ROYAL METHOD
ROYAL METHOD
TEACHER’S BOOK – PRE-INTERMEDIATE 2
10 LEKCIÍ SLOVNEJ ZÁSOBY, GRAMATIKY A PRAKTICKÝCH CVIýENÍ
OBSAH
HUMAN NATURE AND RELATIONSHIPS.........................................................................................................................................6
CRIME ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
OPPOSITES............................................................................................................................................................................................ 22
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH ..................................................................................................................................................... 30
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH II .................................................................................................................................................. 40
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH III ................................................................................................................................................. 49
WELCOME TO MY HOME! ................................................................................................................................................................ 58
EVERYDAY PROBLEMS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 67
COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY ...................................................................................................................................... 76
COMMUNICATION IN DAILY LIFE .................................................................................................................................................. 82
REPETITION PRE-INTERMEDIATE II. ............................................................................................................................................... 91
KEY TO EXERCISES .............................................................................................................................................................................. 96
KEY TO REPETITION PRE-INTERMEDIATE II............................................................................................................................... 107
DICTIONARY ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 111
5
HUMAN NATURE AND RELATIONSHIPS
UNIT 51
WARM UP QUESTIONS
51.wq.1
Do people usually get angry when they try to persuade a stubborn person?
Yes, people usually get angry when they try to persuade a stubborn person.
Should a good relationship be full of love and understanding?
Yes, a good relationship should be full of love and understanding.
Do highly intelligent people usually get on well with less intelligent people?
No, highly intelligent people don’t usually get on well with less intelligent people.
If you had an unreliable friend, would he be able to keep your greatest secrets?
No, if I had an unreliable friend, he wouldn’t be able to keep my greatest secrets.
What expressions can we use when we want to apologise for something?
When we want to apologise for something, we can say, “I am sorry”, “Excuse me” etc.
VOCABULARY
51.v.1
introduce
shake – shook – shaken
predstaviť
triasť
Can you introduce yourself?
Yes, I can introduce myself. My name is…
When they introduce you to somebody, is it polite to shake hands with them?
Yes, when they introduce me to somebody, it is polite to shake hands with them.
What’s the paradigm of the verb “shake”?
The paradigm of the verb “shake” is…
VOCABULARY
51.v.2
judge (by)
misjudge
appearance
súdiť (podľa)
zle posúdiť
vzhľad
When you meet somebody for the first time, do you often judge them by their appearance?
Yes, when I meet somebody for the first time, I often judge them by their appearance. / No, when I…, I never judge
them…
And do you often misjudge the nature of that person or do you usually have a good guess?
Yes, I often misjudge the nature of that person. / No, I don’t…, I usually have a good guess.
Is it enough to judge a person only by what they say?
No, it isn’t enough to judge a person only by what they say.
Are there any jobs for which the appearance is the most important thing?
Yes, there are some jobs for which the appearance is the most important thing, for example the job of an actor.
6
VOCABULARY
51.v.3
generous
selfish
even
veľkorysý, štedrý
sebecký
dokonca
Have you ever met such a selfish person that he or she didn’t even want to lend you a pen?
Yes, I have met such a selfish person that he/she didn’t even want to lend me a pen. / No, I haven’t met such a…
Are generous parents able to give their children everything even if they have almost nothing?
Yes, generous parents are able to give their children everything even if they have almost nothing.
How would you explain that rich people are sometimes less generous than poor people?
Rich people are sometimes less generous than poor people because although they have more money, they are
more selfish than poor people.
DEFINITION
51.def.1
Instead of saying “rich people”, we can say “the rich”; instead of saying “young people” we can say
“the young” etc.
Q&A
51.qa.1
What can we say instead of “selfish people”?
We can say “the selfish” instead of “selfish people”.
VOCABULARY
51.v.4
mad
crazy
bláznivý
bláznivý
DEFINITION
51.def.2
The adjective mad has more uses. For example:
My brother is completely mad ( = crazy).
The mother is mad at her children ( = angry with them).
The sister is mad about sport ( = she loves sport very much).
Q&A
51.qa.2
Give me examples of different uses of the word “mad”.
Would you be mad at your friend if you found out that he or she had lied to you?
Yes, I would be mad at my friend if I found out that he/she had lied to me.
What kind of things are teenagers usually mad about?
Teenagers are usually mad about sports, films, girls / boys…
What kind of things are you mad about?
The kind of things I am mad about are…
VOCABULARY
51.v.5
at least
shout
minimálne, aspoň
kričať
7
Q&A
51.qa.3
Do you think that the best way to teach children what is right is to spend at least an hour a day with
them?
No, I don’t think that the best way how to teach children what is right is to shout at them at least once a day, but
the best way is to explain everything to them.
DEFINITION
51.def.3
When you shout at somebody, it means that you are mad at them, and when you shout to somebody,
it means that you want him or her to hear you.
Q&A
51.qa.4
Do people speak quietly to each other when they are mad at each other?
No, people don’t speak quietly to each other when they are mad at each other, but they shout at each other.
Have you ever made such a mistake that you had to apologise for it at least a hundred times?
Yes, I have made such a mistake that I had to apologise for it at least a hundred times. / No, I haven’t made such
a…
VOCABULARY
51.v.6
keep
keep (on) doing sth.
keep an appointment
keep in touch
držať, udržať, nechať si
stále niečo robiť, pokračovať v práci
prísť na stretnutie
ostať v kontakte
DEFINITION
51.t.4
The verb “to keep” has many different meanings; some of them are – to keep animals, to continue
doing something, we also use it in the expressions such as keep a promise, keep a secret, keep an
appointment, keep in touch.
Q&A
51.qa.5
How do you get on with people who keep (on) smiling and laughing?
I get on well with people who keep (on) smiling and laughing. / I don’t like the people who keep (on) smiling and....
If you had to keep an unimportant appointment, would you try to keep it even if it rained?
Yes, if I had to keep an unimportant appointment, I would try to keep it even if it rained / No, if I…, I wouldn’t try to
keep it in heavy rain.
Do people generally argue with neighbours who keep a lot of dangerous animals in their flats?
Yes, people generally argue with neighbours who keep a lot of dangerous animals in their flats.
Do you still keep in touch with the people who attended the same kindergarten as you?
Yes, I still keep in touch with the people who attended the same kindergarten as me. / No, I don’t keep in touch with
the…
Have you kept any love letters from your ex-boyfriends / ex-girlfriends?
Yes, I have kept some love letters from my ex-boyfriends / ex-girlfriends. / No, I haven’t kept…
8
VOCABULARY
51.v.7
cheat
cheat on
break up
forgive - forgave – forgiven
podvádzať - klamať
podvádzať - byť neverný
rozísť sa
odpustiť
Q&A
51.qa.6
When a teacher finds out that a pupil is cheating in an exam, should he let him keep writing?
Yes, when a teacher finds out that a pupil is cheating in an exam he or she should let them keep writing. / No, when
a teacher…, he or she shouldn’t…, but he or she… a low mark.
Do partners sometimes cheat on each other even if they are married?
Yes, unfortunately, partners sometimes cheat on each other even if they are married.
If you found out that your partner had cheated on you, would you immediately break-up with the,?
If I found out that my partner had cheated on me, I would…
Do people usually keep (on) crying after a really bad break-up?
Yes, people usually keep (on) crying after a really bad break up.
If your best friend broke his promise, would you forgive him and give him a second chance?
