institutions, led by the SASA (Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts), within the long-term
programmes for conservation of the large Scientific-Research Project \erdap (further in the text
referred to as SRP\), along with the support of the Government of Serbia – the relevant ministries
and the continuous support and help of the \erdap Hydroelectric Power Plant. Today, the public
is well acquainted with the fact that the rich cultural-historical heritage discovered in this area
is heritage of exceptional interest nationally, but also for the beginnings of European civilization
as a whole.
This project, in whose realization our most eminent professional and scientific institutions
have participated, represented and still represents one of the most important undertakings in the
field of protection and research of cultural and natural heritage on a European scale. Besides the
archaeological, research and preservation activities, the \erdap Project also includes partially
achieved actions connected with heritage arranging and presenting, i.e. heritage revitalization.
Through measures of inter-institutional and interdisciplinary protection that have been
conducted for more than four decades within the SRP\, dozens of sites that were flooded by
the Danube waters have been recorded and investigated. The flooding was the result of both high
tides and accumulations made for the needs of the hydro-energetic and navigation system \erdap
(HE \erdap I near Kladovo/Karata{ and HE \erdap II near Prahovo/Kusjak). With the aim of
protecting it against flooding, and through a fortunate turn of events and special measures on
the part of the SRP\, the world-famous cultural heritage was saved, having previously survived
devastations in a history full of wars and changes brought by the modern age. In the region of
Gvozdena Vrata (The Iron Gate), looking west to east, these are: the medieval fortress of Golubac;
the prehistoric settlement of Lepenski Vir (near the town of Donji Milanovac); Via Traiana or the
Roman imperial road with the imperial inscription (Tabula Traiana) placed there in AD 100; Pontes
– Trajan’s bridge built between AD 103–105; and two typical Roman fortresses saved by a fortunate
sequence of events – Statio Cataractarum Diana/Zanes, which stood on the Danube cataract of the
Iron Gate at the entrance to the Trajan/Sip Channel, and which was finished in AD 101 (the site
called Karata{); and the Pontes fortress near Trajan’s bridge (settlement of Kostol). This exceptional
Roman monumental unit in Serbia – Via Traiana, as a part of the Roman imperial frontier, is a
part of the word cultural heritage, as a W(orld)H(eritage)S(ite), with prospects of being on the
UNESCO World Heritage List, as it represents a unique part of the Roman state border with road,
better known as the limes. It consists of all present-day (state) borders that were once, almost two
millennia ago, a part of a unique whole within the defence system created by one of the world’s
greatest states, the Roman Empire. The Roman limes (WHS) thus embraces all countries with
preserved monuments – architectural structures that chronologically end with the rule of the
Roman emperors from the Severus dynasty (the first decade of the 3rd century AD).
Today, at the beginning of the third millennium, it represents a large cultural route around
the world, established two thousand years ago to mark the bounds around the Roman Empire,
over many continents, in over ten states of present-day Europe, Africa and Asia!
These by all criteria exceptional results achieved by the actions of SRP\ have affirmed the role
and significance of our heritage, ranging from prehistory to the Middle Ages.
As a result of these works, the Municipality of Kladovo suddenly found itself in the very centre
of the authentic Gvozdena Vrata (Iron Gate) Archaeological park, with its millennia-old, tangible and
intangible culture monuments, and its explored and protected heritage of exceptional significance
(see the attached Theme card 03 of the Physical Plan of Kladovo).
The protection of registered and/or protected cultural and natural heritage of the Municipality
of Kladovo in The Physical Plan of Kladovo Municipality (in further text referred to as PPK, adopted
in 2006) was considered in several key chapters, which we shall present here in a short and
partially amended form:
I. Overview of the histiorical-cultural development of the region
II. Itinerary of the protected heritage
III. Analysis of advantages, weaknesses, chances and threats with the view of improving the
integrated means of protection
IV. Strategic priorities of protection with the aim of organising the cultural heritage and
improving attitudes towards the heritage
V. General measures of protection/recommendations
From its source in Germany to its mouth into the Black Sea, the Danube River, the ancient Istros
and Latin Danuvius or Danubius, flows through several European countries, making it the most
international river in the world! On its 2,857 kilometre long journey, on the last segment of its
mid-course, the Danube breaks through the rocky massifs of the Transylvanian Carpathians and
Mt. Miro~, creating on the border between Serbia and Romania one of the largest and certainly
most beautiful river canyons of Europe – The Iron Gate Canyon or \erdapska klisura (\erdap Canyon).
\erdapska klisura, naturally divided into the Upper and Lower Canyon on the right Danube
coast, encompasses the shoreline from present-day Golubac to Kladovo, totalling not more than
200 km. The territory of the Kladovo Municipality is at the far east of this region, encompassing
the Danube from the Lower \erdap Canyon to the mouth of the Slatina River, downstream from
Kladovo. (See Theme map 03 PPK).
The entire territory of Danube’s banks, which have been very well explored (SRP\), is
characterized by an obvious cultural and urban continuity, from Europe’s millennia-old prehistoric
ages to the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and modern times (See Theme card 03 PPK).
Large migrational waves, armies of great European/world empires, Roman emperors and
medieval kings – they all travelled down the course of the Danube River or along its hillside roads.
The road along the Danube River always had great military, economic and civilizational meaning.
This area was a space through which cultural connections streamed in all directions, from the
Eastern Mediterranean, the Aegean, Asia Minor and the Black Sea. These Danube spaces were
the soil for many cultures from which would spring, in numerous subsequent symbioses, what
became the European civilization.
The geostrategic terrain advantages were the main reason why this area was chosen for
habitation. The skeleton for this continuous organisation of space have been the Danube River
and its rich hinterland. The organic relationship between the cultural-historic communities and
the Danube springs from an array of advantages: the Danube River as a natural source of
existence, as the longest natural communication that connects the West of the European continent
with its East and as a natural defence line/limes, formed within the unique water barrier of
\erdapska Klisura – The Iron Gate Canyon.
The beginnings of the settlement process can be traced from the end of the older Stone or
Palaeolithic Age and the middle Stone or Mesolithic Age (around 18000–6000 BC). The processes
of abandoning caves and forming the first open space habitations on the Danube shores,
the appearance of the Culture of Lepenski Vir, have been recorded in the Lower \erdap Canyon
(on the territory of Kladovo), in Hajdu~ka Vodenica (3), on the river islands near Karata{ (13)
and downstream from Kladovo (near Mihajlovac – Municipality of Negotin). The discovery of the
culture and settlement of Lepenski Vir (named after the eponymous site near Donji Milanovac)
had a sensational echo in the archaeological world! For the first time in Europe, unique settlement
traces of a still unknown, highly developed Mesolithic – Pre-Neolithic culture were discovered,
which was the first in the history of European civilizations to produce architecture and
monumental stone sculpture, of unrepeatable form. The younger periods of the prehistoric cultures
– the cultures of the metal ages, the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, were confirmed on a series of
sites along the heavily populated bank, on the numerous necropolises on the right (and left) bank
of the Danube River, from Golubac to Prahovo. The prehistoric period ended with the culture
whose bearers were various Danubian populations and the dominant Celts, and was registered
in single findings or in supplements inside the necropolises, within the scope of the settlements
downstream from Kladovo. The most significant prehistoric settlements/necropolises were
registered near Hajdu~ka Vodenica (3), on Karata{/ Bansko ostrvo (13), Mala and Velika Vrbica
(19, 21), Korbovo (23), Vajuga (24), Velesnici (26), Ljubi~evac (27), Grabovica (28), Brza Planina
(29) and near the mouth of the Slatinska River.
At the dawn of the new era, from the times of Roman emperor Augustus, along its entire flow
the Danube River was the main defence line – the Roman military border together with a road –
the limes, between the Roman Empire and the barbarians who inhabited the areas north from
the Danube. This area soon became a river-land travel corridor of vital importance for the Empire,
during all six centuries of its existence! With its positions for the permanent accommodation
of various Roman military units (infantry, cavalry, fleet, special forces, engineers) here, too, the
Roman Danube limes was made up of a series of larger or smaller military posts positioned on
strategically important points, connected by a network of good communications. The main link
in this chain were the auxiliary forts, as a rule quadrangular in shape, with four gates, surrounded
by powerful walls with high towers, whose internal buildings served for the accommodation and
daily use of the military units and command. Between them, depending on the nature of the area,
smaller forts and/or high towers were built, which were sentinel and signal military-technical
installations whose additional purpose was to ensure a safe flow of traffic in the Danube Canyons,
filled with danger and natural obstacles, shoals and whirlpools. For a full six centuries, these
formed the basis of the strategic concept of the Roman, Late Roman and Early Byzantine border
(and medieval!) defence, which here always consisted of a series of solidly built larger and smaller
forts strengthened with towers of different shapes and sizes for the needs of defence and
surveillance of the borderline river-land route. This fact becomes quite understandable knowing
that our riverbanks in this sector were a very important and highly restless northern border of the
great Empire for centuries. During these six hundred years, the \erdap section of the Roman limes
– the Danube cataract limes – was built and maintained in continuity.
The Roman road that was built along the right bank of the Danube had great military and
economic significance. In addition to the armies it was often used by Roman and later rulers as
they travelled east, due to the strong military centres that dotted it.
These works brought an unprecedented, total transformation of the geophysical area of the
whole Danube region and the Iron Gate Region/\erdap to a level of full cultural-economic
prosperity and growth, leading to the development and rapid rise of the cities. Soon after his
inauguration, the Roman emperor and great strategist Trajan (AD 98–117) arrived to the Danube
and made preparations for an expedition against the Dacians who inhabited the area north of the
Danube. At the peak of preparations for the Dacian Wars (AD 101/2 and 105/6), the great Roman
military leader and strategist set the foundations of the strategic concept here, culminating in the
completion of the riverside road in AD 100, to which Trajan’s Tablet (4) stands as testimony today;
the digging of the 3220 m long canal (10) in the cataract sector of the Iron Gate in AD 101, by
which the emperor made the entire Danube navigable by redirecting the river, as recorded on the
emperor’s inscription, found on the Diana/Zanes (14); and the building of the magnificent bridge
on the Danube in AD 103–105, which connected the two Roman provinces near Kladovo (16) on
the Serbian side and at Turn Severin on the Romanian side of the Danube. On the banks of the
Danube and on the river islands Emperor Trajan built hard stone forts and urban-type settlements
from the ground up, arranging the entire area by the standards of that time, according to the
Roman model of architecture (with water supply installations and all known accompanying
infrastructure), initially intending it for use by the army, war veterans and all the Roman citizens
that came with them.
As early as the first century, when these areas belonged to one of the Roman provinces on the
Danube, the Moesia/Upper Moesia (Moesia Superior) province, larger and/or smaller river docks
were built alongside the forts to accommodate river and sea boats, military/commercial needs, and
the transfer and/or loading of merchandise and heavy loads. These were connected to an
international network of good land roads that lay along the banks of the Danube Canyons in
continuity, following the river flow and overcoming the stretches of wilderness, even those that were
naturally impassable, with hydro-technical feats remarkable even by today’s standards. Testimony
to these works, as to who had undertaken them, when and why, is borne by the recovered epitaphs,
carved into marble plates/tablets and/or into the live rock of the Canyon, which today unfortunately
lies under the waters of the Danube. Out of several evidenced tablets with the inscriptions of
the Roman emperors who had posted them – Tiberius (AD 33/34), Claudius (AD 46), Domitian
(AD 92–93), it was the most impressive one, Trajan’s tablet from AD 100 (4), that was saved from
submersion by way of protective measures and transfer to a higher location. The crown of these
hydro-technical undertakings through which the first regulation of the Danube was done and the
wild area of the Iron Gate Canyon urbanized – feats accomplished by Roman engineers and the
famous architect Apollodorus under the leadership of the emperor himself – was certainly the
construction of the magnificent twenty-pier stone bridge over the Danube, which here, according to
precise measurements (within the SRP\) has a width of 1069.664 meters or 357 Roman feet! This,
the first stone bridge on the Danube (18) was one of the longest and most grandiose structures in the
entire Roman world, having been recorded in both Roman (Dio Casius, LXIII, 13) and later literary
sources. The bridge whose four riverside piers firmly stand even today, defying the centuries (thanks
to the actions and undertaken measures of the SRP\), is fatefully represented on Trajan’s Column
in Rome (metope XCVIII–XCIX) which was built by the Roman Senate in AD 113 to honour the
great emperor’s triumph, at Trajan’s Forum, which was also built by Apollodorus. A copy of the
metope from the column with the relief presentation of Trajan’s bridge, a gift of the Italian embassy
in 1969, can now be seen on display at the Archaeological Museum of \erdap, in Kladovo.
The results of systematic archaeological excavations and researches have shown that the banks
of the Danube in the Iron Gate Canyon, in that time as well as later, were transformed into military
strongholds with strong walls and towers, surrounded by agglomerations and necropolises, which
was recorded by the ancient itineraries and/or sources: Cuppae/Golubac, Novae/Dobra and Ad
Scrofulas downriver (mouth of the river Pe{a}e?), the Taliata/Donji Milanovac/complex around
the Mouth of Pore~ka River, while on the territory of Kladovo were evidenced Transdierna/Tekija
(5), Caput Bovis/ Ducis Pratum (7, 11), Zanes/Diana (14), and on Karatas – The Iron Gate (this
hardest Danube river obstacle, after which the whole Danube Canyon was named, started from
the river island of Adakale, and ended near the cataracts/Karata{). Downstream from Kladovo are
Pontes/Kostol (18), Egeta/Brza Palanka (29) as well as Clevora/Mihajlovac, Aquae/Prahovo (on the
Danube, in Serbia).
Unfortunately, except for the fort of Diana/Zanes and Pontes, large parts of the old settlements
and of the river banks (together with the present-day settlements along the banks – Donji
Milanovac, Tekija, Sip, and Brza Palanka, as well as many river islands), lie under the waters
of the Danube today (see Theme map 03 PPK).
With the fall of the early Byzantine limes and the settling of the Slav tribes at the end of the
6th and the beginning of the 7th century, the new, medieval era of the Iron Gate area began. The
smaller Slav settlements, raised at Roman and/or prehistoric sites in AD 7th century, grew in time
into greater clusters with necropolises and large numbers of Christian structures (evidenced and
partly examined on the locations of Pe}ka Bara (1), Hajdu~ka Vodenica (3), Kostol (8), Vajuga (24),
Vepesnica (26), Ljubi~evac (27), Grabovica (28), Brza Palanka (29), and the mouth of the
Slatina River.
The rich chambers for money or jewellery, the graves loaded with contributions such as
jewellery, luxurious and utilitary ceramics, revealed a new cultural identity of these areas for
the period between the 10th and 14th centuries, under the strong influence and prolonged direct
domination of Byzantium and/or as part of the Serbian medieval state. The archaeological
excavations showed that the area of the \erdap Region had never been an isolated environment
but represented a part of a cultural whole encompassing the areas around the river flows and
tributaries of the Middle and Lower Danube.
In the long struggle between the Middle European countries and the Ottoman state over spheres
of influence in the Middle and Lower Danube, which took place in the 16th–18/19th century period,
monumental forts were built along the Danube’s banks and on its river islands. These cities often
changed masters, who organized them according to medieval military-strategic rules. In the Iron
Gate/\erdap Region, starting from Veliko Gradi{te and Krupac, several significant, medieval
bastion forts were built either along the banks and/or on the bigger river islands. These were
concentrated downstream from Tekija and Orsava (the Municipality of Kladovo), on the islands
of Adakale (7), Banskom/Banului (13), or the right bank of the Danube, Elisabethfort (8) and near
Kladovo (16), where the fort known as Fetislam (Fethislam) was built. It should be noted that the
Fethislamic or Kladovska nahija (Turkish district) appeared for the first time in the 16th century,
and it encompassed a total of one hundred villages. Fetislam had an important economic role,
as one of Danube’s most important ports.
Alongside the monumental medieval forts that were positioned, most often, on the sites of
Roman and/or older, prehistoric settlements, new medieval cities or smaller settlements were built
(see Theme map 03 PPK).
This medieval phase of the Iron Gate Region ended with the handover of Fetislam to Serbia in
1867, when the handover of the other Turkish fort-cities was also carried out.
Of vital significance for the further historical/economical and cultural transformation and
development of not only the Danube Region but the Balkan Region as a whole was a renewed
»internationalization« of the entire flow of the Danube. A mixed Yugoslav–Romanian commission
was organized in 1933 in the Iron Gate part of the canyon, with headquarters in Tekija/Serbia and
Orsava/Romania, where the headquarters of the \erdap river management was located. Its most
important mission was to, with the help of ship-owners (pilots, skippers), regulate river traffic and
monitor vessel security on the Danube, in the \erdap sector, feeding on the legacy and experiences
of the highly skilled Roman builders. Besides the continued maintenance of the still well-preserved
Trajan’s Road and Canal/Sip Canal (renewed in 1898), the system of regulating navigation was
supplemented with a series of signal balloon stations/lighthouses built on the same forward
positions, turns and curves before the dangerous parts of the Canyon, so that each had a view
of the other two, one upstream, one downstream. Ships were signalled by the lifting and dropping
of balloons and white flags. These signal stations were a part of the \erdap river management.
Today, on the right river bank, in the Lower Danube Canyon, only two of them are still kept, Pena
and Varnica (the Municipality of Kladovo), as specimens of the technical-industrial heritage (1, 2).
(with the numeration taken over from Map 03 in PPK)
3. Hajdu~ka Vodenica (I–VI century AD)
The Roman limes – Via Traiana (Mali [trbac)
This multilayer site is situated in the forest area of the fanlike plateau on the right bank of the
Danube, beneath the precipitous massifs of Mali [trbac, opposite from the mouth of the Romanian
river Mrakonija, in the midst of the beautiful nature of Lower \erdap Canyon/Kazan where the
Danube is the narrowest and the deepest in its flow. Certain parts of the fortification can be seen
even today when the level of water is lower (the south Early Byzantine tower?).
The location was under the protection measures of SRP\ (research, presentation, revitalization).
The prehistoric and medieval necropolis with settlement, the Roman and early Byzantine fort,
the dock and the settlement were registered and researched. (figure ?)
The artefacts, as part of the \erdap Collection, have been incorporated into the inter-institutionalized
protection measures programs of the Archaeological Museum of \erdap in Kladovo.
Recommendations: Have the site state assessed by a mixed expert team for the purpose of
acquiring the necessary documentation for completing the project/study related to undertaking
integral protection of the monument as a cultural area, with the purpose of preservation,
revitalization and use.
1. and 2. The baloon-stations
Industrial heritage
Located in the most attractive part of the Lower \erdap Canyon, beneath the mountain cliffs of
[trbac, along the Belgrade–Kladovo highway, at the very entrance to the municipal territory of
Kladovo from the west. Although presently without power and water, located in the middle of an
uninhabited wilderness, both objects were adapted without the knowledge of relevant protection
institutions, for the following use: one is a closed gallery (for a number of years serving as a painter’s
studio and painting colony of R. Trkulja), and the other has been adapted into a restaurant slated to
complement the tourist offering of the Kladovo Municipality (it is used by Camp \erdap). (figure ?)
No protection measures have been taken.
