas, ramdenadac musikalobas, smenas. XX saukunis qarTul prozaSi
gamsaxurdiasaviT
aravis
ar
gauerTianebia
prozaSi
xedva
da
smena‟‟(Wilaia 1968:110).
lali
avaliani
literaturul
mweralma
JurnalSi
werilSi
,,qarTuli
aRniSnavs: ,,umTavresi,
konstantine gamsaxurdiam evropaSi
mwerloba‟‟
rac
Rrma
didma
dabeWdil
qarTvelma
codnasTan erTad
SeiZina, iyo kidev ufro gamZafrebuli erovnuli Rirsebisa da samSoblos
siyvarulis mwveli gancda.
dRes
gvaocebs
ocdaerTi
wlis
Wabukis
brZnuli,
dadinjebuli
mosazrebani, gamoTqmuli 1913 wels gazeT ,,imereTis‟‟ furclebze:
16
,,germanelTa cxovrebaSi bevri naklovaneba SevamCnie: gauTleloba,
wvrilmanoba, wres gadasuli formalistoba, magram imave dros bevri
iseTi Tviseba SeminiSnavs germanelebis xasiaTSi, rac bevrjer minatria
Cemi erisaTvis.
esenia:
movaleobis
mtkiced
asruleba,
erovnuli
Tavmoyvareoba,
sakuTari ZalRonis imedi, Tumca xSirad gadaWarbebuli, magram mainc
Rirsi mibaZvisa da pativiscemisa‟‟(avaliani 1990:145-146).
AavTandil nikoleiSvilma wignSi ,,XX saukunis qarTuli mwerloba‟‟
erT Tavi miuZRvna ,,daviT aRmaSeneblis‟‟ avtors. Mman srulyofilad
warmoaCina prozaikosis cxovrebis gza da literaturuli memkvidreoba.
igi
miuTiTebs:
yvelaze
,,konstantine
TvalsaCino
literaturaSi
bevri
gamsaxurdia
warmomadgenelia,
siaxlis
qarTuli
prozis
prozis
didostatia
Semomtan-damamkvidrebeli...
erT-erTi
da
Cvens
konstantine
gamsaxurdias Semoqmedeba ara marto epoqaluri sinamdvilis mxatvruli
warmosaxvis
didostaturi
xelovnebiT
iqcevs
yuradRebas,
aramed
istoriisa da Tanamedroveobis umniSvnelovanes movlenaTa mecnieruli
gansjis obieqturobiTac. rogorc mwerali, am SemTxvevaSi igi warmatebiT
upasuxebs
samive
am
uZiriTades
moTxovnas,
romlis
winaSec
didi
romanisti dgeba xolme epoqalur movlenaTa mxatvruli warmosaxvis
dros – mis romanebSi bunebrivi ZaldatanebiT erwymis ,,didi jafac didi
mecnierisa,
missive
didi
unaric
dakvirvebisa
da
poetis
fantaziac‟‟(nikoleiSvili 2002:249,254).
soso siguam fundamenturad Seiswavla konstantine gamsaxurdias
literaturuli
ramdenime
wigni
memkvidreoba.
miuZRvna.
,,cisferyanwelebTan‟‟
erTad
man
erTgan
man
qarTveli
wers:
Seqmna
klasikosis
,,galaktion
qarTuli
Semoqmedebas
tabiZesTan
sityvis
da
esTetika,
qarTuli mwerlobis inteleqtualuri da gmiruli samyaro, rac aris
rusTavelis xazis aRdgena da gagrZeleba axal realiebTan mimarTebiT.
,,mTvaris motacebis‟‟ avtori savsebiT unikaluri movlenaa Cvens
istoriaSi _ biografiiT, erudiciiT, SemoqmedebiT, gautexeli suliT.
yovel sferoSi, rasac ki misi kalami gadaswvda, STamomavlobas dautova
waruvali Rirebulebebis qmnilebani _ leqsi, novela, esse, Targmani,
romani‟‟(sigua 2013:22).
17
SeuZlebelia, visaubroT konstantine gamsaxurdiaze
da mxolod
mis mxatvrul nawarmoebebze vimsjeloT. Aaucilebelia mis pirovnul
didbunebovnebas, saocar xasiaTsac gavusvaT xazi. saTqmelis dasturad
da ukeT warmosaCenad movixmob amonarids rusudan niSnianiZis werilidan
,,konstantine gamsaxurdia‟‟: ,,aucileblad iyolieT megobari. megobari,
romelic iqneba pirdapiri da gulwrfeli‟‟, _ kategoriulad acxadebda
didi mxatvari lado gudiaSvili da brZanebda: ,,iciT, ra aris CemTvis
megobri? namdvilad is, viszec Cveni didi sulxan-saba ambobda: ,,amxanagi
cixe wyliania, zRude maRalia, simagre daurRvevelia. Aamxanagi gulTa
naTelia, TvalTa Cinia, mklavTa Zalia da zurgTa mombelia. amxanagi
WirSi momxmaria, sneulebaSi mkurnalia, sikvdilSi Taviswamgebia‟‟. Cemi
erT-erTi aseTi megobaria mwerali konstantine gamsaxurdia... Cven erTi
Taobis xalxi varT, WirSic gvicdia erTmaneTi da lxinSic. Mme rom
sakuTari xmis mopovebisa da
sakuTari maneris
konstantine
aseve
gverdSi
medga‟‟...
edga
mignebas veswrafodi,
Salva
nucubiZes,
romlis
mosanaxuleblad sokolnikSi pirvelad man gabeda Casvala (sokolnikSi
Salva nucubiZe SinapatimrobaSi imyofeboda). Bbevri ram hqondaT saerTo.
didxans
usaubriaT
kidec.
Ees
uniWieresi
Taoba
araerTxel
mdgara
gansacdelis winaSe‟‟(niSnianiZe 2002:297).
Cvenis
mxriv
SemoqmedebiTi gza
aRvniSnavT,
rom
konstantine
1909 wels daiwyo quTaisSi gamocemul gazeTebSi
,,fonsa“ da ,,kolxidaSi“
gamoqveynebuli
moyolebuli
Janris
ibeWdeboda
sxvadasxva
presaSi
mis
ki bolomde
SerCa
misi
adreul
mis
da
niSnebi
sxva
mTeli
novelebSi,
am droidan
sistematurad
fsevdonimebiT.
sisruliT
aris
novatoruli stilis Zieba
Semoqmedebas.
im axalgazrdebs Soris,
romlebic
aTwleulebSi evropaSi midiodnen umaRlesi
konstantine gamsaxurdiac. Mman 1911 wels
damTavrebis Semdeg
leqsebiT.
nawarmoebebi
k. abaSispirelisa
simbolizmisa da impresionizmis
aRbeWdili
gamsaxurdias
swavla
XX
saukunis
pirvel
ganaTlebis misaRebad,
iyo
quTaisis qarTuli gimnaziis
gaagrZela peterburgis
universitetSi, iq
sadac, ilia WavWavaZe swavlobda. mogvianebiT ki evropaSi gadavida da
kenisbergis
univeritetSi
ismenda
leqciebs.
ase
moxvda
jer
kidev
18
sruliad axalgazrda
pirveli
weli
qveyanaSi
arsebul
man germanul
erTi semestris
swavla, sadac
goeTes
Semdeg
igi
enaSi
daiwyo
germaniaSi.
codnis
da
am
moandoma.
universitetSi
ganagrZo
amasTanave,
iohan volfgang
filosofiisa
nicSes naazrevis
humanitarul
yofnis
garkvevas
gulmodginebiT Seudga
Seswavlas,
iq
gaRrmavebasa
viTarebaSi
memkvidreobis,
istoriis
fsiqologiis,
wels
laifcigis
gansakuTrebuli
literaturis
1912
social-politikur
SemoqmedebiTi
energiulad
Semoqmedi
mecnierebaTa,
da
Cawvdomas,
filosofiis,
esTetikis, xelovnebaTmcodneobis daufleba.
mwerlis
azrovnebasa
da
SemoqmedebaSi
saqarTvelos
Semdeg
umniSvnelovanesi iyo germania, germanuli kultura. soso sigua wignSi
,,martvili
da
alamdari‟‟
wers:
,,konstantine
gamsaxurdias
araerTi
kritikosi ,,germanuli qaris mTesvels“, germanofils uwodebda. Tu es
Tavidan
axalgazrduli
cnobierebas
gataceba
specifikuri
kvali
iyo,
Semdeg
daatyo,
TandaTan
Camouyaliba
mwerlis
SexedulebaTa
specifikuri sistema, romlis forma da arsi saTaves iRebda germanuli
samyarodan,
magram
mSobliuri
garemos
da
xalxis
winaSe
problemebis gasaazreblad iyo gamiznuli“(sigua 2003:9).
drois ganmavlobaSi
enaze
Seqmnil
garkveuli
germaniaSi cxovrobda, ganuwyvetliv ecnoboda am
mwerlobas.
is
kulturul sivrces,
romelmac
rogorc
da
mweralsa
mdgari
arasodes
didi
moazrovnes.
iviwyebda
codna,
aqve
am
qveyanas,
gamocdileba SesZina,
davZenT,
rom
1919
wels
saqarTvelos respublikis mTavrobam konstantine gamsaxurdia germaniaSi
saelCos
ataSed
miavlina
da
diplomatiuri misiis Sesrulebisas
rogorc
ukve
garkveuli
periodi
germaniaSi
samSoblos saqmes emsaxureboda.
aRvniSneT,
,,daviT
aRmaSeneblis‟‟
avtoris
literaturul memkvidreobaze mravalferovani, didi masala arsebobs.
mecnierebi mwerlis cxovrebas, Semoqmedebas araerTi kuTxiT warmoaCenen.
miuxedavad
iseTi
amisa,
dRemde
sakiTxebi,
araa srulyofilad, amomwuravad Seswavlili
rogoricaa
germanuli
nawarmoebebSi, misi narkvevebi germanulenovani
aRniSnuli
erovnebis warmomadgenel
Targmanebi.
amis
naTeli
Tema
literaturis
SemoqmedTa
dadasturebaa
klasikosis
nimuSebis
Sesaxeb,
miseuli
adreuli poeturi Sedevrebi,
19
novelebi,
araerTi
romani
,,dionisos Rimili“,
statia, ese germanulenovan
,,goeTes cxovrebis
mwerlobasa
romani“,
da mis
calkeul
warmomadgenlebze.
germanuli
gamsaxurdiam
Tematikis
maRalmxatvrulad damuSavebiT konstantine
Rirseuli
wvlili
mravalsaukunovani
sulieri
mniSvnelovanwilad
gaamdidra
Seitana
CvenSi
kulturis
am
xalxis
popularizebis
saqmeSi,
qarTuli literatura
Tu problematikiT. germaniaSi gatarebulma
codnam,
STabeWdilebebma,
mwerlis
SemoqmedebiTi fantazia, rac
axali
wlebma,
gamocdilebam
iq miRebulma
sagrZnoblad
naTlad
saxeebiTa
gaamdidres
gamovlinda
mis araerT
qmnilebaSi.
vidre konkretulad SevudgebiT konstantine
,,goeTes
cxovrebis
qarTveli
romanis“
mwerlis
ganxilvas,
mier Targmnili
Tavisi literaturuli
manamde
goeTes
damokidebuleba,
gamsaxurdias
romanis
warmovaCinoT
nawarmoebebi,
pativiscema
riTac
gamoxata
misi
nawerebisadmi.
Mklasikosma mweralma Tavdapirvelad Targmna goeTes ,,Strasburgis
kaTedrali“, romelic fragmentia didi moazrovnis statiis
xuroTmoZRvrebis
Sesaxeb“.
is
gamoqveynda
1924
,,germanuli
wels
JurnalSi
,,kavkasioni‟‟.
Kkonstantine gamsaxurdias mier goeTes Semoqmedebis ufro Rrmad
da
safuZvliand
,,axalgazrda
Tavdapirvelad
Seswavlis
verteris
saqmeSi
vnebanis‟‟
i.axalSeniSvilis
mniSvnelovan
Targmna.
mier
etaps
warmoadgens
aRniSnuli
Sesrulebuli
nawarmoebi
Cvens
enaze 1900
wels Jurnal ,,mnaTobSi‟‟ daibeWda, xolo meore _ gamsaxurdiaseuli 1928
wels.
rogorc
arCil
xotivari
miuTiTebs:
,,miuxedavad
Tavisufali
damokidebulebisa saTargmni teqstisadmi, konstantine gamsaxurdias es
Targmani bevrad ukeTesia Tavisi mxatvruli RirsebiT da ufro srulad
gvagrZnobinebs
goeTes
axalSeniSvilis
poeturi
SedarebiT
sityvis
susti,
magram
Taviseburebebs,
gacilebiT
vidre
mSrali
i.
da
naklebemociuri Targmani‟‟(xotivari 1978:211).
konstantine
dednis
sulis,
gamsaxurdia
misi
arsebiTad
ganwyobilebis
yovelTvis
maRalmxatvrulad
axerxebs
gadmotanas
20
qarTul
enaze.
,,Tavisi
saqarTveloSi
TargmanebiT
germaneli
kulturis
xalxis
popularizebis
germanulenovani
mweralma
,,daviT
da
WavWavaZis,
akaki
tradicia
Targmna
ZeglTa
avtorma
nikoloz
rac
grigil
baraTaSvilis,
ilia
ukve
calkeuli
mniSvnelobas
aucilebel
zemoT
Sedevrebisa,
aniWebdnen
mwerlobis
Semdgomi
pirobad
miaCndaT.
iTqva,
arc
konstantine
gamsaxurdias
didi
wvlili
germaneli poetisa da moazrovnis, iohan volfgang goeTes
saqarTveloSi
mecnieruli
memkvidreobis
germaneli
Seswavla
grigol
popularizebis
klasikosis
ZiriTadad XX
xavTasis,
xotivaris, giorgi
mixeil
nadiraZis,
SoTa
Seecada
qarTveli
avtoris
biografia,
mrwamsi,
iyo
pativs
Semoqmedebis
saukunis pirvel
naxevarSi
oTar jinorias,
arCil
reviSvilis da sxvaTa mier.
daviT
laSqaraZe:
,,pirveli,
gaecno
,,faustis“
mkiTxvelisaTvis
Semoqmedebis
cnobilia,
scemda
nawarmoebebs.
amasve
mibaZvis
igi
Rirsi.
rom
goeTes,
mowmobs
didi
arsi
da
ideur-esTetikuri
rogorc
poetze,
qarTveli
romanisti
mis pirovnebas da
misi sityvebi: ,,goeTe
xelovani
cxovrebaSic‟‟(gamsaxurdia 1965:97).
moazrovneze
da
konstantine gamsaxurdia“(laSqaraZe 1983:110).
sayovelTaod
afasebda,
misi
TvalsazrisiT.
cxovrebisa
kveselavas,
samarTlianad miuTiTebs kritikosi
vinc
gaagrZela
rom
yofila.
literaturuli
daiwyo
axali
aRvniSnoT,
prozauli
mSobliuri
rogorc aRvniSneT, kontantine
miuZRvis
ametyvelebiT,
literaturis
did
erT-erT
rogorc
Tu
klasikuri
mudam
saqmianobas,
ganviTarebisaTvis
gamsaxurdia
enaze
amasTan,
literatura
erTgvarad
poeturi
evropuli
saqarTveloSi
mTargmnelobiT
sulieri
wereTlis, erekle tatiSvilis, geronti qiqoZis
araerTi
gamonaklisi,
qarTul
Cveni
WavWavaZis,
da garda germanuli
nimuSi.
dasdo
saqmes.
saxeebiT“(xotivari 1976:128). aqve
aleqsandre
amagi
mravalsaukunovani
gaamdidra
aRmaSeneblis“
orbelianis,
Rirseuli
keTilSobilur
literaturis
mniSvnelovnad
TematikiTa
man
iyo ara marto
sxvadasxva
mecnierze,
mxatvrul
swored
mwerlobaSi, TviT
wlebSi
zogadad,
iyo
didad
man
mis
germanel
pirovnebaze
21
dawera
araerTi
gamokvleva
,,goeTe, napoleoni, nicSe“
Tu
werili.
(1921w.) ,,goeTe
kritikuli narkvevi ,,goete“ (1918w.),
200
maTgan
gamovyofT
Tu
Semdegs:
mistikosi“ (1922w.)
,,iohan volfgang goete“ (dabadebidan
wlisTavis gamo) (1947w.).
movixmoT amonaridebi TiToeuli zemoT dasaxelebuli werilebidan
Tu gamokvlevidan. mivyveT qronologiurad. ,,goeTe, napoleoni, nicSe‟‟.
mas mkiTxveli Tavdapirvelad gaecno gazeTSi: ,,socialist-federalisti‟‟.
mwerali ,,faustis‟‟ avtorze Semdegs wers: ,,goeTem Svidi ena icoda:
Zveli
da
axali.
undoeTis,
igi
arabeTis,
siuJetebs
sparseTis
iRebda
Zveli
xelovnebidan
saberZneTis,
da
romis,
miTologiidan
da
yvelaferze, risTvisac xelT kalami miukarebia Tamamad eTqmoda: ,,es
Cemia‟‟.
Cveulebrivi momakvdavic SeZlebda didi codnis da muSaobis unariT
im sulieri masalis Tvalis gadavlebas, wakiTxvas, gadafurcvlas, magram
Cveulebrioba da diletantoba mudam zereled tivtivebs, rogorc navTi
wyalSi, xolo geniosi siRrmeSi swvdeba.
goeTe TviTon ambobda: yvelaferi
masalis ,,monelebaSia‟‟-o. saqme
masalis, sulieri sazrdos moneleba ariso. Aamitomac rac diletantis
xelSi masalad darCeba, mas geniosi daiCemebs, miisakuTrebs. ramdenma
mweralma
scada
magram
roca
goeTemdis
goeTem
germanuli
xeli
faustis
miakara,
Tqmulebis
,,miCemeba‟‟,
yvelani
daviwyebas
miecnen‟‟(gamsaxurdia 1921:3).
1922
wels
konstantine
gamsaxudias
literaturuli
,,goeTe
Jurnal
werili
erTaderTi
,,ilionis‟‟
sakmaod
,,goeTe
Tu
germanelia,
pirvel
vrceli
nomerSi
da
dastambulia
mravlismomcveli
mistikosi‟‟.
movitanT
fragments:
SeiZleba
iTqvas,
erTaderTi
warmomadgeneli evropuli adamianobis, romelmac absolitur, harmoniul
srulyofas
miaRwia.
Aamitomac
ganuyrelia
misi
qmnileba
da
misi
pirovneba. goeTes biografias, rom ar moeRwia Cvenamde, misi qmnileba
mainc naTeli iqneboda CvenTvis. ukuRma: Cven marto misi biografia rom
dagvrCenoda, Cven mainc TiTs gaviSverdiT mis pirovnebaze saCveneblad.
misi qmnileba pirwavardnili tyupia misi pirovnebis...
22
saocaria, rom igi iseTive didi moazrovne da mecnieria, rogorc
poeti. Uukanasknel or saukuneSi arc erTi didi problema ar dasmula
evropis
inteleqtualur
cxovrebaSi,
romelsac
goeTe
ar
Sexeboda,
romelzedac goeTes ar mieTiTebia. biologiaSi, botanikaSi, geodeziaSi,
geografiaSi, mineralogiaSi, fizikaSi, yvelgan umuSavia goeTes, yvelgan
goeTes xeli Cans‟‟(gamsaxurdia 1922:27,31).
1928 wels gamomcemlobam ,,qarTuli wigni‟‟ gamosca konstantine
gamsaxurdias
kritikuli
narkvevi
,,goeTe‟‟.
is
momcro
formis
monografiaa da sul oTx Tavs aerTianebs. Eesenia: ,,siyrme‟‟, ,,siWabuke‟‟,
,,savseba‟‟ da ,,aRsruleba‟‟. Aaq moTxrobilia germaneli poetis cxovreba
dabadebidan gardacvalebamde. Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom Semoqmeds
naSromisTvis
moZiebuli
masala,
goeTes
Seswavla mniSvnelovanwilad daexmara
cxovrebis,
Semoqmedebis
biografiuli romanis ,,goeTes
cxovrebis‟‟ dawerisas.
Kkonstantine
gamsaxurdiam
1949
wels
goeTes
wlisTavs miuZRvna werili ,,iohan volfgang goeTe‟‟.
dabadebidan
200
mwerali germaneli
poetis pirovnebas sxvadasxva kuTxiT warmoaCens, saubrobs masze, rogorc
Semoqmedze
da
aseve,
samefo
karis
msaxurze.
Aamonaridi:
,,goeTes
universalizms dResac gancvifrebaSi mohyavs kulturuli kacobrioba,
poeziis udidesi qurumi, aseve didi enciklopedisti iyo, romelsac aramc
Tu xeli miuwvdeboda Tavisi drois mecnierebaTa udides saunjeebamde,
aramed TviTac Sehqonda maT winsvlaSi wili... ,,lord bairons ori nakli
aqvs,
-
eubneba
cnobil
ingliseloba‟‟.
saubrebSi
ASesaZlebeli
ekermans
iqneboda
am
goeTe,
-
lordoba
aforizmis
da
goeTesadmi
mibruneba: genialur goeTes xandaxan xels uSlida is garemoeba, rom igi
germaneli biorgeri da filisteri rCeboda geniosuri rangis miuxedavad‟‟
(gamsaxurdia 1949:3,4).
Aaxla Tvali gavadevnoT iohan volfgang goeTes biografiasa da
moRvaweobas. igi daibada
SeZlebuli
biurgeris
inteleqtualur
jer
ojaxSi.
Tvisebebs.
laifcigis,
fakultetze.
qalaq
Semdeg
goeTes
ki
frankfurtSi, saimperio
is
adreve amJRavnebda
gansakuTrebul
momavali germaneli poeti
strasburgis
interesi
ar
universitetSi
Semofarglula
mrCevlis,
swavlobda
iuridiul
mxolod
23
iurisprudenciis
SeswavliT.
literaturas, filosofias,
man
wera
adreul
literaturis
emCneoda,
igi
didi
xelovnebis
asakSi
mkvlevarebi
magram
aRniSnaven,
mis
rogorc
ki,
germaneli
Seqmna
araerTi
moazrovnis
literaturuli
miuTiTebs, rom: ,,goeTe
da TeTri
ufro
leqsebiT,
met
cxovreba
farTod
winaaRmdeg
saSualebas
da
maRalxarisxovani
Semoqmedebaze
saubrisas
sargeblobda
klasikuri
aZlevda
mimbaZveloba
epoqis
nawarmoebi.
ali
poetikis
TvalsaCino
berlixingeni“,
Tavisi
kanonebisa,
formiT,
,,santimentaluri
Cagruli
adamianis
sazogadoebis
im
gancdebia
nawilis
romelic
rusos
mogzauroba“.
damyarebulia
dramebi:
,,gec
germanelma
periodSi
vnebani“,
rogorc
misi
maTganze SevCerdebiT.
,,stela“.
aRmavlobis
verTeris
iseve,
da
rac
gamoexata biurgerTa
nawarmoebebia
,,klavigo“
SemoqmedebiTi
,,axalgazrda
ritmiT“
suliskveTeba“(arseniSvili 1981:198). aqve davZen,
sawyisebze. Cven ramdenime
goeTes
didi
arseniSvili
,,Tavisufali
avtors
poetebs
originalobiT.
msoflio lirikis Sedevrebi: leqsebi, dramebi da poemebi
xalxur
germanuli
nawerebs
baZavda da ar gamoiCeoda mxatvruli RirsebiTa Tu
mogvianebiT
eufleboda
istorias.
daiwyo,
gansakuTrebiT rokokos
mondomebiT
Seqmna
fon
moazrovnem
SesaniSnavi romani
dawerilia
,,axali eliozi“
dRiurebis
da
sternis
es aris socialuri romani, sadac
gadmocemuli.
aqve
ikveTeba
saxe, romelic Setrfoda
germaniis
Tavisuflebasa da
samarTlianobas, Tumca am idealebis praqtikulad ganxircielebisaTvis
Tavs mowodebulad ar Tvlida.
1775
wlidan
miwveul iqna
mier,
goeTes
cxovrebaSi
Tavmjdomare,
im
periodSi
is
ganaTlebis
direqtori, warCinebuli moxele.
goeTe
axali
epoqa.
igi
vaimaris princis, SemdgomSi hercogis, karlos avgustusis
romelsac Zalian dauaxlovda.
sasamarTlos
iwyeba
sxvadasxva dros gaxldaT
ministri,
sabunebismetyvelo
Sesaxeb“. amasTanave, Seqmna didebuli
da
Teatris
saxelmwifo samsaxuris paralelurad
mecnierebebs
dasturia misi Txzulebebi: ,,mcenareTa metafizika“,
,,taso“, ,,ifigenia“
vaimaris
nawarmoebebi:
eufleboda.
amis
,,mecniereba yvavilTa
,,vilhem maisteri“,
sxvani.
24
1789
wels
daiwyo
safrangeTis
revolucia.
rogorc
vaimaris
hercogTan daaxloebulma pirma, goeTem monawileoba miiRo, Tumca am
movlenis
mowinaaRmdege gaxldaT. amasTan
dakavSirebiT
man ramdenime
mxatvruli teqsti Seqmna.
goeTes
da
kalams ekuTvnis uamravi epigrama
mwerlebze, monografiebi
msoflio
literaturis
saxviT
xelovnebaze,
Tematikaze,
,,mogzauroba
xanSiSesuli
poetis azrebs gvamcnobs
poetis
da
mTel
,,goeTes
italiaSi“,
saubrebi
kancler
sidiades, mxatvrul
grigol
aRniSnul
xavTasi
teqstze:
ganzogadeba
pirvel
me-18
saukunis
wlebis
germaniis
miwurulsa
,,fausti“
dargSi,
Rrma,
genialuri
mxatvruli
romlebsac
me-19 saukunis
igrZnoba
da sxva
germaneli
ganaTleba
xalxebis
adgili
pirveli
aqvs
aTeuli
mdidar
gamorCeuli
poetis,
mniSvneloba
mwerlobaSi
ganvixiloT
konstantine
cxovrebis
ara
mxolod
ganuzomlad
.
rom
msoflio
didi moazrovnis,
germanul,
aramed
didia.
gamsaxurdias
romani“, romelic 1934
didi
sxvadasxva
folklorSi.
erT-erTi
da
moazrovnis
mecnierebis
iTqvas,
sazRvargareTul
,,goeTes
gamoTqvams
SeiZleba
Rvawli
ganmavlobaSi
mosazrebas
dabejiTebiT
literaturaSi
goeTes
ambebisa,
da
mravalmxrivi
germaneli
amrigad,
im
aris
wlis
warmoaCens.
cxovrebaSi“(xavTasi 1959:468).
nawarmoebSi naTlad
erudicia,
saintereso
yovlisa
saubrebi
formulerTan“. Ggermaneli
ostatobas
,,fausti“
da
SveicariaSi“.
,,goeTes
igi aRniSnul literaturul Sedevrs mravali
qmnida.
werili
,,poezia
,,mogzauroba
aseve,
movlenebze
araerTi
avtobiografia
sinamdvile“,
ekermanTan“
Tanamedrove
biografiuli
romani
wels gamoica akaki
Wyonias
winasityvaobiT.
sainteresoa,
aRniSnuli
nawarmoebis
daweris
istoria,
ris
Sesaxebac Tavad avtori aRniSnavs Txzulebis bolosityvaSi: ,,es naSromi
saqarTvelos
kulturuli
saxelggamma
kacobrioba
SemikveTa
goeTes
iubiles
gamo...
gamoexmaura
goeTes
sikvdilidan
100
mTeli
wlis
Serulebis TariRs: evropa, amerika, avstria, CineTi da indoeTi. Gasagebia,
25
saqarTvelos
saxelgamis
mier
dakisrebuli
movaleobis
simZimes
Cemi
avtoruli Tavmoyvareobac zed erTvoda.
Aamitom arc Sroma damizogavs Cemis mxriv da arc siyvaruli am
didi da naTeli geniisadmi saTanado pativis misagebad... es wigni savsebiT
moulodnelad
SemoiWra
mwerlisaTvis
Cems
biografiuli
dakavSirebuli.
Tematur
romanis
Bbiografiul
xelSekrulia,
vidre
gegmaSi.
dawera
romanSi
istoriuli
cxadia,
gansazRvrul
avtori
romanis
nayofieri
riskTanaa
gacilebiT
werisas,
ufro
radganac
am
ukanasknelSi e.w. gamogonebiT moments (invention-s) gacilebiT naklebi
aqvs daTmobili. am SemTxvevaSi udidesi sizustiT unda adevno Tvali
TariRebis siswores da aseve, gulmodgined unda aRadgino saTanado
istoriuli atmosfero.
garda amisa,
kidev erTi didi siZnele iyo Cems
winaSe; CvenSi araviTari literatura ar arsebobda goeTesa da saerTod
dasavleT evropis XVIII saukunis Sesaxeb“(gamsaxurdia 2010:217).
wignis
gamosvlisTanave
Jurnal
,,mnaTobSi“
daibeWda
grigol
xavTasis sagulisxmo kritikuli werili. mniSvnelovania misi Sefaseba
konstantine
gamsaxurdias
biografiul
romanze.
amonaridi:
,,avtori
iZleva sakmaod bevr masalas, romelic saWiroa am SesaniSnavi mwerlis
cxovrebis gasagebad. wignis dadebiT mxared is unda CaiTvalos, rom
masalebi,
miuxedavad
maTi
qronologiuli
dalagebisa,
cocxlad
da
sainteresodaa dawerili... wignis dadebiT mxared unda CaiTvalos isic,
rom
masSi
biografiuli
movlenebis
axleburad
axsnis
cdaa
mocemuli“(xavTasi 1934:194).
,,goeTes cxovrebis romanSi“
gadmoscems
germaneli
qronologiurad
konstantine gamsaxurdia sainteresod
moazrovnis
warmoaCens
misi
biografiasa
cxovrebis
mraval
da
Semoqmedebas,
epizods.
esenia:
dabadeba, aRzrda-ganaTleba, ojaxi, araerTi sasiyvarulo Tavgadasavali,
literaturul asparezze gamoCena, urTierToba megobrebTan Tu
Tanamedrove
mwerlebTan
TiToeuli
aRniSnuli
CamovTvliT
zogierT
,,Strasburgi‟‟,
,,vaimari‟‟,
da
amJRavnebs
sakiTxisadmi.
maTgans:
,,klopStoki,
,,kariskaci
iqve
Tu
nawarmoebSi
,,oqros
herderi
poeti?!‟‟,
Tavis
mamali‟‟,
da
damokidebulebas
ocdacxra
,,saSiSari
Seqspiri‟‟,
mis
Tavia.
studenti‟‟,
,,Sinmibrunebuli‟‟,
,,bunebismetyveli‟‟,
,,mogzauroba
26
italiaSi‟‟, ,,Silleri‟‟, ,,napoleoni‟‟, ,,lord bairon‟‟, ,,Camqrali Tvali‟‟
da
sxvani.
saTaurebi
wakiTxvisas.
damokidebulebas
gviqmnian
wigns axlavs bolosityva da SeniSvnebi.
damajereblad
romlis
garkveul
romanis avtori
xatavs germaniis politikur-kulturul mdgomareobas,
drosac
gamoyenebulia
moRvaweobda
didi
poeti.
mxatvrul
teqstSi
goeTes nawarmoebebi, samecniero gamokvlevebi, sxvadasxva
wigni, baraTi, werili,
rac mkiTxvels
cnobili moazrovnis pirovnebasa
amomwurav informacias awvdis
Tu moRvaweobaze.
Bbiografiuli romani iwyeba germaneli poetis dabadebis,
gadmocemiT.
garemoSi.
ukve
goeTe
saxli
izrdeboda
sakmaod
igrZnoboda
italiuri
volfgangis
mamis,
ojaxur
mdidrulad,
xelovnebis
saimperio
da
mrCeveli
myudroebaSi,
gemovnebiT
iyo
aRzrdis
komfortul
mowyobili.
enis
kulti.
Aamis
iohan
kaspar
goeTes
aq
dasturia
romidan
Camotanili ferweruli tiloebi da gamocdili italieli pedagogis,
jiovinacis arseboba maT ojaxSi.
Kkonstantine gamsaxurdia wers: ,,goeteanT saxlis ukana fasadi
Tvaluwvden baRebs gadahyurebs. aqvea kegelis moedani. meore sarTulze
mdebare
,,baRis
stiqionebis
oTaxis‟‟
fanjridan
cvalebadobas;
yvavilTa
xedavs
pawia
furcvlobas,
volfgang
xilis
bunebis
mosvlas,
foTolTa cvenas, wvimas, quxils, elvasa da setyvas.
xanac
kegelis
rakaruks
ismens.
maxlobel
baRebsa
da
ezoebSi
mezoblebis balRebi kegels TamaSoben, xils hkrefen da mxiarulad
Jivian...‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:11). goeTeQqalaq frankfurtSi gamarTul araerT
gasarTob RonisZiebasac eswreboda da xalisobda. igi garkveul dros
didedasTan atarebda, sadac sabavSvo Tojinebis speqtaklebs dgamdnen.
biografiul romanSi personaJebad gvevilinebian goeTes papa da
mSoblebi. sagulisxmoa konstantine gamsaxurdias mier daxatuli maTi
portretebi.
saintereso
adamiani
gaxldaT
goeTes
babua.
is
ganswavluli,
nakiTxi adamiani iyo. mis kabinetSi uamravi wignis naxva SeiZleboda,
umeteswilad iuridiuli xasiaTis, Tumca
mogzaurobis memuarebi da
aRmoCenaTa Sesaxeb dawerili naSromebic mravlad moipoveboda.
27
Mmwerali miuTiTebs: ,,Zveli frankfurteli punqtualuri moxele
iseTive didis sibejiTiTa da gulmodginebiT uvlis Tavis baRs, rogorc
Tavis samsaxurs asrulebda igi.
diliT
adre
igi
qalaqis
sabWoSi
midis,
saqmeebs
moagvarebs,
yovelTvis droze brundeba Sin, isauzmebs, odnav wasTvlems da baRs
miaSurebs.
igi mudam olimpiuri simSvidiT egebeba dRis wasvlas da dRis
mosvlas,
cotas
laparakobs,
arasodes
sificxes
ar
iCens
da
arc
arasodes unaxavs SviliSvils ganrisxebuli papa”(gamsaxurdia 2010:16,17).
qarTveli mwerali germaneli Semoqmedis moRvaweobaze werisas eyrdnoba
germaneli poetis avtobiografiul wignsac: ,,Cemi cxovreba, poezia da
sinamdvile‟‟.
Cveni
kvlevis
SevadareT
zemoT
fanjikiZes
ekuTvnis:
ukeT
miTiTebul
,,baRis
warmosaCenad
naSromTan,
samuSaos
aRniSnuli
romlis
babua
iseve
fragmenti
Targmanic
dali
regularulad
da
funqtualurad asrulebda, rogorc Tavis samsaxuris saqmeebs ekideboda:
Zirs
manam
ar
samsaxurebriv
Camovidoda,
oqmebs
dabrunebisTanave
moatyebda
da
ar
sanam
CaikiTxavda.
isadilebda,
ase
momCivanTa
dilaobiT
nasadilevs
meordeboda
gancxadebebsa
yoveldRe.
Tavis
da
rathausSi
midioda,
savarZelSi
Llaparakobda
sxva
Tvals
cotas
da
auCqareblad, ar maxsovs, odesme gabrazebuli menaxos‟‟(goeTe 200:252).
gamoikveTa, rom konstantine gamsaxurdias ar Seucvlia faqtebi,
movlenebi.
TargmanSi
garkveuli
cvlilebi
SevniSeT,
Tumca
es
bunebrivia, ori sxvadasxva adamianis mier gadmoqarTulebuli teqsti
identuri ver iqneboda.
axla rac Seexeba iohan kasper goeTes, isic sakmaod ganaTlebuli
iyo
da
codnas,
wignierebas
afasebda.
Aamonaridi
romanidan:
,,mudam
bejiTi, seriozuli da saqmiani mama Tavis kabinetSi muSaobs. Ppatara
volfgangis yuradRebas iwvevs sanaqebod dakazmuli wignebi, holandiur
gemovnebaze
akinZuli
laTini
avtorebi,
uwarCinebuless
italiel
poetebis qmnilebebi, torkvato tassos tomebi sapatio adgilas uwyvia
mamas...
am
biblioTekasve
sjulismdebelTa
filiantebi
amSvenebda
da
ganswavluli
tomebi‟‟(gamsaxurdia
iuristebis,
2010:13-14).
Aaqve
28
mivuTiTebT, rom rogorc mTels saxlSi, ise mamis samuSao oTaxSi,
sakoleqcio darbazebSi germanuli wesrigi, sisufTave iyo gamefebuli.
iohan
volfgangis
deda,
katerina
elizabet
teqstori
iyo
frankfurtis meris, joan volfgangi teqstoris qaliSvili. mas aseTi
sityvebiT
axasiaTebs
biografiuli
romanis
avtori:
,,marad
saqmiani,
saTno da gulmolxenili‟‟. igi saocrad keTili, gulisxmieri, RvTisnieri
ganaTlebuli
qalbatoni
gaxldaT,
romelic
ojaxis
keTildReobaze
zrunavda, iRvwoda. man meuRlesTan erTad, vaJis aRzrdaSi mniSvnelovani
wvlili
Seitana.
biografiul
romanSi
vkiTxulobT:
,,igi
mamasaviT
gulCaTxrobilia da xandaxan civi... dedis gadaWarbebuli herhenturi
klerikalizmTan
momijnave
saTnoeba
da
bibliisadmi
trfiali
masze
jerovan zegavlenas ar axdens, jer kidev eqvsi wlis balRi sqeptikurad
Sescqeris ebraelebis RmerTis gulmowyalebas.
samagierod bibliis motivebisa da luTeruli Targmanis stilis
mibaZva keTil zegavlenas axdens mis Semoqmedebaze. Aamave motivebis
mibaZviT swers igi Tavis ,,Poetishe Cedanken uger Hollenfahrt Ghristi” da poemas
,,iakob‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:23-24).
Kkonstantine gamsaxurdias biografiuli romanis mixedviT, goeTe
siymawvileSi moxeleebis, biurgerebis ojaxebSi gazrdil TanatolebTan
garTobasa
guls
Tu
TamaSs
icruebda.
erideboda,
isini
volfgangs‟‟(gamsaxurdia
jiriTis,
,,ufantaziod
2010:29).Mmas
da
farikaobis
gakveTilebze
usicocxlod
eCvenebodnen
Zalian
moswonda
ubiri
xalxis,
xelosanTa Svilebi. erT-erTi aseTi iyo misi siyrmis amxanagi hilades.
swored mas ukiTxavda Tavis pirvel Sairebs momavali germaneli poeti.
is
goeTes
leqsebs
biografiul
romanSi
siamovnebiT acnobda
SesaniSnavadaa
Tavisi ubnis
warmoCenili
didi
gogo-biWebs.
moazrovnis
bavSvobis megobrebi, maTi cxovreba. fragmenti mxatvruli teqstidan: ,,maT
adre
siymawvileSive
mcirewlovanni
Sromas
aRkveTodaT
Sebmodnen,
swavlis
zogi
gangrZobis
usaxelo
veqilebs
saSualeba,
Sikrikad
hyavdaT, zogi Txovnebs uwerda momCivanT, amgvarad iolad gamodiodnen...
sul sxva interesebi amoZravebdaT am ymawvilebs, iq ar laparakobdnen
iuridiuli karieris gamo, arc qalaqis sabWoSi daniSnul biurokratiis
ambavi
esmoda‟‟(gamsaxurdia
2010:30).
Tumca
dabali
wridan
gamosul
29
TanatolebTan
sastikad
urTierToba
aukrZala
didxans
maTTan
ar
megobroba,
gagrZelebula.
drois
goeTes
gatareba
mamam
da
manac
gaiTvaliswina mSoblis survili, ufro sworad Tu vityviT, moTxovna.
Mmwerali wers, rom goeTem bavSvobaSive Seiyvara wignebi. Ppatara
volfgangi frankfurteli bukinistebisgan oriod groSad yidulobda
zRaprebs,
miTologiur
siymawvileSive
gaiwafa
literaturas
berZnul,
da
sxva
laTinur,
nawarmoebebs.
italiur,
igi
frangul
da
inglisur enebSi. amonaridi mxatvruli teqstidan: ,,mama zrunavda Tavis
mxriT da saukunis atmosferoc xels uwyobda ase Tu ise, spartanuli
aRzrda mieRo volfgangs. xelovneba, gansakuTrebiT musika da mxatvroba,
romelTac didi tradicia hqondaT goeteanT ojaxSi, afaqizebda mis
xasiaTs, xolo bunebas
misas
refleqsiur iers
aZlevda, samagierod
meomari da avantiuristuli ganwyobileba sufevda meTvramete saukunis
literaturasa da yofaSi“(gamsaxurdia 2010:27).
CvenTvis sagulixmoa goeTes gamgzavreba laifcigSi, sadac igi
umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebad Cavida. biografiuli romanis erT-erT
TavSi
,,saSiSari studenti“ avtori
sainteresod
mogviTxrobs.
sauniversiteto qalaqSi
,,patara
poetis cxovrebis
parizad‟‟
am epizodze
wodebul
savaWro
iuridiul fakultetze Cairicxa.
da
mamis mier
gamotanebuli sarekomendacio baraTebis saSualebiT axalgazrda Wabukma
male
gaicno
aristokratTa
braitkofebis,
Sonkofebis
da
raixis
_
laifcigel
ojaxebi. ixateba momavali poetis portreti:
,,bevrs
muSaobda, bevrs ismenda, bevrs akvirdeboda volfgangi. erToboda, axal
sazogadoebas akvirdeboda. sazogadoebaSi igi iyo Cumi, mokrZalebuli,
magram
imave
semestrSi
igi
dros
friad
bevr
dros
Tavmoyvarec.
xarjavda
yovel
SemTxvevaSi
misvla-mosvlaSi,
pirvel
saubrebSi
da
paeqrobaSi“(gamsaxurdia 2010:51). Aavtori aRniSnavs, rom germaneli poetis
laifcigel
megobrebSi
gamoirCeoda
beriSi,
graf
saxlTuxucesi. igi iyo eruditi, niWieri axalgazrda,
laparakobda,
werda
frangulad.Mmas
Zalian
uyvarda
lindaus
SesaniSnavad
literaturul
salonebSi siaruli, saubari da gemovnebiT Cacma. ,,faustis‟‟ avtori
Zalian afasebda mis codnas, wignierebas, ,,enebis Seswavlis talants da
xelweras.
xelweras
Tavidanve
did
mniSvnelobas
aniWebda
Tavad
30
volfgangic. radgan mas sjeroda, rom karg xelweras, kargi stilic
ucilod Tan sdevso‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2020:56). maTi megobroba didxans ar
gagrZelda. beriSs qalaqis datoveba mouwia, goeTem ki xelovnebis Rrmad
Seswavla gadawyvita.D
safrangeTis erT-erTi qalaqi frankfurti (im dros, roca goeTes
cxovrebaze wers mwerali, frankfurti safrangeTis mmarTvelobaSi iyon.x.)
germanul da frangul kulturaTa mijnaze imyofeboda, ramac
avtoris azriT, didi gavlena moaxdina poetze da swored es gaxda
mizezi misi iq universitetSi gadasvlisa. axalgazrda vaimarelma Wabukma
,,gasaocaris siswrafiT SeiTvisa franguli da pirveli Tavisi dramatuli
qmnileba frangulad da frangi ostatebis gavleniT dawera... goeTem Rrma
mixrwnilobis
wlebSic
aRiara
Tavisi
midrekileba
franguli
kulturisadmi, bavSobidanve did gavlenas axdenda masze franguli ena
da literatura“(gamsaxurdia 2010:23,67).
konstantine
gamsaxurdia
STambeWdavad
acocxlebs
brZenis literaturul asparezze gamoCenis periods,
germaneli
gvamcnobs, Tu ra
Sefasebebi mohyva iohanis siWabukisdroindeli lirikuli nawarmoebebis
gamoqveynebas da iqve, Tavis poziciasac afiqsirebs. fragmenti romanidan:
,,am epoqis perioduli presa mowmobs, rom goetes friad uxiago toniT
Seegeba
kritika.
wvrilfexa
kritikosebi
udierad
xSirad pornografiasa da gadaWarbebul erotizms
erTi
maTgani
ver
urCevda
aZagebdnen
goetes,
swamebnen, magram verc
poets
axal
goeTes
leqsebs
gzas
da
meTods
Semoqmedebisas“(gamsaxurdia 2010:61).
gamoiTqva
mosazreba,
rom
aSkarad
etyoboda
motivebis kuTxiT bibliisa da germaneli mwerlis, fridrix gotlib
klopStokis mibaZva.
nawarmoebidan cxadi xdeba, rom germanel klasikoss guli aucrua
misi qmnilebebisadmi aseTma uaryofiTma reaqciam da TiTqmis erTi wlis
manZilze araferi daustambavs, mxolod Tavis das, kornelias ugzavnida
frangul
knebeli
marTlac,
da
inglisur
leqsebs.
piradi
megobrebi:
hermani,
amxnevebdnen mas da axali SemoqmedebiT stimuls
gavida ramdenime weli da goeTem
caxarie,
hmatebdnen.
araerTi Sedevri warudgina
mkiTxvels. 1773 wels gamoica drama ,,goc fon berlinxingen‟‟. aRniSnulma
31
mxatvrulma
teqstma
literaturul
kritikaSi
azrTa
sxvadasxvaoba
gamoiwvia. zogi Tvlida, rom ,,notebiT unda gamoeca‟‟, sxvani ki ambobdnen,
,,istorias Ralatobso‟‟. Mmomdevno wels ki romani ,,axalgazrda verteris
vnebani‟‟ daistamba. nawarmoebSi gamoyvanili personaJi, lotte goeTes
imJamindeli sayvareli qalis, Sarlotte buffis prototipi iyo. amasTan
dakavSirebiT sainteresod wers
biografiuli
romanidan:
,,Tu
konstantine gamsaxurdia. fragmenti
,,goc
berlinxingenis‟‟
poetur
andazad
goeTem Sua saukuneTa rainduli yofa gamoiyena, ,,verteris vnebanis‟‟
istoriuli CarCo me-18 saukunis evropuli sinamdvile iyo. frederikesTan
gayris
Semdeg
goeTes
gulSi
sicariele
sufevda
da
es
ufskruli
Sarlotte buffma amoavso.
sinamdvileSi
goeTes
daupirispirda
praqtikuli
,,gonebis
kaci‟‟
kestneri, ise rogorc romanSi verters alberti. iseve, rogorc verteris
romanSi,
goeTe
kocnas
gaubedavs
lottes
da
keTilsindisieri,
burgeruli wesierebis mixedviT aRzrdili qali Tavis saqmros amcnobs
am ambavs.Aamis Semdeg lotte dabejiTebiT ucxadebs volfgangs, rom ukve
daniSnuli qalisgan mas SeeZleba mxolod megobroba moiTxovos da sxva
araferi. ,,goeTe im dRes fermkrTali da dardiani wavida‟‟.
ramdenad Zlieria geniosi poetis ara marto gamogonili situacia,
aramed piradi gancdac‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:107,108)
1887-89 wlebSi daibeWda ,,ifigenia TavridSi‟‟ da ,,torkvato taso‟‟.
am ukanasknelis Sesaxeb Tavad werda: ,,igi Cemi xorcia xorTagani da
Zveli ZvalTagani‟‟, aqve iwyebs igi elpenors. am qmnilebebSi yovelgan
muzad Sarlotte fon Stain hyavda arCeuli. warmatebis da gamarjvebis
ambavs
mudam
Sarlottes
atyobinebs
pirvelad.
Sarlotte
pirveli
mkiTxvelic iyo‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:156). rogorc zemoT vTqviT, Sarlotte
da ,,axalgazrda verteris vnebanis‟‟ avtori erTxans gamijnurebulebi
iyvnen.
biografiuli
msjelobs
pirovnebasa
romanis
klopStokis,
da
avtori
herderis,
SemoqmedebiTi
erT-erT
Seqspiris
formaciis
TavSi
erTdroulad
zegavlenaze
procesSi.
es
goeTes
TvalnaTliv
gamovlinda araerT qmnilebaSi. amonaridi: ,,goeTemdis klopStoki Sesdga
pirvelad
didi
poetis
gansacdeliT
savse
etlze.
is
uaRresad
32
religiuri bunebisa iyo da mas ar gaZnelebia didi poetis saxelTan
erTad
didad
zneobrivi
TavmoTne gaxldaT
Saravandedis
moxveWac...
da gesliani adamiani iyo.
herderi
igi savsebiT
friad
ara zogavda
axalgazrda goeTes Wabukur Tavmoyvareobas. volfgangi iTmenda ostatis
Wirveulobas, radgan igi ganuzomlad netarobda am didi pirovnebidan
gamomaval naTelis wiaRSi“(gamsaxurdia 2010:78-80). rac Seexeba Seqspirs,
arc
goeTe
yofila
gulisyuriT
gamonaklisi.
kiTxulobda
mis
igi
siamovnebiT,
pirvel
prozaul
didi
interesiT,
Targmanebs,
aseve
originalSi da rogorc konstantine gamsaxurdia miuTiTebs: ,,Seqspiri
gaxda
misTvis
TvalSeuvleb
saxated,
romelSiac
yoveli
misi
literaturuli gataceba erTbaSad Tavs iyrida: homerosis
saxeebis
gmiruli
ossianis
plastika,
primitiuli
dabadebis
fantastika
da
sakraluli
saSinelebis
paTeiTizmi,
apologia.
StrasburgSive
warmoTqmul sityvaSi volfgangma aRiara: Seqspiris Secnobis Semdeg...
,,me vigrZeni, rom Cemi arsoba ganuzomelad gavrcelda, yoveli
axlad
da
axlad
Secnobilad
momeCvena,
am
uSvelebelma
sinaTlis
Cqeralma matkina Tvalni... zewamoviWer da pirvelad vigrZen rom xel-fexi
mesxa“(gamsaxurdia 2010:84).
,,goeTes cxovrebis romanze“ saubrisas xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos
is faqti, rom konstantine gamsaxurdia biografiul romanSi
mxolod
faqtobrivi masalis mowodebiT ar Semoifargleba goeTes cxovrebisa da
literaturuli
memkvidreobis
Tanamimdevrulad
mogviTxrobs
literaturuli
uSualo
yofis,
kavSirSia
aRwerisas.
yvela
amasTanave,
klasikosi
im
qalaqis,
poetis
igi
dawvrilebiT,
adamianis,
politikur-
qveynis Sesaxeb,
biografiasTan.
romelic
gansakuTrebiT
sayuradReboa Ggermania da italia.
Tavdapirvelad
icnobda.
movixmobT
visaubroT
qveyanaze,
amonarids:
,,germanuli
romelsac
Tavadac
feodaluri
kargad
istoria
erT
rameSi saqarTvelosac mogvagonebs: germaniasac, rogorc Cvens qveyanas
Sua saukuneTa manZilze erTi da igive kulturuli centri rodi Hhqonda.
mraval tomebad, sahercogoebad, samTavroebad dayofil qveyanas
mravali
politikuri
centri
moepoveboda,
am
politikur
centrebs,
33
samefoebsa da samTavroebis rezidenciebs, kulturuli centris niSanic
Tan axlda.
Ees
xels
uwyobda
erTi
da
imave
kulturis
mravalsaxieri
aRnagobis Semonaxvas, garda amisa, roca mteri, an mtruli civilizaciis
Semoteva moaxlovdeboda, kulturis centrSic gadainacvlebda, ase rom
ukanaskneli saukuneebis prussiuli policiuri saxelmwifos sataxto _
berlini arasodes ara yofila mTeli germaniis Tavi da tvini, rogorc
parizi safrangeTisaTvis‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:140).
italia, uZvelesi antikuri da
iyo
STagonebis
wyaro
evropuli kulturebis akvani, mudam
dasavleli
poetebisa
volfgangi iq Casvlaze siWabukidanve
malte
Suxarti
wignSi
,,goeTes
da
mxatvrebisaTvis.
ocnebobda. germaneli literatori
biografiis
motivebi“
am
sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT aRniSnavs: ,,es survili bavSvobaSive ganpirobebuli iyo
mamis
aRfrTovanebuli
uamravi
ferweruli
motivebiT,
monaTxrobis
tilosa
romlebic
Tu
wyalobiT
Sav-TeTri
frankfurtSi
italiis
naxatis
mSoblebis
Sesaxeb
da
gamo,
italiuri
saxlis
kedlebs
amSvenebda“(Suxarti 2010:65).
konstantine gamsaxurdia biografiul romanSi sagangebod gamoyofs
Tavs ,,mogzauroba italiaSi“ da aq gadmoscems, Tu ra zegavlena moaxdina
nanatr
evropul
qveyanaSi
gamgzavrebam
vaimarel
brZenze.
,,gotcis“,
,,axalgazrda verteris vnebebis“ avtorma antikuri Tematikisken ibruna
piri.
man
iq
daasrula
,,egmonti“
_
tragedia,
misi
axali poziciis
gamomxatveli ,,ifigenia TavridSi“ _ antikur siuJetze Seqmnili drama,
rac
germaneli
mkiTxvelisTvis
siaxles
warmoadgenda.
sagulisxmo
daskvnas akeTebs avtori: ,,mudam ase yofila: didi ideuri novatorebi da
stilisturi reformatorebi mudam aTeuli wlebiT win uswrebdnen Tavis
dros da poetsa da mkiTxvels Soris es badebs xolme marad Zvelsa da
marad axal gaugebrobas... me win midevs goeTes ,,italiaSi mogzaurobis‟‟
1829
wlis
gamocema...
ramdeni
ram
Secvlila
mas
Semdeg
germanul
marTlwerasa da gamomcemlobis teqnikaSi!
erTi
evropul
unda
iTqvas,
mogzaurobaTa
mogzauroba“
Tu
goeTes
es
qmnileba
literaturaSi,
Seedreba
am
mxriv...
mas
ubrwyinvalesi
sternis
rogori
Zeglia
,,sentimentaluri
sisadaviT,
brwyinvale
34
stiliTaa igi dawerili da es sisadave itevs detalebis geniosuri
SeniSvnis unars da did sifaqizes Txrobisas. Aaq erT wignSi metyvelebs
SesaniSnavi bunebismetyvelebis maxvili Tvali didi eruditi istoriisa
da kulturisa da ufaqizesi poetis kalami‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:168-169,184).
im
dros,
roca
bunebismetyvelebiT
iyo
volfgangi
gatacebuli,
,,faustze“
daiwyo
romlis mimarTac igi kritikulad iyo
muSaobda
safrangeTis
da
revolucia,
ganwyobili da ar Cabmula
vaimaris sazogadoebis fusfusSi. mogvianebiT, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT
is saubrobs ekermanTan, saidanac vrwmundebiT, rom goeTem sworad gaigo
da amasTan, Seafasa aRniSnuli movlenis istoriuli mniSvneloba da
roli. amas gverdi konstantine gamsaxurdiamac ver auara. amonaridi:
,,xalxis
dabali
ZlierTa
fenebis
usamarTlobis
revoluciuri
Sedegi
amboxebani
yofila.
mudam
am
amieridan
qveynis
araviTar
usamarTlobas Sevurigdebi da amas uTuod vizam, Tundac demokratiis
saxeliTac rom momixdes saomrad wasvla... aseTi iyo Cemi azri maSinac,
magram
miuxedavad
amisa,
iseTi
saxelebi
Semarqves,
rom
me
maTi
ganmeorebac mimZims... isic marTalia, me ara vyofilvar safrangeTis
revoluciis
didi
megobari,
aRmocenebuli
saSineleba
Cems
radgan
Tvalwin
am
revoluciis
datrialda
da
meoxebiT
misi
keTili
nayofi jer kidev ar yofila CemTvis sacnaur... magram arc Tu batonuri
Zalmomreobis megobari vyofilvar odesme“(gamsaxurdia 2010:192).
Kkonstantine
gamsaxurdiam
uwoda ,,napoleoni‟‟.
da
gacocxlebulia
biografiuli
romanis
erT-erT
Tavs
prozauli teqtSi imperatori personaJad ikveTeba
1808
wels
vaimarSi
yofnis
periodi.
Mmisi
survilisamebr, goeTe eaxla napoleons. Mmwerlis TqmiT, dawvrilebiT
aravin icis, Tu raze isaubres maT. Mmiuxedavad amisa, man saintereso
masala
moiZia
da
SesaniSnavad
CaurTo
TxzulebaSi.
Aamonaridi:
,,audiencia oqtombris orisaTvis dainiSna, ,,imperatori, swers goeTe,
uSvelebel mrgval magidas ujda da sauzmobda... daminaxa Tu ara, maniSna:
axlos mivsuliyavi, me win waviwie, magram sapatio manZilze Sevdeqi,
napoleonma yuradRebiT momavlo Tvali da miTxra: Vous etes un home! Mme
Tavmodrekili salami miveci‟‟...
35
Nnapoleonma
aZaga
volteris
drama
da
savsebiT
moulodnelad
,,verters‟‟ Seexo. Svidgzis wakiTxuli maqvso, ase ambobda. ,,verteri‟‟
egvipteSi Tana hqonda napoleons. Uufro metad gaocda goeTe, roca
imperatori ,,verteris‟‟ ukanasknel pasaJebs Seexo da Seuracxyofili
pativmoyvareobisa da vnebiani siyvarulis urTierTSi aRreva aRnusxva…
da daiwuna kidec.
Ggaocebuli goeTe daeTanxma napoleons am sakiTxSi da savsebiT
daaviwyda,
rom
herderis
mier
gamocemul
,,verterSi‟‟
es
detali
Sesworebuli iyo kidec‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:198).
vaimarSi gamarTul balze
napoleonma goeTes parizSi Casvla da
,,cezaris sikvdilis‟‟ dawera SesTavaza da ,,leJion d‟onoris‟‟ ordenic
gadasca.
germanel
poets
ar
mouwones
safrangeTis
imperatorisadmi
gamoxatuli trfiali da pativiscema. igi Tavisi qveynis mtrad rodi
xedavda mas, aramed did feromenad
aRiqvamda. ekermanTan erT dRes
saubrisas aRniSna: ,,napoleoni mudam anTebuli iyo, mudam samoqmedod
mzad myofi. Yyovel Jams sakmarisi energiiT aRvsili, rogorc ki raimes
mizanSewonilad dainaxavda, myisve moqmedebas Seudgeboda. cxovreba misi
es
naxevarRmerTis
gamarjvebebisaken
brZolidan
daucxromeli
brZolisgan,
swrafva
iyo.
masze
gamarjvebidan
iTqmoda
swored:
mudam anTebulio. Aamitomac ase brwyinvale iyo sve misi da aseTi ram mis
mosvlamdis
arvis
unaxavs
da
saeWvoa
mis
Semdegac
rom
naxos
vinmem‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:199).
Cven germaneli moazrovnis zemoT moxmobili sityvebi SevadareT
realur
wyarosTan.
esaa
,,goeTes
saubrebi
ekermanTan‟‟.
wigni
akaki
gelovanma Targmna, romelic 1988 wels gamoica. gTavazobT fragments:
,,napoleons
nebismier
ganexorcielebina,
dros
moexdina
is,
hqonda
rac
sakmarisi
xelsayrelad
energia,
da
rom
aucileblad
miaCnda. mTeli misi cxovreba iyo svla naxevrad RmerTisa brZolidan
brZolamde, gamarjvebidan gamarjvebamde. misi ambavi SeiZleba Tamamad
iTqvas: es iyo erTiani gamonaTebis mdgomareoba; rom bedi misi iseTi
brwyinvale
ecodineba
iyo,
rogoric
albaT
manamade
arasodes,
_
kacobriobam
swored
ar
icoda
aseTi
da
arc
gamonaTebis
wyalobiT‟‟(ekermani 1988:159).
36
rogorc
davinaxeT
moyvanili
fragmentidan,
konstantine
gamsaxurdia ucvlelad tovebs goeTes naazrevs napoleonze. cxadia, aris
mciredi gansxvaveba da es arcaa gasakviri, radgan pirvel SemTxvevaSi
,,goeTes saubrebi ekermanTan‟‟ mwerliseuli Targmania, meore ki rogorc
ukve
mivuTiTeT,
akaki
gelovanisa.
mTavari
da
arsebiTi
isaa,
rom
qarTveli mwerali faqtebs ar cvlis.
,,goeTes cxovrebis romanSi‟‟ saintereso personaJebad gvevlinebian
Sileri da baironi.
goeTesa da germaneli poetis, dramaturgis megobrobaze bevri ram
dawerila,
rogorc
bunebrivia,
biografiuli
urTierToba.
msoflio
qarTul,
ise
romanis
sazRvargareTul
avtorisaTvisac
literaturaSi.
mniSvnelovania
es
,,Silleri“ _ ase uwoda avtorma Tavs, sadac ori didi,
donis
moazrovnis
Tbil
urTierTdamokidebulebas
aRwers.
moviZieT isic, rom internetSi ganTavsebul inglisurenovan saitebze,
sadac
goeTeze
vrceli
informaciaa
ganTavsebuli
gamoTqmuli: ,,arsebobda raRac udidesi zegavlena,
imoqmeda
am
ori
moipoveba
poetis
cxovrebaze.
analogi
azria
romelmac bevrad
Lliteraturis
msgavsi
igive
istoriaSi
mWidro
ar
siaxlovisa“
(http:/theatrehistory.com/german/goethe011.html). fragmenti romanidan: ,,goeTe bedis
mier
galaRebuli
brwyinvale
poeti.
sefewuli
Silleri
iyo,
brwyinvale
ubralo
ministri
samxedro
da
feldSeri
ufro
iyo
da
sikvdilis piramdis lukma purisTvis ibrZoda. am qveynad warmoudgenelia
poeziis gareSe sxva Zala, romelsac SeeZlos ori aseTi ukiduresad
gansxvavebuli mdgomareobis adamianis SekavSireba“(gamsaxurdia 2010:193194).
avtori
biografiul
urTierTdamokidebulebazec
romanSi
wers.
goeTesa
Mmwerals
mohyavs
da
is
baironis
amonaridebi
wignidan ,,goeTes saubrebi ekermanTan‟‟, sadac ,,faustis‟‟ avtori mas
esaubreba inglisel lirikosze. Amxolod am saxiTaa gacocxlebuli am
ori didi pirovnebis urTierToba.
vaimarel
brZens
baironma
uZRvna
Tavisi
tragedia
warweriT:
,,brwyinvale goeTes“. am ukanasknelma ki upasuxa leqsiT: ,,Ein freundlich wort
kommt nach dem andern’’.
sagulisxmoa, rom ,,Tavdapirvelad
goeTes
ar
37
moswonda baironi, Tumca roca misi Semoqmedeba kargad Seicno, azri
Seicvala‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:206). Semdeg ki didi niWis mqones uwodebda
inglisel
poets.
Gfragmenti
biografiuli
romanidan:
,,ekermanTan
saubarSi goeTe aRiarebs: ,,me misi (baironis) ,,Deformed Transformed’’ isev
gadavikiTxe da unda gamovtyde: rac dro gadidis, misi talanti ufro da
ufro didad meCveneba... hipoxondria xels uslis bairons, uamisod igi
Seqspirisa da antikuri poetebis badali iqneboda‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:206).