Yes, if my best friend broke his/her promise, I would forgive him/her and give him/her a second chance. / No, if my
best..., I wouldn’t forgive him/her and ...
How do we translate this expression “it’s forgiven”?
We translate the expression “It’s forgiven” as “je odpustené”.
What’s the paradigm of the verb to forgive?
The paradigm of the verb to forgive is…
VOCABULARY
51.v.8
(dis)obey
I used to + inf.
I am used to + -ing/noun
get used to + -ing/noun
(ne)poslúchať
zvykol som
som zvyknutý na
zvykať si na
DEFINITION
51.def.5
The sentence I used to smoke means that I smoked in the past, but I don’t smoke now; the sentence I
am used to smoking means that smoking is normal for me, not unusual; and the sentence I am getting
used to smoking means that now I smoke occasionally but I will probably be in the habit of smoking
regularly one day.
Q&A
51.qa.7
Did you use to obey your parents when you were a child?
Yes, I used to obey my parents when I was a child. / No, I didn’t use to obey my parents when I was a child, but I
used to disobey them.
Are selfish children used to having everything only for themselves?
Yes, selfish children are used to having everything only for themselves.
Translate: zvykám si na upršané počasie.
I am getting used to a rainy weather.
9
Translate: verím, že si zvyknem na tvoje správanie.
I believe that I will get used to your behaviour.
Do you think that the people of Slovakia are used to the impolite behaviour of shop assistants and
waiters?
Yes, I think that the people of Slovakia are used to the impolite behaviour of shop assistants and waiters. / No, I
don’t think that… are used to..., but I think…
EXERCISE
51.e.1
Translate the Slovak part of a sentence into English.
1.
I am new in this job, so ........................................... people what to do.
(nie som zvyknutý hovoriť)
2.
My best friend used to live in a big house when she was a child, so ........................................... in large
buildings.
3.
(je zvyknutá na bývanie)
I really ........................................... his company but now I find him quite boring.
(zvykol som si užívať)
4.
I have never had so much money, but ........................................... used to it.
(zvykám si na to)
5.
Everybody is shouting at me, so I ............................................
(som zvyknutý na to krik)
6.
........................................... eat a lot of chocolate, but now I am on a diet.
(Zvykol som jesť)
7.
........................................... his crazy nature?
(Zvykol si si na)
8.
........................................... with my old friends but now I don’t even remember their names. (Zvykla som
byť v kontakte)
VOCABULARY
51.v.9
calm
nervous
make nervous
pokojný
nervózny, nepokojný
znervózňovať
Q&A
51.qa.8
When two people are going to get married do they usually feel completely calm?
No, when two people are going to get married, they don’t usually feel completely calm, but they usually feel very
nervous.
10
Do you get nervous very easily?
Yes, I get nervous very easily. / No, I don’t get nervous very easily.
What things make you nervous?
The things that make me nervous are…
VOCABULARY
51.v.10
care
take care of
look after
care for (sb.)
care about
starostlivosť; starať sa
starať sa o
starať sa o
starať sa o, stáť o niekoho
záležať na niečom
Q&A
51.qa.9
Who cared for you when you were a six-month old baby?
My parents cared for me when I was a six-month old baby.
Do you care about the way you dress to work every day?
Yes, I care about the way I dress to work every day. / No, I don’t…
When two people break up, but they are still in love, do they still care about each other?
Yes, when two people break up, but they are still in love, they still care about each other.
Have you ever had to look after a group of crazy teenagers?
Yes, I have had to look after a group of crazy teenagers. / No, haven’t had to look…
Do you agree that the young should take care of the old?
Yes, I agree that the young should take care of the old.
Do you care what other people think or say about you?
Yes, I care what other people think or say about me. / No, I don’t care what…
VOCABULARY
51.v.11
willing
refuse
amount
ochotný
odmietnuť
množstvo
Q&A
51.qa.10
When somebody asks you for a piece of advice, are you willing to advise him?
Yes, when somebody asks me for a piece of advice, I am willing to advise him. / No, when somebody…, I am not
willing…
If a homeless asked you to give him a small amount of money, would you refuse to help him?
Yes, if a homeless asked me to give him a small amount of money, I would refuse to help him. / No, if a…, I
wouldn’t refuse…
Do you believe that there is a great amount of people willing to help others in the world?
Yes, I believe that there is a great amount of people willing to help others in the world. / No, I don’t believe that
there is a…
VOCABULARY
51.v.12
friendship
make friends
priateľstvo
nájsť si priateľov, spriateliť sa
11
Q&A
51.qa.11
If a person doesn’t even know what the word friendship means, is it possible for him to be happy in
life?
No, if a person doesn’t even know what the word friendship means, it is not possible for him to be happy in life.
Have you ever refused to be a friend with a person who asked you for friendship on Facebook?
Yes, I have already refused to be a friend with a person who asked me for friendship on Facebook. / No, I haven’t
refused to be...
Do you believe that friendship between a man and a woman can easily change into love?
Yes, I believe that friendship between a man and a woman can easily change into love. / No, I don’t believe that…
Have you made any new friends since you graduated from high school?
Yes, I have made some new friend since I graduated from high school.
VOCABULARY
51.v.13
true
false
gossip
pravdivý
nepravdivý
ohovárať, klebeta
Q&A
51.qa.12
Do true friends always tell each other the truth?
Yes, true friends always tell each other the truth.
Do you have a lot of true friends?
Yes, I have a lot of true friends. / No, I don’t have a lot of true friends.
How would you describe the relationship between two false friends?
False friends don’t trust each other, they don’t share any secrets, don’t help each other, they gossip each other etc.
Is it true that it is sometimes hard to make true friends?
Yes, it is true that it is sometime hard to make true friends.
Do you know anybody whose favourite activity is gossiping about other people and listening to all
kinds of gossip?
Yes, I know somebody whose favourite activity is gossiping about other people and listening to all kinds of gossip.
VOCABULARY
51.v.14
fault
faultless
chyba
bezchybný
Q&A
51.qa.13
Do you think that you are faultless or do you have any faults?
I don’t think I am faultless, I have some faults.
What are your faults?
I am (stubborn, unpunctual, lazy…)
And what are your strengths?
My strengths are (responsibility, punctuality, reliability etc.)
12
QUESTION TIME
51.qt.1
Chcel by si sa predstaviť svojim novým spolužiakom?
Would you like to introduce yourself to your new classmates?
Yes, I would like to introduce myself to my new classmates. / No, I wouldn’t like to…
Rozišiel si sa niekedy s niekým ?
Have you ever broken up with anyone?
Yes, I have already broken up with someone. / No, I haven’t broken up with anyone.
Zvykli na teba tvoji rodičia kričať, keď si ich neposlúchal?
Did your parents use to shout at you when you didn’t obey them?
Yes, my parents used to shout at me when I didn’t obey them. / No, my parents didn’t use to shout at me when I
didn’t obey them.
Odpustil by si svojmu najlepšiemu priateľovi, keby ťa ohováral?
Would you forgive your best friend if he gossiped about you?
Yes, I would forgive my best friend if he gossiped about me. / No, I wouldn’t forgive.
Si zvyknutý na to, že sa staráš o svoju mladšiu sestru alebo brata?
Are you used to taking care of your younger sister or brother?
Yes, i am used to taking care of my younger sister/brother. / No, I am not used to…
Veríš, že na svete je človek, ktorý je úplne bezchybný?
Do you believe (that) there is a person in this world who is completely faultless?
Yes, I believe (that) there is a person in this world who is completely faultless. / No, I don’t believe…
EXERCISE
51.e.2
Translate the following sentences.