Recommendations: Investigate the state of these monuments with a mixed expert team,
collect the field data and existing archive material, and produce the necessary documentation for
the purpose of completing a project/study toward undertaking an integral protection of the
monument-area, with the aim of preservation, revitalization and use.
A west-entry info-station with the tourist offer from the Kladovo Municipality should be
formed. In terms of using the object, what should be presented along with the infrastructure is
their original use, and everything should be adapted to contemporary means of presentation and
the needs of interested visitors.
4. Trajan’s Tablet / Tabula Traiana (AD 100)
The Roman limes – Via Traiana
Trajan’s Tablet is still accessible only by river! It is located about 12 kilometres upstream from
today’s (New) Tekija, in the most unreachable part of the Lower \erdap Canyon, in Kazani, set
down exactly 1900 years ago, at the entry into the most difficult part of the navigable Danube.
This tablet of remarkable dimensions, 5.00 by 1.75 m, was carved in AD 100 in vertical, live rock.
It carries the inscription of Emperor Trajan who marked the triumphant ending of the first in a
line of grand undertakings with which he, loosely translated, overpowered the mountain cliffs by
putting down the cantilevers/frames, by which he reconstructed the road. Beneath the inscription, a
part of the main path has been preserved, which was very narrow and formed by having been cut
into the rock and then widened with a wooden construction and cantilevers, embedded in the
almost vertical cliffs beneath the road, about which the emperor’s text speaks as well!
The inscription on top, TABULA TRAIANA, was set in late 1889, when the first protection
measures were taken on this monument, which was even then well known to the international
public and endangered almost in the same way as it is today, at the beginning of the
21st century!
Because of its importance, it was included in the protection measures within the scope of SRP\,
in 1969. After taking an impression of the inscription in polyester (which has been lost without a
trace), it was transferred together with a block of rock to a higher elevation, 20 m above the first
location (this is how much the level of the Danube rose in front of the HEPP \erdap). Any further
planned works on this monument were then terminated (!). Besides »forgetting« to remove the
column-like elements (set for purposes of security in time of the moving process) that mostly
obscure the monument’s sides, the monument is totally unprotected and unguarded, exposed to
the vandalism of rare visitors who, for now, »only« write their names in various colours! Because
of the carelessness of the authorities, this remarkable monument has been constantly exposed
and, although it has survived centuries of destructive effect of climate changes, i.e., temperature
oscillations and humidity, the latter have been slowly but surely erasing and removing the
remaining letters of the unique imperial inscription text, the testimonial of an extraordinary
event that originated 1900 years ago. (figure ?)
It should be pointed out here that the Archaeological Museum of \erdap has constantly
initiated actions and manifestations promoting heritage protection measures for the whole Region,
under the symbolic name of Pro Tabula and the latest, Via Traiana (2006), reminding all those
in charge of the necessity of the immediate protection of this and other monuments, before all
as a part of the world’s heritage (WHS). (figure ?)
Recommendations: Assess the current monument state by an expert interdisciplinary team;
gather the existing and produce new documentation within the scope of a Project/study on
undertaking measures of integrated protection of the monument, its revitalization and usage.
Form an info-station by the present-day Belgrade–Tekija road, adapting it to contemporary
standards of presentation and to the needs of visitors interested in information about the still
»invisible« monument/historic area, integrate the tourist/recreational offer with an appropriate
infrastructure and present this site within the scope of the whole tourist river-land offer.
5. Tekija / The Roman Transdierna (I–VI century AD)
The Roman limes – Via Traiana
Nova (New) Tekija is the first settlement of the Municipality of Kladovo on the bank of
the Danube coming from the west. It is situated at almost the same location, above the sunken
Stara (Old) Tekija, at the exit from Kazan in the Lower \erdap Canyon, amidst a very colourful
landscape, with a tradition of being an appealing place for tourists (with its habitants offering
home-accommodations). With the sinking of Stara (Old) Tekija, numerous locations on the bank
were sunk as well: two Roman forts in Tekija and several military installations nearby, most of the
ancient settlements, the necropolis and the road.
Before the site was sunk, it was previously subjected to SRP\ protection measures (research,
conservation of findings, documentation, and presentation). The artefacts, as well as a part of the
\erdap Collection are kept as part of the funds of the Archaeological Museum of \erdap.
Recommendations: (Nova) Tekija is the first settlement of the Municipality of Kladovo from the
west, with the capacities for providing longer-term accommodations for tourists and thus it should
be included in the plan of presenting the historical treasure of the Region: an integral presentation
of the sunken old settlements, forts, along with a permanent exhibition featuring a selection from a
rich variety of archaeological-ethno-historical-art-ecological materials. The traditional recreational/
entertainment tourist manifestation Tekijska bu}ka, could be enriched with exhibitions and/or
educational workshops related to fishing as the favourite-traditional occupation of the \erdap/
Danube population. Besides visits to the nearest locations, Trajan’s Tablet and Hajdu~ka vodenica,
as well as the locations downstream, the offer should also include the natural heritage and tours of
the mountain hinterland ([trbac, Miro~, \evrin/Gradac).
The info-stations should be positioned on the known spots, with the possibility of visiting
the locations on the Romanian, left bank by boat, from Orsava/the Roman Diema and downstream,
to the known attractions of newer date, the monumental HEPP \erdap and/or the monument to
the Dacian king Decebal, carved in natural rock, near the mouth of the Romanian river Mrakonija
into the Danube (opposite the Hajdu~ka vodenica). (figure ?)
6. The Monument to Ko~a An|elkovi} (1927)
The replica of the now submerged monument was set in 1927 near the location of the original
(which can be seen during lower water levels). It is set at the place of execution of the great hero from
the Turkish wars of 1788. It stands on the left side of the Belgrade–Tekija–Kladovo highway. (figure ?)
Recommendations: A smaller info-stand should be formed according to contemporary standards
and needs of the interested passers-by. It should be maintained regularly.
The historic events related to this period and the monument should be presented and »announced«
in nearby Tekija.
8. Fortelisabeth (XVIII–XIX century AD)
A medieval fortress
The Roman limes – Via Traiana
It is situated about 5 km downstream from Tekija/\evrin (opposite the flooded island/medieval
fort Adakale / Roman Ducis partum). Today, despite the decay, the preserved architecture of the
impressive Austro–Hungarian »rocky fort«, which descended from the top of the Gradac cliff to
the water level and which is mostly under water today, can be seen from both the left and right
side of the Belgrade–Tekija–Kladovo highway. It was built by Austrian general Hamilton in 1736,
and destroyed by being mined during the Turkish retreat and during the building of the
Belgrade–Tekija–Kladovo highway. (figure ?)
Recommendations: The location was not placed under the protection measures of SRP\.
It should be researched; the documentation should be gathered, labelled and arranged, and
maintained, with the possibility of organizing visiting-sightseeing from the Danube as well as
a viewing spot with info-stand on top of the \evrin rock (connecting it with the revitalization plan
and the touring of locations in the hinterland). A graphic presentation of the primary appearance
of this fort in situ is suggested, as well as making it a part of the permanent exhibition in the
medieval fort of Kladovo Fetislam, using modern media and artefacts in order to present the
medieval past, the history, and the tangible and intangible heritage of the region.
32. Manastirica [XIX (XIV)]
A church/monastery with lodgings, renewed at the end of the 19th century, on the foundations
of the older one from the 14th century.
The church of St. Trojica (Sv. Trojica) is located in the untouched forest landscape of the
mountain village Manastirica (the mountain hinterland of Karata{).
The monument can be reached by the modern road Kladovo–Brza Palanka as well as the old
route (the shorter wagon road) which, between Davidovac and Kladu{nica, separates from
the Belgrade–Tekija–Kladovo highway (this was also the route of the Roman road towards the
hinterland of this part of the Danube!). Well-known travel writers have left notes on this church
(as well as other heritage), i.e., Felix Kanitz, Mili}evi} and others. According to tradition, the
daughter of Serbia’s Tsar Lazar resided here. The complex is historically interesting, unexplored,
possibly holding older medieval and Roman traces. The monastery lodging was built next to the
church. (figure)
Recommendations: No protection measures have been taken by the institutions in charge,
but locals themselves have undertaken works to stop the decaying of the whole complex! For the
purpose of the necessary protection and revitalization of this monument complex near Kladovo,
the archive documents and all other necessary documentation should be collected for the needs
of producing a Study. A restoration plan for the whole complex should be done, along with a
conservation and revitalization plan, and the complex should be included among the region’s
contemporary tourist offer. Adequate additional contents should be secured for the purposes of
attracting a greater number of visitors and offering educational content – workshops, cultural/art
manifestations, recreation. As would befit the monument complex-cultural area, the accent should
be placed on the research and collection of data related to the tangible and intangible heritage of
the region, the architecture and/or ethno/tradition from the Middle Ages to the New Age,
including the flora and fauna of the area.
14. Karata{ / Statio Cataractarum Diana – Polichnion Zanes (AD I–VI century)
The Roman limes– Via Traiana
A Roman and Early Byzantine fort, dock, settlement, necropolis, road
One of the most important and the most significant military posts, along with the small town
of Zanes/Diana station, is located near the Danube cataracts, opposite the Banului group of islands
(with a Roman and later medieval fort now submerged), near Trajan’s/Sip canal dating from
AD 101 (today under water), at the entry to the Iron Gate Canyon from the east. The fort today
lies 2 km downstream from the HEPP \erdap I, near the Belgrade–Tekija–Kladovo highway (8 km
upstream from Kladovo), opposite the tourist settlement of Karta{, where capacities for extended
tourist stays exist. Within the scope of this settlement are three important buildings within the
Archaeological Museum of \erdap – The Centre for research and protection and education, with
temporary depots for storage, treatment, and conservation of the archaeological \erdap Collection.
Thanks to its position in relation to the accumulation, the fort and the smaller parts of the
settlement with necropolis remained beyond the flooding zone. The site, however, is extremely
endangered by works related to the needs of building the HEPP \erdap I, the modern roads and
new settlements (Karta{ and Novi Sip). It has been systematically researched for conservation,
presentation and revitalization and, finally, with the goal of placing it on the UNESCO list as WHS,
according to the aims of SRP\, and it has the status of a monument of exceptional value for the
Republic of Serbia (along with Trajan’s Tablet, Trajan’s Bridge and Pontes Fort).
The fort was taken under the program of measures of the SRP\ (research, documentation,
conservation). The artefacts are being kept as part of the \erdap Collection in the \erdap
Museum. It has been researched systematically, according to the goals of SRP\, on and off, for
nearly three decades. The project of systematic research was led from the beginning by J. Rankov
Kondi} (The National Museum – the Archaeological Museum of \erdap). The technical protection
measures are, because of the monument’s importance, under jurisdiction of the experts from the
Republic Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments and the Institute from Ni{, whose experts
have done all the protection measures on the conservation of the discovered structures so far,
which, however, have not been finalized, having completely ended due to well-known
circumstances, in the beginning of the 1990s.
The archaeological whole is made up of well-kept and relatively well researched, strong
perimeter walls of the Roman/early Byzantine fort, tower and gate and several characteristic
objects discovered along the main communications – which represent only 1/3 of the fort (18 of
22 towers were researched, the whole south and west wall, parts of the north wall and all four
gates, parts of the main building, military barracks, storages for food, then two big late-antiquity
buildings, the graveyard church with crypt, and so on). Systematic archaeological research and
protection-organization measures are being done in continuity, in line with plans and possibilities,
despite numerous difficulties of technical and financial nature (thanks to the continual support
and help of HEPP \erdap before all). The biggest part of the discovered architecture has been
partially conserved and, up to a certain level, reconstructed, even during the time in which SRP\
was active, which, along with the archaeological excavations done for the purpose of organizing
the site and discovering the architecture for presentation makes the site attractive for visitors even
today. Because of the conservation that was badly done and the total stop in these works, as well
as the effect of natural factors (lush vegetation and atmospheric factors, heavy rains and floods),
the once well-kept and conserved structures are gradually decaying. (figure ?)
Precisely for these reasons, support was garnered for holding the Archaeological Conservation
Course on protection measures in 2005, under the organization of ICCROM in cooperation with
the National Museum in Belgrade (and the Archaeological Museum of \erdap as well as Project
Diana/Zanes), through the Diana Department for Preventive Conservation. (figure)
Each summer, for a number of years, Project Diana/Zanes has organized heritage protection
training (organizing the locations, archaeological excavations, technical-graphical and photo,
and computer documentation), in cooperation with exterior associates, students of archaeology,
architecture, construction, physics, and university art departments, who acquire and apply their
knowledge and skills here. These works are realized with the support of HEPP \erdap (figure).
According to the existing Project \erdap–Diana/Zanes and in accordance with the conclusions
of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Serbia (2005), the following urgent measures have
been recommended:
– That the short-term/long-term protection measures project be finalized, in the form of a
Study/report and that this site be organized on the basis of the latest results of archaeological
excavations and research
– To intensify interdisciplinary research and archaeological works in the zones for
conservation/presentation and for receiving visitors
– To renew and intensify the conservation works (firstly in the zones where visitors circulate)
– To repair the old/unsuccessful conservation
– To maintain the site and the protected environment regularly and to execute all integral
prevention protection measures regularly
– To cover the unprotected structures with assembling/disassembling roof covers
– To execute the planned fencing of the immediate zone of the site, to cultivate the researched
areas with horticulture
– To organize the visitor paths and set bilingual info-billboards, and to present the location
through popular guides/media as well as in electronic form
– To regularly maintain the existing objects-depots for the protection of the archaeological
– To improve fieldwork conditions and capacities and the accommodation of crews (making
optimal conditions for stay and work)
– In accordance with the protection measures, due to their importance, the site and objects
should be guarded by a protection service
– To form an info-station with the necessary contents (Theme park, permanent exhibition on
the location, education, manifestations, camps).
16. The Fort of Kladovo / Fet(h)islam (XVI–XIX century)
A medieval/Ottoman fort
The great, well preserved medieval city-fort, with two fortifications on the same location, has
a total area of 18 ha. Like the whole Region, this fort has had a turbulent history, with frequently
changing masters. It is located on the very edge of the Danube, at the western entry to Kladovo,
near the Belgrade–Kladovo highway. It owes its present-day appearance to the days of the Ottoman
occupation, at the beginning of the 19th century. Basically, this is a polygonal, late medieval
bastion fort, with broken ramparts fortified by towers, with three gates above which are honorary
inscriptions from the last phase of the restoration, surrounded with a trench from three sides.
Inside the fort, there are military objects for different purposes: crew accommodation, gunnery,
storage room, hamam (Turkish bath), mosque, and underground passages. The remains of well-kept
masonry plumbing installations have been preserved and can be seen today in close vicinity (15), at
the site of Butorki, a Roman-late Roman fort which is flooded today (the location Carine, destroyed
during the building of the Kladovo shipyard).
The Fetislam fort has been taken under protection measures within the scope of SRPD, from
archaeological researches and conservation to making proposals for revitalization, with a plan of
use that has not been completely defined. It is neglected and no protection measures have been
realized for s number of years. (figure)
Recommendations: The existing revitalization plan should be supplemented with objects
necessary for putting up a permanent exhibition – info-posts for presenting the medieval and newer
history and architecture up to the period of 19/20th century, including all the remaining, now
flooded, known medieval forts of this sector, Adakale, Fort Elizabeth and Banul, with modern
exhibiting standards/media, so that this city fort can become an attractive place for visitors,
education, amusement and recreation both for Kladovo’s inhabitants and guests, as soon as possible.
The area research should be continued.
17. The Archeological museum of \erdap in Kladovo
(1956) 1996–2006: The birth/creation of museums of the great European rivers (Project \erdap)
In Kladovo as the centre point of the whole Iron Gate/\erdap Region, the Archaeological
Museum of \erdap (AM\) was opened in 1996. It was one of the most significant realized
aims related to conducting protection measures within the scope of the SRP\ program in many
decades. The great number of researched locations and collected cultural artefacts and the vast
documentation imposed an imperative need for the Region’s priceless heritage to be stored and
kept in one place. It was out of this responsible and highly professional relationship towards the
very essence of heritage protection, whose main purpose is presentation and constant care
of cultural artefacts, that the Archaeological Museum of \erdap was created. (figure ?)
Organizationally, it falls under the National Museum in Belgrade and HEPP \erdap (in
Kladovo). It was opened with an exhibition of representative items/cultural artefacts of great
artistic and scientific value from the life of this Danube Region dating back many millennia,
discovered by the continuous work of SRP\ (1996–2006) – The \erdap Collection. Although
differing in theme/chronology, all the presentations and actions of the Museum are connected
by a unique message, expressed in the words of the Roman writer Pliny the Younger, addressed
to Emperor Trajan: It is magnificent to stand on the bank of the Danube or as it has been noted
in the original, Magnum est stare in Danubii ripa (Plin. Ep. XVI 2).
With the activities so far, however, many of the planned/started actions were not or could not
be finished and the adopted, long-term/short-term plans could not be realized (SRP\–AM\),
especially the ones related to keeping conditions, conservation, scientific treatment dynamics and
publishing, as well as the interpretation of the vast, interdisciplinary, multicultural materials
collection, as this is a long-term process.
On the occasion of 1900 years from the completion of Emperor Trajan’s magnificent
construction undertakings in the Iron Gate Region, a new exhibition was opened in the
Archaeological Museum of \erdap under the name of Via Traiana. What is expected is responsible
behaviour in the keeping and further promotion of the preserved tangible and intangible cultural
artefacts, as well as of the natural heritage of the Iron Gate Region in the National Park and the
Archaeological Park – the Archaeological Museum of \erdap, with the aim of revitalization and
use. (figure ?)
Recommendations: The museum building space that is intended for exhibiting and receiving
visitors – the public, should be increased and modernized technically as soon as possible; the
capacities of the existing museum building should be improved, applying modern standards/media,
along with organizing the protected/connected surroundings (see The Main Project of AM\, 1997,
whose authors are Prof. Zoran Bulaji}, architect and J. Kondi}, archaeologist, for the exhibition
synopsis). In accordance with the purpose, the surrounding park – Lapidarium should be
protected and organised, firstly in order to exhibit the stone monuments and the replicas and/or
reconstructions of the flooded monuments as well as the monument heritage not under water.
Highlighting the contrasts between the past and the present, based on scientific facts, this
organised space would be used for multicultural, educational and other already promoted and
popular contents of the Archaeological Museum of \erdap in Kladovo, which would contribute not
only to cultural democratization and bigger attendance, but to the total, unique commercial/tourist
offer of the City, the Region and the Danube. Building a semi-covered pavilion or Mali Odeon
(the Little Odeon), a café and a restaurant on the river bank would provide previously lacking
space for amusement and stage/musical performances.
Another thing that should be organized in the Kladovo–Iron Gate Region as soon as possible is
a big museum in the open – a museum of the great Danube River, in order to take advantage of
the existence of this unique history and nature park representing man’s creation, something which
should be integrated and presented, used and exhibited!