Bgermanuli literaturis
kritikosis, arCil xotivaris marTebuli
miTiTebiT: ,,Rrma fsiqologizmiT aRwers konstantine gamsaxurdia goeTes
mravalricxovan
sasiyvarulo
gvafrTxilebs,
Tavgadasavlebs,
magram
amasTan
rom igi ,,romelime snobisturad ganwyobili kavaleris
darad qalSi martooden fizikuri siaxlovis sagans rodi sWvretda,
aramed muzas, madonas da aRtkinebis momgvrels“ (xotivari 1976:26).
germaneli Semoqmedis pirovnebaze msjelobisas unda aRiniSnos misi
urTierToba
sazogadoebasa
da
megobar
qalebTan.
am
TvalsazrisiT
gasaTvaliswinebelia didi poetis vaimarSi yofnis periodi, sadac igi
Cavida hercog karl avgustusis miwveviT da samefo karis
cxovrebis
ferxulSi Caeba. romanSi vkiTxulobT: ,,Tavisi konservatizmis miuxedavad,
goetes ar SeeZlo am sazogadoebis
xorcTagani yofiliyo, radganac
sisxli sisxlTagani da
es ,,sosiete“
XVIII
xorci
saukunisa
qonebriv da wodebriv ierarqias emyareboda. xolo talanti yovelive amis
gareSe mdgara mudamJams. xom kariskaci iyo goete, mainc sapyrobiled
eCveneboda
es
sazogadoeba“(gamsaxurdia
2010:158).
iqve,
rogorc
konstantine gamsaxurdia wers, goeTes da misi araeTi megobari qalis
urTierToba
am
sakiTxze
araerTgvarovani
iyo.
maTi
Sexedulebebi
mkveTrad gansxvavdebodnen erTmaneTisgan: ,,Tu gretxen, frederike, lili
romantiulad,
russoseburad
ganwyobil
goeTes
antisocialobisaken,
titanizmisaken, egocentrizmisaken miaqanebdnen, Sarlotte
fon Stain
ufro socialobisaken, sazogadoebrivobisaken eweoda goeTes dauokebel
bunebas“(gamsaxurdia 2010:159).
Bbiografiul
goeTes
Rirsebaze,
romanSi
konstantine
niWierebaze
gamsaxurdia
msjelobs,
aramed
ara
mis
mxolod
nakls
Tu
uaryofiT mxaresac warmoaCens. Mmwerali, romelic goeTes literaturul
38
memkvidreobas SesaniSnavad icnobda da aRiarebda mis pirovnebas, karl
avgustisadmi
miZRvnili
leqsebis
daweris
faqti
naklad
CauTvala.
amasTanave, romanSi am sakiTxze saubris mizezic SesaniSnavad ganmarta:
,,araa
saWiro
adamianuri
sisustis
miCqmalva,
rogorc
amas
Cadian
germaneli biografebi da mwerlebi.
rogorc qarTveli avtori, savsebiT Sors viWer amgvar qalaCunobas.
me minda Tumca geniosi poetis, magram mainc adamianis portreti davxato,
sxva araferi.
uTuod
,,ilmenau‟‟,
kariskaculi
romelSiac
gacilebiT
ufro
qedmodrekilobiT
karl
avgusts
amcirebs
savsea
diTirambebs
goeTes
Cvens
goeTes
leqsi
umReris
poeti.
TvalSi
leqsi
,,hercogisadmi‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:146).
biografiuli
romanis
volfgangis
cxovrebis
sayuradRebo,
sagulisxmo
sadac
is
sainteresod
bolo
bolo
TavSi:
dReebze
,,Camqrali
Tvali‟‟
mogviTxrobs
da
avtori
mohyavs
nawyvetebi ekermanis ,,goeTesTan saubrebidan“,
xatavs
xelovan
sazogadoebas,
kicxavs
im
pirovnebebs, romlebic winamorbedTa Tu TanamedroveTa gamocdilebas ar
iTvaliswineben.
mniSvnelovania Semdegi amonaridi: ,,vgoneb me neba maqvs
Cems Sesaxebac oriode sityva davsZra da gulwrfelad vaRiaro: marTlac
me Cemi cxovrebis manZilze mravali ram Semiqmnia da gamikeTebia, ris
gamoc ufleba maqvs, kidevac viamayo da Tavi moviwono. me uTuod araferi
SemrCeboda xelSi, ganagonis, nanaxis gardaqmnisa da ostaturad kvlav
gadmocemis unari rom ar mqoneboda“(gamsaxurdia 2010:209).
konstantine gamsaxurdias biografiuli romani mTavari personaJis
gardacvalebis epizodiT sruldeba. miuxedavad uZlurebisa, goeTe imeds
ar
kargavda,
dadgoma
darwmunebuli
uxaroda.
iyo
Aamonaridi:
gamojanmrTelebaSi.
,,daraba
gamoaRe,
raTa
Ggazafxulis
meti
sinaTle
Semovideso‟‟.
Ees iyo misi ukanaskneli sityvebi.
Eena Cauvarda... msaxurebs da maxloblebs haerSi gavlebuli TiTiT
aniSnebda Tavis survils. Semdeg amisa saCvenebeli TiTiT swerda haerSi
raRac
idumal
gavlebuli
striqonebs...
TiTiT
swerda
roca
mklavSi
gamouTqmelsa
Rone
da
gamoecala,
dauwerels.
sabanze
Ddamswreni
39
amCnevdnen _ TviT sasven niSnebsac ara stovebda. Ppirveli winadadebis
pirveli aso Seicvnes: laTinuri v.
Semdeg
mayureblis
gonebisaTvis
savsebiT miuwdomeli da Seucnobi gaxda mis mier saCvenebeli TiTiT
naweri... (gamsaxurdia 2010:211-212).
biografiul romanSi sagulisxmoa goeTes gardacvalebis epizodi.
mwerali saubrobs ,,faustis‟‟ avtoris aRasasrulze da imavdroulad
,,axali sicocxlis‟‟ dawyebaze migvaniSnebs.
rogorc
wesi,
romanebSi,
mxatvrul
nawarmoebebSi
uxvadaa
simboloebi, alegoriebi, metaforebi Dda sxva mxatvruli saxeebi Tu
xerxebi. biografiul romanSi ki isini mwiradaaa warmodgenili. amis
mizezi
is
masalas,
gaxlavT,
Cvenc
rom
swored
biografosi
maT
ZiriTad
(saarqivo
eyrdnoba
masala,
mogonebani, baraTebi, werilebi _ n.x.) warmoCenas
dokumentur
istoriuli
wyaro,
mivaniWeT upiratesoba
,,goeTes cxovrebis romanis‟‟ kvlevisas da aseve, sadisertacio naSromSi
ganxiluli am Janris nawarmoebebze msjelobisas. am sakiTxze zogadad
mainc visaubrebT, radgan eseni prozauli teqstebia.
,,goeTes
cxovrebis
Tavdapirvelad
sayuradReboa
romanis‟‟
warmovaCenT
goeTes
mxatvrul
peizaJis
gamgzavreba
mxareze
aRweras.
am
strasburgSi.
saubrisas
mxriv
CvenTvis
SesaniSnavad
wers
konstantine gamsaxurdia: ,,strasburg-qalaqis nagebobani da misi mwvaneSi
Cafluli
sanaxebi gadaeSala
walkotovani
napirebi
Tvalwin
mimoixila
goeTes.
rainisa
volfgangma,
da
illeris
Soreuli
nislis
gviristebiviT kideSemkuli tyeebi, mSvidad mTvlemare velebi da kordebi.
elzasis wkanwkara ruebi vercxlis Tasmebad evlebodnen mindvrebs
da
walkotebs‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:67).
Mmxatvruli
saxeebis:
Sedarebebis,
metaforebis,
epiTetebis
gamoyeneebis TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa Semdegi
fragmenti biografiuli
romanidan:
italiis
,,goeTes
brwyinvalebisadmi
Rrubliani
vaimarSi
siyvaruli,
DDdReebis
da
igi
Camohyva
ukmayofilod
gauTavebeli
Tqoris
atlasisebri
buzRunebda
Semyure.
vaimaris
swuxda
es
moRuSuli ca yovelgvar ferebs rom nTqavda da abaTilebda.
goeTeze italiaSi mogzaurobam udidesi zegavlena moaxdina. igi
isev samxreTs gascqeroda mzemowyurebuli. ,,usaxo da uaRnago germanias‟‟
40
aZagebda ,,formadasrulebul italias‟‟ monatrebuli‟‟ (gamsaxurdia 2010:
184).
Kkonstantine
SesaniSnavad
amonaridi
gamsaxurdia
xatavs
goeTes
mxatvruli
mxatvruli
erT-erTi
nawarmoebidan:
xerxebis
megobris,
,,naTeli,
saSualebiT
frederikes
saxes.
aumRvreveli
mzera
amSvenebda zRvisfer Tvalebs... Wilis qudi zonariviT gadmoekida mxris
Tavze,
saerTod
igi
wreSi
Semosul
gazafxulsa
hgavda
vardis
furclobisas qveynad mofenils‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:87).
Kaqve davasaxelebT magaliTebs, rodesac konstantine gamsaxurdia
Sedarebas,
rogorc
mxatvrul
xerxs
mimarTavs
biografiul
romanSi:
,,siyvaruli da siZulvili erTi da imave medalionis ori sxvadasxva
mxarea. isini tolad dadian, rogorc Suqi da Crdili‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:
195). Aan kidev: ,,siyvarulis saqmes dafiqreba iseve susxavs, rogorc venaxs
naadrevi yinvebi‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:127).
Kkonstantine gamsaxurdias biografiuli romanis mxatvrul mxareze
msjelobas
mwerlis
aq
davasrulebT.
mxatvruli
gamovlinda,
ostatoba
rom
qarTveli
dokumenturi
Janris
klasikosi
nawarmoebSic
TvalnaTliv gamoikveTa. Aamis dasturia ,,goeTes cxovrebis romanidan‟‟
zemoT moxmobili amonaridebi.
dasasrul
davsZenT,
damajereblad
konstantine
aRwera germaneli
gamsaxurdiam
TxzulebaSi
moazrovnis _ goeTes
cxovreba,
moRvaweoba. amasTanave, literaturuli memkvidreoba, ostaturad daxata
genialuri poetisa da adamianis portreti, warmoaCina misi Rirsebac da
sisustec. es igrZnoba nawarmoebis TiToeuli gverdis kiTxvisas. Tu
gaviTvaliswinebT
ZiriTadad
im
eyrdnoba
faqtsac,
rom
vaimareli
brZenis
gamokvlevebs, werilebs, baraTebs,
sinamdvile“,
xasiaTis
ekermanis
mecnierul
biografiul
Sesaxeb
romanSi
mwerali
daweril
kritikul
poetis avtobiografias ,,poezia da
,,goeTesTan saubrebs“ da mraval istoriuli
naSromebs,
davrwmundebiT,
rom
is
dawerilia
realur masalaze dayrdnobiT da ara mwerluri fantaziis Sedegad. amaze
Tavad konstantine gamsaxurdia miuTiTebs romanis bolosityvaSi: ,,goeTes
Sesaxeb
imdeni
movuyaroT,
es
dawerila
yovelive
kargic
erT
da
cudic,
qalaqSic
ar
yvelafers
daeteoda.
Tavi
rom
amitomac
41
gulmodgined
xelaxla
Seviswavle
sinamdvile‟‟) ocive wigni,
misi
avtobiografia
(,,poezia
da
samive tomi ekermanis ,,goeTesTan saubrebisa‟‟,
megobrebisa da maxloblebisadmi minaweri da maTgan miRebuli kerZo
baraTebi, goeTes bunebismetyveluri nawerebi, xandaxan misi lirikis
gadaTvalierebac momixda.
ra Tqma unda, am muSaobis Sesrulebisas diaxac gamoviyene Cemi
mravali wlis
muSaoba
goeTes
seminarebSi: laifcigsa, miunxensa
da
berlinSi gaweuli 1912-19 wlebis manZilze da piradi STabeWdilebani
frankfurtsa, vaimarsa da italiaSi mogzaurobis dros 1919-20 wlebSi
miRebuli.Bbiografiuli TariRebis dadgenisas da XVIII saukunis evropis
cxovrebis Sesacnobad xSirad viSveliebdi da angariSs vuwevdi Semdeg
Sromebsac: Serer: ,,germanuli literaturis istoria‟‟, haineman _ ,,goeTe‟‟,
gzimmel _ ,,goeTe da kanti‟‟, diltai _ ,,gancda da poezia‟‟, Hhuston
stevart
Cemberlen:
,,cxovrebis
gzebi‟‟,
r.rimen
,,goeTedan
eqspresionizmamde‟‟, madam de stal _ ,,memuarebi‟‟, lenc _ ,,napoleoni‟‟,
Cemberlen ,,XIX saukunis safuZvlebi‟‟, tomas mann _ ,,fridripi da didi
koalicia‟‟,
gundolf
_
,,goeTe‟‟.
daufasebeli
samsaxuri
gamiwia
brwyinvale poetesas rikarda huxis SesaniSnavma Sromam: ,,Ausbreitung u.
verfall d. Romantik’’ I, II t. goeTes megobrebis mogonebaTa krebulma, ,,goeTe‟‟ ,,kalendar‟‟.
Fraiher
fonfonder
laienis,
bartelsis
da
zorgelis
literaturul-istoriulma narkvevebma‟‟(gamsaxurdia 2010:216,217).
amrigad, 1934 wels, konstantine gamsaxurdiam ,,goeTes cxovrebis
romanis‟‟
gamocemiT qarTvel mkiTxvel sazogadoebas warudgina axali
formis, sxva JanrSi
daxatuli udidesi germaneli poetis cxovreba. man
dokumenturi sizuste SeinarCuna da moZiebuli sxvadasxva wyaro erT
saintereso biografiul romanad aqcia.
42
Tavi II
vaxtang WeliZis ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa”
vaxtang
mwerali.
WeliZe
igi
gaxldaT
sxvadasxva
gamomcemeli,
mravalmxrivi
dros
beletristi,
ramdenime
eseisti,
niWiT
Jurnalis
mTargmneli.
Mman
dajildoebuli
redaqtori
dawera
iyo,
wignebi:
,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa”(biografiuli romani), ,,qarTlis cxovrebis
qronikebi”,
krebulebi:
,,Zvirfasi
siluetebi”
(literaturul-
publicisturi statiebi), ,,werilebi”, ,,fiqrebi xvalindel dReze”.
vaxtang WeliZem Targmna klasikuri, aseve, Tanamedrove inglisuri
da
amerikuli
beletristikisa
da
dramaturgiis
nimuSebi:
Seqspiris,
miltonis, defos, skotis, dikensis, golzuorTis, hemingueis, stainbekis,
mileris,
uiliamsis,
londonis,
selinjeris
da
sxvaTa
nawarmoebebi.
vfiqrob, meti TvalsaCinoebisTvis aucilebelia, davasaxeloT zogierTi
maTgani:
daniel
hemingueis
defos
,,mSvidobiT,
mRelvarebisa”,
jek
,,robinzon
iaraRo!”,
londonis
kruzos
jon
Tavgadasavali”,
stainberkis
,,martin
ideni”,
ernest
,,zamTari
jerom
Cveni
selinjeris
moTxrobebi da sxvani. jansuR Rvinjilia erT-erT werilSi saintereso
Sefasebas gamoTqvams aRniSnul sakiTxze: ,,vaxtang WeliZis Targmanebma
Seqmnes erTgvari etapi. Aam adamianis TavauRebeli SromiT, Targmanis
maRali kulturiT da SerCevis principiT qarTveli mkiTxveli eziara
msoflio literaturis Sedevrebs”(Rvinjilia 1977:150). amave sakiTxze erT
werilSi
ciala
TofuriZec
miuTiTebs:
,,mxatvruli
Targmani
rTuli
SemoqmedebiTi procesia. mTargmnels ara marto farTo ganaTleba, enebis
codna, didi erudicia moeTxoveba, aramed mTargmneli Tavad mwerali
unda
iyos.
Ees
TargmanebSi,
aramed
mravalferovan
vaxtang
aSkarad
mis
Cans
rogorc
marto
literaturul
publicistur
WeliZeze,
ara
eseebSi,
WeliZiseul
kritikul
mxatvrul
werilebsa
krebulebSi”...(TofuriZe
pirovnebaze,
literatorze,
da
2006:37).
mTargmnelze,
mweralze, redaqtorze sxvadasxva wlebSi dawerili araerTi statia Tu
literaturuli
werili
arsebobs,
sadac
erTxmadaa
aRiarebuli
misi
Rvawli, damsaxureba qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi. TiToeuli adamiani,
43
cxadia, vgulisxmob werilis avtorebs, dadebiTad afasebs mis cxovrebas,
moRvaweobas, nawerebs. Maseve, masze arsebobs mravali mogoneba.
,,man
bevri
ram
gansazRvra
XX
saukunis
Cvens
saliteraturo
cxovrebaSi da kidev dasdo gamorCeuli Rvawli mis Semzadebas msoflio
samwerlo procesebSi CasarTavad.
Aadre
Tu
biografiuli
aireklavs,
gvian
misi
pirovnebac
romanisaTvis,
rakiRa
vaxtang
da
cxovrebac
epoqis
dramatizmsac
WeliZe
yovelTvis
iqceva
Temad
TvalsaCinod
rom
literaturul
da
saxelovno movlenaTa SuagulSi trialebda.
miTumetes, ,,ivane maCablis cxovrebis” SeqmniT imis qrestomaTiuli
nimuSic dagvitova, rogori unda iyos biografiuli romani”(CxeiZe r.
2007:24).
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, vaxtang WeliZem biografiuli romani
dawera ivane maCabelze da vidre konkretulad aRniSnul nawarmoebze
SevCerdebiT, manamde qarTveli mTargmnelis, Jurnalistis, ivane maCablis
literaturuli portreti gamovkveToT da garkveulwilad warmovaCinoT.
ivane
maCabels
XIX
saukunis
qarTuli
mxatvruli
azrovnebis
istoriaSi Rirseuli adgili ukavia. sakmaod mravalmxrivi da nayofieri
iyo misi moRvaweoba qarTul literaturaSi, kulturaSi. igi gaxldaT
sazogado
moRvawe,
mwerali,
publicisti,
qarTuli
mTargmnelobiTi
skolis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli. koba wurwumia werilSi ,,ivane maCabeli da
qarTuli Seqspirologia” sainteresod wers mis Rvawlze: ,,igi aqtiuri
monawile iyo yvela im sazogadoebrivi wamowyebisa, romelsac ilia
WavWavaZe
xelmZRvanelobda:
qarTvelTa
Soris
wera-kiTxvis
gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba, Teatraluri sazogadoeba, saTavadaznauro
banki, iyo ,,vefxistyaosnis” saredaqcio komisiis redaqtori. Ddaxmareba
gauwia ungrel mxatvars mixai ziCis ,,vefxistyaosnis” ilustraciebisTvis,
aseve marjori uordrops da sxva ucxoel mTargmnelebs. sxvadasxva
wlebSi
iyo
,,droebis”
aSuqebda
Jurnal
redaqtori.
,,iveriis”
i.
sazogadoebrivi
TanamSromeli,
maCabeli
Tavisi
cxovrebis
xolo
Semdeg
publicisturi
aqtualur
gazeT
werilebiT
sakiTxebs,
Cveuli
gabedulebiTa da principulobiT icavda qarTveli eris erovnulsa da
socialur interesebs”(wurwumia 2009:89).
44
ivane
maCabelma
qarTul
Seqspirologias
Cauyara
safuZveli.
ingliseli mwerlis, dramaturgis piesebs CvenSic Targmnidnen manamde,
Tumca
vaxtang
zurabiSvilis
WeliZis,
da
paata
sxvaTa
CxeiZis,
koba
mosazrebiT,
wurwumias,
isini
elene
Sors
idgnen
srulyofilebisagan. Aivane maCabelma 1873-1874 wlebSi ilia WavWavaZesTan
erTad Targmna uiliam Seqspiris ,,mefe liri”. XIX saukunis 80-iani
wlebis
II
naxevarSi
draturgiuli
,,makbeti”,
man
damoukideblad
nawarmoebebi:
,,riCard
mesame”
,,hamleti”,
da
gadmoaqarTula
,,otelo”,
sxvani.
Seqspiris
,,iulius
sainteresoa
keisari”,
paata
CxeiZis,
TvalsaCino mTargmnelis Sefaseba. igi wignSi ,,ivane maCablis tradicia”
,,mefe liris” Targmanze saubrisas wers: ,,am TargmniT iwyeba axali etapi
ara marto qarTul SeqspirologiaSi, aramed qarTuli saliteraturo
enis CamoyalibebaSi. ivane maCablis mTargmnelobiTi meTodis, misi enis,
stilis
da
mignebis
gavlena
XXI
saukuneSic
gadmohyva
qarTul
literaturasa da mTargmnelobiT Semoqmedebas”. ivane maCabeli qarTuli
mTargmnelobiTi
tradiciis
mTavari
xazis
gamgrZelebelia
_
igi
,,gamqarTulebelia”(CxeiZe p. 2005:5).
XIX saukunis 80–ian wlebSi axlad aRorZinebul
Cvens Teatrs
Tavisi ubadlo TargmanebiT da praqtikuli muSaobiT didi samsaxuri
gauwia niWierma, farTod ganaTlebulma qarTvelma moRvawem da saTanado
adgili daikava Cvens literaturaSi. jer kidev 1954 wlis ,,literaturul
gazeTSi” daweril werilSi Salva radiani sainteresod msjelobs ivane
maCablis
qmnilebaTa
moRvaweobaze.
Aamonaridi:
sidiades
siRrmes.
mravalferovani
da
niuansebiT,
mdidari
,,igi
Rrmad
Ddaxvewili
poeturi
Caswvda
Seqspiris
literaturuli
xerxebiT
eniT,
Sesrulebul
TargmanSi Seqspiri pirdapir xeluxlebad aris gacocxlebuli qarTveli
mkiTxvelisaTvis. ivane maCablis SemoqmedebiTi laboratoriis gacnoba
naTelyofs, Tu rogori mondomebiT da pasuxismgeblobiT ekideboda igi
am Targmanebs...
ivane
maCabels
metad
gamaxvilebuli
smena
aqvs.
igi
saucxood
grZnobs winadadebis intonaciis niuansebs da maT zustad warmogvidgens
Tavis TargmanSi, magram am sizustiT ar wiravs qarTuli enis bunebriv
wyobasa da kilos. qarTuli enis bunebis gansakuTrebuli alRo aqvs.
45
ilia
WavWavaZesTan
gansakuTrebuli
da
akaki
Rvawli
wereTelTan
miuZRvis
erTad
qarTuli
ivane
maCabels
saliteraturo
enis
msjelobisas
unda
ganviTarebisa da dadgenis saqmeSi”(radiani 1954:2).
ivane
maCablis
mivuTiToT,
rom
Rvawlze,
igi
publicisturi,
avtoria
mis
nawerebze
araerTi
saintereso
literaturul-kritikuli
da
sagulisxmo
xasiaTis
werilisa.
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania misi naazrevi poeziasa Tu dramaturgiuli
xelovnebis Sesaxeb.
cnobili publicistis, mTargmnelis ,,Rvawli ganixileba dasavleT
evropuli kulturis konteqstSi. iliam, akakim da maCabelma didi Zala da
energia
Seswires
axleburi
azrovnebis
damkvidrebas
qarTul
sazogadoebaSi”(kiknaZe 2005:22).
vaxtang
WeliZis
wigni
,,cxovreba
ivane
maCablisa”
1955
wels
daistamba giorgi leoniZis redaqtorobiT da moicavs didi sazogado
moRvawis cxovrebis yvela etaps. Bbiografiul romans axlavs avtoris
minaweri: ,,guliTadad madlobas vuZRvni ivane maCablis qals, elene
CerqeziSvilisas, romelmac bevri saintereso ram miambo Tavisi ded-mamis
cxovrebidan,
damatebiTi
mTlianad
gamacno
cnobebisaTvis,
mis
mamis
xelT
arsebuli
nacnob-megobarsa
masalebi
da
da,
naTesavs
Semaxvedra”(WeliZe 1955:2).
wigns
perioduli
gamosvlisTanave
presa.
qronologiurad.
vkiTxulobT:
dadebiTad
warmovadgenT
1956
wels
,,gamomcemloba
gamoexmaura
ramdenime
dabeWdil
,,xelovnebam”
imJamindeli
recenzias.
literaturul
gamosca
vaxtang
mivyveT
werilSi
WeliZis
biografiuli romani: ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa”, romelmac mkiTxveli
sazogadoebis cxoveli interesi gamoiwvia. wigni warmoadgens avtoris
mravali wlis muSaobis Sedegs. masSi damajereblad moTxrobilia vano
maCablis cxovrebasa da mravalferovan Semoqmedebaze”(maRraZe 1956:34).
karlo
qilarjiani
werda:
,,vaxtang
WeliZis
,,cxovreba
ivane
maCablisa” erTsa da imave dros vrceli mecnieruli monografiac aris
da
biografiuli
mimarTavs,
romanic.
uSualobas
gangvacdevinebs.
igi
mxatvruli
aniWebs,
gvaaxloebs
aspeqti,
gadmoscems
gmirTan,
mis
romelsac
masalas,
sulier
avtori
esTetikurad
cxovrebasac
46
gadmogviSlis da SegvagrZnobinebs, rac TiTqmis sruliad SeuZlebelia
mSral istoriul-filologiur narkvevSi”(qilarjiani 1956:16).
sainteresoa lia maRraZis mosazreba: ,,uSualobiT, gulwrfelobiT
da Semoqmedis maxvili TvaliT aris aRbeWdili vaxtang WeliZis romani
,,cxovreba
ivane
maCablisa”.
wignSi
gaxsnilia
ivane
maCablis
daudgromeli Sroma da ficxi xasiaTi, SemoqmedebiTi buneba, pirovnuli
Tvisebebi. romanSi mocemulia uamravi axali faqtiuri masala, romelic
dRemde ucnobi iyo qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis, ganxilulia erovnulganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis TavkacebTan erTad maCablis brZola eris
momavlisaTvis. Aiqve garkveulia ivane maCablis politikuri mrwamsi da
mizandasaxuleba. romani ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa” avtoris xangrZlivi
da dakvirvebuli mecnieruli Sromis nayofia”(maRraZe 1967:16).
Llado
miuTiTebda
Rrmad
sulaberiZe
werilSi
,,mravalmxrivi
moRvawe”
zustad
vaxtang WeliZeze: ,,Seqspiris Targmnas rom mihyo xeli,
Seiswavla
didi
winamorbedis,
ivane
maCablis
ara
marto
mTargmnelobiTi xelovneba, aramed cxovrebac. vaxtang WeliZisaTvis es
gaxda
sababi,
daewera
originaluri
mxatvruli
nawarmoebi
ivane
maCabelze, roman-qronikaSi ,,ivane maCablis cxovreba”. vaxtang WeliZem
amaRelveblad
mogviTxro
im
movlenebze,
romelTa
centrSi
idgnen
erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis medroSeni _ ilia, akaki da ivane
maCabeli. Aam saxelebis mxatvruli xorcSesxma mwerlis winaSe did
siZneleebs qmnida, magram vaxtang WeliZis sasaxelod unda iTqvas, rom
man
es
mravali
siZneleebi
sadavo
Rirseulad
sakiTxia
daZlia.
garkveuli;
romanis
man
didi
mxatvrul
qsovilSi
interesi
gamoiwvia
Tanamedrove mkiTxvelSi da igi mudam miizidavs Taobebs”(sulaberiZe
1977:11).
jansuR
Rvinjilia
literaturul
werilSi
,,Strixebi
literaturuli portretisaTvis” werda: ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa” ager
ramdenime Taobis sayvarel wignad aris qceuli, ara marto imitom, rom
burusiT moculi mwerlis cxovrebis aRsasruls exeba igi, aramed ufro
imitom, rom saintereso biografia cxovlad aris motanili mkiTxvelamde.
TiTqos Seqspiruli vnebaTRelvis anarekli gamoCnda maCablis cxovrebis
dasasrulSi. maCabelSi marTlac duRs Seqspiruli vnebebi. sagangebod
47
mianiSnebs amaze vaxtang WeliZe erT-erT werilSi, romelic maCabels
exeba. Mmisi cxovrebis epizodebi Tavisi dramatizmiT, TiTqos uzustesi
paralelia didi ingliseli dramaturgis tragediebisa. Uuamravi masalis
Rrmad
Seswavlisa
da
Sejerebis
Semdeg,
wignSi
dgas
me-19
saukunis
literaturuli cxovrebis didi vnebebis duRili. Mmwerlis fxizeli
Tvali da logikuri msjeloba gauTvaliswineblad ar tovebs arcerT
mniSvnelovan detals, rasac SeiZleboda mniSvnelovani roli eTamaSa
Seqspiris
Seudarebeli
mTargnelis
sulier
biografiaSi”(Rvinjilia
1977:155-156).
2010 wels gamocemul vaxtang WeliZis TxzulebaTa pirvel tomSi,
sadac mwerlis biografiuli romania dastambuli,
vkiTxulobT emzar
kvitaiSvilis sakmaod vrcel da srulyofil literaturul werils. aq
cnobili mTargmnelis, Semoqmedis cxovrebiseuli epizodebi sxartad,
damajerebladaa gadmocemuli da avtori Zaldautaneblad mogviTxrobs
vaxtang
WeliZis
Semoqmedebaze.
igi
saintereso
Sefasebas
gamoTqvams
biografiul romanze ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa”: ,,adrec aRvniSne da
isedac cxadia, vaxtang WeliZem Tu ra didi dro da kolosaluri energia
Sealia ivane maCablis cxovrebaze wignis daweras. Ddaucxromelma Sromam
nayofic
Sesaferisi
gamoiRo.
Ees
wigni
imTaviTve
Tamamad
daudga
gverdiT dokumenturi prozis, biografiuli romanis aRiarebul ostatTa
(Stefan cvaigi, andre morua, anri periuSo, helvi aleni, iuri tinianovi,
viqtor
Sklovski, leonid grosmani...) qmnilebebs...
,,maCablis
cxovrebaSi”
Sewonasworebuli
dokumenturi
idealurad
da
mxatvruli
aris
Sezavebul-
prozis
elementebi,
igrZnoba beletristis dakvirvebuli Tvali, realur pirovnebaTa xatvis
iSviaTi
unari
da
mZafri
publicisturi
paTosi,
es
ki,
bevrwilad,
masalam, Janris specifikam ganapiroba. Tumca mTavari mainc is aris,
rogor Seasxam xorcs wlobiT naloliaveb Canafiqrs. vaxtang WeliZem
brwyinvaled gaarTva Tavi am uZneles amocanas”(kvitaiSvili 2010:339;341).
Bbiografiul romanSi xuTi sakmaod vrceli Tavia da isini Semdegi
TanmimdevrobiTaa dalagebuli: ,,joxiscxeniani mxedari”,
,,To See -видеъ, To
Hear – слышатъ”, ,,mamulo, sayvarelo”, ,,Svidwliani omi”, ,,r. da j.- 88”.
romans axlavs epilogic.
48
Nnawarmoebis pirvel TavSi moTxrobilia patara vanos Sesaxeb,
daxatulia samaCablos ukanaskneli mTavris, ivane maCablis papis, svimon
maCablis ficxi xasiaTi. Aaqve vigebT, rom momaval sazogado moRvawesa
da mTargmnels wera-kiTxva papidam aswavla. Aamonaridi
biografiuli
romanidan: ,,vano papidis yvelaze saamayo mowafea. Eeqvsi wlisaa da ukve
mSvenivrad kiTxulobs xucursaca da mxedrulsac. zepirad icis locvani,
fsalmunebi;
wauforxileblad
samociqulos...
kikna
biWia,
abulbulebs
susti
da
saxarebas,
fermkrTali,
yoCaRad swavlobs. xmac sasiamovno aqvs;
Jamns,
daviTns,
magram
swavliT
ise tkbilad Caabulbulebs
xolme saxarebas, rom papida Tvalebs milulavs da naxevrad MmTvlemares,
vin icis, iqneb wminda mociqulebic eCveneba”(WeliZe 2010:11,12).
vaxtang
gvaris
WeliZe
istorias,
,,maCabeli,
warmomavlobas.
ityvis
maCablebisa
maCabels
mecnieruli
anCafisZeobas,
sizustiT
mwerali
yofila.
Bbroses
ekuTvnoda.
irkveva
agreTve,
gadasulan
da
miuTiTebs:
afxazeTidan
raWaSic
axalcixeSic
mogviTxrobs
musulmanuri
,,vaxuSti
mosvlas”.
cnobiT,
rom
maCabelTa
erTi
Sto
ambrolauris
cixe
maCablebis
rjuli
wers:
winaprebi
miuRiaT.
erT-erTi
maTgani cixis komendantic yofila axalcixeSi...
magram mTavari ZarRvi am gvarisa dasaxlebuli iyo didi liaxvis
auzSi. rezidenciad
hqoniaT TamaraSeni, erT dros
cnobili qalaqi.
platon ioselianis cnobiT, es qalaqi 1190 wels daufuZnebia Tamar mefes.
qalaqis mcxovrebni vaWrobdnen osebisa da mTis sxva mosaxleobasTan.
sfero maTi vaWrobisa karga didi iyo – raWasa da imereTSi aRwevda.
magram sul saukune-naxevari iarseba am qalaqma. rusudanis mefobis dros
igi
erTian
mosrna
da
miwasTan
gaaswora
jalaledinma.
Mmere,
TandaTanobiT, isev aRmocenda adgilze cxovreba, da rogorc aRvniSneT,
meTxuTmete
saukunis
aqeT
TamaraSeni
maCablebis
rezidencias
warmaodgens. Mmagram qalaqad aRar moixsenieba, naqalaqevs eZaxian, xolo
ufro xSirad sofels‟‟... (WeliZe 2010:24,25).
vano
naxevris
maCablis
sakmaod
gadavardnasTan
cxovreba
dakavSirebuli
mniSvnelovan
saqarTveloSi.
movlenasTan,
igi
iyo
me-19
kerZod,
miuxedavad
saukunis
II
batonymobis
mcire
asakisa,
TviTmxilveli iyo im arasaxarbielo faqtebisa, rac gamoiwvia TavadTa
49
ojaxebSi zemoaRniSnulma cnobilma epoqalurma movlenam, upirvelesad
sakuTar saxlSi xedavda, Tu rogor wuxda Tavad-aznauroba batonymobis
gauqmebis Sesaxeb.
vaxtang WeliZe biografiuli romanis pirveli Tavis bolos wers
cxra wlis ivane maCabelze, romelsac ukve wakiTxuli hqonda ojaxis
saojaxo mdidar biblioTekaSi arsebuli wignebi da ufrosi Zmis, vasos
xelSewyobiT TbilisSi gaemgzavra saswavleblad. swored am periodze
wers
biografosi:
avtoritetuli
,,pirveli
iyo.
man
maswavlebeli
Cinebulad
sapatio
moamzada
da
safuZveli.
sakmaod
wera-kiTxva
Seaswavla, qarTuli literaturis ZiriTadi saganZuri gaacno da swavlis
wyurvili aRuZra bavSvs.
Aaxla
ganaTlebis
meore
safexuri
iwyeba,
bavSvi
meore
maswavleblis – Zmis xelSi gadadis. Aaxalma ,,moZRvarma” mowiwebiT da
siyvaruliT
Caibara
mowafe,
raTa
gza
gaukvalos,
cxra
wlidan
mokidebuli universitetis damTavrebamde uxelmZRvanelos, qveynis avkargi Seaswavlos da cxovrebaSi gamoiyvanos, rogorc didi sazogado
moRvawe”(WeliZe 2010:31).
vaxtang
saukunis
WeliZe
60-iani
didi
wlebis
mwerluri
Tbiliss.
niWis
igi
wyalobiT
cocxlad
xatavs
da
me-19
mimzidvelad
warmoaCens imdroindeli saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis cxovrebas: qarxnebi,
urmebi, duqnebi, quCebi, vaWrebi, muSebi, mWedlebi, meurmeebi _ is garemo
Tu garemocva, romelSic TbilisSi Camosuli ivane maCabeli moxvda. E
es is periodia, rodesac aq cnobili polemika iyo gamarTuli
,,mamebsa
daDASvilebs” Soris. Mmale
gaicno ymawvilma
biWma
grigol
orbeliani da xSiradac stumrobda. Aamonaridi: ,,orbelianebis saxlSi im
drois
yvela
ikribeboda.
momavalze,
didad
ganaTlebuli
saubrobdnen
Jurnalze,
da
literaturaze,
Teatrze,
enis
warCinebuli
sazogadoeba
xelovnebaze,
sakiTxebze
da
warsulze,
erTi
sityviT,
yvelafer imaze, rac maSin qarTvel sazogadoebas aRelvebda. aq vano
safuZvlianad gaecno grigol orbelianis poezias da rac saintereso da
mniSvnelovani
iyo
vanosTvis,
nikoloz
baraTaSvilis
Semoqmedebas”
(WeliZe 2010:42).
50
Bbiografiul
romanSi
damajerebladaa
gadmocemuli
Tbilisis
gimnaziaSi arsebuli maSindeli arcTu saxarbielo mdgomareoba. sakiTxis
ukeT warmosaCenad
mogoneba
mwerals motanili aqvs petre meliqiSvilis vrceli
gimnaziaSi
swavlebaze,
sxva
,,detalebic‟‟
ar
rCeba
mxedvelobidan, rogoricaa: moswavleebis cema, dasja, mkacri wesebi, rac
iq sufevda. Bbiografosi warmoaCens qarTuli enisa da literaturis
maswavlebelis,
cnobili
sazogado
moRvawis
petre
umikaSvilis
portrets. swored am ukanasknelis did wvlilze miuTiTebs romanis
avtori momavali mTargmnelis niWis ganviTarebaSi da iqve xazgasmiT
aRniSnavs, rom pirveli saTargmni masala rusulidan swored man misca
vanos da misi pirveli Semsworebeli redaqtoric Tavad iyo: ,,igi ar
erideba
mowafisaTvis
SeniSvnebis
micemas;
da
bavSvic
yuradRebiT
akvirdeba yovel gasworebul sityvas, ixsomebs da Semdeg ise wers,
rogorc maswavlebelma gauswora”(WeliZe 2010:48). misi damsaxureba imaSic
mdgomareobs, rom vanos gimnaziaSi swavlebisas gansakuTrebiT Seuyvarda
scena, ukve Targmnida piesebs da warmodgenebSic monawileobda.
saocari
sicxadiT,
STambeWdavad
da
sxartadaa
gadmocemuli
peterburgSi swavlis gasagrZeleblad mimavali 17 wlis vano maCablis
fiqrebi.
imedebi
adamianisa,
romelic
ukve
kargad
icnobda
rogorc
rusul, aseve, msoflio literaturas. Mmas wakiTxuli hqonda molieri,
hiugo, puSkini, Seqspiri, dikensi da Seqspiris tragediebis Targmnaze
ocnebobda.
Yyvela is mniSvnelovani Tu garkveuli TvalsazrisiT umniSvnelo
etapi vano maCablis cxovrebisa, Zalian xelSesaxebad, xatovnad aqvs
gadmocemuli
vaxtang
WeliZes.
igi
cdilobs,
rom
uyuradRebod
ar
datovos qarTveli sazogado moRvawis cxovrebis gzas rac exmianeba,
yvelaferi warmoaCinos, gadmosces, miawodos mkiTxvelsa Tu mkvlevars.
nawarmoebSi
maCablis
mwerali
Sexvedras
ilia
aRwers
peterburgSi
WavWavaZesTan.
axladCamosuli
igi
bankis
vano
saqmeebTan
dakavSirebiT iyo iq wasuli. didi mamuliSvili, ,,mgzavris werilebis‟‟
avtori gaxldaT vaso (vano maCablis Zma-n.x) maCablis megobari. Ees
epizodi
SesaniSnavad
CaurTo
wignSi
vaxtang
WeliZem.
romanSi
vkiTxulobT: ,,vano fanjarasTan zis, xeliT wignis Taros dayrdnobia da
51
ilias Sehyurebs. guli ufancqalebs, magram cdilobs, garegnulad ar
SeimCnios mRelvareba. sanTlis mkrTal Suqze kidev ufro fermkrTali
Cans.
xSir-xSirad
aiqnevs
xolme
Tavs
da
Sublze
gadmoyril
Tmas
gaisworebs.
dRes Sexvda igi pirvelad ilia WavWavaZes. dResve misi pirveli
seriozuli gamocdaa: didi mwerali ecnoba vano maCablis Targmans,
Seqspiris
,,mefe
kritikosicaa
liris”
ilia
nawyvetebs.
WavWavaZe.
vanom
Aagondeba
icis,
misi
rogori
werili
mkacri
,,SeSlilis”
mTargmnel Tavad revaz Salvas Ze erisTavze. Aaxalgazrda mwerals guli
eleva, manam ilias azrs moismendes...
magram ilia sulac ar Cqarobs.
man daamTavra kiTxva, isev Sexeda vasil maCabels, wamodga, gaiargamoiara, saxeze verafers Seatyob kaci. Kkvlav magidasTan mivida, skamze
Camojda da axla ukve saxegabadrulma warmosTqva: ,,didebulia”.
Aam sityvis mniSvneloba mxolod vasos esmis kargad. MTan icis, rom
ilias ar uyvars gadaWarbebuli qeba. Aarc pirSi Tqmas moerideba, amitom
ormagi fasi aqvs ilias Seqebas. vaso imasac grZnobs, rom es sityva ar
yofila ganzrax Tqmuli, axalgazrda kacis wasaqezeblad”(WeliZe 2010:62).
nawarmoebSi
mwerali
mogviTxrobs
ilia
WavWavaZisa
da
ivane
maCablis erTobliv muSaobas piesaze ,,mefe liri”. Ees faqti Zalian
axarebda vaso maCabels. Mman am mniSvnelovani saqmis Sesaxeb 1873 wlis 12
oqtombers
dawera
biografosma
werili
,,droebis‟‟
mkiTxvelsaTvis,
romelic
mxatvrul teqstSi gaiTvaliswina:
,,... kidev sulis saqme. Aaq, peterburgSi, Cveni ymawvilebi sTargmnian
pirdapir inglisuridan Seqspiris tragedias ,,mefe lirs‟‟. Aaq SesaniSnavi
is ki ar aris, rom pirdapir dednidan sTargmnian, aramed is aris, rom
Seqspiris
garegani
sityvebis
forma
gadmoaqvT
qarTul
enazed
im
leqsTwyobilebiT, romelic aqamomde Cvens literaturaSi ara xmarebula,
ese igi ToTxmet marcvlovanis leqsiT uriTmoT. Aamboben, rom egeTi
leqsTwyoba Cvens enas uxdeba da keTilxmovanic ariso. isic gavigeT, rom
,,krebulis‟‟ redaqcias male gaugzavnian dasabeWdad jer marto pirvel
moqmedebas,
im
azriT,
rom
piruTvnelma
kritikam
sTqvas,
raodenad
52
mTargmnelebi Seswvdnen Seqspirs da Sesaferi iqneba Tu ara amgvarad
Targmnis gagrZeleba‟‟(WeliZe 2010:68).
Mmecnieruli kvlevis ukeT warmosaCenad Cven moviZieT vaso maCablis
zemoT aRniSnuli werili gazeT ,,droebaSi‟‟ dabeWdili (12/X/1873). vaxtang
WeliZe
ucvlelad
tovebs
pirvelwyaros,
ar
cvlis
faqtebsa
Tu
detalebs. warmovadgenT fragments: ,,kidev sulis saqme. Aaq, peterburgSi,
Cveni ymawvilebi sTargmnian pirdapir inglisuridan Seqspiris tragedias
,,mefe lirs‟‟. Aaq SesaniSnavi is ki ar aris, rom pirdapir dednidan
sTargmnian, aramed is aris, rom Seqspiris garegani sityvebis forma
gadmoaqvT qarTul enazed im leqsTwyobilebiT, romelic aqamomde Cvens
literaturaSi ara xmarebula, ese igi ToTxmet marcvlovanis leqsiT
uriTmoT.
Aamboben,
rom
egeTi
leqsTwyoba
Cvens
enas
uxdeba
da
keTilxmovanic ariso. isic gavigeT, rom ,,krebulis‟‟ redaqcias male
gaugzavnian dasabeWdad jer marto pirvel moqmedebas, im azriT, rom
piruTvnelma kritikam sTqvas, raodenad mTargmnelebi Seswvdnen Seqspirs
da Sesaferi iqneba Tu ara amgvarad Targmnis gagrZeleba‟‟(maCabeli 1873:2).
Bbiografiuli
maCabelma
da
ilia
romanis
avtoris
WavWavaZem
2-3
miTiTebiT,
TveSi
,,mefe
Targmnes,
liri‟‟
ivane
romelsac
didi
aRfrTovanebiT, mowonebiT Seegeba imJamindeli qarTuli
kulturuli,
literaturuli sazogadoeba da gazeTebSic gamoTqvamdnen Sexedulebebs.
cnobilia,
rom
ingliseli
dramaturgis
Sedevrebi
manamdec,
40-iani
wlebidan moyolebuli araerTgzis gadmoaqarTules saqarTveloSi, Tumca
maCablisa da iliaseuli Targmnili ukve sxva donis iyo, ,,yvela grZnobda
_
Seqspiris
saerTod
Targmnis
axali
sakiTxi
literaturis
sabolood
Targmnis
gadaiWra
saqmesac
da
amas
Cauyara
garda,
mkvidri
safuZveli”(WeliZe 2010:72).
vano da vaso maCablebis, Zmebis urTierToba saocrad Tbili da
misabaZi gaxldaT. Aamaze biografosic araerTgzis miuTiTebs romanSi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom maT Soris asakobrivi sxvaoba TiTqmis aTi weli
iyo. samagierod, maT hqondaT saerTo interesebi da miswrafebebi. orive
dedmamiSvili swavlas, ganaTlebas, codnis miRebas didad afasebda da
dReniadag
muSaobdnen,
kiTxulobdnen.
vasos
xelSewyobiT
vanom
jer
Tbilisis gimnazia daamTavra, Semdeg ki srulfasovani ganaTleba miiRo
53
sazRvargareT. Uumcrosi Zma mudam arigebda momaval mTargmnels, rom ise
ecxovra, samSoblos samsaxurSi yofiliyo da xalxis keTildReobisa Tu
ukeTesi
momavlisaTvis
eRvawa.
romanSi
bevri
fragmentia
Zmebis
erTmaneTTan miwerili werilebidan, saidanac ikveTeba, rom vano ufros
Zmas arafers umalavda, gadawyvetilebas erTpirovnulad ar iRebda, mas
sTxovda xolme azris mowodebas, rCevas. rac awuxebda, Zmas uziarebda
mudam.
Eevropidan maCabeli kvlav peterburgSi dabrunda. vaxtang WeliZe
misi
cxovrebis
am
mniSvnelovan
epizodzec
SeaCerebs
mkiTxvelis
yuradRebas. ruseTSi Casulma qarTvelma studentebma literaturuli wre
Camoayalibes, ikribebodnen vano maCablis binaSi da msjelobdnen araerT
saintereso
Tu
literaturuli,
sagulisxmo
ekonomikuri.
Temaze,
rogoricaa:
Aamonaridi:
,,am
politikuri,
wris
erT-erTi
organizatoric TviT vaso maCabelia.. wris muSaobis xasiaTsa da Sinaarss
ki Soridan xelmZRvanelobs ilia WavWavaZe. wris Camoyalibebac misi idea
iyo. 1877 wels igi vaso maCabels werda: ,,ecade, Sen geTayvane, mand
moswavleTagan mcire saliteraturo wre Seadgine, maTTan misvla-mosvlas
nu daizareb. Sen ici da Senma gulSematkivrobam am Cems Txovnas ra
yuradRebas miaqcev”(WeliZe 2010:100). Aam wris muSaobas didi mniSvneloba
hqonda, radgan peterburgSi Casuli niko nikolaZe, dimitri yifiani, akaki
wereTeli, ilia WavWavaZe iq mcxovreb TanamemamuleebTan erTad qarTuli
sazogadoebis
yoveldRiuri
saWirboroto
sakiTxebis
mogvarebaze,
gadaWris gzebze msjelobdnen. Semdeg studentebma daiwyes sxvadasxva
piesis
Targmna
da
warmodgenebic
gamarTes,
rasac
Zmebi
maCablebi
Caudgnen saTaveSi. Zalian didi interesi da aRfrTovaneba gamoiwvia
speqtaklma ,,mzis dabneleba”. vaxtang WeliZis TqmiT, es iyo pirveli
warmodgena peterburgSi, romelsac qarTuli gazeTebic gamoexmaurnen.
Mmale ki ,,samSoblos ubrundeba ganswavluli, sazogado saqmisaTvis
Tavdadebuli vaJkaci _ ivane maCabeli. Zmisave sityvebiT rom vTqvaT,
iwyeba misi rTuli moRvaweoba”(WeliZe 2010:103).
biografiuli romanis mesame Tavs mweralma ase uwoda: ,,mamulo,
sayvarelo”. vaxtang WeliZe im problemebs warmoaCens, rac Cveni qveynis
winaSe idga im dros, roca
samoqmedo asparezze gamovidnen ilia
54
WavWavaZe da ivane maCabeli TanamoazreebTan erTad. es xana saqarTvelos
istoriaSi
umniSvnelovanesia
qarTvelebma,
WeSmaritma
mravali
TvalsazrisiT.
mamuliSvilebma
cxovrebis
patriotma
miznad
daisaxes
ezrunaT, eRvawaT samSoblos ukeTesi momavlisaTvis. Ailia WavWavaZes da
vano maCabels am dros
Cven vxedavT saTavadaznauro bankSi, qarTvelTa
Soris
gamavrcelebel
wera-kiTxvis
sazogadoebaSi,
kargadaa
saskolo
cnobili,
rom
komitetSi,
maT
sazogadoebaSi,
Jurnal-gazeTebis
urTules,
uZneles
Teatralur
redaqciebSi...K
pirobebSi
uwevdaT
muSaoba, sazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi monawileoba. amis umTavresi mizezi
ki gaxldaT cenzura, romelic mraval dabrkolebas qmnida da devnida
yvelafer
WeliZe:
qarTuls,
,,amgvar
patriotizmi
da
erovnuls.
muSaobas
saqmis
zust
Sefasebas
sWirdeboda,
didi
gvTavazobs
rac
siyvaruli,
mTavaria,
uromlisodac,
vaxtang
mgznebare
saerTod,
araviTari ase Tu ise mniSvnelovani saqmis gakeTeba ar SeiZleba.
Mmagram
marto
esec
ar
kmaroda:
saWiro
iyo
mravalmxrivi
da
safuZvliani ganaTleba, ASeupovroba, muyaiToba, gansakuTrebuli taqti
da urTierT mxardaWera”(WeliZe 2010:105).
Nmako safarovasa da ivane maCablis sasiyvarulo urTierTobazec
gviyveba
mwerali,
romelic
arcTu
saxarbielod
damTavrda.
orives
erTmaneTis mimarT simpaTia gaaCnda. mTargmnels moswonda axalgazrda
qalbatoni, rogorc msaxiobi,
rogorc qali, Tumca sityvierad amas
pirdapir ver umJRavnebda, erTxelac ar dascdenia, miyvarxaro. igi
mas
sSirad xvdeboda TeatrSi repeticiebze, ,,am droisTvis bevri gareSe
piric grZnobda maCablisa da safarovas qalis daaxloebas. raRa Tqma
unda, yvelaze
adre amas vaso abaSiZe igrZnobda, romelic TviTonac ar
yofila gulgrili axalgazrda qalis mimarT!”(WeliZe 2010:113). rogorc
romanidan
cxadi
xdeba,
Zalian
male,
rodesac
qarTuli
Teatri
sagastrolod saqarTvelos kuTxeebSi gaemgzavra, cnobilma msaxiobebma _
mako safarovam da vaso abaSiZem
iqorwines. Aamis Sesaxeb ivane maCabelma
,,droebaSi“ amoikiTxa. Mmwerali SeniSnavs: ,,pirvel siyvarulSi damarcxda
vano maCabeli. Mmagram saocari is iyo, rom am gancxadebis wakiTxvis
Semdeg, did gulistkivilTan erTad, erTgvari Svebac igrZno, TiTqos
mZime tvirTi moxsneso: im idumal WidilSi man TiTqos gaimarjva da
55
Tavis sityvas ar gadavida. Ppiradi cxovreba ar arsebobs, mTeli codna
da energia sazogado saqmes unda moxmardes!”(WeliZe 2010:117).
vaxtang WeliZe biografiul romanSi akaki wereTlis pirovnebasac
warmoaCens. Tavdapirvelad poeti TxrobaSi Semoyvanilia im dros, roca
igi vano
maCabelTan, sofrom mgalobliSvilTan
raionis soflebs
erTad
gors da
am
stumrobda. Aamonaridi: ,,TamaraSenisken marto akaki da
vano gaemgzavrnen. rac ufro qarTlis siRrmeSi Sediodnen, akaki miT
ufro
moxibluli
rCeboda:
warmoidgine,
Cvens
imereTs
arafriT
Camouvardebao, _ ambobda, vanos eRimeboda...
mTeli sofeli gareT gamofeniliyo da Robis iqidan sasoebiT
Sescqeroda maCablis stumars, romelsac udrood SeWaRaravebuli wveri
kidev ufro uxdeboda”(WeliZe 2010:115;116).
vaxtang
WeliZe
Zalian
dawvrilebiT
da
Tanmimdevrulad
wers
qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis daarsebis
Sesaxeb,
romlis
pirvel
Tavmjdomaredac
dimitri
yifiani
airCies.
mwerali mecnieruli sandoobiT aRadgens misi Seqmnis istorias, ZiriTad
miznebsa Tu amocanebs.
aRniSnulma sazogadoebam TiTqmis ormocdaaTi weli iarseba. mis
saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli mravali
wignebis
didi
,,vefxistyaosani‟‟,
,,Tavdadebulni
raodenobiT
iakob
skolisa da
gamocema.
gogebaSvilis
qarTvelni”,
Eesenia:
,,deda
vaJa-fSavelas
biblioTekis
SoTa
ena‟‟,
gaxsna,
rusTavelis
,,bunebis
,,moTxrobani‟‟,
kari‟‟,
rafiel
erisTavis ,,leqsebi‟‟, daviT kldiaSvilis ,,moTxrobebi‟‟, ilia WavWavaZis
,,gandegili‟‟, ,,mgzavris werilebi‟‟, ,,glaxis naambobi‟‟, akaki wereTlis
,,Tornike
erisTavi‟‟,
istoria‟‟,
niko
aleqsandre
lomouris
xaxanaSvilis
,,qajana‟‟,
,,qarTuli
Sio
sityvierebis
mRvimelis
,,Cemi
yvavilebi‟‟(leqsebi) da sxva.
ivane
maCabelma
didi
Sroma
da
energia
Sealia
wera-kiTxvis
gamavrcelebel sazogadoebaSi muSaobas. Mman araerTi keTili, erovnuli
saqme gaakeTa. vaxtang WeliZe qarTveli moRvawis cxovrebis swored am
periodsac acocxlebs. amonaridi mxatvruli teqstidan: ,,ilia WavWavaZem
farTo sazogadoebas warudgina ganaTlebuli da saxalxo saqmisTvis
Tavdadebuli axalgazrda kaci. xalxi vanos ukve icnobda ,,mefe lirisa”
56
da molieris komediis TargmaniT, agreTve iliasa da grigol orbelianis
rekomendaciiT. Aamitom TiTqmis aravis gahkvirvebia, rom im sazogadoebis
gamgeobaSi,
romelic
saqveynod
ganTqmul
da
sazogado
saqmeebSi
gamobrZmedil, yvelasaTvis pativcemul pirebs aerTianebda, jer kidev
sruliad axalgazrda da gamoucdeli vano maCabeli daasaxeles”(WeliZe
2010:119).
SeuZlebelia ivane maCablis cxovrebaze, Rvawlze saubari mudmivi
qarTuli Teatris daarsebis da Teatraluri sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis
aRniSvnis
gareSe.
Mmisi
arsebobis
aucileblobaze
peterburgidan
axladdabrunebuli ilia WavWavaZe jer kidev adreve saubrobda. Mmis
azrs iziarebda imJamindeli kulturuli sazogadoeba: akaki wereTeli,
niko nikolaZe, sergei mesxi, Zmebi maCablebi da sxvani. maTi ocneba
realobad
iqca
amasTanave,
da
1879
wels
Camoyalibda
mudmivi
qarTuli
Teatraluri
Teatri
sazogadoebac.
daarsda.
qarTveli
mTargmnelis rolze am kuTxiT Semdegs miuTiTebs biografosi: ,,ivane
maCabeli
Soridanac
Rebulobda
monawileobas
qarTuli
Teatris
aRorZinebaSi, xolo samSobloSi dabrunebis Semdeg miT ufro aqtiuri
monawile gaxda am saqmisa”(WeliZe 2010:123).
cnobili
faqtia,
samSoblosaTvis
urTierTobas
rom
ilia
Tavdadebuli
ori
WavWavaZisa
didi
da
moRvawis
ivane
maCablis,
Sexmatkbilebul
araerTi adamiani skeptikurad uyurebda, zogs Surda.
rodesac maT Soris saTavadaznauro bankis mogebis ganawilebis sakiTxze
azrTa sxvadasxvaoba warmoiSva, sazogadoebis garkveulma xeli Seuwyo am
ori adamianis piradi urTierTobis gafuWebas. Aam sakiTxze biografiuli
romanis
istorias
avtoric
da
sainteresod
Tavis
hyveba,
mosazrebasac
naTlad
warmoaCens:
aRadgens
,,im
didi
aRniSnul
brZolis
ganmavlobaSi, rac maCabelsa da WavWavaZes Soris gaimarTa, bevrjer
yofila wuTebi, rodesac erTsac da meoresac guliT sdomiaT ukan
daxeva, daTmoba, kvlav sasurveli urTierTobis damyareba, magram xels
uSlidaT, jer erTi siamaye, da, rac mTavaria, is wyvdiadiT moculi
sazogadoeba,
romelsac
didi
adamianebis
SuRli
arTobda”(WeliZe
2010:162). swored im periodSi ivane maCabeli gazeT ,,droebis” redaqtoric
gaxda da saTavadaznauro bankis direqtoric, Tumca orive es Tanamdeboba
57
man miiRo ilia WavWavaZis survilis winaaRmdeg. cnobili mTargmeli da
Jurnalisti
imavdroulad
wera-kiTxvis
gamavrcelebel
sazogadoebaSi
gamgeobis aqtiuri wevri iyo.
romanis kiTxvisas, misi gaanalizebisas erTi saintereso aspeqti
(detali)
ikveTeba.
personaJis
maCablis
vaxtang
Rirsebebze
uaryofiTi
WeliZe
msjelobs;
Tvisebebis,
biografiuli
amave
dros,
sisusteebis
romanSi
igi ar
mTavari
erideba
warmoCenasac.
ivane
Mmwerali
cdilobs, ama Tu im faqtis gadmocemisas realurad Seafasos viTareba da
yovelive
aRweros,
gamosakveTad,
ise,
aseve,
rogorc
ilia
sinamdvileSia.
WavWavaZisa
da
saTqmelis
qarTveli
ukeT
mTargmnelis,
Jurnalistis pirovnebaTa daxasiaTebisTvis movixmobT Semdeg amonarids
mxatvruli teqstidan:
,,gimnaziis
niWierma
da
wlebSive
mcodne
saqveynod
ymawvilma;
gaiTqva
maswavlebeli
saxeli,
mas
rogorc
yrmaTa
didma
magaliTs
uwodebda; didi poeti orbeliani yovelTvis siyvaruliT moikiTxavda
xolme
da
Tavis
simpaTiebs
axalgazrda
maCablisadmi
ar
malavda;
pirvelive misi literaturuli namuSevari aRfrTovanebiTa da mowiwebiT
miiRo sasiqadulo mweralma ilia WavWavaZem da jer kidev savsebiT
axalgazrda
kacTan
TanamTargmnelobac
ar
iTakila,
xolo
mogvianebiT misi kerZo werilebis gamoqveynebac ki moindoma!...
cota
yovelgvar
wreSi, yvela qveyanaSi mas pativs scemdnen da afasebdnen... da yvelasgan
aseTi mopyrobiT gaTamamebul maCabels samSobloSi dabrunebisas SiSiTa
da yoymaniT ki ar Seudgams fexi cxovrebaSi; igi gabedulad SeiWra
sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis asparezze da erTbaSad centrSi aRmoCnda,
didi ilias gverdiT. Ees misTvis sulac ar yofila moulodneli, radgan
winaswarve iyo amisTvis Semzadebuli; igi udides Zalas da energias
grZnobda
da
mtkiced
hqonda
gadawyvetili,
es
energia
samSoblos
keTildReobisTvis moexmara. Eis iyo fanatikosobamde misuli siyvaruli
samSoblosi. Mmas didi rwmena hqonda sakuTari Tavisa da arasodes
yoymaniT ar moekideboda saqmes, yovelTvis winaswarve iyo darwmunebuli
gamarjvebaSi da yovelgvari kompromisi, daTmoba, misTvis ucnobi iyo.
amitomac igi ase gabedulad amoudga ilias mxarSi da erTbaSad moindoma
misTvis uRelis gaweva...
58
ilia ,,mudam dinji iyo, mudam auCqarebeli, saqmis bevrjer amwondamwoni, dafiqrebuli... vano Zalian ficxi iyo, aCqarebuli, swrafi, rac
ar unda rTuli saqme yofiliyo, didxans ar daayovnebda”...
aseTi gansxvavebuli xasiaTis miuxedavad, maT erTi ram hqondaT
saerTo _ orive amayi iyo!‟‟... (WeliZe 2010:161,162).
vrceli amonaridis moxmoba mogviwia, raTa sakvlevi sakiTxi Tu
Tema
detalurad
warmogveCina
da
amave
dros,
vaxtang
WeliZis
SesaniSnavad daweril striqonebsac ver SevelieT.
Bbiografiuli romanis avtori dawvrilebiT da Tanmimdevrulad
mogviTxrobs ivane maCablis muSaobas ,,droebis” redaqtorad. vaxtang
WeliZis TqmiT, misi werilebi, msgavsad ilia WavWavaZisa, gamoirCeodnen
pirdapirobiT,
gabedulebiT,
samarTlianobiT.
Bbiografosi
miuTiTebs
mravalricxovan, mniSvnelovan da im droisTvis aucilebel Tematikaze
daweril qarTveli moRvawis statiebze, romlebic ZiriTadad samSoblos
interesebis
kulturis
dacvas
erovnul
ganviTarebas
faseulobebs,
exmianeboda.
isini
ganaTlebas,
samecniero
qarTuli
TvasazrisiT
sakmaod mniSvnelovania. davasaxelebT zogierT maTgans: ,,somxeTis bedi‟‟,
,,sofluri feletoni‟‟, ,,rogor unda gaTavdes xiznebis saqme?‟‟, ,,guSin
vambobdiT,‟‟
,,riT
ver
movrCiT?‟‟,
,,werili
qarTvel
artistebTan‟‟,
,,qarTuli warmodgena‟‟, ,,saeqimo swavla xalxSi‟‟. Aaseve, ivane maCablis
miTiTebiT
gazeTis
saerTaSoriso
kuTxeebze
daxura
TanamSromblebi
mdgomareobaze,
werdnen
politikaze,
,,droebisTvis‟‟
mecnierebaze,
werilebs
saqarTvelos
da sxva araerT aqtualur sakiTxze. Tumca mefis ruseTma
gazeTi,
romelic
oci
weli
erovnuli
cnobierebis
gamosaRviZeblad iyo mimarTuli. Aam faqtma metad daanaRvliana qarTveli
sazogadoeba da cxadia, redaqtori ivane maCabeli.… biografiuli romanis
avtori kargad acocxlebs aRniSnul rTul periods qarTveli moRvawis
cxovrebaSi:
,,droebis” daxurvam imaze Zalian daamwuxra maCabeli, vidre
amas TviTonve warmoidgenda. Gguli moukvda, TiTqos yvelafris xalisi
dakarga”(WeliZe
2010:203).
garkveuli
drois
Semdeg
maCabelma
Targmna
ganaaxla da maleve wignad gamovida Seqspiris ,,otelo” da ,,hamleti”,
Tumca,
rogorc
saTanadod
aravin
vaxtang
WeliZe
gamoxmaurebia.
miuTiTebs,
amonaridi:
am
mniSvnelovan
,,cxovrebis
faqts
wvrilmanebSi
59
Caflul sazogadoebas maSin arc ki mohfiqrebia, rom amiT iwyeboda
axali era qarTuls mTargmnelobiTs literaturaSi; mtkicdeboda niadagi
axali qarTuli saliteraturo enisa, romelsac ramdenime xnis winaT
ilia
WavWavaZem
Cauyara
safuZveli,
da
mTeli
eqvsi-Svidi
saukunis
Sesvenebis Semdeg, Rirseuli memkvidre uCndeboda Zveli drois Cvens
gamorCeul
mTargmnelebs”(WeliZe
2010:215,216).