1.
Nesúď ľudí podľa ich vzhľadu!
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Už si sa predstavil?
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
Štedrými ľuďmi máme na mysli ľudí, ktorí sú ochotní požičať ti peniaze, keď ich potrebuješ.
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
Nezvykla som sa ospravedlňovať za svoje chyby, ale práve si na to zvykám, pretože musím.
5.
......................................................................................................................................................
Odmietol si niekedy pomôcť svojim skutočným priateľom, keď sa dostali do problémov?
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
Myslíš si, že by sa zdraví ľudia mali starať o chorých?
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
Je priateľstvo jednou z najdôležitejších vecí v ľudskom živote?
......................................................................................................................................................
13
8.
Znervóznieš, keď ti pekný muž potrasie rukou?
......................................................................................................................................................
EXERCISE
51.e.3
I cannot 1… my life without friendship. When you get into trouble, it is important to know someone who can
help you 2… it, because true friends care about 3…. Even if they aren’t mad 4… same things, they always
have wonderful time together. True friends are able to forgive each other and are not 5… each other when
one of them cannot 6… a promise. They share every secret together. Some people are unhappy because
they 7… have such a good friend, but cannot 8… anyone like that. If they could, their lives would be 9…
beautiful, full 10… happiness and love.
1. A. perform
2. A. get out from
3. A. themselves
4. A. around
5. A. mad about
6. A. keep
7. A. like to
8. A. find
9. A. more
10. A. with
B. introduce
B. to get out of
B. each other
B. about the
B. crazy at
B. break
B. would like to
B. look for
B. less
B. from
C. imagine
C. to get out from
C. theirselves
C. at the
C. mad at
C. hold
C. want
C. make
C. much
C. of
14
CRIME
UNIT 52
VOCABULARY
52.v1
commit
crime
law
spáchať
zločin
zákon
Q&A
52.qa.1
What do we call the act which is against the law?
We call the action which is against the law a crime.
Have you ever broken the law?
Yes, I have broken the law. / No, I have never broken the law.
Do you agree that to kill someone is the worst crime a person can commit?
Yes, I agree that to kill someone is the worst crime a person can commit.
Do you think that cheating during an exam should be a crime?
No, I don’t think that cheating during an exam should be a crime.
Can unhappy childhood be an excuse for committing a crime?
No, unhappy childhood cannot be an excuse for committing a crime.
VOCABULARY
52.v2
criminal
prison
prisoner
zločinec
väzenie
väzeň
Q&A
52.qa.2
What do we call the person who is responsible for a crime?
We call the person who is responsible for a crime a criminal.
If they put you into prison, do you think that you would make some real true friends there?
Yes, if they put me into prison, I think I would make some real true friends there. / No, if they put…, I don’t think I
would…
Do you know anybody who has spent last 5 years in prison?
Yes, I know somebody who has spent last 5 years in prison. / No, I don’t know anybody who…
VOCABULARY
52.v3
active voice
passive voice
činný rod
trpný rod
15
DEFINITION
52.def.1
The subject is usually the noun before the verb and the object is the noun after the verb.
The sentence “My mother writes a letter” is in the Active Voice because the subject “my mother” does
the action.
The sentence “A letter is written by my mother” means the same as the first sentence, but the subject
is the letter and it doesn’t do the action, but it receives the action. When the subject receives the
action, we say that the sentence is in the Passive Voice.
My mother writes a letter.
A letter is written by my mother.
The construction of the Passive Voice is
“TO BE in the correct tense” + Past Participle (+BY)
EXERCISE
52.e.1
Complete the list of tenses and forms and translate the expressions in the Passive Voice.
BREAK
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Future
Conditional
Should
Can
He
He
He
He
He
He
He
He
He
He
BE
the glass.
the glass.
the glass.
the glass.
the glass.
the glass.
the glass.
the glass.
the glass.
the glass.
The glass
The glass
The glass
The glass
The glass
The glass
The glass
The glass
The glass
The glass
broken by him.
broken by him.
broken by him.
broken by him.
broken by him.
broken by him
broken by him.
broken by him
broken by him.
broken by him.
Q&A
52.qa.3
What is the construction of the passive voice?
The construction of the Passive Voice is the verb “to be” in the right tense and the past participle of a verb.
Now I will give you some sentences in the Active Voice, and you will have to change them into the
Passive Voice. Let’s start with the:
Present Simple Tense.
They sell Slovak beer in England.
Slovak beer is sold in England.
We give all lessons in English here.
All lessons are given in English here.
Do they speak Spanish in Chile?
Is Spanish spoken in Chile?
16
Present Continuous Tense
I am opening the door.
The door is being opened by me.
She is still cleaning my room.
My room is still being cleaned by her.
The police are not watching our house.
Our house is not being watched by the police.
Present perfect tense
The boss has cancelled the meeting.
The meeting has been cancelled by the boss.
This company has never employed women.
Women have never been employed by this company.
Have you already paid the bill?
Has the bill been already paid?
Past simple tense
He finished his last book.
His last book was finished.
The strong wind didn’t break windows last night.
The windows weren’t broken by the strong wind last night.
They told me to go home.
I was told to go home.
Future
They will inform you on Monday.
You will be informed on Monday.
How many people will they choose?
How many people will be chosen?
Thousands of people will read this book.
This book will be read by thousands of people.
Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Simple, Future
Nobody has fed our dog today.
Our dog hasn’t been fed today.
They show Cinderella on television every Christmas.
Cinderella is shown on television every Christmas.
They took him to the local hospital.
He was taken to the local hospital.
17
John hasn’t invited me to the wedding.
I haven’t been invited to the wedding by John/John’s wedding.
We will deliver the food to you at 7 am.
The food will be delivered to you at 7 am.
A terrible storm woke me up last night.
I was woken up by a terrible storm.
They are building new houses everywhere.
New houses are being built everywhere.
Do they teach French at your school?
Is French taught at your school?
This government is spending too much money.
Too much money is being spent by this government.
We will never forget her.
She will never be forgotten by us.
DEFINITION
52.def.2
The Passive Voice is used much more often in English than in Slovak. We always prefer to use it when
we don’t know who did the action, or when it is not important to say who did the action. For example,
we say “The bridge was built in 1950” and not “They built the bridge in 1950”.
VOCABULARY
52.v.4
steal – stole – stolen
thief (pl. thieves)
gun
ukradnúť
zlodej
zbraň
Q&A
52.qa.4
Has anything ever been stolen from you by a thief?
Yes, something has been stolen from me by a thief. / No, nothing has ever been stolen from me by a thief.
When? What?
If you stole the whole chicken from the butcher’s, and you were caught by the police, would they put
you into prison?
No, if I stole the whole chicken from the butcher’s, and I was caught by the police, they wouldn’t put me into prison.
If a thief with a gun wanted to steal your wallet, would you try to run away or would you give it to him?
If a thief with a gun wanted to steal my wallet, I wouldn’t try to run away. I would give it to him.
VOCABULARY
52.v.5
shoot – shot – shot
murder
murderer
strieľať
vražda; zavraždiť
vrah
18
Q&A
52.qa.5
Is it worse to live together with a thief than with a murderer?
No, it isn’t worse to live together with a thief than with a murderer, but it is worse to live with a murderer than with
a thief.
If you shot a policeman, would you be taken to prison?
Yes, if I shot a policeman, I would be taken to prison.
Have you ever seen anyone shooting in real life?