18. Kostol / Pontes – Trajan’s bridge (AD 103–105 – AD I–VI century)
The Roman limes – Via Traiana
The stone piers of Emperor Trajan’s bridge, Roman and early Byzantine fort, dock, settlement,
necropolis, road
The bridge of Trajan’s architect Apollodorus is a unique construction of its time because of its
structural, hydro-technical and other, historical-cultural characteristics! Today it is situated 4 km
downstream from Kladovo (12 km from Diana/Zanes–Karatas), on the left side of the Kladovo–Vrbica
road, opposite the Romanian city of Turn Severin with its Roman-early Byzantine fort of Drobeta,
where an important regional complex type museum is situated (with an archaeological, ethno and
natural display—the Danube aquarium). Downstream from the bridge is located the Romanian river
island of Simian/Simian, with a replica of the flooded medieval fort Adakale.
On the right, Serbian bank, the first four piers of Trajan’s bridge have been preserved, set on
strong concrete foundations, with the closest one to the river being 10.50 m high.
The prehistoric and medieval necropolis with settlement, the classical type Roman and early
Byzantine fort, the dock, and the settlement were registered and researched on location.
It was taken under the protection measures of SRP\ (around the piers of the bridge the semicircular moat was built for flood protection). Recommendations:
– To form an expert team for producing a Project/study for applying modern protection measures;
– To conduct final protection measures on the final conservation of the discovered bridge piers,
along with a revision of the existing recommendations for restoration and reconstruction on the
plateau near the bridge (according to the earlier recommendation of the draft Project/study \erdap,
the reconstruction of the first pier was planned, and the rest of the piers are to be raised to the
47.5 m level);
– To carry on with the protection-research archaeological works in the aim of investigating the
protected environment and locating the access land road that leads to the Bridge and to explore the
route of the canal-marsh going upstream to the fort of Kladovo – to Butorak/Carina and the
settlement of Kladu{nica;
– To execute horticultural and other eco-treatment and protection of the whole complex/area;
– To set the traffic signalization along the communications and the highways;
– To form an info-station from the vista point at the highest point of the site (including the military
stand-post?), and an exhibition on the archaeological site and all necessary content for interested
visitors, on famous historic events, the history of architecture (within the scope of the info-stand), along
with building an access road from both land and river and securing a complete modern infrastructure;
– To obtain simple – natural, permanent communications along the bank, and by land and water
with the nearest point (Kladovo) upstream and Mala Vrbica downstream, and Brza Palanka, all the
way to HEPP \erdap 2 (as well as with the left, Romanian bank);
– To protect the whole complex by law.
22. Rtkovo (I–VI century)
The Roman limes – Via Traiana
The location is situated 2 km from the village of Rtkovo, across the way from the Romanian
Hinova. It is taken under the measures of protection and research of the \erdap Project. The
continuance of the protective explorations, conservation and reconstruction of the central
watch-tower is planned. (figure ?)
Recommendations: To form an info-station on the vista point at the highest spot on the location
and, presenting it as a military late antiquity fort (burgus) and watch-tower, supplement with an
exhibition on the archaeological site and all necessary visitor contents within the scope of the
info-stand, along with building an access road from land and water and securing a complete
modern infrastructure.
24. Vajuga (I–VI century)
The Roman limes – Via Traiana
Only the narrow shoreline belt of the late ancient-early Byzantine fort and necropolis was
included within the works on the \erdap Project. The sites should be presented along with the
ancient whole of the Danube limes, with the aim of revitalizing the ancient road along the Danube.
The prehistoric and medieval necropolis with settlement, the Roman and early Byzantine fort,
and the settlement were registered and researched.
29. Brza Palanka/Egeta (I–VI century)
The Roman limes – Via Traiana
A Roman and early Byzantine fort with settlement, dock, road, necropolis
Only the narrow shoreline belt was included within the works on the \erdap Project. A
continuation of the research, conservation and reconstruction of the discovered parts is planned.
The sites should be presented along with the ancient whole of the Danube limes, with the aim of
revitalizing the ancient road along the Danube as well as the road going over the mountain ranges
of Miro~/Gerulatis that connected this part of the Danube with the important strategic Roman
centre at the mouth of Pore~ka Reka into the Danube/Taliate (near Donji Milanovac),.
The prehistoric and medieval necropolis with settlement, the Roman and early Byzantine fort,
and the settlement were registered and researched.
30. Brza Palanka – Etnno complex
Vernacular small town heritage-architecture, 19–20th century, traditional heritage, the tangible
and intangible heritage
On the widened docking pier, within the \erdap Project, an ethno-complex made up of specific
objects from the submerged Stara Brza Palanka was built. Three/four objects (out of 12) have been
moved to this location so far, and the ideal reconstruction of Vukov konak (Vuk’s Inn – Vuk
Stefanovi} Karad`i}) was executed.
Under the measures of SRP\.
Recommendations: Carry on with the revitalization of this complex (supplement it with the new
contents related to the inexhaustible riches of the traditional heritage). Organize the info-station;
regulate the legal status and protection. Set the signalization on the highway access roads.
The Vernacular heritage of the municipality of Kladovo
Recommendations: The folk creative work of this region should be kept from perishing and
oblivion, the production should be modernized, made available to the public. The ethno-complex
near Brza Palanka is, for now, the only appropriate-planned place for these contents and for all
activities related to keeping the traditional heritage, for trans-border encounters of people in the
Danube basin within the scope of numerous happenings/festivals related to the riches of the
traditional, tangible and intangible heritage.
Renewal along with an intensified protection and cataloguing of evidenced wholes and objects of
folk creative work are necessary in all the settlements of the Municipality of Kladovo, including the
mountain settlements as well as the rare, single objects and/or their parts that are permanently
disappearing and decaying due to modernization and/or abandonment: the small town and village
houses, gates, different forms of porches, doksat (the front porch), various types of auxiliary
objects and so on. (figure ?)
Small town architecture – the newer town history
The rare preserved objects of the architecture formed after liberation from the Turks, during the
19 and in the beginning of the 20th century, were designed under European influence. They
should be protected as the ambient values of the towns, with features of town-urban planning,
evidenced, documented and protected adequately, because they are a part of a history that is
disappearing through modernization. (figure of the architecture)
Recommendations: Along with the complex/protected objects or the ethno-complex, the offer
should be supplemented and fully revitalized with appropriate secondary contents, by reactivating
the workshops and old trades, once popular in these parts but today almost expired.
31. The Industrial heritage of the region
The objects of abandoned technologies/old trades
In compliance with the principles of integral protection of the whole heritage, a project-study
should be done related to executing the protection measures of the industrial heritage, including the
old and traditional occupations of people from these parts, with evidencing, documenting and
presenting the almost abandoned and forgotten technologies and technical resources, either as part
of the preserved objects, and/or in one place. HEPP \erdap I was built in 1972, at the location of the
Danube Iron Gate, one of the biggest hydroelectric power plants, a giant of modern technology and
construction which is, most often, the only thing available for tourist presentation. It is well known
that its surroundings contain several objects from the 19–20th century that today represent European
industrial heritage (abandoned technologies, machinery, tools and production objects). (figure)
Recommendations: A renewal and intensified protection and cataloguing of the evidenced
wholes and objects of technical creative work is necessary in all settlements of the Municipality of
Kladovo, including the mountain settlements as well as the rare, single objects and/or their parts.
Within the protection measures should also be included, preserved, documented and presented
(i.e., revitalized-re-utilized) some abandoned parts of buildings; info-stands should be built, the
area organized for visitors, and supplemented with cultural, amusement and other educational
contents, with exhibitions with photo/archive documentation, supplemented with old-architectural
technologies related to, for example, the brick industry and the work of the old brickyard, or ship
building-shipyards, with a presentation of the history of navigating the Danube in the Iron Gate
Region and the peculiarities of the river traffic, which, until the construction of the \erdap
hydro-energetic and navigational system, was for millennia performed by pulling from the
banks and with the obligatory use of pilots-skippers (along with the hydro-technical works and
construction from the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages, to the lock of the dam of HEPP \erdap).
All the complexes can be integrated into the modern streams of development through
re-adaptation, revitalization or re-utilization, in accordance with the whole, planned cultural-tourist
offer of the entire Region and the city of Kladovo.
To see more clearly the strategic priorities of this rich, but to a large extent endangered,
unprotected and unorganized cultural heritage, and to see the individual monumental heritage
from different epochs and different degrees of preservation as an integral unit of local, national
and international significance, a necessary analysis of the observed advantages, weaknesses,
prospects and threats was done. The results were the appropriate planned responses which
emphasize some of the advantages and prospects and diminish the weaknesses and threats.
In the process of SWOT analysis, the advantages, weaknesses, chances and threats in the Municipality
of Kladovo have been looked at in more detail, in the context of cultural and natural heritage.
The following characteristics can be distinguished as advantages:
– The favourable geographic position;
– The historic–cultural development several millennia long that left significant traces, from
prehistoric age to the new age;
– The Nature national park and Archaeological park of cultural heritage: an extremely rich and
diverse and relatively well explored cultural heritage in the fascinating natural environment of the
Nature national park;
– Extensive interdisciplinary scientific documentation on natural and cultural properties
(the inter-institutional funds of NSP\, the competent institutions);
– A proper identification of problems and restrictions;
– The promotion of a new union between man and nature and nature and culture: cultural
heritage as a stimulus for the development of cultural (educational) tourism and economy.
The weaknesses are:
– Low consciousness level regarding the values and protection of the cultural heritage;
– The heritage is not organized and not cared for properly;
– The competent institutions have stopped field work;
– Violation of laws;
– Documentation for the entire heritage is not merged/integrated;
– The relevant protection institutions are not sufficiently connected (culture, nature);
– Insufficient interest in taking joint actions to promote and protect the cultural and natural
– The marginalization of the significance of heritage-management;
– The Danube River is not used enough as a traffic route (for regular passenger traffic);
– The shore is completely isolated, and shoreline communications as well as those to the
mountain hinterland are inadequate;
– Unmarked and inadequate paths, info-signals are not unified.
Among the prospects, the following stand out:
– Cross-border cooperation and mutual, international initiatives regarding integral heritage
– The Danube as a connection and an international communicational route offers many
possibilities for promoting the cultural and natural heritage;
– Raising the awareness of the international expert public regarding the protection of the
exceptional monumental unit – the Roman limes (UNESCO–WHS);
– Revitalization and heritage organization and realization of the cross-border culture park;
– Starting new pilot projects for a new concept of an integrated cultural heritage –region.
The threats are seen as:
– Complete demolition of the sites due to the destructive actions of nature and human factors;
– Gradual and irreversible vanishing of natural, traditional, vernacular heritage;
– Inappropriate usage of cultural properties;
– Inappropriate and inexpert conservation;
– Irresponsible behaviour of competent institutions;
– Protection measures are not being executed;
– The local community is not interested;
– Urbanisation is without a plan;
– Vandalism.
Besides the other analytical documentation, the said analysis served in the making of the PPK
as a starting point for defining the strategic priorities and general conception of cultural heritage
protection in this area.
The area of Kladovo Municipality is well explored due to the protective archaeological works and
researches in connection with the rise of the river level that occurred because of the accumulations
made for the needs of the \erdap hydroelectric plants. The \erdap project (NSP\), it is well
known to the public, represented the best model of a modern and well guided and realized project,
thanks to the successful and continuous cooperation between culture, science and economy in
accomplishing common goals and tasks, in accordance with provisions of the Law on protection
of cultural properties.
Starting from the base laid down by the previously mentioned \erdap project, and its large
contribution in the struggle to preserve the heritage, one of the key priorities regarding the
protection and enhancement of the cultural heritage is: REVITALIZATION AND PROPER
The concept of both cultural and natural heritage has been significantly expanded in the last
few years among the global public. This is in direct relation to the increase of consciousness
regarding its richness but also the danger facing the existing heritage. Today, the information
and communication technologies, along with certain economic activities, especially tourism,
make it possible to promote the heritage in a more detailed manner and to make it more accessible,
not only to the domestic, but to the foreign public. The Danube is the largest river in Europe and
a first-class, international communicational route and, thus, the territory of Kladovo Municipality
offers truly excellent potential for cultural tourism, even though they are currently being left
completely unused.
Within the INTERREG III CADSES program, to which our country territorially belongs as
priority 3, the following goal is outlined: The promoting and managing of the region, the natural
and the cultural heritage. This priority is especially directed towards the valorisation of spatial
values, both natural and cultural. According to the principles of the key planning document of the
European Union called »Perspectives of Europe’s spatial development«, economic growth and social
unity are based on a responsible managing of the spatial heritage. Within this priority is also an
insistence on coordinated traditional activities, guided towards the creation of »cultural (tourist)
routes«. Therefore, the cultural and natural heritage significant to the entire region should be
identified, and its networking should be promoted and marketed. The Municipality of Kladovo,
with its very rich cultural heritage of universal significance and exceptional geographic position has
excellent potentials and, therefore, the next important priority is: INTRODUCING INTEGRATIVE
This means that the sites – the cultural and natural heritage, either individual or as complexes,
connect and merge into protected zones, so-called cultural regions, integrated with the cultural
heritage, with the appropriate approach and proper unified signalization. A cultural region is a
group of sites, objects, characteristics, archive material, memories and opinions that also have
significance in the modern age. The World Heritage Convention defines cultural regions as the
»combined work of nature and man«, which show the evolution of human society in cooperation
with the possibilities and restrictions of human environment, and illustrate the social, economic
and cultural forces within a society.
The rich cultural-historical heritage of Kladovo in the region of Gvozdena Vrata (\erdap),
its tangible and intangible heritage from the prehistoric age, through the Roman limes to the
Middle Ages and the new age, the vernacular and industrial heritage represents an integrated
heritage of exceptional national significance and interest. Out of these reasons, the next priority is:
Here must once again be emphasized the possibility of placing this unique unit under
UNESCO’s protection.
Regardless of the fact that some of the initiated actions, especially ones regarding the
conservation, scientific processing, documentation and publishing/presentation of this large-scale
project have been slowed down, obstructed or frozen, thanks to the \erdap Project, on the territory
of Kladovo, located in the centre of the Gvozdena Vrata region, conditions are now in place to
treat the Archaeological and National park \erdap as one of the most important Danubian regions.
This applies to its complete usage for scientific, cultural, educational, economic, tourist and sports
Having in mind the natural and cultural properties and resources, it has been determined that
Kladovo is the centre of development for tourist region C4 (\erdap) – as a zone of national
The well known sites and the discovered archaeological material have provided numerous
evidence about the close cultural-economic and other relationships of the Serbian Podunavlje
(Danubian) area with the areas on the left side of the Danube, Oltenija, with the Carpathian basin,
north-eastern Bulgaria and other surrounding hillside areas, including the Danube River from its
source to its mouth and all of Europe. From these relationships stem the significant obligations
that Serbian science and culture have towards the numerous open historic and cultural issues
and scientific problems, but also chances for a more coherent and connected relationship between
neighbours as well as internationally. Also, there is an obligation towards a more unified approach
towards protection, presentation and usage of cultural, natural, tangible and intangible heritage.
To make this happen, new approaches towards managing cultural heritage are necessary,
ones that are project-oriented, multidisciplinary, with a precise financial structure, activity plan,
implementation plan and developed instruments and mechanisms for permanent control, tracking
and reporting about the achieved results. Therefore, another important priority is: INTRODUCING
Cultural properties management includes an array of coordinated activities that also include:
– Identification/diagnosis of a problem;
– Coordination with the environment;
– Development plans of long-term needs and goals;
– Determination of status (inventory, categorization and historical context of the heritage,
documentation and graphic archive) and legal framework;
– Creating a financial framework – a stable source of financing;
– Placing management structures with clear duties and responsibilities;
– Accommodation to the country’s contemporary development and the needs of the local
– Monitoring;
– Overview of plan according to changeable needs.
In order to manage the cultural heritage properly, it is necessary to make a national strategy
that will offer a framework for acceptable planning and financial models of heritage management.
One of those models includes public–private partnerships in creating the economic sustainability
of the cultural heritage, along with the necessary special protection regime and transparency of all
activities. That means that for individual sites or the entire cultural region, a so-called Business
plan must be done, with an identified budget and other financial sources, identified goals and
activities, implementation phases and with a responsible team of experts, led by a project manager
who will periodically inform the public and relevant institutions about the achieved results. It is
also necessary that the relevant institutions constantly follow/monitor the activities and results.
The highlighting or presentation of authentic monument values are possible within
methodologically properly explored and professionally–scientifically documented
findings/monuments, on which protection and conservation measures were persistently
undertaken, and which have a completed revitalization plan (proposal-study):
– Special attention should be paid to further record-keeping and documenting, interdisciplinary,
multicultural research-reconnaissance of the wider shore zone (with the use of the most modern
methods, geoelectric, georadar instruments, with digitalization and making of data bases) which
is also a subject of legal protection and urban planning, so that a broader picture of the preserved
remained monuments may be gained and conditions for their protection determined;
– Finish the reconnaissance of old roads – »cultural paths« on the shore and in the immediate
hinterland (Brza Palanka/Roman Egeta – Donji Milanovac/Roman Taliata, which goes through
the mountain settlement of Miro~/Roman Gerulata and through the mountain hinterland in the
settlements of Petrovo Selo, Manastirica and Podvr{ka) and include them in the tourist offer as a
unique route that combines different cultural areas;
– The remains of explored sites (including their wider zone) forming the base of the site’s
historic centre should be conserved and protected, and the heritage marked in a certain way;
– Carry out projects of ideal reconstruction and a project of revitalization of protected sites
(through expert proposals–studies);
– Determine the legal state of sites in the broadest vicinity, along with the conditions for
their usage;
– Ensure strict enforcement of legal regulations-planning acts in the area of protection of
environmental, natural and created values;
– Provide urban planning documents for select spatial wholes and sites according to the
domain of competence;
– Remove the basic dangers for site survival coming from uncontrolled urbanisationindustrialization of space on which heritage has been evidenced (the space should be previously
researched and defined for the needs of determining the broader zone of site/finding protection);
– It is necessary to ensure constant maintenance and condition monitoring of jeopardized
objects (the shore area);
– Increase inspection surveillance;
– The explored archaeological sites-objects should be protected in a proper way, taking
into account the surrounding cultural region;
– Monumental heritage should be marked with unique signs depending on the
communications/approach to the sites;
– On the sites–objects should be placed graphic info-boards in many languages, along with
illustrated info-brochures;
– Maintain the authenticity of the monuments and the environment (the immediate
surroundings, the Danube River or connections with the hinterland), with this being one of the
starting measures in the process of integral protection and presentation of the monumental
heritage in the region of Gvozdena Vrata;
– A traffic and communal infrastructure (along with the obligatory sanitary objects) and an
accessible heritage are the basic conditions for revitalization and integration with the modern
processes of the municipality’s development;
– Make the site position functional-accessible in relation to the planned urban structure;
– Besides the land traffic, of vital significance for a more rapid development is the revitalization
of shoreline and river traffic between the sites and present-day population centres (along with the
appropriate infrastructure and contents). Every site should be adapted to allow the possibility of
access from the river, with sightseeing tours along the coast (both right and left) by using boats,
both modern and those modelled on traditional-historic river vessels. A true addition to such a
presentation and to the enjoyment in the sightseeing of the natural and cultural heritage, both
by land and water (or combined, with a change of transportation on certain spots) would be the
possibility of renting bicycles, traditional carriages or horses (animals). In addition, it is necessary
to design, build and/or organize walking/hiking paths, with planned resting places, vista points and,
especially, info-places with information in many languages;
– The main entrance info-places (stops) should serve to emphasize the authenticity or
attractiveness of the heritage as well as the territorial expanse and richness of the entire region.