SesaniSnavi
qarTveli
mTargmnelis, vaxtang WeliZis es utyuari Sefaseba adamianisa, romelmac
evropuli literaturis Sedevrebi mSobliur enaze gadmoitana da, rac am
etapze yvelaze mniSvnelovania, misi, Seqspiris tragediaTa maCabliseuli
Targmanebis safuZvliani mkvlevris, aRniSnuli sityvebi mravlismTqmeli,
damajerebeli, sarwmuno da angariSgasawevia.
rogorc
dramaturgis
cnobilia,
cnobili
ivane
maCabelma
tragediebi.
esenia:
Targmna
,,mefe
ingliseli
liri‟‟,
,,hamleti‟‟,
,,makbeti‟‟, ,,otelo, ,,hamleti‟‟, ,,riCard III‟‟, ,,antonius da kleopatra‟‟,
,,iulius keisari‟‟. Aam ukanasknelis TargmaniT Tavad oliver uordropic
aRfrTovanebuli iyo da werilic miswera vano maCabels. M
,,Tqvens mier Targmnil ,,iulius keisriT‟‟ SegiZliaT iamayoT: es
Tqvens geniosobasac amtkicebs da Tqveni enis saocar simdidresac. Mme
xelTa
maqvs
amave
piesis
axali
franguli,
germanuli,
rusuli,
bulgaruli gamocemebi, magram Tqvens Targmans verc erTi ver Seedreba.
Tqven
iseTi
saqme
gaakeTeT,
rom,
Tu
Tanamedroveebi
ver
gafaseben
saTanadod, STamomavloba dagafasebT da Tayvans gcemT‟‟(WeliZe 2010:287).
biografiul
romanSi
,,cxovreba
ivane
maCablisa”
detaluradaa
moTxrobili ,,vefxistyaosnis” qarTveliSviliseuli SesaniSnavi gamocemis
periodi. Aam saqmeSi udidesi wvlili miuZRvis ivane maCabels, romelic
gaxldaT
ukvdavi
qarTuli
poemis
redaqtori,
mxatvari
ki
_
ziCi
erovnebiT ungreli. swored am ukanasknelze sainteresod wers mwerali
vaxtang
WeliZe:
pativiscemiT
,,Cvenma
unda
xalxma
moixsenios
es
yovelTvis
didebuli
didi
siyvaruliTa
adamiani,
romelmac
da
ise
Seiyvara Cveni eri da Cveni kultura, rom wlebis ganmavlobaSi sruliad
usasyidlod, mTeli gatacebiT da siyvaruliT imuSava qarTveli xalxis
Zvirfasi
saganZuris
_
,,vefxistyaosnis”
dasuraTebaze...
am
gamocemis
Semdeg Cveni xalxis SegnebaSi iseve mWidrod daukavSirda erTmaneTs
60
rusTavelisa
gaxsenebisas
da
ziCis
saxeli,
xolo
poemis
calkeuli
epizodebis
iseve TvalnaTliv warmogvidgeba xolme ziCis
madliani
kalmiT daxatuli gmirebi, rogorc servantesis xsenebisas mogvagondeba
xolme dore da misi kalmiT gacocxlebuli mwuxare saxis raindi”(WeliZe
2010:159).
biografiuli romanis Semdeg TavSi ,,Svidwliani omi” Txroba iwyeba
ivane maCablis stumrobiT niko diasamiZis ojaxSi. Ees saRamo metad
mniSvnelovani iyo
qarTlis
qarTveli moRvawis cxovrebaSi. swored
erT-erTi
qarTveliSvilis
STamomavlebi.
didi
qaliSvilebi,
Seqspiris
memamulis,
sami
aleqsandre
ulamazesi
tragediebis
aq man gaicno
asuli,
mTargmnelma
bagration-
samefo
isini
gvaris
gaamxiarula,
kargad isaubres. rogorc mwerali miuTiTebs, ivane maCabels moewona
anastasia, TaflisferTvaleba, Savgvremani. swored is asuli, romlis
xelis
saTxovnelad
iyo
misuli
im
saRamos
diasamiZeebis
ojaxSi
polkovniki arjevaniZe, Tumca am ukanasknelma saerTo Tema ver gamonaxa
debTan da metad cud gunebaze gaxldaT. movlenebi swrafad ganviTarda.
vano maCabelma da taso (anastasia) bagrationma jvari daiweres da erTad
ganagrZes
cxovreba.
Bbiografosi
Zalian
sainteresod
aRwers
maTi
SeuRlebis pirvel periods, axalgazrda wyvilis Tbil urTierTobas:
,,erTbaSad Seicvala maCablis cxovrebis xasiaTi. Aaxali miznebi, axali
sixaruli
da
sazrunavi
gauCnda.
magram
saintereso
is
aris,
rom
dadebiTad Seicvala ara marto misi piradi cxovrebis, sakuTari ojaxis
mdgomareoba da xasiaTi. colis SerTvas daemTxva meore didi ambavic:
ukiduresobamde gamwvavda da garTulda iliasTan urTierToba”(WeliZe
2010:234).
swored
daqorwinebidan
am
periods
ramdenime
uwodes
Tvis
,,Svidwliani
Semdeg,
bankis
omi”.
Ees
moxda
damfuZnebelTa
da
msesxebelTa sazogado krebaze. cnobilma mTargmnelma veRar gauZlo iq
arsebul SuRls, azrTa sxvadasxaobas, orpirobas da banki datova.
am
sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT
sainteresoa
Tavad
ivane
maCablis
werilidan amonaridi, romelic man peterburgSi myof akaki wereTels
miswera:
,,...gazeTebidan
Seityobdi
im
ambavs,
rac
bankSi
moxda.
ilia
WavWavaZem da misma Rirseulma ,,amxanagma”, rogorc exla Tavis Tavs
61
eZaxis b. TarxniSvili, erTad gamoilaSqres Cemzed... gamoilaSqres da
damamarcxes kidec. Mmec Tavi davukar am vaJbatonebs, banki davuloce da
gamovemSvidobe. sazogadoeba erTxmad mTeli xuTi minutis ganmavlobaSi
mTxovda darCenas, magram madloba movaxsene da gadawyvetili uari vTqvi...
axla vapireb vrceli werilebi davbeWdo, rogorc ,,novoe obozrenieSi”,
ise ,,iveriaSi” da gamovaaSkaravo is mdgomareoba, ra mdgomareobiTac
ibeWdeba yvelaferi bankis Sesaxeb... imedi maqvs, rom ver dagvaZabunon da
iqneb ise gauxdes saqme ilia WavWavaZes, rom pirossaviT wamoiZaxos: erTi
amisTana
gamarjveba
kidev
da
me
ulaSqrod
davrCebio,
me
Zalian
mesiamovneba, rom Sen adevno Tvalyuri Cvens polemikas...”(WeliZe 2010:243).
iqve Tavad vaxtang WeliZe miuTiTebs: ,,erTi sityviT, brZolis velidan
wamosvla da omis damTavreba moCvenebiTi iyo, radgan swored axla
daiwyo
mTeli
Zalebis
darazmva
da
axali
didi
SetevisTvis
mzadeba”(WeliZe 2010:243).
Mmecnieruli
kvlevis
ukeT
warmosaCenad
Cven
moviZieT
zemoT
dasaxelebuli vano maCablis werili akaki wereTlisadmi (6.VI.1891 _n.x.).
is gamoqveynebulia akaki wereTlis
1963 wels dastambul ,,Txzulebanis‟‟
XV tomSi. Aaseve, dabeWdilia literaturis muzeumis mier 2010 wels
gamocemul wignSi ,,akaki wereTeli‟‟(tomi II).
sakiTxis
Seswavlisas
gamovlinda,
rom
avtorma
miTiTebuli
werilidan fragmentebis moxmobisas faqtebi Tu garkveuli detalebi
ucvlelad datova. amonaridi: ,,...gazeTebidan Seityobdi im ambavs, rac
bankSi moxda. ilia WavWavaZem da misma Rirseulma ,,amxanagma”, rogorc
exla Tavis Tavs eZaxis b. TarxniSvili, erTad gamolaSqres Cemzed...
gamoilaSqres da damamarcxes kidec. Mmec Tavi davukar am vaJbatonebs,
banki davuloce da gamovemSvidobe. sazogadoeba erTxmad mTeli xuTi
minutis ganmavlobaSi mTxovda darCenas, magram madloba movaxsene da
gadawyvetili uari vTqvi... axla vapireb vrceli werilebi davbeWdo,
rogorc
,,novoe
obozrenieSi”,
ise
,,iveriaSi”
da
gamovaaSkaravo
is
mdgomareoba, ra mdgomareobiTac ibeWdeba yvelaferi bankis Sesaxeb...
imedi maqvs, rom ver dagvaZabunon da iqneb ise gauxdes saqme ilia
WavWavaZes, rom pirossaviT wamoiZaxos: erTi amisTana gamarjveba kidev da
62
me ulaSqrod davrCebio, me Zalian mesiamovneba, rom Sen adevno Tvalyuri
Cvens polemikas...”(wereTeli 2010:342,343).
TavSi ,,Svidwliani omi”
vecnobiT masalebs 1893 wels axali
gamocemis, gazeTis ,,kvalis” muSaobis Sesaxeb. Aam saqmeSi didi wvlili
miuZRviT ivane maCabelsa da akaki wereTels. Aam ukanasknelis leqsebs
ecnoboda mkiTxveli aRniSnuli gazeTis furclebidan, aseve cnobili
Jurnalistis werilebsac. Ggarkveuli drois Semdeg isini iZulebulebi
iyvnen, daetovebinaT gazeTi. Aamis mizezi ki
misamarTiT,
TiTqos
man
rusTavelis
cru braldeba iyo maCablis
fondisTvis
gadasacemad
sergei
mesxis micemuli fuli umiznod daxarja. Ees iyo is ciliswameba, ramac
aiZula
ori
qarTveli
redaqciidan
wamosuliyo.
mTargmnelma
bankis
direqtorad gaagrZela muSaoba, rasac moyva ilias banakisa da misi
momxreebis,
e.w
opoziciis
Soris
SuRli,
brZola,
ciliswameba,
gautanloba. Ees xels uSlida maCabels ganegrZo literaturuli muSaoba
da
eTargmna
Seqspiris
piesebi. Tumca
gavida
dro da
igi
wamovida
bankidan, ,,omi damTavrda da axla sinanuliT gadaxedavs xolme ganvlil
wlebs”- wers vaxtang WeliZe.
Bmwerali
qarTveli
biografiuli
MmTargmnelis,
romanis
bolo
publicistis
TavSi:
mZime
,,r.
sulieri
da
Tu
j.
-
88”
fizikuri
avadmyofobisa da misi idumali gaqrobis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs.
rac Seexeba nawarmoebis daqaragmebuli Tavis saxelwodebas, amas
Tavad mwerali Aaxsnis: ,,r. da j. - 88”, Cumad Cailaparaka maCabelma.
moagonda,
rodis
dawera
man
es.
ramdeni
xania
fiqrobs
,,romeo
da
julietas” Targmnas, magram dRemde ver mouxerxebia. Ees piesa sanetaro
mogonebebs ukavSirdeba, mis gulSi yvelaze faqiz simebs aJRerebs.
,,_ maS rom giTargmnoT, siyvaruliT iTamaSebT?”
_ ,,mTelis gatacebiT!... “
_ ,,miT ufro, rom Tqveni Targmani iqneba!...” TiTqos axlac yurSi
Caesmis. maCablis gayviTlebuls saxes vardisferi gadaurbens, sunTqva
gauxSirdeba, guli auCqroldeba. ,,Svid weliwadSi erTxel mogivlis
xolme siyvaruli!” ,,Svid weliwadSi erTxel mainc gamexsnas ca. erTi
zRaprisa
ar
iyos!...”(WeliZe
2010:307,308).
ivane
maCablis
mexsierebaSi
gacocxlda misi cxovrebidan erTi lamazi istoria, epizodi, rodesac
63
peterburgidan axladdabrunebuli Sexvda 19 wlis axalgazrda msaxiobs,
mako safarovas da dahpirda, rom Targmnida ,,romeo da julietas”.
mTargmneli daanaRvliana pirveli siyvarulis gaxsenebam.
Ddidi mwerluri niWierebiT da ostatobiiTaa dawerili vaxtang
WeliZis biografiuli romanis ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa” mokle, sxarti
da
amave
dros
aRwerilia
mravlismTqmeli
nawarmoebis
mTavari
da
mravlismomcveli
personaJis,
qarTveli
epilogi.
aq
mamuliSvilis,
SesaniSnavi mTargmnelisa da Jurnalistis, Sromismoyvare adamianis, ivane
maCablis
dakargviT gamowveuli sevda, ramac
TiTqmis
mTeli qalaqi
moicva.
mwerali epilogSi sami sxvadasxva adamianis gancdebs gadmoscems,
cxadia, maCablis gauCinarebiT gamowveuls.
maTi saxelebi pirdapir araa
Segnebulad dasaxelebuli, Tumca maxvili Tvali, gonieri mkiTxveli
umaleve mixvdeba, Tu vis gulisxmobs vaxtang WeliZe. Eeseni gaxlavT
ivane maCablis meuRle, mako safarova da ilia WavWavaZe.
ivane maCablis colis saxes gvixatavs mwerali im dros, roca
xalxiT savse
saxlSi msaxurs werili Seaqvs: ,,damwuxrebuli qali vin
icis, meramdened uambobs am cnobismoyvare sazogadoebas avadmyofobis
yvela detals. Qqali uceb gadaikiTxavs werils, amoioxrebs, cremlebi
gadmoscviva da qaRaldi Zirs dauvardeba”(WeliZe 2010:311).
safarovas qali: ,,wilknis quCis meore TavSi orsarTuliani saxli
dgas. aqa cxovrobs gamoCenili qarTveli msaxiobi qali. igi Tavis oTaxSi
gamoketila,
magidas
misjdomia
da
qaRaldebs
aTvalierebs.
etyoba,
mwuxare mogonebebTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli es qaRaldebi, radgan
qali yoveli furclis aRebaze moiRrubleba, amoioxrebs... kiTxulobs,
magram Tvalze momdgari cremlebi xels uSlis”...(WeliZe 2010:312).
Eepologis bolo da cxadia, biografiuli romanis dasasrulic
ukavSirdeba ilia WavWavaZis emociebs. igi Zalian ganicdida maCablis
gauCinarebis ambavs: ,,iveriis” redaqtors Cveuleba aqvs: Caiketeba xolme
kabinetSi, mTel Rames TeTrad gaaTenebs, papiross abolebs, da statiebs
wers... axlac zis da gazeTisaTvis mowinave statias amzadebs. guSin
naSuadRevs rom Caiketa, jerac ar gamosula. TanamSromlebi karebTan
dafusfuseben,
magram
Sesvlas
veravin
bedavs,
eSiniaT,
xeli
ar
64
SeuSalon... Tan ki statiac saCqaroa, axlave unda gaigzavnos stambaSi. ra
ician, rom redaqtors jer erTi bwkaric ar dauweria, Tumca mTeli Rame
TeTrad gaaTena!... gadauSlia ,,mefe liri” da kiTxulobs. waikiTxavs erT
striqons, an erT monologs, da fiqrobs,… saaTobiT fiqrobs, nerviulad
abolebs papiross da fiqrobs;… etyoba, yvela striqoni raRac mogonebas
aRZravs masSi...
Kkarebze kakuni gaismis. ,,SemodiT”, gasZaxebs redaqtori da ,,mefe
lirs” swrafad gaafarebs qaRaldebs _ ar uyvars Tavisi gulis-pasuxis
sxvisTvis
gaziareba,
gulCaTxrobili
kacia...
gazeTis
TanamSromeli
uxmod Sehyurebs redaqtors daRlil, sevdian TvalebSi; ver ubedavs
statia mosTxovos, elodeba, TviTonve momcemso. redaqtoric elodeba,
rom
raRac
axals
ityvis
TanamSromeli.
imas,
razedac
axla
yvela
laparakobs qalaqSi, da razedac mas aravisTan ara surs laparaki. magram
TanamSromeli sdums; TiTqos xvdeba redaqtoris fiqrTa devnas, da mainc
verafers eubneba, arc araferi aqvs saTqmeli.
,,kidev ver unaxavT!” _ gadawyvets redaqtori da Tavs naRvlianad
CaRunavs” (WeliZe 2010:313). A
ase sruldeba biografiuli romani ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa”.
qvemoT zogadad warmovaCenT vaxtang WeliZis biografiuli romanis
mxatvrul mxares. nawarmoebSi didi
mwerluri ostatobiTaa aRwerili
peizaJebi. STambeWdavadaa daxatuli zamTris suraTi:
,,Tovs,
bardnis,
msxvili
fantelebi
zantad
ecemian
TeTrad
gadapentil ezos. Aaswlovani kaklisa da TuTis xeebi Caburulan, totebi
dabla dauxriaT. damZimebuli rto zogjer Seirxeva, Tavs daibertyavs da
gaswordeba, magram axali fifqebi isev male daaxrevineben Tavs, maRal
galavans adli Tovli dasdebia, Soridan gegoneba pirdapir uerTdeba
gadaTeTrebul casao. Hhorizonti SemozRudula. zamTris samarisebul
myudroebas xangamoSvebiT sanadiro Tofis mWaxe xma Tu daarRvevs, erTs
yrud daigruxunebs da eqo sadRac Sors gadaikargeba, liaxvis xeobaSi.
damfrTxali SaSvi WaxWaxiT gadaifrens. Kkibis qveS miyuJuli mTvlemare
yurSa erTbaSad yurebsa cqvets, Tavs wamoswevs, magram, motyuebuli,
uxalisod
gaayolebs
Tvals
frinvelis
nadavls
da
isev
moiyuJeba‟‟(WeliZe 2010:7).
65
biografiul romanSi gamoyenebul mxatvrul xerxebze saubrisas,
sayuradReboa ivane maCablis da beJan wereTlis raWaSi, Tamaris saydris
mosanaxuleblad gamgzavrebis epizodi. Aam ambis gadmocemisas mwerali
mimarTavs metaforasa Tu epiTets. Ffragmenti Txzulebidan: ,,mgzavrebi
cxenebs
miaCqarebdnen,
daTvaliereba
raTa
moeswroT.
droulad
sacalfexo
gza
Casuliyvnen
daburuli
da
taZris
tyis
napirebs
mihyveboda. mTis gamacocxlebelma haerma, gareul mcenareTa da yvavilTa
damaTrobelma
surnelma,
grandiozulobam
peizaJebis
UuCveulod
simSvenierem
gaaxalisa
da
maCabeli.
mTeli
igi
bunebis
malimal
SeaCerdeboda xolme cxens da gascqeroda mziT daferil horizonts,
romelic Sors, Sors TeTrad gadapentil Rrublebs uerTdeboda. win
medidurad
bumberazi
aRmarTuliyvnen
mTebi,
romlebic
maradi
TovliT
spetaki
dafaruli
mwvervalebiT
kavkasionis
TiTqmis
zecas
ebjinebodnen axlos‟‟(WeliZe 2010:254).
vaxtang WeliZe, erTi mxriv, peizaJebis xatvis ostatia da mere
mxriv, igi SesaniSnavad aRwers romanSi ama Tu im moqmedebis adgils da
amave
dros,
mxatvruli
mTavari
xerxebis
saTavadaznauro
personaJis
saSualebiT.
bankis
erT-erT
portretsac
Aamis
cocxlad
Tqmis
yrilobaze
safuZvels
warmoSobili
warmoaCens
gvaZlevs
daZabuli
mdgomareobis aRwera. Aamonaridi: ,,... wamomxtara viRac Tavmomwoned da
saerTo RriancelSi raRacas amtkicebs, Tumca ki misi laparaki aravis
esmis,
Tavmjdomare
ganuwyvetliv
awkarunebs
zars,
magram
verafers
gamxdara, xalxi TiTqos SeiSala, yvela Rrialebs, yvela raRacas yviris...
maCabeli darbazidan gamodis. Bbundovnad ismis sxdomis Rrianceli.
sagonebelSi
Cavardnila
maCabeli, ar
icis, ra
iRonos. Aam brboSi,
romelsac bankis mizanic ver gaugia da yvelafers Tavisi SezRuduli
interesebiT zomavs, fiqric SeuZlebelia raime principul brZolaze...
maCabeli sakuTari yuriT ismens, Tu rogor uxsnis erTi ,,damfuZnebeli‟‟
meores opoziciis arss: ,,opozicia imas niSnavs, rom Sen Tu ,,hos‟‟ ityvi,
me ,,ara‟‟ unda vTqva; Sen Tu ,,aras‟‟ ityvi, maSin me unda vTqva: ,,ho‟‟...
maCabels
saxe
aenTo,
wamowiTlda,
TvalebSi
mtkice
gadatyvetilebis naperwkali auelvarda. igi erTbaSad moswyda adgils da
sxdomis darbazSi SeiWra‟‟(WeliZe 2010:235).
66
biografiul
romanSi
yuradRebas
iqcevs
dialogebi.
isini
organuladaa CarTuli siuJetur qargaSi. erT-erTia vano maCablisa da
mako safarovas saubari. Aamonaridi:
,,saubari
gadavida
Seqspirze.
Mmakom
ganacxada,
Cemi
ocnebaa
Seqspiris qalebi gavasaxieroo.
_ mainc ra ufro gitacebT?.. _ hkiTxa vanom da saCqarod dasZina
siciliT, _ ra Tqma unda, kordelias garda!
_Tundac dezdemona, ofelia, Julieta...
_ mogwonT ,,romeo da julieta‟‟?
_ rogor giTxraT, momwons, rogorc siyvarulis Zlevamosili himni.
sabolood mainc siyvaruli imarjvebs!..
_ maS rom giTargmnoT, siyvaruliT iTamaSebT?
_ mTelis gatacebiT.
_ miT ufro, rom Cemi Targmani iqneba, ara?
_ samwuxarod, Cveni dasi jerjerobiT Seqspirs ver moereva. isev
moliers unda davyabuldeT. Mmagram unda vecadoT, rom male Seqspiric
davdgaT.
_
xolo
roca
es
DdRe
mova,
me
SegaxsenebT
da
sityvas
ar
gadaxvideT!
_ ar, usaTuod giTargmniT.
_ miT ufro mondomebiT, rom Cems gamo unda TargmnoT... ara?
_ miT ufro mondomebiT, rom Tqvens gamo unda vTargmno!.. (WeliZe
2010:111,112).
gamoikveTa, rom mwerali biografiul romanSi mxatvrul saxeebsa
Tu
xerxebs
cnobilia,
mxatvruli
prozaul
aucilebeli,
zustad
warmosaxvisTvis
nawarmoebSi
SerCeuli
ostaturad
azris,
sityvis
iyenebs.
Canafiqris
povna
rogorc
gamoxatvisTvis
WeSmariti
niSandoblivi Tvisebaa. vaxtang WeliZe sityvis xelovania.
Semoqmedis
es gamovlinda
Txzulebis kvlevisas.
amdenad, rogorc davinaxeT,
ivane maCablis Semoqmedeba, cxovreba
sakmaod mravalmxrivi iyo. igi muxlCauxrelad iRwvoda Tavisi qveynis,
xalxis ukeTesi momavlisaTvis. ar iSurebda dros da energias, raTa
Tavisi
saqmianobiT
TanamemamuleTaTvis
sasargeblo,
erovnuli
saqme
67
gaekeTebina. biografiuli romanis avtorma, SesaniSnavma mweralma da
mTargmnelma miznad daisaxa, ar gamoetovebina da aRewera ivane maCablis
cxovrebis mniSvnelovani, sagulisxmo epizodebi, rasac man warmatebiT
gaarTva Tavi. amaSi mkiTxveli rwmundeba biografiuli romanis kiTxvisas.
garda
imisa,
rom
mweralma
mdidari
dokumenturi
masala
gamoiyena:
maCablis TanamedroveTa mogonebebi, sxvadasxva werili da ase Semdeg, es
yvelaferi ise ostaturad, niWierad gaSala romanSi, rom nebismieri
informacia
Tu
ambavi
cocxlad,
sxartad
ikiTxeba
da
mkiTxvels
siamovnebas aniWebs. ra mniSvnelovan Temazec ar unda werdes mwerali,
igi cdilobs, erTi mxriv, amomwuravi informacia miawodos mkiTxvels,
mkvlevars
da
meore
SegviZlia
vTqvaT,
mxriv,
saukeTeso
es
ar
iyos
biografiul
momqancveli.
romanTa
dabejiTebiT
ricxvSia
vaxtang
WeliZis ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa”.
ivane
maCablis
cxovrebis
ukanasknel
dReebze
araerTgzis
dawerila, magram amjerad Cven SevCerdebiT am ramdenime xnis win, kerZod,
2011 wels rostom CxeiZis mier gamocemul piesaze: ,,26 ivnisis saidumlo‟‟,
romelsac saTauris qvemoT miwerili aqvs:
,,montaJi or moqmedebad da aT
suraTad dakarguli Seqspirelis tragediaze‟‟. Ddramaturgiulma teqstma
literaturul kritikaSi didi yuradReba gamoiwvia, daiwera recenziebic
_ elguja TavberiZisa da qeTevan Sengelias avtorobiT, aseve, Jurnal
,,Cveni mwerlobis‟‟ salonSi moxda wardginebac. araerTma adamianma piesis
qarTuli Teatris scenaze dadgmis survili gamoTqa.
wigns axlavs saintereso boloTqma, sadac mwerali gvauwyebs, rom
ivane maCablis gauCinarebis
versia, romelic man mkiTxvels miawoda
piesis meSveobiT, icis mamamisis, oTar CxeiZisa da vaxtang WeliZisgan,
(romelTac TavianTi sicocxlis periodSi amaze ver daweres, garkveul
mizezTa gamo _ n.x). maT ki Salva dadianis, Tedo saxokiasa da geronti
qiqoZisgan moesminaT zemoT aRniSnuli ambis Sesaxeb. cnobilia, rom ivane
maCablis
gauCinarebasTan
imdroindel
dakavSirebiT
sazogadoebriv-politikuri
araerTi
da
versia
kulturuli
gaCnda
cxovrebis
istoriaSi. isini urTierTgamomricxavi, daujerebeli, simarTlisgan Sors
iyvnen. amasTan dakavSirebiT SesaniSnavad wers rostom CxeiZe wignis
bolosityvaSi:
68
,,miTqma-moTqma im wlebSi sulac ar CamTavrdeboda da mogvianebiTac
araerTxel iCenda Tavs miamit, gansakuTrebiT ki sensacias daxarbebuli
mkvlevarebis mondomebiT, sxvadasxva versias rom ara da ar eSvebodnen
da AaSkara gulubryvilo SenaTxzsa, tendenciur gamonagonsa Tu AaSkara
Worsac
xelaxla
uxsnidnen
gzas
_
rogorc
kvleva-ZiebaTa
axal
monapovars.
idumaleba iwvevs amgvar cTunebas, magram samwuxaro is gaxldaT,
rom fsevdoZiebani Zalian azaralebda ivane maCablis saxelsac da... ilia
WavWavaZisac,
vinc
kvlav
gaexvevoda
social-demokratiul
cru
mosazrebaTa ablabudaSi‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2011:74,75). oTar CxeiZem 1973 wels
gazeTSi ,,literaturuli saqarTvelo‟‟ gamoaqveyna esei ,,anaqrionizmebi‟‟.
man dagmo qarTveli moazrovnis sicocxlis bolo dReebze arsebuli is
yalbi
versiebi,
romelzedac
werdnen
werilebSi.
vaxtang
WeliZem
biografiul romanSi ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa‟‟ Seqspiris mTargmelis
gauCinerebaze
SeTxzul ambebze araferi dawera. AsimarTlis farTo
sazogadoebisaTvis
gacnoba
rostom
CxeiZem
Tavis
dramaturgiuli teqstis mixedviT, ivane maCablis
piesaSiPgadawyvita.
gauCinarebis ambavs
ilia WavWavaZe iZiebs da cdilobs, naTeli mohfinos WeSmaritebas. Ees
marTlac
ase
xdeba,
igi
am
sakiTxze
sinamdviles
igebs
akaki
wereTlisgan. am ukanasknelma ki es Seityo taso maCablisgan. swored misi
Txovna Seasrula ,,gamzrdelis‟‟ Semqmnelma da tasos monayoli misi
Txovnisamebr,
xalxs
ar
gaando,
mxolod
ilia
WavWavaZes
uambo.
amonaridi: ,,...im dilabnelze vano, Tavisdasabediswerod, fexzec wamodga
da
sastumro
oTaxSic
gamolaslasda. Kkari rom
SemouRia, oficeri
mjdara, welzeviT gaxdili, taso ki mis mundirs auTovebda. erTi-ori
wuTic da gadaicvamda oficeri Tavis mundirs da ise gaipareboda vanos
binidan, rogorc araerTxel moqceuliyo da geSic veravis mietana. vano
gacecxldeboda, aba, ra mouvidoda, Tu ram Zal-Rone SerCenoda, im wuTas
erTbaSad daubrundeboda, aitacebda uTos da TavzemoT SemarTavda, raTa
Zlierad
daekra
wamisuswrafesad
dartyma
samxedro
misi
moaswrebda
aeridebina.
piris
vanos
navarjiSevi
ojaxis
SemarcxvenlisaTvis.
SemarTul
daavadebuli
xelis
mklavze
sxeuli
moWeras
xeli
Ooficeri
etaca,
veRar
majaze
da...
raTa
gauZlebda
da...
uTo
69
gauvardeboda
da
dauZlurebuli,
TavSi
magram
daecemoda‟‟...
sakuTari
(CxeiZe
ojaxis
r.
2011:62,63).
Rirsebis
Aamdenad,
damcveli
vano
maCablis sicocxle sakuTar saxlSi viRac oficers ewireba. rogorc
rostom
CxeiZe
wers,
daferfla
sakireSi.
mweralma,
rom
sosiko
moRalate,
mkiTxvels
ar
merkvilaZem
maCablis
damnaSave
qalis
saxe
eufleba
ukiduresi
gvami
ki
malulad
ise daxata
zizRi,
mkveTri
uaryofiTi emociebi, raTa misi ,,Rirseba gadarCes‟‟. swored es gaxda
mTavari mizezi imisa, rom akaki wereTelma da ilia WavWavaZem igi daindes
da dumili arCies, ,,Tornike erisTavis‟‟ avtorma sityva ar gatexa taso
maCabelTan.Aamgvaria,
gauCinarebaze,
rac
bolosityvaobidan,
gadawyvitos
is
literaturuli
mweralma
sadac
Seqspiris
gagvando
rostom
wignSi.
CxeiZe
mTargmnelis
versia
vano
Aamonarids
mkiTxvels
gauCinarebaze
maCablis
movixmob
mimarTavs,
miseul
iman
versias
daeydnos, Tu ara: ,,piesa, saerTod mxatvruli qmnileba, saamisod yvelaze
Sesaferisi Janria _ mecnierulad xom arafers amtkiceb da sayovelTao
WeSmaritebad damkvidrebas xom ar eswrafi. Mmxatvruli sinamdvile xan
Tu SeiZleba ukidures wvrilmanebamde dauaxlovdes yofiT realobas, xan
SeiZleba sruliadac daSordes. Dda Sen,
mkiTxvels, rogorc ginda, ise
gjerodes, da dae es iyos martoden mxatvruli simarTle, morgebuli
mxatvrul kanonebze‟‟(CxeiZe 2011:81,82).
vfiqrobT, rostom CxeiZis piesa ,,26 ivnisis saidumlo‟‟ mravali
TvalsazrisiT saintereso da mniSvnelovani piesaa. Cven vaxtang WeliZis
biografiul romanze msjelobisas ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa‟‟ saWirod
CavTvaleT mokled
swored
didi
mainc
qarTveli
gvesaubra aRniSnul piesaze, miT ufro, rom is
moRvawisa
da
mTargmnelis
gauCinarebis
gamorkvevas exmianeba.
70
Tavi III
oTar CxeiZis ,,romani da istoria”
oTar CxeiZe qarTul mwerlobaSi erT-erTi gamorCeuli romanistia.
misi romanebi, TiTqmis mTeli Semoqmedeba, meoce saukunis saqarTvelos
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mxatvruli istoriaa.
Cvens
qveyanaSi
Rirebuli
ar
arsebula
movlena Tu faqti,
met-naklebad
mniSvnelovani
da
prozaikoss Tavisi gamorCeuli sityva
rom ar eTqva. Mman Seqmna qarTlis cxovrebis uwyveti qronikis cikli _
,,matiane
qarTlisai”,
dagvitova
romelic
24
romans
aerTianebs.
oTar
CxeiZem
mdidari da mravalferovani literaturuli memkvidreoba. igi
avtoria romanebisa: ..tinis xidi”, ,,jebiri”, ,,burusi”, ,,meCeCi”, ,,aRmarTdaRmarTi”, ,,kvernaqi”, ,,landebi”, ,,boriayi” (romelic safuZvlad daedo
reJisor
giorgi
mogzauroba”),
,,cxrawyaro”,
gadatrialeba”,
,,lazerSou”
Sengelaias
,,TeTri
da
sxva.
kinofilms
,,axalgazrda
,,mTagrexili”,
daTvi”,
Mmis
,,amaRleba”,
,,bermudis
kalams
kompozitoris
,,artistuli
samkuTxedi”,
ekuTvnis
,,morCili”,
biografiuli
romanebi:
,,romani da istoria”, ,,italiuri dRiurebi baironisa”. Semoqmedma aseve,
gamosca
moTxrobebis
krebulebi,
piesebi,
miniaturebi,
eseebi,
gamokvlevebi, Targmanebi inglisurenovani literaturidan.
igi iyo realisti avtori da miuxedavad mZime yofisa, romelSic
mouwia
cxovreba,
sinamdviles
igrZnoba
is
Tavis
aRwerda.
amis
kritikuli
sinamdvilisadmi.
nawarmoebebSi
dasturia
damokidebuleba
oTar
simarTlismoyvareobis
misi
CxeiZem
wyalobiT
saqarTveloSi
romanebi,
sadac
imdroindeli
mwerluri
yvela
arsebul
dros
gauZlo
naTlad
sabWoTa
ostatobis,
da
arasodes
gauwevia angariSi partiul-klasobrivi interesebisTvis. gadauWarbeblad
SeiZleba
iTqvas,
rom
igi
uaxlesi
qarTuli
istoriis
mxatvruli
mematianea, romlis Semoqmedebis gacnobis gareSec TiTqmis SeuZlebelia,
gavigoT
imdroindeli
dakavSirebiT
Cveni
saintereso
qveynis
mosazrebas
realuri
mdgomareoba.
ayalibebs
rusudan
amasTan
niSnianiZe
71
literaturul
werilSi
,,evropuli
amerikuli
da
,,oTar
CxeiZe
kulturis
(literaturuli
mkvlevari
portreti)‟‟:
sabWoTa
kulturis
sivrceSi cxovrobda, magram Tavad tradiciuli, erovnuli mwerlobis
wiaRSi gaizarda. misTvis umTavresi ,,qarTuli safiqrali‟‟, saqarTvelos
lamis maradiuli, ,,wyevla-krulviani‟‟ tkivili gaxldaT. man ubiZga XX
saukunis ,,matianis‟‟ wera daewyo. Aar gamorCenoda arcerTi mniSvnelovani
TariRi Tu faqti, romelTa gavlena aTwleulebis manZilze grZeldeboda.
es sistemis mier motanili movlenebi iyo. Aaqedan cxadi xdeboda, ras
unda dapirispireboda mwerali. Ppirveli nawarmoebebis gamoCenisTanave
miiqcia mkiTxveli sazogadoebis yuradReba, xelisuflebisac. isic unda
iTqvas, arCevanis winaSe ar damdgara, arc yoymanis da arc orWofobis
wuTebi yofila grZeli; e.w. ,,istoriis kritikis‟‟ ufleba TviT gadawyvita
da saTqmelic TavisTavad dalagda‟‟(niSnianiZe 2011:7).
prozaikosis
gamoTqmuli
mwerlur
kritikos
ivane
stilze
sayuradRebo
amirxanaSvils:
,,oTar
dakvirveba
CxeiZis
aqvs
prozis
,,siZnele” swored imaSi mdgomareobs, rom metismetad mTliania misi
Semoqmedeba, kompoziciuri erTianobis suli msWvalavs misi nawarmoebebis
yvela
elements,
rac
ki
SeiZleba
monawileobdes
teqstis
agebaSi”
(amirxanaSvili 2003:73).
man Seqmna mravalSriani mxatvruli teqstebi, Seexo yvelaze ufro
Rrma, universalur Temebs, romlebzedac igi saqarTvelosa da qarTuli
enis siyvaruliT saubrobs. ,,grigol robaqiZes Tu ar CavTvliT, Znelia
gavixsenoT
sxva
magaliTi
gasuli
saukunis
qarTul
prozaSi
aseTi
gamorCeuli xmis arsebobisa. kiTxulob da giambobs _ Tavisi aqcentebiT,
intonaciiT, arasodes rom ar agereva sxvaSi,” _ wers lela samniaSvili
(samniaSvili 2009:45).
araerTi TvalsazrisiT didi kvlevis safuZvels gvaZlevs oTar
CxeiZis SesaniSnavi literaturuli memkvidreoba, Tumca axla yuradRebas
gavamaxvileb mis biografiul romanze ,,romani da istoria”, romelic
Tavdapirvelad 1965 wels daistamba, meore gamocema 1976 wliT TariRdeba.
nawarmoebSi
prozaikosi
mogviTxrobs
gamoCenili
qarTveli
mwerlis,
vasil barnovis cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebaze. vidre aRniSnul teqsts
gavaanalizebT, manamde oriode sityva vTqvaT qarTvel romanistze.
72
vasil
barnovis
SemoqmedebiTi
biografia
me-19
saukunis
70-iani
wlebidan iwyeba. Aam droidan moyolebuli igi intensiur literaturul
saqmianobas eweoda, sistematurad TanamSromlobda qarTul periodul
presasTan. Mis avtoria araerTi sayuradRebo da mniSvnelovani romanisa
rogorebicaa:
msxvreva”.
,,mimqrali
mwerlis
Saravandedi”,
kalams
,,trfoba
ekuTvnis
wamebuli”,
,,armazis
,,tkbili
duduki”,
moTxrobebi:
,,Teberas daniSnuli”, ,,sadedoflo sartyeli”, ,,ganaskvili simi” da sxva.
misi Tavdapirveli Txzulebebis tipaJica da problematikac umeteswilad
qarTuli mwerlobis tradiciebiT iyo nasazrdoebi, Tumca Semoqmedis
adrindeli nawerebis gacnobisas im siaxleTa gamovlinebasac aSkarad
vgrZnobT,
romlebic
sul
male
misi
mxatvruli
individualobis
ganmsazRvrel safuZvlad iqcnen. Semdgom periodSi Seqmnili nawarmoebebi
TematikiT
axal
literaturis
warmatebisa,
movlenas
istoriaSi.
romelic
warmoadgendnen
miuxedavad
man
im
moTxrobis
XX
uTuod
JanrSi
SemoqmedebiTi ostatoba yvelaze metad mainc
saukunis
qarTuli
didmniSvnelovani
moipova,
prozaikosis
romanebSi gamoikveTa.
vasil barnovi Rrmad icnobda antikur, evropul, rusul da Zvel
qarTul filosofiur, aseve, literaturul Sedevrebs, mniSvelovan da
sagulisxmo Txzulebebs, Sromebs, narkvevebs. igi iyo universalurad
ganswavluli
Semoqmedi;
Cven
amaSi
vrwmundebiT
misi
literaturuli
memkvidreobis gacnobisas.
romanistis mwerluri Rvawlis Sefasebisas aseve unda aRvniSnoT,
rom
mis
saxelTanaa
dakavSirebuli
CvenSi
romanis
Janris,
ufro
konkretulad ki, istoriuli romanis klasikuri saxiT Camoyalibeba. igi
saocrad
kargad,
warmarTobis
damajereblad
xanidan
acocxlebs
moyolebuli
misi
saqarTvelos
Tanamedrove
warsuls
saqarTvelos
epoqaluri sinamdvilis CaTvliT. literator avTandil nikoleiSvilis
mosazrebiT:
,,vasil
barnovma
ara
marto
maRali
literaturuli
ostatobiT warmosaxa ,,qarTlis cxovrebis‟‟ istoriuli suraTebi, aramed
am istoriis bevri problematuri sakiTxi mecnieruli simarTliTac da
maRali
profesionalizmiTac
mivuTiTebT,
rom
mweralma
gaiazra”(nikoleiSvili
prozaul
nawarmoebebSi
2002:18).
Semoiyvana
aqve
da
daamkvidra axali personaJebi. Eeseni gaxlavT: Zveli Tbilisis mkvidrni,
73
sxvadasxva
socialuri
fenis
warmomadgenlebi,
xelosan-amqrebi,
inteligencia...
aRiarebuli
istoriaSi
TvalsazrisiT,
ritmuli
vasil
prozis
barnovi
erT-erTi
Cveni
yvelaze
mwerlobis
TvalsaCino
warmomadgeneli da damamkvidrebelia. am tendenciam mis beletristikaSi
imdenad farTo masStabebi moicva, rom Tavis mxriv, man momdevni periodis
araerTi mwerlis Semoqmedebasac misca mZlavri literaturuli impulsi.
rac Seexeba vasil barnovis Semoqmedebis enas, miuxedavad imisa,
rom
misi
nawarmoebebis
didi
nawili
gardasul
saukuneTa
yofiTi
sinamdvilis mxatvrulad warmosaxvas warmoadgens, avtori Tavisi drois
cocxal metyvelebasTan kavSirs arasodes wyvets.
romanistis
statia
nawarmoebebze
momzadebula.
mravali
miuxedavad
imisa,
saintereso
rom
vasil
wigni,
naSromi,
barnovma
Tavisi
pirveli prozauli nawarmoebi: ,,suraTebi xevsurebis cxovrebidan‟‟ 1878
wels gazeTSi ,,droeba‟‟ dabeWda, Mmisi mdidari mxatvruli memkvidreobis
da cxovrebis mecnieruli Seswavla
meoce saukunis 30-iani wlebidan
daiwyo. amis erT-erT mTavar mizezad asaxeleben imas, rom igi arcerTi
imdroindeli literaturuli dajgufebis Tu mimdinareobis wevri ar
yofila.
mis
mosazrebebi
nawerebze
gamoTqves
da
Tedo
biografiaze
saxokiam,
sakuTari
geronti
Sexedulebebi,
qiqoZem,
konstantine
gamsaxurdiam, Salva radianma, simon Ciqovanma, giorgi leoniZem, akaki
gawereliam,
sergi
Wilaiam,
violeta
ciskariZem
da
sxvebma.
maTi
recenziebi, werilebi Tu narkvevebi sxvadasxva wlebSi araerT JurnalSi,
gazeTSi
da
wignSi
qveyndeboda.
Tavis
mxriv,
sakmaod
sainteresoa
TiToeuli. Cven zogierT maTganze SevCerdebiT. Tavdapirvelad ramdenime
JurnalSi dabeWdil masalaze visaubrebT.
1955 wels JurnalSi ,,mnaTobi‟‟, pirvel nomerSi daistamba sergi
Wilaias saintereso werili ,,vasil barnovi‟‟. Kkritikosi SesaniSnavad
msjelobs
,,isnis
qarTveli
ciskari‟‟,
prozaikosis
,,trfoba
romanebze:
wamebuli‟‟,
aseve
,,mimqrali
Semdeg
Saravandedi‟‟,
moTxrobebze:
,,arqeologiuri naSTi‟‟ da ,,ganaskvili simi‟‟. Aavtori vasil barnovis
aRniSnuli nawarmoebebis
Tematikasa Tu struqturaze Tanmimdevrulad
da amomwuravad saubrobs, amasTanave, igi mkiTxvelis yuradRebas mwerlis
74
mxatvrul
stilzec
SemoqmedebaSi
miapyrobs.
mTeli
movixmobT
siZlieriT
Semdeg
gadaiSala
Cveni
amonarids:
xalxis
,,mis
Soreuli
warsuli. Uudidesi siyvaruliT, mZafri romantikuli ferebiT gaacocxla
man saqarTvelos istoriuli warsulis suraTebi. Mmiuxedavad amisa, mainc
ar iqneboda marTali, rom vasil barnovi warsulSi gadasaxlebulad
warmogvedgina. vasil barnovi didi mxatvari iyo. WeSmaritma mxatvarma ki
ar SeiZleba pasuxi ar gasces Tavisi epoqis, Tavisi drois saWirboroto
sakiTxebs. vasil barnovis SemoqmedebaSi vpoulobT epoqis aqtualuri
sakiTxebiTac dainteresebas. umTavresad es Seexeba moTxrobebs. Yyovelive
amis gamo vasil barnovis SemoqmedebaSi ori Tematuri xazi gvaqvs: erTi
_ mTavari da ZiriTadi _ istoriuli warsulia. Mmeore mxriv, Cven gvaqvs
Tanamedroveobis,
gamoxatulebac.
moTxrobebis
XX
saukunis
vasil
barnovi
pirveli
krebulis
epoqis,
konkretuli
samarTlianad
winasityvaobaSi,
suraTebis
SeniSnavs
rom
Tavisi
,,bevri
feradi
suraTebi maCvena awmyom, magram ufro meti warsulmao‟‟. gamoTqma ,,ufro
meti‟‟
naTlad
arkvevs
vasil
barnovis
araerTi
narkvevi,
SemoqmedebiTi
Temebis
bunebas‟‟(Wilaia 1995:124).
violeta
ciskariZem
recenzia
uZRvna
vasil
barnovis mxatvrul Semoqmedebas, mis nawerebs. erT-erTi maTgania 1958
wels JuralSi ,,literaturuli Ziebani‟‟ gamoqveynebuli werili: ,,vasil
barnovi‟‟.
Mmecnieri
sainteresod
wers
romanistis
cxovrebis
gzaze,
sagulisxmo biografiul momentebze, Semoqmedebaze, mis naazrevsa Tu
msoflmxedvelobaze. violeta ciskariZe Semdeg miTiTebas gvTavazobs:
,,vasil
barnovi
qarTuli
literaturis
istoriaSi
mkveTrad
damoukidebel adgils ikavebs. igi ar SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT romelime
literaturul skolas, SevadaroT romelime mwerals. igi erTsa da imave
dros mTeli mravalsaukunovani qarTuli azrovnebisa da mxatvruli
tradiciebis
memkvidrecaa
da
am
memkvidreobis
Taviseburi
interpretatoric, saukunis moqalaqeca da Soreul warsulSi SeWrili
pirovnebac‟‟(ciskariZe 1958:97).
giorgi
ciciSvilma
vasil
barnovis
Semoqmedebas
miuZRvna
mniSvnelovani werili: ,,vasil barnovi da misi Tanamedroveoba‟‟. Aavtori
cnobili
romanistis
literaturul
memkvidreobaze
sakuTar
75
Sexedulebebs mkveTrad ayalibebs da damajereblad, sainteresod wers
mis Txzulebebze. amonaridi: ,,vasil barnovis Semoqmedeba Tavisi ideurTematuri
da
mxatvrul-formaluri
TvasazrisiT
XIX
saukunis
dasasrulisa da XX saukunis dasawyisis qarTul mwerlobaSi erT-erTi
yvelaze umniSvnelovanesi literaturuli movlenaa. Aam didebuli
niWis,
uSreti
beletristma
Seqmna
safuZvlad
daudo
warmosaxvisa
originaluri
Taviseburi
da
saocari
mxatvruli
samyaro,
msoflmxedvelobrivi
keTilSobiluri
da
nayofierebis
romelsac
koncefcia,
Tavidan
bolomde
uaRresad
humanuri,
ganmsWvaluli
xalxis
Tavisuflebisa da bednierebisadmi swrafviT‟‟(ciciSvili 1958:129).
Salva radianis wigni ,,vasil barnovis istoriuli romanebi‟‟ 1945
wels
daistamba.
is
ramdenime
sagulisxmo
Tavs
aerTianebs,
esenia:
istoriuli romanis ganviTareba, vasil barnovis istoriuli romanebis
mxatvruli
azri
da
siuJeturi
aRnagoba,
istoriuli
masala
vasil
barnovis romanebSi, SemoqmedebiTi meTodi da mxatvruli stili vasil
barnovis istoriul romanebSi, vasil barnovis msoflmxedveloba, vasil
barnovis
adgili
qarTuli
mxatvruli
prozis
ganviTarebaSi.
Salva
radianis aRniSnuli wigni metad mniSvnelovania, Tu mivaqcevT yuradRebas
gamocemis TariRsac, es miT ufro angariSgasawevia. amonaridi: ,,vasil
barnovis
romanebsa
kritikaSi
da
moTxrobebs
SexedulebaTa,
azrTa
gamoqveynebisas
sxvadasxvaoba,
ar
gamouwvevia
Sejaxeba.
Aarc
saliteraturo da arc saistorio kritika saTanadod ar gamoxmaurebia am
SesaniSnavi
mwerlis
nawarmoebebs,
romelTac
qarTul
literaturaSi
ganaviTares da ganamtkices Semoqmedebis umniSvnelovanesi da urTulesi
Janri _ istoriuli mxatvruli proza. Mmxolod im calkeul werilebsa
Tu mimoxilvebSi, romlebic vasil barnovis sicocxlis ukanasknel xans
da gardacvalebis Semdeg daiwera, igi daxasiaTebulia rogorc ,,didad
originaluri Semoqmedi‟‟, romelic ,,filosofiurad yvelaze ufro metad
aris
ganswavluli
axal
qarTvel
mweralTa
Soris‟‟,
romelsac
,,axasiaTebs warsulis ganWvretis gansakuTebuli niWi da istoriuli
detalebis codna‟‟, romelsac ,,gaaCnia Taviseburi poeturi metyveleba‟‟,
romlis ,,ostatoba adis mxatvruli prozis umaRles mwvervalze‟‟ da
romelic ,,mTeli Tavisi SemoqmedebiT dakavSirebulia Zveli qarTuli
76
literaturis brwyinvale warmomadgenlebTan‟‟. es sityvebi marTebulad
gansazRvraven vasil barnovis literaturuli memkvidreobis xasiaTsa da
mniSvnelobas‟‟(radiani 1945:5).
sergo WeiSvilma vasil barnovis moTxrobebs sagangebod uZRvna
wigni: ,,vasil barnovis moTxrobebi‟‟.
beletristis
wignSi gamaxvilebulia yuradReba
msoflmxedvelobaze,
mis
araistoriul
prozasa
da
cxovrebis gzaze. avtoris miTiTebiT: ,,vasil barnovma Tanamedroveobis
amsaxveli beletristikiT mkiTxvelis Tvalwin gadmoSala mecxramete
saukunis
meore
naxevrisa
da
meoce
saukunis
pirveli
meoTxedis
saqarTvelos socialuri yofis obieqturi suraTebi, mimavali wyobilebis
(feodaluri
aristokratiis)
tragedia
da
momavali
burJuaziuli
sazogadoebis tlanqi Zalmosileba... vasil barnovi realistia, magram mis
prozas gansakuTrebul surnels aZlevs romatikuli motivebic _ awmyoTi
ukmayofileba da am niadagze Sobili Rrma sevda, gataceba istorizmiT
da ase Semdeg‟‟(WeiSvili 2001:201;207).
avTandil nikoleiSvili wignSi ,,XX saukunis qarTuli mwerloba‟‟
qarTveli
prozaikosis
SefasebiT,
vasil
Semoqmedebis
barnovi,
ganxilvisas
,,Zveli
wers:
qarTuli
,,galaktionis
freska‟‟
iyo,
,,ukeTilSobilesi adamiani da Taviseburi manerisa da stilis‟‟ pirovneba.
simon Ciqovanma ki igi ,,evropul tansacmelSi gamowyobil meudabnoes Tu
myudro senakSi momuSave Zvel mwignobars‟‟ Seadara, romelsac ,,qarTuli
taZris kedlis mxatvrobidan Camosuli wmindanis Tu mematianis saxe‟‟
hqonda. TanamedroveTa gadmocemiT, vasil barnovis Semoqmedebis umTavres
Temad
damkvidrebul
Seecvala
fizikurad
istoriul
da
warsuls
mwerali
TiTqos
monasterSi
misi
garegnobac
Sekedlebuli
moZRvris
saxis mqone qarTveli mematianisaTvis daemsgavsebina‟‟ (nikoleiSvili 2002:
19).
vasil barnovis literaturul memkvidreobaze kidev sxva araerTi
kritikuli narkvevi, werili arsebobs. Aaxla yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT
im masalze, sadac beletristze mogonebebia dawerili. erT-erTi maT
Soris
aris
,,literaturis
pativiscemiT
Tedo
saxokias
matianeSi‟‟
ixsenebs
,,vasil
gamoqveynda.
Tavis
barnovi‟‟,
Aavtori
maswavlebels,
romelic
didi
masTan
1952
wels
siTboTi
da
dakavSirebul
77
cxovrebiseul epizodebs, mniSvnelovan biografiul aspeqtebs. amonaridi:
,,vasil barnovTan kviraoba gvqonda SemoRebuli. Yyovel kviras misi
pativiscemelni Tu naTesavni saRamos 8 saaTze Tavs viyridiT mweralTan.
es kviraoba bolos da bolos metad popularuli gaxda, stumrad mosvla
visac undoda, kvira saRamos ewveoda da darwmunebuli unda yofiliyo,
rom
Sin
stumris
yvelani
udrood,
Sewiruli
iyo
dauxvdebodnen.
maspinZlebic
moulodneli
stumrebisaTvis,
wvevisagan.
maTTan
Tavisufalni
kvira
Tbili
saRamo
baasisa
da
iyvnen
savsebiT
urTierT
mokiTxvisaTvis.
Aam kviraobas, tkbil baasSi, mwerali gviambobda Tavisi ganvlili
cxovrebis
sxvadasxva epizodebs. AgviRwerda adgilebs, saca esa Tu is
xana cxovrebisa gautarebia...‟‟(saxokia 1952:131).
vasil barnovis qaliSvilma, lela barnavelma Tavis droze sakmaod
saintereso mogoneba dawera mamaze, romelic asec daasaTaura: ,,mogoneba
mamaze‟‟. teqsti ramdenime kargad daweril Tavs aerTianebs: ,,sofeli
koda‟‟, ,,vasil barnovis ded-mama‟‟,
,,vasil barnovis yrmoba‟‟, ,,vasil
barnovis wasvla moskovis akademiaSi‟‟, ,,vasil barnovis meuRle _ nino
benaSvili‟‟ da bolos, ,,manglisi‟‟. saTaurebis saxelwodebebic aSkarad
migvaniSneben,
romanistis
rom
lela
cxovrebis
barnavelis
sxvadasxva
gardacvalebamde da es yvelaferi
amaze
Tavad
avtoric
STabeWdilebebic
vasil
epizodi,
gacocxlebulia
dabadebidan
vidre
eyrdnoba vasil barnovis mogonebebs,
miuTiTebs,
mamaze,
mogonebaSi
amasTanave,
barnovze.
mocemulia
amonarids
sakuTari
movixmob,
sadac
saubaria yrma vasilze. es is periodia, rodesac mamamisi tolaTsofelSi
msaxurobda
mRvdlad
da
ojaxiT
iq
cxovrobda
erTxans:
,,bunebis
warmtaci nairgvari suraTebi, zRaprebi, mdinare_tye_Waobi, Zveli qalaqis
nafuZrebi,
patar-patara
RvTismsaxureba
mRvdlis
da
warmarTobisa
samlocveloebi
_ warmarTuli kultis
dekanoz
da
kurdRelas
qristianobis
trapezebiT,
kopal-iaxsaris
naSTebi, Tavis
Sejaxeba,
brZolaa.
igive
Yyvela
mamis
Zveli
es
zaqaria
qarTuli
aRibeWdeboda
waruSlelad bavSvis sulSi, uRviZebda fantazias.
es Seucnoblad aTvisebuli simdidre, gulubryvilo bavSvisaTvis
pirveli
STabeWdilebani
Semdeg
Tanamedrove
kulturis
umaRles
78
safexurze mdgomma vasil barnovma gadmogviSala ara primitivis saxiT,
aramed gamoiyena saqarTvelos warmarTul, winaqristianul kulturis
dasaxatavad,
qarTuli
warmarTuli
panTeonis
gasacocxleblad‟‟
(barnaveli 1952:116,117).
es rac Seexeba im werilebs, wignebs, romelnic vasil barnovis
cxovrabasa da Semoqmedebas exmianeba. axla ki konkretulad oTar CxeiZis
mier beletristze daweril biografiul romanze vimsjeloT.
oTar CxeiZem biografiul romanSi ,,romani da istoria” gadmosca
mwerlis
cxovreba,
literaturuli
moRvaweoba.
memkvidreobis
wignSi
saubaria
Taobazec,
vasil
barnovis
gamoxatulia
avtoris
sayuradRebo Sefasebanic. Txzulebis mxatvrul qargaSi moqceulia XIX
saukunis II naxevrisa da XX saukunis pirveli aTwleulis mdidari
istoriuli, dokumenturi da eTnografiuli masala.
rostom CxeiZe biografiul romanSi ,,agvistos Svilebi”, romelic
oTar
CxeiZes
eZRvneba,
erT-erT
TavSi:
,,alaznis
velis
istoria”
gadmoscems mamis mier dawerili am wignis, ,,romani da istoriis” Seqmnis
istorias. misi wakiTxvisas mkiTxveli igebs, Tu rogor da rodis gauCnda
idea
klasikos
mwerals
qarTveli
beletristi
Tavis
nawarmoebSi
mxatvrul personaJad eqcia. amonaridi teqstidan: ,,sagangebod gadaekiTxa
kidev erTxel vasil barnovis moTxrobebi da romanebi, mogonebebi misic
da maszec, saarqivo masalebsac Cajdomoda, maSindeli Jurnal-gazeTebic
Seeswavla epoqis raobasa da siRrmeSi bolomde gasarkvevad, xelisgulze
edo mwerlis pirovnuli xasiaTic da cxovrebis qargac, istoriuli
romanis
Tavgadasavalic
mokidebuli da erT
guldasmiT
daemuSavebina
uolter
skotidan
mTlian procesadac gaeazrebina siaxleni misi
ganviTarebis gzaze, radgan evropuli foni yvelaze ukeT warmoaCenda
qarTveli mwerlis Rvawls”(CxeiZe r. 2008:14).
rogorc
siymawvilidanve
romanidan
iyo
,,agvistos
aRtacebuli
Svilebi”
vasil
vigebT,
barnovis
moTxrobebiTa da romanebiT, moswonda personaJTa
oTar
CxeiZe
istoriuli
xasiaTebi, siuJetebi.
igi Tavidan misi stilis gavlenasac ki ganicdida, Tumca
,,TandaTan
sruliad daSordeboda, magram uSualo STamagonebuli mainc is gaxldaT
modernistuli
Ziebebisac
da
monumenturi
Senobis
agebisaken
79
swrafvisac”(CxeiZe r. 2008:14). Aamdenad,
Semoqmedma dawera sayuradRebo
biografiuli romani Tavis erT-erT gamorCeulad sayvarel avtorze_
,,romani da istoria”. es wigni aris mxatvrul-mecnieruli nawarmoebi,
romelic miT ufro sainteresoa, rom Txzuleba Seqmna erTma mweralma
Tavis Tanamokalmeze _ meore mweralze.
biografiuli romanis pirvel Tavs mweralma uwoda
tolaTsofelSi”.
Aaq
avtori
mogviTxrobs
sxvadasxva
,,paeqrobani
legendasa
Tu
Txzulebaze, Aaseve, sainteresod wers eklesiasa da idumalebiT mocul
koSkze... mxatvruli teqstis aRniSnul nawilSive Cndebian
mRvdeli
zaqaria
barnaveli,
dekanozi
kurdRela,
personaJebi:
patara
vasiko,
kurdRelas SviliSvili baCyura.
,,romani
da
istoriis“
Sesaxeb
msjelobisas
xazgasmiT
unda
aRiniSnos erTi sagulisxmo faqti; kerZod, avtori nawarmoebis yovel
axal epizodSi aRadgens, acocxlebs im istoriul viTarebas, romlis
drosac mouwia cxovreba
mwerals da misi nawarmoebebis moqmed pirebs.
man uxvad moixmo istoriul-dokumenturi Tu saarqivo masala, samecniero
literatura,
hagiografiuli
eTnografiuli
wyaroebi.
Rirebulebas,
Txzulebebi,
Ees
mniSvnelobas
yovelive
aniWebs
da
folkloruli
biografiul
romans
srulyofilad,
da
did
amomwuravad
warmoaCens vasil barnovis moRvaweobas, literaturul memkvidreobas.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, movitanT kritikos nodar alanias mosazrebas:
,,istoriulis, namdvilis, arsebulisa da gamogonilis, fantaziis nayofis
erT kompoziciur mTlianobaSi gaSliT mwerali mravalmxrivad gviCvenebs
barnovis sulier samyaros, misi zrdis process‟‟(alania 1967:2).
,,romani da istoriaSi” moTxrobilia vasil barnovis
cxovrebis
araerT epizodTan erTad, misi sasuliero seminariaSi swavlis periodi
da aRwerilia is garemo, rac iq sufevda. oTar CxeiZe wers: ,,vasili
gakveTilebs advilad izepirebda, TviT rusebze advilad izepirebda da
Surs
iwvevda.
maswavleblebsa,
TxzulebebSi
magram
xom
guls
ubadlo
mainc
ar
dadga,
aocebda
uxaroda,
TviT
damZimeboda,
Capirqvaveboda”(CxeiZe o. 1976:63). Uuecrad seminariaSi siTbo da sinaTle
gamoCnda, ,,gogebaSvili, gogebaSvili, xma gavarda da gaSuqda Cabinduli
derefnebi. gogebaSviliT aRtacebuliyvnen ufrosklaselebi. Dda vasom
80
jer
ar
icoda,
ras
niSnavda
sixaruls
daemsgavsa
TviT
uxaroda,
gogebaSvili
es
gvari,
seminariaSi...
yvela
risgan
vasos
iyo,
rom
ukvirda,
maswavlebelTagan
sixaruli
ukvirda
gansxvavebiT,
da
rom
CasZaxoda, barnaveli xaro, CasZaxoda da aiZulebda, ekiTxa qarTuli
wignebi;
ukvirda
isic,
mofarebiT,
malulad
rad
mohqonda
qarTuli
wignebi...”(CxeiZe o. 1976:64). Tumca male ,,deda-enis” Semqmneli iZulebuli
gaxades,
sasuliero
seminariidan
wamosuliyo.
Aam
faqtma
mowafeebi
Zalian daanaRvliana. yvelaze metad vasil barnovma ganicada es ambavi.
igi xSirad stumrobda saxlSi didi pedagogs, mis naTqvams, naamobs
yuradRebiT
usmenda,
,,deda
enis‟‟
masalebis
gadaweraSi
exmareboda,
koreqturas asworebda.
seminariaSi kvlav Zveli garemo dabrunda. moswavleebisTvis iq
damkvidrebuli
wesebi
rTuli,
autaneli
iyo.
Yyvelaze
mZime
ki
is
gaxldaT, rom yovelive qarTuls devnidnen, krZalavdnen. erT dRes vasil
barnovs inspeqtorma kuvSinskim aRmouCina ioane bolnelis ,,qadagebani‟‟
da saxareba Cvens enaze Sesrulebuli. Gganrisxebulma ymawvilis Tvalwin
buxarSi
dawva
aRniSnuli
wignebi.
epizodi
oTar
gaacocxla
CxeiZem
da
vasil
barnovis
komentaric
cxovrebis
daurTo.
fragmenti
mxatvruli teqstidan: ,,... da idga vaso mxrebCamoyrili, TavCaRunuli, mis
Tvalwin
iferfleboda
sagvareulo
Turqobas
gamovlili,
iferfleboda
TbilisSi,
sasuliero
seminariaSi;
saxsovari
misi
Tu
saganZuri.
mizeziTa,
Turqoba
aTas
iferfleboda
gamoatares
winaprebma,
sazrdos dahyridnen da is iyo sazrdo maTi, samoss dahyridnen da is iyo
samosi maTi, maxlobelT dahyridnen da is iyo sislxorceuli maTi da ai,
Caiwva‟‟(CxeiZe o. 1976:72).
romanis
Semdeg
TavSi
,,Suqi
alaznis
velze”
oTar
CxeiZe
mogviTxrobs romanistis sasuliero saswavleblis dasrulebis Semdgom
periods.