Yes, I have seen someone shooting in real life. / No, I haven’t seen…
Have you ever seen anyone shot in the street in your town?
Yes, I have seen someone shot in the street in my town. / No, I haven’t seen…
VOCABULARY
52.v.6
judge
justice
(law) court
sudca
spravodlivosť
súd
Q&A
52.qa.6
Where do people go when they are looking for justice?
People go to the (law) court when they are looking for justice.
If you could choose between being a lawyer and a judge, which job would you choose? Why?
If I could choose between being a lawyer and a judge, I would choose to be a… because…
Why do judges earn so much money?
Judges earn so much money because their job is dangerous.
VOCABULARY
52.v.7
arrest
zatknúť
Q&A
52.qa.7
Have you ever been arrested?
No, I have never been arrested.
Do you think that people who smoke in public buildings should be arrested?
Yes, I think that people who smoke in public buildings should be arrested. / No, I don’t think that…
VOCABULARY
52.v.8
charge with
innocent
guilty
obžalovať z
nevinný
vinný
Q&A
52.qa.8
If a man is charged with a crime, is he taken directly to prison?
No, if a man is charged with a crime, he isn’t taken directly to prison, but at first he is taken to court.
Does it happen in your country that innocent people are charged with serious crimes?
Yes, it happens in my country that innocent people are charged with serious crimes. / No, it doesn’t happen.
19
What’s the opposite of “innocent”?
The opposite of “innocent” is “guilty”.
When you lie to somebody, although it is for his own good, do you feel guilty?
Yes, when I lie to somebody, I feel guilty although it is for his own good.
DEFINITION
52.def.3
The word “charge” has a lot of meanings. Some of them are:
1. to charge (somebody) with a crime = obžalovaťniekoho zo zločinu,
2. to charge a gun/a battery = nabiť,
3. to charge 6 euros = naúčtovať,
4. to be in charge = byť vo vedení
Q&A
52.qa.9
How much do they usually charge for a meal in an average restaurant in this town?
They usually charge about… euros for a meal in an average restaurant in this town.
If you were in charge of a big business, and your employee stole something, would you dismiss him?
If I was in charge of a big business, and my employee stole something, I would dismiss him/ give him a second
chance.
How often do you have to charge the battery of your phone?
I must charge the battery of my phone every day.
EXERCISE
52.e.2
Guess what or who it is.
1.
The action which is against the law is a ............................
2.
Taking something from a shop without paying is ............................
3.
The action for which we need a gun is ............................
4.
A person the police are looking for is a ............................
5.
The place where all the criminals should be taken is ............................
6.
When you didn’t commit the crime, you are ............................
7.
The men whose “job” is stealing are ............................
8.
When somebody is guilty of a murder, he should be ............................
VOCABULARY
52.v.9
receptionist
be worth
swimming pool
cheque
include
recepčný/á
mať hodnotu, cenu
bazén
šek
zahŕňať
20
READING
52.r.1
Next time you think your hotel bill is too high, you should probably think of this story:
My wife and I were travelling by car from Victoria to Prince George. After almost eleven hours on the road, we
were too tired to go further, and decided to stay at a hotel. But we only planned to sleep a few hours and
then continue with our journey. When we checked out five hours later, the receptionist gave us a bill for 450
dollars.
I got really mad and I wanted to know why they charged us so much. I told him that although it was a really
nice hotel, the rooms weren’t worth 450 dollars. When receptionist said that 450 dollars was the 'usual
charge', I asked him to call the manager.
The manager came, listened to what I said, and then explained that the hotel had a large swimming pool, a
sauna and a first-class Chinese restaurant. We could have used all of these things because everything was
included in the price of our room.
I answered 'But we did not use them.'
'That’s not our problem, they are here and you could have used them,' explained the manager.
He kept on telling us that we could have also watched one of the shows for which the hotel was famous. 'We
have the best entertainers and the best performers in the USA, they are all very popular'
'But we saw none of these shows.'
'That’s not our problem, we have them and you could have watched them.'
I realized that trying to persuade him was completely useless. He wasn’t willing to change his opinion. I wrote
a cheque and gave it to him. The manager was surprised when he looked at the cheque and said: 'But sir, this
cheque is only for 50 dollars.'
'That’s right. I charged you 400 dollars for sleeping with my wife.'
'But I didn’t sleep with her!' shouted the manager.
'Well, that’s not my problem, she was here, you could have done it.'
QUESTIONS AND TASKS
1. Prečo bol účet za izbu taký vysoký? Aký je zvyčajný poplatok za izbu v priemernom hoteli?
2. Súhlasíš s manažérom alebo so zákazníkom? Prečo?
3. Čo by si robil, keby si bol zákazníkom?
4. Čo by si spravil, keby si bol manažérom? Naúčtoval by si menej?
5. Ako si myslíš, že by príbeh mohol skončiť?
6. Translate the words: recepčný, šek, mať hodnotu, bazén, zahŕňať. Use the words in sentences.
21
OPPOSITES
UNIT 53
EXERCISE
53.e.1
Write the opposites, either by adding a prefix or by writing a completely different word with the
opposite meaning.
up –
fail an exam –
fat –
patient –
hard working –
friendly –
outside –
put on –
early –
badly –
visible –
useful –
better –
forget –
land –
alive –
wake up –
comfortable –
the same –
bore –
VOCABULARY
53.v.1
win – won – won
lose
vyhrať
prehrať, stratiť
Q&A
53.qa.1
What are the two opposites of the verb “lose”?
The two opposites of the verb “lose” are “find” and “win”.
If you won a million euros, what would you do with it?
If I won a million euros, I would…
Do you think you would make some new but false friends?
Yes, I think I would make some new but false friends.
If you and I were running against each other, would you lose?
Yes, if you and I were running against each other, I think I would lose. / No, if you and I were…
VOCABULARY
53.v.2
turn on
turn off
zapnúť
vypnúť
Q&A
53.qa.2
Had you ever forgotten to turn off the lights at home before you went for holiday?
Yes, I had forgotten to turn off the lights at home before I went for holiday. / No, I had never…
22
What must you turn on when you want to fry some fish for dinner?
I must turn on the cooker when I want to fry some fish for dinner.
VOCABULARY
53.v.3
forbid – forbade – forbidden
allow
zakázať
dovoliť, povoliť
Q&A
53.qa.3
If you get permission to do something, does it mean that you are allowed to do it?
Yes, if I get permission to do something, it means that I am allowed to do it.
When you were a child, and your parents forbade you to turn the TV on, did you always obey them?
Yes, when I was a child, and my parents forbade me to turn the TV on, I always obeyed them. / No, when I was…, I
didn’t…, but I sometimes disobeyed them.
Does the teacher allow you to talk to each other during the lesson?
No, the teacher doesn’t allow us to talk to each other during the lesson, but he forbids it.
In your opinion, should it be forbidden for an employee to visit his best friend during his working
hours?
Yes, I think it should be forbidden for an employee to visit his best friend during his working hours. / No, I don’t
think it should be…
VOCABULARY
53.v.4
pull
push
ťahať
tlačiť
Q&A
53.qa.4
Did you pull this door when you wanted to enter the classroom at the beginning of the lesson?
No, I didn’t pull this door when I wanted to enter the classroom at the beginning of the lesson, but I pushed it.
Is it polite to push other people in order to get on a bus or a train?
No, it isn’t polite to push other people in order to get on a bus or a train but it is impolite.