The info-places should have: a board with a geographic map and the essential information about
the monument (with graphic and other visual aids), publications, including the most modern
means of presentation and a plan of ideal object reconstruction, a display of movable artefactsreplicas, with the possibility of souvenir purchase and other info-material and brochures in many
– The Archaeological Museum of \erdap should present information for the entire cultural
region of the Municipality of Kladovo and the entire region of Gvozdena Vrata/\erdap, with
accompanying itineraries and additional info-material in many languages;
– The Archaeological Museum of \erdap as one of the most ambitious – successfully realized
undertakings in the domain of integral, inter-institutional heritage protection, should assume a
coordinating role and develop into the inter-institutional centre of heritage protection in the region
of Gvozdena Vrata (because works on the territory of the Region have not yet been completed).
The physical plan – PPK represents one of the key instruments for the realization of the idea
of sustainable development in the Municipality of Kladovo and its constituent parts (23 cadastre
municipalities), based on the principles of Agenda 21, HABITAT II, SEMAT, Alborg, Sophia, Lisbon
and other declarations, charters and strategic documents that oblige the Republic of Serbia and
its municipalities to respect them and apply them in planning processes, and even more in
accomplishing planned solutions having to do with the protection and usage of spatial resources
and values of an organized territory and its basic purposes (PPK, p. 9).
In the plan, basic solutions are defined, policies given, along with recommendations on the
protection, organization and development of the Municipality of Kladovo, and the usage of its
basic resources and values, which make it a unique complex in the area. Thus, the plan is founded
on methodological principles that are in accordance with current postulates of sustainable
development and regional integration, i.e., the responsible treatment of the resources and values
of the municipality, with special attention paid to non-renewable resources and values. These
planned solutions have an obligatory character until 2010.
The Physical Plan of Kladovo Municipality gives special emphasis to an integrative approach to
the known principles of contemporarily understood concepts of heritage protection, as well as to
the idea of the necessity of urgently solving the problem of the integral protection of extraordinary
cultural and natural heritage, and its implementation through the defining of the cultural region
and through introducing modern approaches and methods in managing the cultural and natural
heritage. This is all with the purpose of preservation (from complete vanishing), organization,
promotion and usage of this unique, attractive, cultural region of the Danube, in the region of
the Iron Gate/\erdap, in Kladovo – which is a permanent part of the European heritage.
Legislative measures, protection and managing of our common heritage need a great deal
of energy and, before all, tolerance between science and administration, on all levels, from local
to international.
Since Serbia is one of the countries through which the Danube runs, it is a very important part
of the cooperation process in the bringing and realization of contemporary plans connected with
the regulation and usage of this large river. The Danube is, before all, an important transportation
path, but also of vital significance in connecting infrastructure, economies and culture. As the
most important and largest river in Europe, it has an economical, political and integrative aspect.
Obviously, it is clear that we are not lacking in arguments: the destiny and state of the protected
monumental heritage is not just a matter of our circumstances, wishes and mandatory plans. They
are not our property, but the heritage of European culture and civilization.
In the end, we remind you of Article 5 of The European Cultural Convention (19. 12. 1954):
Each contracting party will consider as an integral part of common heritage the works that
represent european cultural value that can be found under its supervision and will undertake required
measures for their conservation and for making them more accessible.
Narodni muzej u Beogradu
Sne`ana SUBOTI]
Arhitekta ????????????????????
Apstrakt. Danas mo`emo slobodno re}i da je upravo zahvaquju}i arheologiji, arheolo{kim otkri}ima i
preduzimawu mera integralne za{tite na obalama Dunava u okviru velikog, interinstitucionalnog i
interdisciplinarnog nau~noistra`iva~kog Projekta \erdap za{ti}ena jedna od posledwih nedirnutih
oblasti Evrope, koju su vekovima stvarali ~ovek i priroda.
Na teritoriji Kladova – grada s milenijumskom istorijom – pored novog, Arheolo{kog muzeja \erdapa,
nalazi se i najzna~ajnija (spasena) za{ti}ena spomeni~ka celina rimske granice – Trajanov limes – Via
Traiana – ~iji zna~aj, kao {to je poznato i {iroj javnosti, prevazilazi granice na{e zemqe.
U Prostornom planu op{tine Kladovo, usvojenom 2006. godine, strate{ki prioriteti stoga jesu za{tita i
unapre|ivawe kulturnog nasle|a kroz pravnu regulativu, revitalizaciju i odgovaraju}u promociju i
prezentaciju, zatim uvo|ewe integrativnog vida za{tite kroz definisawe kulturnog predela i uvo|ewe
savremenog pristupa u upravqawu kulturnom i prirodnom ba{tinom.
Listu spomeni~kog nasle|a u vidu itinerera prati tematska karta 03 (prirodna, kulturna, industrijska
ba{tina). Za svaki lokalitet date su preporuke – osnovni predlozi op{tih mera za{tite i kori{}ewa
kulturne ba{tine kao celovitog kulturnog predela (zasnovani na rezultatima delovawa i dugoro~nim
programima nau~noistra`iva~kog Projekta \erdap).
Su{tinski ciq teorije razvoja jeste
olak{avawe `ivota stanovni{tvu i obezbe|ivawe
odgovaraju}ih standarda za ostvarewe izvesnog
stupwa blagostawa, koje bi {iroko obuhvatilo
gra|anstvo. Pored nasu{nih potreba, tu se pre
svega misli na mogu}nosti boqeg obrazovawa
i na to da se u okviru razvoja »kulturnog
turizma« i »parkova kulture« podsti~u razvoj
i kori{}ewe tradicionalno sigurnih resursa
u op{tini Kladovo, kao {to je bogato spomeni~ko
i prirodno nasle|e ovih prostora. Budu}i da nam
je stalo do toga da razvoj dobije svoj puni smisao,
on onda treba da obuhvati sve qudske aktivnosti,
ukqu~uju}i {iroko kulturu, ~iji je uticaj
su{tinski ~inilac stabilnog napretka (bez
padova). Uloga koja u svemu tome pripada kulturi
(a arheologija se bavi jednim wenim vidom),
na`alost, ~esto je bila zapostavqena, iako je
dobro poznato da je arheologija jedino sredstvo
pomo}u kojeg mo`emo da tragamo za svojim
najdrevnijim poreklom – materijalnim ostacima
qudskog stvarala{tva i svih ~ovekovih drevnih
Podse}amo na to da je na ovim obalama Dunava
(regija Gvozdena vrata – \erdap) u posledwim
decenijama XX veka (1956/1966–2006), u okviru
dugoro~nih programa sprovo|ewa mera za{tite
nasle|a velikog nau~noistra`iva~kog Projekta
\erdap (u daqem tekstu NIP\), otkrivena
i najve}im delom istra`ena i za{ti}ena
jedinstvena prirodna, kulturna, materijalna
i nematerijalna ba{tina. Zalagawem eksperata
i udru`enom akcijom na{ih najeminentnijih
institucija, na ~elu sa SANU, uz podr{ku Vlade
Srbije – resornih ministarstava – a zatim i uz
kontinuiranu podr{ku i pomo} HE \erdap,
celokupna ba{tina dobro je istra`ena
i dokumentovana, jer je od izuzetnog nacionalnog
i me|unarodnog interesa, zna~ajna za razvoj
civilizacija na tlu stare Evrope.
Taj projekat (NIP\) je bio (i jo{ uvek je)
jedan od najzna~ajnijih poduhvata u oblasti
interdisciplinarne za{tite i istra`ivawa
kulturne i prirodne ba{tine u evropskim
razmerama. Rezultati koji su ostvareni
zahvaquju}i NIP\, po svim kriterijumima
izuzetni, afirmisali su ulogu i zna~aj na{e
ba{tine nastajale od preistorije do sredweg veka.
Zahvaquju}i NIP\, koji deluje kontinuirano
preko ~etiri decenije, evidentirano je
i istra`eno na desetine lokaliteta, od kojih je
veliki broj danas potopqen vodama Dunava usled
podizawa nivoa reke i formirawa akumulacija
za potrebe hidroenergetskog i plovidbenog
sistema \erdap (HE \erdap I kod Kladova /
Karata{ i HE \erdap II kod Prahova / Kusjak).
Osim arheolo{kih i istra`iva~kih,
Projektom \erdap planirane su i delom
ostvarene i akcije koje imaju karakter ure|ewa
i prezentacije ba{tine, odnosno »spasavawa«
u ciqu revitalizacije i prezentovawa, odnosno
Od zapada ka istoku, u regiji Gvozdena vrata,
tu ba{tinu ~ine: sredwovekovna Goluba~ka
tvr|ava, preistorijsko naseqe Lepenski Vir (kod
Doweg Milanovca), zatim imperijalni natpis
Tabula Traiana (postavqen 100. godine), Trajanov
most / Pontes (gra|en izme|u 103. i 105. godine)
i dve, po izgledu tipi~no rimske tvr|ave, Statio
Cataractarum Diana/Zanes (Karata{), koja se
nalazila na dunavskim kataraktama / Gvozdena
vrata, na samom ulazu u Trajanov – Sipski kanal
(zavr{en 101. godine), i tvr|ava mostobran Pontes,
kraj Trajanovog mosta (naseqe Kostol). Zahvaquju}i
prirodnom polo`aju, obe su nepotopqene.
Pomenuta izuzetna rimska spomeni~ka celina
koja se danas nalazi u Srbiji, kao deo granice
Rimske imperije (Frontiers of the Roman Empire),
danas je potencijalno na listi svetskog
kulturnog nasle|a Uneska – W(orld) H(eritage)
S(ite) – jer predstavqa jedinstvenu celinu rimske
dr`avne granice s putem, poznate kao limes
(limes). Pre skoro dva milenijuma bila je u
sklopu sistema odbrane stvorenog u jednoj od
najve}ih dr`ava na svetu – u Rimskoj imperiji.
Hronolo{ki, rimski limes (WHS) obuhvata
granice koje imaju sa~uvane spomenike,
arhitektonske strukture koje su podignute do
kraja vladavine rimskih careva iz dinastije
Severa (prve tri decenije III veka n. e.).
A danas, na po~etku tre}eg milenijuma na{e
ere, to je velika kulturna ruta oko sveta, koja je
uspostavqena pre dve hiqade godina i koja je
obilazila Rimsko carstvo, prelaze}i vi{e
kontinenata, u vi{e od deset dr`ava dana{we
Evrope, Afrike i Azije.
Posle radova i sprovo|ewa mera u okviru
NIP\ op{tina Kladovo se tako na{la u samom
sredi{tu Arheolo{kog parka regije Gvozdena vrata
/ \erdap, sa istra`enom i za{ti}enom ba{tinom
od izuzetnog zna~aja – milenijumima starim
materijalnim i nematerijalnim spomenicima
kulture (up. tematsku kartu 03 Prostornog plana
SO Kladova u prilogu).
Za{tita evidentiranog i/ili za{ti}enog
kulturnog i prirodnog nasle|a teritorije SO
Kladova u Prostornom planu op{tine Kladovo
(u daqem tekstu PPK, usvojen 2006. godine)
razmatrana je u nekoliko kqu~nih poglavqa, koja
}emo ovom prilikom preneti u skra}enom
i ne{to izmewenom obliku:
I. Osvrt na istorijsko-kulturolo{ki razvoj
II. Itinerer
III. Analiza prednosti, slabosti, {ansi
i pretwi sa stanovi{ta unapre|ivawa
integralnih mera za{tite
IV. Strate{ki prioriteti za{tite radi
ure|ewa kulturnog nasle|a i unapre|ivawe
odnosa prema ba{tini
V. Op{te mere za{tite / preporuke.
Od izvora u Nema~koj do u{}a u Crno more,
reka Dunav, drevni Istros, rimski Danuvius ili
Danubius, te~e kroz najve}i broj zemaqa sredwe
i jugoisto~ne Evrope. Na putu dugom 2.857
kilometara, na krajwem odse~ku svog sredweg
toka, Dunav se probija kroz stenovite masive
Transilvanskih Karpata i Miro~a, stvaraju}i na
granici Srbije i Rumunije jednu od najve}ih
i svakako najlep{ih re~nih klisura Evrope –
klisuru Gvozdena vrata / \erdapsku klisuru.
\erdapska klisura, prirodno podeqena na
Gorwu i Dowu klisuru, na desnoj, srpskoj obali
Dunava obuhvata liniju od dana{weg Golupca
do Kladova i u tim granicama nije du`a od 200
kilometara. Podru~je op{tine Kladovo nalazi
se na krajwem istoku, obuhvataju}i Dunav od Dowe
klisure \erdapa do u{}a Slatinske reke u Dunav
(up. tematsku kartu 03 PPK).
Poznato je da je prirodni put du` Dunava
oduvek imao veliki vojni, ekonomski i
civilizacijski zna~aj. Talasi velikih migracija
i seoba naroda, armije velikih imperija sveta,
wihovi vrhovni zapovednici i vladari kretali
su se vodenim putevima Dunava i wegovim
pribre`nim putevima. Oblast o kojoj je re~ bila
je podru~je kojim su strujale kulturne veze u svim
pravcima, pre svega od isto~nog Mediterana,
Egeja, Male Azije i Crnog mora, {to je dovelo
do pojava kultura na kojima je, u brojnim
simbiozama, nastajala i evropska civilizacija,
a geostrate{ke prednosti terena bile su svakako
odlu~uju}e pri izboru za trajno nastawivawe.
Okosnica kontinuirane organizacije prostora
uvek je bila reka Dunav i bogato zale|e. Ova reka
je ne samo prirodni izvor egzistencije i najdu`a
prirodna komunikacija koja spaja zapad
evropskog kontinenta sa istokom nego je
i prirodna odbrambena linija, limes, nastao
u sklopu te jedinstvene vodene barijere \erdapske
klisure – klisure Gvozdena vrata.
Po~eci nastawivawa prate se od kraja starijeg
kamenog doba, paleolita, i sredweg kamenog doba,
mezolita (oko 18000–6000. godine stare ere).
Napu{tawe pe}ina i formirawe prvih naseqa
na otvorenom prostoru dunavskih obala, ra|awe
kulture Lepenskog Vira registrovani su u Dowoj
klisuri \erdapa (teritorija SO Kladova),
na Hajdu~koj vodenici (3), na ostrvima kod
Karata{a (13) i nizvodno od Kladova (kod
Mihajlovca – op{tina Negotin). Podse}amo
na to da je otkri}e naseqa i kultura Lepenski
Vir (kultura Lepenski Vir je tako nazvana po
lokalitetu kod dana{weg Doweg Milanovca)
senzacionalno odjeknulo u svetskoj arheologiji.
Prvi put u Evropi otkriveni su jedinstveni
naseobinski tragovi dotad nepoznate,
visokorazvijene mezolitsko-predneolitske
kulture, koja je prva u dotada{woj istoriji
Evrope ostvarila arhitekturu i monumentalnu
kamenu skulpturu neponovqivih formi. O
mla|im razdobqima preistorijskih kultura,
o kulturama metalnih doba – eneolitu, bronzanom
i gvozdenom dobu – svedo~i niz lokaliteta
kontinuirano gusto naseqene obale, brojne
nekropole na desnoj (i levoj) obali Dunava,
od Golupca do Prahova.
Dugo razdobqe preistorije ovde se zavr{ava
kulturom ~iji su nosioci razni podunavski
paleobalkanski narodi i plemena i dominantni
Kelti, ~ija se naseqa i nekropole nalaze
naj~e{}e nizvodno od Kladova i na dunavskim
ostrvima. Najzna~ajnija preistorijska naseqa
(nekropole) registrovana su kod Hajdu~ke
vodenice (3), na Karata{u / Bansko ostrvo (13),
u Maloj i Velikoj Vrbici (19, 21), Korbovu (23),
Vajugi (24), Velesnici (26), Qubi~evcu (27),
Grabovici (28), Brzoj Palanci (29) i kod u{}a
Slatinske reke.
U osvit nove ere reka Dunav je ve} od rimskog
imperatora Avgusta ~itavim svojim tokom glavna
odbrambena linija – rimska vojna granica s
putem – limes (limes) – izme|u Rimskog carstva
i varvara koji su naseqavali teritorije severno
od Dunava. Zbog toga je taj sektor granice bio
re~no-kopnena saobra}ajnica od vitalnog zna~aja
za imperiju, {to ostaje tokom svih {est vekova
wenog postojawa. Rimski dunavski limes s
polo`ajima za stalni sme{taj raznih rodova
rimske vojske (pe{adije, kowice, flote, zatim
specijalnih odreda, in`ewerije) sastojao se od
niza ve}ih i mawih vojnih polo`aja postavqenih
na strate{ki zna~ajne ta~ke i povezanih mre`om
moderno gra|enih komunikacija (via Traiana).
Glavna karika u tom lancu i tu su bile
auksilijarne tvr|ave, po pravilu ~etvorougaonog
oblika, sa ~etiri kapije, opasane mo}nim
bedemima s visokim kulama, sa objektima za
sme{taj i svakodnevne potrebe vojnih jedinica
i vojne komande. Izme|u wih su, u zavisnosti od
prirode mesta, podizane mawe tvr|ave, tvr|avice
i/ili visoke kule, stra`arske i signalne vojnotehni~ke instalacije, koje su ujedno osiguravale
bezbedno odvijawe saobra}aja u klisurama
Dunava, punim opasnosti i prirodnih prepreka
(dubokih virova i stenovitih grebena).
Punih {est vekova (a i kasnije) na tim
osnovama utemeqen je uspe{an strate{ki koncept
odbrane rimske, kasnorimske ili ranovizantijske
granice (i sredwovekovne). Ta ~iwenica postaje
sasvim razumqiva kada se zna da je na{a obala
na tom sektoru stole}ima predstavqala veoma
va`nu i vrlo nemirnu severnu granicu velike
Rimske imperije. Tokom {eststo godina taj deo
rimskog mezijskog limesa dunavskih katarakti
kontinuirano je izgra|ivan i odr`avan, a
izgra|eni rimski put du` desne obale Dunava
imao je veliki vojni i ekonomski zna~aj.
Wime su se kretale vojske, ~esto su ga koristili
i rimski i potowi vladari pri odlascima
na istok stoga {to su na wemu le`ali sna`ni
vojni centri.
Jo{ od prvog veka uz tvr|ave se podi`u i ve}a
i mawa re~na pristani{ta za re~no-morske
brodove, za vojne i trgova~ke potrebe, pretovar
i utovar robe i te{kog tereta. Ona su povezana
internacionalnom mre`om dobrih kopnenih
puteva koji vode obalama dunavskih klisura,
prate}i uporno re~ni tok, a nepristupa~nost
predela premo{}ena je primenom i danas
zadivquju}ih hidrotehni~kih mera, ~ak
i na prirodno neprohodnim mestima. O tim
radovima, o tome ko ih je, kada i za{to preduzeo,
svedo~ili su komemorativni natpisi urezani u
mermerne plo~e, table i/ili u `ivu stenu obale,
prona|eni na pojedinim ta~kama du` stenovitih
obala; te table su danas sve (osim Trajanove),
na`alost, pod vodama Dunava. Od nekoliko
evidentiranih tabli s natpisima rimskih
imperatora koji su ih postavili – Tiberija
(33–34. godine n. e.), Klaudija (46. godine n. e.),
Domicijana (92–93. godine n. e.) – preduzimawem
mera za{tite i transferom na vi{u kotu, od
potapawa je za{ti}ena jedino najimpozantnija
– Trajanova tabla iz 100. godine (4).