Aamonaridi
dasdgomoda,
aRar
gaumarjveboda?
nawarmoebidan:
icoda,
istoriaSi,
mWevrmetyvelebaSi
Tu
sad
,,gadasawyveti
ufro
met
eTnografiaSi,
mwerlobaSi?...
dro
unars
iyo
gzas
gamoiCenda,
arqeologiaSi,
ar
ra
icdida,
sad
TargmanebSi,
mihqroda
es
daudegari da ulmobeli”(CxeiZe o. 1976:76).
81
viciT, rom vasil barnovma mwerloba airCia Tavis saqmed.
misi
romanebi, moTxrobebi Cvens literaturaSi sayuradRebo TematikiTa da
mxatvruli ostatobiT gamoirCeva.
mwerali saubrobs vasil barnovis mier saqarTvelos warsulis
Rrmad,
safuZvlian
xelnaweri
Seswavlaze.
daamuSava.
miviwyebuli.
Cveni
im
Mman
droisTvis
samSoblos
araerTi
bevri
istoriuli
samagaliTo
Tavisuflebis
wyaro,
gmiri
mopovebisaTvis
iyo
didi
brZolebis gaxseneba saWiro gaxldaT mkiTxvelisaTvis. aq oTar CxeiZe
paralels avlebs aleqsandre yazbegis ,,elgujasTan”, romelSic avtorma
nawarmoebis mxatvruli kvanZis gaxsna 1804 wlis mTiuleTis ajanyebas
daakisra. aseve, igi msjelobs moTxrobaze ,,xevisberi goCa”.
azriT,
vasil
avtoris
sruli istoriuli sandoobiT daxata aRniSnul or TxzulebaSi
barnovma
Cveni
qveynis
warsulis
ramdenime
epizodi,
rogorc
prozaikosma.
oTar
CxeiZe
Rrmad
da
damajereblad
xsnis
beletristis
istoriuli romanebis Sinagan arss, mizandasaxulobas, maT mxatvrulmecnierul
analizs
nawarmoebebis
igi
ganviTarebis
Zaldautaneblad
avlebs
gvawvdis.
am
Janris
safexurebs,
msoflio
miRwevebs,
da
qarTuli
Taviseburebebs
warmoaCens TxrobaSi da maTze vrclad saubrobs,
literaturulsa
da
SemoqmedebiT
paralelebs.
Aavtori
gvTavazobs mniSvnelovan, originalur daskvnebs.
,,romani da istoriaSi” mwerali srulyofilad gadmoscems vasil
barnovis
romanebze
,,mimqrali
Saravandedis”,
,,trfoba
wamebulis”,
,,armazis msxvrevis” da sxva am Janris teqstebis, aseve, misi moTxrobebze
muSaobis process, maT mxatvrul-mecnierul analizsac gvawvdis, mohyavs
araerTi monakveTi aqedan.
oTar
CxeiZe
,,mimqrali
Saravandedis‟‟
Sesaxeb
saubrisas
wers:
,,radgan romanis qarga gurielis asulis bedma STaagona, didi erovnuli
tkivilebic imas daukavSira, imis ojaxSi gadaitana. Llevan mefe aRavso
am kurTxeuli azrebiTa, xidi gasdo kaxeTidan guriamdisa da erovnuli
erTobis, erTiani, Seuvali, mtkice, damoukidebeli xelisuflebis imedebi
dasaxa.
aseTadac
Rirseulad
diadi
daxata
miznisa,
levani
magram
Tavis
patara
qarTlis
samefoSi,
cxovrebam
daxata
sxvanairad
82
daaxasiaTa, uwoda siZvisa da mruSebis moyvaruli, qarTlis cxovrebis
yvela variantSi ewoda ase...
uaryofiTi xasiaTebis mxatvari rom yofiliyo, erT wuTsac ar
Seyoymandeboda,
_
siZvisa
da
mruSebis
moyvaruli
iyoo,
urCevdnen
istorikosebi? _ urCevdnen da gaugonebda. Mmagram ar uyvarda uaryofiTi,
naklovani, ar uyvarda, siave, siborote, ar uyvarda iseTi araferi, rac
daamcirebda adamiansa, yvelaferSi keTilis sawyiss daeZebda, yvelgan
gulisxmobda
amaRlebulsa,
undoda
rogorme
daexsna,
gaemarTlebina
adamiani...‟‟(CxeiZe o. 1976:145-146).
… Txzulebis kiTxvisas vigebT, Tu ra gafacicebiT kiTxulobda,
amuSavebda
beletristi
mwerlobas
da
mxolod
,,qarTlis
amis
cxovrebas”,
Semdgom
matianeebs,
qmnida
sasuliero
istoriul
romanebs.
prozaikosis aRniSnuli Janris nawarmoebebi aris mxatvruli istoria
saqarTvelosi.
biografiul romanSi avtori sainteresod aRwers im periods, roca
vasil barnovs, romelmac TxzulebebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi
cxovrebis
araerTi
epizodi
daxata,
iSviaTad
ubeWdavdnen
nawerebs
Jurnal-gazeTebi. redaqtorebi, gamomcemlebi iribad elaparakebodnen did
beletrists. saboloodM oc tomad Seikra romanistis
nawarmoebebi,
Tumca
oTar
mis
sicocxleSi
mxolod
ori
tomi
daistamba.
CxeiZe
SesaniSnavad xatavs vasil barnovis portrets da misi cxovrebis mZime
epizodze mianiSnebs. Aamonaridi: ,,ewyo damTavrebuli moTxrobebi Tu
romanebi,
ewyo
daubeWdavada.
rac
ibeWdeboda,
isic
aqa-iqa,
nawyvet-
nawyvetada, feletonebada, zogjer TveobiT gaiWimeboda gazeTebSi da
Tavis wamkiTxvelma araferi icoda bolosi, bolos wamkiTxvelma Tavisa.
mkiTxvelis moTmineba ver Sestoleboda avtoris moTminebasa.
moTmineba gaxldaT Tu rwmena Zlieri, sulerTia, gaZleba undoda,
undoda da gauZlo. Mmere rogor gauZlo. Mmere rogor gauZlo... mainca
hqmnida, hqmnida moTminebiTa da im surviliTa, _ icodes xalxma, rani
vyofilvarTo.
maRali
survili
iyo,
maRali,
kargi,
didebuli,
keTilSobili...”(CxeiZe o. 1976:321).
,,romani
wodebul
da
da
istoriis”
mciredni
saukeTeso
rCeul”.
aq
nawilia
aRwerilia
Tavi
ukve
,,mraval
arian
xanSiSesuli
83
romanistis cxovrebiseuli epizodebi. saocari sityvebiT axasiaTebs mas
oTar CxeiZe. Aamonaridi kvlav romanidan: ..midioda viTarca Suqi, viTarca
sinaTle, midioda da uneblieda Cerdebodnen Semxvdurni, ukan momdevnni
nabijs Seanelebdnen. nacnobni Tavs ukravdnen, ucnobnic ukravdnen Tavsa,
eTayvanebodnen. isica xrida Tavs moxdenilada, Tavmdamblurada, amayada”
(CxeiZe o. 1976:284). Aaqve davZen, rom nawarmoebis mTeli es nawili udidesi
siTboTia gaJRenTili da biografiuli romanis avtors Txroba kvlav
gadaaqvs romanistis nawarmoebebze da maTze saintereso, sayuradRebo
Sefasebas
gvawvdis.
es
Sefasebaa
Tanamokalmis
da
ara
mxolod
biografiuli romanis avtorisa. amdenad, am TvalsazrisiT kidev ufro
mniSvnelovania.
vasil barnovma qarTul istoriul romans axali, Taviseburi
JReradoba mianiWa. Mman Seqmna sakuTari, axleburi stili. oTar CxeiZe
nawarmoebs ase asrulebs: ,,did ganzraxvebs didi stilic undoda, did
stils didi jafa, TavauRebeli Sroma undoda, Sromobda da amitomac ar
aRvsila imisi cxovreba saTavgadasavlo ambebiTa, ucnauri SemTxvevebiTa,
warmtaci moulodnelobebiTa. Ees sxva cxovrebaa, Tavdadebuli Sromis
cxovrebaa,
cxovrebaa
amaRlebisaTvis
amaRlebuli
Tavdadebulisa”(CxeiZe
sulisa,
o.
1976:397).
kacTa
Aam
sulieri
amonarididanac
ikveTeba erTi mxriv, vasil barnovis pirovneba, cxovreba da meore mxriv,
Cans mwerlis saocrad Tbili damokidebuleba romanistisadmi, aseve, im
faqtebisadmi, romlebzec Txrobam mouwia.
zogadad
gamovkveToTBbiografiuli
romanis
mxatvruli
mxarec.
oTar CxeiZis mwerluri ena Tavisi bunebiT, arsiT, gamoxatvis unariTa
Tu SesaZleblobebiT gansxvavebulia qarTveli prozaikosebisgan. misi
Txrobis stili, manera gamorCeuli individualobiT xasiaTdeba. amas
adasturebs qvemoT moxmobili fragmentebi literaturuli teqstidan
,,romani da istoria‟‟.
oTar CxeiZe saocari mwerluri ostatobiT aRwers taZris ezos:
,,yvavilebiT moWedila salocavis mindori, zimzimebs mindori, nairferada
zimzimebs, asdis surneli, raRac ucnauri, gamWirvale nislic asdis,
nisli Tu TviT sxivTa cincxali, sxivebis nisli iisferi da Sig asuli,
mindvris asuli gamoxveula‟‟(CxeiZe o. 1976:15). Mmwerali peizaJebis xatvis
84
ostatia.
amis
romanidan:
dasturad
,,tyispiri
livlivebda
Semdeg
nawyvets
yvavilebiT
velis
movixmobT
moqarguliyo.
yvavilebSi,
mze
mze
livlivebda
biografiuli
daxriliyo,
da
mzis
mze
sxivebi
aferadebuliyo. irxeoda sxivebi, nanaobda, bibinebda, sio arxevda, sioc
aferadebuliyo aTasferada; aTasfer iyo, feradfer iyo, erTfer iyo
sioca;
sxivebica,
SenivTebodnen,
miwaca,
yvavilTagan
Serwymodnen
niavsa,
iyo,
oRond
dedamiwa
yvavilni
mzisTvis
sxivebs
SeebaT,
Tan
mihyvebodnen udasabamo srbolasa‟‟(CxeiZe o. 1976:287).
mxatvruli
metaforebis
romanidan:
xerxebisa
gamoyenebis
,,vasos
Tu
saxeebis:
kuTxiT
sjeroda
epiTetebis,
sagulisxmoa
zaqariasi,
Sedarebebis,
Semdegi
kurdRelasica
fragmenti
sjeroda
da
seminariaSi nazuTxi saeklesio saswaulebi iburdeboda imis gonebaSi,
iburdeboda, imRvreoda, iweweboda da undoda im Suqad, kodis taZris
Suqad aRmomxdariyo, Tavs dasdgomoda an Tundac Sors, Sors anTeboda
viTarca sveti, sveticxoveli. Uundoda, magram arsaiT iyo, ara Canda Suqi,
sawinaaRmdego fiqr-grZnobani gaxlarTuliyo. ylorti waeyara iakobis
nergsa,
imis
nazuTxebSi
mier
SerCeuli
Careuliyo
qarwyldeboda,
magram
da
wignebis
ver
ibrZoda,
madli
moreoda,
seminariis
ver
wveT-wveTad
programebiT
daewminda,
bzinavda
TviTve
gaSlil-
gabneuli‟‟(CxeiZe o. 1976:87).
OoTar CxeiZe romanSi ama Tu im moqmedebas, movlenas saocari
xatovani qarTuliT aRwers. igi xanSiSesuli vasil barnovis Sesaxeb ase
wers: ,,sibere dasdgomoda WirT ufro Zneli, xelebi ucaxcaxebda, mTeli
sxeuli
uTaxTaxebda,
veRarc
asoebi
qanaobda
inakvTeboda
kalami,
swored
lamaz-lamazada.
veRar
Mmere
gadioda
xazi,
uSnodac
aRar
gamodioda, asoebi aRar gairCeoda, zolebad iqca, klaknil, acaxcaxebul
zolebada.
im
zolebsac
rom
veRar
gaavlebda,
Svilebs
uxmobda,
ukarnaxebda‟‟(CxeiZe o. 1976:235).
Bbiografiuli
romanis
mxatvrul
mxareze
dakvirebisas
naTlad
gamovlinda, rom oTar CxeiZis mxatvruli cnobierebis sfero farTo da
mravalmxrivia. mwerlisTvis TiToeul sityvas didi datvirTva, funqcia
akisria. igi TviTmyofadi Semoqmedia.
85
dasasruls vityviT, rom prozauli teqsti
,,romani da istoria”
vasil barnovis, romanistis, moazrovnis cxovrebiseuli da SemoqmedebiTi
gzis Cvenebaa. mweralma warmoaCina klasikosis cxovreba, literaturuli
moRvaweoba da srulyofilad dagvixata misi portreti, aseve, imJamindeli
epoqa.
86
Tavi IV
rezo WeiSvilis ,,rkinis saxkomi”
Tanamedrove qarTvel prozaikosTa Soris rezo WeiSvili erT-erTi
yvelaze originaluri da TavisTavadi xelweris mweralia. Mman pirveli
moTxrobebi 1958 wels gamoaqveyna Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
almanaxSi ,,pirveli sxivi”. Semdeg man dabeWda moTxrobaTa krebulebi:
,,bzianeTi”,
,,wlevandeli
zafxuli
wyaltuboSi”,
,,kvamli”.
,,cisferi
mTebi”, romanebi: ,,Cemi megobari nodari”, mere axali redaqciiT
,,qalaqSi
dinozavrebi dadian”, aseve, ,,dali‟‟, ,,musika qarSi”, ,,rkinis saxkomi” da
sxvebi.
misi scenarebis mixedviT Seqmnilia kinofilmebi: ,,ganTiadis win”,
,,Cemi megobari nodari”, ,,bzianeTi”, ,,gamoaReT fanjrebi”, ,,zRvis mgeli”
da
ase
Semdeg.
gansakuTrebiT
aRsaniSnavia
,,cisferi
mTebi
anu
daujerebeli ambavi”, risTvisac mwerals saxelmwifo premia mieniWa.
Semoqmedis TiToeul nawarmoebSi, iqneba es moTxroba, novela, Tu
romani, naTlad SeigrZnoba xalasi iumori, satiruli nakadi da didi
sevdac. yvelaferi es mwerlis SemoqmedebiTi kredoa. misi
Txzulebebi
cxovrebiseul faqtebs asaxaven.
mwerlis moTxrobebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia personaJTa fiqrebis
avtoriseuli gamoxatva, cxadi warmosaxva-warmodgena, ufro zustad Tu
vityviT, igi dialogebis meSveobiT da moqmedebebis Cvenebisas
gvixatavs
nawarmoebis moqmed pirTa gancdebs, gadmoscems maT nafiqrs mimdinare
situaciis ama Tu im momentSi. am yvelafers is mwerliseuli maRali
ostatobiT aRwers. amasTan dakavSirebiT kritikosi guram benaSvili
wers: ,,misi prozis gmirebi Tavisi fsiqologiuri qveteqstebiT bevrad
ufro
rTulni
da
sainteresoni
arian,
vidre
erTi
SexedviT
warmogvidgenia... sevdiani RimiliT mziralni, isini mkiTxvels Zalumad
agrZnobineben ubralo adamianis mier gancdili cxovrebis sitkbosa da
simwares,
sixarulis
wamierebas
da
usasrulod
gabmul
sinanuls”(benaSvili 1995:5).
87
Semoqmedis prozaze saubrisas unda aRvniSnoT is faqti, rom igi
Tavis nawarmoebebSi naklebad mimarTavs Sedarebebs, metaforebs, magram
roca
maT
iyenebs,
iyenebs
zedmiwevniT
maRalostaturad.
mwerlis
TxzulebebSi ambis Txroba, dialogebi realisturi, bunebrivi, sxarti da
sadaa.
dRevandel qarTul istoriografiaSi sergo orjonikiZeze saubars
mcire adgili eTmoba. axlaxans gamovida oTxtomeuli, romlis meoTxe
tomi exebaA XIX-XX saukuneebis saqarTvelos istorias, sadac cnobili
bolSevikis
saxe
ikveTeba
1921
wlis
Tebervlis
cnobili
ambebis
gadmocemisas. kerZod, roca is axladCamoyalibebuli revkomis wevrebis
da filipe maxaraZis Semdeg baqodan TbiliSi Camovida. im periodSi igi
iyo rkp(b) ck-is kavbiuros Tavmjdomare da unda Seesrulebina ruseTis
beladis
direqtiva
daTmobaze
wasvlis,
social-demokratiul
mTavrobasTan kompromisis gamonaxvis Sesaxeb. TavisTavad cxadia, wignSi
aleqsandre
dauSvili
sabWoTa
respublikebis
politikuri
gaerTianebisaTvis brZolaSi mis aqtiur monawileobazec wers. mecnieri
am
SemTxvevaSi
gvawvdis
da
istoriul
sergo
faqtebs
qronologiuri
orjonikiZezec
imas
TanmimdevrobiT
mianiSnebs,
rac
albaT,
dRevandeli gadasaxediT saWiroa, aRiniSnos.
SeiZleba
gaCndes
kiTxva:
ram
gamoiwvia
rezo
WeiSvilis
daintereseba biografiuli Janris proziT? wlebis ganmavlobaSi, sabWoTa
xelisuflebis
pirobebSi
sergo
orjonikiZe
mSromeli
xalxis
keTildReobisTvis mebrZol, dadebiT pirovnebad miiCneoda. Mmweralma ki
gadawyvita, rom is sxva saxiT warmoedgina, eCvenebina
misi realuri saxe.
mas surda, Secvliliyo Sexeduleba cnobili revolucioneris Sesaxeb da
am mizniT daiwera biografiuli romanic.
,,rkinis saxkomi” 1992 wels daistamba da rogorc avtori miuTiTebs:
,,es
wigni
dawerilia
cxovrebaze”(WeiSvili
sergo
orjonikiZis
1992:2).
man
am
ukuRmarTsa
TxzulebiT
da
Seqmna
tragikul
xsenebuli
pirovnebis revoluciuri saqmianobis literaturul-istoriuli qronika.
sergo
orjonikiZe
Tavdapirvelad
iyo
ruseTis
demokratiuli muSaTa partiis wevri, romlis erT-erTi
Semdeg Tavad gaxda. igi
social-
xelmZRvaneli
gaxldaT 1905-1907 wlebSi revoluciis aqtiuri
88
monawile. male is daapatimres
tarebisaTvis,
Tumca
proklamaciebis gavrcelebis da iaraRis
rogorc
arasrulwlovani,
gaaTavisufles
da
emigraciaSi wavida germaniaSi, sadac bolSevik emigrantebs daukavSirda.
mere xan
baqoSi imyofeboda, xanac iranSi. Aaq Camosuli ramdenjerme
kvlav daatusaRes, gadaasaxles kidec. mogvianebiT man did dawinaurebas
miaRwia ruseTSi. igi iyo ukrainis
sasursaTo
saqmeTa
komisariatis
droebiTi sagangebo komisari da
sruluflebiani
revizori
samxreT
ruseTSi, wiTeli armiis xelmZRvaneli, CrdiloeT kavkasiis Tavdacvis
sabWos
Tavmjdomare.
amasTanave,
misi
TaosnobiT
azerbaijanSi,
saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi sabWoTa mmarTveloba gamocxadda.
rogorc
iTqva,
saqarTveloSi
sabWoTa
mmarTvelobis
dros,
daiwera araerTi wigni sergo orjonikiZeze, sadac misi politikuri
moRvaweoba,
mrwamsi,
gaazrebuli,
mizanswrafva
gansxvavebiT,
sxvagvarad
iyo
Semdegdroindeli
Sefasebuli
sxva
da
naSromebisagan.
garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi mas saxelovan, saxelmwifos gamoCenil
adamians, xalxTa momavali bednierebisaTvis mebrZolTa razmis erT-erT
yvelaze
Rvawlmosil wevrs uwodebdnen. Tumca mogvianebiT, naTeli
moefina yvela mis qmedebas da yvelafers Tavisi saxeli daerqva. Cven ver
amovSliT verc ,,rkinis saxkomis” cxovrebas da verc misi moRvaweobis
mZime kvals Cveni uaxlesi istoriidan. es
realobaa.
axla Tanmimdevrulad mivyveT da ganvixiloT ramdenime sagulisxmo,
CvenTvis
dawerili
mravali
TvalsazrisiT
mniSvnelovani
wigni
Tu
werili
sergo orjonikiZeze. sainteresoa sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva
avtoris Sefaseba masze: misi sicocxlis periodSi da Semdgom.
amjerad mxedvelobaSi maqvs mcire formis biografiuli narkvevi:
,,sabWoTa saxelmwifosa da komunisturi partiis gamoCenili moRvawe“
romelic
sergo
orjonikiZis
Semdgenlebi gaxlavT
CxartiSvili.
,,partiis
broSura
erT-erTi
dabadebidan
moswavleebis
dabadebidan
70
wlisTavs
mieZRvna.
l. zambaxiZe da m. kupraZe, xolo redaqtori _ s.
1956
wliT
gamoCenili
gardacvalebamde:
TariRdeba.
mSeneblis“
wiTelarmielis
social-demokratiuli
wreebis
aq
mokledaa
moRvaweobis
saubari
Sesaxeb
aqtiuri
monawileoba
muSaobaSi,
komunisturi
partiis rigebSi Sesvla, mefis TviTmpyrobelobis winaaRmdeg muSaTa da
89
glexTa
revoluciur
brZolebSi
CarTva;
misi,
rogorc
politikuri
xelmZRvanelis Camoyalibebis procesi, cixeSi ramdenjerme datusaReba,
politikuri miznebiT gamgzavreba germaniasa da baqoSi, iranSi, saqmianoba
ruseTSi. monawileoba oqtombris SeiaraRebul ajanyebaSi da
xelisuflebis
Zalebis
winaaRmdeg
ganadgurebaSi,
xelisuflebis
gamosuli
misi
gamarjveba
axagazrda
organizebiT
da
sxva.
sabWoTa
kontrrevoluciuri
amierkavkasiaSi
narkvevSi
saubaria
sabWoTa
orjonikiZis
,,damsaxurebebze“, mis pirovnebaze zogadad. broSuraSi misi sxvadasxva
Tanamdebobaze
daniSvnaze
msjelobisas
xazgasmiT
aRniSnulia,
rom
,,rkinis kacis“ dawinaureba cxovrebis ama Tu im periodSi ganpirobebuli
iyo wiTeli armielis xelmZRvanelis, organizatoris, mebrZoli bunebis
niWis wyalobiT. wignis dasasruls sagulisxmo daskvnas vkiTxulobT,
saidanac kidev erTxel vrwmundebiT, rom sruliad yalbad, mcdaradaa
Sefasebuli revolucioneris cxovreba, ,,damsaxureba“ eris winaSe: ,,mTeli
Tavisi sicocxle sergo orjonikiZem mTlianad Seswira muSaTa klasis
saqmes,
kacobriobis
ganviTarebis
saqmes,
komunizmis
saqmes.
yvela
mSromelisaTvis maxlobeli da Zvirfasia misi saxeli, ganuyofladaa
dakavSirebuli Cveni qveynis mSromelTa saxelovan ganmaTavisuflebel
brZolasTan, misi saxeli Sevida socializmis istoriaSi proletaruli
revolucionerebis
yvelaze
gmirul
saxelebTan
erTad.
misi
saxeli
saukunod icocxlebs“(zambaxiZe 1956:15).
1956
wels
gamoica
s.
CxartiSvilis
wigni
,,grigol(sergo)
konstantines Ze orjonikiZe“. naSromi biografiuli narkvevis stiliTaa
dawerili. is sam vrcel Tavs aerTianebs da mogviTxrobs bolSevikis
politikur
moRvaweobas,
ganTavisuflebisa
saqmeSi“(CxartiSvili
orjonikiZis,
Rvawls,
da
bednieri
1956:5).
rogorc
rac
wignSi
politikuri
mas
miuZRvis
,,mSromelTa
momavlisaTvis
brZolis
Tanmimdevruladaa
moRvawis
saubari
muSaobis
sergo
periodze
sxvadasxva mowinave Tanamdebobaze: Tu rodis, rogor daiwyo da ra
masStabebi moicva sabolood.
unda aRiniSnos, rom
s. CxartiSvili araerT saqebar sityvas
uZRvnis did bolSevik qarTvels da yovel mis gadadgmul nabijs, mxars
uWers da amarTlebs mis politikur gadawyvetilebebs. amas mowmobs
90
Tundac Semdegi amonaridi: ,,sergos saxels saTuTad inaxaven sabWoTa
adamianebi, romlebmac kargad ician, rom sergom mTeli Tavisi SesaniSnavi
sicocxle
mTlianad
komunizmisaTvis
ukvdavyofilia
kavSiris
da
brZolis
imiT,
rom
komunisturi
xangrZliv
savsebiT
moaxmara
saqmes...
igi
sergos
ganuyofladaa
partiisa
periodTan,
muSaTa
da
saxeli
saqmes,
samudamod
dakavSirebuli
sabWoTa
Cveni
klasis
saxelmwifos
gadamwyveti
sabWoTa
istoriis
gamarjvebis
istoriasTan“(CxartiSvili 1956: 93-94).
vfiqrob, aq vrceli komentari aRaraa saWiro, mivuTiTeb mxolod,
rom wignis avtoris, s. CxartiSvilis mosazrebebi sergo orjonikiZeze
arafriT gansxvavdeba XX
Camoyalibebuli
arsebobda.
mcdari
mas
saukunis mravali aTeuli wlis ganmavlobaSi
Sexedulebebisagan,
iziarebda
da
rac
bolSevik
amgvaradac
qarTvelze
afasebda
sabWoTa
istoriografia.
1964 wels v. kirilovisa da a. sverdlovis avtorobiT gamoica
sqeltaniani wigni ,,sergo orjonikiZe(sergo)“, romelic 16 Tavs moicavs.
is biografiuli xasiaTis teqstia. naSromi TematikiTa Tu SefasebebiT
bolSevikis
cxovrebasTan
dakavSirebiT
arafriT
gansxvavdeba
mis
winamorbedTagan. aq dawvrilebiTaa moTxrobili didi revolucioneris
moRvaweoba
CaTvliT.
dabadebidan:
naSromSi
1886
wlidan
dawvrilebiTaa
gardacvalebamde
gadmocemuli
yvela
_
1937
wlis
is
faqti
Tu
istoriul-politikuri movlena, rac ukavSirdeba
bolSevikur partias,
amasTanave,
sergo
saubaria
xelmZRvanelobiT
gaficvebze,
mowyobil
mitingebze,
amboxebebze
orjonikiZis
amierkavkasiaSi.
avtorebi
aRniSnul movlenebs mravali dokumentis, werilis, depeSis meSveobiT
aRadgenen.
isini srulyofilad aRweren jer mosamzadebel periods,
Semdeg sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebas azerbaijanSi, somxeTsa
da
saqarTveloSi ,,rkinis komisris” TaosnobiT. amonaridi: ,,xelmZRvanelobda
ra rkp(b) centraluri komitetis gadawyvetilebebiT, sergo orjonikiZem
mTavari yuradReba miaqcia saqarTvelos bolSevikebisaTvis daxmarebis
gawevas, romlebic meTaurobdnen qarTvel muSebsa da glexebs menSevikuri
xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. Seiqmna bevri upartio organizacia
91
,,revoluciuri komitetebis“ saxelwodebiT, romlebSic mowinave glexebi
Sediodnen“(kirilovi, sverdlovi 1964:178-179).
faqtia, rom rogorc Cven mier ganxilul wignSi, aseve, sxva mraval
naSromSi dadebiTadaa Sefasebuli sergo orjonikiZis is qmedebani, rac
man
saqarTvelos gasabWoebisaTvis ganaxorciela. amas kidev erTxel
adasturebs v. kirilovisa da a. sverdlovis Semdegi wardgineba: ,,1921
wlis
19
maiss
sruliad
ruseTis
cakma
g.k.
orjonikiZe
samSoblos
TavisuflebisaTvis brZolebSi mamacobisa da gmirobisaTvis daajildova
umaRlesi
sabrZolo
jildoTi
_
wiTeli
droSis
sabrZolo
ordeniT“(kirilovi... 1964:146). amasTanave, igi dainiSna rsfsr mTavrobis
warmomadgenlad TbilisSi da kvlav darCa rkp(b) centraluri komitetis
xelmZRvanelad
komisari“
amierkavkasiaSi.
saqarTveloSi
es
realobaa,
sabWoTa
ase
xelisuflebis
daafases
,,rkinis
damyarebisaTvis
gaweuli didi muSaobisa da ,,brZolisaTvis‟‟.
,,sergo orjonikiZe rkp(b) kavkasiis biuros xelmZRvaneli (ori
didi TariRis win)“ gaxlavT akaki iremaZis kritikuli werili, romelic
Jurnal ,,mnaTobis“ 1966 wlis meaTe da meTerTmete nomerSi daibeWda.
statiaSi gadmocemulia somxeTSi, azerbaijansa da saqarTveloSi sabWoTa
reJimis
damyareba.
avtori
zedmiwevniT
detalurad
aRwers
yvela
im
faqtsa Tu sakiTxs, rac aRniSnul istoriul movlenas ukavSirdeba.
amasTanave, vecnobiT
sergo orjonikiZis xelmZRvanelobiT Catarebul
muSaTa da glexTa ajanyebebs amierkavkasiaSi, rasac am respublikebis
damoukideblobis dakargva mohyva.
akaki iremaZe calsaxad akritikebs noe Jordanias mTavrobas da
,,rkinis komisris“ meTaurobiT saxalxo gamosvlebis mowyobas menSevikuri
xelisuflebis misamarTiT savsebiT samarTlianad miiCnevs. sainteresoa
1921
wlis
Tebervlis
ambebis
miseuli
Sefaseba-gaazreba.
amonaridi:
,,saqarTvelos ase swrafad da minimaluri msxverpliT ganTavisuflebaSi
didi roli Seasrula kavkasiiis biurosa da piradad sergo orjonikiZis
xelmZRvanelobiT qarTveli komunistebis mier kargad momzadebulma da
ganxorcielebulma SeiaraRebulma ajanyebam... Cveni partia, romelic axla
warmatebiT aSenebs komunistur sazogadoebas, kavkasiiis mravalferovani
xalxebi, didad afaseben sergo orjonikiZes, rogorc kavkasiis biuros
92
xelmZRvanelis brZolas kavkasiaSi mSvidobis, Zmobisa da socializmis
damkvidrebaSi“(iremaZe
TvalnaTliv
Sexeduleba
1966:158).
statiis
akaki
iremaZis
ikveTeba
mTavari
komisris
Tundac
am
monakveTidanac
araswori
Cadenil
sastik
damokidebuleba,
qmedebebze,
rac
misi
uSualo organizebiT ganxorcielda 1921 wels saqarTveloSi da rasac
mohyva damoukideblobis dakargva.
tristan
CinCilakaSvilis
statia
,,Cveni
sergo“
1986
wels
daistamba Jurnal ,,droSis“ meaTe nomerSi ,,rkinis komisris“ dabadebidan
100 wlisTavTan dakavSirebiT.
saqarTvelo am periodSi kvlav sabWoTa
kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda da amitom gasakviri araa is faqti, rom
am movlenas presis furclebze mravali adamiani gamoexmaura, daibeWda
sxvadasxva werili. maTi ZiriTadi paTosi da Tema kvlav ucvlelia:
rogorc adre, axlac xotbas, qeba-didebas asxamen sergo orjonikiZes.
amas
adasturebs zemoaRniSnuli statiac. avtori sam gverdze atevs
orjonikiZis
revoluciuri cxovrebis yvela mniSvnelovani epizodis
gadmocemas, uwonebs araerT politikur nabijs da dasasruls Semdegs
aRniSnavs: ,,sergo orjonikiZe udidesi avtoritetiT sargeblobda Cvens
partiaSi da sabWoTa mSromelebSi. medgari bolSevikis saxeli missave
sicocxleSi
miekuTvna
asobiT
fabrika-qarxanas
da
dawesebulebas,
mravali qalaqis quCas, moedansa da prospeqts, gemsa da mwvervals.
orjonikiZis
saxeli
erTnairad
Zvirfasia
sabWoeTis
qveynis
yvela
xalxisaTvis“(CinCilakaSvili 1986:3).
amgvarad,
meoce saukuneSi araerTi aTeuli wlis ganmavlobaSi
sxvagvarad iyo warmoCenili ,,rkinis saxkomis“ cxovrebiseuli epozodebi,
politikuri gadawyvetilebebi.
welia,
ukve
realurad
,,damsaxurebac“
Tumca,
Sefasda
daaxloebiT
revolucioneris
ukanaskneli oci
,,Rvawlica“
da
qarTveli eris winaSe. mecnierebi sul sxva konteqstSi
ganixilaven bolSevikis rols da mniSvnelobas Cveni qveynis istoriaSi.
me-20 saukunis meore naxevris dasasrulidan, konkretulad ki, 90-iani
wlebidan daiwyo ,,didi revolucioneris‟‟ biografiis realurad asaxva,
gaanalizeba
nabijisa.
,,wiwamuris
mis
mier
gadadgmuli
araerTi
sayovelTaod
cnobili
maT Soris erT-erTia istorikos guram yoranaSvilis wigni:
tragediis
saidumlo“.
igi
sainteresod,
amomwuravad
93
msjelobs
qarTveli
mkvlelobaze
iSveliebs
narkvevi,
da
iqve
aRniSnul
naSromi,
mwerlis,
sazogado
damajerebel,
movlenaze.
werili,
moRvawis,
ilia
angariSgasawev
avtorma
sxvadasxva
uxvad
WavWavaZis
argumentebsac
gamoiyena
dokumenturi
mravali
wyaro
da
maTi
gadmocemis wyalobiT mkiTxveli misi daskvnebis sisworeSi rwmundeba.
guram yoranaSvili sayuradRebo azrs gamoTqvams ilia WavWavaZis
mkvlelze, e.w. ,,imerel biWze“. misi mosazrebiT,
orjonikiZe.
rogorc
mecnieri
miuTiTebs,
am
swored is iyo sergo
azrs
TanamedroveTagan
iziareben; amasve werdnen: vaxtang gurgeniZe, aleqsandre sigua, guram
SaraZe da giorgi bezirgani.
wignSi ,,wiwamuris
tragediis saidumlo“ avtori damajereblad
mogviTxrobs ,,rkinis komisris“ pirovnebaze, mis mzakvrul bunebaze. is
CvenTvis kargad cnobil istoriul faqtsac ixsenebs da saintereso
Sefasebasas
gvTavazobs:
,,roca
sabWoTa
xelisuflebis
mier
dapatimrebuli vaJa-fSavelas ufros vaJs, levans daxvretas upirebdnen,
sergo
orjonikiZesTan
umaRlesi
(imxanad
warmomadgeneli
sazogadoebriobis
delegacia
bolSevik-komunisturi
gaxldaT
misula
xelisuflebis
amierkavkasiaSi)
TxovniT
da
qarTveli
ganucxadebia:
,,nu
daxvretT vaJa-Savelas Sviliao“. ,,triumfators“ amaze upasuxia: ,,Svili
ki ara, TviTon vaJa-fSavelac rom iyos, imasac davxvretavdio“. xom
uaRresad SemaZrwunebeli, Semzaravi faqtia: ilias erT-erTi mkvleli
acxadebda, rom meore did qarTvels, vaJa-fSavelasac daxvretda. cxadia,
ilia
da
vaJa-fSavela
warmoSobiT
sul
sxvadasxva
socialur
fenas
miekuTvnebodnen, magram mTavari xom iyo maTi erTnairi suliskveTebamamuliSviloba
da
aqedan
gamomdinare,
movaleoba
samSoblos
TavisuflebisaTvis brZolisa. magram ubadruk sergo orjonikiZisa da
,,ZmaTa misTaTvis“ msgavsi mcnebebi gaugebari
guram
yoranaSvilis
mraval adgilas vecnobiT.
Sexedulebas
darCa“(yoranaSvili 2003:196).
,,rkinis
komisarze‟‟
wignSi
movixmob monakveTs, sadac kidev erTxel
xazgasmiT ikveTeba avtoris uaryofiTi damokidebuleba bolSevikisadmi:
,,ai, aseTi sulieri wyobisa iyo ,,rkinis saxkomi“ sergo orjonikiZe,
romelmac
stalinTan,
filipe
maxaraZesTan
da
sxvebTan
erTad
usazizRresi roli iTamaSa saqarTvelos uaxloes istoriaSi. Tu amas
94
maSin bevri ver xedavda da saTanadod ver afasebda, drois istoriuli
gadasaxedidan, msgavs pirovnebaTa ,,istoriuli Semonaqmedis“ didi kraxis
Jams, axla yvelaferi naTeli unda iyos. yovel SemTxvevaSi imaTTvis,
romelTac
Tvalebi
aqvT
da
yurebi,
rom
dainaxon,
xolo
_
ena
sinamdvilis gasacxadeblad“(yoranaSvili 2003:200).
muxran maWavarians erT-erT usaTauro leqsSi, romelic 1995 wels
gamocemul lirikuli nawarmoebebis krebulSi aqvs Setanili,
cxadia,
uaryofiT konteqstSi hyavs warmoCenili sergo orjonikiZis saxe:
marTlmsajulebis kars amaod vebRauWebiT!saqme imgvarad dagviyena radgan sergoma,mkrTali naTeli saqarTvelos SenarCunebis,miwis
gveTvlebis
sxvisas
xelyofad!
yofa gvitires,erTi sityviT,_
qarTvelT
jer kobam!_
mere sergoma!“...(maWavariani 1995:213).
nodar grigalaSvili wignSi ,,Tanmdevi suli“ (meore tomi, 2011 w.)
sakmaod dawvrilebiT mogviTxrobs qarTveli sazogado moRvawis ilia
WavWavaZis
mkvlelobis SemkveTebze, Semsruleblebze. unda aRiniSnos,
rom is am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT istorikos guram yoranaSvilisgan
gansxvavebul azrs gamoTqvams. is sergo orjonikiZes am saqmeSi brals ar
sdebs, miaCnia, rom mas araviTari kavSiri hqonda zemoxsenebul sakiTxTan.
amonaridi: ,,mTavari organizatori ilia WavWavaZis mklelobisa, cxadia,
bolSevikebis mTavari komiteti gaxldaT. es aris faqti. 1907 wlis maisis
Semdgom centrTan SeTanxmebis gareSe akrZalulia yoveli TviTmoqmedeba.
Tu adre Zarcva bankebisa Tu sxva dawesebulebaTa iyo sasaxelo saqme,
axla igive qmedeba isjeba partiuli sasjeliT, _ minimum partiidan
garicxviT da maqsimum sikvdiliT... partiuli teroristi SeuTanxmeblad
moqmedebisaTvis Tavad isjeba sikvdiliT. am viTarebaSi ilias mkvlelTa
95
siTamame
ganpirobebulia
komitetidan
imiT,
rom
maT
hqondaT“(grigalaSvili
davaleba
partiis
mTavari
Tavisi
azris
2011:524;527).
gasamyareblad mecnieri 1907 wlis 13 ivniss erevnis moedanze momxdar
Zarcvas ixsenebs, roca stalinis uSualo xelmZRvanelobiT kamom da
misma bandam xelyumbariT amoxoces mcvelebi da gaitaces xazinis fuli
250 000 maneTi. am faqtTan dakavSirebiT aurzauri atyda da iqve, nodar
grigalaSvili
dasZens,
rom
im
periodSi
swored
ioseb
juRaSvili
gaxldaT bolSevikuri organizaciis lideri, ,,erTi sityviT, im dros
stalini iyo is figura, romlis davalebiT an romelTan SeTanxmebiT
xdeba yvela partiuli teraqti an eqspropriacia da mainc viRac fiqrobs,
ratom gawiravda is kaci ilias, romlis pirveli leqsebi swored iliam
dastamba ,,iveriis“ furclebze? ara, Tu dasWirdeboda,
ilias ratom ver
gawiravda? calkeul mkvlevarTa azri Sesaxeb imisa, rom stalini ilias
mkvlelobis dros baqoSi iyo, arafers niSnavs. gadawyvetlebis miReba
iqac
SeiZleboda.
Cven
aranairi
interesi
ar
gvaqvs
stalinis
dadanaSaulebisa ilias mkvlelobaSi, magram faqtia is, rom partiuli
mkvleloba
mTavari
yrilobis
komitetis
Semdeg.
am
organizebiT
mTavar
xdeboda,
komitets
gansxvavebiT
ki
V
juRaSvili
xelmZRvanelobda“(grigalaSvili 2011:538-539).
rac Seexeba konkretulad ilia WavWavaZis mkvlelobis uSualo
Semsruleblebs, amasTan dakavSirebiTac gamoTqvams nodar grigalaSvili
Tavis mosazrebas. misi azriT, ,,erTi imereli“ iyo iliko imerliSvili,
maSin duSeTis mazris erT-erTi SeiaraRebuli bandis yvelaze sastiki
meTauri, bolSeviki, romelmac fSavliSvilTan da feiqriSvilTan erTad
gamoasalma qarTveli mwerali sicocxles. amonaridi: ,,faqti erTia, ar
arsebobs
argumenti,
ideologiis
raJden
ris
gamoc
kalaZis
eWvi
mier
unda
sabWoTa
SevitanoT
droSi
bolSevikTa
gamoqveynebul
sityvebSi, ilia ,,tyis Zmebis“ meTaurs moakvlevineso. im dros
,,tyis
Zmebis“ bolSeviki meTauri duSeTis mazraSi mxolod iliko imerliSvili
iyo“(grigalaSvili 2011:542). aseTia nodar grigalaSvilis mosazreba ilia
WavWavaZis mkvlelis vinaobaze.
amgvarad, Cvens mier ganxiluli sxvadasxva wignidan Tu kritikuli
werilidan
cxadi
xdeba,
rom
araerTi
avtoris
mier
gamoTqmuli
96
mosazrebani
sergo
orjonikiZis
pirovnebasa
Tu
mis
politikur
moRvaweobaze mravalferovania.
rezo
yovelgvari
gareSe
WeiSvilis
biografiul
Selamazebis,
detaluradaa
mxatvruli
mxatvrulad
romanSi
,,rkinis
saxkomi”
gamonagonis,
zedmeti
fantaziis
daxatuli
sergo
orjonikiZis
politikuri moRvaweoba _ dasawyisi da dasasruli: monawileobis miReba
nebismieri
istoriuli
gamaxvilebulia
movlenis
ruseTis
gadawyvetaSi.
dampyroblur,
aqve
yuradReba
mzakvrul
gegmebze.
mkiTxvelisaTvis am romaniT gasagebi xdeba sabWoTa imperiis politika.
ivane amirxanaSvilis SefasebiT: ,,rkinis saxkomi” mwerlis ,,ucnaur”
nawarmoebTa rigs unda mivakuTvnoT imiT, rom uzarmazari istoriulinformaciuli
masala
gatarebulia
orjonikiZis
cxovrebaze
Seqmnilia
sainteresod
ikiTxeba,
gamovlenilia
zogjer
ki
rac
mwerlis
Seburuli,
albaT,
mxatvrul
biografiuli
imis
da
romani,
rom
damaxasiaTebeli
gaugebari
sergo
romelic
damsaxurebacaa,
SemoqmedebisaTvis
raRacnairad
quraSi
aq
mZafri,
ironia”(amirxanaSvili
2003:98).
literatori vaJa miqelaZe kritikul werilSi ,,rkinis saxkomze”
msjelobisas
aRniSnavs,
rom:
,,wigni
cnobil
dokumentebTan
erTad
eyrdnoba SedarebiT ucnob masalebsac _ dokumentur Canawerebsa da
zepir gadmocemebs, raTa maxvili da ironiuli mzeriT TvalsaCinod
gaSiSvldes aramarto kerZo pirovnebis zneobrivi gadagvareba, aramed am
epoqis, ideologiis
is namdvili saxe, rac aseTma adamianebma Seqmnes da
TviTonve mis tyveobaSi moeqcnen”(miqelaZe 1992:16).
Cveni mxriv aRvniSnavdiT, romanSi ,,rkinis saxkomi” dawvrilebiTaa
moTxrobili
orjonikiZis
nawarmoebis mixedviT,
asakSi.
is
am
revolucionerad
Camoyalibebis
igi partiis wevri 1903
periodisTvis
ukve
procesi.
wels gaxda, 17 wlis
TbilisSi
iyo
da
saferSlo
saswavleblidan adevnebda Tvals ilia WavWavaZis da axalgazrda noe
Jordanias Soris Semdgar kamaTs marqsizmze, politekonomiaze... maleve
Seekedla rus
da qarTvel marqsistebs, amasTanave, ruseTis social-
demokratiuli
partiis
wevric
gaxda,
daiwyo
proklamaciebis
gavrceleba. man 1906 wels gaicno stalini. am ukanasknels igi moswonebia
97
da
rCeva-darigeba
gansakuTrebiT
miucia:
kargad
jer
ikiTxe,
Seiswavle
swavla-ganaTlebas
marqsizmi,
misi
mieZale.
safuZvlebio,
Tan
wignebis siac miucia.
sergo orjonikiZe ukve 34 wlis asakSi kavkasiis mTel samxedro
politikas
xelmZRvanelobda.
rezo
WeiSvili
dawers:
,,sergos
metad
uferuli, internacionalur-kavkasiuri saxeli sergo SerCa bolomde da
amasve
dasjerda,
gvarisTvis
xeli
ar
uxlia.
rkinis
saxkoms
bevrs
eZaxdnen, maT Soris _ eJovs. sergo am wodebiT arcaa cnobili, magram,
radgan maSin yvela saxkomi, Tu ki igi mavnebeli ar aRmoCndeboda,
rkinisa iyo rkinisved davtoveT _ ,,rkinis saxkomi”(WeiSvili 1992:234).
Mmwerali romanSi imowmebs erT-erT dokumentur wyaros, romelic
Sedgenilia moskovis maSindeli politikuri liderebis mier. movitan
amonarids: ,,is sakiTxebi, romlebic CrdiloeT kavkasias Seexeba, SeuZlia
gadawyvitos viwro kolegiam sergos dauswreblad. yvela is sakiTxi ki,
romelic amierkavkasias Seexeba (saqarTvelo jer dapyrobili ar aris)
mxolod misi TandaswrebiT unda gadawydes”(WeiSvili 1992:10). vfiqrob,
Tundac
mxolod
am
sityvebidan
ukve
cxadi
xdeba
ramxela
uflebamosileba aqvs orjonikiZes TanapartileTa mxridan. am brZanebis
avtorebs kargad moexsenebodaT partiis mzakvruli gegmebi da miznebi, ra
Tqma
unda,
maTi
meSveobiT
da
mowadinebiT
ukve
SemdgomSi
ganxorcielebuli.
im
periodis
damoukidebloba.
iyo
erT-erTi
sxvadasxva
rTuli
sakiTxia
mosazreba.
romanis
saqarTvelos
avtori
dawers:
,,qarTvelma social-demokratebma aRiares da Sinagani yoymanis Semdeg
gamoacxades
saqarTvelos
damoukidebloba.
amierkavkasiis
seimma
daasrula arseboba. saqarTvelos istoriaSi Camodga saxelmwifoebrivi
mmarTvelobis
aRdgenis
Tanmimdevrulad
axali,
xanmokle
era”(WeiSvili
da
mogviTxrobs im ambebs, rac mohyva aRniSnul movlenas.
am faqtma didi aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia bolSevikebSi:
ajanyebebi,
1992:91)
eTnokrizisebis
organizeba.
noe
daiwyes gaficvebi,
Jordania
da
misi
Tanamoazreebi cdilobdnen, dapirispirebodnen maT. Tumca, saqarTvelos
damoukideblobas didxans ar uzeimia.
98
biografiul
mondomebiT
romanSi
gegmavda
da
vrcladaa
Semdeg
gadmocemuli,
ganaxorciela
Tu
rogor
sabWoTa
ruseTma
kavkasiis qveynebis damorCileba, Tavisi mmarTvelobis damyareba. mwerali
yvela
im
politikuri
lideris
saxes
xatavs,
romlebic
uSualod
monawileobdnen saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dakargvaSi.
wiTelarmielebTan brZolaSi 1921 wlis TebervalSi saqarTvelos
jari damarcxda. rogorc rezo WeiSvili wers, 25 Tebervals sergo
orjonikiZem moskovSi gaagzavna ,,samaxareblo, dReisaTvis istoriuli
dokumenti: ,,Tbilisze sabWoTa xelisuflebis wiTeli droSa frialebs.
gaumarjos
sabWoTa
xelisuflebas!‟‟(WeiSvili
1992:133).
saWiroa
erTi
mniSvnelovani faqtis dazusteba. rusudan niSnianiZis wignSi ,,saqarTvelo
samans aqeT... da samans iqiT‟‟...(tomi I,2005) erT-erT TavSi: ,,politikuri
kalendari‟‟
gamoqveynebulia
depeSis
originali,
ramac
cxadyo,
rom
zemoaRniSnuli dokumentis gagzavnis adgili nacvalad moskovisa, aris
baqo. mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi istoriul wignebSi arasworad iyo
miTiTebuli
romanSic.
xsenebuli
Progorc
faqti.
ukve
Aaseve,
iTqva,
rezo
pirvelad
WeiSvilis
am
biografiul
istoriul
simarTles
tkiviliTaa
aRwerili
rusudan niSnianiZis wignSi vecnobiT.
Mmxatvrul
nawarmoebSi
detalurad
da
saqarTvelis gasabWoebis periodi. amonaridi: ,,saocrad wynari da mziani
marti
idga
im
wels.
Toliebis
gundebiT
daTeTrwinwklebuli
zRva
cisfrad livlivebda. italiis mtredisferi gemebi ,,vesta” da ,,maria”
irweodnen.
mzis
amosvlisas
gacurdnen
gasrialebul
saqarTvelosgan
wyalze.
cxvirebSemobrunebulebi
Tavgzaabneuli
qarTvelebi
idgnen
gembanze gacriatebul gaTenebaSi, ukanasknelad xedavdnen saqarTvelos
mTebs
da
furcelic
saqarTvelos
istorias.
ixureboda”(WeiSvili
erTi
morigi
1992:130).
Cvens
tragikuli
istoriis
qveyanaSi
sabWoTa
xelisufleba damyarda.
rogorc
vTqviT,
qronologiuri
peripetiebi.
1926
biografiul
TanmimdevrobiTaa
wels
sergo
romanSi
aRwerili
orjonikiZe
araferia
gamotovebuli,
bolSevikis
Crdilo-kavkasiis
cxovrebis
samxareo
komitetis pirvel mdivnad daniSnes. igi rostovSi gaemgzavra, maleve iq
muSaTa
da
glexTa
inspeqciis
centraluri
sakontrolo
komisiis
99
komisroba Caabares. fragmenti romanidan: ,,ase amrigad, datova sergom
amierkavkasia, saqarTvelo, sadac amdeni usiamovneba Sexvda; bolSevikuri
partiis yvela beladis Sewuxeba, xeldaxel Cxubi, tyviis eniT laparaki
daWirda...
wavida
da
datova
TvaldaxelSua
Semodnobili
saukeTeso
wlebi, momCivani Tanamdebobis pirebi da ukmayofilo xalxi”(WeiSvili
1992:191).
vidre
romanis
,,rkinis
saxkomi‟‟
sxva
personaJebze
saubars
daviwyebT, saWirod vTvliT. yuradReba gavamaxviloT erT mniSvnelovan
sakiTxze.
rogorc
wesi,
umetes
SemTxvevaSi
biografosi
Tavisi
biografiuli romanis mTavar personaJad irCevs iseT pirovnebas, romlis
moRvaweobis mimarTac aqvs raime dadebiTi damokidebuleba da surs,
warmoaCinos misi cxovrebis gza wignis saSualebiT farTo auditoriis,
mkiTxveli
sazogadoebis
WeiSvilis
pozicia
winaSe.
cnobili
CvenTvis
amjerad
revolucioneris,
sainteresoa
qarTveli
rezo
bolSevikis
Sesaxeb. movixmob amonaridebs nawarmoebidan, raTa am sakiTxze swored
mweralis
romanidan:
ymawvilma
mimarTeba
gamovlindes
,,RoreSaSi
bevri
sergo
dabadebulma,
aWena
gzaze
da
orjonikiZeze.
naxevrad
ugzoze
upatronod
Tavisi
Ffragmenti
gazrdilma
sicocxlis
cxeni...
izrdeboda laRad, umeTvalyureod, uyvarda nadiroba, jiriTi...
WenebiT Semoakvda naTesavis Waki da ar damala. Mme movkalio
ganacxada. marTalia, sofelSi mokvla cxenisa, ra viTarebaSi ar unda
Semogexarjos, igi ar daimaleba, magram danaSaulis aRiareba, marTlis
Tqma
Rirsebaa
da
ase
simarTliT
iara
mTeli
cxovrebao
ver
vityviT‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:6). sxvagan wers: ,,sergos, kavkasiis samxedro da
samoqalaqo mmarTveloba rom Caibara, 34 weli ar hqonda gasrulebuli. 34
weli RoreSeli biWi mefisnacvlis adgilSi iyo ukve Camdgari. ramdenime
xnis Semdeg, dRevandeli gagebiT, zrdasrulma sergom sxvisi karnaxmiTiTebiTa
da
sakuTari
iniciativiTac
sagamgeblo
samflobeloebis
sazRvrebis gadanawileba daiwyo, sadao, sisxlismRvreli samanebi datova
sanam ormocisa gaxdeboda. 50 wlisam ki gaasrula sicocxle. daRlils,
gatexils, daavadebuls dasasrulis win bevr rameze Seecvleboda azri
da Sexeduleba...
100
TanamemamuleebTan ar swyalobda bedi, Torem didad afasebdnen
komunistebi,
gamoCenili
partiuli
da
sazogado
moRvaweni‟‟(WeiSvili
1992,33-34).
rezo
WeiSvilma
biografiuli
romanze
muSaobisas
moiZia
ara
mxolod saarqivo masala sxvadasxva arqivsa Tu biblioTekaSi daculi,
aramed igi sofel RoreSaSi sergo orjonikiZis axloblebsac Sexvda.
avtorma maTganac moismina mogonebebi qarTvel bolSevikze da erT-erT
xanSiSesul naTesavTan, mixakosTan saubari
TxzulebaSi.
Mmwerals
surda,
rom
dialogis formiT CaurTo
,,rkinis
saxkomSi‟‟
mxolod
dokumenturi masala ar moewodebina, radgan esaa mxatvruli nawarmoebi
da dialogic amitom SemogvTvaza.
Emixako
rodesac
ixsenebs
is
revolucionerTan
samsaxuris
giorgi abesalomiCTan
Sexvedris
saTxovnelad
mivida
dRes
sergos
TbilisSi,
biZaSviliTan,
erTad. amonaridi: ,,xakis bluza ecva samxedro,
idayvebSi gadaxevamde gadacveTili, raa eso, abesalomiCma uTxra, ra
gacviao. sxva aq veraferi dainaxeo, ras momCerebixar am bluzaze, raSi
gainteresebs,
amas
aqcevT
Tqven
kide
yuradRebas,
amiT
afasebT
adamianebso!... gviyvira mara ra gviyvira...
_
ratom ecva, batono mixako, Zveli xalaTi?
_
patiosneba
iyo,
batono
maSin,
patiosneba...
sergo
namdvili
bolSeviki iyo, ase iyvnen sxvebic...
Ppatiosanma bolSevikma sergom, daxeuli xalaTi rom ecva, batono
mixako, miaxvrita vaJa-fSavelas Svili levan razikaSvili, kita abaSiZis
vaJi, 24 wlis gia abaSiZe sxvebi da sxvebi, romelTa wminda da naTeli
xsovnis winaSe Tavs xris yvela qarTveli‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:47). aq kargad
ikveTeba rezo WeiSvilis damokidebuleba orjonikiZis mimarT.
rezo WeiSvili romanSi exmianeba sergo orjonikiZis wasvlas Cveni
qveynidan 1926 wels. Nnawarmoebis am epizodidanac TvalnaTliv ikveTeba
misi damokidebuleba bolSevikis mimarT Tu ra kritikuli da amasTanave,
realisturia.
Ffragmenti
,,rkinis
droc
dRe
datovebda
dadga.
dReze
saxkomidan‟‟:
igi
,,sergos
gamgzavrebis
amierkavkasias,
dabeCavebul,
morCil saqarTvelos. Yyvela siglaxeSi miiRo monawileoba, yvela siave
daamkvidra
samSobloSi
proletariatisa
da
internacionalizmis
101
saxeliT. Aaxali tipis rusuli imperiis gasaZliereblad iRvawa, mospo
eklesia-monastrebi,
gaanadgura
saydrebi,
wabilwa
wmindanTa
nawilebi‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:183). Mmwerali iqve ixsenebs 1923 wlis dasawyiSi
momxdar sazarel faqtebs: ,,argveTis mTavarTa daviT da konstantines
Tavis qalebi aburTaves quTaisSi valia baxtaZis meTaurobiT, mowameTa
Zvelebi aCxarunes quCebSi baxtaZis Tanakurselebma da es faqti sergo
orjonikiZem siamayiT moixsenia:
,,... axalma centralurma komitetma saqarTveloSi antireligiuri
kampania gaSala. Uunda mogaxsenoT, rom am kampaniis Sedegebi maocebs.
warmoidgineT
mazrebi(senakisa),
aris
iseTi
adgilebi,
sadac
erT
eklesiasac ver SexvdebiT; eklesiebi iq skolebad da saavadmyofoebad
gadaakeTes...
daaviwyda
eTqva:
Tavlebad,
sajiniboebad,
sawyobebaTac‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:183). vfiqrob, aqac Zalian kargad Cans sergos
buneba da avtoris poziciac. A
axla rac Seexeba sergo orjonikiZis garemocvas. romanSi ramdenime
CvenTvis
kargad
cnobili
personaJia.
isini
istoriuli
pirovnebebi
gaxlavT: stalini, filipe maxaraZe, lavrenti beria, noe Jordania...
adamianebi
nawarmoebSi
es
sxvadasxva
gvevlinebian,
iqneba
ruseTis
saqarTvelos
damoukideblobis
istoriuli
movlenis
social-federalistebis
aRdgena,
dakargva,
es
aRwerisas
aRmavloba,
sabWoTa
kavSiris
,,miRwevebze“ msjeloba Tu sxva da ase warmoCindebian TxzulebaSi.
rezo WeiSvils biografiul romanSi sainteresod aqvs daxatuli
ioseb juRaSvili, rogorc literaturuli personaJi. sosom sasuliero
seminariis swavlis periodSi noe Jordanias revoluciur brZolebSi
monawileobis TxovniT mimarTa. am ukanasknels gaxarebia seminarielis
xilva da Semdeg misi gacnobis dRe ase aRwera, amonaridi romanidan:
,,sanam rCevas mivcemdi, msurda gamego, Tu ra gonebrivi sagzali aqvs da
Camovugde
saubari
sxvadasxva
sakiTxze
istoriidan,
sociologiidan.
naxevarsaaaTiani musaifis Semdeg aSkara gaxda, rom am ymawvils yvela im
dargze sruliad zerele warmodgeba
avla-dideba
amoiwureba
,,kvalis“
aqvs, mTeli misi sapropagando
statiebiT
da
kauckis
,,erfrutis“
programiT“(WeiSvili 1992:14). TviTganviTareba urCia sosos Jordaniam da
wasakiTxi wignebi dausaxela, razec daboRmila da masTan ar gamoCenila.
102
juRaSvilma cota xanSi mesame daselTa winaaRmdeg propaganda daiwyo,
did komunistad Camoyalibda.
stalini
iyo
erT-erTi
is
pirovneba,
romelmac
1921
wels
politbiuros wevrebs ganucxada, sergo orjonikiZesTvis daevalebinaT
saqarTvelos
gasabWoebis
organizeba.
romanSi
xazgasmulia,
rom
igi
Zalian aqtiurad, didi mondomebiT iyo CarTuli qveynis damoukideblobis
dakargvasTan
dakavSirebiT
yvela
gadawyvetilebis
miRebaSi.
rezo
WeiSvili miuTiTebs: ,,modioda dro. ar adgeboda saqarTvelos dapyrobas
saSveli. nerviulobda amis gamo ori qarTveli. erTi baqoSi askdeboda
guls, meores moskovSi mosaxdenis aucileblobaze eRimeboda“(WeiSvili
1992:114).
rezo WeiSvili mkiTxvels aseT dialogs SesTavazebs:
orjonikiZes
SeekiTxeba:
,,ra
Zalebi
dagvWirdeba,
rom
stalini
davamarcxoT
saqarTvelo. SegviZlia Tu ara viqonioT sruli gamarjvebis imedi?!”
(WeiSvili1992:115).
dakavSirebiT.
amonaridi
orjonikiZem ar
gamarjvebis
araferi
sainteresoa
iyo
romanidan:
viciT, ras
sruli
sanerviulo,
TvalTaxedva
,,ra
upasuxa
amasTan
konkretulad
upasuxebda, vxvdebiT. SeeZlo ise gaeca
garanti
ruseTis imperiasac
mwerlis
da
stalinsac
aRar
gautydeboda
misi
samSoblos
bedi
gadawyvetili
Zili.
iyo.
aRar sWirdeboda amdeni mzadeba. sul TvenaxevarSi
daadgamdnen saqarTvelos isev uRels, ufro magrad wauWerdnen apeurebs,
vidre odesme”(WeiSvili 1992:115).
TxzulebaSi sainteresodaa gadmocemuli sergo orjonikiZisa da
stalinis urTierToba. amasTan dakavSirebiT mwerals romanSi CarTuli
aqvs orjonikiZis qaliSvilis, eTeris mogonebebi, rac xsenebul sakiTxze
naTel
warmodgenas
Tavdapirvelad.
uqmnis
stalinis
mkiTxvels:
uzarmazari
,,mama
suraTi
aRmerTebda
ekida
stalins
kabinetSi,
sawer
magidaze... samsaxurSi rom midioda, kremlidan gasvlisas, me skolaSi
mivyavdi, Sofers manqanis Cqara wayvanis uflebas ar aZlevda: nela
gaiare,
piriqiT
stalini
akeTebda:
albaT
muSaobs,
stalinis
binis
myudroeba
win
ar
daerRveso.
aRmuvlebda
manqanas,
Bbolos,
Sofers
uyviroda, gazs moumate, Cqara wadio”(WeiSvili 1992:10).