VOCABULARY
53.v.5
follow
precede
(na)sledovať
predchádzať, ísť pred
Q&A
53.qa.5
Have you ever been followed by the police?
Yes, I have been followed by the police. / No, I have never been followed by…
Are men in this country in the habit of preceding or following women to the room?
Men in this country are in the habit of…
VOCABULARY
53.v.6
rise - rose - risen
sink - sank - sunk
suddenly
stúpať
klesať
zrazu
23
Q&A
53.qa.6
What would you do if this table suddenly began to rise into the air?
If this table suddenly began to rise into the air, I would…
Would you be afraid if you were on a ship at sea, and it suddenly started to sink?
Yes, I would be afraid if I was on a ship at sea, and it suddenly started to sink.
What’s the paradigm of the verb “rise”?
The paradigm of the verb “rise” is…
Have you ever had to get up before the sun has risen?
Yes, I have had to get up before the sun has risen.
When? Why?
What’s the paradigm of the verb “sink”?
The paradigm of “sink” is…
VOCABULARY
53.v.7
lay
lift
položiť
zdvihnúť
Q&A
53.qa.7
What is the paradigm of the verb “lay”?
The paradigm of the verb “lay” is “lay-laid-laid”.
Did I lay my feet on the table after I had come into this classroom?
No, you didn’t lay your feet on the table after you had come into this classroom, but you laid a book on the table
after you had come into this classroom.
When you were a baby, were you able to lift another baby?
No, when I was a baby, I wasn’t able to lift another baby.
DEFINITION
53.def.1
The other two meanings of the word “lift” are “výťah” and “odvoz”.
Q&A
53.qa.8
Do you have to use a lift in order to get into this classroom?
No, I don’t have to use a lift in order to get into this classroom./ Yes, …
If you saw a young sad man walking along the road alone, would you give him a lift?
Yes, if I saw a young sad man walking along the road alone, I would give him a lift. / No, if I saw a young sad man
walking…, I wouldn’t…
VOCABULARY
53.v.8
succeed (in)
uspieť (v)
Q&A
53.qa.9
What is the opposite of the verb “succeed”?
The opposite of the verb “succeed” is “fail”.
24
Will you succeed in learning English if you study hard?
Yes, if I study hard, I’ll succeed in learning English.
If you succeeded in getting a job for which you and your friend had applied, would you apologise to
him?
Yes, if I succeeded in getting a job for which my friend and I had applied, I would apologise to him. / No, if my
friend..., I wouldn’t…
What do you have to do if you want to succeed in life?
If I want to succeed in life, I have to learn a lot…
DICTATION
53.d.1
My brother was charged with a murder but I am sure that he is completely innocent. He is a very good person
and I cannot imagine that he would be able to kill someone. On the other hand, people sometimes shoot at
each other only because they are mad. He has always been generous and calm, he didn’t get nervous easily.
Our mother will probably become crazy, when they arrest him and put him into prison.
VOCABULARY
53.v.9
rather (…than)
radšej, skôr
Q&A
53.qa.10
Would you rather win one thousand euros now or four thousand euros in four years’ time?
I would rather win… than…
Do you think that you are a rather responsible and reliable type of person?
Yes, I think that I am a rather responsible and reliable type of person. / No, I don’t think that I am…, but I am a
rather irresponsible and unreliable type of…
Would you rather get a job in prison than at a place for the homeless?
I’d rather get a job… than a job…
VOCABULARY
53.v.10
awake
asleep
fall asleep
bdelý
spiaci
zaspať
Q&A
53.qa.11
Is it easy to stay awake during the day after you have spent the whole night dancing in a bar?
No, it isn’t easy to stay awake during the day after I have spent the whole night dancing in a bar, but it is difficult.
If you had to start working at 4 am tomorrow, would you still feel half asleep?
Yes, if I had to start working at 4 am tomorrow, I would still feel half asleep.
Have you ever fallen asleep while somebody was trying to explain something to you?
Yes, I have fallen asleep while somebody was trying to explain something to me. / No, I have never fallen…
Are you used to staying awake until 3 am?
No, I am not used to staying awake until 3 am.
25
VOCABULARY
53.v.11
amazing
horrible
terrible
úžasný
hrozný, strašný
hrozný, strašný
Q&A
53.qa.12
What would you do if you found an amazing amount of money on the ground? (Would you keep it?)
If I found an amazing amount of money on the ground, I would...
Do you agree that human behaviour is sometimes more terrible than the behaviour of animals?
Yes, I agree that human behaviour is sometimes more terrible than the behaviour of animals.
What is another word which we can use instead of “terrible”?
Another word which we can use instead of “terrible” is “horrible”.
VOCABULARY
53.v.12
smooth
rough
surface
hladký
drsný
povrch
Q&A
53.qa.13
Is the surface of this table rough?
No, the surface of this table isn’t rough, but it is smooth.
Do you know anybody who prefers the sea to be rough when he sails by ship?
Yes, I know somebody who prefers the sea to be rough when he sails by ship. / No, I don’t know…
VOCABULARY
53.v.13
careful
careless
opatrný
neopatrný
Q&A
53.qa.14
Do you think that there would be fewer car accidents if there were more careful drivers on the roads?
Yes, I think that there would be fewer car accidents if there were more careful drivers on the roads.
What do you think should be done about careless drivers who cause accidents?
I think that careless drivers should be arrested / should pay fines etc.
Are people usually careless when they are in great danger?
No, people usually aren’t careless when they are in great danger, but they are usually very careful.
VOCABULARY
53.v.14
heaven
hell
nebo
peklo
Q&A
53.qa.15
Do you believe that when a man dies, his soul will go either to heaven or to hell?
Yes, I believe that after a man dies, his soul will go either to heaven or to hell . / No, I don’t…
26
Which place in the world do you think feels like heaven?
I think … feels like heaven.
VOCABULARY
53.v.15
profit
loss
zisk
strata
Q&A
53.qa.16
If you bought a car for ten thousand euros and sold it for half that price, would you be making
a profit?
If I bought a car for ten thousand euros and sold it for half that price, I wouldn’t be making a profit, but I would be
making a loss.
Is too much weight loss dangerous?
Yes, too much weight loss is dangerous.
VOCABULARY
53.v.16
enemy
far – farther – the farthest
nepriateľ
ďaleko/ý – ďalej - najďalej
Q&A
53.qa.17
Is it a good idea to keep your enemies as far as you can?
Yes, it is a good idea to keep your enemies as far as you can.
What is the opposite of “far”?
The opposite of far is “near”.
Do you think that rich and successful people have got more enemies than poor and unsuccessful
people?
Yes, I think that rich and successful people have got more enemies than poor and unsuccessful people. / No, I don’t
think that…
Is Bulgaria farther from Greece than France?
No, Bulgaria isn’t farther from Greece than France, but it is nearer to Greece than France.
VOCABULARY
53.v.17
be right
be wrong
mať pravdu
mýliť sa
Q&A
53.qa.18
Am I right when I say that it’s allowed to kill somebody in this country?
No, you aren’t right when you say that it’s allowed to kill somebody in this country, but you are wrong because it is
forbidden.
Am I right when I say that you would rather be far away than here?
No, you aren’t right when you say that I would rather be far away than here because I am happy to be here.
Am I wrong when I think that the opposite of “profit” is “loss”?
No, you aren’t wrong when you think that the opposite of “profit” is “loss”, but you are right.
Is the teacher always right?
No, the teacher isn’t always right, but sometimes he or she can be wrong.