Danas znamo da su ti radovi, prvi put u
istoriji, doveli i do potpunog preobra`aja
geofizi~kog izgleda ~itavog Podunavqa i regije
Gvozdena vrata / \erdap. Kulturno-ekonomski
prosperitet uslovio je i tu razvoj i brz uspon
prvih gradova.
Rimski imperator i veliki strateg Trajan
(98–117. godine n. e.) ubrzo posle inauguracije
sti`e na Dunav i u jeku priprema za ekspediciju
protiv Da~ana koji su naseqavali prostore
severno od Dunava postavqa temeqe strate{kog
koncepta rimskog limesa; taj koncept kulminirao
je dovr{avawem obalskog puta 100. godine n. e.
(o ~emu i danas svedo~i imperatorov natpis –
Trajanova tabla), prokopavawem Trajanovog
kanala dugog 3.220 metara u sektoru najopasnijih
katarakti / Gvozdena vrata 101. godine n. e.
[kojim je vladar, skrenuv{i reku, ~itav Dunav
u~inio plovnim, kako je zabele`eno u carevom
natpisu na|enom u Dijani (Zanes)] i gradwom
veli~anstvenog Trajanovog mosta na Dunavu od
103–105. godine n. e. (kod dana{weg Kladova,
na srpskoj obali, i Turn Severina, na rumunskoj
obali Dunava). Prvi kameni most na Dunavu
povezivao je ovde dve rimske provincije – Gorwu
Meziju i Dakiju (Moesia Superior i Dacia). Na
obalama i na dunavskim ostrvima imperator
Trajan podi`e iz temeqa ~vrste kamene tvr|ave
i naseqa gradskog tipa, ure|uju}i ~itav prostor
po standardima vremena, prema rimskom modelu
u arhitekturi (uz instalacije za vodosnabdevawe
i svu poznatu prate}u infrastrukturu), namewuju}i
ga u po~etku vojsci, ratnim veteranima i svim
rimskim gra|anima koji su sledili vojsku.
Rezultati sistematskih arheolo{kih
iskopavawa i istra`ivawa pokazali su da su
obale Dunava u klisuri Gvozdena vrata u to
vreme, a i kasnije, pretvorene u jaka vojna
upori{ta sa sna`nim bedemima i kulama,
okru`ena aglomeracijama i nekropolama oko
wih. Zabele`ena su i u najpoznatijim anti~kim
itinererima i izvorima: Cuppae/Golubac,
Novae/Dobra i Ad Scrofulas nizvodno (u{}e reke
Pesa~e?), Taliata / Dowi Milanovac / kompleks
oko u{}a Pore~ke reke; na teritoriji Kladova
evidentirane su: Transdierna / Tekija (5), Caput
Bovis / Ducis Pratum (7, 11), Zanes/Diana (14) na
Karata{u – Gvozdena vrata (ta najte`a dunavska
re~na prepreka, po kojoj je cela dunavska klisura
dobila ime, po~iwala je kod ostrva Adakale,
a zavr{avala se kod katarakti/Karata{a).
Nizvodno od Kladova su: Pontes/Kostol (18), Egeta
/ Brza Palanka (29), kao i Clevora/Mihajlovac,
Aquae/Prahovo (na Dunavu, u Srbiji).
Na`alost, osim tvr|ava Dijana/Zanes
i Pontes, danas su veliki delovi starih naseqa
i obala reke pod vodama Dunava (zajedno sa
savremenim obalskim gradovima – naseqima
Dowi Milanovac, Tekija, Sip, Brza Palanka,
mnogim ostrvima, up. tematsku kartu 03 PPK).
Padom ranovizantijskog limesa
i naseqavawem slovenskih plemena krajem VI
i po~etkom VII veka po~iwe novo, sredwovekovno
razdobqe regije Gvozdena vrata. Mawa slovenska
naseqa podignuta na mestima rimskih i/ili
preistorijskih u VII veku n. e. s vremenom
prerastaju u ve}e aglomeracije s nekropolama
i velikim brojem hri{}anskih objekata
[evidentirane i delom istra`ene na
lokalitetima Pecka bara (1), Hajdu~ka vodenica
(3), Kostol (8), Vajuga (24), Velesnica (26),
Qubi~evac (27), Grabovica (28), Brza Palanka
(29), u{}e Slatinske reke].
Tokom X–XIV veka kulturni identitet
tih prostora, nastao pod sna`nim uticajem
Vizantije, a dosta dugo i pod wenom
neposrednom dominacijom i/ili u okviru srpske
sredwovekovne dr`ave, potvr|uju bogate ostave
novca ili nakita i grobovi bogati prilozima kao
{to su nakit, luksuzna i utilitarna keramika.
Zakqu~ujemo i da podru~je regije \erdap ni tada
nije bilo izolovana sredina, ve} da je bilo deo
kulturne celine koja je zahvatala predele oko
re~nih tokova i pritoka sredweg i doweg Dunava.
U dugoj borbi oko interesnih sfera na
sredwem i dowem Dunavu u XVI–XVIII/XIX veku,
vo|enoj izme|u sredwoevropskih zemaqa
i otomanske dr`ave, na obalama i na ostrvima se
podi`u monumentalne tvr|ave gradovi. Wihovi
gospodari ~esto se mewaju, a tvr|ave ure|uju
prvenstveno prema zamislima uskla|enim sa
sredwovekovnim vojnostrate{kim standardima.
U regiji Gvozdena vrata / \erdap, od Velikog
Gradi{ta i Golupca, na obali i/ili na ve}im
re~nim ostrvima podignuto je nekoliko
zna~ajnijih sredwovekovnih bastionih tvr|ava,
koncentrisanih nizvodno od Tekije i Or{ave
(op{tina Kladovo) na ostrvima Adakale (7)
i Banskom/Banului (13), na desnoj obali Dunava –
Elizabetfort/Elisabethfort (8) – i kod Kladova
(16), gde je podignuta tvr|ava poznata pod nazivom
Fetislam (Fethislam). Fethislamska, odnosno
Kladovska nahija pojavquje prvi put u XVI veku.
Obuhvatala je stotinak sela, a Fetislam je imao
i veoma zna~ajnu privrednu ulogu kao jedno
od va`nijih pristani{ta na Dunavu.
Uz monumentalne sredwovekovne tvr|ave, koje
su pozicionirane naj~e{}e na mestu rimskih
i/ili starijih, preistorijskih naseqa, nastali
su novi, sredwovekovni gradovi ili mawa naseqa
(up. tematsku kartu 03 PPK). Sredwovekovna
etapa istorije regije Gvozdena vrata zavr{ava
se predajom Fetislama Srbiji 1867. godine, kada
su predati i ostali, tada turski gradovi tvr|ave.
Za istorijsko-ekonomski i kulturni
preobra`aj i razvoj ne samo Podunavqa nego i
regiona Balkana od vitalnog zna~aja bila je tada
ponovo uspostavqena »internacionalizacija«
~itavog toka Dunava. U delu klisure Gvozdena
vrata 1933. godine organizovana je me{ovita
jugoslovensko-rumunska komisija, sa sedi{tem u
Tekiji (Srbija) i Or{avi (Rumunija), gde je bilo
sedi{te zajedni~ke – me|unarodne \erdapske
re~ne uprave. Wen najzna~ajniji zadatak bio je
da uz pomo} brodara (pilota locova) reguli{e
re~ni saobra}aj i stara se o bezbednosti plovila
na Dunavu, u sektoru \erdapa, na temeqima uvek
aktuelnih znawa i iskustava koja su davno pre
wih postavili ve{ti rimski graditeqi. Sistem
plovidbe je regulisan, pored odr`avawa rimskog
i jo{ uvek dobro o~uvanog Trajanovog puta i
kanala (Sipskog kanala, obnovqenog – ponovo
gra|enog 1898. godine), nizom signalnih balonstanica / svetionika, koje su izgra|ene na istim
isturenim ta~kama, krivinama i okukama ispred
opasnih delova klisure (tako da se sa svake od
wih vide po dve druge – jedna uzvodno i jedna
nizvodno). Dizawem i spu{tawem balona, kao
i belim zastavama, davani su signali brodovima.
Danas su na desnoj obali, u Dowoj klisuri Dunava,
sa~uvane samo dve signalne stanice – Pena i
Varnica (op{tina Kladovo) – i one svakako danas
predstavqaju tehni~ku, industrijsku ba{tinu (1, 2).
II. ITINERER (uz numeraciju preuzetu s karte 03
u PPK)
3. Hajdu~ka vodenica (I–VI vek n. e.)
Rimski limes – Via Traiana (Mali [trbac)
Vi{eslojni lokalitet. Nalazi se u {umovitim
predelima Klisure/Kazanima (gde je Dunav naju`i
i najdubqi u svom toku), u sredi{tu lepezastog
platoa, ispod okomitih masiva Malog [trpca,
naspram u{}a rumunske reke Mrakonije. Najve}i
delovi istra`ene teritorije lokaliteta su
potopqeni. Pojedini delovi kamenih struktura,
obrasli u gusto rastiwe, i danas su vidqivi pri
ni`em vodostaju (ju`na ranovizantijska kula?).
Lokalitet je obuhva}en merama za{tite NIP\
(istra`ivawe, prezentovawe, revitalizacija).
Registrovani su i istra`eni: preistorijska
i sredwovekovna nekropola s naseqem, rimsko
i ranovizantijsko utvr|ewe, pristani{te,
naseqe. (Sl. 1)
Artefakti s lokaliteta, kao deo Zbirke
\erdap, obuhva}eni su interinstitucionalnim
programima mera za{tite pri Arheolo{kom
muzeju \erdapa u Kladovu (u pripremi je
Preporuke: Ispitati stawe na lokalitetu,
{to bi trebalo da u~ini me{oviti ekspertski
tim, radi prikupqawa neophodne dokumentacije
i izrade elaborata/studije u vezi s
preduzimawem integralne za{tite spomenika
kao kulturnog predela, a radi o~uvawa,
revitalizacije i kori{}ewa.
1. i 2. Balon-stanice
Industrijska ba{tina
Nalaze se u najatraktivnijem delu Dowe
klisure \erdapa, ispod planinskih litica
[trpca, uz magistralni put Beograd–Kladovo,
na samom ulazu na teritoriju op{tine Kladovo
sa zapada. Oba objekta su i danas bez struje i vode,
u nenaseqenoj divqini, a adaptirana su i koriste
se bez znawa nadle`nih institucija za{tite (?).
Jedan objekat se koristi kao galerija »zatvorenog
tipa« (tokom niza godina to je slikarski ateqe
i kolonija slikara R. Trkuqe?), a drugi je
adaptiran i sada je to restoran koji koristi
OK \erdap (~esto zatvoren). (Sl. 2)
Nisu preduzimane mere za{tite (NIP\).
Preporuke: Ispitati stawe spomenika, {to
bi trebalo da u~ini me{oviti ekspertski tim,
prikupiti podatake s terena i postoje}u
arhivsku gra|u i dokumentaciju radi izrade
elaborata/studije u vezi s preduzimawem
integralne za{tite spomenika predela,
a radi o~uvawa, revitalizacije i kori{}ewa.
Formirati na tom mestu zapadnu ulaznu
info-stanicu s turisti~kom ponudom
SO Kladova. Uz kori{}ewe objekata, pored
uspostavqawa infrastrukture (ovaj turisti~ki
objekat je bez struje i vode), treba prezentovati
wihovu prvobitnu namenu (dokumentovati)
u skladu sa savremenom sadr`inom i potrebama
radoznalih posetilaca koji se rado zaustavqaju
u prelepom pejza`u Klisure/Dunava.
4. Trajanova tabla /Tabula Traiana (100. godina n.e.)
Rimski limes – Via Traiana
Trajanovoj tabli danas je jo{ uvek mogu}e
pri}i samo rekom. Tabla se nalazi oko dvanaest
kilometara uzvodno od dana{we (Nove) Tekije,
u najnepristupa~nijem delu Dowe klisure
\erdapa, u Kazanima, u blizini Hajdu~ke vodenice.
Postavqena je ta~no pre 1.900 godina, a stoji na
ulazu u najte`u deonicu dunavskog plovnog puta.
Tabla impozantnih dimenzija (5 × 1,75 m),
uklesana 100. godine u vertikalnu `ivu stenu,
nosi natpis imperatora Trajana. On je wom
obele`io trijumfalni zavr{etak prvog u nizu
grandioznih poduhvata kojima je ovde, u slobodnom
prevodu, savladao planinske litice postavqawem
konzola/ankona, ~ime je obnovio put. Ispod
natpisa je sa~uvan i deo kopnene staze anti~kog
puta, veoma uskog, konstruisanog usecawem u
stenu, a pro{irenog pomo}u drvenih konzola /
greda, uglavqenih u gotovo vertikalne litice
ispod puta (o ~emu se saznaje i iz carevog teksta).
Natpis u vrhu – TABULA TRAIANA –
postavqen je davne 1889. godine, kada su
preduzete i prve mere za{tite na spomeniku,
dobro poznatom i me|unarodnoj javnosti jo{ od
kraja XVII–XVIII veka, a ugro`enom tada gotovo
na isti na~in kao i danas, sto godina kasnije,
na po~etku tre}eg milenijuma!
Spomenik je zbog izuzetnog zna~aja obuhva}en
merama za{tite u okviru NIP\ 1969. godine.
Posle uzimawa otiska natpisa u poliesteru
(kojem se izgubio svaki trag?) transferovan je
s blokom stene ukupne te`ine preko 250 tona (!)
dvadeset metara iznad prvobitne lokacije
(za toliko je podignut nivo Dunava ispred
HE \erdap). Na spomeniku su nakon toga
prekinuti svi daqi planirani radovi. Pored
toga {to su »zaboravqeni« stubasti elementi
koji dobrim delom zaklawaju bo~ne ivice
spomenika (postavqeni su privremeno, za
potrebe izme{tawa), spomenik je »ostavqen«
potpuno neza{ti}en, »prepu{ten« vandalskom
pona{awu nekih posetilaca (koji zapisuju svoja
imena raznim bojama na povr{ini spomenika).
Zbog nedopustive nebrige nadle`nih
institucija, taj izuzetni spomenik konstantno
je izlo`en razornom dejstvu klimatskih promena
– oscilacijama temperature, vlazi – koje polako
ali sigurno trajno bri{u i uklawaju preostala
slova teksta jedinstvenog i retkog rimskog
carskog natpisa, svedo~anstva izuzetnog zna~aja,
nastalog pre 1.900 godina. (Sl. 3)
Arheolo{ki muzej \erdapa, kao jedina
institucija za{tite regije, inicirala je
posledwih godina brojne uspele manifestacije
kojima je promovisala integralnu za{titu
nasle|a i realizaciju usvojenih i odobrenih
dugoro~nih programa / ciqeva NIP\.
Manifestacijama pod nazivom Pro tabula
(2002) i Via Traiana (2006) ukazano je na hitnost
sprovo|ewa mera za{tite na pomenutim
spomenicima, za{ti}enim zakonima ove dr`ave
– svetskoj kulturnoj ba{tini (WHS). (Sl. 4)
Preporuke: Ispitati stawe spomenika,
{to bi trebalo da u~ini ekspertski
interdisciplinarni tim, prikupiti postoje}u
i izraditi novu dokumentaciju u okviru
elaborata/studije u vezi s preduzimawem
integralne za{tite spomenika, wegove
konzervacije i revitalizacije, ukqu~uju}i
Formirati info-stanice kraj savremenog
puta Beograd–Tekija, uskladiti sa savremenom
sadr`inom i potrebama radoznalih posetilaca
za znawem, informacijama o jo{ uvek
»nevidqivom« spomeniku / kulturnom predelu.
Upotpuniti turisti~ko-rekreativnom ponudom,
uz odgovaraju}u infrastrukturu, i prezentovati
i taj lokalitet u okviru celovite turisti~ke
re~no-kopnene ponude (turisti~kom ponudom
obuhvatiti reku, obe obale i zale|a).
5. Tekija / rimska Transdierna (I–VI vek n. e.)
Rimski limes – Via Traiana
»Nova« Tekija je prvo naseqe op{tine
Kladovo na obali Dunava sa zapada. Nalazi se
povi{e potopqene (»stare«) Tekije, na izlazu iz
posledweg Kazana Dowe klisure \erdapa, u veoma
`ivopisnom pejza`u. Ima tradiciju privla~nog
turisti~kog mesta (i kapacitete za boravak
posetilaca u sklopu objekata wenih stanovnika).
S potapawem Stare Tekije potopqeni su i brojni
lokaliteti na obali: dve rimske tvr|ave u samoj
Tekiji (oko Tekijskog potoka) i nekoliko vojnih
instalacija u blizini, zatim ve}i delovi
anti~kog naseqa, nekropola, put.
Lokalitet je potopqen, prethodno obuhva}en
merama za{tite NIP\ (istra`ivawe,
konzervacija nalaza, dokumentacija,
prezentacija). Artefakti sa lokaliteta, kao
deo Zbirke \erdap, ~uvaju se u sklopu fondova
Arheolo{kog muzeja \erdapa.
Preporuke: »Nova« Tekija je prvo naseqe
op{tine Kladovo sa zapada, s kapacitetima
za du`i boravak turista i stoga bi je trebalo
ukqu~iti u plan prezentovawa bogatstva ba{tine
regije: organizovati integralnu prezentaciju
potopqenih naseqa, tvr|ava, a u sklopu stalne
izlo`be ponuditi izbor bogate arheolo{ke,
arhitektonske, etnolo{ke, istorijske,
umetni~ko-muzi~ke i ekolo{ke, prirodne gra|e
(materijalne i nematerijalne). Poznata
rekreativno-zabavna turisti~ka manifestacija
Tekijska bu}ka mogla bi obogatiti ponudu
izlo`bama i/ili edukativnim radionicama u
vezi s omiqenim tradicionalnim zanimawima
stanovnika \erdapa, kao {to su ribarstvo,
brodarewe i sli~na. Pored obila`ewa najbli`ih
lokaliteta, Trajanove table i Hajdu~ke vodenice,
kao i lokaliteta nizvodno, u »ponudu« treba
ukqu~iti i prirodnu ba{tinu – obilazak
jedinstvenog planinskog zale|a u sklopu
Nacionalnog parka \erdap ([trbac, Miro~,
Na poznatim ta~kama treba postaviti
info-stanice, s mogu}no{}u obilaska brodom
lokaliteta na rumunskoj obali, od Or{ave
(rimska Dierna), nizvodno, do poznatih atrakcija
novijeg doba, monumentalne HE \erdap I i/ili
spomenika da~kom kraqu Decebalu, isklesanog u
steni, kod samog u{}a rumunske reke Mrakonije u
Dunav (naspram srpske Hajdu~ke vodenice). (Sl. 5)
(povezati s planom revitalizacije i obilascima
drugih lokaliteta u zale|u). Sugeri{e se
grafi~ka prezentacija prvobitnog izgleda
tvr|ave in situ i u sklopu stalne izlo`be u
sredwovekovnoj kladovskoj tvr|avi Fetislam,
uz upotrebu savremenih medija i artefakata za
prezentaciju sredwovekovne pro{losti, istorije,
materijalnog i nematerijalnog nasle|a regije.