103
literaturuli reminiscenciiT ioseb juRaSvilze saubrisas ar
SeiZleba ar gagvaxsendes
qarTveli mwerali grigol robaqiZe da misi
naazrevi stalinze, rasac adasturebs romanSi ,,Cakluli suli”
,,stalinis horoskopi”
Tavi
da misi gamosvlebi tribunaze sxvadasxva dros.
grigol robaqiZe iyo erT-erTi pirveli, romelic siRrmiseulad Cawvda
bolSevizmis
Semoqmedi
arss
didi
uyurebda,
da
warmoaCina
moazrovne
miTumetes,
misi
Sinagani sawyisebi. Eemigranti
gaxldaT,
Tu
saqme
yvelafers
Tavisi
maxvili
samSoblos
beds
TvaliT
exeboda.
juRaSvilma XX saukunis saqarTvelos istoriaSi didi roli Seasrula
da
amdenad,
grigol
warmoadgenda.
robaqiZis
Mmwerali
portrets. Ffragmenti
gansakuTrebuli
sakmaod
sainteresod
interesis
xatavs
sagans
juRaSvilis
romanidan ,,Cakluli suli”: ,,stalini nabijebs
katasaviT nela, rbilad adgamda, TiTqos surda, raRacas damalvoda an
vinmes SeumCnevlad Tavs dasxmoda... mas hqonda kargi mexsiereba – ara
maxsovroba! – Zlieri, civi logika. is daSorda RmerTs da TavaSvebul
TviTmmarTvelad
aRzarda
Tavi. is yvelgan cuds xedavda da sadac
keTils Sexvdeboda, damcinavad iRimeboda... sicocxlis mimarT mtrulad
iyo ganwyobili da yvelgan mtrebi elandeboda. Mmtris dasaZlevad ori
ram aris saWiro: TavdaWera da ironia. stalinis TavdaWera iogebisas
gavda, xolo misi ironia ubadlo iyo. Nnela, gaunZrevlad, gulgrilad
aRizianebda igi mowinaaRmdeges, aqezebda, dascinoda, wyobidan gamohyavda.
is ciliwamebiTa da damcirebiT spobda Tavis mtrebs. amaSi umowyalo da
sastiki iyo”(robaqiZe 2012:566;569).
grigol robaqiZe erT-erT vrcel werilSi ,,saubari kardhusTan”,
romelic 1948-1949 wlebiT TariRdeba, sxartad da lakonurad ,,rkinis
saxkomis‟‟ mTavar personaJzec
wers, masTan Sexvedras ixsenebs: ,,1930
wels Semodgomis miwurulSi, moskovSi viyavi: vcdilobdi, raime gziT
nebarTva
mimeRo
evropaSi
gamgzavrebisaTvis.
vinaxule
orjonikiZec.
vicnobdi Soridan – micnobda Soridan. Kkargad mimiRo, gaimarTa saubari.
saubarSi
uecrad
Cemma
,,lamaramac‟‟
wamoyo
Tavi:
misi
legendaluri
gamarjveba saTeatro olimpiadaze moskovSi, 1930 wels, zafxulSi, jer
kidev ar iyo minelebuli. ,,ra dagiweria, kaco!‟‟ momarTa moulodnelad
da
TiTqo
gajavrebiT.
,,raRac
ultranacionalisturi,
104
ultrapatriotuli!‟‟ saxtad davrCi – ras mivugebdi?!
mTeli
taniT
–
TiTqo
marjvenaTi
mololiaveba
Semdeg gadmoqanda
undoda
Cemi
–
da
silaRiT gabadrulma gadmomZaxa zemo imeruli kiloTi: ,,kai kia da!” da
es
,,kai
kia
da”
exla
liToniviT
xmianobs
xolme
Cems
xsovnaSi
mogonebebisas. Aai, kardu, Seni fesvi! xedav rogor ,,xarobs‟‟ igi ,,mamal‟‟
bolSevikSiac
ki!‟‟(robaqiZe
2012:160).
sagulisxmo
da
mravlismTqmelia
grigol robaqiZis es mogoneba bolSevik qarTvelze.
vinaidan grigol robaqiZe da misi Sexedulebebi vaxseneT stalinze,
sergo
orjonikiZeze,
biografiul
warmoudgenelia
romanze
,,kardu
anu
ar
visaubroT
grigol
akaki
robaqiZis
baqraZis
cxovreba
da
Rvawli”,M romelic swored qarTveli emigranti mwerlis cxovrebasa da
moRvaweobaze mogviTxrobs. saWirod vTvliT, garkveulwilad aRniSnuli
mxatvruli teqstis Sesaxebac vimsjeloT.
akaki baqraZe gaxldaT kritikosi, xelovnebaTmcodne, SesaniSnavi
mecnieri
da
oratori.
igi
avtoria
werilebis
ramdenime
krebulisa,
romlebic exeba qarTuli Teatrisa da kinos istoriis sakiTxebs. Eesenia:
,,kinokritikuli etiudebi”, ,,kritikuli werilebi”, ,,sjani” da sxvebi. is
ganixilavda
Cveni
literaturis
aqtualur
problemebs,
klasikos
mweralTa Semoqmedebas. Aam sakiTxebs man araerTi wigni miuZRvna. bolo
wlebSi gamoica misi naSromebis rvatomeuli, romelic sruli saxiT
warmoaCens mecnieris Rvawls.
,,kardu‟‟
Tavdapirvelad
1999
wels
gamovida,
ramac
mkiTxvel
sazogadoebaSi didi interesi gamoiwvia. 2003 wels ki meored daistamba.
wigns Tan axlavs redaqtoris, rostom CxeiZis sityvebi. Mmisi miTiTebiT:
,,akaki baqraZes ganezraxa, TandaTan mihyoloda da mTeli cikli Seeqmna
monografiebisa did qarTvel mwerlebsa da moRvaweebze. ganzraxva ise ar
aRsrulebula,
gamohkveTa
TviTon
_
ilia
rogorc
ewada
da
mxolod
oTxi
portreti
WavWavaZis, akaki wereTlis, niko nikolaZis da
grigol robaqiZis _ magram rac moaswro, mravalmxriv mniSvnelovania
Tavisi
siRrmiT,
eqspრesiiT,
stiluri
artistizmiT.
is
sami
nimuSi
biografiul romansac Camohgavs, grigol robaqiZeze Seqmnili Txzuleba
ki
namdvili
biografiuli
romania,
mwerlis
tragikuli
bediswerac
105
xelSesaxebad rom warmoCindeba da maSindeli sazogadoebriv-politikuri
fonic _ Cveni ubeduri qveynisac da evropisac”(CxeiZe r. 2003:4).
grigol robaqiZe XX saukunis qarTuli emigrantuli mwerlobis
TvalsaCino
warmomadgenelia.
Mmisi
didi
Tvalsawieri
araerT
Temas
moicavs. is gaxldaT farTo ganaTlebis mwerali, publicisti, romlis
eseebi, moxsenebebi ibeWdeboda qarTul, rusul da germanul enebze.
Ggarda
amisa,
igi
avtoria
im
dramebisa,
romelTa
dadgmiTac
axalma qarTulma Teatrma kote marjaniSvilisa da sandro axmetelis
xelmZRvanelobiT,
saqarTveloSi
mTeli
wignad
sabWoTa
1926
wels
sivrcis
gamoica
yuradReba
grigol
miipyro.
robaqiZis
romani
,,gvelis perangi”.
saqarTveloSi
esoden
warmatebiT
dawyebuli
SemoqmedebiTi
moRvaweoba 1931 wlidan mweralma emigraciaSi gaagrZela. samSoblodan
gadaxvewilma nayofierad imuSava ucxoeTSi: jer kidev saqarTveloSi
germanulad Targmna ,,gvelis perangi”, iq ki dawera Semdegi nawarmoebebi:
,,Cakluli suli”, ,,megi_qarTveli asuli”, ,,qalRmerTis Zaxili”, ,,wminda
graalis mcvelni”, ,,demoni da miTosi”, ,,kavkasiuri novelebi”, leqciebic
waikiTxa
da
radioTic
araerTxel
mimarTa
qarTvel
ersa
da
axalgazrdobas.
grigol
robaqiZe
pirveli
qarTveli
mweralia,
vinc
sicocxleSive gaikvala gza germaneli mkiTxvelisaken. Mmis nawarmoebebze
mravali
literaturuli
werili,
naSromi
dawerila
qarTveli
Tu
ucxoeli mkvlevar-mecnierebis mier, sadac isini maRal Sefasebas aZleven
mis mdidar literaturul memkvidreobas. ,,rogorc yvela didi, droiT
ganusazRvreli naqmi, grigol robaqiZis Semoqmedeba marad awmyoa da
ukvdavi”(hoizermani 2006:22).
akaki baqraZis wigni ,,kardu anu grigol robaqiZis cxovreba da
Rvawli”, faqtobrivad, pirveli monografiaa mweralze, moazrovnesa da
sazogado moRvaweze, romlis saxelsac garkveuli periodi tabu edo da
misi
xsenebac
Semoqmedis
saxifaTod
pirovnebas
iyo
miCneuli.
CamoSorda
Nnel-nela
Taviseburi
am
originaluri
mistikuroba,
xolo
sabolood, akaki baqraZis wyalobiT, TiTqmis yvela saidumlos naTeli
moefina.
106
,,kardu” aris grigol robaqiZis yvelaze sruli da amomwuravi
biografia, amave dros dokumenturi, Rrma, zedmiwevniTi gamokvleva misi
mravalwaxnagovani Semoqmedebisa. A aq yvelaferi faqtebzea damyarebuli
da amdenad, araferia gamogonili, SeTxzuli. Aavtorma didZali masala
Seiswavla, daamuSava, gaiazra, raTa yvelaferi erT sistemaSi moeyvana,
saTanadod daalaga da mTliani suraTis saxiT warmoudgina mkiTxvels.
Nnawarmoebi dayofilia Tavebad: ,,dabadebis TariRi”, ,,portreti”,
,,swavla”,
,,ojaxi”,
,,modis
giliotina”,
,,omi
da
revolucia”,
,,gzajvaredini”, ,,axali graali”, ,,axali kerpi”, ,,maradiuli dabruneba”
,,mieroxani”,
,,mzis
narqeni”,
,,gardatexa”,
,,hungerhiugel”,
,,cduneba”,
,,simarTle”, ,,sxvai Cemi”, ,,izolacia”. es saTaurebi mkiTxvels uadvilebs
wignis aTvisebas.
nodar
kakabaZis
SefasebiT:
,,akaki
baqraZe
arsad
diTirambebs grigol robaqiZes _ es, rogorc Semoqmeds. igi
umReris
obieqturad,
piruTvnelad aTvalsaCinoebs grigol robaqiZes, rogorc moazrovnes,
leqtors”(kakabaZe 2000:8).
kritikosi
biografiuli
Tengiz
Janris
CxaiZe
miuTiTebs:
wignebisTvis
,,Txroba
akaki
damaxasiaTebeli
baqraZis
beletristul-
esseisturi yaidisaa, ZiriTadad qronologiis principzea agebuli, Tumca
avtori Tavs ar izRudavs am principebis mkacri dacviT: is saWiroebis
mixedviT gauswrebs xolme danarCen movlenebs da mere ukan ixevs, zogan
ki cvlis Temisa Tu sakiTxis qronologiur Tanmimdevrobas. magaliTad,
,,dabadebis TariRs” mosdevs ,,portreti”(CxaiZe 1998:6).
,,karduze” saubrisas kidev erTi ram unda aRvniSnoT:
cxovrebaca
da
literaturuli
memkvidreobac
urTierTkavSirSia ganxiluli. akaki baqraZe
warmoaCens
grigol
robaqiZis
mTel
mWidro
wignSi
mxatvrul
nawarmoebSi SesaniSnavad
cxovrebas
_
dabadebidan
gardacvalebamde.
biografiul
moTxrobili.
Aaq
romanSi
aseve,
mravali
gvxvdeba
saintereso,
manamde
ucnobi
gamouqveynebeli
faqtia
werilebi,
baraTebi. maTi gacnobis meSveobiT bevr sagulisxmo ambavs, cnobas igebs
mkiTxveli mwerlis cxovrebasa Tu Semoqmedebaze.
107
kritikos
maia
jaliaSvilis
SefasebiT:
gairkva grigol robaqiZis dabadebis TariRi.
,,karduSi”
sabolood
germaneli mwerlis hans
haso fon velothaimisadmi miweril baraTSi grigol robaqiZe
Tavis Secdomas, romelic
,,gaiaxalgazrdava”
daufiqreblad
inaniebs
man pativmoyvareobis gamo Caidina, sami wliT
Tavi”(jaliaSvili
davikmayofile
2002:4).
Cemi
igi
Tavadac
TviTmotyueba.
wers:
DdRes
,,ase
vxedav,
pativmoyvareobis demons rogor advilad gavege fexebqveS. Ees imdenad
mRrRnis, rom simSvides ver vpoulob”(baqraZe 2003:7). E,,saocari ki isaa,
rom grigol robaqiZe am, marTlac, uboroto Secdomas did codvad
Tvlida. Ees patara faqti warmoaCens am pirovnebis sulis simaRles da
gulwrfelobas”(jaliaSvili 2002:4).
nawarmoebidan vigebT, rom tartus universitetis mitovebis mizezi
iyo ara grigol robaqiZis garicxva gadasaxadis gadauxdelobis gamo,
rogorc aqamde iyo cnobili, aramed sul sxva ram. Ees irkveva 1902 wlis
16 ianvriT daTariRebuli ekaterine gabaSvilisadmi miwerili werilidan,
sadac mwerali mas urCevs, vaJiSvili ganaTlebis misaRebad ucxoeTSi
gaagzavnos da ara ruseTSi, radgan ,,aq ruseTSi momavali wlidan didi
sisxlisRvra iqneba. Ees namdvili wyaroebidan gavige. Eesec ar iyos,
imisTana
niWieri
ymawvilisaTvis
rogoric
rezikoa,
ruseTi
mxolod
jojoxeTi iqneba”(baqraZe 2003:20).
wignis erT-erT TavSi, romelic avtorma ase daasaTaura ,,modis
giliotina”, akaki baqraZe saubrobs XX saukunis 10-iani wlebis qarTul
sazogadoebaze, romelsac SeeZlo, qeba-dideba Seesxa pirovnebisTvis da
mere
daeviwyebina.
Aamonaridi
romanidan:
,,ugzo-ukvlo
moxetiale
sazogadoebam aiyvana, rogorc ,,man wili” ambobs, modis giliotinaze
grigol robaqiZe (jer xotba-didebiT eTayvanebodnen da mere zurgi
uCvenes). modis giliotina Zalian tevadi da moxdenili cnebaa. Mmisi
msxverpli
araerTi
da
ori
moRvawe
gamxdara.
Ggrigol
robaqiZes
momavalSic bevrjer mouwevs giliotinaze asvla rogorc saqarTveloSi,
ise germaniaSi”(baqraZe 2003:3).
akaki baqraZe vrclad msjelobs
Rvawlze
qarTuli
literaturis
filosofiur-literaturul
didi Semoqmedis, moazrovnis
istoriaSi,
SexedulebaTa
romelmac
axali
gacnoba-gasavrceleblad
108
waikiTxa sajaro leqciebi; uwinamZRvra qarTuli avangardizmis Seqmnas,
amiT xeli Seuwyo qarTuli mwerlobis ganaxlebas; kolegebTan erTad
Camoayaliba saqarTvelos mweralTa kavSiri. igi amave dros, xSirad
beWdavda statiebs, werilebs sxvadasxva sakiTxze.
,,akaki baqraZe vrclad warmoaCens grigol robaqiZis Jurnalistur
moRvaweobas
gazeT
,,saqarTvelosa”
da
,,kavkazSi”,
sadac
igi
givi
golendisa da g.robaqiZe-kavkasielis fsevdonimebiT beWdavda werilebs
saerTo saxelwodebiT: ,,omi da kultura”. Mman kavkasiel mkiTxvels
gaacno
evropel
filosofosTa
da
mweralTa
Sexedulebebi
am
problemaze”(jaliaSvili 2002:4).
mwerali amomwuravad aRwers nicSes gavlenas qarTveli
nawarmoebebze.
igi
aRniSnavs,
rom:
,,grigol
robaqiZis
mwerlis
Semoqmedebaze
fridrix nicSes gavlena arsebiT xasiaTs atarebs. Tavadac ar malavda
amas.
,,dionisurma
maradiuli
fenomenma
dabrunebis
damatyveva
ideam”(,,Cemi
_
da
cxovreba”).
kidev
magram
ufro
metad,_
kmayofili
ar
yofila imiT, rogorc xnidnen da ganmartavdnen am ideas”(baqraZe 2003:100).
biografiuli romanis avtori TxzulebaSi gvamcnobs, Tu rogor
cxovrobda
klasikosi
mwerali
saqarTveloSi,
germaniaSi,
Mmere
SveicariaSi, ras werda, ras saqmianobda.
,,karduSi” srulyofiladaa ganxiluli grigol robaqiZis mdidari,
mravalferovani Semoqmedeba, misi prozauli nawarmoebebi da poezia. Aam
TvalsazrisiT
gansakuTrebiT
sagulisxmoa
wignis
Semdegi
Tavebi:
,,gzajvaredini”, ,,axali graali”, ,,axali kerpi”, ,,maradiuli dabruneba”,
,,sxvai Cemi”. Aaq gaanalizebulia mwerlis didi da rTuli mxatvruli
samyaros raoba, garkveulia aseve, misi msoflmxedvelobis arsi.
dasasruls
vityviT,
rom
akaki
baqraZis
biografiuli
romani
,,kardu anu grigol robaqiZis cxovreba da Rvawli” uTuod sayuradRebo
da mniSvnelovani naSromia, rogorc seriozuli cda emigranti qarTveli
mwerlis
mravalmxrivi
Semoqmedebis
mTlianobaSi
gaazrebisa,
Mmisi
rTuli msoflmxedvelobis garkvevisa.
davubrundeT biografiul romans ,,rkinis saxkomi‟‟. rac Seexeba noe
Jordanias,
rogorc
biografiuli
romanis
erT-erT
personaJs,
nawarmoebSi didi adgili ar eTmoba. mwerals is TxzulebaSi
mas
Semohyavs
109
Cveni
qveynis
damoukideblobis
gadmocemisas, sadac ikveTeba
aRdgenis
istoriuli
avtoris pozicia: ,,saqarTvelos istoriaSi
Camodga saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTvelobis aRdgenis
pirkata
ecaT
procesebis
bolSevikebs.
adgilobrivma
axali xanmokle era.
bolSevikebma
daiwyes
gaficvebis, ajanyebebis, eTnokrizisebis organizeba. menSevikur mTavrobas
gareSe da Sinaur mtrebTan meomari regularuli jari ar hyavda da
partiuli
gvardia,
SenaerTebis
Jordanias
funqciebs
ver
TaosnobiT
asrulebda.
rom
noe
Seiqmna,
Jordaniam
sajariso
vinme
imnaZis
xelmZRvanelobiT guriidan Camoiyvana erTgul gurulTagan Sedgenili
razmi, romelsac aleqsandres baRis tragedias Tu ar gaviTvaliswinebT,
Tavi
arafriT
gamouCeniaT.
xsenebul
baRSi
ki
rac
arc
ki
iyo
moulodneli, menSevikebma bolSevikebi, qarTvelebma qarTvelebi daxoces.
bolSevikebs maTive meTodebiT vupasuxeTo, ganmarta Jordaniam. magram
saqme amiT ar gamosworebula, bolSevikebi ufro gaaqtiurdnen“(WeiSvili
1992:92).
Tu rogor ganviTarda saqarTveloSi movlenebi, yvelas kargad
moexseneba, respublikis xelisuflebam, maT Soris mTavrobis meTaurmac
jer
Tbilisi,
Semdgom
qveyana
datova.
am
movlenebze
Jordanias
mogonebebi aqvs dawerili, amaze romanSi mweralic mianiSnebs.
,,rkinis saxkomSi“ lavrenti berias literaturuli saxec ikveTeba.
romanSi
vecnobiT
misi
da
sergo
orjonikiZis
arcTu
saxarbielo
urTierTdamokidebulebas: ,,sergos sZulda beria da taniTac patara,
asakiTac
,,patara
azefsac“
sZulda
sergo,
am
sityvis
pirdapiri
mniSvnelobiT, siZulvils ,,naTelmironobis“ miuxedavad, faravdnen da
amJRavnebdnen kidec drodadro“(WeiSvili 1995:180).
Cveni
qveynis
gasabWoebis
Semdeg
lavrenti
beria
stalinma
daawinaura, saqarTvelos pirvel mdivnad da samxareo komitetis meore
mdivnad daniSna.
filipe
maxaraZe,
Cvens
istoriaSi
kidev
erTi
moRalate
Seracxuli pirovneba ixateba literaturul personaJad.
18
Tebervals
ramdenime
TanamoazresTan
erTad
pirad
igi 1921 wlis
stalinis
davalebiT
saqarTveloSi gamoemgzavra da daevala mTavrobis winaaRmdeg gamarTul
glexTa ajanyebis xelmZRvaneloba. am dros is revkomis
Tavmjdomre iyo.
110
man sergo orjonikiZesTan erTad
didi muSaoba gaswia saqarTvelos
aneqsiisaTvis brZolaSi. rezo WeiSvili romanSi iTvaliswinebs mis erTerT statias: ,,ratom Semovida CvenSi wiTeli armia“, romelic 1921 wlis
13 martiT
TariRdeba. igi ruseTis jars sindiss wmenda, mTavaria xalxi
da revkomio: ,,wiTeli jari maSinve dastovebs saqarTvelos sazRvrebs,
roca CvenSi
gareSe safrTxe Tavidan iqneba
acilebuli. wiTeli jari
wava aqedan, mas sxva daniSnuleba aqvs“(WeiSvili 1992:135).
prozaul nawarmoebSi aRwerilia 1937 wlis cnobili sisxliani
movlenebi. am periodSi uamrav adamianTan erTad sergo orjonikiZis
naTesavebic
dasasruli.
daapatimres,
Kkidev
nawili
erT
daxvrites.
fragments
sainteresoa
davimowmeb
Txzulebis
revolucioneris
qaliSvilis mogonebidan: ,,mama bevrs fiqrobda bolos da qarTulad
laparakobda TavisTvis. mivugdebdi yurs, gaugebrad burtyunebda.
_mama, vis elaparakebi?
_eTera, Sen ar ici xo, qarTuli?
_mama, me saidan, Sen xom arasodes giswavlebia CemTvis qarTuli!...
_marTalia eTera, ar miswavlebia, mxolod marto Cemi brali araa
yvelaferi!”(WeiSvili 1992:250). mravlismTqmelia misi es sityvebi, romlis
buneba sazarelic iyo da imavdroulad sacodavic. nawarmoebidanac ase
metyvelad
da
STambeWdavad
rom
warmogvidgeba
da
kidev
erTxel
mogvagonebs, rasac niSnavs ukuRmarTad ganvlili cxovrebis gza.
Semoqmedma
dokumenturi
masaliT
gaamdidra
nawarmoebi,
uxvad
gamoiyena rkp (b) centraluri komitetis biuros, ruseTis saTaTbiros
dadgenilebebi, partiis yrilobebze wakiTxuli moxsenebebi,
imJamindeli
fragmentebi,
yvelaferi
biografiul
qarTveli
Tu
rusi
stalinis,
avtorma
romanSi
politikuri
moRvawis
orjonikiZisKKDDAwerilebi,
moixmo,
raTa
ufro
,,rkinis
saxkomi‟‟
mogonebebidan
depeSebi...
damajerebeli
daxatuli
sxvadasxva
mTavari
es
yofiliyo
personaJis
xasiaTi, buneba, misi politikuri qmedebani. Sesabamisad, rezo WeiSvili
daSorda CvenTvis cnobili iseTi biografiuli romanebis specifikas,
rogorebicaa magaliTad, konstantine gamsaxurdias ,,goeTes cxovrebis
romani„‟ Tu Tanamedrove biografosis rostom CxeiZis ,,mze da mwuxri‟‟.
maTgan
struqturuli
TvalsazrisiT
mkveTrad
gansxvavdeba
,,rkinis
111
saxkomi‟‟. Aam ukanasknelSi gamoyofili araa Tavebi da arc calkeul
epizodebs ar
aqvT TavianTi saTaurebi. sakiTxis kvlevam dagvarwmuna,
rom rezo WeiSvili biografiuli romans ganxvavebulad gvTavazobs. Ees
iyo misi pirveli (da jer-jerobiT erTaderTi) mcdeloba aRniSnul
JanrSi, Tumca Txzulebam Tavisi funqcia mainc Seasrula; maSin roca is
daiwera, 1992 wels, qarTveli sazogadoebisaTvis
Tvalis
axela
iyo
saWiro. vfiqrob, Tavisi misia warmatebiT Seasrula kidec.
rezo
WeiSvilis
biografiuli
Seswavlisas gamoikveTa, rom avtorma
romanis
,,rkinis
saxkomis”
ucvlelad datova, gadmoitana
nawarmoebSi da SeunarCuna istoriuli sinamdvile ama Tu im politikur
Tu cxovrebiseul faqts, movlenas, romelic ukavSirdeba ara mxolod
sergo orjonikiZis saxels, aramed im cnobil politikur moRvaweebs,
romlebic uSualod iyvnen dakavSirebulni im epoqasTan, romelzedac
saubaria
mxatvrul
garemoeba, rom
teqstSi.
Aamis
Tqmis
safuZvels
gvaZlevs
is
rezo WeiSvili, rodesac citirebebs akeTebs sxvadasxva
dokumenturi wyarodan, iqneba es romelime brZaneba, werili, depeSa Tu
TanamedroveTa mogoneba da ase Semdeg, igi amonaridebs svams brWyalebSi
da
ise
gvawvdis
romanSi.
mwerali
faqtebs
ar
amaxinjebs.
amisda
miuxedavad, mecnieruli kvlevis ukeT warmosaCenad saWirod CavTvaleT,
Segvedarebina
pirvelwyarosTan
biografiul
romanSi
motanili
sxvadasxva dokumenturi masala. Sedegi ki sakmaod sagulisxmo aRmoCnda:
mwerali istoriuli sandoobiT, sizustiT warmoaCens yvela im movlenas,
ambavs, rac moTxrobilia romanSi, iqneba es qarTveli revolucioneris
cxovrebis
gza
Tu
Cveni
qveynis
umniSvnelovanesi
periodi
_
damoukideblobis xana _ 1918-1921 wlebi da sxva. es yovelive imazec
mianiSnebs,
mTavari
rom avtori sakvlev masalas didi gulisyuriT gaecno, raTa
personaJis
saxe,
romelic
ase
gansxvavebuli
aspeqtiTaa
warmodgenili, damajerebeli yofiliyo.
rezo WeiSvilis
biografiuli romanis
werisas umuSavia rogorc
mkvlevars. man ganuzomlad didi, rogorc qarTuli, aseve, rusul enaze
arsebuli istoriografiuli masala gadaamuSava, Seiswavla da mxatvrul
teqstad
warmoadgina.
davasaxelebT
zogierTi
maTgans:
giorgi
mazniaSvilis ,,mogonebani 1917-1925‟‟(1990w.), noe Jordania: ,,Cemi warsuli„‟
112
mogonebani (1990w.), zurab avaliSvili: ,,saqarTvelos damoukidebloba 19181921 wlebis saerTaSoriso politikaSi‟‟(1990w.), ,,dokumentebi samoqalaqo
omis
istoriidan
TxzulebaTa
ssr
kavSirSi‟‟
krebuli
(t.
IV,
(tomi
1924w.),
I,
1948w.),
filipe
maxaraZe
presa:
gazeTebi
imJamindeli
,,komunisti‟‟, ,,pravda‟‟ da sxvani.
saTqmelis dasturad da ukeT warmosaCenad davimowmebT amonaridebs
CvenTvis
zurab
sayuradRebo
avaliSvilis
wlebis
wignebidan.
naSromi
saerTaSoriso
pirveli
amaTgan
Tavdapirvelad
,,saqarTvelos
damoukidebloba
politikaSi‟‟(mogonebani,
SegviZlia
davasaxeloT
mxedvelobaSi
narkvevebi).
akaki
maqvs
1918-1921
erT-erTi
Cxenkelis
werili,
romelic 1918 wlis 25 maiss gaegzavna general kvinitaZes:…,,...saqarTvelos
erovnuli
sabWos
prezidiums
gadaeciT
Semdegi:
damoukideblobis
gamocxadebis Semdgomi gaWianureba gamoiwvevs gamousworebel Sedegs.
germaniis
Suamdgomlobis
Turqebis
Semotevas
romelsac
mxars
mTavrobasTan
ar
gamogvivida.
davupirispiroT
uWers
iqneba
cda
germania.
grafi
dagvrCenia
saqarTvelos
Mmisi
romelic
ram:
damoukidebloba,
warmomadgebeli
Sulenbergi,
erTi
saqarTvelos
gamocxadebisTanave
aucileblad saswrafod unda vcnoT... xelmosawerad ukve mzadaa mTeli
rigi
droebiTi
SeTanxmeba
germaniasTan.…
velodebiT
aqtis
Sesaxeb
uswrafes cnobas‟‟(avaliSvili 1990:79).
rezo WeiSvilis romanSic aris moxmobili aRniSnuli telegrama:
,,gadaeciT saqarTvelos nacionalur sabWos Semdegi: damoukideblobis
gamocxadebis Segvianeba gamoiwvevs gamousworebel Sedegebs. Ggermaniis
Suamdgomlobis
Turqebis
cdam
Semosevas
uSedegod
germaniisagan
Caiara.
zurg
rCeba
erTi:
gamagrebuli
davupirispiroT
damoukidebeli
saqarTvelo... ukve momzadebulia xelmosawerad germaniasTan droebiTi
SeTanxmeba. veli saswrafo cnobas aqtze‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:91).
KSemdegi
fragmenti
zurab
avaliSvilis
wignidan saqarTvelos
istoriis ukve sxva periods acocxlebs: ,,25 Tebervals 1921 w., sabWoTa
jarebi Sediodnen TbilisSi; win miuZRvoda wiTeli bairaRiT xelSi,
TeTr cxenze mjdomi, erTi qarTvel-komisarTagani(avaliSvili 1990:163).
113
rezo WeiSvili miuTiTebs: ,, ...25 Teber. 1921 w. sabW. jarebi Sediodnen
tfilisSi. win miuZRvoda wiTeli bairaRiT xelSi, TeTr cxenze mjdomi,
erTi qarTvel-komisarTagani‟‟(WeiSvili1992:7).
giorgi
mazniaSvili
adgilas
ixsenebs
qarTvel
baTumSi:
,,amxanagma
wignSi
,,mogonebani
bolSevikTan
eliavam
warmadgina
1917-1925‟‟
Sexvedris
da
uTxra
(1990w.)
dRes
Cemi
1921
erT
wels
vinaoba.
Amx.
orjonikiZem mommarTa Semdegi sityvebiT: ,,Tqven iciT, rom kanongareSe
iyaviT gamocxadebuli da TqvenTan Sexvedris dros yvela komunists
hqonda ufleba moekaliT iqve, alagobriv... unda gamovtyde, rom Cems
sicocxleSi, pirvelad davibeni da xmis amoReba veRar movaxerxe.
amis
Semdeg
TandaswrebiT.
ganvagrZe
sxvaTa
Soris,
Cemi
Cems
moxseneba
moxsenebaSi
ukve
vCiodi,
orjonikiZis
rom
baTumSi
cxenebis sakvebi araa, ris gamoc mravali cxeni ixoceba, mivaqcie aseve,
samxedro komisris yuradReba imas, rom Cems gankargulebaSi darCa ori
etli
mSvenieri
cxenebiT,
romliTac
dadiodnen
yofili
mTavrobis
Tavmjdomare noe Jordania da samxedro ministri WiWinaZe. Aam cxenebis
darajoba
bevr
kavaleriis
davidarabasa
diviziis
ufrosi
da
amx.
gaugebrobasac
Jloba
kacs
iwvevda,
kacze
radgan
gzavnida
da
moiTxovda, gadameca misTvis etli da cxenebi‟‟...(mazniaSvili 1990:210-211).
Aam ambavs rezo WeiSvilic iTvaliswinebs biografiul romanSi.
fragmenti Txulebidan: ,,eliavam warudgina erTmaneTs orjonikiZe da
mazniaSvili.
_ Sen Tu icio, uTxra mazniaSvils orjonikiZem, kanongareSe rom
iyavi gamocxadebuli?
_ ? ? ?
_ ... da yvela komunists ufleba hqonda miexvrite alagobriv!
mazniaSvili wers: ,,Cems sicocxleSi pirvelad davibeni da xmis
amoReba ver
movaxerxe‟‟. cxenebzec
Camovarda laparaki. mazniaSvilis
saxeldaxelo moxsenebac cxenebs exeboda: ,,Cems moxsenebaSi vCiodi, rom
baTumSi cxenebis sakvebi araa, ris gamoc mravali cxeni ixoceba, mivaqcie
aseve, samxedro komisris yuradReba imas, rom Cems gankargulebSi darCa
ori etli mSvenieri cxenebiT... Aam cxenebis darajoba bevr davidarabasa
da
gaugebrobasac
iwvevda,
radgan kavaleriis
diviziis
ufrosi
amx.
114
Jloba kacs kacze gzavnida da moiTxovda, gadameca misTvis etli da
cxenebi‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:128-129).
warmoCinda,
rom
biografiul
romanSi
sityva-sityviTi
sizustea
daculi.
v. kirilovisa da a. sverdlovis avtorobiT gamocemul wignSi:
,,sergo orjonikiZe(sergo)‟‟, sadac sakmaod vrcladaa gadmocemuli sergo
orjonikiZis cxovrebis gza, iqve, dawvrilebiTaa moTxrobili ruseTis
bolSevikuri partiis yrilobebze miRebuli sxvadasxva dadgenilebis,
brZanebis
Sesaxeb.
centraluri
daamtkica
rogorc
komitetis
cnobilia,
plenumma
centraluri
1920
Seqmna
komiteti
wlis
kavkasiis
orjonikiZis,
aprilSi
saolqo
rkp(b)
biuro
kirovis
da
da
sxvaTa
SemadgenlobiT. wignSi xazgasmiTaa aRniSnuli: ,,mTavari pasuximsmgebloba
amierkavkasiaSi partiuli, sabWoTa, sameurneo da samxedro muSaobisaTvis
partiis
centralurma
orjonikiZes
komitetma
daakisres.
da
Gganumartavda
sabWoTa
ra
sergos
mTavrobam
masze
sergo
dakisrebul
amocanebs, centraluri komiteti miuTiTebda: ,,kavkasiis mTel samxedro
politikas xelmZRvanelobs da kvalavac uxelmZRvanelebs sergo, xolo
rkp(b)
centraluri
komitetis
kavbiuroSi
,,is
sakiTxebi,
romlebic
mxolod Crdilo kavkasias Seexeba, SeuZlia gadawyvitos viwro kolegiam
sergos
dauswreblad,
yvela
is
sakiTxi
ki,
romelic
amierkavkasias
Seexeba, mxolod misi TandaswrebiT‟‟(kirilovi, sverdlovi 1964:163).
rezo WeiSvili mxatvrul teqstSi ,,rkinis saxkomi‟‟ wers:
,,brZaneba
SemoeTvalaT moskovidan ufrosebsa:
,,kavkasiis
mTel
samxedro
politikas
(saomari
mdgomareobaa)
xelmZRvanelobs da kvlavac uxelmZRvanelebs sergo!‟‟ dadagenilebas Tan
mosdevs amdagvari ganmarteba:
,,... is
sakiTxebi, romlebic mxolod
Crdilo kavkasias
Seexeba,
SeuZlia gadawyvitos viwro kolegiam sergos dauswrebladac; yvela is
sakiTxi ki, romelic amierkavkasias Seexeba (saqarTvelo jer dapyrobili
araa)
mxolod
sainteresoa
misi
TandaswrebiT
aRniSnuli
unda
dadgenilebis
gadawydes‟‟(WeiSvili
Sesaxeb
mwerlis
1992:11).
pozicia.
fragmenti romanidan: ,,da igi xelmZRvanelobs mTel kavkasias maSindeli
ugzoobisa da ukomunikaciobis pirobebSi. moZraobs: baqodan rostovSi,
115
rostovidan stavropolSi, Tergis respublikaSi, daRestanSi, Savi zRvis
sanapiro zolSi – vrangelis desantis pirispir, yabardoSi, inguSeTSi,
oseTSi, saCeCnoSi, TemirxanSuraSi, darRos okrugSi, isev ukan baqoSi,
somxeTSi da ase Semdeg‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:110).
Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom am sakiTxze zemoT visaubreT, am SemTxvevaSi
moxmobili amonaridi sxva kuTxiT gvainteresebs. gamovkveTeT is faqti,
rom biografiuli romanis avtori nawarmoebSi icavs sizustes saarqivo
masalis gamoyenebisas.
sxvadasxva dokumentis Sedarebas pirvelwyarosTan aq davasrulebT.
mxolod
davasaxelebT
im
dokumentebs,
rac
ucvlelad
gadmoitana
romanSi rezo WeiSvilma: ioseb stalinis telegrama sergos (1920 weli, 2
dekemberi),
orjonikiZis
werili
stalins
dadgenilebebi
(1921weli,
saqarTveloSi
25
Tebervali),
bolSevikuri
partiis
sabWoTa
jarebis
Seyvanisa da
Cveni qveynis dapyrobis Sesaxeb, Ffilipe maxaraZis, ioseb
stalinisa da sergo orjonikiZis nacionaluris sakiTxis Sesaxeb XII
yrilobaze
qarTuli
warmoTqmuli
jaris
sityvebi,
aRkazmulobis
giorgi
Sesaxeb...
mazniaSvilis
rogorc
mogoneba
ukve
iTqva,
pirvelwyarosTan Sedarebisas biografiuli romanis avtori dokumenturi
masalis moxmobisas faqtebs ar cvlis, ar amaxinjebs. igi sizustes
unarCuebs istoriul sinamdviles.
Aaxla
zogadad
visaubrebT
biografiuli
romanis
mxatvrul
mxareze. movixmobT amonaridebs, sadac naTlad dasturdeba epiTetebis,
Sedarebebis, metaforebis gamoyeneba.
Tavdapirvelad movitanT fragments, sadac aRwerilia bolSevikuri
partiis
morigi
,,azrialebul
sxdoma.
darbazSi
Aaq
ixateba
Sevida
mTavari
personaJis
dagvianebuli
sergo
portretic:
,,saqorwino
mogzaurobis‟‟ dasasruls. Ppeterburgi _ baqo _ Tbilisi _ quTaisi _
RoreSa zinaidasTan erTad, ukan imave gziT calad. Sevida jgleTaSi da
mujlugunebiT gaikvlia gza qandarisaken. Ronivrulad urtyamda idayvebs
delegatebs
da
mujlugunebiT
abloyinebul
icoda
xalxSi
masaSi
gzis
miiwevda
gakafva.
win.
idayvebiTA
,,saldaTebSi‟‟
da
Caekvexa
qandaraze, Caxeda darbazs, scenas, prezidiums, eleqtronis SuqSi da
116
TuTunis bolSi gaarCia prezidiumSi msxdomTa saxeebi‟‟ (WeiSvili 1992:
76). A
peizaJis daxatvis TvalazrisiT sagulisxmoa Semdegi amonaridi:
,,saocrad wynari da mziani marti idga im wels. Toliebis gundebiT
daTeTrwinwklebuli zRva cisfrad livlivebda. italiis gemebi ,,vesta‟‟
da
,,maria‟‟
irweodnen
cxirebSebrunebulebi
qarTvelebi
idgnen
reidze.
Mmzis
gacurdnen
gembanze
amosvlisas
gasrialebul
gacriatebul
saqarTvelosgan
wyalze.
Tavgzaabneuli
gaTenebaSi,
ukanasknelad
xedavdnen saqarTvelos mTebs‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:130).
Mmxatvruli
saxeebis
gamoyenebis
kuTxiT
sainteresoa
Semdegi
amonaridic: ,,sergo mdinare berezinas napirze dgas, Sublze sveli TmiT,
Tmas
iqiT
mimaluli
mowyenili
YTvalebiT,
gacriatebul
sivrces,
yinvisfer mdinares miCerebia‟‟(WeiSvili 1992:98). sxva magaliTi: ,,Tbilisi
areuli da aforiaqebulia. Aajanyebas gaavdrebasaviT moelian‟‟(WeiSvili
1992:73). Aan kidev: ,,zinaida nislisa da wvimis fardebiT daburul gorebs,
burusSi Cavardnil kvadouras xeobas gahyurebda. Aatalaxebul SukebSi
CoCiala
urmebs
gakecil
moaTrevdnen
tomaradaxuruli,
kisermoRrecili,
wiTeli
Sarvalakotavebuli,
xarebi,
fexSiSveli
Tavze
glexebi
moabotebdnen ayaloSi xio, xios ZaxiliT‟‟(WeiSvili 1992,76).
rezo
WeiSvilis
biografiuli
dakvirvebisas gamovlinda, rom
romanis
mxatvrul
mxareze
mwerali sxvadasxva faqtis, movlenis Tu
personaJis daxasiaTebisas zustad SerCeul mxatvrul saxeebs iyenebs. Ees
aRniSnuli prozauli teqstis kidev erTi dadebiTi mxarea. Ggaziarebuli
TvalsazrisiT, sityvebi didi esTetikur-ideuri Sinaarsis gamomxatvelad
gvevlinebian mxatvrul nawarmoebebSi. Aamis dasturia zemoT moyvanili
fragmentebi romanidan ,,rkinis saxkomi‟‟.
SegviZlia
prozaikosis,
daskvnis
rezo
revolucionerze,
saxiT
WeiSvilis
ideurad
vTqvaT,
romani
mebrZol
qarTul mwerlobaSi Seqmnili
rom
SesaniSnavi
,,rkinis
saxkomi”
antiqarTvelze.
es
Tanamedrove
dawerilia
nawarmoebi
biografiuli romanis Janrs, romelic
ZiriTadad didebul moRvaweTa cxovrebis cikls asaxavs, axal Strixs
sZens.
am
SemTxvevaSi
antierovnuli
gmiri-personaJis
SemoyvaniT
mravalferovan panoramas qmnis.
117
Tavi V
elguja TavberiZis ,,airevi iveria‟‟
elguja TavberiZe _ Tanamedrove qarTul literaturaSi erT-erTi
saintereso mwerali, eseisti da kritikosi. igi ramdenime wignis avtoria.
maT Sorisaa SesaniSnavi werilebis krebuli ,,sityva vuTxar da iwyina”,
aseve, ,,ubedo mamulis yma”, romelic giorgi SarvaSiZis cxovrebas da
moRvaweobas eZRvneba, biografiuli romani ,,airevi iveria anu jentlmen
solomon aSordias cxovreba da Sexedulebani”, ,,nislis tixari”, ,,akakis
landi‟‟ da sxva.
igi
wlebis
redaqtori,
ganmavlobaSi
gamomcemloba
iyo
,,sarangis”
gazeT
,,mowameTas”
xelmZRvaneli.
misi
mTavari
TaosnobiT
araerTi kargi wigni gamoica. amasTanave, is gaxlavT giorgi SarvaSiZis,
niko nikolaZis, Jurnal ,,omegas”, saqarTvelos mweralTa kavSiris 2003
wlis da
yovelwliuri literaturuli premia ,,saguramos” 2006 wlis
premiebis laureati, xolo 2013 wlis ,,sabas‟‟ gamarjvebulia varlam
Salamovze dawerili wigniT ,,kolimgrafi‟‟ _ nominaciaSi wlis saukeTeso
literaturuli kritika. elguja TavberiZe aris quTaisis saliteraturosamecniero da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis erT-erTi aqtiuri wevri.
mwerlis biografiuli romani ,,airevi iveria” 2006 wels gamoica,
romelic mravalmxriv mniSvnelovani da sayuradRebo nawarmoebia. wigni
Svidi
Tavisgan
ordaria‟‟,
Sedgeba.
,,Zmani
esenia:
,,ai,
solomonisani‟‟,
droSa
,,deda
aSordia‟‟,
Svilsa
,,ai,
ra
elodeba
dro
cixis
karebzeo...‟‟, ,,davRonebulvar cixesa‟‟, ,,AFFAIRE ASCORDIA’’ da ,,gafantuli
sxivebi‟‟.
TiToeul
maTgans
ki
axlavs
ramdenime
QqveTavi,
zustad
SerCeuli saxelwodebebiT. Bbiografiul romanSi ostaturad, niWieradaa
gadmocemuli
mRelvare,
XIX
saukunis
aTasgvarad
cnobili
CaxlarTuli
TaRliTis,
ambebiTa
da
solomon
aSordias
faTerakebiT
aRsavse
cxovreba. Mmas sakmaod kargad icnobdnen imdroindel ruseTSi, rogorc
yalbi
sabuTebis
Semqmnels,
moxerxebulsa
da
avantiurists.
misi
SemweobiT imdroindel saqarTveloSi, konkretulad ki, samegrelosa da
118
imereTSi
ori
damkvidrda
_
aTasamde
kaci
,,aSordias
gaTavadda
aznauri”.
an
romanSi
gaaznaurda,
terminic
gacocxlebulia
erTi
saukunis winandeli epoqa Tavisi mravalferadi waxnagebiT. yvelaferi es
mxatvruladaa
moTxrobili
dokumentebis,
sasamarTlo
saqmeebis
Tu
memuarebis gaTvaliswinebiT. mweralma zemominiSnebuli masala prozaul
teqstad,
xorcSesxmul
mkiTxvelamde.
Aaq
sityvad
warmodgenilia
aqcia
ara
da
sainteresod
mxolod
cnobili
miitana
TaRliTis
portreti, aramed is sazogadoebrivi da socialuri garemo, sadac wignis
mTavar
personaJs
mouwia
cxovreba.
elguja
TavberiZem
qarTuli
pikareskuli, igive TaRliTuri romanis SesaniSnavi nimuSi Seqmna. am
originaluri
Janris
mxatvruli
teqstis
klasikuri
nimuSia
mixeil
javaxiSvilis ,,kvaWi kvaWantiraZe”.
Eelguja TavberiZis mxatvrul dokomenturi Txzulebis _ ,,airevi
iveria‟‟ wardgineba, ganxilva Tavis droze Jurnal ,,Cveni mwerlobis‟‟
redaqciaSi moxda.Aromans gamoqveynebisTanave mohyva sakmaod saintereso
da mravlismomcveli werilebi. Cven maTze qvemoT SevCerdebiT, Tumca
Tavdapirvelad mniSvnelovania Tavad mwerals movusminoT, raTa SevityoT
nawarmoebis
mTavari
dainteresebis
Sesaxeb:
personaJis,
,,adre,
solomon
albaT
aSordias
studentobis
dros,
pirovnebiT
galaktion
tabiZis palindromi ,,airevi iveria‟‟ rom wavikiTxe, solomon aSordiam,
gansakuTrebiT misma gvarma saocrad momxibla: ukeTesi ra unda iyosmeTqi, vfiqrobdi, gvars Seabruneb da ai droSa-d ikiTxeba, Tumca ver
vxvdebodi
iveria
ukuRma
da
es
gvari
ra
kavSirSi
unda
yofiliyo
erTmaneTTan. mrCeboda raRac bundovani, gaurkveveli gancda. amas isic
emateboda, rom cisferyanwelebi aRfrTovanebulebi iyvnen aSordiaTi,
leqsebs
uZRvnidnen,
eseebSi
axsenebdnen,
rogorc
TavianTi
msoflmxedvelobis gamJRavnebis saukeTeso nimuSs. Tu cisferi ordenis
wevrebi eTayvanebodnen, galaktionma airevi iverias ratom daukavSira es
gvari-meTqi, vfiqrobdi. Aamis Semdeg kidev ufro gabundovanda Cemi azri
aSordiaze. mixeil javaxiSvils ,,kvaWi kvaWantiraZe‟‟-Si igi personaJad
hyavs gamoyvanili, aRwerilia ,,iCuCi‟‟ silibistro kvaWantiraZe yalbi
sabuTebiT rogor gaaaznaura, rogor daloca, sami dRe iqeifa, asaRebi
119
aiRo
da
gaudga
gzas,
ufro
sworad,
,,aCqarda‟‟
sxvaTa
gasaTavisufleblad da gasaaznaureblad mimavali.…
erTi sityviT, erTgan sxvanairad, meoregan kidev sxvanairad iyo
moxseniebuli es pirovneba. Ggalaktionisa da javaxiSvilis Sexedulebani
erTmaneTs emTxveoda, cisferyanwelTa _ ara. Mmere imasac mivxvdi, ratom
iyvnen es ukanasknelni aRfrTovanebulni am kaciT, igi xom sxvadasxva
gvar-saxeliT Cadioda danaSauls, iyo solomon aSordia, magram amave
dros grigol Jvaniac, sarol jambatovic, konstantine zaxarovic... esenic
TviTon
Seqmna,
sabuTebic
TviTonve
Seadgina,
sxvadqceuli
sakuTari
Tavisa da oreulis esTetikiT gatacebul cisferyanwelebs ratom ar
moxiblavda. …aqedan gaCnda interesi‟‟(TavberiZe 2006:3).
solomon aSordias Sesaxeb
Tu
mixeil
sainteresoa.
javaxiSvilis
mniSvnelovania
cisferyanwelTa, galaktion tabiZis
Sexedulebani,
maTi
damokidebuleba
daintereseba
aSordiaTi
sakmaod
da
maT
nawerebSi, SemoqmedebaSi am cnobili adamianis adgilis garkveva. Aamaze
elguja TavberiZe sainteresod da srulyofilad saubrobs biografiul
romanSi. aRniSnul sakiTxs qvemoT ganvixilavT.
rogorc
personaJebi
iTqva,
arian
ZiriTadad,
didi
pirovnebebi, Tumca davinaxeT,
biografiuli
moRvaweebi,
Tavisi
romanis
mTavari
cxovrebiT
misabaZi
aris mSvenieri gamonaklisebic. meore amis
magaliTia elguja TavberiZis ,,airevi iveria‟‟, romelic eZRvneba TaRliT,
matyuara
adamians.
Aam
sakiTxze
Tavad
mwerali
erT-erT
interviuSi
Semdegs aRniSnavs: ,,erTi ram cxadia, imazec xSirad unda iwerebodes,
rogor ar unda icxovro, rogor ar unda daxarjo da gaflango RvTisgan
boZebuli niWi siyalbeTa qmnaSi. Aam mxriv aSordias cxovreba marTlac
sanimuSoa _ mwerali Tu ara, didebuli mxatvari mainc gaxdeboda, man
kidev
orives
sabuTebis
gayalbeba
da
bevri
fuli
arCia‟‟...(TavberiZe
2006:4).
Aaxla ramdenime literatoris, kritikosis mosazreba warmovaCinoT,
romelTac sakuTari azri gamoxates biografiul romanze ,,airevi iveria‟‟.
sainteresoa
rusudan
niSnianiZis
Sefaseba
elguja
TavberiZis
am
nawarmoebze, romelic romanis ganxilvisas ,,Cveni mwerlobis‟‟ darbazSi
iTqva:
,,SemaZrwunebeli simarTlis Tqma icoda konstantine gamsaxurdiam.
120
CvenSi yvela nabiWvars aznauroba swadia, yovel nacarqeqias – sardloba.
roca aseTi wadili aris erSi, maSin didi adamianebis gverdiT SesaZloa
gaCndnen kvaWebis, yvaryvareebis, aSordiebis msgavsi avantiuristebic. Ees
saqarTvelos Tavgadasavalia, romelSic yvelas Tavisi roli aqvs da
adamianebi
irgvliv
xedaven
siyalbes,
roca
xdeba
saWiroeba,
rom
mxatvrulad gaZlierdes aSordias saxe, elguja TavberiZis es romani
Zalze
drouli
saTqmelia,
romelic
araerT
sakiTxze
dagvafiqrebs‟‟(niSnianiZe 2007:51-52).
roza devdariani miuTiTebs: ,,avtoris damsaxureba swored isaa, rom
wignSi aSordia da aSordioba epoqis konteqstSia moazrebuli. aSordias
jentlmenad
moxseniebiT
igi
SegvagrZnobinebs,
romlis
keTilSobilebis
saburvelSi
im
wlebis
umTavresi
sunTqvasa
arsic
gaxveva
da
majiscemas
yovelgvari
gaxldaT;
uzneobis
romlis
wiaRSic
jentlmenebad iwodebodnen TerZi, mzareuli, laqia... amdenad, saTaurSi
mTavari
personaJis
da
misi
mSobeli
saukunis
Sefasebaa
Caqsovili‟‟(devdariani 2007:23).
E,,airevi
iverias‟‟
ganxilvaze
rostom
CxeiZem
zustad
mianiSna:
,,rodesac ici, rom elguja TavberiZe hkidebs xels romans, darwmunebuli
xar, yvelaferi ise iqneba, rogorc sinamdvileSia. mwerali arafers
Secvlis, ar gaayalbebs, ar Sealamazebs. Mmas SeuZlia xelTarsebuli
yvela monacemi miukerZoeblad gaiazros da warmoaCinos pirovnebis suli.
epoqisgan mowyvetili martoden biografia naklebad sainteresoa, amitom
mwerlis
Cinebulad
valia,
epoqis
moaxerxa
da
sulic
aRadginos.
amitomac
mimaCnia
Eelguja
es
TavberiZem
biografiuli
es
romani
mniSvnelovan movlenad Cveni dRevandelobisa‟‟(CxeiZe 2009:42).
rac
Seexeba
mxatvruli
nawarmoebis
saTaurs
,,airevi
iveria‟‟,
mweralma galaktion tabiZis palindromidan aiRo:
,,ai ra mzis sizmaria
airevi iveria,
ai, droSa aSordia
aerebis siberea”(TavberiZe 2006:6).
elguja TavberiZem amgvarad gaxsna leqsis mxatvruli koncefcia:
,,Tu TiToeul sityvas Rrmad CavukvirdebiT, es sityvebi sulac araa
121
SemTxveviT moxmobili, maTSi raRac azria gacxadebuli. azri ki isaa,
rom iveria marTlac airia, aiTqvifa, aSordiasa da misi megobrebis
meSveobiT
Tavadoba,
aznauroba,
advilad
misaRwevi
gaxda”(TavberiZe
2006:5). am adamianebis saqmianobis, TaRliTuri, avantiuristuli zraxvebis
gamoZaxilia galaktion tabiZis zemoT xsenebuli striqonebi.
,,avtori
damajereblad
naTelyofs,
rom
galaktionis
mier
aSordias gaxseneba Tu ,,airevis” dakavSireba SemTxveviT ar aris da
palindromSi
kodirebuli,
bolSevikebis
batonobasTan
aSordiasdroindel
dakavSirebuli
situaciasTan
arev-darevaa
misi
misadagebaa
gacxadebuli. am dros xom iseve ganagebdnen Cvens qveyanas cru gmirebi _
erovnebadakarguli
Tanxis sanacvlod
bolSevikebi,
rogorc
900-ian
wlebSi
sxvadasxva
wodebamiRebuli aSordias aznaurebi‟‟. (devdariani
2007:24). M
mxatvrul teqstSi vkiTxulobT aSordias moswavleobisdroindel
periodze. mis gonebamaxvilobaze miuTiTebs
avtoris mier moxmobili
Semdegi sityvebi: ,,sxvebi rom erT Tves undebodnen raimes swavlas,
SeTvisebas, es erT dReSi aswrebda. isini mdored, zoziniT euflebodnen
siaxles, es _ uceb, swrafad, RrubeliviT isrutavda... misi Tanatolebi
guSindel naswavls imeorebdnen, izuTxavdnen xelmeored, amas
naswavli
ki ara, yurmokvriT gagonilic axsovda, gonebaSi Cakirvoda”(TavberiZe
2006:22).
skolis
periodSi
nikolozis
maneTianebs
ise
xatavda,
rom
namdvilisagan, originalisagan Znelad Tu gaarCevda vinme.
Cvidmeti wlis iyo niWieri TaRliTi, danaSaulisken rom waucda
xeli, roca ramdenime adamiani glexobisgan yalbi sabuTebis wyalobiT
gaaTavisufla. es saqme gaixsna mogvianebiT da rva TviT cixeSi gauSves.
maSin gamocdileba aklda, Semdeg TandaTan ,,daixvewa‟‟.
mwerlis
komentari:
,,aseTi
ram
mere
TiTqmis
sainteresoa
arasdros
mosvlia.
danaSauli Caidina, advilad amosacnobi kvali datova, mere sufTad
muSaobda, TiTqmis ,,ukvalod” ayalbebda sabuTebs” (TavberiZe 2006:41).
nawarmoebis mTavari personaJis ,,saqmianobis” zedmiwevniT srulad
gadmocemisaTvis mweralma mravali dokumenturi masala Seiswavla da
moixmo. gagvacno solomon aSordiasa da aSordielTagan gaaznaurebulgaTavadebul glexTa siac, romelTa ricxi 2000-ze meti iyo.
122
aRniSnul
miuxedavad
teqstze
imisa,
rom
saubrisas
romanSi
aRsaniSnavia
garkveuli
kidev
adgili
erTi
aspeqti:
daTmobili
aqvs
wodebis maZiebelTa vinaobis aRnusxvas, gvarebis CamoTvlas, soflebisa
da
qalaqebis
dasaxelebas,
gacemuli
qrTamis
raodenobas,
siyalbis
damadasturebeli dokumentebis gamoaSkaravebas, es yvelaferi ar aris
mSrali CamonaTvali. sagulisxmoa, rom elguja TavberiZes biografiul
romanSi gamoyenebuli aqvs sxvadasxva xerxi: komizmi, tragizmi, iumori,
sevda,
Rimili,
TaRliTuri
cxovrebisaTvis
niSandoblivi
momentebis
mravalferovneba da cocxlad xatavs ama Tu im epizods, rac didi
interesiT ikiTxeba.
biografiul romanSi zedmiwevniT, srulyofiladaa gadmocemuli
gonebamaxvili
saqmianoba,
TaRliTis
romlebic
Tavgadasavali
solomon
da
aSordias
aseve,
im
exmarebodnen,
pirovnebebis
misi
jgufis
,,wevrebad” iwodebodnen (mwerali maT ase moixseniebs–n.x.) da xalxs
yalbi
sabuTebis
meSveobiT
aznaurobas
an
Tavadobas
uboZebdnen.
es
adamianebi cru dokumentebs qmnidnen, rac wodebis misaRebad iyo saWiro,
Tanac yvelaferi saocrad hgavda namdvils. amis sanacvlod ki gvarian
Tanxas iRebdnen. amonaridi: ,,mosaxleobas umtkicebdnen, viTom saukuneTa
manZilze
maTi
wodebrivi
uflebebis
damamtkicebeli
dokumentebi
dakarguli iyo, arqivebSi SemTxveviT aRmoCnda da urCevdnen, xelidan ar
gaeSvaT sanukvari Sansi”(TavberiZe 2006:20).
nawarmoebidan
vigebT,
rom
solomon
aSordia
erT
dros
samegrelos droebiTi mmarTvelobis kancelariaSi muSaobda, mere TavadaznaurTa
deputatebis
sakrebuloSi.
mas
TiTqmis
yvela
sabuTze
miuwvdeboda xeli. romelime dokumenti Tu dasWirdeboda, moZebnida asls
da originals daaxlovebda, Tumca mxolod am saqmiT ar iyo aSordia da
misi jgufis wevrebi dakavebuli. isini araerT ,,sacixo saqmes” akeTebdnen.
romanSi mxatvruli ostatobiTaa gadmocemuli, ise, rogorc sinamdvileSi
moxda,
yovelgvari
xelTarsebuli
uxvi
Selamazebis,
masala
Secvlis
miukerZoeblad
gareSe.
gaiazra,
avtorma
mis
gaaanaliza,
SesaniSnavad daxata solomon aSordias saxe da srulyofilad aRwera
cnobili TaRliTis periodis saqarTvelo.
123
rogorc elguja TavberiZe wers, solomon aSordias da misi
Tanamzraxvelebis meSveobiT, romlebic iyvnen: besarion dadiani, simon
barkalaia,
grigol
bokuCava,
simon
Selia
da
sxvebi,
ZiriTadad
samegrelos raionis macxovreblebi, gadavidnen erTi wodebidan meoreSi,
arasasurvelidan
sasurvelSi,
Tumca
iyo
saqarTvelos
sxva
kuTxis
mosaxleobac.
,,gvaCis biWis”, misi jgufis wevrebis namoqmedaris gaazrebis
dros
erTi
momenti
aucileblad
unda
gaviTvaliswinoT:
im
dros
brwyinvale wodebis gareSe, anu Tavadi an aznauri Tu ar iqnebodi, ise
verafers miaRwevdi. upirvelesad amiT iyo gamowveuli swrafva amisken da
amis Semdeg bevr glexs gza winsvlisken gaexsna.
mwerali
Zalze
STambeWdavad
acocxlebs
solomon
aSordias
cxovrebis araerT epizods. erT-erT maTgans vkiTxulobT qveTavSi ,,ori
abasTumani”. saqarTveloSi ori abasTumania: erTi _ borjomis mxareSi,
ganumeorebeli kurorti, romanovTa kuTvnili sasaxliTa da SemogareniT,
meore
_
samegrelos
erTi
Cveulebrivi
sofeli.
maTi
Sedareba
arc
SeiZleba, mxolod saxelebi hqviaT erTnairi. aSordiam gaigo, rom viRac
frang
Tu
germanel
franc
francis
Ze
protcers
Cvens
qveyanaSi
sakurorto adgilis SeZena surda. cnobilma avantiuristma gadawyvita,
zugdidis mazris sofeli, romlis imJamindeli sruluflebiani patroni
da gamgebeli ekaterine WavWavaZis Svili, daviT mingrelski iyo, mieyida
protcerisaTvis. amis Sesaxeb man saqmis kursSi Caayena misi mflobeli.
elguja TavberiZe wers: ,,aSordiam ise Seadgina sabuTebi, rom arsad iyo
naxsenebi es sofeli sad, romel mxareSi mdebareobda, mxolod is iyo
naTqvami, mTavris sakuTreba rom gaxldaT da awi protcerisa xdeboda”
(TavberiZe 2006:53). amgvarad, francma SeiZina abasTumani, magram ara is,
romelic egona. Eesec morigi TaRliTuri qmedeba aSordias ,,meoxebiT‟‟.
Bbiografiuli romanis kvleva gvarwmunebs, miuxedavad dokumenturi
masalis uxvad moxmobisa, mTavari mainc avtoris mwerluri ostatobaa,
radgan
elguja
qmnilebad
TavberiZis
gardaisaxeba.
amis
xelSi
ubralo
dasturad
masalac
gavixsenoT
ki
SesaniSnav
Tundac
romanis
qveTavSi _ ,,gaumarjos Cvens moZmes” moTxrobili erTi epizodi. ori
saukunis
mijnaze
gvariSvilobasTan
dakavSirebuli
oromtrialis
124
gadmosacemad
elguja
TavberiZes
mohyavs
magaliTi
fucu
dgebuaZe-
fularias istoriuli romanidan ,,oqros beWedi”, romlis mixedviTac
erTi Stos Ciqovanebs imitom ver daumtkicebiaT Tavadoba, rom maTi
sabuTi Tagvs swored im adgilas gamoexra, sadac sityva ,,Tavadi” ewera.
Ciqovanebma mravali mowmoba moiZies, iwvales, Tumca ver daasabuTes, rom
maTi
gvaris
Sto
saxlTuxuces
CiqovanTa
ojaxs
ekuTvnoda.
isini
sadeputato krebam aznaurebad ki scno, magram Tavadebad ar aRiara.
amasTan
dakavSirebiT
erT-erTi
am
gvaris
warmomadgeneli
solomon aSordias aznaurebs Turme ase eqilikeboda: ,,ra giWirs, Cemo
Zmao, me levan dadianis boZebuli Tavadoba Tagvma wamarTva, Sen ki
aSordiasgan nayidi aznauroba xelT gipyria, Cems tolad gadaqceulxar,
fui Cvens saqmeso”(TavberiZe 2006:73).
komentars urTavs.
xSirad
marTlac
am monakveTs mwerali Semdegnair
amonaridi romanidan: ,,dadianisgan gaTavadebulebi
aznaurebad
icno
deputatTa
sakrebulom,
magram
piriqiTac moxda _ aznauri Tavadad Seracxa, ufro metic: zogierTi
naRdi, eWvSeuvali brwyinvale wodebis warmomadgeneli usabuTobis gamo
sulac moqalaqed datova... Tagvs abralebda ugvanod darCenas, naTagvar
sigel-gurjs afrialebda wamdauwum Tavisi Tavis Tavadad an aznaurad
mcnobi kaci” (TavberiZe 2006:73-74).
es is periodia, rodesac mdabioebic iswrafodnen maRali wodebis
mosapoveblad,
radgan
uamisod
adamiani
veraviTar
warmatebas
ver
miaRwevda.
aRniSnuli
qveTavi
SeiZleba
iTqvas,
erTi
gamorCeuli
adgilia
romanSi, kargad da niWierad dawerili.
aranakleb
mimzidvelad
mogviTxrobs
avtori
aSordias
mier
saqarTvelos farglebs gareT datrialebuli seriozuli maqinaciebis
Sesaxeb. mkiTxvelisTvis gasagebi xdeba, rogor daumtkica solomonma
uSvilZirod gadagebuli baqoeli bendianis qoneba mis viTomc memkvidres,
rogor
gaitana
ruseT-CineTis
bankis
vladivostokis
ganyofilebidan
110 000 maneTi sami dRis ganmavlobaSi; rogor dawera baqos cixeSi
sakuTari gaTavisuflebis brZaneba da gareT gasuli rogor daemuqra
zedamxedvels, Cems udanaSaulod daWeras gausaCivreblad ar davtovebo...