27
VOCABULARY
53.v.18
by mistake
on purpose
purpose
omylom
naschvál
zámer, účel
Q&A
53.qa.19
When you hurt someone, is it usually done by mistake or on purpose?
When I hurt someone, it is usually done…
Did you eat bad food on purpose when you were a child because you wanted to get sick and stay
home?
Yes, I ate bad food on purpose when I was a child because I wanted to get sick and stay home. / No, I didn’t eat bad
food on purpose when I was a child because I wanted to…
Do you agree that the purpose of living is to be happy and make other people happy?
Yes, I agree that…
QUESTION TIME
53.qt.1
Ublížil si niekomu niekedy naschvál?
Have you ever hurt anyone on purpose?
Yes, I have already hurt someone on purpose. / No, I have never hurt anyone on purpose.
Ako by si sa cítil, keby učiteľ zamkol dvere a zakázal nám opustiť triedu?
How would you feel if the teacher locked the door and forbade us to leave the classroom?
If the teacher locked the door and forbade us to leave the classroom I would feel…
Často sa mýliš alebo máš vždy pravdu?
Are you often wrong or are you always right?
I am…
Zaspal si takmer počas minulej hodiny angličtiny?
Did you almost fall asleep during the last English lesson?
Yes, I almost fell asleep during the last English lesson. / No, I didn’t almost fall asleep…
Koľko ti naúčtovali za najdrahší pár topánok, ktorý vlastníš?
How much did they charge you / how much were you charged for the most expensive pair of shoes you
have / own?
They charged me / I was charged about… for the most expensive pair of shoes I have / own.
Zahŕňa cena za izbu aj raňajky a večeru?
Does the price of a room include breakfast and dinner?
Yes, the price of a room includes breakfast and dinner./ No, the price of a room doesn’t include breakfast and
dinner.
EXERCISE
53.e.2
Translate the following sentences.
1.
Uspela v otvorení jej nového obchodu, kde sa predáva úžasné oblečenie.
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Keď je niekto na čele veľkého biznisu, zvyčajne mu záleží iba na jeho zisku.
......................................................................................................................................................
28
3.
Najkrajším miestom na svete je nebo, pretože je plné láskavých a dobrosrdečných ľudí.
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
Slnko vychádza na východe a zapadá na západe.
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
Radšej by som mojim deťom dovolil ostať vonku do polnoci než stále hrať počítačové hry.
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
Nie, nemýliš sa, keď povieš, že strede predcháza utorok, ale máš pravdu.
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
Za tento čln mi zaúčtovali 10 000 eur a potopil sa hneď v prvý deň na mori.
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
Ak budeme tlačiť dvere, na ktorých je napísané ťahať, neotvoria sa.
......................................................................................................................................................
EXERCISE
53.e.3
Write the opposites.
nearer –
profit –
be allowed friend –
won –
follow –
risen –
smooth –
asleep –
fail –
lay –
rise –
forbade –
laid –
29
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
UNIT 54
VOCABULARY
54.v.1
direct speech
indirect/ reported speech
report
priama reč
nepriama reč
oznámiť, zreferovať
DEFINITION
54.def.1
We use direct and indirect speech when we want to tell somebody what someone has said, in other
words we want to repeat the words of someone else. As in the Slovak language, we can repeat the
exact words of the speaker – this is called “direct speech”, or we can report what the speaker said –
this is called “indirect” or “reported speech”.
Q&A
54.qa.1
When do we use direct and indirect speech?
We use direct and indirect speech when we want to repeat the words of someone else.
When we repeat the exact words of the speaker, is it direct speech?
Yes, when we repeat the exact words of the speaker, it is direct speech.
When we report what the speaker has said, is it indirect speech?
Yes, when we report what the speaker has said, it is indirect speech.
VOCABULARY
54.v.2
theory
theoretical
practice
practical
work
teória
teoretický
prax
praktický
fungovať
DEFINITION
54.def.2
Study this example:
Tom is saying, “I am reading a book.” You want to tell your friend what Tom has just said.
In direct speech, you would say “Tom said, “I am reading a book.“ It means that you repeat the exact
words of Tom.
In indirect speech, you would say “Tom said that he was reading a book.“ It means that you report
what Tom has said.
You might have noticed that we change the present tense into the past tense when changing direct
speech into indirect speech. We don’t say “Tom said that he is reading a book”, but we say “Tom said
that he was reading a book.”
30
Q&A
54.qa.2
Use indirect speech when answering my questions.
Lisa is at home. What did I say?
You said that Lisa was at home.
They want three glasses of water. What did I say?
You said that they wanted three glasses of water.
Mr. Green says: “The weather is nice.” What did Mr. Green say?
Mr. Green said that the weather was nice.
I don’t have any money. What did I say?
You said that you didn’t have any money.
Your best friend says: “I can’t come to the party because I have to study. What did your best friend
say?
My best friend said that he/she couldn’t come to the party because he/she had to study.
DEFINITION
54.def.3
We don’t have to use the word “that” in indirect speech.
We can say either – “Tom said that he was reading a book.”
or we can say – “Tom said he was reading a book.”
As in the Slovak language so in the English language we use inverted commas for direct speech, but
we don’t use them in indirect speech.
Do we have to use the word that in indirect speech?
No, we don’t have to use the word that in indirect speech.
Translate this sentence without using the word “that”, please: Povedala, že bola doma.
She said she was at home.
When do we use inverted commas, in direct or indirect speech?
We use inverted commas in direct speech.
DEFINITION
54.def.4
We change tenses in indirect speech in the following way:
DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
Present Simple Tense
She said: “It is very nice.”
Past Simple Tense
She said (that) it was very nice.
Present Progressive Tense
She said: “I am doing my homework.”
Past Progressive Tense
She said (that) she was doing her homework.
Present Perfect Tense
She said: “I have eaten breakfast.”
Past Perfect Tense
She said (that) she had eaten breakfast.
Past Simple Tense
She said: “I didn’t go to school.”
Past Simple tense/ Past Perfect Tense
She said (that) she didn’t go/hadn’t gone to school.
31
Past Perfect Tense
She said: “I had studied languages.”
No change – Past Perfect Tense
She said (that) she had studied languages.
Future Tense with will
She said: “I will spend holiday with
friends.”
Conditional with would
She said (that) she would spend holiday with friends.
First Conditional
She said: “If I had money, I would buy
that coat.”
Second conditional
She said (that) if she had had the money she would have
bought that coat.
Q&A
54.qa.3
I will give you some statements in direct speech and please change them into indirect speech.
I am standing behind the table. What did I say?
You said (that) you were standing behind the table.
Is the weather nice?
Yes, the weather is nice. / No, the weather isn’t nice.
What did he/she say?
He/She said (that) the weather was/wasn’t nice.
I think that they have already left. What did I say?
You said, that you thought (that) they had already left.
Did you eat your lunch in the restaurant yesterday?
Yes, I ate my lunch in the restaurant yesterday. / No, I didn’t eat my lunch in the restaurant yesterday.
What did he/she say?
He/She said (that) he/she ate/had eaten his/her lunch in the restaurant yesterday.
I can’t come to the party on Friday. What did I say?
You said (that) you couldn’t come to the party on Friday.
When I get that job, I will earn a lot of money. What did I say?
You said (that) when you got that job, you would earn a lot of money.
Translate this sentence, please: Chcem ísť na dovolenku, ale neviem kam ísť.
I want to go for a holiday, but I don’t know where to go.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she wanted to go for a holiday, but he/she didn’t know where to go.