6. Spomenik Ko~i An|elkovi}u (1927)
Replika potopqenog spomenika podignutog
1927. godine u blizini originalnog, koji je
potopqen (prilikom ni`eg vodostaja |erdapskih
akumulacija vidi se u vodi). Spomenik je
podignut na mestu pogubqewa velikog junaka iz
ratova s Turcima 1788. godine. Nalazi se s leve
strane magistralnog puta Beograd–Tekija–Kladovo.
Preporuke: Formirati mawi info-punkt
u skladu sa savremenom sadr`inom i potrebama
radoznalih prolaznika. Redovno odr`avati.
Istorijske doga|aje i spomenik istorijskom
razdobqu treba prezentovati i »najaviti«
u Tekiji.
32. Manastirica [XIX (XIV) vek]
Crkva Svete Trojice, mawa crkva/manastir
s konakom, izgra|ena krajem XIX veka na
temeqima starije iz XIV veka, nalazi se i danas
u nedirnutom {umskom pejza`u `ivopisnog
planinskog sela Manastirica (planinsko zale|e
Karata{a – Kladova). Do spomenika se mo`e
do}i savremenim putem Kladovo – Brza Palanka,
kao i starom trasom (kra}im kolskim putem),
koja se izme|u naseqa Davidovca i Kladu{nice
odvaja od magistralnog puta Beograd–Tekija–
Kladovo (to je stara trasa rimskog puta koja je
vodila kroz planinska naseqa u zale|u Dunava).
O crkvi su bele{ke ostavili poznati putopisci
(kao i o ostaloj ba{tini): Kanic, Mili}evi}
i drugi. Tu je, po predawu, boravila k}er srpskog
cara Lazara. Kompleks je istorijski zanimqiv,
neistra`en, a pretpostavqaju se stariji,
sredwovekovni i rimski tragovi. Uz hram je
podignut manastirski konak.
Preporuke: Nadle`ne institucije nisu
preduzimale mere za{tite, ali je bilo
radova koje su preduzeli sami me{tani da bi
zaustavili degradaciju i potpuno propadawe
~itavog kompleksa. Radi neophodne za{tite
i revitalizacije tog spomeni~kog kompleksa
nadomak Kladova treba, za potrebe izrade
elaborata, prikupiti sa~uvane arhivske
dokumente i svu neophodnu dokumentaciju,
uraditi plan sanacije ~itavog kompleksa,
s planom konzervacije i revitalizacije
i ukqu~ivawa u savremenu turisti~ku ponudu
tog kraja. Potrebno je obezbediti odgovaraju}u
prate}u infrastrukturu radi okupqawa ve}eg
broja posetilaca, a radi edukacije, organizovawa
radionica, kulturno-umetni~kih manifestacija,
rekreacije. Primereno spomeni~kom kompleksu –
kulturnom predelu – te`i{te bi trebalo da bude
8. Fortelizabet – Fortelisabeth (XVIII–XIX vek n. e.)
Sredwovekovna tvr|ava
Rimski limes – Via Traiana
Nalazi se oko pet kilometara nizvodno od
Tekije/\evrina (naspram potopqenog ostrva /
sredwovekovne tvr|ave Adakale / rimske Ducis
pratum). Danas su ru{evine nekada impozantnog
bastiona obrasle bujnom vegetacijom i jedva
vidqive s leve i desne strane magistralnog puta
Beograd–Tekija–Kladovo. Uprkos razarawu,
vidqiva je sa~uvana arhitektura austrougarske
»stenovite tvr|ave«, koja se s vrha litice Gradac
spu{tala do nivoa obale i koja je danas najve}im
delom u vodi. Podigao ju je austrijski general
Hamilton 1736. godine. Razorena je minirawem u
vreme povla~ewa Turaka i prilikom gradwe
magistralnog puta Beograd–Tekija–Kladovo. (Sl. 6)
Preporuke: Lokalitet nije bio obuhva}en
merama za{tite NIP\. Treba ga istra`iti,
prikupiti dokumentaciju, konzervirati,
obele`iti i urediti, odr`avati, s mogu}no{}u
obilaska, razgledawa s Dunava i organizovawa
vidikovca sa info-punktom na vrhu stene \evrin
na izu~avawu i prikupqawu podataka u vezi
s materijalnim i nematerijalnim nasle|em
regije, arhitekturom i/ili etnotradicijom od
sredweg veka do novijeg doba, ukqu~uju}i i floru
i faunu predela.
14. Karata{ / Statio Cataractarum Diana –
Polichnion Zanes (I–VI vek)
Rimski limes – Via Traiana
Rimsko i ranovizantijsko utvr|ewe,
pristani{te, naseqe, nekropola, put
Jedno od najve}ih i najzna~ajnijih vojnih
polo`aja jeste gradi} Zanes / stanica Dijana
kod dunavskih katarakti, naspram grupe ostrva
Banului (s rimskom i kasnijom, sredwovekovnom
tvr|avom, koje su danas potopqene), kraj
Trajanovog / Sipskog kanala iz 101. godine
(danas potopqen). Nalazi se na ulazu u klisuru
Gvozdena vrata sa istoka. Tvr|ava danas le`i dva
kilometra nizvodno od HE \erdap I, u blizini
magistralnog puta Beograd–Tekija–Kladovo
(osam kilometara od Kladova uzvodno), naspram
turisti~kog naseqa Karata{, u kojem postoje
turisti~ki kapaciteti za du`e zadr`avawe
posetilaca. U okviru tog naseqa su i tri va`na
objekta u sklopu Arheolo{kog muzeja \erdap –
Centar za istra`ivawa i za{titu i edukaciju,
s privremenim depoima za sme{taj, obradu
i konzervaciju arheolo{ke Zbirke \erdap. (Sl. 7)
Zahvaquju}i polo`aju u odnosu na
akumulaciju, tvr|ava i mawi delovi naseqa
s nekropolama ostali su izvan zone potapawa.
Lokalitet je, me|utim, izrazito ugro`en
radovima u vezi s potrebama gradwe HE \erdap I,
savremenih puteva i novih naseqa (Karata{
i Novi Sip). Sistematski se istra`uje radi
konzervacije, prezentacije i revitalizacije
i, najzad, stavqawa na listu Uneska kao WHS, u
skladu s ciqevima NIP\; ima status spomenika
od izuzetnog zna~aja za Republiku Srbiju (kao
i Trajanova tabla, Trajanov most i utvr|ewe
Tvr|ava je obuhva}ena programom mera NIP\
(istra`ivawa, dokumentacija, konzervacija,
revitalizacija), a sistematski se istra`uje, u
skladu s ciqevima NIP\, gotovo tri decenije
(s mawim prekidima i razli~itim intenzitetom).
Projekat sistematskih istra`ivawa od po~etka
vodi J. (Rankov) Kondi} (Narodni muzej
– Arheolo{ki muzej \erdapa). Tehni~ke
mere za{tite su, zbog zna~aja spomenika, u
nadle`nosti eksperata Republi~kog Zavoda za
za{titu spomenika kulture i Zavoda iz Ni{a,
~iji su stru~waci sproveli sve dosada{we mere
za{tite na konzervaciji otkrivenih struktura
(anga`ovani u Projektu \erdap). One nisu
finalizovane, a potpuno su prekinute zbog niza
dobro poznatih okolnosti po~etkom devedesetih.
Artefakti sa lokaliteta kao deo Zbirke \erdap
~uvaju se pri Muzeju \erdapa.
Arheolo{ku celinu ~ine dobro o~uvani i
relativno dobro istra`eni jaki perimetralni
zidovi rimske/ranovizantijske tvr|ave, kule
i kapije i nekoliko karakteristi~nih objekata
otkrivenih uz glavne komunikacije – {to
~ini samo tre}inu ukupne povr{ine tvr|ave
[istra`eno je 18 kula od 22, ceo ju`ni
i zapadni bedem, delovi severnog i sve ~etiri
kapije, glavne ulice, delovi glavne zgrade
(portik), vojnih kasarni, magacina za hranu,
zatim i dve velike kasnoanti~ke gra|evine,
grobna crkva s kriptom i drugo]. Sistematska
arheolo{ka istra`ivawa i mere za{tite
i ure|ewa se, prema planu i mogu}nostima,
odvijaju i daqe kontinuirano (zahvaquju}i
pre svega kontinuiranoj podr{ci i pomo}i
HE \erdap), uprkos brojnim te{ko}ama tehni~ke
i materijalne prirode. Najve}i deo otkrivene
arhitekture delimi~no je konzerviran i do
izvesne mere rekonstruisan jo{ u vreme
sprovo|ewa NIP\, {to, uz arheolo{ka
iskopavawa koja se odvijaju radi ure|ewa
nalazi{ta i otkrivawa arhitekture radi
prezentovawa, lokalitet ve} sada ~ini
atraktivnim i za posetioce. Zbog lo{e izvedene
konzervacije i potpunog prekida radova, zatim
dejstva prirodnih ~inilaca (bujna vegetacija
i atmosferalije, obilne padavine i poplave)
nekada dobro o~uvane i konzervirane strukture
postepeno se uru{avaju i propadaju.
Upravo zbog tih razloga odlu~eno je
da se tu 2005. godine odr`i kurs pod nazivom
Archaeological Consevation Course u vezi s merama
za{tite, a koji su organizovali ICCROM iz Rima
i Narodni muzej u Beogradu, Odeqewe za
preventivnu za{titu Dijana (uz pomo}
Arheolo{kog muzeja \erdapa i Projekta
Dijana/Zanes). (Sl. 8)
Prema Projektu Dijana/Zanes, ve} dugi niz
godina, svakog leta, odr`ava se trening za{tite
ba{tine (ure|ewe lokaliteta, arheolo{ka
iskopavawa, tehni~ka, to jest grafi~ka
i foto dokumentacija, zatim i kompjuterska
dokumentacija). Trening se organizuje u saradwi
s mladima Kladova i spoqnim saradnicima,
studentima arheologije, arhitekture, gra|evine,
fizike i umetni~kih fakulteta, a oni tu sti~u
i ispoqavaju svoja znawa i ve{tine. Ti radovi
realizuju se zahvaquju}i podr{ci HE \erdap.
Prema postoje}em Projektu \erdap –
Dijana/Zanes, kao i u skladu sa zakqu~cima
Ministarstva kulture Republike Srbije
(iz 2005. godine), ovde se preporu~uje hitno
sprovo|ewe slede}ih mera:
– finalizovati projekat u formi
studije/elaborata, s kratkoro~nim/dugoro~nim
merama za{tite, i na osnovu novih rezultata
arheolo{kih iskopavawa i istra`ivawa urediti
– intenzivirati interdisciplinarna
istra`ivawa i arheolo{ke radove u zonama za
konzervaciju/prezentaciju i prihvat posetilaca;
– obnoviti i intenzivirati konzervatorske
radove (najpre u zonama za kretawe posetilaca);
– popraviti staru/neuspelu konzervaciju;
– redovno odr`avati lokalitet, kao i
za{ti}enu okolinu, i redovno sprovoditi
sve integralne mere preventivne za{tite;
– natkriti neza{ti}ene strukture
monta`no-demonta`nim nadstre{nicama;
– planski ograditi u`e zone lokaliteta,
hortikulturno kultivisati istra`ene povr{ine;
– urediti staze za posetioce, postaviti
dvojezi~ne info-panoe i prezentovati
lokalitet putem popularnih vodi~a/medija
i u elektronskoj formi;
– redovno odr`avati postoje}e objekte – depoe
za za{titu arheolo{ke gra|e / artefakata;
– poboq{ati uslove i kapacitete za terenski
rad i boravak ekipa (stvarawe optimalnih uslova
za boravak i rad);
– u skladu s merama za{tite, lokalitet
i objekte, zbog va`nosti, obuhvatiti ~uvarskom
– formirati info-stanicu s neophodnom
sadr`inom (tematski park kulture, stalna
izlo`ba na lokalitetu, edukacija, manifestacije,
16. Kladovska tvr|ava / Fet(h)islam (XVI–XIX vek)
Sredwovekovna/otomanska tvr|ava
Velika, dobro o~uvana sredwovekovna tvr|ava
grad, s dva utvr|ewa na istoj lokaciji, ukupne
povr{ine 18 hektara. Tvr|ava je, kao i cela
regija, imala burnu istoriju, a weni gospodari
~esto su se smewivali. Nalazi se na samoj obali
Dunava, na ulazu u Kladovo sa zapada, kraj
magistralnog puta Beograd–Kladovo. Wen
sada{wi izgled poti~e s po~etka XIX veka,
iz vremena otomanske okupacije. U osnovi je
to poligonalna kasnosredwovekovna bastiona
tvr|ava, izlomqenih bedema oja~anih kulama,
s tri kapije iznad kojih su po~asni natpisi iz
posledwe faze obnove, a s tri strane okru`ena
je rovom. U tvr|avi se nalaze vojni objekti
razli~ite namene: objekat za sme{taj posade,
barutana, magacin, hamam, xamija, lagumi.
Ostaci dobro o~uvanih zidanih vodovodnih
instalacija vide se i danas u najbli`oj okolini
(15), na lokalitetima Butorki, gde se nalazila
rimska/kasnorimska tvr|ava, danas potopqena
(lokalitet Carine, uni{tena prilikom gradwe
kladovskog brodogradili{ta).
Tvr|ava Fetislam obuhva}ena je merama
za{tite, od arheolo{kih istra`ivawa i
konzervacije do izrade predloga revitalizacije
u okviru NIP\, s planom kori{}ewa koji nije
do kraja definisan. Zapu{tena je i ve} dugi
niz godina mere za{tite se ne sprovode.
Preporuke: Postoje}i plan revitalizacije
treba dopuniti objektima za potrebe postavqawa
stalne izlo`be – info-punkta za prezentaciju
sredwovekovne i novije istorije i arhitekture
do XIX/XX veka, ukqu~uju}i i sve ostale, danas
potopqene poznate sredwovekovne tvr|ave tog
sektora (Adakale, Fortelizabet i Banul),
uz primenu savremenih standarda / medija
izlagawa. Gradska tvr|ava {to pre treba da
postane privla~no mesto za sve posetioce, {to
podrazumeva edukaciju, zabavu i rekreaciju
prvenstveno stanovnika Kladova, ali i gostiju.
Nastaviti istra`ivawa okoline.
17. Arheolo{ki muzej \erdapa u Kladovu
(1956) 1996–2006: Ra|awe/kreirawe muzeja
velikih reka Evrope (Projekat \erdap)
U Kladovu, kao sredi{woj ta~ki ~itavog
podru~ja regije Gvozdena vrata / \erdap, otvoren je
1996. godine Arheolo{ki muzej \erdapa (AM\).
To je bio jedan od najzna~ajnijih ostvarenih
ciqeva u sprovo|ewu mera za{tite u sklopu
vi{edecenijskih programa NIP\. Veliki broj
istra`enih lokaliteta i prikupqenih kulturnih
dobara, kao i obimna dokumentacija, imperativno
su nametali potrebu da se to neprocewivo nasle|e
regije smesti na jedno mesto na kojem }e se ~uvati.
Iz odgovornog i visokoprofesionalnog odnosa
prema samoj su{tini za{tite nasle|a, kojoj je
krajwi ciq prezentacija, a samim tim i stalna
briga o kulturnim dobrima, nastao je
i Arheolo{ki muzej \erdapa. (Sl. 9)
Muzej je, organizaciono, u sastavu Narodnog
muzeja u Beogradu i HE \erdap (u Kladovu).
Otvoren je izlo`bom reprezentativnih eksponata
/ kulturnih dobara visoke umetni~ke i nau~ne
vrednosti iz vi{emilenijumskog `ivota ove
dunavske regije (Zbirka \erdap), otkrivenih
kontinuiranim sprovo|ewem NIP\ (1996–2006).
Iako tematski i hronolo{ki raznorodne, sve
prezentacije i akcije muzeja povezuje jedinstvena
poruka, iskazana u re~ima koje je rimski pisac
Plinije Mla|i uputio imperatoru Trajanu:
Veli~anstveno je stajati na obali Dunava, ili,
kako je zabele`eno u originalu: Magnum est stare
in Danubii ripa (Plin. Ep. XVI, 2).
Dosada{wim aktivnostima, me|utim, nisu
zavr{ene i ne mogu se zavr{iti mnoge planirane
i zapo~ete akcije i ostvariti usvojeni dugoro~ni
i kratkoro~ni planovi (NIP\–AM\), posebno
oni u vezi sa uslovima ~uvawa, konzervacijom,
dinamikom nau~ne obrade i publikovawem, kao
i interpretacijom ogromne interdisciplinarne,
multikulturne gra|e, jer je to dugoro~an proces.
Povodom 1.900 godina od zavr{avawa
veli~anstvenih graditeqskih poduhvata
imperatora Trajana u regiji Gvozdena vrata, u
Arheolo{kom muzeju \erdapa otvorena je izlo`ba
pod nazivom Via Traiana. O~ekuje se odgovoran
odnos u pogledu o~uvawa i daqeg unapre|ivawa
za{tite spasenog kulturnog nasle|a, materijalne,
nematerijalne i prirodne ba{tine regije Gvozdena
vrata u Nacionalnom parku i Arheolo{kom
parku – Arheolo{kom muzeju \erdapa – radi
revitalizacije i kori{}ewa. (Sl. 10)
Preporuke: Potrebno je {to pre uve}ati
i tehni~ki osavremeniti prostor zgrade muzeja
koji je namewen izlagawu i prihvatawu
posetilaca, publike, poboq{ati kapacitete
postoje}e zgrade muzeja, uz primenu savremenih
standarda/medija, uz ure|ewe za{ti}ene okoline
koja joj pripada (up. Glavni projekat AM\, 1997,
~iji su autori prof. Z. Bulaji}, arhitekta,
i J. Kondi}, arheolog, za sinopsis izlo`be).
U skladu s namenom, treba za{tititi i urediti
okolni park – Lapidarijum – prvenstveno radi
izlagawa kamenih spomenika, replika i/ili
rekonstrukcija potopqenog spomeni~kog nasle|a,
kao i nepotopqenog.
Taj ure|eni prostor, koji bi slu`io
osvetqavawu kontrasta izme|u pro{losti i
sada{wosti, zasnovanog na nau~nim ~iwenicama,
bio bi kori{}en za multikulturne, edukativne
i druge ve} promovisane i popularne sadr`ine
arheolo{kog Muzeja \erdapa u Kladovu.
Time bi se, primarno, doprinelo ne samo
demokratizaciji kulture i ve}oj pose}enosti
nego i ukupnoj, jedinstvenoj komercijalnoturisti~koj ponudi grada, regije, Dunava.
Izgradwom polunatkrivenog paviqona ili
Malog odeona, zatim i kafea i restorana na
obali obezbedio bi se prostor za zabavu
i scensko-muzi~ke priredbe.
Kladovo, regiju Gvozdena vrata / \erdap, treba
{to pre urediti kao veliki muzej na otvorenom –
kao »muzej velike reke Dunava« – jer tu postoji
jedinstven park istorije i prirode, ~ovekovog
stvarala{tva, i to treba integrisati i
prezentovati, koristiti i pokazati.