125
igi ramdenjerme daapatimres, bevrjer Tavi daiZvrina iqidan. man
imperiis TiTqmis yvela sapyrobile inaxula. is iyo quTaisis, baqos,
xarbinis,
omskis,
dasaxelebul
vladivostokis
qalaqSi
sxvadasxva
da
kievis
saxis
cixeSi.
danaSauli
TiToeul
hqonda
aq
Cadenili.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, avtori saocari ironiiT wers:
,,ubileTod mgzavrobda patimari aSordia”(TavberiZe 2006:255).
solomonis
dasaxasiaTeblad,
misi
pirovnebis
warmosaCenad
zustadaa SerCeuli calkeuli frazebic. Eelguja TavberiZe SesaniSnavad
xatavs aSordias portrets. amonaridi romanidan: ,,icoda, ra dros ra
eTqva, situaciis darad rogor moqceuliyo, ra gaemxila, ra daemala,
risgan ra gamorCeboda. danaSaulisTvis bevrjer Tavaridebuls yovelive
gazomil-awonili hqonda da moqmedebda am principiT”(TavberiZe 2006:204).
axla yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT biografiuli romanis Semdeg Tavze:
,,kvaWi
da solomoni‟‟.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, kvaWi kvaWantiraZis mxatvruli saxis erTerTi prototipia solomon aSordia, rakiRa romanSi ,,airevi iveria”
avantiuristuli personaJis biografia detaluradaa aRdgenili, avtori
Zaldautanlad adarebs mis calkeul epizodebs mixeil javaxiSvilis
nawarmoebis
gmiris
cxovrebasTan:
kvaWi
azovis
bankis
rostovis
ganyofilebaSi yalb pasports da Ceks rom warmoadgens, Tbilisis bankis
angariSebiT am kacs garkveuli raodenobisYTanxa unda gadauxadoTo, es
aSordiasaTvis Cveuli xerxia. mas ruseTis imperiis mravali qalaqis
araerTi bankidan TaRliTuri gziT gamohqonda fuli. kidev erTi momenti:
kvaWi londonSi TiTqmis iseve iqceva, rogorc solomoni aleqsandrovis
baRis gayidvisas _ iqmnis mdidari, gavleniani kacis imijs da masTan
garigebasac advilad dayabuldebian. mixeil javaxiSvilis romanSi aseve,
gacocxlebulia
Semdegi
epizodi:
kvaWantiraZe
vaWrebs
pirdeboda,
rogorc sarevolucio samxedro sabWos wevri, dagexmarebiT saqonlis
gayidva-gasaRebaSi da is saqoneli oqrod, Tval-margalitebad rom iqceva,
mas TiTqos xelisuflebisgan mosdis brZaneba: moxdes oqros rekviziciao,
es TaRliTuri sqema zustad hgavs xarbinSi datrialebuli solomonis
namoqmedars;
detalebis
miuxedavad,
misi
xelweris
msgavseba
TvalnaTelia.
126
aq SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom erT mxatvrul saxeSi Serwymulia
ori
gansxvavebuli,
sapirispiro
xasiaTis
adamiani
da
,,kvaWi
kvaWantiraZis” am personaJis erT-erT prototipad solomon aSordiac
TvalnaTliv dasturdeba.
rogorc
iyvnen
ukve
solomonis
,,niRbebis
cxovrebis
cvlas”
moixseniebdnen,
saukeTeso
mivuTiTeT,
da
es
rogorc
nimuSs.
amis
cisferyanwelebi
wesiT
da
itacebdaT,
TavianTi
Taobaze
aRfrTovanebulebi
pirovnebiT,
leqsebs
masSi
uZRvnidnen,
msoflmxedvelobis
nawarmoebSi
xedavdnen
eseebSi
gamJRavnebis
mweralic
amaxvilebs
yuradRebas da mohyavs valerian gafrindaSvilis lirikuli striqonebi,
aseve amonaridebi sandro cirekiZis erT-erTi esedan, sadac aSordiaa
Seqebuli,
SeiZleba
iTqvas,
gaidialebulic
mniSvnelovania avtoris mier am faqtis Sefaseba.
kia.
saintereso
da
elguja TavberiZe wers:
,,cisferyanwelebi ara marto poetTa, sxvebis biografiebsac ecnobodnen,
akvirdebodnen da TavianT esTetikur naazrevs usadagebdnen. solomon
aSordiac erT-erTi amaTgania: oreulebiT, ugvanoTa gaaznaurebiT, viTom
axali sinamdvilis SeqmniT cisferyanwelTaTvis saintereso gvar-saxeli”
(TavberiZe 2006:308).
sayuradReboa
romanis
finalic.
aq
sagangebodaa
gamokveTili
gvariSvilobisken swrafvis paradoqsuli dasasruli: roca dro Seicvala
da bolSevikebma warCinebulTa devna-Seviwroeba daiwyes, bevrs aRarc
surda gaemxila Tavisi wodebrivi mdgomareoba. elguja TavberiZe xatavs
im periods. amonaridi mxatvruli teqstidan:
,,bolSevikebma TavadaznaurTa ganadgureba rom wamoiwyes, maZiebel
aznaurad Seracxulma glexma imis garkveva moisurva, marTla gaxda Tu
ara mamamisi aznauri, Seityo, rom eZebda, magram ver gaxda, gaexarda ara
imitom, rom simarTlem gaimarjva, ara, sakuTari Tavi axla bolSevikTa
klanWebisgan
anadgurebT,
unda
me
ar
daexsna
_
gaxlavarT
Tavadaznaurobas,
maseTi,
glexi
rogorc
var
da
klass
mxars
rom
giWerT,
TanagigrZnobT maT xocva-JletaSio”. aqvea isev mwerlis zusti komentari:
,,ase icvleboda droeba. esec airevi iveria gaxlavT”(TavberiZe 2006:316).
cnobilia, im dros saqarTveloSi istoriuli TvalsazriT mZime periodi
iyo.
bolSevikebma
mmarTvelobaSi
mosvlisTanave
didgvarovnebis
127
ganadgureba daiwyes. Zvelma Tavad-aznaurobam far-xmali dayara, veRar
Tavadobdnen da veRarc aznaurobdnen.
zogadad warmovadgenT elguja TavberiZis biografiuli romanis
mxatvrul
mxares.
Cven
movixmobT
amonaridebs,
sadac
dasturdeba
mxatvruli
saxeebis: Sedarebebis, metaforebisa Tu epiTetebis gamoyeneba:
,,erTi sityviT, daberili haeri _ asakdatyobili Tavadaznauroba veRar
patronobda
miiwura,
samSoblos‟‟(TavberiZe
axali
saukune,
2006:5).
axali
sxva
magaliTi:
aswleuli
,,1900
Camodga,
weli
gaTenda.
aSordielTaTvis CamoRamda, Camobnelda, rom egonaT, gaamarTla afioram,
TavadaznaurTa sakrebulom ukve gamoitana gadawyvetileba, awi vinRaa am
sabuTebis momZebni da Semmowmebelio, swored maSin gamJRavnda yvelaferi.
rogorc ityvian, Zroxis kudze gadatyda dana‟‟(TavberiZe 2006:119).
Eelguja TavberiZis romanSi Tovliani quTaisis bulvaris peizaJi
asea daxatuli: ,,1900 welia. 21 ianvari. TeTradaa gadapentili quTaisi.
xan
Tovs,
xan
cris,
wamouSens,
moyinul
Tovls
aaborbolebs,
daatrialebs, Cawynardeba, mere isev aaTovlianebs. bulvarSi umetesi xe
maradmwvanea,
Sua
zamTris
odnav
Camuqebuli
mwvane
feri
Wiatobs
TovlSi...
vinme
zomavs,
saldaZe,
wonis.
xalisiani,
sisxami
ufro
CaCumebula,
mcvel-yarauli
dilaa,
gamToSavi.
gazafxulispirs
bulvarisa,
yvelafers
sicivemomatebuli,
Bbulvari
dums,
aJriamuldeba,
akvirdeba,
gamyinavi,
zamTris
cota
siwynariT
gacocxldeba‟‟(TavberiZe
2006:9).
elguja TavberiZis nawarmoebis mxatvrul mxareze dakvirvebisas
gamoikveTa, rom aRniSnul nawarmoebSi mxatvruli xerxebi gacilebiT
mwiradaa warmodgenili, vidre vTqvaT, konstantine gamsaxurdias ,,goeTes
cxovrebis romanSi‟‟ an vaxtang WeliZis prozaul teqstSi ,,cxovreba ivane
maCablisa‟‟. Aamis mizezi gaxlavT is, rom TxzulebaSi ,,airevi iveria‟‟
dokumenturi masalis mowodebas didi adgili eTmoba. Tumca, rodesac
avtori
maT
mimarTavs,
mkveTrad
vlindeba
biografosis
mwerluri
individualoba da ostatobac.
elguja
mwerlobis
TavberiZis
sayuradRebo
,,airevi
SenaZenia.
iveria”
Semoqmedma
qarTuli
misi
saxiT
Tanamedrove
SesaniSnavi
128
biografiuli
aSordias
romani
pirovneba
da
Seqmna,
sadac
amasTan
erTad,
avantiuristis periodis saqarTvelo,
warmatebiT
daxata
solomon
daufaravad aRwera
cnobili
is sazogadoebrivi da socialuri
garemo, romelSic romanisMMmTavar personaJs mouwia cxovreba.
solomon aSordias cxovrebis Sesaxeb saubrisas aucileblad unda
aRvniSnoT
tuli
aSordias
wigni
,,solomon
aSordia
_
zugdideli
qarTveli avantiuristis Tavgadasavali‟‟. Ais 2009 wels daistamba.
wignis
,,solomon aSordia _ zugdideli qarTveli avantiuristis
Tavgadasavali‟‟
Semdgenel-gamomcemlis
malxaz
aSordias
miTiTebiT:
,,warmodgenili gamokvleva, dokumentur masalaze dayrdnobiT, dawerilia
solomonis
ZmisSvilis,
tuli
mixeilis
Ze
aSordias
mier
gasuli
saukunis samocian wlebSi. im dros misi gamoqveyneba SeuZlebeli iyo
gasagebi mizezebis gamo. Aamitomacaa, rom warmodgenili masala oTx
aTeul welze metia ver ixila qarTvelma mkiTxvelma. albaT, esecaa
erT_erTi
mizezi
imisa,
rom
solomonis
Sesaxeb
gavrcelda
da
gamoqveynda presis furclebze mravali araswori informacia _ Wori da
legenda. Mmizani Cveni Zalisxmevisa swored isaa, rom dainteresebulma
sazogadoebam
dokumentur
masalaze
dayrdnobiT
miiRos
utyuari
informacia solomon aSordias Sesaxeb..
am wignis pirveli varianti gadamuSavebul iqna Cven mier, garkveuli
koreqtivebiTa da damatebebiT‟‟(aSordia 2009:3).
tuli aSordia TaRliTis ZmisSvili gaxldaT. wigni istoriuldokumenturi
msoflioSi
cnobili
yalbismqmnelis faTerakebiT aRsavse cxovreba da saqmianoba.
NnaSromi
sakmaod
xasiaTisaa
didi
da
moculobisaa.
moTxrobilia
avtorma
moiZia
avantiuristis
yvela
sasamarTlo procesis dokumenturi masala Tbilisis, quTaisis, moskovis,
leningradis, kievis, ufis, baqos da sxva qalaqebis arqivebSi daculi,
gaecno
imdroindel
qarTul
da
rusul
presas,
romelic
exmianeba
solomonsa da mis saqmeebs. isini sakmaod bevria, es arcaa gasakviri,
radgan
aSordia
yuradRebas.
masala,
,,cnobis
rac
Tavisi
Aavtorma
TiTqmis
gazeTebSi,
furceli‟‟,
saqmianobiT
srulad
JurnalebSia
,,kvali‟‟,
mudam
iqcevda
moixmo
faqtiurad
dabeWdili,
,,cxovrebis
sazogadoebis
sarke‟‟,
iqneba
arsebuli
es:
,,iveria‟‟,
,,saxalxo
gazeTi‟‟,
129
,,droeba‟‟, ,,momavali‟‟, ,,meocnebe niamorebi‟‟, ,,mnaTobi‟‟, ,,Cveni mwerloba‟‟
da sxva qarTul, rusul presaSi gamoqveynebuli. Aaqve unda miviTiToT,
rom avtorma uyuradRebod ar datova solomon aSordias Sesaxeb qarTul
poeziasa da mxatvrul prozaSi arsebuli didi masala da bibliografiis
saxiT mogvawoda; amasTanave,
tuli aSordiam Tavi mouyara solomon
aSordiaze arsebul naTesavebisa da TanamedroveTa mogonebebs da mis
werilebsac. Aaq solomon aSordias pirovneba, erTi niWieri qarTvelisa,
warmoCenilia
dadebiTi
da
uaryofiTi
mxareebiT,
,,romelmac
Tavisi
SesaZleblobebi ver gamoiyena WeSmariti mimarTulebiT‟‟(aSordia 2009:134).
mniSvnelovania,
rom
malxaz
aSordia
elguja
TavberiZis
biografiul romanzec mokled, Tumca kargad wers. sayuradReboa Semdegi
amonaridis
motana:
SesaniSnavi
wigni
,,am
bolo
,,airevi
dros
gamovida
elguja
anu
jentlmen
solomon
iveria
TavberiZis
aSordias
cxovreba da Sexedulebani‟‟. Aavtori, kargi gagebiT, Seyvarebulia am
wignis
gmirze,
maRalmxatvruli
istoriul-dokumentur
formiT
masalaze
sainteresod
dayrdnobiT,
gadmogvcems
solomonis
cxovrebasa da saqmianobas‟‟...(aSordia 2009:11).
Aamdenad, rogorc davinaxeT solomon aSordias pirovneba sakmaod
did
interess
Tanamedrove
iwvevda,
rogorc
sazogadoebaSic,
meoce
amis
saukuneSi,
mTavari
mizezi
aseve
misi
dRevandel
cxovreba,
saqmianoba gaxldaT.
130
Tavi VI
rostom CxeiZis ,,bedi pavle ingoroyvasi‟‟
rostom CxeiZe _ mwerali da mkvlevari, aleqsandre orbelianis
sazogadoebis
maTgan
xelmZRvaneli,
TxuTmeti
elizbar
biografiuli
erisTavze,
aleqsandre
avtoria
iase
yazbegze,
ormocdaaTamde
romanisa:
aleqsandre
falavandiSvilze,
arCil
jorjaZeze,
monografiisa,
iakob
Sio
orbelianze,
gogebaSvilze,
aragvispirelze,
pavle
ingoroyvaze, oTar CxeiZeze, qaquca ColoyaSvilze, mixako wereTelze,
aleqsandre batoniSvilze, galaktion tabiZeze, guram doCanaSvilsa da
da
revaz
gabaSvilze.
aseve,
mis
kalams
ekuTvnis
araerTi
narkvevi,
literaturuli statia, qarTuli da ucxouri (umTavresad inglisuri da
amerikuli) mwerlobis Tematikaze, religiisa da saqarTvelos istoriis
umwvaves problemebze. maTi erTi nawili Sesulia wignebSi: ,,bilikebi“,
,,irlandiuri melodiebi“, ,,mzis amosvlis win“,
,,roca Svidni varT“,
,,idumal wamTa aTinaTi da sxva eseebi“. erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli
moZraobis
istorias
mieZRvna
misi ori
wigni,
saerTo
saxelwodebiT
,,dawyevlili Taoba“- 1942 wlis SeTqmulebasa da samanur moZraobaze.
aseve,
Targmnili aqvs (paata CxeiZesTan erTad) inglisel da amerikel
mweralTa
literaturuli
da
politikuri
eseebi,
novelebi,
anglo-
saqsuri sagmiro eposi ,,beovulfi“, kurt vonegutis piesa.
rostom CxeiZis biografiuli romanebi umTavresad moicavs
saukuneTa
sazogadoebriv-politikur
da
kulturuli
XIX-XX
cxovrebis
panoramas. Mmwerlis aRniSnuli Janris nawarmoebebSi gaTvaliswinebulia
saarqivo dokumentebi, realuri faqtebi da TanamedroveTa mogonebebi.
rostom CxeiZis biografiul romanebSi daxatulia ara mxolod mTavari
personaJis cxovrebis gza, aramed warmoCenilia istoriuli sinamdvile,
epoqa, romelSic araerTi cnobili pirovneba moRvaweobda.
qarTveli mkiTxveli mraval biografiul romans rostom CxeiZis
avtorobiT
gaecno.
personaJebiT,
arealiT,
TiToeuli
geografiuli
romelSic
gmirebi
maTgani
sivrciT
da
moqmedeben.
gamorCeuli
im
da
istoriuli
erTi
naSromis
sainteresoa
movlenebis
farglebSi
131
SeuZlebelia am romanebis seriozuli ganxilvis warmodgena. Aamdenad,
zedapirul
msjelobas
rom
avaridoT
Tavi,
Cven
gamovyaviT
sami
gansxvavebuli biografiuli romani, vgulisxmobT mTavari personaJebiT
gansxvavebuls _ mecnieri
da
mwerali
Sio
pavle ingoroyva, pedagogi iakob gogebaSvili
aragvispireli.
aqve
aRvniSnavT,
rom
gamorCeul
gaanalizebas iTxovs qaquca ColoyaSvilze, mixeil wereTelze, revaz
gabaSvilze
iSleba
dawerili
biografiuli
romanebi,
romlebSic
moqmedeba
saqarTveloSi, Semdeg ukve ucxoeTSi anu emigraciaSi.
biografosis Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb Tavis
warmoaCens
salome
kapanaZe:
rom
istoriul
WeSmaritebaa,
ganwyobilebebiT,
,,rostom
pirTa
tragizmiTa
da
saintereso dakvirvebas
CxeiZisTvis
fenomeni
misiiT
saxelmZRvanelo
epoqiseuli
eris
sulieri
TviTgaxsnisa
da
sasicocxlo resursis koncentraciisaTvis udides rols TamaSobs. Aam
WeSmaritebazea
agebuli misi TiToeuli mxatvruli teqsti, romelic
Tavisi mxatvruli da erovnuli mniSvnelobiT drois miRma dgas” (kapanaZe
2012:2).
gasaTvaliswinebelia
goCa
kuWuxiZis
Sefaseba
rostom
CxeiZis
romanebze: ,,rostom CxeiZe TavisTvis usayvarles pirovnebaze werisas mis
sisusteebsa da Secdomebsac
yvelas
SeiZleba
mouvides,
warmoaCens, radgan icis, rom Secdoma
mwerals
sulieri
siRrmeebi
ainteresebs,
cdilobs, Cawvdes am siRrmeebs, igi pirovnebisadmi interess aRviZebs, am
energetikiTaa dawerili misi biografiuli romanebi“(kuWuxiZe 2009:47).
pavle
ingoroyvas
cxovreba
da
Semoqmedeba
didi
siyvaruliT,
codniTa da erudiciiT aqvs warmodgenili rostom CxeiZes wignSi ,,bedi
pavle ingoroyvasi‟‟.
pavle ingoroyva gaxldaT qarTveli mecnieri. is 1912-1915 wlebSi
swavlobda
peterburgis
universitetis
istoriul-filologiur
fakultetze, iyo saqarTvelos
mweralTa kavSiris Seqmnis erT-erTi
iniciatori,
sabWoTa
,,didi
ganyofilebis
,,sveticxovels‟‟.
ingoroyva
gamge.
man
ganagebda
qarTuli
igi
daaarsa
enciklopediis‟‟
redaqtorobda
gamomcemloba
saqarTvelos
Jurnal
,,qarTuli
saxelmwifo
redaqciis
,,kavkasions‟‟,
wigni‟‟.
muzeumis
pavle
xelnawerTa
ganyofilebas.
132
misi fundamentaluri naSromi ,,Zveli qarTuli sasuliero poezia
VIII-X saukuneebisa‟‟ qarTuli sasulieri poeziis Seswavlisa da gamocemis
erT-erTi pirveli cda iyo. Mmecnieris gamokvlevebi Cveni mwerlobis,
kulturis, istoriis
periodul
sakiTxebze ibeWdeboda
organoSi:
,,Zveli
sxvadasxva
saqarTvelo‟‟,
krebulsa
,,saqarTvelos
da
muzeumis
moambe‟‟, ,,enimkis moambe‟‟, ,,kavkasioni‟‟, ,,mnaTobi‟‟.
pavle
ingoroyvas
mniSvnelovan
naSromSi
,,giorgi
merCule‟‟
faqtobrivad ganxilulia V-X saukuneebis qarTuli sasuliero poezia,
gamoqveynebulia
Cvens
manamde
literaturaSi
ucnobi
poet-himnografebis
aRmoaCina
egreTwodebuli,
Txzulebani.
ritmuli
Mman
poeziis
nimuSebi, scada Zveli qarTuli sanoto sistemis gaSifvra.
mkvlevarma
orjer
,,vefxistyaosani‟‟.
igi
rusTaveli‟‟,
,,Zveli
baraTaSvili‟‟,
,,akaki
gamosca
avtoria
SoTa
rusTavelis
monografiebisa:
qarTuli
wereTeli‟‟,
sasulierio
,,ilia
ukvdavi
poema
,,rusTveliana‟‟,
,,SoTa
poezia‟‟,
WavWavaZe‟‟.
man
,,nikoloz
dabeWda
ilia
WavWavaZis TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, vaxtang orbelianis, nikoloz
baraTaSvilis,
akaki
wereTlis
Txzulebani.
misive
redaqtorobiT
daistamba giorgi merCules ,,cxovreba grigol xanZTelisa‟‟, aseve, ,,Cveni
saunjis‟‟ VI tomi. igi Tanaredaqtoria ,,Sahnames‟‟ II tomis, ,,visramianis‟‟
da ,,qilila da damanas‟‟ gamocemebisa. man dabeWda ori mcire moculobis,
Tumc
mniSvnelobiT
uaRresad
aqtualuri
naSromi:
,,saqarTvelos
teritoriis sazRvrebis Sesaxeb‟‟ da ,,kavkasionis qveynebis teritoriuli
gamijvnis gamo‟‟. amasTanave, mis kalams ekuTvnis araerTi sxva saintereso
gamokvleva.
did
qarTvel mecnierze sxvadasxva wlebSi dawerilia
araerTi
werili, ese, mogoneba... axla swored zogierT maTganze gavamaxvilebT
yuradRebas.
,,pavle ingoroyva Rrma codnaze dafuZnebuli didi niWierebiT,
mecnieruli principulobiT, mamuliSviluri idealebis Tavgadakluli,
fanatikuri msaxurebiT, XX saukuneSi grigol xanZTelis, mTawmindelebis
da sulxan-sabas tipis moRvawed warmogvidgeba”, _ aRniSnavs kritikosi
Teimuraz maRlaferiZe wignSi ,,marad awmyo‟‟(maRlaferiZe 2003:361). swored
amitom
iyo,
rom
ociani
wlebis
qarTul
kulturul
wreebSi
igi
133
gansakuTrebuli
sjerodaT,
avtoritetiT
zogjer
ki,
sargeblobda.
poeturi
STagonebis
mas
usmendnen,
wyarodac
misi
gadaiqceoda
xolme, amis dasturia paolo iaSvilis leqsi ,,pavle ingoroyvas‟‟(1921
weli):
,,gadametebiT, tanjul dReebiT
warsuli hkivis ukuRmarTuli:
Cven ki utkbiles samoTxeebiT
gvinda gavmarToT mxare qarTuli.
saukuneni cxel TavanebiT
Cveni samSoblos mzeSi dnebian,
magramM jer kidev qaravanebi
sclian oqroebs Zvel madnebidan.
Mmiwa msuqani sisxlis daleviT
Sen SegvaTvise imediani,
Dda gulSi givlis mkivan aliviT
Sen rusTavelis meridiani.
Zmav ingoruyo! Cveneba ari da
tkbilis tanjviT mosagonebi
mwvel industanSi qarTveli jari
da trapizonSi garnizonebi.
dagvibrundeba es netareba
amay dReebis gadaCveulebs?
Tu poezia Seedareba
jvarze gasaltul wminda rCeulebs?
Zmav ingoruyo! poeto adre
da merme dardo warsul didebis:
guls poezia iWvebiT angrevs
daDsisxls-dapyroba
piramidebis‟‟
(iaSvili
1961:87).
Gguguli mgelaZem 1990 wels gamosca wigni ,,me var jariskaci Cemi
erisa wminda saxeba‟‟. naSromSi warmoCenilia pavle ingoroyvas pirovneba.
avtorma uxvad gamoiyena WeSmariti mamuliSvilis, mecnieris megobrebis
werilebi, mogonebebi, nawerebi, romelTa meSveobiTac misi SesaniSnavi
134
portreti gamokveTa. igi Semdegs miuTiTebs: ,,es aris pirveli cda imis
Cawerisa, risi momswrec var. rac gadmocemiT vici, rac zepirad maxsovs,
rac
uceb magondeba
didi mecnieris, pavle ingoroyvas
cxovrebidan.
zogjer yofiTi xasiaTis detalic xatavs pirovnebis saxes, srulyofs
mis portrets.
minda yvelaferi dokumenturi simarTliT giamboT, rac wlebis
manZilze aRibeWda Cems mexsierebaSi... yovelgvari qronologiis gareSe,
ise, rogorc magondeba‟‟(mgelaZe 1990:4).
wignSi gacocxlebulia misi sxvadasxva cxovrebiseuli epizodi.
aqve saubaria im Tbil urTierTobaze, pativiscemasa da siyvarulze, rac
pavle
ingoroyvas
simon
yauxCiSvils
warmoCenili
konstantine
hqondaT
pavle
gamsaxurdias,
erTmaneTis
ingoroyva,
rogorc
eqvTime
mimarT.
TayaiSvilsa
da
naSromSi
naTladaa
mwerali,
patrioti
mecnieri,
adamiani, megobari, papa. Aam yvelaferze damajereblad wers avtori.
1979 wels pavle ingoroyvas 85 weli Seusrulda. Aam mniSvnelovan
TariRTan
dakavSirebiT
grigol
abaSiZem
gazeTSi
,,literaturuli
saqarTvelo‟‟ gamoaqveyna werili: ,,didi SemarTeba, farTo interesi‟‟. is
SesaniSnavad
msjelobs
mecnieris
xazgasmiT miuTiTebs: ,,pavle
Rvawlze,
ingoroyva
Sromebze,
TiTqmis
eqvsi
wignebze
da
aTeuli wlis
ganmavlobaSi emsaxureba mSobliur mwerlobasa da mecnierebas. igi aris
sqeltaniani
tomebis
literaturisa
alRosTan
da
erTad
avtori,
romelTac
gverds
istoriis
mkvlevari.
Ggasaocar
mas
aqvs
maRali
mwerluri
ver
auvlis
Cveni
fantaziasa
niWi.
igi
da
SesaniSnavi
stilistia da yvelaferi, rac dauweria, mudam Seunelebeli interesiT
ikiTxeba...
interesis
pavle
mqone
ingoroyva
moRvawea.
farTod
Mmas
marto
ganaTlebuli,
warsuliT
ar
mravalmxrivi
ucxovria
da
yovelTvis Tavisi Tanamedroveobis SuagulSi trialebda‟‟(abaSiZe 1979:3).
revaz TvaraZe pavle ingoroyvas 85 wlis iubiles gamoexmaura
weriliT ,,pavle ingoroyva‟‟. Aavtori sainteresod ganixilavs mecnieris
wignebs
da
zust
aqcentebs
akeTebs
mis
RvawlTan
dakavSirebiT.
amonaridi: ,,meoce saukunis qarTuli kulturis istoria rom daiwereba,
mematiane
ueWvelad
xangrZliv
mzeras
SeaCerebs
erT
unikalur
135
pirovnebasa da mecnierze, romlis Rvawlis srulad Secnoba momaval
TaobaTa xvedria”(TvaraZe 1979:105).
P1983 wels Seusrulda pavle ingoroyvas dabadebidan 90 weli
da
imave wels gardaicvala. Aam TariRebs sxvadasxva mweralma, literatorma
miuZRvna werilebi. Eeseni gaxlavT: oTar CxeiZe, giorgi natroSvili,
revaz margiani, irakli abaSiZe, vaxtang javaxaZe, nodar dumbaZe, sergo
kldiaSvili,
mamuka
wiklauri,
levan
bregaZe,
Teimuraz
doiaSvili,
rostom CxeiZe da sxvani. es adamianebi iziareben, rom pavle ingoroyva
iyo udidesi qarTveli mecnieri, romelic Tavisi Segnebuli cxovrebis
manZilze
emsaxureboda
damsaxurebacaa
poeziis
qarTul
qarTuli
Seswavla,
kulturas,
leqsTwyobis
rusTvelologiis
mwerlobas,
ganviTareba,
Camoyalibeba,
Zveli
romlis
qarTuli
dafuZneba,
XIX
saukunis qarTuli klasikuri literaturis kvleva, popularizeba, Cveni
erovnuli, mniSvnelovani xelnawerebis movla-gamocema.
guram
asaTianma
brwyinvaled
warmoaCina
pavle
ingoroyvas
portreti erT patara eseSi, sadac igi wers: ,,pavle ingoroyvas rom
mecnieris umZimesi uReli ar amoerCia, misi elvare niWi mainc gamonaxavda
raime iseTive simZimes, aseTsave keTilSobilur tvirTsa da adre Tu
gvian, mainc aitanda am axal aRmarTze, misi mamoZravebeli mudam erTi
iyo:
qarTveli
eris
mier
saukuneTa
manZilze
gamosxivebuli
saswaulmoqmedi energiis, misi sakacobrio kulturuli wvlilis mTeli
sidiadiT warmoCena‟‟(asaTiani 1983:115).
is,
rogorc
mecnier-filologi,
istorikosi,
sazogado
moRvawe,
mwerali friad unikaluri fenomeni gaxldaT, misi samecniero Sromebi
jer
kidev
araa
saTanadod
ganxiluli
da
Sefasebuli,
aseve,
gamosaqveynebelia literatoris zogierTi gamokvleva.
,,bedi
gamosca,
pavle
2003
ingoroyvasi‟‟
wels
ki
misi
avtorma
Sevsebuli
Tavdapirvelad
gamocema
1994
daistamba.
wels
,,am
biografiuli romanis pirveli gamocemisas ukve mkafiod da STambeWdavad
gamoikveTa
XX
saukunis
saqarTvelos
erT-erTi
yvelaze
TvalsaCino
moRvawis portreti, im pavle ingoroyvasi, visi cxovrebac uSualod
gadajaWvoda Cveni qveynis istoriis umniSvnelovanes movlenebs, rogorc
inteleqtualurs, ise sazogadoebriv-politikurs. am romanis gmiri ukve
136
maSin warmoisaxeboda simbolod zneobrivi moRvaweobisa, imis nimuSad,
rom
ar
arsebobs
da
arc
SeiZleba
arsebobdes
iseTi
gausaZlisi
pirobebic ki, romelsac SeeZlos Caklas swrafva amaRlebulisaken, im
sulieri Rirebulebebisaken, uromlisodac warmoudgenelia kacobriobis
cxovreba‟‟, _ SeniSnavs wignis redaqtori oTar CxeiZe(CxeiZe o. 2003:2).
rostom CxeiZis nawarmoebze ,,bedi pavle ingoroyvasi‟‟ bevri iTqva,
bevric daiwera, mas aRfrTovanebiT Sexvda qarTveli mkiTxveli.
wignis
meore
epistoleebiTa
gamocema
sxvadasxva
memuaruli
ramac
mniSvnelovanwilad, srulad warmoaCina gamorCeuli moRvawis,
pavle
biografiac
da
dokumenturi
CanawerebiT,
masaliT,
ingoroyvas
Tu
Sevsebulia
maSindeli
saqarTvelos
sazogadoebriv-
istoriuli fonic.
,,bedi pavle ingoroyvasi‟‟ ocdacameti Tavisgan Sedgeba. Ees aris
mravalpersonaJiani,
istoriul-dokumenturi
faqtebiT
gajerebuli
biografiuli romani, romelic araerT xazs aerTianebs da mxolod pavle
ingoroyvas pirovnebiT da moRvaweobiT ar Semoifargleba.
literator lela oCiauris SefasebiT: ,,rostom CxeiZis am romanSi
araferia iluzoruli, warmosaxuli, gadaWarbebuli. Aavtors mohyavs is
,,saeWvo‟‟,
legendadqceuli,
xalxis
surviliT
frTaSesxmuli,
xazgasmulad gmiruli saqcielis, Tu naTqvamis amsaxveli faqtebic ki,
magram amtkicebs, imas, rom rac pavle ingoroyvam qarTveli erisTvis
gaakeTa, Selamazeba ar sWirdeba”(oCiauri 2004:9).
dokumentalizmis miuxedavad, esaa cocxali, emociiTa da mxatvruli
eniT dawerili romani, romelic saqarTvelos istoriis tragikuli bedis
xorcSesxmul suraTad warmosdgeba. nawarmoebSi Tavmoyrilia mecnieris
cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis araerTi epizodi, romelic mwerlis mier
epigrafad wamZRvarebul galaktion tabiZis striqonebSi zustad ikveTeba:
,,eSveba feri bindis,
zRva Slis wvimebis fantels,
mivyavar mxolod sindiss
mxolod simarTlis kandels‟‟.
WeSmaritad, mkvlevaris mTeli sicocxlis gza mxolod sindisiTa
da simarTlis kandeliT svla iyo.
137
,,yvav-yornebiviT damesivneno, esRa uTqvams, Sin rom mobrunebula...
bevrad
da bevrad uaresebic gadaetana, magram es uamuri raRaciT mainc
sxva iyo. Bbedisweras win veRaraferi aRudgeboda: verc misi xasiaTis
simtkice, verc nebisyofa, verc inteleqti, verc sulieri Tavisufleba,
verc Tavgametebis unari... ara, beds mainc ar Seurigdeboda, magram es
iqneboda mxolod amao mcdeloba da sul ufro da ufro realurad
SerCeboda xelT gatexili da gabiabruebuli saxeli‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:3). Aam
epizodiT iwyebs Txrobas rostom CxeiZe, Semdeg sawyiss ubrundeba da
pavle
ingoroyvas
biografias
acocxlebs,
aCvenebs
mis
samyaros,
romelSic marTlac wamebul mamuliSvils mouwia arseboba.
PeqvTime
TayaiSvilis,
mzrunvelobiT,
pavle
Tavisi
moZRvrisa
ingoroyva
da
sulieri
peterburgSi
wavida
megobris
ganaTlebis
misaRebad, sadac igi swavlobda istoriul-filologiur fakultetze.
nawarmoebSi
mwerals
didbunebovani
fragmenti,
motanili
pirovnebis
romelic
mier
pavle
miuTiTebs.
Aamonaridi
students
gamogigzavniT
aqvs
niko
marisTvis
ingoroyvas
mxatvruli
ingoroyvas,
saqarTvelos
did
_
miwerili
niWierebaze,
teqstidan:
moWirnaxule,
baraTis
gonierebaze
,,seqtembrisTvis
winaswarve
erT
miuxarebia
niko
marisTvis baraTSi, _ swored gvasaxelebs, iseTi niWis patronia, macadini
da muSaki... aman Tu filosofiuri swavla miiRo, SesaniSnavi mkvlevari
iqneba da Seni adgili marto magas SeeZleba daiWiros‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:66).
didi
mniSvneloba
davinaxeT,
man
ar
eniWeba
eqvTime
TayaiSvilis
daiSura
saqebari
sityvebi
sityvebs.
pavle
rogorc
ingoroyvaze
da
amasTanave, varaudi gamoTqva, Seni adgili SeiZleba daikavoso.
gasaTvaliswinebeli
da
aRsaniSnavia
is
faqti,
rom
pavle
ingoroyvas, didtaniani gamokvlevebis Semqmnels, aranairi jildo, wodeba
Tu samecniero xarisxi ar hqonia. Eerovnuli mrwamsi, gza, romelic
TviTon
airCia,
epoqaSi
misi
xelisufleba
pirwmindad
Rvawlis
mxolod
gamoricxavda
dafasebas
TviTmpyrobeluri
oficialuri
devna-SeviwroebiT
wreebis
reJimis
mxridan,
ajildoebda,
rasac
gauTaveblad ganicdida da rostom CxeiZe wers: ,,ra vuyoT: es yofila
misi
da
misTanaTa
xvedri
da
yvelafers
udrtvinvelad
unda
Sexvedroda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:51).
138
iyo
periodi,
rodesac
mkvlevaris
saxeli
aRzevda,
Tumca
sazogadoebis garkveulma nawilma es ver moiTmina. Mmas literaturuli
presis furclebidan gauTaveblad, mizandasaxulad Tavs esxmodnen da
amtkicebdnen, rom pavle ingoroyvas mecnieruli kvlevebisas Secdomebi
mosdioda;
iolad
waSales
misi
Rvawli
qarTuli
kulturis
da
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis winaSe, magram arsebobdnen iseTi adamianebic,
romlebic gverdSi edgnen mkvlevars da rostom CxeiZis TqmiT: ,,yvelaze
TavgamodebiT
cdilobda,
mainc
simon
yvelasTvis
yauxCiSvili
yvelaferi
naTlad
icavda
mis
ganemarta
Sexedulebebs,
da
zedapirul
SefasebaTa uaryofiT mis naSromTa namdvili mecnieruli Rirebuleba
daesabuTebina”(CxeiZe r. 2003:24).
mwerals sainteresod aqvs gadmocemuli epizodi pavle ingoroyvas
moRvaweobis erTi xanidan, rodesac igi SoTa rusTavelis 800 wlis
saiubileo zeimze mxolod rigiT monawiled aqcies. aqve xazgasmiT unda
iTqvas, rom: ,,1937 wels gadaxdili ,,vefxistyaosnis‟‟ Seqmnis 750 wlis
iubilec pavle ingoroyvas Tavgamodebuli garjis wyalobiT aRiniSna:
,,wamomwyebic TviTon iyo da mTavari momxsenebelic da, saerTod, iubiles
organizaciuli mxare mTlianad mas daawva da warmatebiTac gaarTva
Tavi‟‟(CxeiZe
r.
2003:10). Aaxla
yofiliyo,
sinamdvileSi
ki,
marto
rodesac
poetis
is
mTavari figura
Zeglis
gaxsnas
unda
daeswro
axalcixeSi, isic xalxSi Cakarguli, gamtknarebuli, Soridan umzerda
TeTri qsovilis Camoxsnas. Aamonaridi romanidan: ,,zeimobda yvela, didi
Tu patara da zogma arc icoda, zogma ki ratomRac miiviwya am dReebis
namdvili Semoqmedi. Tu vinme moisaklisebda, an imiT ra icvleboda,
mxolod sinanuliTa da mwuxarebiT gaivlebdnen gulSi, rom saSveli ar
iyo da arc iqneboda.
esec kargia, rom viRaceebs axsovdaT da uTanagrZnobdnen, marto
pirovnebas ki ara, kerZo kacs _ pavle ingoroyvas, saerTod moRvawis
beds uTanagrZnobdnen‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:37).
Mmwerali mkiTxvelisTvis Sesaferis aqcents akeTebs. igi am ambis
moyoliT politikur zewolas usvams xazs. avtors surs, Cveni yuradReba
maSindeli xelisuflebis cenzuraze miapyros. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom am
TanagrZnobaSi,
romelic
adamianTa
garkveulma
nawilma
qarTveli
139
mecnieris
mimarT
ingoroyvasi‟‟
gamoxata,
rostom
mkiTxvelebsac
CxeiZe
gulisxmobs.
wignis
,,bedi
mkiTxvelebs,
pavle
romelTac
,,rusTvelianas‟‟ avtoris mimarT gamoxatuli usamarTloba gvaRelvebs.
SoTa
rusTavelis
saiubileo
dReebSi
uamravi
stumari
ewvia
saqarTvelos, delegacias delegacia emateboda. Camodiodnen imperiis
sxvadasxva kuTxidanac da ucxoeTidanac, monawileobdnen sayovelTao
zeimSi. maT sxva
moxsenebebTan erTad moismines mweralTa kavSiris
Tavjdomris, irakli abaSiZis moxsenebac. Aaqve aRvniSnavT, rom irakli
abaSiZe,
akaki
ierusalimSi
aRmoaCines
SaniZesa
da
samecniero
rusTavelis
,,vefxistyaosnis‟‟
giorgi
wereTelTan
eqspediciaSi
freska
erTad
monawileobda.
jvris
monasterSi.
1960
wels
swored
maSin
qarTvelma
poetma
avtors da mis poemas araerTi SesaniSnavi striqoni
uZRvna. maTgan aRsaniSnavia leqsebis cikli: ,,rusTavelis nakvalevze‟‟ da
,,palestina, palestina!‟‟
Ppavle
ingoroyvam
,,vefxistyaosnis‟‟
avtoris
vinaobis
dadgenas
miuZRvna wigni ,,SoTa rusTaveli‟‟. monografiis winasityvaobaSi mecnieri
sakvlev Temaze saubrobs. fragments movixmobT: ,,jer Tumca naaadrevia
saubari rusTavelis problemis mTeli kompleqsis gadaWris Sesaxeb (es
jer kidev moiTxovs rusTavelis epoqis xangrZlivsa da gaRrmavebul
kvleviT muSaobas), magram mainc rigi sakiTxebisa, da kerZod avtoris
vinaobis sakiTxi, ZiriTadSi ukve amoxsnilad unda CaiTvalos. rusTaveli
aRmoCenil iqna mas Semdeg, rac SesaZlo gaxda gaSifrva im cnobebisa,
romlebic
daculia
aRmwerloba‟‟),
ramac
erT
Zvel-qarTul
mogvca
saistorio
dasayrdeni
ZeglSi
rusTavelis
(,,JamTa-
pirovnebis
amosacnobad.
cnobebi am ZiriTadi saistorio wyarosi, me-14 saukunis saistorio
Zeglisa,
da
amis
gverdiT
is
Cvenebani,
romlebsac
iZleva
,,vefxistyaosnis‟‟ prologi da TviT poemis teqstis realiebi, agreTve,
mTeli rigi fragmentuli cnobebisa, romelebic SerCenila sxvadasxva
Zvel-qarTul ZeglebSi, _ yvela am wyaroebis Cvenebani eTanxmebian da
avseben erTimeores, analizi am wyaroebisa iZleva saSualebas amovicnoT
poetis vinaoba, _ aRvadginoT ZiriTad xazebSi poetis biografia da
140
gadavwyvitoT
TviT
nawarmoebis
istoriul-literaturuli
sakiTxebi‟‟
(ingoroyva 1938:6).
rostom CxeiZe
biografiul romanSi
im dRes acocxlebs, rodesac
saqarTvelos mweralTa kavSiris sxdomaze pavle ingoroyvas monografiis
,,SoTa rusTavelis‟‟ ganxilva moewyo. amonaridi romanidan: ,,da es moxda
samsjavroze, romelic Tavidan araviTar samsjavros ar hgavda, sul sxva
Sinaarsis saRamo unda yofiliyo, mSvidi, wynari, vnebaTRelvas sruliad
ganridebuli, asec daiwyo, magram damswreTaTvis da, maT Soris, pavle
ingoroyvasTvis,
moulodnelad
warimarTa:
pavle
mecnieruli
moRvaweobis
icvala
ingoroyvas
ieri
da
sul
rusTvelologiuri
sawinaaRmdegod
sxva
xaziT
naRvawis,
Semotrialda
misi
da
mexTatexa
politikur
asparezze
gaumarTa”(CxeiZe r. 2003:28).
biografiul
romanSi
naCvenebia
mecnieris
gamoCenili aqtivobebi. igi erovnul-demokratiuli partiis mrwamssa da
suliskveTebas iziarebda. Mmisma megobrebma, adamianebma, vis mimarTac
pativiscemiT iyo ganmsWvaluli, iq moiyares Tavi. Eeseni gaxldnen: niko
nikolaZe,
eqvTime
TayaiSvili,
revaz
gabaSvili,
Salva
amirejibi,
spiridon kedia, geronti qiqoZe, sandro SanSiaSvili da sxvebi, magram
TviTon ar gawevrianda. Aamis Taobaze romanSi avtori Semdegnairad
xatavs
da
mkiTxvelis
warmouCens
momaval
mkvlevars:
,,megobrobiT
imegobrebda, sulieradac maT gverdiT iqneboda da maT gazeTSic _
,,saqarTvelo‟‟ _ iTanamSromlebda rogorc samecniero, ise politikurpublicisturi
damfuZnebeli
statiebiT
yrilobis
da
muSaobaSic
erovnul-demokratiuli
miiRebda
partiis
monawileobas,
miwveuli oratori‟‟ (CxeiZe r. 2003:151). Mpavle ingoroyvam
rogorc
tribunidan
gamokveTa kardinaluri problemebi qarTuli miwa-wylisa da imsjela
Cveni qveynis istoriul sazRvrebze.
Mmecnieris politikaSi CarTva ar gulisxmobda aqtiur politikur
saqmianobas: krebebze siaruls, proklamaciebis darigebas, mowodebebis
gavrcelebas. igi qveynisTvis sasargeblo saqmes samecnieri saqmianobiT
akeTebda, adgenda saqarTvelos sazRvrebs, saubrobda am sakiTxze. egeb,
es iyo bevrad ufro Sedegis momtanic.
141
rostom
istoriuli
CxeiZes
mxatvrul
sandoobiT,
teqstSi
araerTi
sainteresod
mogonebis,
da
mecnieruli
sruli
narkvevis,
dRiuris Tu gazeTSi dabeWdil masalaze dayrdnobiT aqvs aRwerili 1918
wels
trapizonSi
monawileoba
ruseTis
iq
revaz
gamarTul
mizandasaxul
aWrelebas,
gabaSvilisa
da
pavle
konferenciaze,
mcdelobas:
ingoroyvas
romlis
M
amierkavkasiis
saxelmwifoebriv-kulturul
dakninebas
wasvla,
ZiriTad
arss,
eTnografiulad
mecnieri
winaswar
grZnobda da miuTiTebda kavkasiis mTielebTan daaxloebis mniSvnelobaze.
aqve
yuradReba gavamaxviloT erT aspeqtze: konferenciaze, rodesac
pavle ingoroyvam joxiT xelSi rukaze mianiSna erTi mxare saqarTvelosi
da msmenelTaTvis uTqvams: ,,es gaxlavT kaxeTi!”-o, amaze
akaki Cxenkels,
qarTvelTa delegaciis meTaurs gaoceba ver daumalavs da uTqvams: _ ,,qe
didi yofila!‟‟. pavle ingoroyvas pirovnuli bunebis erT-erTi yvelaze
arsebiTi
umwvaves
Tavisebureba
gaxldaT:
sazogadoebriv-politikuri
erTdroulad
_
problemebisa
Tanamedroveobis
da
Cveni
istoriis
winaSe dgoma, raSic am ambis moxmobamac dagvarwmuna.
saqarTvelos
pirveli
demokratiuli
respublikis
gavleniani
figuris politikuri cxovrebis aRniSnul epizodze saintereso kvleva
SemogvTavaza
Cxenkeli
_
rusudan
saqarTvelos
niSnianiZem
elCi
personaJi‟‟. mecnieri wers, rom
literaturul
safrangeTSi
_
werilSi:
dokumenturi
,,akaki
prozis
qarTveli politikosis konferenciaze
cnobili replikis gamo revaz gabaSvilma yuradReba gaamaxvila wignSi
,,rac maxsovs‟‟, guguli mgelaZem monografiaSi _ ,,wminda saxeba me var
jariskaci Cemi erisa‟‟, xolo rostom CxeiZem
biografiul romanSi.
rusudan niSnianiZe aRniSnavs: ,,pirvel SemTxvevaSi, revaz gabaSvili akaki
Cxenkelis
portrets
xatavs,
meoregan
_
avtoris,
guguli
mgelaZis
mizania, axalgazrda mecnieris (pavle ingoroyvas) suraTi warmoudginos
mkiTxvels;
rostom
CxeiZis
SemTxvevaSi,
mwerali
Tavad
mogonebis
avtoris, revaz gabaSvilis da misi sulieri SeWirvebis Taobaze SeaCerebs
mkiTxvelis mzeras. gabaSvilis naambob epizods marjve dros SeurCevs da
dafiqrebuli ivaraudebs:
,,am suraTs araviTari komentari aRar sWirdeba da Tu mogonebis
avtori Tavs mainc ver ikavebs (,,da ai, aseTi delegaciis aseTi mcodne
142
meTauri midioda trapizonSi, saqarTvelos interesebis dasacavad... da
kavkasiiisac‟‟), albaT imitom, rom sulieri tkivili da sinanuli, ara
marto
kerZo
faqtiT,
ganwyobilebiT
aramed
gamowveuli,
saerTo
amdeni
atmosferosTvis
wlis
gavlis
niSandoblivi
merec
mourCenlad
Seaxsenebs Tavs‟‟(niSnianiZe 2011:239-240).
romanSi
detalurad
da
amomwuravadaa
gadmocemuli
yvela
is
epizodi, saqarTvelos damoukideblobisaTvis brZolas rom ukavSirdeba,
Tavisuflebis
Semdgomi
mopoveba
1918
wels,
aseve,
politikur-kulturuli
Semosvla da
moTxrobilia
mdgomareoba:
Cveni
qveynis
wiTelarmielebis
samSoblos dapyroba ruseTis mier, rac mTavaria, am
movlenebSi pavle ingoroyvas moqmedeba da misi sityvebi, roca Tbilisis
datoveba mouxdaT qarTvelebs:
,,_ ras moveswariT, Zmebo, ras moveswariT! Tbiliss vtovebT! Aar
SemiZlia amis atana”. AdavZen, rom rostom CxeiZe zemoaRwerili faqtebis
sruli suraTis dasaxatad iTvaliswinebs giorgi mazniaSvilis, viktor
nozaZis, revaz gabaSvilis, samson fircxalavas da sxvaTa mogonebebs.
mravalTagan
erTi
aseTi
epizodia:
Sav
CoxebSi
Cacmuli
vaxtang
kotetiSvili, aleqsandre abaSeli, konstantine gamsaxurdia da pavle
ingoroyva 1924 wels daRupul mamuliSvilTa da damonebuli qveynis
bedisgan gamowveul mwuxarebas am formiT gamoxatavdnen. Ees yvelaferi
naTlad metyvelebs, Tu ramxela sulieri Zalis patroni iyo patrioti
qarTveli mecnieri.A
Bbiografiul
,,cisferyanwelebi‟‟.
romanSi
Ppavle
personaJebad
ingoroyva
am
gvevlinebian
literaturuli
dajgufebis
uSualo wevri arasodes yofila, magram megobrobda paolo iaSvilTan,
tician
tabiZesTan,
sxvebTanac,
valerian
met-naklebad.
mimdinareobis
gafrindaSvilTan,
sakmaod
sulisCamdgmelTan
axlos
da
ideur
kolau
iyo
am
nadiraZesTan,
simbolisturi
moZRvarTan,
grigol
robaqiZesTan. maTTan yofna, saubari mas yovelTvis siamovnebas aniWebda,
Tumca bohemur cxovrebas gaurboda da maT gadabmul qeifebsac amitom
erideboda.
rostom
CxeiZe
biografiul
romanSi
pavle
ingoroyvas
portrets ase daxatavs: ,,TavisTvis Cumad leqsebs rom werda, mxolod
paolos gaumxelda da ukiTxavda kidec. imas moswonda da aqezebda,
143
mikvirs, ratom ar beWdav, momeci, Tu ginda me mivxedavo, mas sakmarisad
miaCnda
paolos
rom
ukiTxavda
da
cdilobda
gamoqveynebaze
aRar
efiqra‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:249). rostom CxeiZem mecnieris pirovnebas lirikuli
Strixi Semata.
Ppavle ingoroyva ,,cisferyanwelebis‟‟ TaosnobiT mowyobil poeziis
saRamoebSic monawileobda. ramdenime leqciac waikiTxa ,,vefxistyaosnis‟‟
Sesaxeb. isini xSirad saubrobden literaturaze, kulturaze da sxva
mniSvnelovan
sakiTxze.
rostom
CxeiZe
wers:
,,qarTuli
mwerloba
evropuli radiusiT unda gaimarToso, amtkicebda ticiani da sxvebTan
erTad
pavle
ingoroyvac
eTanxmeboda,
uTuod
aucilebelia
Cveni
literaturis evropeizaciao. oRond imasac gaixsenebda, rom baraTaSvils
Tavis droze es gza aerCia da misi poeturi memkvidreoba amitomac
aRbeWdiliyo evropeizmis mZlavri niSniT.
cisferyanwelebs
Seedavebodnen:
isini
es
xom
ukve
maincdamainc
sruliad
ar
uaryofdnen
eWaSnikebodaT
tradiciul
da
poetur
azrovnebasa da mxatvrul formebs...
xolo pavle ingoroyvasTvis evropeizacia imas gulisxmobda, rom
qarTul literaturul tradicias uTuod unda SeeTvisebina evropuli
nakadi,
raTa
axali
elferiT
gamdidrebuliyo
da
raRaciT
meti
srulyofileba SeeZina, oRond TavisTavadi Rirebuleba da ganviTarebis
Sinagani energia mas _ uZveless, mravalferovansa da cxovelmyofels
_isedac hqonda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:254-254). am fragmentidan vlindeba erTi
mxriv,
pavle
ingoroyvas
urTierToba
,,cisferyanwelebTan‟‟
da
meore
mxriv, misi mosazreba Cveni mwerlobis evropeizaciaze.
romanSi qarTveli mkiTxveli waikiTxavs grigol robaqiZis piesis
,,londas‟‟
premieris
dReebSi,
1923
wels
grigol
robaqiZis
baraTs.
adresati gaxlavT pavle ingoroyva. werili sakmaod STambeWdavia. aq igi
maRal Sefasebas aZlevs mis naSromebs.N nona kupreiSviliAM statiaSi
,,sulis istoria‟‟ aRniSnul sakiTxze amaxvilebs yuradRebas da wers:
,,grigol robaqiZe pavle ingoroyvas ,,qarTuli sityvis zenits‟‟ uwodebs
da saubrobs im ,,mistiur pasuxismgeblobaze‟‟, romlis sakuTar Tavze
aReba
kidev
didxans
darCeba
am
moRvawe-literatorTa
dauZlevel
upiratesobad‟‟(kupreiSvili 2004:14).
144
Mmwerali sxva aspeqtiTac xatavs Tavis personaJs, pavle ingoroyvas,
rogorc
xolo
redaqtors.
kolegiis
gafrindaSvili
da
igi
gaxldaT
wevrebi
irakli
Jurnalis
iyvnen:
,,kavkasioni‟‟
galaktion
tatiSvili.
Ees
is
redaqtori,
tabiZe,
valerian
periodia,
rodesac
saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisufleba iyo damyarebuli. amdenad, Jurnals
didi misia hqonda dakisrebuli: krebuli xalxis sulieri Tu zneobrivi
srulyofilebisaTvis, erovnuli cnobierebis gaRrmavebisaTvis zrunavda.
mecnieri rudunebiT, didi mondomebiT krebda masalebs. is ZalRones ar
iSurebda, raTa ,,kavkasioni‟‟ gamorCeuli perioduli organo yofiliyo.
Sedegmac ar daaxana da mis Sesaxeb mravali recenzia daibeWda, sadac
xotbas asxamen, aqeben Jurnals.
wignSi ,,bedi pavle ingoroyvasi‟‟ gadmocemulia istoria mecnieris
mier daarsebuli beWvdiTi saqmis kooperaciuli sazogadoebis _,,qarTuli
wignis‟‟ Sesaxeb, romlis daniSnulebac, bunebrivia, iyo klasikuri, aseve,
Cveni
Tanamedrove rCeuli
samecniero
xasiaTis
da evropuli sityvakazmuli mwerlobis,
teqstebis,
ucxouri
umniSvnelovanesi faqtia, rom man
Targmanebis
gamocema.
umZimes pirobebSi ilia WavWavaZis
nawerebis aTtomeuli dabeWda. amonaridi romanidan: ,,es gaxldaT ilias
mkvdreTiT
cnobierebis
rostom
aRdgoma
qarTuli
gasamTlianeblad
CxeiZe,
rogorc
sulis
da
Tavadac
gadasarCenad,
Cveni
gansamtkiceblad‟‟(CxeiZe
redaqtori,
zedmiwevniT
erovnuli
r.
2003:319).
icnobs
im
sivrces da amdenad, pavle ingoroyvas muSaobas am kuTxiT saTanadod
afasebs. ,,rusTvelianas‟‟ avtori dajildovebuli iyo redaqtorisTvis
aucilebeli niSan-TvisebebiT. Ees TvalsaCinod gamokveTa mweralmac.
rostom CxeiZe biografiul romanSi galaktion tabiZis portretsac
xatavs.
igi
nawarmoebis
erT-erTi
personaJia.
rogorc
ukve
iTqva,
qarTveli poeti Ppavle ingoroyvas redaqtorobiT gamocemuli Jurnalis
,,kavkasioni‟‟
saredaqcio kolegiis erT-erTi wevri iyo. Tumca maleve
datova redaqcia. amis Sesaxeb ubis wignakSi Canaweric gaakeTa, romelic
1924 wliT TariRdeba. man wamosvlis mizezad daasaxela redaqtoris
gverdis avla saredaqcio kolegiisadmi da kicxavs pavle ingoroyvas
arakolegialobisaTvis:
,,saredaqcio
kolegiam
araferi
icoda,
ase
warmoidgineT, imis Sesaxebac ki, rom Jurnals daerqva ,,sul varT ori
145
milioni‟‟. am saxelis Sesaxeb saredaqcio kolegiaSi sakiTxic ki ar
dasmula. Mme ar vambob, rom ukeTesi saxeli moiZebneboda. Mme gamovdivar
ubralo
faqtidan,
rom
aseTi
saqmis
Sesaxeb,
rogoricaa
Jurnalis
saxelwodeba, saredaqcio kolegiam araferi icoda... Cemi roli am saqmeSi,
Jurnalis saqmeSi Tavmjdomares esmoda aseTnairad: Cemgan, galaktion
tabiZisgan igi miiRebs erT leqss, samagierod momcems erTi leqsis
honorars, morCa da GgaTavda. Eesaa misi kolegiis wevroba da yvelaferi.
me ki ase ar mesmis es saqme: ase ar msurda: radgan kolegiis wevri viyavi,
me
mindoda
mec
mimeRo
monawileoba,
ramenairi
monawileoba
mainc
Jurnalis Sinaarssa da garegnul mxareebze. Tu pasuxismgeblobloba
damekisra, me mindoda am movaleobis pirnaTlad Sesruleba‟‟(CxeiZe r.
2004:282,295). aRniSnul sakiTxze romanis avtori zustad wers: ,,SesaZloa,
es mxolod sababi iyo da
galaktioni sxva mizezTa
gamo (rogorc
revolucionerTa ojaxis, okujavebis siZe da loialurad ganwyobili
axali politikuri reJimisadmi) ufro morideboda am suliskveTebisa da
mimarTulebis JurnalSi aqtiur TanamSromlobas...
egaa, galaktion tabiZe ganawyendeboda da saredaqcio kolegiac
mietovebina da aRarc TanamSromloba surda.
mTavari mizezi viciT _ redaqtorisagan gansxvavebuli politikuri
mrwamsi.
sxva motivebic: separatiuli muSaoba redaqtorisa da gverdis avla
kolegiisagan, da amisTanani‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:283,293).
vaxtang javaxaZec wignSi ,,ucnobi‟‟ saubrobs galaktion tabiZis 1924
wliT daTariRebul zemoaRniSnul Canawerze da Sesabamisad, aqedan masac
mohyavs amonaridebi. ECven es fragmentebi (biografiuli romanidan ,,bedi
pavle
ingoroyvasi‟‟_n.x.)
da
aseve,
rostom
CxeiZis
mosazrebac
warmovaCineT. Aaxla sayuradReboa, Tu ra wers vaxtang javaxaZe didi
poetis pavle ingoroyvasTan dapirispirebis gamo: ,,vinc batoni pavles
muSaobis
ukiduresad
daeTanxmeba
iqneboda
individualur
galaktionis
erTi
kacis
sayvedurs.
Jurnali,
stils
icnobs,
Ddarwmunebuli
oden
redaqtoris
aucileblad
brZandebodeT,
es
Jurnali‟‟(javaxaZe
1996:139). Cvenis mxriv davamatebT, rom qarTveli mgosnis ,,kavkasionidan‟‟
wamosvlis mizezi ver gaxdeboda mxolod mecnieris saredaqcio kolegiis
146
gverdis avla da moqmedeba erTpirovnulad, amas erTvoda saqarTveloSi
axali politikuri reJimis arseboba (1924 welia- n.x), am sakiTxze pavle
ingoroyvasa
hqondaT.
da
galaktion
rogorc
tabiZis
gamovlinda,
gansxvavebuli
amasTan
damokidebuleba
dakavSirebiT
biografosma
nawarmoebSi zusti aqcentebi gaakeTa.
30-ian wlebSi saqarTveloSi daWerebis, represiebis da rbevis axali
talRa agorda, bevrad ufro sastiki, Semzaravi, vidre 20-ian wlebSi:
mweralTa kavSirSi ,,wmenda‟‟ daiwyo, ,,akademiuri asociacia‟‟
mis wevrebs aTasgvari cili
sabWoTa
mwerlebis
daSales.
daswames, moRvaweobis asparezs Camoaciles.
federaciis
prezidiumis
gafarToebul
sxdomaze,
romelic 1931 wlis 17 maiss gaimarTa, pavle ingoroyva, masTan erTad sxva
sazogado moRvaweebic mweralTa kavSiris rigebidan
mkvlevars
,,reaqcioneri‟‟
da
dakavSirebiT rostom CxeiZes
,,Sovinisti‟‟
garicxes. qarTvel
uwodes.
Aam
movlenebTan
romanSi uamravi saintereso, mniSvnelovani
masala Tu cnoba aqvs warmodgenili, rac
srulyofilad aRadgens
imdroindel suraTs.
Bbiografiul
javaxiSvili.
rostom
universitetis
periodia,
romanSi
CxeiZes
pedagogiur
rodesac
erT-erT
zemoT
personaJad
qarTveli
mwerali
institutebad
gvevlineba
TxrobaSi
daSlaze
dasaxelebuli
umaRlesi
ivane
Semohyavs
werisas.
Ees
is
saswavleblidan
siZveleTsacavis fondebi gamoaZeves da ivane javaxiSvils xelnawerTa
muzeumis naxevrad bnel oTaxSi miuCines oTaxi. pavle ingoroyvac am
SenobaSi moRvaweobda. isini xSirad saubrobdnen. istorikosma mZimed
gadaitana
adgili
universitetidan
,,wiTelma
gamoSveba, misi daSlac, sadac moZRvarTa
profesuram‟‟
Caigdo
xelSi
da
uceb
Seicvala,
gadasxvaferda iqauroba. ivane javaxiSvilis naRvaws ulmoblad moepyrnen.
sasowarkveTili, gulmokluli mecnieri, pavle ingoroyvasTan midioda.
rostom
CxeiZe
imJamindel
romanSi
urTierTobas:
warmoaCens
am
,,TanagrZnobas
ori
rom
gamorCeuli
eZiebda,
moazrovnis
sxva
aravin
gaaxsendeboda, sxvas veravis SesCivlebda gausaZlis tkivils. Tundac
ubralod msxdariyvnen didxans, amas mxolod is eTqva, Tu amoetira:
pavle, universitetidan gamomagdes, _ da imasac krinti rom ar daeZra,
dumili ufro mWevrmetyveli iqneboda. asea Tu ise, ivane javaxiSvili
147
iqidan ganadgurebuli aRar wamovidoda, imedi Caesaxebida... isev ocnebas
moebRauWeboda _ dRes Tu ara, xval iqneb gveSvelos raRaco‟‟(CxeiZe r.