Translate this sentence, please: Povedala mu, že sa mýlil.
She told him that he was wrong.
Translate this sentence, please: Povedala, že mal pravdu.
She said that he was right.
VOCABULARY
54.v.3
passenger
passport
mobile phone
signature
pasažier, cestujúci
pas
mobilný telefón
podpis
32
Q&A
54.qa.4
Do passengers on public means of transport need a valid passport?
No, passengers on public means of transport don’t need a valid passport, but they need a valid ticket.
Could you pay by credit card if there weren’t your signature on it?
No, I couldn’t pay by credit card if there weren’t my signature on it.
Is it common for people in your country to have more than one mobile phone?
Yes, it is common for people in my country to have more than one mobile phone. / No, it isn’t common for people
in my country to have more than one mobile phone.
Have you ever broken up with your boyfriend over the phone?
Yes, I have broken up with my boyfriend over the phone. / No, I have never broken up with my boyfriend over the
phone.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that she had broken up with her boyfriend over the phone. / He/she said that she had never broken up
with her boyfriend over the phone.
Are you always able to read other people’s signatures?
Yes, I’m always able to read other people’s signatures. / No, I’m not always able to read other people’s signatures.
What did he/she say?
He/she said (that) he/ she was/ wasn’t able to read other people’s signatures.
EXERCISE
54.e.1
Yesterday, you met your friend John. Below are some of the things he told you. Later that day you
want to tell another friend what John said. Use indirect speech.
1.
”I haven’t seen you for such a long time.”
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
”I’m living in Bratislava now.”
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
”My sister is ill.”
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
”Lisa and Paul are going to get married.”
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
”Ema has had a baby.”
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
”I don’t know where Judy is going.”
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
”I saw Richard at a party in June and she looked happy.”
33
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
”My bike was stolen last month.”
......................................................................................................................................................
9.
”I’ll tell Mary that I saw you.”
......................................................................................................................................................
10. ”You can come and stay at my flat if you come to Prague.”
......................................................................................................................................................
VOCABULARY
54.v.4
religion
religious
culture
cultural
event
náboženstvo
náboženský,pobožný
kultúra
kultúrny
udalosť, akcia
Q&A
54.qa.5
Do you agree that religion is an important part of life?
Yes, I agree that religion is an important part of life. / No, I don’t agree that religion is an important part of life.
Is religious education taught at schools in this country?
Yes, religious education is taught at schools in this country.
Are there many cultural events in your town during the summer?
Yes, there are many cultural events in my town during the summer. / No, there aren’t many cultural events in my
town during the summer.
Where do people generally go to attend religious events?
People generally go to attend religious events to churches.
Are you interested in American culture?
Yes, I am interested in American culture. / No, I am not…
VOCABULARY
54.v.5
however
avšak, akokoľvek
DEFINITION
54.def.5
It is not always necessary to change the tense of the verb when we use indirect speech. If you report
something and the situation hasn’t changed, you can leave the verb in the Present Tense. Study this
example:
John said: “The room is large.”ĺ John said that the room is large.
The room is still large, the situation hasn’t changed. However, you can change the tense of the verb
into the past and it would still be correct.
34
Q&A
54.qa.6
Translate this sentence, please: Bratislava je hlavné mesto Slovenska.
Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia.
Do we have to change the tense if we want to put this sentence into indirect speech?
No, we don’t have to change the tense…
Why?
Because the situation hasn’t changed. Bratislava is still the capital of Slovakia.
Is the window big or small?
The window is big.
What did he/she say?
He said that the window is / was big.
Q&A
54.qa.7
Translate this sentence, please: Povedala mu, že sa mýlil.
She told him that he was wrong.
Translate this sentence, please: Povedala, že mal pravdu.
She said that he was right.
Do we use the word “to” after the verb “say” or “tell”?
We use the word “to” after the verb “say”.
For example?
He said to me that you were right.
VOCABULARY
54.v.6
hourly
daily
weekly
monthly
yearly
každú hodinu, hodinový
denne, denný
týždenne, týždenný
mesačne, mesačný
ročne, ročný
Q&A
54.qa.8
Did you use to play outside daily when you were a little child?
Yes, I used to play outside daily when I was a little child. / No, I didn’t use to play outside daily when I was a little
child.
Do the employees in your company get paid monthly?
Yes, the employees in my company usually get paid monthly.
Where do you usually go for your yearly holiday?
I usually go to … for my yearly holiday.
Does the train to the nearest town leave hourly?
Yes, the train to the nearest town leaves hourly. / No, the train to the nearest town doesn’t leave hourly.
Do you read any daily newspapers?
Yes, I read some daily newspapers. / No, I don’t read any daily newspapers.
35
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she reads /read /doesn’t read /didn’t read some/any daily newspapers.
VOCABULARY
54.v.7
proud of sth. / sb.
pride
satisfied
byť hrdý na niečo / niekoho
hrdosť, pýcha
spokojný
Q&A
54.qa.9
Are parents usually proud of the success of their children?
Yes, parents are usually proud of the success of their children.
When you are proud of yourself, does it mean that you are satisfied with your actions?
Yes, when I am proud of myself, it means that I am satisfied with my actions.
Does success make people proud?
Yes, success makes people proud.
Do you take pride in your work?
Yes, I take pride in my work/ No, I don’t…
VOCABULARY
54.v.8
(make) a decision
member
(urobiť) rozhodnutie
člen
Q&A
54.qa.10
Can you make decisions alone or do the members of your family often help you make them?
Yes, I can make decisions alone and the members of my family don’t help me make them. / No I can’t make
decisions alone and the members of my family often help me make them.
Which member of your family is most proud of you?
My ………….. is most proud of me.
What has been the best decision in your life?
The best decision in my life has been…
EXERCISE
54.e.2
Change the sentences below either to direct or indirect speech.
1.
Tom says: “There is a good band playing in the club tonight.”
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Amy said that she had seen Judy in the bank last Monday.
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
The driver said that he was going to turn right at the traffic lights.
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
My brother, “I’ve returned the book to the library.”
36
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
The doctor said that he would send me the results soon.
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
They said that there are more people living in Bratislava than in Košice.
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
Susan said: “I don’t know what I’m going to do.”
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
She said that if she had had enough money, she would have gone for a holiday.
......................................................................................................................................................
9.
He said: “I have already eaten my lunch.”
......................................................................................................................................................
10. I said: “I don’t read any daily newspapers.”
......................................................................................................................................................
VOCABULARY
54.v.9
economics
jet
engineer
congratulate
stripper
shame
ekonómia
prúdové lietadlo
inžinier
blahoželať
striptér
hanba
READING
54.r.1
Four friends
Four friends, who hadn't seen each other in 25 years, met again at a pub.
After they had a few drinks, one of them had to go to the toilet.
The other three started to talk about their children.
The first of them said, "My son makes me really proud. He started working at an international company as a
simple assistant. He studied economics, he was soon promoted and now he's the president of this large
company. He became so rich that he gave his best friend a new Rolls Royce for his birthday."
The second one said, "That's amazing! My son makes me really proud, too. He started working for a big airline
company as a simple flight attendant, but then went to flight school and became a pilot. After that he
became a business partner in the company, and now he owns a large part of it. He's so rich that he gave his
best friend a new jet for his birthday."
The third man said, "Well, that's great! My son is also doing well. He studied at the most famous universities
and became an engineer. Then he started his own company and is now a multimillionaire. And he’s very
generous, too. He gave his best friend a really great gift for his birthday: a 3000 square meter house with a
37
large garden, a tennis court and a swimming pool."