18. Kostol / Pontes – Trajanov most
(103–105. godine – I–VI vek)
Rimski limes – Via Traiana
Kameni stubovi mosta imperatora Trajana,
rimsko i ranovizantijsko utvr|ewe,
pristani{te, naseqe, nekropola, put
Most Trajanovog arhitekte Apolodora je
zbog gra|evinskih, hidrotehni~kih i drugih
istorijsko-kulturnih obele`ja jedinstvena
gra|evina svog vremena. Most se nalazi ~etiri
kilometra nizvodno od Kladova (12 kilometara
od Dijane/Zanesa – Karata{a), s leve strane puta
Kladovo–Vrbica; le`i naspram rumunskog grada
Turn Severina s rimskom/ranovizantijskom
tvr|avom Drobeta, u kojoj se nalazi zna~ajan
regionalni muzej kompleksnog tipa (sa
arheolo{kom, etnografskom i prirodwa~kom
postavkom – akvarijumom Dunava). Na desnoj,
srpskoj obali sa~uvana su prva ~etiri stuba
Trajanovog mosta, postavqena na mo}ne temeqe
od betonske mase; visina onog najbli`eg reci
iznosi oko 10,5 m. (Sl. 11)
Most je svakako vrhunsko ostvarewe u seriji
izuzetnih hidrotehni~kih poduhvata kojima je
obavqena prva regulacija Dunava i urbanizovana
divqina klisure Gvozdena vrata. Reka je na tom
mestu, prema preciznim merewima (u okviru
NIP\), {iroka 1.069,664 metra ili 357
rimskih stopa. Premo{}ena je s dvadeset stubova.
Taj prvi kameni most na Dunavu (18) jedna je
od najdu`ih i najgrandioznijih gra|evina
rimskog sveta, {to je zabele`eno i u rimskim
(Dio Cassius, LXVIII, 13) i u kasnijim literarnim
izvorima. Trajanov most, ~ija ~etiri obalska
stuba i danas ~vrsto stoje i odolevaju vekovima
(zahvaquju}i delom i sprovedenim merama
NIP\), verno je predstavqen na najpoznatijem
istorijskoumetni~kom spomeniku u Rimu,
Trajanovom stubu (metope XCVIII–XCIX).
Taj stub je 113. godine podigao rimski Senat
na Trajanovom forumu, u ~ast trijumfalnih dela
velikog imperatora Trajana na »|erdapskom«
Dunavu. Arhitekta je ~uveni Apolodor. Kopija
metope s tog stuba, s reqefnom predstavom
~uvenog mosta na Dunavu, poklon italijanske
ambasade iz 1969. godine, mo`e se videti u
sada{woj postavci u Arheolo{kom muzeju
\erdapa u Kladovu.
Most je obuhva}en merama za{tite
i istra`ivawa NIP\. Oko stubova mosta
izgra|en je odbrambeni polukru`ni zagat radi
za{tite od potapawa (najjeftinije re{ewe
za{tite u tom trenutku).
– formirati ekspertski tim za izradu
elaborata/studije za primenu savremenih mera
– sprovesti zavr{ne mere za{tite na
finalnoj konzervaciji otkrivenih stubova mosta
i utvr|ewa na platou pored mosta, uz revidirawe
postoje}ih predloga restauracije i rekonstrukcije
(prema ranijem predlogu nacrta elaborata
Projekta \erdap, planirana je rekonstrukcija
prvog stuba mosta i podizawe ostalih stubova do
kote 47,5 m);
– nastaviti sa za{titnim istra`iva~kim
arheolo{kim radovima radi ispitivawa
za{ti}ene okoline i locirawa prilaznog
kopnenog puta koji vodi ka mostu; istra`iti
trasu kanala i mo~varu koja dopire uzvodno
do Kladovske tvr|ave – do Butoraka/Carine
i naseqa Kladu{nica;
– obaviti hortikulturnu i drugu eko-obradu
i za{titu ~itavog kompleksa/predela;
– uspostaviti saobra}ajnu signalizaciju du`
glavnih komunikacija i magistrala;
– formirati info-stanicu s vidikovcem
na najvi{oj koti lokaliteta (ukqu~iti i vojnu
osmatra~nicu), izlo`bu o nalazi{tu sa svim
neophodnim sadr`inama (poznati istorijski
doga|aji, istorija arhitekture) u okviru
info-punkta, a u vezi s prihvatawem radoznalih
posetilaca, uz izgradwu prilaznog puta s kopna
i obale i obezbe|ewe kompletne savremene
– uspostaviti jednostavne prirodne stalne veze
du` obale, kopnom i vodom ka Kladovu uzvodno
i Maloj Vrbici nizvodno, Brzoj Palanci, sve do
HE \erdap II (i s levom, rumunskom obalom);
– pravno za{tititi ~itav kompleks.
Na {iroj teritoriji lokaliteta registrovana
je i istra`ena preistorijska, kasnoanti~ka
i sredwovekovna nekropola s naseqem, rimskim
i ranovizantijskim utvr|ewem klasi~nog tipa,
Nizvodno, nedaleko od mosta, nalazi se
rumunsko ostrvo [imian/Simian (vi{eslojan
lokalitet od preistorije do sredweg veka, s
replikom potopqene sredwovekovne tvr|ave
22. Rtkovo (I–VI vek)
Rimski limes – Via Traiana
Lokalitet se nalazi dva kilometra od sela
Rtkova, preko puta rumunske Hinove. Obuhva}en je
merama za{tite i istra`ivawa Projekta \erdap.
Planirani su nastavak za{titnih istra`ivawa,
konzervacija i rekonstrukcija centralne kule
osmatra~nice. (Sl. 12)
Preporuke: Formirati info-stanicu
s vidikovcem na najvi{oj koti lokaliteta; vojnu
kasnoanti~ku tvr|avu (burgus) i osmatra~nicu
upotpuniti izlo`bom o nalazi{tu i svim
neophodnim sadr`inama u vezi s prihvatawem
radoznalih posetilaca u okviru info-punkta,
uz izgradwu prilaznog puta s kopna i obale i
obezbe|ewe kompletne savremene infrastrukture.
24. Vajuga (I–VI vek)
Rimski limes – Via Traiana
Radovima u okviru Projekta \erdap bio
je obuhva}en samo najugro`eniji, obalski
pojas kasnoanti~ko-ranovizantijske tvr|ave,
nekropola. Lokalitete svakako treba
prezentovati u sklopu anti~ke celine limesa
Dunava, a ciq je revitalizacija anti~kog puta
du` Dunava.
Registrovani su i istra`eni: preistorijska
i sredwovekovna nekropola s naseqem, rimsko
i ranovizantijsko utvr|ewe, naseqe.
29. Brza Palanka / Egeta (I–VI vek)
Rimski limes – Via Traiana
Rimsko i ranovizantijsko utvr|ewe
s naseqem, pristani{tem, putem, nekropolama
Radovima u okviru Projekta \erdap bio je
obuhva}en samo najugro`eniji, obalski pojas.
Planiraju se nastavak istra`ivawa, konzervacija
i rekonstrukcija otkrivenih delova. Lokalitete
svakako treba prezentovati u sklopu anti~ke
celine limesa Dunava, a ciq je revitalizacija
anti~kog puta du` Dunava, kao i puta koji je,
preko planinskih prevoja Miro~a/Gerulatis-a,
povezivao taj deo Dunava s va`nim strate{kim
rimskim centrom na u{}u Pore~ke reke u Dunav
/ Taliata (kod Doweg Milanovca).
Registrovani su i istra`eni: preistorijska
i sredwovekovna nekropola s naseqem, rimsko i
ranovizantijsko utvr|ewe, pristani{te, naseqe.
30. Brza Palanka – etnokompleks
Vernakularna ba{tina – varo{ka
arhitektura, XIX–XX vek, tradicionalno
nasle|e, materijalna, nematerijalna ba{tina
U okviru Projekta \erdap na pro{irenoj
pristani{noj terasi izgra|en je etnokompleks
koji ~ine karakteristi~ni objekti iz potopqene
Stare Brze Palanke. Na tu lokaciju dosad su
preneta tri ili ~etiri objekta (od predvi|enih
12!), a obavqena je i idealna rekonstrukcija
Vukovog konaka (Vuk Stefanovi} Karaxi}).
Obuhva}ena merama NIP\.
Preporuke: Nastaviti revitalizaciju
kompleksa (upotpuniti novim sadr`inama
u vezi s neiscrpnim bogatstvom tradicionalnog
nasle|a). Urediti info-stanicu, regulisati
pravni status i za{titu. Postaviti
signalizaciju na magistralnim prilazima.
Vernakularna ba{tina op{tine Kladovo
Preporuke: Narodno stvarala{tvo regiona
treba sa~uvati od nestajawa i zaborava,
osavremeniti postavku, u~initi je dostupnom
javnosti. Etnokompleks kod Brze Palanke zasad je
jedino odgovaraju}e i planirano mesto za takvu
sadr`inu i sve aktivnosti u vezi sa o~uvawem
tradicionalnog nasle|a, za transgrani~ne
susrete naroda iz sliva Dunava u okviru
brojnih manifestacija/festivala, povezanih
s bogatstvom tradicionalne materijalne
i nematerijalne ba{tine.
Neophodno je obnoviti i intenzivirati
za{titu i katalogizaciju evidentiranih celina
i objekata narodnog stavrala{tva u svim
naseqima op{tine Kladovo, ukqu~uju}i
i planinska naseqa, kao i retke pojedina~ne
objekte i/ili wihove delove koji zbog
modernizacije i/ili napu{tawa u nepovrat
nestaju i propadaju: varo{ke i seoske ku}e,
kapije, razli~ite tremove, doksate, pomo}ne
objekte i sli~no.
Varo{ka arhitektura – novija istorija grada
Retke sa~uvane objekte arhitekture nastale
prema evropskim uzorima posle oslobo|ewa
od Turaka, tokom XIX i po~etkom XX veka,
treba za{tititi kao ambijentalne vrednosti
grada/regije, s gradskim, urbanim obele`jima
planirawa. Potrebno ih je evidentirati,
dokumentovati i na primeren na~in za{tititi
jer su deo istorije koja nestaje modernizacijom.
Preporuke: U sklopu kompleksa za{ti}enih
objekata ili etnokompleksa trebalo bi
upotpuniti ponudu, revitalizovati odgovaraju}u
prate}u sadr`inu aktivirawem radionica i
starih zanata, nekad popularnih u tim krajevima,
a danas gotovo nestalih.
31. Industrijska ba{tina regije
Objekti u vezi s napu{tenim tehnologijama i
starim zanatima
U skladu s principima integralne za{tite
celokupnog nasle|a, treba izraditi
elaborat/studiju u vezi sa sprovo|ewem mera
za{tite industrijske ba{tine. To bi ukqu~ivalo
i stare zanate i tradicionalna zanimawa
tog kraja, sa evidencijom, dokumentacijom
i prezentacijom danas gotovo napu{tenih i
zaboravqenih tehnologija i tehni~kih sredstava
u sklopu sa~uvanih objekata i/ili na jednom
mestu. Na mestu na kojem se nalaze Gvozdena vrata
Dunava 1972. godine podignuta je HE \erdap I,
jedna od najve}ih hidroelektrana, gigant
savremene tehnike i graditeqstva, koja je,
naj~e{}e, jedina u funkciji prezentacije
turistima. U wenoj okolini, dobro je poznato,
postoji i nekoliko objekata iz XIX–XX veka koji
ve} danas predstavqaju industrijsku ba{tinu
Evrope (napu{tene tehnologije, ma{ine, alati
i objekti proizvodwe i drugo).
Preporuke: Neophodno je obnoviti
i intenzivirati za{titu i katalogizaciju
evidentiranih celina i objekata tehni~kog
stvarala{tva u svim naseqima op{tine Kladovo,
ukqu~uju}i i planinska naseqa, kao i retke
pojedina~ne objekte i/ili wihove delove.
Treba tako|e ukqu~iti u sprovo|ewe mera
za{tite, sa~uvati, dokumentovati i prezentovati
(revitalizovati, reutilizovati) pojedine
napu{tene delove objekata, izgraditi infopunktove, urediti deo prostora za posetioce,
dopuniti kulturnim, zabavnim i drugim
obrazovnim sadr`inama i izlo`bama, uz foto
i arhivsku dokumentaciju. To treba dopuniti
starim arheotehnologijama u vezi sa, na primer,
industrijom ciglarstava i radom stare ciglane
ili gradwom brodova, radom brodogradili{ta,
sa istorijom, prezentacijom plovidbe Dunavom
u regiji Gvozdena vrata. Treba predstaviti
specifi~nosti re~nog saobra}aja koji se
milenijumima, sve do izgradwe hidroenergetskog
i plovidbenog sistema \erdap, odvijao uz pomo}
vu~e sa obale i uz obavezno kori{}ewe pilota
locova (uz predstavqawe hidrotehni~kih radova
i gradwe od Rimske imperije i sredweg veka
do nastanka prevodnice HE \erdap).
Readaptacijom, revitalizacijom ili
reutilizacijom objekata ti kompleksi mogu se
ukqu~iti u savremene tokove razvoja u sklopu
celovite, osmi{qene kulturno-turisti~ke
ponude ~itave regije i grada Kladova.
Da bi se jasnije sagledali strate{ki prioriteti
ovako bogatog kulturnog nasle|a, ali danas
u velikoj meri ugro`enog, neza{ti}enog
i neure|enog, i da bi se spomeni~ko nasle|e
iz razli~itih epoha i razli~itog stepena
o~uvanosti sagledalo kao integralna celina
od lokalnog, nacionalnog ili transgrani~nog
zna~aja, ura|ena je neophodna analiza uo~enih
prednosti, slabosti, {ansi i pretwi. To je
rezultiralo odgovaraju}im planskim odgovorima
kojima se potenciraju neke od prednosti i {ansi
i ubla`avaju slabosti i pretwe.
U postupku SWOT analize podrobnije su
sagledane prednosti, slabosti, {anse i pretwe
koje postoje u op{tini Kladovo, a u kontekstu
kulturnog i prirodnog nasle|a.
Prednosti su slede}e:
– povoqan geografski polo`aj;
– istorijsko-kulturni razvoj od nekoliko
hiqada milenijuma koji je ostavio traga od
preistorije do novijeg doba;
– Nacionalni park prirode i Arheolo{ki park
kulturne ba{tine: izuzetno bogato, raznovrsno
i relativno dobro istra`eno kulturno nasle|e
u fascinantnoj prirodnoj sredini Nacionalnog
parka prirode;
– obimna interdisciplinarna nau~na
dokumentacija o prirodnim i kulturnim
dobrima (interinstitucionalni fondovi
NIP\, fondovi nadle`nih institucija);
– odgovaraju}a identifikacija problema
i ograni~ewa;
– promocija novog saveza izme|u ~oveka
i prirode i prirode i kulture: kulturna ba{tina
kao podstrek za razvoj kulturno-obrazovnog
turizma i ekonomije.
Slabosti obuhvataju:
– nizak nivo svesti u pogledu vrednosti
i za{tite kulturne ba{tine;
– neure|enost/zapu{tenost ba{tine;
– prestanak istra`iva~kog rada nadle`nih
institucija na terenu;
– nepo{tovawe zakona;
– neobjediwenu/neintegrisanu dokumentaciju
za celovito nasle|e;
– nedovoqnu povezanost relevantnih
institucija za{tite (kulture, prirode, nauke);
– nedovoqnu zainteresovanost za preduzimawe
zajedni~kih akcija na promociji i za{titi
kulturne i prirodne ba{tine (nedostaju novi
sinergetski programi);
– marginalizaciju zna~aja upravqawa
– neiskori{}enost reke Dunava kao
saobra}ajnice (za redovan putni~ki saobra}aj);
– potpunu izolaciju obale i lo{u obalsku
komunikaciju, kao i lo{u komunikaciju s
planinskim zale|em;
– neobele`ene i lo{e prilaze, neobjediwenu
U okviru {ansi izdvajaju se:
– mogu}nost transgrani~ne saradwe
i zajedni~ke, me|unarodne inicijative u pogledu
integralne za{tite nasle|a;
– to {to je Dunav spona i me|unarodna
komunikaciona trasa koja pru`a {iroke
mogu}nosti za promovisawe kulturne i prirodne
– mogu}nost senzibilizacije me|unarodne
stru~ne javnosti kada je re~ o za{titi
izuzetne spomeni~ke celine – rimskog limesa
(Unesko – WHS);
– mogu}nost revitalizacije i ure|ewa
ba{tine i realizacije transgrani~nog parka
– pokretawe pilot-projekta za nov koncept
integrisane kulturne ba{tine – predela.
Kao pretwe sagledani su:
– potpuno propadawe lokaliteta usled
destruktivnog delovawa prirode i ~oveka;
– postepen i nepovratan nestanak narodne,
tradicionalne, vernakularne ba{tine;
– neodgovaraju}e kori{}ewe kulturnih
– neodgovaraju}a i nestru~na konzervacija;
– neodgovorno pona{awe nadle`nih
– nesprovo|ewe mera za{tite;
– nezainteresovanost lokalne sredine;
– neplanska urbanizacija;
– vandalizam.
Navedena analiza poslu`ila je, pored druge
analiti~ke dokumentacije, prilikom izrade
PPK kao polazi{te za definisawe strate{kih
prioriteta i op{te koncepcije za{tite kulturne
ba{tine na ovom podru~ju.
Podru~je op{tine Kladovo dobro je istra`eno
zahvaquju}i za{titnim arheolo{kim radovima
i istra`ivawima u vezi s podizawem nivoa
reke, usled stvarawa akumulacija za potrebe
|erdapskih hidroelektrana. Projekat \erdap
(NIP\), {to je dobro poznato i {iroj javnosti,
predstavqao je neprevazi|en model savremenog
i uspe{no vo|enog i realizovanog projekta
zahvaquju}i, pre svega, uspe{noj i kontinuiranoj
saradwi izme|u kulture, nauke i privrede
u ostvarivawu zajedni~kih ciqeva i zadataka,
a u saglasnosti sa odredbama Zakona o za{titi
kulturnih dobara.
U skladu s Projektom \erdap, o kojem je
ve} detaqno bilo re~i, i wegovim nemerqivim
doprinosom u borbi za o~uvawe nasle|a, jedan od
kqu~nih prioriteta u vezi sa za{titom
i unapre|ivawem kulturnog nasle|a jeste:
Koncepcija kulturnog nasle|a, kao
i prirodnog, zna~ajno je pro{irena posledwih
godina u svetskoj javnosti. To je u neposrednoj
vezi s pove}awem svesti kada je re~ o bogatstvu,
ali i o ugro`enosti postoje}e ba{tine. Dana{we
informacione i komunikacione tehnologije,
uz pojedine ekonomske aktivnosti, a naro~ito
turizam, omogu}uju da se ba{tina promovi{e
na sveobuhvatniji na~in i u~ini pristupa~nijom
ne samo doma}oj ve} i inostranoj publici. Reka
Dunav je najve}a reka Evrope i prvorazredna
me|unarodna komunikaciona trasa, te u op{tini
Kladovo zaista postoje odli~ni potencijali za
kulturni turizam, iako su trenutno potpuno
U okviru programa INTERREG III CADSES,
kojem teritorijalno pripada i na{a dr`ava,
kao tre}i prioritet navodi se promovisawe
i upravqawe predelima, prirodnim i kulturnim
nasle|em. Taj prioritet naro~ito je usmeren
na valorizaciju prostornih vrednosti, kako
prirodnih tako i kulturnih. Prema principima
kqu~nog planskog dokumenta Evropske unije
Perspektive prostornog razvoja Evrope,
ekonomski rast i socijalna kohezija zasnovani
su na odgovornom upravqawu prostornim
nasle|em. Tim prioritetom insistira se tako|e
na uskla|enim transnacionalnim aktivnostima,
usmerenim ka stvarawu kulturnih (turisti~kih)
staza. Stoga kulturnu i prirodnu ba{tinu od
zna~aja za ceo region treba identifikovati
i promovisati (umre`avawe i marketing).