2003:377).
nawarmoebidan
vigebT,
rom
filologiur-teqstologiurad
avtobiografiuli
pavle
ingoroyva
ikvlevda
xasiaTis
didi
nikoloz
xelnawerebs.
mondomebiT,
baraTaSvilis
amasTanave,
eswrafvoda
romantikosis sulieri cxovrebis marTal, mRelvarebiT aRsavse istoriis
amocnobasac, misi leqsebidan da piradi baraTebidan, ,,igi guldasmiT
utrialebda
poemisa
da
lirikis
mxatvrul
xveulebSi
gamJRavnebul
erovnulsa da politikur Sexedulebebs‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:359). Lliteratori
stumrebTan
saubrisTvis veRar iclida da maT qeTevani, misi saTno da
gulisxmieri meuRle emusaifeboda. gadasaxlebuli megobris,
vaxtang
kotetiSvilis qal-vaJs is uqarvebda dards. romanSi vkiTxulobT: ,,pavle
uecrad wamoxteboda da aCqarebuli
gamoiWreboda Tavisi senakidan:
,,qeTo, bavSvebs tkbilebi!‟‟... bavSvebi ukve gemrielad ikoklozinebdnen
yels da isic _ stumrebs rom moubodiSebda, kvlav Tavis uzarmazar
sawer magidas miubrundeboda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:467).
romanSi dawvrilebiTaa moTxrobili pavle ingoroyvas TavauRebeli
muSaoba
Zvel
warmoSobaze,
qarTul
dakvirveba
xelnawerebze,
saleqso
Txzulebebze,
formebze,
Cveni
erovnuli
anbanis
kalendris
warmoSobisa da Camoyalibebis Seswavla. aseve, sasuliero poeziis da
sagalobelTa gaanalizeba-gaSifvra. A
avtori
sagangebod
mecnierisaTvis
didxans
yvelaze
Cerdeba
mniSvnelovan
da
yuradRebas
wignze
,,giorgi
amaxvilebs
merCule‟‟,
gadmoscems misi Seqmnis istorias, gamokveTs am naSromis mniSvnelobas
qarTul literaturaSi, gviambobs im tragikul bedze, rac nawerebs xvda
wilad.
aRniSnul
sagulisxmo
wignTan
pasaJia
dakavSirebiT
mkvlevaris
mxatvrul
didbunebovani
teqstSi
pirovnebis,
erTi
eriskacis
warmosaCenad. ciala qarosaniZe ixsenebs, rom, rodesac ,,giorgi merCule‟‟
ibeWdeboda, gamomcemloba ,,sabWoTa mwerali‟‟ imxanad mZime finansur
gasaWirSi
gadaxda
yofila
stambis
Cavardnili;
daxurvas
mwerlisTvis
moaswavebda,
magram
kuTvnili
amis
honoraris
Sesaxeb
pavle
ingoroyvas rom gaugia, literators honoraris aRebaze uari uTqvams.
148
rostom CxeiZes biografiul romanSi gaTvaliswinebili aqvs TiTqmis
yvela gamoxmaureba, recenzia am wignze, rac daiwera saqarTveloSi, Tu
ucxoeTSi.
aqve
,,kiTxulob
mas
mohyavs
grigol
robaqiZis
Sefaseba
naSromze:
mas da xedav: saqarTvelo izrdeba, viTar cocxali arsi,
vrceldeba TandaTan, mkvidrdeba neli-nel, dgindeba, mtkicdeba, wigni
cixe-simagredaa
aRmarTuli,
iseT
cixe-simagred,
romelsac
verara
Selaxavs da verara aiRebs‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:517).
wlebis
gasvlis
daundoblobis
Semdeg
talRam
,,rusTvelianas
kvlav
mecnieris
epilogis‟‟
ifeTqa
mimarT.
Tvalwin
ganukiTxaobis,
,,rusTvelianas‟‟
,,gadafxrewis‟‟
mere
da
,,giorgi
merCules‟‟ gadaxevac moindomes. afxazebma ganacxades: pavle ingoroyvam
am
wigniT
istoria
yvelaferi
Zveleburad
arajansaRi
aJiotaJi
tendenciurad
gagviyalbao
da
gagrZelda.
ganwyobil,
misi
moiTxoves.
romanidan:
,,es
amonaridi
gansakuTrebiT
garusebul
akrZalvac
afxazeTSi
afxaz
metad
SeeqmnaT,
mecnierebsa
da
da
partiul
wreebs mosaxleobis garkveuli nawili aeyoliebinaT, TavianT azrebs
pavle
ingoroyvas
miawerdnen
da
xalxs
Caagonebdnen,
Cveni
ayra
da
gadasaxleba gadauwyvetiaT da ,,giorgi merCule‟‟ amis ideur safuZvels
amzadebso... pavle ingoroyvas mTeli cxovreba ar
mohklebia aTasgvari
ciliwameba da axla esec mimateboda...‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:524).
,,mwerali yveba pavle ingoroyvas Caqolvis istorias sazogadoebis
mier
da
ara
aqvs
mniSvneloba,
daqiravebuli
,,mkvlelebi‟‟
darbazSi
sxedan Tu prezidiumSi, xelisuflebis skamebze Tu mecnierTa wreebis
kars miRma moyuCebulan, isini erTxmad moiTxoven, rom pavle ingoroyvam
,,istoriis damaxinjebaze‟‟ pasuxi unda agos‟‟(oCiauri 2002:9).
nawarmoebis dasasruls ki, rostom CxeiZe saubrobs im Rvawlis
daufaseblobaze, rac literatorma ganicada. Mmis Sesaxeb
wignebSi,
sadac
Zveli
qarTuli
mwerlobis
memkvidreobaa ganxiluli, ,,narkvevebSi ki gaielvebs
araferi weria
literaturuli
erTi-organ misi
saxeli da migvaniSnebs, rom Turme aseTi mkvlevaric arsebula, magram
yovelTvis uaryofiT konteqstSi ixsenieba‟‟, _ miuTiTebs
biografiuli
romanis avtori.
149
visaubroT
rostom
CxeiZis
biografiuli
romanis
,,bedi
pavle
ingoroyvasi‟‟ mxatvrul mxareze. Aam sakiTxis kvlevisas gamovlinda, rom
mwerali mxatvrul nawarmoebSi sxvadasxva faqtis, movlenis, moqmedebis
gadmosacemad araerTgzis iyenebs zustad SerCeul epiTetebs, Sedarebebs,
metaforebs. saTqmelis dasturad movitanT fragmentebs: ,,Sebindda Tu
ara, jer neli da Semdeg ufro da ufro Zlieri Relva atyda. zRva navs
kaklis naWuWiviT xan talRis qedze moiqcevda da mgzavrebi aqeT-iqiT
ufskruls
Cascqerodnen,
xan
sadRac
Casrialdebodnen
siRrmeSi
da
garSemo camde aziduli wylis mTebi dahyurebdnen‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:158). sxva
magaliTic: ,,karl karli‟‟ wynarad da gediviT Sescurda baTumis yureSi.
Hhaeric ki TiTqos raRac molodinis siCumes moucavs‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:165).
MSemdegi fragmenti: ,,sicocxliT Trgunavda sikvdils, uflis nebieri
lazaresaviT gamovidoda mRvimedan da valerian gafrindaSvilisaTvis
rom dagejerebinaT _ Citebis simReriT mojadoebuli lurj pepelasac
gaekideboda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:502).
mxatvruli
xerxebis
gamoyenebis
TvasazrisiT
sayuradReboa
mweralTa kavSirSi pavle ingoroyvas monografiis, ,,SoTa rusTavelis‟‟
ganxilvis epizodi. Ees is DdRea, rodesac mecnieri sastikad gaakritikes
,,vefxistyaosanze‟‟
da
mis
avtorze
gamoxatuli
debulebebis
gamo.
fragmenti romanidan: ,,gamomsvlelTa ,,absoluturi umravlesobis‟‟ gmobamuqaras
darbazSi
SeZaxilebiT,
taSiscemiT
mokalaTebuli
aqezebdnen,
egebebodnen
klakiorebi
amxnevebdnen,
da
TavianTi
yvelaze
mxriv
asdevdnen
omaxiani
mZafr
gamoTqmebs
aranaklebi
simZafriT
dahkiJinebdnen, ,,pasuxi unda agos pavle ingoroyvam, gamovides da pasuxi
agos xalxis winaSe‟‟...
igi ijda gamtknarebuli da gafiTrebuli, mxrebSi moxrili da
TavCaqindruli, Sinaganad daTrgunuli da gaumweoebuli, gaognebuli...
goneba veRar axerxebda calkeul STabeWdilebaTa danawevrebas da ase
aRqmas, yoveli braldebis, yoveli muqaris gacnobierebas, erTi mTliani
da mZime STabeWdileba Semoxveoda gars da gaeTanga‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2003:36).
amonarididan gamoikveTa, rom rostom CxeiZem SesaniSnavad daxata mTavari
personaJis
portreti
da
amasTanave,
sxdomis
garemo,
sadac
pavle
150
ingoroyvas wignis ganxilva moewyo. calkeuli sityvebisa Tu frazebis
meSveobiT avtori mxatvrul Canafiqrs zedmiwevniT sworad gadmoscems.
Pprozauli nawarmoebis mxatvruli mxaris kvlevisas gamovlinda,
rom
rostom
CxeiZe
qarTuli
sityvis
ostatia,
mwerluri
niWiT
dajildoebuli Semoqmedi. Pprozaikosis individualoba mxatvruli enis
TvasazrisiT Cvens mier ganxilul biogarfiul romanSi TvalnaTliv
warmoCinda.
,,rostom CxeiZis mier danaxuli pavle ingoroyva, ,,saqarTvelos
sulis‟‟ gznebiT ganmcdeli kidev erTi moRvawea, romlis mier dawerili
literaturis istoria, sxva araerTi sakiTxi, Tavis kanonikur saazrovno
sivrceSi
ase
Tamamad
aRdgenili,
faqtiurad,
qarTuli
sulis
istoriaa‟‟(kupreiSvili 2004:14).
amgvarad,
rostom
CxeiZem
biografiul
romanSi
,,bedi
pavle
ingoroyvasi‟‟ aRwera qarTveli mecnieris, eriskacis, samSobloze uzomod
Seyvarebuli, misi keTildReobisaTvis mzrunveli, didi mamuliSvilis
ucnauri,
metad
rTuli
bedi,
cxovrebis
gza
da
amasTanave,
misi
gansakuTrebuli Rvawli. mwerlis mier sxvadasxva arqivsa Tu samuzeumo
sacavSi
romelic
moZiebuli
darCeba,
dokumentebi
rogorc
sainteresodaa
gansakuTrebuli,
Serwymuli
sayuradRebo
wignSi,
prozauli
teqsti Tanamedrove qarTul mxatvrul literaturaSi. is am biografiuli
romanebidan erT-erTi sruliad gamorCeuli wignia.
151
Tavi VII
rostom CxeiZis biografiuli romani ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟
rostom CxeiZem biografiuli romanis ,,bedi pavle ingoroyvasi‟‟
gamocemis Semdeg dawera am Janris mxatvruli teqsti ,,yazbegiana‟‟, xolo
2007 wels - biografiuli romani ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟ (iakob gogebaSvilis
cxovrebis qronika). Cven swored am ukanasknels ganvixilavT mocemul
TavSi. wignis redaqtori aris oTar CxeiZe, mxatvari _ karlo faCulia.
iakob
gogebaSvili
qarTuli
pedagogikis
fuZemdebeli,
sabavSvo
mwerali, literaturis kritikosi gaxlavT. Mmas didi wvlili miuZRvis
mSobliuri
enis
aRorZinebis,
dacvisa
xalxuri
Tu
ganviTarebis,
zepirsityvierebis
saymawvilo
Sekrebis,
mwerlobis
gadamuSavebisa
da
qarTuli Jurnalistikis ganviTarebis saqmeSi.
1865 wels iakob gogebaSvilma gamosca pirveli saxelmZRvanelo
,,qarTuli anbani da pirveli sakiTxavi wigni moswavleTaTvis‟‟. amas mohyva
,,bunebis
kari‟‟
da
,,deda
ena‟‟.
es
ukanaskneli,
Cveni
erisTvis
fasdaudebeli, uZvirfasesi wigni 50 wlis ganmavlobaSi Seuwyvetlad
gamodioda.
iakob gogebaSvilma Seqmna SesaniSnavi sabavSvo moTxrobebi, maT
Soris
sagangebod
hqmna?„‟.б igi
axerxebda,
gamosayofia
ganuwyvetliv
rom
misi
sayovelTaod
cdilobda
yoveli
da
wignis
cnobili
amas
sakmaod
axali
,,iavnanam
ra
warmatebiTac
gamocema
yofiliyo
gadamuSavebuli, Sevsebuli saintereso masaliT, ilustraciebiT.
Eerovnuli moRvawis Semoqmedebaze saubrisas, unda aRvniSnoT, rom
is
avtoria
mravali
sayuradRebo
publicisturiяwerilisa.
cnobili
sazogado moRvawis Rvawli amiT ar sruldeba. Ddidi moazrovne aqtiur
monawileobas
saqmianobaSi.
iRebda
Aamis
yvela
dasturia,
qarTul
rom
igi
kulturul-saganmanaTleblo
iyo
erT-erTi
damaarsebeli
,,qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebisa‟‟.
CvenTvis
kargadaa
cnobili,
rom
axali
saliteraturo
enis
struqturis damkvidreba da gavrceleba daiwyo XIX saukunis 60-iani
wlebidan ilia WavWavaZis da akaki wereTlis TaosnobiT. maT ricxvs
152
Tavis droze iakob gogebaSvilic Seemata da am kuTxiTac mniSvnelovania
misi
Rvawli.
aRniSnul
sakiTxze
wers
SoTa
ZiZiguri:
,,iakob
gogebaSvilis muSaoba literaturuli enis dargSi ori mimarTulebiT
warimarTa. Ppirvel yovlisa, gogebaSvili mxurvale monawileobas iRebs
axali
saliteraturo
literaturuli
TavgamodebiT
enis
normebis
ibrZvis
uflebaTa
dadgenisa
enis
Teoriul
da
siwmindis
daxasiaTebaSi,
mowesrigebis
dacvisTvis,
saqmeSi,
axali
normebis
gamomuSavebisa da dromoWmuli formebis ukugdebisaTvis.
Mmeore mxriv, iakob gogebaSvili praqtikulad xels uwyobs axali
saliteraturo
enis
Seqmnasa
da
damkvidrebas
Tavisi
brwyinvale
saxelmZRvaneloebiT da mravali originaluri nawarmoebiT – mxatvruli
Tu istoriuli xasiaTis TxzulebebiT‟‟(ZiZiguri 1990:76).
iakob gogebaSvili Tavis TanamoazreebTan erTad mudam ilaSqrebda
qarTuli enis dasacavad, roca amis aucilebloba dadgeboda xolme Cveni
eris winaSe.
,,iakob gogebaSvili yovel Rones xmarobda, raTa qarTuli ena mudam
cocxal
enad
darCeniliyo,
rogorc
mravali
saukunis
manZilze
Sevsebuli da gamdidrebuli UuZvelesi ena, JamTa svlam rom veraferi
daaklo... iakob gogebaSvilis mxatvruli proza, saxelmZRvaneloebi da
publicisturi
werilebi
mSobliuri
enis
dacvis
samsaxurSi
idga‟‟
(bocvaZe 1991:5).
iakob
gogebaSvili
qarTuli
mxatvruli
saukunis,
Tavis
saxelmZRvaneloebis
literaturis
Tanamedrove
Sedgenisas
saganZuriT,
SemoqmedTa
sargeblobda
gansakuTrebiT
nawarmoebebiT,
iyenebs
XIX
ilia
WavWavaZis, akaki wereTlis, rafiel erisTavis, grigol orbelianis da
sxvaTa Semoqmedebis calkeul nimuSebs. rogorc cnobilia, pedagogi didi
interesiT,
gulisyuriT
ekideboda
SesarCev
masalas
da
formiT,
SinaarsiT gamarTul Txzulebebs arCevda. amiT xels uwyobda qarTvel
mweralTa
Semoqmedebis popularizacias.
iakob gogebaSvilis Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb mravali saintereso da
angariSgasawevi wigni, naSromia dabeWdili. Tematuri mravalferovnebiT
gamoirCeva
misi
Rvawlis
warmosaCenad
Seqmnili
werilebi.
amdenad,
saWiroT vTvliT, mokled SevrCerdeT zogierT maTganze.
153
Jurnal
,,ganaTlebis‟‟
redaqciam
1913
wels,
pedagogis
gardacvalebidan erTi wlis Semdeg, gamosca specialuri krebuli ,,iakob
gogebaSvilis saxsovrad‟‟, romelSic 81 werilia dastambuli. maT Soris:
niko lomouris, grigol burjanaZis, ilia nakaSiZis, Salva dadianis,
ilia
baxtaZis,
levan
bocvaZis,
aleqsandre
miqaberiZis,
Salva
gogebaSvilis da sxvaTa werilebi. aRniSnul wignSi vkiTxulobT Sio
mRvimelis,
g.
quCiSvilis,
v.
ruxaZis,
m.
uznaZis
miZRvnil
leqsebs
cnobili sazogado moRvawisadmi.
Dsagangebod
unda
aRiniSnos
werilebis
krebuli
,,iakobis
samreklo‟‟, romelic gamomcemloba ,,ganaTlebam‟‟ 1990 wels dastamba.
Semdgenlebi arian: jumber TiTmeria da zurab CilaCava. wigni eZRvneba
iakob
gogebaSvilis
dabadebidan
150
wlisTavs.
Aaq
Tavmoyrilia
sxvadasxva avtoris sakmaod sayuradRebo werilebi qarTuli pedagogikis
fuZemdeblis SemoqmedebasTan dakavSirebiT. amave krebulSi mkiTxveli
ecnoba 1913 wlis Ggamocemidan (,,iakobis saxsovrad‟‟) calkeul masalebs.
1991 wliT TariRdeba zurab bocvaZis wigni ,,iakob gogebaSvili‟‟,
sadac warmodgenilia qarTveli sazogado moRvawis cxovrebisa
Tu
Semoqmedebis im droisaTvis naklebad Seswavlili sakiTxebi. amasTanave,
krebulSi vkiTxulobT iakob gogebaSvilis TanamedroveTa mogonebebs.
2003 wels g. giorgaZis, n. gurgeniZisa da m. sajaias avtorobiT
Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemlobam gamosca wigni ,,iakob
gogebaSvili‟‟.
rogorc
naSromis
warmodgenilia
qarTveli
pedagogis
winaTqmaSia
cxovrebasa
miniSnebuli,
Tu
aq
moRvaweobasTan
dakavSirebuli saintereso sakiTxebi, romelTac garkveuli Rirebuleba
gaaCniaT am didi adamianis pirovnebis gamosarkvevad.
2001 wels gamoica wignaki giorgi gogolaSvilis ,,deda ena - wignTa
wigni‟‟, 2003 da 2011 wlebSi misi wignebi: ,,dedaena – Zegli samaradiso‟‟ da
,,Rvawli
da
cxovrebaze,
wuTisofeli
Rvawlze
da
iakob
gogebaSvilisa‟‟.
wignis
,,deda
ena‟‟
Aavtori
udides
pedagogis
rolsa
Tu
mniSvnelobaze mogviTxrobs.
ioseb sreselma, pedagogis naTesavma, cnobilma eqimma da mweralma
1946 wels dawera mcire moculobis wigni ,,ramdenime epizodi iakob
154
gogebaSvilis cxovrebidan‟‟, xolo 2011 wels gamoaqveyna – ,,etiudebi
iakob gogebaSvilze‟‟.
Aaxla rostom CxeiZis biografiul romanze ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟
vimsjeloT,
romelic
warmoadgens.
wignis
teqstSi
iakob
winasityvaobaSi
,,literaturuli,
gadaxsnili
,,deda
gogebaSvilis
enis‟‟
weria,
istoriuli
Semoqmedis
da
cxovrebis
qronikas
aRniSnul
mxatvrul
fsiqologiuri
siRmiTaa
rom
pirovnuli
xasiaTic,
cxovrebis
Sinagani dramatizmic da epoqis sulic‟‟(CxeiZe o. 2007:2).
,,burji erovnebisa‟‟ 2007 wels gamoica oTar CxeiZis redaqtorobiT.
wigni eZRvneba avTandil CxeiZes, iakob gogebaSvilis ideebis damcvels da
mqadagebels.
rostom
CxeiZe
aRniSnavs:
,,biZaCemia
STamagonebeli
am
biografiuli romanis dawerisa da amitomac swored mas eZRvneba es
wigni‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:40).
Uunda
mivuTiToT,
rom
rostom
CxeiZis
biografiuli
romanis
,,burji erovnebisa‟‟-s wardgineba Tavdapirvelad moxda Jurnal ,,Cveni
mwerlobis‟‟ salonSi, Semdeg – saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Rirsi mama
giorgi mTawmindelis saxelobis gimnaziaSi gorSi, zugdidis IV sajaro
skolaSi, borjomis II sajaro skolaSi... aRniSnul Sexvedrebze araerTma
adamianma gamoxata Tavisi damokidebuleba rogorc avtoris, ise wignis
mTavari
personaJis
mimarT.
saWirod
vTvliT,
vidre
wignze
Cvens
mosazrebas gamovxatavT, vimsjelebT da Cveneul dakvirvebas warmovaCenT,
movixmoT
fragmentebi,
Sexeduleba
rostom
angariSgasawevi
da
saidanac
CxeiZis
ikveTeba
biografiul
sagulisxmoa,
vinaidan
sxvadasxva
romanze.
Ees
mecnieruli
pirovnebis
miT
ufro
gamokvleva
mxatvrul teqstze jer-jerobiT ar dawerila:
Mmeufe andria: ,,Cemi azriT, es aris yvelaze mniSvnelovani Sroma im
monografiaTa
Soris,
rac
iakob
gogebaSvilis
Sesaxeb
Seqmnila
aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi‟‟(meufe andria 2008:40). D
dodo biZinaSvili: ,,SeuZlebelia isaubro yvela im Rvawlze, rac
dakavSirebulia iakobis saxelTan, magram batoni rostomi nabij-nabij
miadevnebs Tvals mis nakvalevs da Cven, mkiTxvelebs, damajereblad
gadagviSlis misi moRvaweobis suraTs. TanmimdevrobiT gadmogvcems, Tu
155
rogor ASeicvala misi ZalisxmeviT aRzrdis sistema da Sewyda fizikuri
dasja skolaSi.
wignSi uxvad aris moxmobili iakobis enasTan damokidebulebis
amsaxveli
pasaJebi.
Bbaton
rostoms
,,dedaena‟‟
dakarguli
saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenis mTavar burjad miaCnda, radgan misi Rrma
rwmeniT, am wigns unda Seesrulebina gadamwyveti roli garusebis gzaze
mdgari qveynis Semosabruneblad, xolo genialuri migneba _ ,,ai ia‟‟ –
savizito
baraTi
unda
gamxdariyo
qarTul
samyaroSi
SesaRwevad‟‟
(biZinaSvili 2008:41).
Tamila gogolaZe: ,,iakob gogebaSvilis Sesaxeb bevri samecniero
Sroma
arsebobs,
magram
rostom
CxeiZis
wigni
,,burji
erovnebisa‟‟
gansakuTrebulia rogorc formiT, ise SinaarsiT. Tu ginda gogebaSvili
dainaxo, es wigni unda waikiTxo‟‟(gogolaZe 2008:41).
vano CxikvaZe: ,,rostom CxeiZis wigni ar aris mxolod faqtebis
aRnusxva,
analizi,
gansja
da
ganxilva,
es
aris
romani,
romelSic
gvesaubreba mwerali da ara mkvlevari‟‟ (CxikvaZe 2008:42).
Eesma
erovnebisa‟‟
gabisonia:
,,rostom
gviCvenebs
CxeiZis
xeldasxmuli
biografiuli
adamianis
romani
iakob
,,burji
gogebaSvilis
cxovrebis gzas umZimes viTarebaSi... iakob gogebaSvilis xasiaTi wignSi
isea aRwerili, ggonia, moqmedebis
Tanamonawile xdebi da im sixaruls
iziareb, rasac misi Segirdebi ganicdidnen... momavali pedagogebisaTvis es
wigni
mniSvnelovani
gamTlianebuli
saxelmZRvaneloa
warsulis,
awymosa
da
Rirseuli
momavlis
saqmianobis,
gasacnobiereblad‟‟
(gabisonia 2012:4). …
Cveni mxriv ki aRvniSnavT, rom rostom CxeiZis ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟
(iakob
gogebaSvilis
cxovrebis
qronika)
moicavs
didi
qarTveli
mamuliSvilis, pedagogis Rvawlis asaxvas. Mmwerali gviyveba…moazrovnis
cxovrebis
sxvadasxva
warumateblobaze,
im
mniSvnelovan
rTul,
……etapze,
winaaRmdegobebiT
warmatebasa
savse
gzaze,
Tu
romelic
gaiara am gamorCeulma moRvawem.
wignSi
saTauri
mocemulia
aqvs:
,,xomaldebi
ocdaerTi
vrceli
,,ioseb
mamacaSvilis
,,arCevani‟‟,
buxarSi‟‟,
,,iis
surneli,
iis
Tavi,
TiToeuls
saloni‟‟,
saidumlo‟‟,
Tavisi
,,gasworaZe‟‟,
,,zogierTni
iq
156
raRacas celqoben‟‟, ,,vidre misia aRsruldebodes‟‟, ,,ilia da iakobi:
Sromis
ganawileba‟‟,
moTxroba‟‟,
,,Ralati
,,politikosad
enis
_
pedagogikaSi‟‟,
Ralati
qveynis‟‟,
,,Cemi
,,es
pirveli
auxsneli
gzani
uflisani‟‟, ,,saqarTvelos saymawvilo istoria - fragmentebad‟‟, ,,mokvda
ena? mokvda xalxic‟‟, ,,saqarTvelos eqsarxosi‟‟ mainc erqva‟‟, ,,robespieris
landian mifrinaven kaloSebi‟‟, ,,Caqra lampari didebuli‟‟, ,,aTasi elvis
isari‟‟, ,,zrunva, zrunva... saflavisaTvis‟‟, ,,rac azri mqonda, avasrule‟‟,
,,mefe ereklec rom cocxali yofiliyo‟‟.
romans uZRvis winaTqma da
axlavs epilogic.
rostom CxeiZe nawarmoebSi Zalian dawvrilebiT da Tanmimdevrulad
aRwers iakob gogebaSvilis ganaTlebis miRebis periods.
romanidan
irkveva,
rom
aRkveciliyo.
Yymawvils
aRsrulebaSi
mas
mSoblebs,
ki
daexmara
naTesavebs
swavlis
ivane,
miReba
ufrosi
biografiuli
surdaT,
iakobi
swyuroda.
Zma
da
berad
am
survilis
iakobma
daamTavra
sasuliero saswavlebeli da seminaria. Mmwerali STambeWdavad aRadgens
pedagogis
cxovrebis
RvTismetyvelebas
am
xanas.
Aamonaridi
RvTismetyvelebad
romanidan:
Seiswavlida
da
,,seminariaSi
wminda
mamaTa
cxovrebaTac xelidan ar uSvebda. imaT biografiaSi Tavis ideals da
Tavisi moRvaweobis erTaderT gzad beroba esaxeboda. Uubralo beroba ki
arao, gaumxelda niko lomours, aramed _ beroba-mesveteobao. Dda imas
sulac ar ukvirda, iakobs yvelaze ufro Zneli da momWirni moRvaweoba
rom aerCia Tavis gamosacdelad‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2007:81).
iakob gogebaSvilma warmatebiT daamTavra seminaria da saxelmwifo
xarjiT kievis sasuliero akademiaSi gaagzavnes, avadmyofos gamo kursis
dasruleba ver SeZlo, Tumca misces erTwliani swavlis warmatebiT
damTavrebis mowmoba umaRlesi atestaciiT.
rostom
CxeiZe
biografiul
romanSi
mwerali
acocxlebs
iakob
gogebaSvilis sasuliero saswavlebelSi da seminariaSi zedamxedvelad
daniSvnis periods. rogorc viciT, im
dros Segirdebs xSir SemTxvevaSi
scemdnen. Tumca es sisastike aikrZala pedagogis misvlisTanave, cxadia,
misi meSveobiT da mowadinebiT. Mmoswavleebi damSvidnen, imediT aRivsnen.
rostom CxeiZe SesaniSnavad aRwers
im xanas. Ffragmenti Txzulebidan:
,,da koSmaruli sizmariviT amoiSleboda ymawvilTa gonebidan is xana,
157
rodesac dRis ganmavlobaSi naxevari klasi mainc gaiwkepleboda xolme.
gansakuTrebiT,
cxadia,
wvrilfexoba.
zeviT-zeviT
klasebSi
TandaTan
iSviaTdeboda cema-tyepa, magram acdeniT arc maT acdebodaT‟‟(CxeiZe r.
2007:12).
iakob
muSaoba
gogebaSvils
im
dros
sasuliero
SesTavazes,
saswavlebelSi
roca
es
zedamxedvelad
saswavlebeli
savalalo
mdgomareobaSi iyo. Ppedagogma am Tanamdebobaze daniSvnaze uari Tqva,
radgan mas janmrTelobis mdgomareoba ar uwyobda xels. amasTanave, igi
ukve
saxelmZRvaneloebis
zedamxedvelad
gamocemaze
muSaoba
didad
muSaobda
da
daabrkolebda
misi
mosazrebiT,
mis
pedagogiur
moRvaweobas. Tu rogor warimarTa am kuTxiT mdgomareoba,
amasTan
dakavSirebiT rostom CxeiZe wers biografiul romanSi:
,,es Tu mtkiced daiJinebda, isinic aranakleb simtkices gamoiCendnen
da samRvdeloebis yriloba mis kandidaturas wamoayenebda da gadaiyvanda
kidec.
aseTi
TavisnaTqvama
kaci
arafrisdidebiT
ar
daTanxmdeboda
samRvdeloebis moTxovnilebas, magram gulis siRrmeSi grZnobda, uCemod
marTla verafers gaarTmeven Tavs, saswavlebeli kidev ufro Tavqve
daeqaneba
da
Seiqmnaso.
mere rames
idumali
gamosworeba
xma
karnaxobda,
iqneb
nu
sruliad
urCob,
icode,
SeuZlebelic
sxva
gza
ar
gagaCniao.
imaT ukve gaemetebinaT da esec... Tavs gaimetebda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2007:33).
Cvens mier moxmobili amonarididan TvalnaTliv ikveTeba, Tu rogor
moxda iakob gogebaSvilis zedamxedvelad daniSvna. Aam faqts zustad
gadmoscems
,,burji
erovnebisa‟‟-s
avtori
da
Tan
Tavis
damokidebulebasac afiqsirebs.
Bbiografuli romanis mesame TavSi ,,gasworaZe‟‟
saocari
simZafriT
da
STambeWdavad
aqvs
rostom CxeiZes
gadmocemuli
iakob
gogebaSvilis cxovrebaSi sakmaod mniSvnelovani da amave dros, rTuli
periodi.
konkretulad
ki
xana,
rodesac
cru
braldebiT
uwmindesi
sinodis ober-prokuroris rwmunebuli kerski gamoagzavnes saqarTveloSi.
Mmas miznad hqonda dasaxuli – politikuri orgulobis dadastureba
iakobis mimarT. misi saswavleblidan gamoZeveba ganizraxes. Emxatvrul
158
teqstSi es ambavi saocari simZafriTaa gadmocemuli, ciliswameba didi
pedagogis misamarTiT. Tumca yovelive amas win uZRvoda manamde, cota
xniT adre ukraineli revizoris dadebiTi daskvna iakob gogebaSvilis am
Tanamdebobaze muSaobis periodSi, rogorc zedamxedvelze, ,,guldasmiT
rom Seiswavlida yovelives, sayveduri ekadrebina ki ara, aRtacebuli
darCeboda.
–
Cinebuliao,
_
gaiZaxoda,
_
am
tipis
saukeTeso
saswavlebels ar Camouvardeba Sida ruseTSio... ganaTlebis meTauric,
ruseTSi,
Tavis
moxsenebaSi
imperatoris
saxelze iakob gogebaSvils
sruli qebiT moixseniebda da... SurismaZiebelT erTxans nirs daukargavda.
erTxans,
ukiduresobamde
Torem
es
quCa
gamZafrdeboda
axal
mtrebsac
bezRobis
werils
Sematebda,
bezRobis
Suri
werilebi
misdevda kvaldakval – politikurad orguli da separatistio‟‟(CxeiZe r.
2007:63).
marTlac,
TbilisSi
sasuliero
saswavleblis
mdgomareobis
Sesaswavlad Camosuli axali revizori kerski Wor-marTliT daRales da
rogorc mwerali miuTiTebs, kancelariaSi sabuTebi sagangebod auries,
Semosaval-gasavalis wignebic moipares, saswavleblis Tanxebis miTvisebagaflangvis
dasadastureblad
sxvadasxva
sabuTic
damales
da
ase
daaxvedres revizors iqauroba. Aamave dros, uamravi cru informacia
miawodes
gogebaSvilis
rogorc
sasuliero saswavleblis zedamxedvelze. igi politikurad
arasaimedo
pirovnebadac
saqmianobis
Sesaxeb,
gamoacxades...
rogorc
revizormac
ar
pedagogze
daayovna
da
da
sinodis saxelze moxseneba dawera. Ffragmenti biografiuli romanidan:
,,politikuri orguloba da separatizmi, rac bralad wauyenebiaT iakob
gogebaSvilisTvis, mis mkacr Serisxvas gulisxmobda da revizori ise
moxsnida samsaxuridan, mizezis dasaxelebas piradad misTvis da Tavis
marTlebis mosmenas arc miiCnevda aucileblad.
zurgs ukan uwmindesi sinodi idga, romlis Seuvalobasac verc
veraferi Searyevda da verc veraferi gaarRvevda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2007:64). Aamas
mohyva
iakob
gogebaSvilis
TviTmkvlelobis
mcdeloba,
rac
gamoixateboda mtkvarSi gadavardniT, Tumca sandro cxvedaZis wyalobiT
gadarCa da megobrebma suliT avadmyofTa TavSesafarSi moaTavses. Mmisi
sulieri mdgomareoba male gamosworda da ganagrZo fiqri,
muSaoba
saxelmZRvaneloebis Sedgenaze. Aam periodSi man yvela is sabuTi dawva,
159
rac mis ganaTlebas da samsaxurs ukavSirdeboda. AamasTan dakavSirebiT
megobrisTvis, niko cxvedaZisTvis gaumxelia: ,,vai Tu, magis wyalobiT
Semdeg, rodisme gamRviZeboda survili samsaxurSi Sesvlisa. amieridan
mTeli Cemi sicocxle, Zala da Rone Cem qveyanas unda movaxmaro‟‟(CxeiZe
r. 2007:72).
amdenad, romanis es Tavi Tavisi SinaarsiT, mwerlis mxatvruli
gadmocemis maneriT, dramatizmiTaa savse. Ees arcaa gasakviri, radgan
mweralma aq gaacocxla didi qarTveli mamuliSvilis cxovrebaSi erTerTi yvelaze mZime da winaaRdegobebiT moculi epizodi.
Bbiografiul
grZeldeba
romanSi
saubari.
ikribebodnen
ioseb
maspinZlis
qarTveli
mamacaSvilis
ojaxSi
inteligencia,
XIX
salonis
saukunis
rusebi
da
Sesaxeb
60-ian
wlebSi
gaqarTvelebuli
somxebic. Aaq xSirad stumrobda iakob gogebaSvili, dimitri baqraZe,
dimitri
musxeliSvili,
konstantine
mamacaSvili,
doqtori
gege
maRalaSvili, anton furcelaZe, pedagogi simonoviCi meuRliTurT da
sxvani. ioseb mamacaSvilis salonis ZiriTad arsa, mniSvnelobasa da
saqmianobaze
mwerali
sainteresod
gviyveba.
fragmenti
romanidan:
,,darbaislur saubars kamaTi cvlida, Temebi SemozRuduli ara hqoniaT
da uamrav satkivars gadawvdebodnen, referatebsac waikiTxavdnen, rCeul
statiebsac da wignebsac ki. debatebsac marTavdnen da salonuri yofa
samecniero konferenciis iersac Rebulobda, TiTqos uimisod artaxebSi
gamoWedila
da
met
sivrces
mieltviso‟‟(CxeiZe
r.
2007:42).
ioseb
mamacaSvilis salonze saubrisas ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom swored aq, am
wreSi
gaCnda
idea
qarTvelTa
Soris
wera-kiTxvis
gamavrcelebeli
sazogadoebis daarsebisa.
romanSi
,,burji
erovnebisa‟‟
dawvrilebiTaa
kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis
moTxrobili
wera-
daarsebis, wesdebis Seqmnisa da
Tavmjdomris SerCevis sakiTxis Sesaxeb. iakob gogebaSvilis TxovniT
vaxtang TulaSvilma wesdeba simamrs ruseTidan gamoagzavnina da mis
saboloo
variantze
imuSaves
dimitri
sazogadoebis Tavmjdomared airCies,
yifianma,
romelic
aRniSnuli
niko cxvedaZem, iakob gogebaSvilma.
maT mefisnacvlis keTilganwyoba moipoves, xelnawerebi Sekribes, rasac
mohyva
damtkiceba
da
gamgeobebis
Sekreba.
zemoT
dasaxelebuli
160
pirovnebebis meSveobiT, ZalisxmeviTa da mowadinebiT TandaTan daiwyo
saqarTvelos kuTxeebSi skolebis daarseba, aseve, regionebSi gaixsna
wera-kiTxvis
gamavrcelebeli
sazogadoebis
ganyofilebani,
romelTac
TavianTi saganmanaTleblo Tu kulturuli RonisZiebebis xelSewyoba,
ganxorcieleba evalebodaT da iq mkvidri mosaxleobisaTvis am kuTxiT
informaciis gavrceleba ekisrebodaT, raTa meti adamiani CarTuliyo am
saqmianobaSi.
iakob gogebaSvilis cxovrebis gzis Cvenebisas rostom CxeiZe mis
portrets
sainteresod
kiTxvisas
xmamaRla
xatavs.
Ffragmenti
gamoxatavda
Tavis
romanidan:
gancdebs
_
,,gazeTebis
aRSfoTebas
Tu
usiamovno cnobas amoikiTxavda, gansakuTrebiT qarTuli enis swavlebis
devnis Taobaze; sasiamovno cnobebisas RimiliT uciskrovndeboda saxe da
am
calkeul
pasaJebsac,
leqsebsac
xmamaRla
warmoTqvamda
_
mosdgamda
artistuli
niWi
TiTqos
da
da
sulac
scenaze
amden
publicistur
gamosuliyos.
kiTxvaSi
iseTi
werils
bunebiTac
gamocdilebac
SeeZina, daxelovnebul deklamatorebs tols ar udebda‟‟(CxeiZe r.2007:139).
biografiul
romanSi
,,burji
erovnebisa‟‟
mravali
saintereso
personaJia. erT-erTi maTgania artur laisti, romelsac Zalian Tbili da
axlo urTierToba akavSirebda qarTvel pedagogTan. igi didad afasebda
iakob
gogebaSvilis
patiosnebasa
da
Rvawls,
mis
gulkeTilobas.
Semoqmedebas,
Mman
1887
wignebs,
wels
gonierebas,
germaniSi
gamosca
qarTuli poeziis krebuli, romelsac daurTo winasityvaoba. Martur
laistma
buneba
iqaur mkiTxvels zogadad gaacno Cveni qveyana, misi lamazi
da
esaubra
ilia
WavWavaZis,
akaki
wereTlisa
da
iakob
gogebaSvilis pirovnebazec. rostom CxeiZe germaneli Semoqmedis wignis
winasityvaobis yvelaze saintereso epizodebze amaxvilebs yuradRebas
Dda
igi
qarTveli
pedagogis
Sesaxeb
laistis
mosazrebas
warmoaCens.Ffragmenti nawarmoebidan: ,,qarTvelebs aqvT saxelmZRvanelo
wignebi,
gogebaSvilis
mier
Sedgenili,
literaturas rom daamSvenebdao. A
romelic
ginda
evropis
mas ki miuwvdeboda xeli evropul
saxelmZRvaneloebze, germanulze da sxvazec... iakob gogebaSvili faqizi
da naTeli pirovneba iyo, namdvili pedagogi mwerali, Tavis sicocxleSi
mudam swavlobda da sxvasac aswavlidao _ am sagulisxmo dakvirvebasac
161
gagviziarebs da, rom Caufiqrdeba, ver gaixsenebda erT DdResac, iakobi
kiTxvasa
an
weraSi
rom
ar
yofiliyos
garTuli,
ramdenime
wlis
manZilze, TiTqos yoveldRe aT saaTsa da zogjer metsac muSaobda.
xSirad gvian RamiTac minaxavs Tavis sawer magidasTan momuSaveo‟‟(CxeiZe
r. 2007:215;219).
aRniSnuli amonarididan kargad ikveTeba germaneli Tanamokalmis
Sefaseba iakob gogebaSvilze. mkiTxveli igebs, Tu rogori pirovneba
yofila igi da ra TvisebebiT iyo Semkobili.
romanis erT-erTi personaJia ilia WavWavaZe. Bbiografi qarTveli
mwerlisa da iakob gogebaSvilis urTierTobaze amaxvilebs yuradRebas.
or adamians megobruli damokidebuleba akavSirebdaT, isini erTmaneTis
Rvawls
jerovnad
samsaxurSi
da
TvalsaCino
afasebdnen,
erovnulobas
moRvaweTagan
gogebaSvilTan
da
saWiro
dros
icavdnen.
ilias
erTadac
rostom
polemika
vaJa-fSavelasTan.
ar
romanSi
idgnen
CxeiZe
qveynis
wers,
gaumarTavs
vkiTxulobT:
rom
iakob
,,iakobis
cxovrebis stili uSualod gadajaWvoda iliasas, bevri saerTo saqme
hqondaT da ra gasakviria, sadRac raRac unebrad wacdenoda an erTs, an
meores... magram ara... ilia WavWavaZe xSirad rom aqebda iakobis niWsa da
moRvaweobas, artur laistsac gauziarebda xolme Tavis Sexedulebebs
iakobze: didi mniSvneloba aqvs saqarTveloSi mis moRvaweobas sabavSvo
mwerlobis dafuZnebisTviso. Aam saqmeSi sruliad damoukidebeliao...
magram verc imas umalavda, rom masTan urTierTobisas Zalian unda
gefrTxila, uecrad rom ar aforiaqebuliyo an ise ar daeJina raRac,
fexi ara da ar moecala erTxel naTqvamidan. Ddiplomatiis xelovnebis
gamoyeneba mixdebao, _ iliam‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2007:177).
B
biografiul romanze ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟ saubrisas SeuZlebelia ar
vTqvaT, rom egnate ninoSvili erT-erT saintereso personaJad gvevlineba
nawarmoebSi. rostom CxeiZe acocxlebs mwerlis da didi moazrovnis,
pedagogis
rogorc
cxovrebidan
sakmaod
Txzulebidan
xdeba
STabeWdileba
moaxdina
raindi”,
dros,
amave
egante
Semoqmedis
mniSvnelovan,
cxadi,
iakob
ninoSvilis
mZime
sayuradRebo
pasaJebs.
gogebaSvilze
moTxrobam
avadmyofobiTa
,,Cveni
da
didi
qveynis
socialuri
mdgomareobiTac dainteresda da gadawyvita, daxmareboda materialurad,
162
Tumca ise, rom mwerlis Tavmoyvareoba ar Seelaxa da uxerxuloba ar
egrZno. Ees yvelaferi iakob gogebaSvilis didbunebovnebaze metyvelebs,
mis xasiaTze. Aamis dasturad mwerali ixsenebs im baraTis Sinaarss,
romelic gaugzavna pedagogma mwerals. Aamonaridi mxatvruli teqstidan:
,,1894 wlis 22 ianvars vrcel werils miswerda sneul beletrists da
amcnobda, Zlieri STabeWdileba dagvitova ,,Cveni qveynis raindma” yvela
im mkiTxvelsa da, maT Soris, meco, Tumc arc imas daumalavda, rom
moTxrobis
meore
nawilma
molodini
ver
gaumarTla.
asea
Tu
ise,
darwmunebiT ganucxadebda, saWiro xar samSoblo literaturisaTvis da
Tavs
Zlier
unda
gaufrTxildeo.
cxadia,
marto
rCeva-darigebas
ar
ikmarebda da Tavis sakuTar fulsac gaugzavnida _ 5 Tumans, Tanac mis
Tavmoyvareobas im malamos waacxebda, uromlisodac vaiTu, Tanxa ukanve
dabruneboda: es mcireodeni fuli CaTvaleT pawia samagierod im didi
kmayofilebisa, romelsac magrZnobinebs Tqveni moTxrobebis kiTxva, metad
masiamovneTo; Tu arada, ra gaewyoba, SeracxeT valad, romelsac maSin
gadamixdiT, rodesac morCebiT da saxsarsac iSovniTo‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2007:246).
werilidan
cxadi
aimedebda,
misi
xdeba,
rom
Txzulebebis
iakob
gogebaSvili
gamocemas
uaxloes
egnate
ninoSvils
momavalSi
Tavad
uxelmZRvanelebda.
B
biografiul
beletristis,
romanSi
egnate
,,burji
ninoSvilis
erovnebisa‟‟
sapasuxo
mwerali
werilze
niWieri
mogviTxrobs,
romelic savsea mowiwebiT, udidesi pativiscemiT, madlierebiT iakob
gogebaSvilisadmi. amis Semdeg mwerals didxans aRar ucocxlia da didma
moazrovnem sakuTari xarjiT dakrZala igi. Tumca manamde gaugzavna
iakobs ,,Cveni qveynis raindis‟‟ Sevsebuli da Sesworebuli egzemplari.
,,kvalis‟‟
ingoroyva
redaqciis
,,wyalobiT‟‟
aumxeddrdnen
iakob
egnates
biZa
gogebaSvils
da
da
biZaSvili
aleqsi
aukrZales
egnate
ninoSvilis TxzulebaTa krebulis gamocema. Ffragmenti romanidan: ,,ase
amoiyridnen iakobis javrs, isedac gulze awvaT misi arseboba, isedac
ilia WavWavaZis gverdiT racxdnen da amisTana marjve SemTxveva rogor
gaeSvaT xelidan wylis asamRvrevad. Mmemkvidres veRar aiyoliebdnen?
mainc Zalad mosarCled daudgebodnen da statias uwyinar saTaurs rom
SeurCevdnen _ ,,ninoSvilis Txzulebebis gamocemis gamo‟‟ _ iseT epigrafs
163
waumZRvarebdnen xalxuri leqsidan _ ,,sawyali dedabrisasa Tagvni yanasa
mkiano” _ Seuraxmyofeladac rom gamoCndeboda gamWirvale miniSnebiT da
mkiTxvelsac uamur gunebaze daayenebda: Tavis sasargeblod dauwyiaT
oxvrad darCenili ninoSvilis yanis mkao”(CxeiZe r. 2007:256).
A
advilad gasagebia, es werili ,,kvalis” redaqciis meSveobiT iyo
Sedgenili da dabeWdili
iakob gogebaSvilis
winaaRmdeg
mimarTuli.
pedagogs gauWirda aexsna, Tu ratom aumxedrdnen da gadawyvita, egnate
ninoSvilis TxzulebaTa gamocemis saqmeSi ar Careuliyo.
B
biografiul romanSi sxva saintereso saganmanaTleblo sakiTxebTan
erTad
aseve,
moTxrobilia
saymawvilo
Jurnal
,,nobaTis‟‟
daarsebis
Sesaxeb, romelic imJamindel sazogadoebriv–kulturul yofaSi arcTu
umniSvnelo
faqti
iyo.
iakob
gogebaSvili
sixaruliT
Seegeba
da
dadebiTad gamoexmaura yovelTviuri periodikis gamosvlas. qarTvelma
pedagogma Tavadac Seitana wvlili mis daarsebaSi. igi Tvlida, rom
patara
mkiTxvelebs
didad
waadgeboda
,,nobaTis‟‟
gacnoba,
wakiTxva
ganaTlebis amaRlebis TvalsazrisiT.
cnobili faqtia, rom iakob gogebaSvili Tavisi wignebis Sedgenisas
did
mniSvnelobas
romlebic
aniWebda
varianSi
xalxuri
Sekriba.
misi
zepirsityvierebis
mosazrebiT,
nimuSebs,
amas
ymawvilis
aRzrdisaTvis, swavla-ganaTlebisaTvis sargebeli unda moetana. fragmeti
biografiuli
poetursa
romanidan:
Tu
sagangebod
,,zogjer
prozaul
nimuSs
Caujdeboda
maT
Tu
pirdapir
gadaitanda
saxelmZRvanelos
gadakeTebas
da
xalxur
furclebze,
aRmzrdelobiT
xan
mizans
miusadagebda. Aamas faqizi gemovneba da ostatobac sWirdeboda, Secvla
TvalSisacemi rom ar gamxdariyo da didaqtika ZaldatanebiTi‟‟(CxeiZe r.
2007:185).
iakob
gogebaSvilis
saxelmZRvaneloebis
pedagogiuri
Srifts
didi
da
esTetikuri
mniSvneloba
TvalTaxedviT
eniWeboda.
AWeSmariti
pedagogi ymawvilTaTvis wignebis Sedgenisas
yuradRebas aqcevda ara
marto
mis
saxelmZRvaneloSi
Sesatan
masalas,
dalagebas,
aramed
Sriftsac. Mmas surda, wasakiTxi teqstebi adviladaRsaqmeli yofiliyo.
amitomac
biografosi
mkiTxvelis
yuradReba.
saWirod
Tvlis
amonaridi
aRniSnul
biografiuli
sakiTxze
SeaCeros
romanidan:
,,iSviaTi
164
gemovnebiT Sedgenili ,,dedani qarTuli werisa‟‟ isedac migvaxvedrebs, Tu
rogor
eloliaveboda
Sriftisac,
iakobi
efereboda
ukeTess
TviTeul
nimuSebs
grafikul
kaligrafiisac
monasms,
da
erTmaneTs
dausruleblad udarebda da faruli niuansebic ar gamorCeboda”(CxeiZe
2007:200). iakob gogebaSvils surda, wigni rac SeiZleba lamazad, faqizad,
uSecdomod dabeWdiliyo, jildoc gamoacxada koreqturuli Secdomebis
aRmoCenisaTvis,
beWdvisas
arcerT
naklovan
furcels
ar
uSvebda,
garekanic, ydac moxdenili hqonda mis wignebs da aq davZen, rom maT
gavrcelebazec Tavad zrunavda.
A
iakob gogebaSvilis, rogorc Tanamedrove pedagogikis fuZemdeblis
Teoriebi bavSvis aRzrdis kuTxiT dResac sakmaod mniSvnelovani da
angariSgasawevia.
man
Tavisi
Sexedulebani
gamoTqva,
Camoayaliba
mSobliuri enisa da ucxo enis SeswavlasTan dakavSirebiT, enisa da
erovnulobis dacvaze, SenarCunebaze, saqarTvelos istoriul yofaze,
warsulze... Kkargad mogvexseneba, amas did yuradRebas aqcevda ,,deda
enis‟‟ Semoqmedi. Mmas warmoudgenlad miaCnda, rodesac mSoblebi bavSvebs
erTi ucxo enis nacvalad, or an sam enas erTdroulad aswavlidnen. am
faqts gmobda igi da xazgasmiT aRniSnavda, rom Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi
qarTul ojaxSi yoveli patara qarTvels mxolod deda enaze unda
esaubrebodnen.
rostom CxeiZe biografiuli romanis TavSi ,,mokvda ena? mokvda
xalxic‟‟ saqarTvelos istoriis im periods aRadgens, rodesac samrevlo
skolebis saolqo zedamxedvelma, kostorgovma rusuli enis gaZliereba
daiwyo, rasac mohyva qarTuli enis gakveTilebis gauqmeba, imave dros,
deda
ena
unda
swavlebidanac,
amoRebuliyo
mizezad
ki
samegrelosa
adgilobrivi
da
svaneTis
kilokavebis
skolebSi
gamoyeneba
dasaxeldeboda. Ffragmenti romanidan: ,,TiTqos am kuTxeebis
mosdiodaT.
WkuamCatobiT, magram mainc keTili ganzraxviT.
sikeTiT
Aarada,
mizani mzakvruli _ deda enis gamodevna gaxldaT da megrulic da
svanuric rusulis uneblie mokavSired surdaT gamoeyvanaT. daaRwieT
Tavi rusuli enis moZaladeeebs, Tqveni bunebrivi metyveleba gerCivnoT,
imaT calke CasCiCinebdnen da rusul presaSic gadigamodioda megrelTa
da svanTa ,,mxurvale dacvis‟‟ wadiliT STagonebuli statiebi‟‟(CxeiZe r.
165
2007:326).
iakob
sxvadasxva
gogebaSvils
werils
yofiliyo,
werda,
erovnuloba
dasamtkiceblad
igi
am
kuTxiT
aqveynebda,
ar
didi
raTa
ar
mouwia,
mSobliuri
dakarguliyo
Zal-Rones
brZola
Cvens
iSurebda,
ena
daculi
qveyanaSi.
yvelanairad
igi
Aamis
cdilobda
qarTuli enis mniSvnelobis gansazRvras da saTanado adgilis miCenas.
qarTveli moazrovnisa da mamuliSvilis qvelmoqmedebaze araerTi
misi megobari, axlobeli miuTiTebda. swored aseTi, sikeTis mkeTebeli
axsovda igi vano avaliSvils, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebaSi
momuSave adamians. igi sakmaod axlos icnobda pedagogs. Mmisi TqmiT,
iakob gogebaSvili saxelmZRvaneloebis Semosavlis did nawils TviTon
sazogadoebis
ZiriTad
saqvelmoqmedo
fondSi
sazogadoebaTa
tovebda,
stipendiebzec
dasaCuqrebazec,
zrunavda,
axloblebzec
da
TavisTvis mxolod mcire nawils itovebda.
romanSi
,,burji
erovnebisa‟‟
iakob
gogebaSvilis
piradi
cxovrebacaa gacocxlebuli. rogorc Txzulebidan cxadi xdeba, didi
pedagogi
sicocxlis
umemkvidrod
darCa.
bolo
Aam
periodSi
sakiTxze
mas
xSirad
akaki
fiqrobda
imaze,
wereTelTanac
rom
usaubria,
romelsac gaumxnevebia:
_ ,,magaze ras dardob, mTeli saqarTvelos balRebi sul Seni
Svilebi ar arian?” im wuTas marTlac gamoxalisdeboda iakobi: amdeni
Svili sxvas vis eyolebao, _ xumrobiTve gamoidebda Tavs da gaocebuli
aRmoaCenda, rom dardi sadRac ukvalod gamqraliyo; magram... magram
gamoscdeboda akakis da kvlav raRac mouWerda gulze WangiviT‟‟(CxeiZe r.
2007:363)
rostom CxeiZe iakob gogebaSvilis pirad cxovrebaze saubrisas
aRwers ioseb mamacaSvilis salonsa da mis wevrebs. maspinZels sami
qaliSvili hyavda, romelTagan erT-erTi, daro moswonda biografiuli
romanis
mTavar
personaJs.
rogorc
imJamindeli
TanamedroveTa
mogonebebidan irkveva, qalbatonsac igive grZnoba gaaCnda, sazogadoeba
eloda maTi sasiyvarulo urTierTobis dagvirgvinebas, SeuRlebas, Tumca
es ase ar moxda. A mTavar mizezad asaxelebdnen iakobis avadmyofobas,
Tumca
am sakiTze
piradad
masTan veravin bedavda saubars, kiTxvis
dasmasac ki.
166
1906 wlis Teberval-martis gazeTebSi gakeTda erT-erT mTavari
gancxadeba, axal ambavze
werdnen.
Ppresa
iuwyeboda, rom ,,TbilisSi
arsdeba legaluri partia. Ppartiis meTaurad arian ilia WavWavaZe, iakob
gogebaSvili da sxvani”(CxeiZe 2007:388). maT erTad araerTi sasikeTo ram
gaakeTes qarTuli skolis gadaarCenasTan dakavSirebiT Tu sxva amgvari
saqme. biografiuli romanis mTavarma personaJma im periodSi saWirod
CaTvala ilia WavWavaZis gverdiT yofiliyo da politikur partiaSi,
romelsac erovnul-demokratiuli partia ewoda, damfuZnebelTa Soris
aRmoCnda. Ees sakmaod mniSvnelovani nabiji gaxldaT da ar gaxldaT
martivi amis gakeTeba, vinaidan imJamindeli xelisuflebis mmarTvelobis
periodSi saSiSi iyo. Tumca movlenebi sxvagvarad ganviTarda da ara ise,
rogorc
amas partiis
liderebi Tu wevrebi
moiazrebdnen. erovnul-
demokratiuli partiis daarseba-damkvidreba gaWianurda da Tan mTavari
sayrdeni,
ilia
WavWavaZe
wiwamurTan
mokles.
Ppolitikuri
viTareba
sxvagvarad warimarTa.Ffragmenti mxatvruli teqstidan: ,,antinacionaluri
dro Wamda da xverpda yvelafers da iakobi meti JiniT gadahfareboda
skolebsac da qarTuli enis saxelmZRvaneloebsac, maT SenarCunebasa da
ganmtkicebas, aqamde momitania Tavdauzogavi garjiT da maindamainc axla
ar
gamiqres
xelidan
da
amaod
ar
Caiwritos
rac
mibrZolia
da
mijaxiriao. Tavisas cdilobda iakobi. Tavisas iTxovda antinacionaluri
dro,
nTqavda
winadadebis‟‟)
ymawvilebs
personaJebiviT
jonaTan
da
sviftis
TandaTan
eseis
(,,moridebuli
amkvidrebda
Tavdayira
sinamdviles, sadac borotebas sikeTe erqva, sicrues simarTle, glovas
sixaruli da wyvdiads mze‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2007:393).
Bbiografiuli romanis erT-erT TavSi: ,,rac azri mqonda, avasrule”
rostom CxeiZe mogviTxrobs pedagogis janmrTelobis gauaresebis Sesaxeb.
loginadCavardnilma
masTan
mosanaxuleblad
misul
vasil
barnovs
uTxra: ,,rac azri mqonda, avasrule, qarTul skolas safuZveli Cavuyare!”
(CxeiZe r. 2007:476). amonaridi: ,,TiTqos wuTisoflis karibWe kidec gaevlo
da iqidan gamohyurebdes saamqveyno moRvaweobas, rac gulnaklulobis
grZnobasac uCenda, magram eamayeboda, rom im mTavrisTvis mainc mieRwia,
qarTuli skola realobaSi mkvidrad gadmoetana da axla pirmSosaviT
167
abarebda STamomavlobas, vasil barnovis saxeSi gasimboloebuls” (CxeiZe
r. 2007:477).
iakob
gegmavda,
gogebaSvili
iyo
iTvaliswinebda
ZvalSesalagisTvis
adamiani,
da
zrunvac
romelic
yvelafers
avadmyofobis
Tavad
Jams
gadawyvita.
winaswar
ukanaskneli
swored
pedagogis
cxovrebis am periods asaxavs nawarmoebis biografiuli romanis bolo
Tavi:
,,mefe
ereklec
rom
cocxali iyos”.
Ees
is
droa,
roca
misi
janmrTelobis mdgomareoba mkveTrad gauaresda. Mman megobars, luarsab
bocvaZes sTxova, enaxa dekanozi TalakvaZe da eTxova niko RoRoberiZes
saflavis gverdiT, didubis panTeonSi, gzis piras daetovebina adgili
misTvis. amonaridi: ,,megobrebi nel-nela rom Semoeclebodnen xelidan,
sikvdilis sunTqvas sul ufro axlos igrZnobda da stoikurobiT rom
Seegueboda misi frTis Sexebas, laistic swored amas gvamcnobs:
_aRsasruls, rogorc namdvil brZens SeSvenis, damSvidebiTa da
UuSfoTvelobiT moeloda...
misia ukve aRsrulebuliyo.
qarTuli skolis saZirkveli mkvidrad gaWriliyo‟‟... (CxeiZe r. 2007:
486,492).
Aaxla biografiuli romanis mxatvruli mxaris Sesaxeb vimsjelebT.
movixmobT amonaridebs rostom CxeiZis prozauli nawarmoebidan, sadac
ikveTeba
mxatvruli
xerxebis:
metaforis,
epiTetis
Tu
Sedarebis
gamoyeneba. Ffragmenti: ..qarma ki uRmerTo qrola icoda da nestic Wamda
da
xravda
monatreba
iqaurobas.
izidavda,
Aamitomac
magram
gaurboda
Savi
mSobliur
aCrdiliviT
keras
iakobi.
adevnebuli
Wleqi
gamoridebas aiZulebda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2007:5). sxva magaliTi: ,,ese dalocvili
gaxda misi Semosvlis dReo _ cis gaxsnasaviT gamoarCevda misi gamoCenis
wuTebs vasil barnovi da mis Cinebul maswavleblobasac sanimuSod
Semogvinaxavda‟‟(CxeiZe
dasturdeba
r.
2007:20).
mxatvruli
saxeebis
gamoyeneba
Semdeg amonaridSic: ,,gasaqans eZiebda grigol orbeliani,
dasaklavi xariviT Sezmuvlebda gimnaziasac da seminariasac... da iakob
gogebaSvili im lamis uimedod daxSul sivrces Sewydomoda guliT,
kidev bevrjer Seawydeboda, oRond... oRond jer mtkvris talRebSi unda
danTqmuliyo‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2007:29).
168
rostom
CxeiZe
biografiul
romanSi
dialogebsac
gvTavazobs.
amjerad erT maTgans movixmobT, romelic iakob gogebaSvilis cxovrebis
morig
mniSvnelovan
epizods
ukavSirdeba.
kerZod,
misi
sabuTebis,
dokumentebis dawvas. Mmxatvruli teqstis mixedviT, didi pedagogTan
stumrad
misuli
moulodnelad
megobrebi
niko
zemomiTiTebuli
cxvedaZe
faqtis
winaSe
da
niko
lomouri
aRmoCndnen.
Aamonaridi
mxatvruli teqstidan:
_ ,,rogora xaro, _ karidanve rom SemosZaxebda niko cxvedaZe,
pasuxad iakobi:
_ ai, es wyeulebi mawuxeben, minda Tavidan moviSorovo.
sityva ar daemTavrebina, rom magididan wamokrefda mTel bRuja
daweril qaRaldebs da gajavrebiT Sehyrida gaZlierebul buxarSi.
_ ra iyo, iakob? ra qaRaldebi uTavaze am Cvens mxiarul buxarsa? _
RimiliT hkiTxavda niko cxvedaZeE imas, rac misi sexniasac enis wverze
ekida, magram Tqma ver gabeda...
_ davwvi Cemi gemebi, rom ukan dabruneba aRar SemeZlos.
_G gemebio?
_N neta ra gemebio?
_ atesti seminaarisa, mowmoba akademiisa, samsaxuris sia da sxva
sabuTis qaRaldebi yvelani cecxls mivarTvi ZRvnad. vai Tu, magaTis
wyalobiT Semdeg rodisme gamRviZeboda survili samsaxurSi Sesvlisa.
amieridan
mTeli
Cemi
sicocxle,
Zala
da
Rone
Cem
qveyanas
unda
movaxmaro.
Tund uCveuloc iyos, raRac aseTs misgan etyoba, elodnen da
amitomacaa, rom Semswreni SecbunebiT maincdamainc ar Secbundebian.
niko cxvedaZe aRcacebiTac ki SesZaxebs:
_ gaumarjos iakobs, gaumarjos!(CxeiZe r. 2007:72).
Nnawarmoebis
mxatvruli
mxaris
kvlevisas
gamoikveTa,
romA
biografosi qarTuli sityvis WeSmariti ostatia. biografiuli romanis
specifikidan gamomdinare ganxilul prozaul teqstSi rostom CxeiZe
dokumentur
masalas
eyrdnoba
upiratesoba, Tumca zogadad
da
Cvenc
maT
warmoCenas
mivaniWeT
mainc aRvniSneT TxzulebaSi gamokveTili
mxatvruli saxeebis Sesaxeb da avtoris individualobas gavusviT xazi.
169
amdenad,
rogorc
biografiul
qarTveli
romanSi
pedagogis,
TvalnaTliv
,,burji
davinaxeT,
erovnebisa”
moazrovnis,
rostom
SesaniSnavad
WeSmariti
CxeiZem
warmoaCina
mamuliSvilis
iakob
gogebaSvilis cxovrebis qronika. sainteresod daxata misi portreti.
nawarmoebze
msjelobisas
srulyofilad,
gamoikveTa,
zedmiwevniT
da
rom
amomwuravad
mweralma
gadmosca
sakmaod
,,deda
enis”
Semoqmedis naklebad Tu bevrad mniSvnelovani biografiuli aspeqtebi.
mxatvrul
teqstSi
vrcladaa
moTxrobili
iakob
gogebaSvilis
im
damsaxurebis Sesaxeb, rac mas qarTuli sazogadoebis winaSe miuZRvis.
biografiul romanze ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟
dakvirvebam dagvanaxa,
rom mweralma ganuzomlad didi masala daamuSava, iqneba es Tavad iakob
gogebaSvilis mier dawerili
Tu sxvadasxva wigni, naSromi an statia da
sxvaTa naazrevi pedagogze. Aam yvelafris gaTvaliswinebisada Seswavlis
safuZvelze
SegviZlia
davskvnaT,
rom
rostom
CxeiZem
SeZlo
srulyofilad daexata iakob gogebaSvilis cxovrebis gza.
ganvixileT iakob gogoebaSvilze dawerili biografiuli romani
,,burji erovnebisa‟‟. qarTveli pedagogis wmindanad Seracxvis Sesaxeb
bolo ramdenime welia saubrobs qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesia.
amdenad, iakob gogebaSvilis cxovrebaze, Rvawlze dawerili nawarmoebis
ganxilvisas,
dawerili
saWirod
CavTvaleT
werilebi,
wignakebi
misi
wmindanad
Seracxvis
gagveanalizebina
da
sakiTxze
kvlevisas
warmogveCina. am uTuod mniSvnelovan sakiTxze ediSer WeliZem 2011 wels
gamoaqveyna
wignaki:
,,iakob
gogebaSvilis
wmindanad
kanonizebis
mizanSewonilobasTan dakavSirebiT‟‟. vsargeblobT internet gamocemiT
http://library.church.ge/.
avtori mogviTxrobs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra Tvisebebis matarebeli
unda iyos, ra cxovrebis wesiT unda icxovros eris kacma, rom igi
wmindanad Seracxos eklesiam. Aamave dros, umniSvnelovanesia am adamianis
damokidebuleba
marTlmadideblobasTan,
qristianul
dogmatikasTan.
aRniSnuli sakiTxis SeswavlisaTvis, gaanalizebisaTvis ediSer WeliZem
iakob gogebaSvilis publikaciebi Seiswavla da daaskvna:
170
,,I. xsenebuli moRvawe faqtobrivad uaryofs saqarTvelos eklesiis
samociqulo
dafuZnebulobas,
miiCnevs
mas
mxolod
IV
saukuneSi
warmoSobilad.
II.
iakob
gogebaSvilisTvis
sruliad
ucxoa
erTi
wminda
marTlmadidebluri eklesiis cneba, igi saqarTvelos eklesias yvelgan,
yvela SemTxvevaSi ganixilavs mxolod rogorc erovnul dawesebulebas,
romelsac avtoris rwmeniT, IV saukunidanve irgvliv Semosjarvia misdami
uaRresad
mtrulad
ganwyobili
sxva
marTlmadidebluri
eklesiebi,
rogorc misi erovnulobis aRmofxvris mowadine “ucxo, garegani Zalebi‟‟.
III.
avtors
ganurCevloba,
swams,
misTvis,
agreTve,
kerZod,
sxvadasxva
somxuri
aRmsareblobaTa
monofizituri
sruli
sarwmunoebac
,,maRali‟‟ da ,,wmindaa‟‟.
IV.
qarTveli
erisTvis,
mTeli
misi
istoriis
manZilze,
iakob
gogebaSvilis uryevi azriT, qristianoba mxolod garegan aRmsareblobad
darCenila, odnavadac ver SeuRwevia mis sulSi, qarTvelebs realurad
arasodes hqoniaT wminda werili.
V.
iakob
gogebaSvili
araerTgzis
dabejiTebiT
miuTiTebs,
rom
eklesiis momavali mis demokratizaciaSia, rac jer arCeviTi sistemis
danergvas
gulisxmobs,
saboloodD
_
,,idealurs
Tu
SeiZleba,
Tavisuflebis
sindisisas‟‟ (http://library.church.ge/)
ediSer
WeliZe
am
punqtebs,
ase
vuwodoT,
Tanmimdevrulad mihyveba da ganixilavs iakob gogebaSvilis Txzulebanis
III tomis mixedviT (qarTuli eklesiis bedis sakiTxisaTvis), romelsac
upirispirebs qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis istoriaze daweril
literaturas.
avtori
,,deda
enis‟‟
Semoqmedis
wmindanad
kanonizebis
mizanSewonilobas gamoricxavs da amaze igi saubrobs marTlmadidebluri
eklesiis dogmatikis mixedviT, kanonizebis specifikidan gamomdinare.
ediSer WeliZis naazrevs iakob gogebaSvilis wmindanad Seracxvis
sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT
gamoexmaura
giorgi
gogolaSvili.
misi
avtorobiT Jurnal ,,Cveni mwerlobis‟‟ 2011 wlis me-12 nomerTan erTad
gamovida wignaki(CanarTi): ,,ara cili swamo!‟‟ misi SefasebiT, ediSer
WeliZe arasworad msjelobs iakob gogebaSvilis naazrevis irgvliv, mis
msoflmxedvelobaze da kategoriulad ewinaaRmdegeba mis Sexedulebas
171
,,deda enis‟‟ Semoqmedis Sesaxeb. Aamonaridi: ,,es aris didi qarTveli
moRvawis
_
iakob
gogebaSvilis
_
Seuracxmyofeli
naSromi,
cilismwamebluri braldebani; araswori, gangeb damaxinjebuli wakiTxva
iakob gogebaSvilis teqstisa; ambiciuri da ampartavnuli damokidebuleba
kolegebis
mimarT;
TiTisqneva
,,yvelafrismcodnis‟‟
,,mavanTa‟‟
damfaseblebs
-
g.g.)
(albaT
mimarT...
Segonebani
gulisxmobs
erTic
unda
da
iakob
iTqvas,
qedmaRluri
gogebaSvilis
ediSer
WeliZis
msjelobas ver CavTvliT ,,cdomileblad‟‟ – es aris mizanmimarTuli
gayalbeba
faqtebisa,
araswori
interpretacia
iakob
gogebaSvilis
azrisa‟‟(gogolaSvili 2012:62).
A
amas mohyva ediSer WeliZis sapasuxo 90 gverdiani wignaki: ,,odes
samarTalman dagasamarTlos‟‟. Mmecnieri
giorgi gogolaSvilis werilSi:
,,ara cili swamo!‟‟ gamoxatul azrebs akritikebs. igi qarTveli moRvawisa
da didi moazrovnis wmindanad Seracxvas mtkiced ewinaaRmdegeba, ufro
metic, pirdapir miuTiTebs: ,,igi, iakob gogebaSvilis sulze yovelmxrivi
ZalmomreobiT
Sesaferisad
cdilobs
warmoaCinos
marTlmadideblurad,
is
pozicia,
wmindanisaTvis
rac
principulad
aramarTlmadidebluria da aranairad ar Seesabameba marTlmadidebeli
wmindani kategoriulad iTxovdes erisgan marTlmadideblobis uaryofas
wayenebuli aramarTlmadidebluri moTxovnis (mRvdelmsaxurTa saxalxo
arCevnebis dakanonebis) Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi.
iakob gogebaSvili pirdapir uTiTebs, rom misi koncefcia metnaklebad realizebulia aramarTlmadideblur garemoSi (somxebTan, sxva
sarwmunoebis xalxebTan). cxadia, mas rom marTlmadideblobaSic hqonoda
raime
saxis
(valdebuli
nimuSi,
iyo),
rogorc
aRvniSneT,
gogolaSvili
ki
uTuod
gvimtkicebs,
miuTiTebda
rom
kidec
swored
isaa
WeSmariti marTlmadidebloba, sadac iakob gogebaSvilis moTxovnebia
dakmayofilebuli
marTlmadidebloba,
da
anu
risTvisac
iakobi
marTlmadidebloba,
ibrZoda,
rac
xolo
iakobis
,,aseTi‟‟
dros
(da
maradiulad) realurad arsebobs, ,,Savi Wiria‟‟ da ,,formalurio‟‟ (WeliZe
2011:40). mas mohyavs uamravi igavi da cnobil moRvaweTa Segonebani. igi
uxvad iyenebs sxvadasxva uaryofiTi emociis Tu mniSvnelobis sityvagamonaTqvams oponentis, giorgi gogolaSvilis misamarTiT, rac TvalSi
172
gvxvdeba. AmagaliTad, rogoricaa: ,,Cvens Zvirfas oponents molandebia
(daavadebuli gonebisaTvis es sruliad bunebrivia...) (WeliZe 2011:4); an
kidev: ,,Tu odesme
moxdeba da Cems raime nawers xelSi aiReb, mudam
gaxsovdes, rom rogorc iq weria, imgvaradve gaige. Qqveteqstebisa da
farul
,,zraxvaTa‟‟
Ziebas,
tvinis
QWyletasa
da
,,ikankledobas‟‟
(mimoklakvnas) ganeride, radgan, icode, imas vwer, rasac vfiqrob. sxvaTaA
Soris, amasve girCev iakobTan dakavSirebiTac, misi sityvebic ise gaige,
rogorc weria, Seni Wkuisamebr gadaRvlarWnas nu ecdebi‟‟(WeliZe 2011:34)
da sxva.
amdenad,
rogorc
gogolaSvilisgan
davinaxeT,
ganxvavebulad
ediSer
fiqrobs
WeliZe
,,deda
enis‟‟
giorgi
Semqmnelis
msoflmxedvelobis Taobaze, mis naazrevze qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxeb da
maTi polemikac swored am mniSvnelovan sakiTxs exmianeba.
Aaq ar sruldeba polemika. Jurnali ,,Cveni mwerlobis‟‟ 2011 wlis
#18 nomerSi vkiTxulobT giorgi gogolaSvilis sapasuxo werils aseTi
saTauriT: ,,kidev erTxel ediSer WeliZeze, ampartavnebasa da ukidegano
ambiciebze‟‟.
Aavtori
dabejiTebiT
amtkicebs,
rom
iakob
gogebaSvili
mxolod wminda marTlmadidebluri eklesiis mimdevari da aRmsarebeli
iyo. amis ukeT warmosaCenad da dasamtkiceblad giorgi gogolaSvilma
kaTolikos-patriarqi
_
kalistrate
cincaZis
sityvebi
daimowma,
romelmac warmosTqva 1912 wels, qaSveTis eklesiaSi iakob gogebaSvilis
dakrZalvis
mogviTxrobs,
dRes.
im
amasTanave,
avtors
uyuradRebod
urTierTdamokidebulebis,
pativiscemis
ar
rCeba
Sesaxeb,
da
rac
arsebobda gabriel episkopossa da ,,deda enis‟‟ avtors Soris. amonaridi:
,,kidev erTxel davsvamT kiTxvas, rom momdevno sapasuxi wignakSi mainc
gagvces pasuxi ediSer WeliZem: episkoposma gabrielma da kaTolikospatriarqma
kalistratem
marTlmadidebloba‟‟
da
ver
ediSer
SeniSnes
WeliZem
iakobSi
SeniSna?
Ggjera,
,,moCvenebiTi
mkiTxvelo,
ediSer WeliZis msjelobis WeSmaritebisa?‟‟(gogolaSvili 2011:31). maTi
polemika sakmaod mwvavea da pirovnuli dapirispirebac aSkarad ikveTeba,
amaSi Semdegi amonaridis wakiTxvac gvarwmunebs: ,,ar vici, Rirs Tu ara
saerTod aseT faqtze yuradRebis gamaxvileba, magram ediSer WeliZis
ukidegano ambiciebis magaliTad esec SeiZleba gavixsenoT: ediSer WeliZe
173
wers: _ ,,erTi wuTiTac aravin daijeros, TiTqos iakob gogebaSvilis
sakiTxi aRelvebdes Cvens giorgis, odnavadac ramed uRirdes xsenebuli
moRvawis saxeli anTu raime erovnulobisTvis mosagreobdes. Aara, mizezi
sul sxvaa, ,,mamxilebeli kalami‟‟ xelSi sul sxva aRZrulobam aaRebina‟‟...
e.i.
giorgi
gogolaSvils
20-mde
publikacia
rom
aqvs
iakob
gogebaSvilis Temaze (maT Soris sami wigni), es araferi, es umniSvnelo
faqtiao!... mTavari ki, ai, ra yofila: Turme giorgi gogolaSvils didi
xania Surda ediSer WeliZis warmatebebisa da sababs eZebda... ki, ase wers:
,,eWvi araa, saqme gvaqvs mis sulSi (da, samwuxarod, ara mxolod mis
sulSi)
wlobiT
SemTxvevaSi,
nagroveb
TviTon
TxramlTan,
CaTvala,
rom
rasac
,,dadga
Jami
Jami‟‟)
daudga
(yovel
,,gadmodinebisa‟‟
(gogolaSvili 2011:34).
rogorc warmoCinda, giorgi gogolaSvilisa da ediSer WeliZis
Soris arsebul polemika Tavdapirvelad daiwyo erTi saqmiani weriliT,
amas
mohyva
meore
da
isini
pirad
Seuracxyofaze
gadavidnen.
amis
magaliTebi zemoT Cven uxvad moviyvaneT. roca iakob gogebaSvils uwuneb
marTlmadideblobas,
sazogado
moRvawes,
romelmac
XIX-XX
saukunis
qarTul pedagogikas Cauyara safuZveli, Seqmna ,,deda ena‟‟, ar unda iyo
upasuxismgeblo,
daufiqrebeli.
Ees
araa
marTlmadidebloba.
es
ar
gaxlavT literaturuli weris Sesaferisi toni.
giorgi
gogolaSvilisa
da
ediSer
WeliZis
polemikas
iakob
gogebaSvilis wmindanad Seracxvis Taobaze gamoexmaura lia kuxianiZe
wignSi ,,Zaxili nislSi‟‟ werilSi: ,,vin SeaCerebs Jordaniebs, anu ras
erCian
iakob
gogebaSvils
gogebaSvils‟‟.
Rvawlze,
Kkritikosi
mis
vrclad
damsaxurebaze
msjelobs
qarTuli
iakob
pedagogikis
istoriaSi, winaaRmdegobebiT, ciliswamebiT aRsave cxovrebaze da amave
dros saubrobs im werilebsa Tu wignakebze, razedac zemoT visaubreT.
esenia:
ediSer
WeliZis:
,,iakob
gogebaSvilis
wmindanad
kanonizebis
mizanSewonilobasTan dakavSirebiT‟‟, ,,odes samarTalman dagasamarTlos‟‟
da giorgi gogolaSvilis:
WeliZeze,
ampartavnebasa
,,ara cili swamo!‟‟ da ,,kidev erTxel ediSer
da
ukidegano
ambiciebze‟‟.
Llia
kuxianiZe
mkveTrad emijneba im mosazrebebs Tu Sexedulebebs, rac ediSer WeliZis
wignakebSi
gamoixata
da
maT,
rogorc
simarTlesmoklebuls,
ise
174
ganixilavs. Semdeg wers: ,,rac Seexeba iakob gogebaSvilis wmindanad
kanonizebas, pirvel rigSi, rac RmerTs surs, mainc is asruldeba, Tu
wmindanobisTvis
aucilebel
im
niSnebsac
gaviTvaliswinebT,
XVII
saukuneSi rom euwya konstantinepolis patriarqs neqtaris:
I.
WeSmariti marTlamadidebloba (swori cxovreba),
II.
sicocxlis
fasad
dacva
da
msaxureba
qristianuli
Rirebulebebisa,
III.
RmerTis nebis gamovlena niSnebiTa da saswaulebiT (Tumca es
savaldebulo araa),
IV.
xalxis gamorCeuli pativiscema da siyvaruli sicocxleSive,
V.
drois gasvla,
VI.
da kidev erTxel gadavavlebT Tvals iakob gogebaSvilis
cxovrebasa da moRvaweobas, am sakiTxze kamaTis usagnobaSi
eWvic ar Segvepareba...
ratom
erCian
iakob
gogebaSvils,
vfiqrobT,
iseTive
cxadia,
rogorc ukvdaveba qarTveli erisa”(kuxianiZe 2012:282;284).
Ees rac Seexeboda mokled im polemikas, rac Cvens Tanamedrove
literaturul
sivrceSi
arsebobs
iakob
gogebaSvilis
wmindanad
Seracxvis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT.
rostom
romanis
CxeiZis
msjelobisas
,,deda
enis‟‟
aRniSnul
avtorze
Temaze
dawerili
SeCereba
biografiuli
saWirod
CavTvaleT.
daskvnis saxiT ki mivuTiTebT, rom ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟ es aris iakob
gogebaSvilis Rvawlze dawerili srulyofili, amomwuravi
cxovrebis
qronika. aq aramarto ,,deda enis‟‟ Semoqmedis biografiuli momentebia
damajereblad
udidesi
gadmocemuli,
damsaxureba
aramed
qarTuli
SesaniSnavadaa
pedagogikis,
warmoCenili
saymawvilo
misi
literaturis
istoriaSi, amave dros, mwerlis muxlCauxreli brZola Cveni skolis
gaqarTulebaSi
da winaaRmdegobebiT savse cxovrebiseuli momentebi
yovelive
qarTulis
dasacavad.
mravali
TvalsazrisiT
rostom
sayuradRebo
CxeiZis
da
biografiuli
mniSvnelovani
romani
mxatvruli
nawarmoebia.
175
Tavi VIII
rostom CxeiZis ,,mze da mwuxri‟‟
rostom CxeiZem
,,agvistos
Svilebi‟‟,
2008 wels gamosca xuTi biografiuli romani:
,,werilebi
itriis
wisqvilidan‟‟,
,,iase
ianusi‟‟,
,,mdinaresa zeda qsnisasa‟‟ da ,,mze da mwuxri‟‟. Aamjerad, Cveni kvlevis
sagani
es
ukanaskneli
aragvispirelis
literaturuli
cxovrebis
qronikas.
teqstia.
wignis
is
moicavs
Sio
redaqtori
gaxlavT
maka
joxaZe.
Sio aragvispireli erT-erTi gamorCeuli warmomadgenelia qarTul
klasikur mwerlobaSi. mis saxels
ukavSirdeba
araerTi novela, etiudi,
eskizi da saerTod, mcire formis TxrobiTi nawarmoebi.
qarTvelma mweralma mkafiod gamokveTa novelis forma da Semdgom
ganaviTara, esaa misi damsaxureba Cvens literaturaSi. man adamianis
bunebis sirTule
mkafiod gaacnobiera da uSualo miznad misi xasiaTis,
Sexedulebis Seswavla daisaxa. yovel mis nawarmoebs safuZvlad udevs
pirovnebis fsiqologiis codna, dakvirveba. Nnovelistis Semoqmedebis
ZiebaTa erTi umTavresi sayrdeni fsiqologizmisadmi gansakuTrebuli
mniSvnelobis miniWeba, moqmedebis gadatana adamianis Sida samyaroSi, misi
fsiqikis
kvleva
aRmoCnda
erTgvari
siaxle
maSindel
qarTul
mwerlobaSi.
saintereso
aragvispirelis
iyo
is
literaturuli
saliteraturo
atmosfero,
asparezze
romelic
gamoCenis
Jams
Sio
sufevda.
xsenebul periodSi momwifda axali literaturuli problemebisa da
formebis
warmoSoba.
axalgazrda
SemoqmedisaTvis
saTqmelis
gamosaxatavad yvelaze moqnili, tevadi Janri novela aRmoCnda.
iSviaTad Rirsebia CvenSi axalgazrda mwerals iseTi didi interesi,
rac wilad xvda beletrists. vasil barnovma mas, yofil moswavles,
,,frTiani sityvis ostati“ uwoda
qarTvel mweralze sxvadasxva wlebSi dawerilia araerTi wigni,
werili,
disertacia,
mogoneba.
axla
swored
zogierT
maTganze
gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas.
176
vaxtang
kotetiSvilma
cxovreba‟‟(#13)
gamoaqveyna
1915
wels
literaturuli
JurnalSi
werili:
,,Teatri
„Savi
wigni
da
(Sio
aragvvispirelis Semoqmedeba)“. igi sainteresod msjelobs beletristis
nawarmoebis
ZiriTad
Tematikasa
aragvispireli
adamianis
„SiSveli
Tu
motivebze
sulis“
da
mweralia.
askvnis:
„Sio
umTavresad
igi
adamianis garSemo trialebs, misi „bediswera“ aRonebs da awuxebs, misi
Sinagani viTarebis gageba swyuria. problema pirovnuli, misi uflebebi,
Rirebuleba, misi damokidebuleba msofliosTan, _ ai, is mwvave kiTxvebi,
romlebsac svams mwerali da iTxovs pasuxs“(kotetiSvili 1915:6).
Sio aragvispirelis literaturuli memkvidreoba, cxovrebiseuli
epizodebi da amave dros, is politikuri Tu sazogadoebrivi yofa, roca
novelists
mouwia
moRvaweoba
sakmaod
dawvrilebiT,
amomwuravad
srulyofilad da Tanmimdevrulad aqvs ganxiluli, gaanalizebuli sergi
Wilaias wignSi: „XX saukunis qarTuli mwerloba“. werili sakmaod didia
moculobiT.
kritikosi
mwerlis
mravalferovani
Tematikidan
Semdeg
ZiriTad sakiTxebs gamoyofs. esenia: adamianis raobis da sazogadoebasTan
misi
damokidebulis
motivebi,
„erovnuli
sakiTxi,
glexkacis
uuflebo,
TviTSegnebis“
aanalizebs,
vrclad
nawarmoebebze
da
siyvarulis
dabeCavebuli
problema.
saubrobs
dasasrul,
cnebasTan
avtori
Sio
sakmaod
dakavSirebuli
mdgomareobis
swored
am
aragvispirelis
damajerebel,
Tema,
kuTxiT
prozaul
angariSgasawev,
sayuradRebo daskvnas gvTavazobs: ,,qarTuli mwerlobisagan miRebuli
didi tradicia Sio aragvispirelma gaagrZela da mas originaluri,
individualuri
xma
Semata.
Sio
aragvispireli
misma
fsiqologiurma
novelebma da etiudebma gamoarCies, rogorc ubrwyinvalesi ostati mcire
formis prozisa. uTuod amas grZnobda akaki wereTeli, rodesac igi Sio
aragvispirels axali skolis meTaurad Tvlida.
is ara marto formiT
iyo axali safexuri qarTul prozaSi, aramed TematikiTa da ideiTac...
Sio aragvispirelis Zala, rogorc mwerlisa, imaSi gamoixata, rom igi
Tavisi epoqis yvelaze mtkivneul sakiTxebs Seexo. is, rac afiqrebda da
aRelvebda 900-iani wlebis qarTul azrovnebas, gamoxatulebas poulobda
aragvispirelis nawerebSi; gamosaxulebis saSualebad ki arCeuli iyo
177
sruliad axali literaturuli forma _ fsiqologiuri novela“(Wilaia
1956:132-133).
1967
daibeWda
wels
gazeTSi ,,saxalxo ganaTleba“
eremia
Tanamedrove“.
prozaikosis
qareliSvilis
avtori
rolsa
werili
damajereblad
Tu
20
Sio
dekembris
nomerSi
aragvispirelze:
da
sainteresod
,,Cveni
saubrobs
mniSvnelobaze qarTul literaturaSi, amave
dros, sagulisxmo mosazrebasac afiqsirebs novelistis Sesaxeb: ,,Sio
aragvispirelis Semoqmedeba mravalferovania, igi erTi romelime motiviT
ar
isazRvreba,
Tanabrad
exeba
yvela
im
sakiTxs,
rac
maSindel
sazogadoebas awuxebda. erovnuli da socialuri, humanuri da moraluri
ideebi mwerals erTnairad izidavda da ainteresebda. rogorc patrioti
_
mSromelTa
Cagvris
mospobaze
fiqrobda,
socialuri
da
humanuri
TvalsazrisiT aSuqebda satrfialo motivebsac. mwerlis nawarmoebebis
mxolod
saTaurebis gaxsenebac sakmarisia, rom mTeli sisavsiT Tvalwin
dagidgeT is ideuri da fsiqologiuri simZafre, romliTac igi Tavisi
drois suraTebs xatavs“(qareliSvili 1967:2).
wigni ,,uaxlesi qarTuli literaturis istoria“ 1984 wels gamosca
Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemlobam. aq qronologiuri
TanamimdevrobiT
Tavmoyrilia
meoce
saukunis
Cveni
mwerlebisa
da
poetebis literaturuli memkvidreobis kritikuli analizi sxvadasxva
mecnieris
mier.
Sio
aragvispirelis
Semoqmedebasa
da
biografiul
epizodebs sakmaod sainteresod, vrclad gvawvdis Teimuraz maRlaferiZe.
igi wers: ,,Sio aragvispirelis araCveulebrivi mwerluri popularoba
Tavis droze, upirveles yovlisa, misi Semoqmedebis
ganpirobebuli,
qarTveli
pesimizmi,
mwerlisaTvis
adamianis
uCveulo
arsisa
gageba,
da
garda
problematikiT iyo
siyvarulis
amisa,
rom
grZnoba,
marTlac
atarebda siaxlis iers, Zalzed esadageboda meoce saukunis dasawyisis
sazogadoebriv ganwyobilebasac da am faqtiT marTlac bevri ramis axsna
SeiZleba“(maRlaferiZe 1984:130).
rogorc warmoCinda, qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi klasikosi
mwerlis prozaul memkvidreobaze araerTi kritikuli werili, naSromi
Tu wigni dawerila. mravalferovania avtorTa Sefasebis kriteriumi.
axla
ganvixiloT
rostom
CxeiZis
biografiuli
romani
Sio
178
aragvispirelze.
,,es
wigni
aris
Sio
aragvispirelis
cxovrebisa
da
Rvawlis is qronika, romelic erTi pirovnebis magaliTze saqarTvelos
dramatul bedisweras utrialebs“, - SeniSnulia romanis winasityvaobaSi.
nawarmoebSi amomwuravad, srulyofilad da mxatvruladaa warmoCenili
beletristis biografiis literaturuli versia.
,,mze da mwuxri“ dawerilia Sio aragvispirelis cxovrebasa da
moRvaweobaze. wigni Tavebadaa dayofili da TiToeuls Tavisi saTauri
aqvs.
avtori
Sios
moRvawobis
gaTvaliswinebulia mravali
saxokias,
aleqsandre
mogonebebi,
romelTa
araerT
epizods
xatavs.
aq
ucnobi, (miCqmaluli) dokumenti, aseve, Tedo
miqaberiZis,
naTela
meSveobiTac
dedabriSvilis
mwerali
da
zedmiwevniT
sxvaTa
zustad
gadmoscems Sio aragvispirelis cxovrebis gzas, biografiul momentebs,
imdroindeli
ganixilavs
saqarTvelos
mwerlis
politikur
literaturul
yofas.
igi
memkvidreobas
SesaniSnavad erT konteqstSi warudgens
srulyofilad
da
mkiTxvels
mTavar personaJTan erTad mis
literaturul nawarmoebebsac.
Sio aragvispireli moridebuli adamiani gaxldaT. Tedo saxokia,
misi uaxloesi megobari Caeria Semoqmedis gzis arCevaSi. swored mas
ando mweralma Tavisi nawerebi. man miakiTxa redaqcias Tavdapirvelad
Sios sami noveliT da ori piesiT. rostom
aragvispireli
TviTon
rogor
dramaturgi
Tu
gamoarCevda
egona
_
beletrists?
Seumcdarad
beletristi
da
CxeiZe wers: ,,neta Sio
Tavis
sWarbobda
prozaul
ukeTes
nawerebs?
dramaturgs
qmnilebaTagan
mcire
Tu
formis
Txzulebebs unda dayabuleboda, rogorc misi talantisa da mwerluri
TaviseburebisaTvis
vrcel
epikur
ufro
qmnilebebSi
Sesaferis,
rom
ar
Tu
uneburad
eZebda
izRudavda
mxatvrul
Tavs,
warmosaxvaTa
srulyofil gaSlas?‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:62).
im ori komediidan arcerTi ar daidga
Teatris scenaze, arc
redaqciebi Sexvedrian mis novelebs aRtacebiT. sul ramdenime welSi Sio
saukeTeso mweralTa Soris aRmoCnda da mkiTxvelic gafacicebiT eloda
yoveli axali nawarmoebis gamoqveynebas. Aamonaridi romanidan:
,,Sio
irwmuneboda: Savi piri arasodes mqoniao. gonebaSi mas ukve Camosxmuli
hqonda siuJetic, xasiaTebic, dialogebic - ase erCivna, erTi CajdomiT
179
daewera
da
rakiRa
saguldagulo
sworebani
ara
sWirdeboda
mis
xelnawerebs, gadaTeTrebas arad dagidevda da im saxiTve ugzavnida
redaqciebs,
mxolod
alag-alag
Casworebuls
da
Tuki
redaqciaSi
daikargeboda, rogorc araerTxel momxdara, gadaTeTrebas mainc ver
udebda guls“(CxeiZe r. 2008:63).
novelistma
pirvelive
aragvispireli miawera
sakuTari
gvari
CanawerSi
gamoqveynebul
mxatvrul
teqstebs
da SerCa fsevdonimad. arasodes daubrunebia mas
literaturul
garemoSi.
igi
amaze
avtobiografiul
Semdegs wers: ,,fsevdonimi mxolod imisTvis gamovigone, rom
vinaobis gamJRavneba ar mindoda“(CxeiZe
sityvebi. rogorc wesi, iyvnen
r. 2008:64). sagulisxmoa misi
mwerlebi, romlebic ar amJRavnebdnen
sakuTar gvarebs araerTi mizezis gamo da sxvadasxva literaturuli
metsaxeliT icnoda maT sazogadoeba. Bbeletristma ki mokrZalebis gamo
gadawyvita
fsevdonimis
gamoyeneba.
Mmwerali
wers,
rom
prozaikosis
novelebi mkiTxvelma gamoqveynebisTanave Seiyvara da maT surdaT, gaegoT,
vin
idga
aragvispirelis
ukan.
Tedo
saxokiam
xalxis
wadili
gaiTvaliswina da simarTle gaamJRavna.
rostom CxeiZem romanSi STambeWdavad, srulyofilad warmoaCina
beletristis, rogorc klasikosi mwerlis saxe, Tu rogor Semovida is
saliteraturo asparezze, ra
qarTuli
kritikis
teqstze
muSaobisas.
gamoxmaurebani mohyva
furclebze,
gadmosca
AMamonaridi:
,,Sio
misi
mis
weris
nawarmoebebs
Taviseburebani
aragvispirelis
skola
ukve
xelSesaxebad ikveTeboda da am garemoebas Tu vinme miaqcevda yuradRebas,
erTi pirvelTagani swored akaki wereTeli...
eris
mamad
SaravandedSi
Seracxuli
dainaxavda
kaci
da
axalgazrda
ganaTlebul
Semoqmeds
amaRlebul
sazogadoebas
aRtacebas
gauziarebda im gulgadaxsnilobiT, didbunebovan kacT rom sCeviaT:
,,rodesac CvenSi mwerloba
TandaTan iSriteboda,
Sen mogelodi ,,xed-wmindad‟‟
da naxva menatreboda.
moxvel Tavmdablad da ambob:
,,giaxel axal dvritao‟‟.
180
da mec ras getyvi moxuci,
Tu ara: ,,WeSmaritado‟‟?! (CxeiZe r. 2008:19).
rogorc
axalgazrda
gamoikveTa,
novelistis
akaki
wereTeli
nawerebs
didi
Sio
aragvispirelis,
aRtacebiT
Sexvda.
Ppoeti
moixibla beletristis mwerluri niWiT da rac mTavaria, im siaxliT,
rac mis nawarmoebebSi mkveTrad gamoixata.
es iyo axali sityva qarTul
novelistikaSi.
Bbiografiul romanSi ,,mze da mwuxri‟‟ personaJebad gvevlinebian
arCil
jorjaZe,
aleqsandre
Tedo
saxokia,
miqaberiZe,
ioseb
asociaciurad
laRiaSvili,
Cndebian
Sio
jon
mRvimeli,
ridi,
jerom
selinjeri, kidev uamravi adamiani. es aris erTi pirovnebis garSemo
Seqmnili sivrce. mwerali TiToeuls xatavs ,,msxvili planiT“,
rom is
Sinagani moZraobani, romlebic isaxeba sityvaSi, gamoTqmaSi, qcevaSi _
Zalian axlodan
SegvagrZnobinos.
romanSi saocradaa daxatuli
nawarmoebis erT-erTi personaJis,
Tedo saxokias saxe. pirovneba, romelic aris udavod didi moRvawe. aq
avtorma
warmoaCina
exmareboda
,,umcrosi
da
Tedo
misi
mudam
saocari
gverdSi
mamasaviT
humanizmi.
edga
is
megobars.
upatronebda
da
sruliad
amonaridi
mxolod
misi
uangarod
romanidan:
SemweobiT
moaxerxebda Sio dedabriSvili varSavaSi sabeiTlo institutSi swavlas
da Tu kursis damTavrebaSi datusaReba SeuSlida xels, Tedos aq raRa
eRona“(CxeiZe r. 2008:98).
TbilisSi
Tedo
saxokia
aqcevda
yuradRebas
beletristis
novelebisa da etiudebis gamoqveynebas, is amcnobda, ra STabeWdileba
trialebda redaqciebsa Tu mkiTxvelebSi misi nawarmoebebis irgvliv:
,,Tedo rom ar gamosCenoda Semwed, iqneb dasawyisSive aRkveTiliyo is
gasaqani. odnavi daeWvebiTac rom Seexeda megobris nawerebisaTvis, imisi
undo goneba sakuTari Tavis mimarT gadametebuli kriticizmi maSinve
eWvs
moeWideboda,
aaRebinebda
kalams
daiTrguneboda
xelSi.
da
TbilisSic
veRaraviTari
aki
ise
Zala
veRar
gayuCebuliyo,
ise
amofareboda Tavis fsevdonims, Tavis gamoyofa esikvdileboda da arc
mkiTxvelis mowonebis xmebi miwvdeboda ase advilad.
181
maSinac Tedo Camdgariyo mas da redaqciebs, mas da mkiTxvels
Soris da, aRtacebis xmebs rom mourbeninebda, cota mainc gamoukeTebda
gunebas, yovel SemTxvevaSi ise mainc, kalams maleve wastaneboda“(CxeiZe
r. 2008:172).
arcaa gasakviri, rom
mTargmneli
cnobili sazogado moRvawe, leqsikografi,
literaturuli
portretebis
wignSi
-
,,Cemi
saukunis
adamianebi“ - erT patara TavSi swored Sio aragvispirelis Sesaxeb wers:
,,pirvel naxvaze imdenad SiSi momgvara, rom gavurbodi masTan Sexvedras.
warmovidgendi kia, rom es adamiani ganmartoebuli, gulCaTxrobili, sul
mokle
xanSi
Cemi
megobari
gaxdeboda...
Sios
laparaki
saerTod,
emZimeboda ToToeuli sityva WapanwyvetiT amoxdeboda xolme piridan. ase
iyo axlgazrdobaSi, aseve darCa sikvdilamde.. Cveni daaxloeba gadaiqca
mtkice,
uryvevel,
samaris
karamde
gayolil
megobrobad
da
Zmur
dauviwyar siyvarulad“(saxokia 1969:203).
rostom CxeiZe biografiul romanSi gvixatavs farTo geografiul
areals. TxzulebaSi warmoCenilia yvela is adgili - saqarTveloSi Tu
sazRvargareT,
rasac
ukavSirdeba.
mTavari
mwerali
Sio
personaJis
aragvispirelis
cxovrebiseuli
varSavaSi
epizodi
saswavleblad
wasvlis Sesaxebac wers. fragmenti mxatvruli teqstidan: ,,sazogadod
polonelebi Zalian simpatiuri xalxia. Ppirvel Sexedvazedve Seatyob,
rom samSoblo Zalian uyvarT da am siyvaruls pirdapir, daufaravad
acxadebeno,
_
moswerda
vanos,
Tavis
Zmas,
Tumc
iqve
dasZenda:
am
siyvaruliT gatacebulni Zalian amlaSebeno‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:107).
Sio
aragvispireli
varSavaSi
Zalian
dauaxlovda
quTaisis
gimnaziis kursdamTavrebul aleqsandre miqaberiZes, romelic rogorc
zemoT aRvniSneT, romanis erT-erTi personaJia. isini erTxans erTadac
cxovrobdnen
da
Tbili
urTierToba
hqondaT,
erTmaneTs
kargad
ewyobodnen, mudam gulaxdilad saubrobdnen. ,,es megobroba mwerlis
ukanasknel amosunTqvamde odnavadac ar daCrdilula, Torem Seryevisa
Tu daSlis saSiSroeba arasodes gaCenila“ _ aRniSnavs biografiuli
romanis avtori.
aleqsandre
miqaberiZem
STambeWdavi
saxeebiT
damSvenebuli
mogonebaTa da literaturul portretTa mTeli cikli Seqmna. esenia:
182
ilia WavWavaZe, akaki wereTeli, iakob gogebaSvili, zaqaria faliaSvili,
Sio CitaZe, ekaterine gabaSvili da aqvea CarTuli uaRresad sagulisxmo
cnobebiT datvirTuli Sio aragvipirelis literaturul-fsiqologiuri
portretic. saubaria megobris mogonebaSi varSavaSi erTad cxovrebis
sxvadasxva epizodze. Aamas wignSi did yuradRebas uTmobs aleqsandre
miqaberiZe.
gamovyofT
Semdegs, amonaridi romanidan: ,,ubis wignaki
yovelTvis Tan dahqonda. iq iyrida Tavs yoveldRiuri STabeWdilebanic
da literaturuli Temebic. Canawerebs saidumlod sulac ar inaxavda.
cxadia, yvelas ar gaacnobda, magram aleqsandre miqaberiZesac da erTior
uaxloes
adamiansac
xSirad
ukiTxavda
orive
rkals
_
STabeWdilebebsac da dasawer Temebsac...
gind Sio ixsenebdes
Tavisi weris maneras da gind aleqsandre
miqaberiZe, visac dRisiTac da RamiTac SeeZlo edevnebina Tvali megobris
muSaobis stilisTvis.
wera RamRamobiT hyvarebia.
_
mTel
Tabax
qaRaldze
aqa-iq
Tu
waawydebodi
TiTo-orola
gadaxazul sityvas da samagieros zed-warwerils; kacs ise egoneboda,
TiTqos es nawerebi Tavidan gadauTeTrebiaTo. amasTanave, Sios lamazi da
moxdenili xeli, sityvebis mrgvali da lamazi asoebis moxazuloba
uneblieT iqcevda mnaxvelis yuradRebas“(CxeiZe r. 2008:127).
Aaleqsandre
sakuTar
nawerebze.
miqaberiZes
amaze
kargad
wers
axsovda
memuaristi
literaturul-fsiqologiur portretSi.
mwerlis
mosazreba
beletristze
am sakiTxs warmoaCens
daweril
rostom
CxeiZe da amasTanave, miseul mosazrebasac urTavs:
,, _ SeiZleba Cemi literaturuli Semoqmedeba didi Rirsebis ar
iyos, magram erTi ram ki udavoa. yovel Cems nawarmoebs safuZvlad udevs
adamianis xasiaTi, adamianis fsiqologiis codna da dakvirveba.
aleqsandresTan
saubrisas warmoiTqmis Sios mxatvruli mrwamsi,
mis SemoqmedebiT ZiebaTa erTi umTavresi sayrdeni
_ fsiqologizmisadmi
gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis miniWeba, moqmedebis
gadatana adamianis
Sida samyaroSi, misi fsiqikis detaluri, gamowvlilviTi kvleva, rac
aRmoCndeboda siaxle maSindel qarTul mwerlobaSi da mimdevrebic da
mimbaZvelebic am siaxles ahyvebodnen‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:176).
183
romanSi vkiTxulobT Sio aragvispirelis da
Sio mRvimelis
megobrobis amsaxvel saintereso pasaJebs. amdenad, romanSi personaJad
sabavSvo mwerlobis erT-erTi FfuZemdebelic gvevlineba. es ukanaskneli
imxanad wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli
sazogadoebis wignis maRaziaSi
gamyidvelad muSaobda. Mmas araerTi adamiani akiTxavda axali gamocemis
sanaxavad,
mosakiTxad,
gamosalaparakeblad.
mweralma
SesaniSnavad
gamokveTa Sio aragvispirelis megobris saxe: ,,dauzareli gaxldaT Sio
mRvimeli, gulgaxsnilic, Rimilianic, mimzidvelad molaparakec, uamravi
axali
ambis
mcodne,
saliteraturo
da
sazogadoebriv
procesebSi
yovelmxriv gaTviTcnobierebuli. yvelas amitomac miuxaroda aqeT da
maRaziis
erTibewo
oTaxi
maSindeli
Tbilisuri
yofis
gulisgulad
gardaqmniliyo ase erTbaSad da Tavisuflad.
es
undo,
gandgomas
daSurebuli
Sio
dedabriSvilic
rogor
SeTviseboda!...(CxeiZe r. 2008:89).
Sio
romelic
aragvispireli
mwerlobaSi
xSirad
axali
stumrobda
fexSedgmuli
saxlSi
iyo
nawarmoebebs ukiTxavda xolme megobars. novelisti
aZlevda. am or adamians
da
Tavis
sexnias,
Tavis
poetur
mas amxnevebda, imeds
saerTo interesebi hqonda, gulmarTalni iyvnen,
erTad atarebdnen did dros, Tumca wlebis Semdeg ise warimarTa maTi
cxovreba,
rom
isini
SemTxveviT
Sexvedrisas
mxolod
misalmebiT
Semoifarglebodnen xolme. am yovelives mizezze saubrobs rostom CxeiZe
romanSi. saqme imaSi gaxlavT, rom
Sios ZmiSvils, Tamars Seuyvarda Sio
aragvispireli, romelic dasaviT uyurebda gogonas da mis siyvaruls ver
iziarebda. Tumca yvelaferi amiT ar dasrulebula, Tamarma mwerlis
qorwilis
dRes
TviTmkvelobiT
daasrula
sicocxle,
igi
mtkvarSi
daixrCo.
mravali
ram
dawerila
ioseb
laRiaSvilis
mier
seminariis
reqtoris, pavle Cudeckis mkvlelobaze, wagvikiTxavs es istoria, magram
romanSi ,,mze da mwuxri“
sxgvagvari emociiTaa mowodebuli, gaSlili
ymawvili seminarielis gancdebi, Cudeckis fsiqologia, misi sococxlis
bolo wuTebi, es yvelaferi isea daxatuli, Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT,
rom
es
nawarmoebSi
fsiqologiis
axsnis,
erT-erTi
saqcielis
araCveulebrivi
logikis
pasaJia
personaJebis
TvalsazrisiT.
fragmenti
184
mxatvruli teqstidan: ,,bedisweras Tavisi ganaCeni
gamoutania
aRsasruleblad dekanoz Cudeckis gonebaze aucileblad
da mis
bindi unda
gadaefaros, Torem bedisweris Careva rom ara, usaTuod amoicnobda,
Wabuki imas ki ar evedreboda, sasikvdilod nu gamwiravo, aramed: Sens
Tavs nu gamametebineb sasikvdilodo... da maS moxdes, rac mosaxdenia,
sosos erCivna da Zalianac erCivna, rom sityvas gaeWra, magram rakiRa
sityva
uZluri
aRmoCnda,
satevars
gaakveTina
qvis
guli“(CxeiZe
r.
2008:47).
rostom CxeiZis biografiul romanSi ,,mze da mwuxri“ aRdgenilia
Sio aragvispirelis cxovrebis is epizodi, rodesac mas didi grZnobasiyvaruli
urTierToba
akavSirebda
araTu
veta
ar
(elisabed)
yifianTan,
gagrZelebula,
arc
Tumca
dawyebula.
maTi
sakmaod
moridebuli mwerali piradad ver umxelda siyvaruls sayvarel qals da
werilebis miweriT Semoifargleboda, romlebic ar iyo Cveulebrivi,
martivi da erTgvarovani. Aamis dasturad movixmoT fragmenti romanidan
Sio
aragvispirelis
erT-erTi
pirveli
werilis
veta
(elisabed)
yofianisadmi miwerili: ,,pirvel naxvazeve movixible da idumali xma
dRemudam CamCurCulebs mas Semdeg erTsa da igives: ,,eg aris, romelsac
SeuZlian Seni Wiri da sixaruli gagiSalos“. mrwams, geficebi, elisabed,
mrwams
am sityvebis sinamdvile, magram es sul metia. miyvarxarT!.. ai,
pirveli da ukanaskneli sityva, romelsac yovelTvis moismenT Cemgan.
mgoni es sakmarisia TqvenTvis, mixvdeT, risi Tqmac ase miZneldeboda
aqnobamdis“(CxeiZe r. 2008:245).
romanis erT patara epizodSi iakob nikolaZis saxec ikveTeba.
parizSi
saswavleblad
wasvlamde
qarTvel
mweralTa
Tu
man
xelovanTa
saxeebi qvaSi gamokveTa da Seqmna lado aleqsiZis, akaki wereTlisa,
Semdgom SoTa rusTavelis bareliefuri portretebi. samSobloSi ki,
metad
daxelovnebuli,
ganswavluli
dabrunda,
ukve
interesic
gaumravalferovnda, Tumca mweralTa, xelovanTa galereis gagrZelebadasrulebis ganzraxva ar asvenebda, maT tipaJs arCevda.
safrangeTidan
Camosuls TvalSi moxvda Sio aragvispirelis araCveulebrivi silamaze.
amonaridi
romanidan:
,,am
survils
rom
gamoTqvamda,
urCevdnen:
tyuilubralod nu sTxov, ar dagyabuldebao.
185
guli ratom unda gastexoda moqandakes, pirvelive SeTavazebaze
rom gaawbilebdnen.
keTilismyofelni gaafrTxilebdnen Sios pirovnuli xasiaTi visac
kargad moexsenebodaT.
iakobi
ar
daiSlida.
isev
gawbileba
erCivna
sinanuls,
iqneb
damTanxmdeboda da aseTi Cinebuli SemTxveva xelidan ram gamaSvebinao.
ar iyabulebso da... is ki daTanxmdeboda; ratom vimarCieloT, ra
gaxda
mizezi.
daTanxmda
kia.
da
saxelosnoSi
rom
moadgeboda,
ise
aRtacdeboda maspinZeli: gumanma gamimarTlao“(CxeiZe r. 2008:301). es ambavi
imiT damTavrda, rom beletristi mxolod orjer ewvia niko nikolaZes,
Tumca
moqandakem
dasruleba.
mainc
moaxerxa
Sio
aragvispirelis
portretis
mnaxvelTa mosazrebiT, masSi mwerlis sulieri samyaro
SesaniSnavad da STambeWdavad ikveTeboda.
kidev
erTi
sagulisxmo
aspeqti:
vrwmundebiT, rom rostom CxeiZe
es
naTlad
igrZnoba
romanis
,,mze
da
mwuxris“
kvlevisas
ara marto mweralia, aramed mecnieric.
Semdeg
TavebSi:
,,namsxvrevebi
novelis
istoriidan“ da ,,sxva namsxvrevebi novelis istoriidan“. es
faqtic
sagangebod aRiniSna romanis gamosvlis Semdeg. ,,avtors gadmocemuli
aqvs
novelis
istoria
sruli
mecnieruli
saandoobiT,
gamokvleva, romelic Zaldautanlad, Tavisuflad
es
aris
Semodis biografiul
romanSi, romelic TiTqos fonia am wignisTvis“ (kalandariSvili 2010:37).
Sio aragvispirels samwerlo
adarebdnen
evropel
mwerlebs,
tipologiurad qarTveli
moRvaweobis dasawyisidanve xSirad
gamsakuTrebiT
ki
gi
de
mopasans.
beletristis novelebi frang SemoqmedTan
siaxloves amJRavnebs imdenad, ramdenadac orive SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs
mecxramete
saukunis
literaturis
realizmis
mkvlevarni,
aleqsandre
xaxanaSvili.
sagangebod
amaxvilebs
bolo
romelTa
,,mze
da
yuradRebas,
etapTan.
Soris
amaze
iyvnen:
mwuxrSi”
miuTiTebdnen
kita
mwerali
damajereblad
abaSiZe
am
da
sakiTxze
saubrobs
da
saintereso daskvnasac gvTavazobs. amonaridi: ,,Sio aragvispirels xelT
ukve
am
Janris
Camomwkrivebuliyo
miRwevani
da
epyra.
emateboda
da
erTmaneTze
emateboda.
ukeTesi
egaa,
novelebi
imxanad
gi
de
186
mopasans
moepovebina
gansakuTrebuli
popularoba
da
sazomad
mis
Sedevrebs amitomac moimarjvebdnen mkiTxvelebic da kritikosebic.
Siosac
mis gavlenas daswamebdnen, iolad da hai-harad...
mdumared
mogvianebiT
moismenda
gaumxelda
Sio
gakilvasac
Svilebs:
es
da
xmauri
Seqebasac
rom
atyda
da
da
mxolod
mopasanis
saxels damakavSires, misi erTi striqonic ar wamekiTxa, xSirma xsenebam
Zalian damainteresa, rasac mivwvdi,
aRaraferi damitovebia waukiTxavi,
da didad movixibleo.
maSin ki amis mtkicebas ra azri hqonda, mainc aravin daujerebda,
is ki ara, eWviTac Sexedavdnen: marTali kacis saxeli aqvs da risTvis
sWirdeba Tavis mokatuneba Tu CvenTvis Tvalis axveva, aRiaros rogorc
ariso... da kvlavac mopasani eyolebodaT sazomad Sio aragvispirelis da
sxvaTa novelebisac _ neta sadamde uaxlovdebiano“(CxeiZe r. 2008:78).
aRniSnul
sakiTxze
saubrobs
Tanamedrove
kritikosi
nestan
kutivaZe werilSi: ,,Sio aragvipirelisa da gi de mopasanis novelaTa
urTierTobisaTvis“. Mmecnieris mosazrebiT, Sio aragvispirelisa da
de mopasanis
mwerlebis
gi
SemoqmedebiTi individualoba cxadad ikveTeba aRniSnuli
Txzulebebis
kiTxvisas,
amave
dros:
,,miwaas“
avtoris
nawarmoebTa problematika, mxatvruli asaxvis Taviseburebani, upirveles
yovlisa, mwerlis mier qarTul literaturaSi siaxleebis SemotanasTan
erTad tradiciis gangrZobasa da ganviTarebaze migvaniSnebs da Tavisi
Tanamedrove
sazogadoebis
yoveldRiuri
yofiT
SeWirvebul,
misi
gaumjobesebisaTvis dafiqrebul da mebrZol mamuliSvils warmoadgens...
gansxvavdeba maTi gadmocemis forma. orive mwerlisTvis umTavresi Tavisi
samSoblo,
Tavisi
Tanamedrove
sazogadoebis
tkivilia.
am
TvalTaxedviTaa gaazrebuli yvela is problema, romlebic erTnairad
wamoiWreba xolme sxvadasxva eris cxovrebaSi“ (kutivaZe 2005:217;219).
amjerad yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT Semdeg biografiuli romanis
erT-erT
Tavze:
,,odes
vpoulobT
ufals“.
aq
Sio
aragvispirelis
cxovrebis bolo dReebia gadmocemuli. mwerliseuli saocari maneriT,
siRrmiTaa dawerili:
,,Sevidoda Svilebis oTaxSi, xarbad aTvalierebda
iqaurobas, viRacas eZebda, veravis ki ver xedavda, nunus ukvirda, rogor
ver mamCnevso, eloda, TviTon Semexmianebao. Sio sadRac gaicqireboda,
187
nunus
miRmac,
oTaxis
miRmac,
mere
Rumels
miuaxlovdeboda,
mzera
daumSviddeboda“(CxeiZe r. 2008:384).
Aaxla
mxatvruli
gamovkveToT
mxare.
Cven
biografiuli
qvemoT
romanis
movitanT
,,mze
amonaridebs
da
mwuxris‟‟
biografiuli
romanidan, romlebic mxatvruli xerxebis saintereso nimuSebia:
,,misi metismeti Savgvremanoba yovelTvis TvalSisacemi gaxldaT,
gansakuTrebiT mainc zamTrobiT _ Tovlis fonze Sav brinjaosaviT
ikveTeboda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:24);
,,SiosaTvis
fsevdonimi
TiTqos
javSaniviT
iyo,
kus
bakaniviT,
romlis miRmac veravis veraferi unda daenaxa‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:64);
,,Semogarsula
burusiT
es
TavzexelaRebuli
swrafva
Sinisken‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:217);
,,avad igragneboda Sios Tavze Savi Rrublebi _ qalaqis gamgeoba
dapirispireboda da mis gaxlarTvas lamobda‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:231);
,,mwerali mware, gulismomkvlel fiqrebSi ixlarTeboda‟‟(CxeiZe r.
2008:269);
,,sad siyvarulis almurSi gaxveuli baraTebi da sad es mkrTali
grZnobiT aRbeWdili Canaweri‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:279).
rostom CxeiZe peizaJebs SesaniSnavad xatavs. romanSi mwerluri
ostatobis
wyalobiT,
xatovnadaa
moTxrobili
Sio
aragvispirelis
cxovrebis is epizodi, duSeTisken mimaval gzaze gayinvas rom gadaurCa.
biografosi wers:
,,1898 wlis zamTaria. mcxeTidan orcxeniani jagviT dasdgomia gzas.
zamTaric aris da zamTaric _ is mainc Zalian susxiani gamomdgara,
Tovda da yinvac Zval-rbilSi atanda. soflelebs Soriaxlodan Tvalic
moukravT momavali ,,lineikisaTvis‟‟ da mixvedrilan, albaT saqonlis
eqimi modiso da gaxarebulni dalodebian.
saRamos
piria
da
iseTi
qariSxali
amovardeboda,
mgzavri
TvalTagan daikargeboda... Sewuxebodnen CirdilianTkarelebi: neta ratom
daugvianda mosvla, vaiTu sadme TovlSi Caifloo. zogi axmaurdeboda:
wavideT,
dagvadges
movZebnoTo.
am
zogic
koriantelSio.
Sefiqriandeboda:
Bbolos
mainc
Cvenc
uaresi
moZebna
dRe
ar
umjobinebiaT.
moriJraJdeboda da ,,lineikasac‟‟ gadaawydebodnen bazaleTis tbasTan _
188
mgzavri Sebunduliyo da wamowoliliyo, meetle kofoze gadawoliliyo
gafiCxebuli. Ddamzrali cxenebi sacodavad caxcaxebdnen‟‟(CxeiZe r. 2008:
298).
biografiuli romanis mxatvrul mxareze dakvirvebisas gamovlinda,
rom mwerali literaturul teqstSi mxatvrul saxeebsa Tu xerxebs
mxatvruli
prozaul
sityvis
warmosaxvisTvis
nawarmoebSi
povna
didi
ostatobiT
Canafiqris
WeSmariti
iyenebs.
gamoxatvisTvis
Semoqmedis
Tvisebaa.
aRsaniSnavia,
zustad
SerCeuli
rostom CxeiZe
sityvis
xelovania. es gamovlinda Cvens mier ganxiluli Txzulebis kvlevisas.
rostom
CxeiZem
romanSi
,,mze
da
mwuxri“
gaacocxla
Sio
aragvispirelis cxovreba, misi literaturuli moRvaweoba sxvadasxva
dokumentur masalaze dayrdnobiT da srulyofilad dagvixata qarTveli
klasikosi
mwerlis
dramatuli
cxovreba,
sadac
erTmaneTs
erwymis
biografiuli aspeqtebi da lirikuli wiaRsvlebi.
saintereso da mniSvnelovania
cnobili ingliseli biografis
maikl holroudis azri zogadad am yaidis
romanis
Sesaxeb.
misi
mosazrebiT,
teqstebis, anu biografiuli
aRniSnuli
Janris
nawarmoebSi
dawvrilebiTaa aRwerili ama Tu im pirovnebis cxovrebis gza, saubaria
adamianebze, romelnic mis gverdiT trialeben, aseve, gamaxvilebulia
yuradReba im cxovrebiseul gamocdilebaze, romelic man SeiZina, Tumca
igi xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom am tipis nawarmoebSi CarTulia mwerlis
mxatvruli fantazia, gamonagoni. danamdvilebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom
rostom CxeiZis ,,mze da mwuxrSi“
yvela es zemominiSnebuli komponenti
zedmiwevniTaa daculi, iseve, rogorc TiTqmis yovel mis nawarmoebSi.
dasasruls
aRvniSnavT,
rom
biografiuli
romanis
Seqmna
mkvlevaris da Tavad mwerlis niWiT dajildoebul Semoqmeds ZaluZs.
mxolod aseT pirovnebas xelewifeba
dokumenturi sizuste SeunarCunos
biografiul
yoveldRiuri
masalas
da
arc
is
xibli
daukargos,
romelsac erTdroulad atarebs yoveli WeSmariti mwerali.
rostom CxeiZis biografiuli romani ,,mze da mwuxri“ sayuradRebo
da
mniSvnelovani
nawarmoebia,
ara
mxolod
konkretulad
Sio
aragvispirelis cxovrebis mxatvrulad gaazrebis TvalsazrisiT, aramed
ufro farTod, am Janris ganviTarebis perspeqtiviTac.
189
naSromis ZiriTadi daskvnebi
sadoqtoro
naSromSi
biografiuli romanebis
Janris
literaturul
pirovnebebis
ganvixileT
cxovreba
wyaroebsa
naCvenebia
konkretuli,
saukunis
qarTuli
gamorCeuli nimuSebi. rogorc warmoCinda am
teqstebSi
istoriul
XX
da
Tu
mxatvruladaa
moRvaweoba
saarqivo
realuri
aRwerili
gamoCenili
damyarebuli
masalebze.
adamianis
mogonebebsa,
aseT
nawarmoebebSi
fsiqologiuri
portreti,
gamokveTilia misi xasiaTi, dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi Strixebi, zneobrivi
mxare. Bbiografiul romanSi Serwymulia mwerlis warmosaxvis cocxali
niWi
da
mkvlevaris
sizuste.
avtori
wesisamebr,
qmnis
saintereso,
damajerebel fabulas. igi istoriaSi cnobil pirovnebaze werisas mis
cxovrebas acocxlebs,
mxatvrulad warmoaCens da Sesabamisad, am yaidis
nawarmoebSi mxolod ,,mSrali‟‟ faqtebi araa mowodebuli.
konstantine gamsaxurdias biografiuli romanis ,,goeTes cxovrebis
romanis‟‟ kvlevisas gamoikveTa, rom mwerali sainteresod gadmoscems
germaneli moazrovnis, mwerlis, goeTes biografiasa da Semoqmedebas,
qronologiurad exeba misi cxovrebis mraval epizods.
vaxtang WeliZis biografiul romanze ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa‟‟
dakvirvebam
cxadyo,
rom
aq
damajerebladaa
moTxrobili
cnobili
mwerlis, mTargmnelis ivane maCablis cxovreba, saintereso biografia.
oTar
CxeiZis
gamovlinda,
rom
nawarmoebis
aRniSnuli
,,romani
da
biografiuli
istoria”
romani
gaanalizebisas
vasil
barnovis,
romanistis cxovrebiseuli da SemoqmedebiTi gzis Cvenebaa. Txzulebis
mxatvrul qargaSi moqceulia XIX saukunis II naxevrisa da XX saukunis
dasawyisis mdidari istoriuli, dokumenturi da istoriuli masala.
rezo
warmoCinda,
WeiSvilis
rom
Txzulebis
mwerals
,,rkinis
biografiuli
saxkomis”
romanis
ganxilvisas
werisas
umuSavia
rogorc mkvlevars. Mman ganuzomlad didi, rogorc qarTuli, aseve,
rusul enaze arsebuli istoriografiuli masala gadaamuSava, Seiswavla
da
mxatvrul
biografiuli
teqstad
romani
warmoadgina.
dawera
sergo
rezo
WeiSvilma
orjonikiZeze,
sayuradRebo
revolucionerze,
ideurad mebrZol antiqarTvelze.
190
elguja TavberiZis biografiul romanze ,,airevi iveria” dakvirvebam
dagvanaxa,
rom
aq
gadmocemulia
TaRliTis,
avantiuristis,
solomon
aSordias Tavbrudamxvevi ambebiTa da faTerakebiT aRsavse cxovreba.
wignSi
daufaravadaa
aRwerili
im
epoqis
sinamdvile,
roca
is
moRvaweobda.
Cveni
romanSi
kvlevisas
,,bedi
gamovlinda,
pavle
rom
ingoroyvasi”
rostom
gadmosca
CxeiZem
didi
biografiul
mamuliSvilis,
mecnieris, pavle ingoroyvas metad rTuli cxovrebis gza da ganixila
literaturuli memkvidreoba.
rostom CxeiZis mier iakob gogebaSvilze dawerili biografiuli
romanis ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟ gaanalizebisas gamoikveTa, rom aRniSnul
prozaul teqstSi gacocxlebulia ,,deda-enis‟‟ Semqmnelis moRvaweoba,
kargadaa warmoCenili
winaaRmdegobebiT
savse araerTi biografiuli
aspeqti da misi didi roli qarTuli pedagogikis, amave dros saymawvili
literaturis istoriaSi.
rostom CxeiZis biografiul romanze ,,mze da mwuxri” dakvirvebam
dagvanaxa, rom biografma sxvadasxva dokumentur masalaze dayrdnobiT
gaacocxla cnobili qarTveli novelistis, Sio aragvispirelis cxovreba
da literaturuli moRvaweoba.
Damrigad,
gaanalizebul
kvlevisas
gamovlinda,
biografiul
rom
romanebSi
disertaciaSi
(konstantine
Cvens
mier
gamsaxurdias
,,goeTes cxovrebis romani‟‟, vaxtang WeliZis ,,cxovreba ivane maCablisa‟‟,
oTar CxeiZis ,,romani da istoria‟‟, rezo WeiSvilis ,,rkinis saxkomi‟‟,
elguja TavberiZis ,,airevi iveria‟‟, rostom CxeiZis sami romanis: ,,bedi
pavle ingoroyvasi‟‟, ,,burji erovnebisa‟‟, ,,mze da mwuxri‟‟) dawvrilebiT,
siRrmiseuladaa warmoCenili mTavar personaJTa cxovreba da moRvaweoba.
sakvlevad
SerCeuli
biografiuli
romanebis
mecnieruli
analizisas
gamoikveTa, rom TiToeul Cvens mier ganxilul mxatvrul nawarmoebSi
gamoyenebulia dokumenturi, istoriuli Tu saarqivo masala, mogonebebi,
memuarebi, werilebi da piradi baraTebi. Aaseve, vecnobiT mkiTxveli
sazogadoebisTvis manamde gamouqveynebel saintereso masalas, romelTa
meSveobiTac amomwuravad ikveTeba ama Tu im pirovnebis literaturuli
portreti da cxovreba.
191
warmodgenil
romanebi.
naSromSi
rogorc
mwerlobas
ganxilulia
aRvniSneT,
araerTi
ukanasknel
biografiuli
XX
saukunis
xans
romani
biografiuli
Tanamedrove
Seemata.
qarTul
Ggansxvavebuli
personaJebiT da vTqvaT asec, mxatvrul qsovilSi moqceuli umTavresi
saTqmeliT,
aqcentebiTac.
saqarTvelosa
movlenebi
da
da
Sesabamisad,
masStabebic
romelime
saxelmwifoSi
evropis
mxatvruli
,,gamonagonis‟‟
sxvadasxvaa
_
ganviTarebuli
sizuste.
Aavtoris
pasuxismgebloba _ zustad warmoaCinos moRvawe da epoqa, an ubralod,
cnobili
pirovnebis
Sesaxeb
mxatvruli
qarga
moifiqros.
Tumca,
es
samomavlo saqmea, romelic erTi naSromis farglebSi ver Caeteoda da
vfiqrobT, qarTuli literaturaTmcodneoba am Janrs kidev ufro did
yuradRebas dauTmobs.
192
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