Op{tina Kladovo, s obzirom na veoma bogatu
kulturnu ba{tinu od univerzalnog zna~aja, zatim
i izuzetan geografski polo`aj, ima odli~ne
potencijale i stoga je slede}i va`an prioritet:
To podrazumeva da se lokaliteti – kulturna
i prirodna ba{tina – bilo pojedina~ni, bilo
kompleksi, pove`u i objedine u za{ti}ene zone,
tzv. kulturne predele – pejza`e, integrisane
s prirodnom ba{tinom, sa odgovaraju}im
pristupom i odgovaraju}om objediwenom
signalizacijom. Kulturni predeo je skup
lokaliteta, objekata, odlika, arhivskog
materijala, se}awa i stavova od zna~aja
i za savremeno doba. Konvencija o svetskom
nasle|u defini{e kulturni predeo kao
kombinovano delo prirode i ~oveka koje prikazuje
evoluciju dru{tva u sadejstvu s mogu}nostima
i ograni~ewima `ivotne sredine i ilustruje
socijalne, ekonomske i kulturne snage dru{tva.
Bogato kulturnoistorijsko nasle|e,
materijalna i nematerijalna ba{tina
nastajala od preistorije, preko rimskog perioda,
do sredweg veka i novijeg doba, vernakularna
i industrijska ba{tina Kladova u regiji
Gvozdena vrata / \erdap predstavqaju integrisanu
ba{tinu od izuzetnog nacionalnog zna~aja
i interesa. Zbog toga slede}i prioritet jeste da:
Ovde se jo{ jednom nagla{ava mogu}nost
stavqawa ove jedinstvene celine pod za{titu
Bez obzira na to {to su pojedine zapo~ete
akcije, posebno one na konzervaciji, nau~noj
obradi, dokumentaciji i publikovawu, odnosno
prezentaciji ogromne prikupqene gra|e,
usporene, ote`ane ili zamrznute, na teritoriji
Kladova, u sredi{tu regiona Gvozdena vrata,
zahvaquju}i Projektu \erdap, stvoreni su uslovi
da se Arheolo{ki i nacionalni park \erdap,
u u`em i {irem smislu, ve} danas tretira kao
jedna od najzna~ajnijih regija na Dunavu. Pri
tom se misli na plan wegovog punog kori{}ewa
kako u nau~ne i kulturne ili obrazovne tako
i u ekonomske i turisti~ke svrhe, odnosno
Kladovo je, s obzirom na prirodna i kulturna
dobra i resurse, odre|eno kao centar u funkciji
razvoja turisti~ke regije C4 (\erdap) – kao zona
od nacionalnog zna~aja.
Dobro poznati lokaliteti i otkriveni
arheolo{ki materijal pru`ili su do sada
brojne dokaze i o bliskim kulturno-ekonomskim
i drugim vezama srpskog Podunavqa sa oblastima
leve obale Dunava, Oltenije, s Karpatskim
basenom, severozapadnom Bugarskom i uop{te
pribre`nim oblastima, kao i s regijom reke
Dunava od izvora do u{}a, Evropom u celini,
iz ~ega proizlaze i zna~ajne obaveze koje imaju
srpska nauka i kultura prema brojnim otvorenim
istorijskim i kulturnim pitawima i nau~nim
problemima, ali i prema {ansama za uskla|eniji
i umre`eniji me|ususedski i me|unarodni
odnos. To podrazumeva i celovitiji pristup
za{titi, prezentaciji i kori{}ewu kako
kulturne tako i prirodne materijalne
i nematerijalne ba{tine.
Da bi se to ostvarilo, neophodni su i novi
pristupi u upravqawu kulturnim nasle|em, koji
su projektno orijentisani, multidisciplinarni,
s preciznim finansijskim konstruktom,
planom aktivnosti, planom implementacije
i razra|enim instrumentima i mehanizmima
za stalnu kontrolu, pra}ewe i izve{tavawe
o postignutim rezultatima. Stoga je jo{ jedan
va`an prioritet to da: UVO\EWE SAVREMENIH
Upravqawe kulturnim dobrima podrazumeva
~itav niz uskla|enih aktivnosti koje obuhvataju i:
– identifikaciju/dijagnozu problema;
– uskla|ivawe sa okolinom;
– razvojne planove dugoro~nih potreba
i ciqeva;
– odre|ivawe statusa (inventar,
kategorizacija i istorijski kontekst ba{tine,
dokumentacija i grafi~ka arhiva) i legislative;
– izradu finansijskog okvira – stabilan
izvor finansirawa;
– postavqawe menaxerskih struktura s jasnim
nadle`nostima i odgovornostima;
– uskla|ivawe sa savremenim razvojem zemqe
i potrebama lokalne zajednice;
– monitoring;
– reviziju planova prema promenqivim
Da bi se kulturnom ba{tinom upravqalo
na odgovaraju}i na~in, neophodno je u vezi s tim
pitawem izraditi nacionalnu strategiju koja
}e ponuditi okvir za prihvatqive planske i
finansijske modele upravqawa ba{tinom. Jedan
od takvih modela podrazumeva javno-privatna
partnerstva u kreirawu ekonomske odr`ivosti
kulturne ba{tine, naravno uz neophodan
poseban re`im za{tite i transparentnost svih
aktivnosti. To zna~i da se za pojedine lokalitete
ili celokupan kulturni predeo pravi tzv.
poslovni plan, sa identifikovanim buxetskim
i ostalim finansijskim izvorima,
identifikovanim ciqevima i aktivnostima,
implementacionim fazama i odgovornim
projektnim timom eksperata, na ~elu
s projektnim menaxerom, koji }e periodi~no
izve{tavati javnost i nadle`ne institucije o
postignutim rezultatima. Tako|e je neophodno da
nadle`ne institucije sprovode stalno pra}ewe,
to jest monitoring aktivnosti i rezultata.
Isticawe ili prezentacija spomeni~kih,
autenti~nih vrednosti mogu}i su pri metodolo{ki
korektno istra`enim i stru~no-nau~no
dokumentovanim nalazi{tima/spomenicima,
tamo gde su dosledno sprovedene mere za{tite
i konzervacije i gde je ura|en plan revitalizacije
(elaborat/studija). Potrebno je:
– posebnu pa`wu posvetiti daqem
evidentirawu i dokumentovawu,
interdisciplinarnom, multikulturnom
istra`ivawu, rekognoscirawu {ire zone
priobaqa (uz upotrebu najsavremenijih metoda,
geoelektri~nih i georadarskih instrumenata, s
digitalizacijom i izradom baze podataka), koja je
tako|e predmet pravne za{tite i urbanisti~kog
planirawa, kako bi se stekla potpunija slika
o sa~uvanim preostalim spomenicima i kako
bi se utvrdili uslovi za wihovu za{titu;
– zavr{iti rekognoscirawa starih puteva,
kulturnih staza obale i neposrednog zale|a
(Brza Palanka / rimska Egeta – Dowi Milanovac
/ rimska Taliata, koji vodi preko planinskog
naseqa Miro~ / rimska Gerulata i prelazi
planinsko zale|e, u naseqima Petrovo Selo,
Manastirica i Podvr{ka) i ukqu~iti ih u
turisti~ku ponudu kao jedinstvenu mar{rutu
koja kombinuje razli~ite kulturne predele;
– ostatke istra`enih lokaliteta koji }e
~initi repere istorijskog jezgra lokaliteta
(i {iru zonu) konzervirati, za{tititi i na
odgovaraju}i na~in obele`iti ba{tinu;
– uraditi projekte idealne rekonstrukcije
i projekat revitalizacije za{ti}enih
lokaliteta (ekspertske elaborate/studije);
– utvrditi pravni status lokaliteta u
naj{irim granicama sa uslovima za wihovo
– obezbediti striktnu primenu zakonskih
propisa – planskih akata iz oblasti za{tite
`ivotne sredine, prirodnih i stvorenih
– obezbediti urbanisti~ko-planske dokumente
za pojedine prostorne celine i lokalitete prema
domenu nadle`nosti;
– otkloniti osnovne opasnosti za opstanak
lokaliteta, a koje prete od nekontrolisane
urbanizacije i industrijalizacije prostora
na kojem le`i evidentirana ba{tina (prethodno
istra`iti i odrediti prostor za potrebe
utvr|ivawa {ire zone za{tite
– obezbediti uslove za stalno odr`avawe
i pra}ewe stawa ugro`enih objekata (obalski
– poja~ati inspekcijski nadzor;
– istra`ene arheolo{ke lokalitete/objekte
za{tititi na odgovaraju}i na~in i u odnosu na
okolni kulturni predeo;
– spomeni~ko nasle|e / ba{tinu obele`iti
jedinstvenim znacima u odnosu na komunikacije /
pristup lokalitetima;
– na lokalitetima/objektima postaviti
grafi~ke, multijezi~ne info-table
i ilustrovane info-bro{ure;
– odr`ati i o~uvati autenti~nost spomenika
i okoline (neposredne okoline, reke Dunava
ili veza sa zale|em); to treba da bude jedna od
po~etnih mera u poslovima integralne za{tite
i prezentacije spomeni~kog nasle|a regiona
Gvozdena vrata;
– obezbediti saobra}ajnu i komunalnu
infrastrukturu (uz obavezne sanitarne objekte)
i dostupnost ba{tine kao osnovne preduslove
revitalizacije i ukqu~ivawa u savremene tokove
razvoja op{tine;
– lokalitete u odnosu na planiranu urbanu
strukturu u~initi funkcionalnim – dostupnim;
– sprovesti revitalizaciju obale i re~nog
saobra}aja izme|u lokaliteta i savremenih
naseqa (uz odgovaraju}u infrastrukturu), {to je
od vitalnog zna~aja za ubrzan razvoj; obezbediti
pristup s reke svakom nalazi{tu, sa obilascima
lokacija du` obala (i desne i leve) plovnim
sredstvima, modernim i onim napravqenim po
uzoru na tradicionalna re~na plovila; prava
dopuna tako zami{qenoj prezentaciji i u`ivawu
u obilascima prirodne i kulturne ba{tine
kopnom i vodom (i kombinovano, s promenom
prevoza na odredi{tima) bila bi mogu}nost
iznajmqivawa bicikala, tradicionalnih kola /
dvokolica ili kowa; uz to, neophodno je
projektovati, izgraditi i/ili urediti
pe{a~ke i planinarske staze, s planiranim
odmori{tima, vidikovcima i obaveznim
multijezi~nim info-punktovima;
– glavnim, ulaznim info-punktovima
(stanicama) treba ista}i ne samo autenti~nost
ili atraktivnost ba{tine ve} i prostorni
volumen i slojevito bogatstvo ~itavog regiona;
punktovi treba da sadr`e: tablu s geografskom
kartom i osnovnim podacima o spomeniku
(s grafi~kom i drugom vizuelnom obradom),
publikacije, ukqu~uju}i i najsavremenije vidove
prezentacije, kao i plan idealne rekonstrukcije
objekata, izlo`bu pokretnih nalaza, kopija,
s mogu}no{}u kupovine suvenira i drugog
info-materijala i multijezi~nih bro{ura.
Arheolo{ki muzej \erdapa treba da prezentuje
informacije za celokupni kulturni predeo
op{tine Kladovo i ~itavu regiju Gvozdena vrata
/ \erdap, s propratnim itinererima i dopunskim
multijezi~nim info-materijalom. Taj muzej,
kao jedan od najambicioznijih uspe{no
realizovanih poduhvata u domenu integralne,
interinstitucionalne za{tite nasle|a, treba
da preuzme koordinacionu ulogu i da preraste
u interinstitucionalni centar za{tite nasle|a
regije Gvozdena vrata (jer radovi na teritoriji
regije nisu zavr{eni).
Prostorni plan (PPK) jedan je od kqu~nih
instrumenata za ostvarivawe ideje o odr`ivom
razvoju op{tine Kladovo i wenih sastavnih
delova (23 katastarske op{tine). Ta ideja
zasnovana je na principima Agende 21, HABITAT
II, SEMAT, Olbor{koj, Sofijskoj, Lisabonskoj
i drugim deklaracijama, poveqama i strate{kim
dokumentima koji obavezuju Republiku Srbiju
i wene op{tine da ih po{tuju i primewuju kako
u planirawu tako, jo{ vi{e, i u ostvarivawu
planskih re{ewa koja se odnose na za{titu
i kori{}ewe prostornih resursa i vrednosti
ure|ene teritorije i wenih osnovnih namena
(PPK, str. 9).
Planom su, razume se, definisana i osnovna
re{ewa, date smernice i preporuke za za{titu,
ure|ewe i razvoj op{tine Kladovo, za kori{}ewe
osnovnih resursa i vrednosti koji se na woj
nalaze i ~ine jedinstven kompleks u okolini.
Zato je plan zasnovan na principima primene
metodologija u skladu s va`e}im postulatima
odr`ivog razvoja i regionalne integracije,
odnosno pa`qivog odnosa prema resursima
i vrednostima op{tine, uz posebnu pa`wu
prema neobnovqivim resursima i vrednostima.
Planska re{ewa imaju obavezuju}i karakter
do 2010. godine.
U Prostornom planu op{tine Kladovo
isti~e se i od izuzetne je va`nosti integrativni
pristup u vezi sa usagla{avawem poznatih na~ela
moderno shva}enog koncepta za{tite nasle|a
sa idejom kako o potrebi hitnog re{avawa
problema integralne za{tite izuzetne kulturne
i prirodne ba{tine tako i o wenom
implementirawu kroz definisawe kulturnog
predela i uvo|ewe savremenih pristupa i metoda
u upravqawu kulturnom i prirodnom ba{tinom.
Ciq je o~uvawe (od potpunog nestajawa!),
ure|ewe, promocija i kori{}ewe jedinstvenog,
atraktivnog kulturnog predela Dunava u regiji
Gvozdena vrata / \erdap, u Kladovu – nedeqivom
delu ba{tine Evrope.
Pravna za{tita na{eg zajedni~kog nasle|a,
wegovo ure|ewe i upravqawe tim nasle|em
(legislative measures, protection and menagement)
zahtevaju mnogo sinergije i tolerancije, pre
svega izme|u nauke i administracije, na svim
nivoima, od lokalnog do internacionalnog.
Budu}i da je Srbija jedna od zemaqa Evrope
kojima proti~e Dunav, vrlo je bitna u procesu
saradwe na dono{ewu i realizovawu savremenih
planova u vezi sa ure|ewem i kori{}ewem
te velike reke. Dunav je, pre svega, va`an
transportni put, ali je isto tako od vitalnog
zna~aja za povezivawe infrastrukture, privrede
i kulture. Kao najva`nija i najve}a reka
u Evropi, ima ekonomski, politi~ki
i integrativni aspekt.
Jasno je, dakle, da nam vi{e nedostaju
argumenti: sudbina i stawe za{ti}enog
spomeni~kog nasle|a nisu ne{to {to zavisi
samo od na{ih prilika, htewa i obavezuju}ih
planova. Ono nije na{e vlasni{tvo, ve} je to
nasle|e evropske kulture i civilizacije.
I, na kraju, podse}amo i na ~lan 5
Evropske konvencije o kulturi (19. 12. 1954):
Svaka strana ugovornica smatra}e kao
integralni deo zajedni~kog nasle|a dela koja
predstavqaju evropsku kulturnu vrednost, a koja
se budu na{la pod wenim nadzorom, i preduze}e
potrebne mere za wihovo o~uvawe i za olak{avawe
pristupa tim delima.
Elaborat Nau~noistra`iva~kog projekta \erdap 1990–2000, 1990, direktor projekta dr V. Kondi},
Arheolo{ki institut u Beogradu;
Kulturne vrednosti kao osnov prostorne integracije podunavskih zemaqa (Cultural Values as a Basis
for Spatial Integration of Danubian Countries), 2000, Udru`ewe urbanista Srbije,
urednici prof. dr R. Bogdanovi}, prof. dr B. Stojkov, Beograd;
B. M. Feilden, J. Jokilehto, 1998, Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites, ICCROM, Roma;
Conservation and Management Archaeological Sites, 2003/2004, ICCROM, Roma;
D. J. Breez, 2004, The Antonine Wall. The north-west frontier of the Roman Empire proposed as a World Heritage
Site, Historic Scotland;
D. J. Breez, S. Jilek, A. Thiel, 2005, Frontiers of the Roman Empire, Historic Scotland, UK and Deutsche
Limeskommission Germany, Edinburgh–Esslingen–Wien;
D. J. Breeze, A. Thiel, 2005 The challenge of presentation: Visible and invisible parts of the Roman Empire World
Heritage Site in the United Kingdom and Germany, Amsterdam;
V. Magar, C. Pedeli, R. Varoli-Piazza, 2006, Archaeological Conservation Course Diana–Karata{, ICCROM,
Prostorni plan op{tine Kladovo, 2006, AD Centar za planirawe urbanog razvoja, CEP, rukovodilac
izrade prof. dr D. \or|evi}, Beograd.
Figure 1. ????????????????
Karta 1. Prostorni plan op{tine Kladovo
Figure 1. ????????????????
Slika 1. Hajdu~ka vodenica,
plan potopqene tvr|ave, IV–VI vek
Figure 2. ????????????????
Slika 2. Balon stanica
Figure 3. ????????????????
Slika 3. Trajanova tabla (na desnoj obali Dunava)
Figure 4. ????????????????
Slika 4. Glumica Danica Ristovski peva songove
B. Brehta (AM\ 2006)
Figure 5. ????????????????
Slika 5. Nova Tekija
Figure 7. ????????????????
Slika 7. Dijana (Zanes), jugozapadni sektor tvr|ave
Figure 6. ????????????????
Slika 6. Fortelizabet (potopqena tvr|ava)
Figure 8. ????????????????
Slika 8. Prakti~ni rad u okviru ICCROM-ovog
kursa Arheolo{ka konzervacija, 2005, Dijana,
Figure 9. ????????????????
Slika 9. Arheolo{ki muzej \erdapa (Kladovo)
Figure 10. ????????????????
Slika 10. Detaq sa izlo`be Via Traiana (AM\
Figure 11. ????????????????
Slika 11. Trajanov most (Pontes), 103–105. godina,
stawe posle konzervacije
Figure 12. ????????????????
Slika 12. Rtkovo, plan tvr|ave, IV–VI vek

Integralna zaštita baštine u regiji Gvozdena vrata u - ICOM-SEE