38
The three friends were congratulating each other when the fourth returned from the bathroom and asked,
"What happened, what are all the congratulations for?"
One of the others answered, "We were talking about how proud we feel because our sons are very successful.
And your son? What about him?"
The fourth man answered, "My son is gay and works as a stripper at a nightclub."
The three friends said, "What a shame ... we are sorry."
The fourth man answered, "No, it isn’t a shame. He's my son, I love him very much. And he I think he’s living a
good life. It was his birthday just a week ago and he got an amazing 3000 square meter house with a
swimming pool, a new jet and a new Rolls Royce from his three boyfriends."
Questions and tasks
1.
Čo povedal prvý muž o svojom synovi? Zopakuj jeho slová pomocou nepriamej reči.
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Čo povedal druhý muž o svojom synovi? Zopakuj jeho slová pomocou nepriamej reči.
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
Čo povedal tretí muž o svojom synovi? Zopakuj jeho slová pomocou nepriamej reči.
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
Bol štvrtý muž takisto hrdý na svojho syna? Prečo?
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
Myslíš si, že traja synovia vedia o sebe navzájom?
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
Translate the words: hanba, blahoželať, inžinier, striptér, ekonómia, prúdové lietadlo. Use the words
in sentences.
......................................................................................................................................................
39
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH II
UNIT 55
WARM UP QUESTIONS
55.wq.1
Be the teacher.
Prídeš zajtra na hodinu?
Will you come to the lesson tomorrow?
Yes, I will come to the lesson tomorrow. / No, I won’t come to the lesson tomorrow.
Čo povedal/a?
What did he/she say?
He/She said (that) he/she would/wouldn’t come to the lesson tomorrow.
Počúval si vždy svojich rodičov, keď si bol dieťa?
Did you always obey your parents when you were younger?
Yes, I always obeyed my parents when I was younger. / No, I didn’t always obey my parents when I was younger.
Čo nám povedal/ a?
What did he/she tell us?
He / She told us (that) he/she had always obeyed his/her parents when he/she had been younger. /
He / She told you (that) he/she hadn’t always obeyed his/her parents when he/she had been younger.
Poznáš niekoho, kto je úplne bezchybný?
Do you know anybody who is completely faultless?
Yes, I know somebody who is completely faultless. / No, I don’t know anybody who is completely faultless.
Čo povedal/a?
What did he/she say?
He/She said that she knew somebody who was completely faultless. / He/she said that she didn’t know anybody
who was completely faultless.
Idem ti potriasť rukou?
Am I going to shake your hand?
No, you aren’t going to shake my hand.
Čo povedal/a?
What did he/she say?
He/She said that you weren’t going to shake his/her hand.
40
VOCABULARY
55.v.1
following
previous
statement
nasledujúci
predchádzajúci
výrok, tvrdenie
DEFINITION
55.def.1
Below is the list of the common time and place changes in indirect speech:
When we change direct speech into indirect speech, it is sometimes necessary to change time and
place expressions such as “this week”, “yesterday”, “here” etc. Study this example:
Lisa says: “I have seen Tom this week.” You want to report Lisa’s statement to your friend one week
later. In this case you must change not only the tense but also the time expression “this week” because
it’s already a different week. In indirect speech, the sentence would sound like this: Lisa said that she
had seen Tom that week.
Below is the list of common time and place changes in indirect speech:
DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
Today
She said, “I’ve bought it today”
That day
She said (that) she had bought it that day.
Yesterday
She said, “I saw him yesterday.”
The previous day/The day before
She said (that) she had seen him the previous day/the day
before.
This (week/month/year,…)
She said, “I am getting a new car this week.”
That (week/month/year,…)
She said (that) she was getting a new car that week.
Now
She said, “Tom is tired now.”
Then
She said (that) Tom was tired then.
Ago
She said, “We bought it a week ago.”
Before
She said (that) they had bought it the week before.
Last (week/month/year)
She said, “I was on holiday last week.”
The previous (week/month/year)
She said (that) she had been on holiday the previous week.
Tomorrow
She said, “I’ll see you tomorrow.”
The next/following day
She said (that) she would see me the next day.
Next (week/month/year)
She said, “I have an appointment next
week.”
The following (week/month/year)
She said (that) she had an appointment the following week.
Here
She said, “I live here.”
There
She said (that) she lived there.
This/These
She said, “These shoes are nice.”
That/Those
She said (that) those shoes were nice.
41
Q&A
55.qa.1
Change the sentences into indirect speech. Always change the time or place expression as well.
He won the match yesterday. What did I say?
You said that he had won the match the day before.
Last year, it was forbidden to swim in that lake. What did I say?
You said that it had been forbidden to swim in that lake the previous year.
He is asleep now, you can’t talk to him. What did I say?
You said that he was asleep then and I couldn’t talk to him.
I know that you will succeed in your exam tomorrow. What did I say?
You said that you knew I would succeed in my exam the following day.
They broke up 2 months ago. What did I say?
You said that they had broken up 2 months before.
She is going to sit here this lesson. What did I say?
You said that she was going to sit there that lesson.
VOCABULARY
55.v.2
circle
square
line
round
kruh
štvorec, štvorcový
čiara
okrúhly, dookola
Q&A
55.qa.2
Is a square round?
No, a square isn’t round. It’s square.
If you join two ends of a straight line, can you make a circle?
Yes, if I join two ends of a straight line, I can make a circle.
How many lines are there in a square?
There are four lines in a square.
Are the planets around the Sun round or square?
The planets around the Sun are round.
Are there many lines on the road between Bratislava and Košice?
Yes, there are many lines on the road between Bratislava and Košice.
VOCABULARY
55.v.3
produce
product
original
fake
produkovať
produkt
originálny, pôvodný; originál
falošný, neúprimný
42
Q&A
55.qa.3
Are you the type of person who is willing to spend more money on original goods rather than buying
cheap fake goods?
Yes, I’m the type of person who is willing to spend more money on original goods rather than buying cheap fake
goods. / No, I’m not that type of person who is willing to spend more money on original goods rather than buying
fake goods.
What kinds of products does our country produce?
The kinds of products our country produces are cars, food…
What do we mean by an original person?
By an original person we mean somebody who is creative and does things differently than other people.
Would you prefer to have many false friends or one true friend?
I would prefer to have one true friend instead of many false friends.
VOCABULARY
55.v.4
material
liquid
wooden
made of
box
materiál
tekutina
drevený
vyrobený z
krabica, box
Q&A
55.qa.4
What kind of material is this door made of?
This door is made of wood.
Are there any wooden pieces of furniture in your flat/house?
Yes, there are some wooden pieces of furniture in my flat/house. / No, there aren’t any wooden pieces of furniture
in my flat/house.
What is the name of the most important liquid in the world?
The name of the most important liquid in the world is water.
If we put liquid into a wooden box, do you think it would stay there?
No, if we put liquid into a wooden box, I don’t think it would stay there.
Does our country produce any wooden products?
Yes, our country produces some wooden products.
Do you agree that boxing is a rough sport?
Yes, I agree that boxing is a rough sport. / No, I don’t agree that box is a rough sport.
VOCABULARY
55.v.5
gold
silver
steel
iron
metal
zlato
striebro
oceľ
železo
kov
43
DEFINITION
55.def.2
The names of some metals are gold, silver, steel and iron.
Q&A
55.qa.5
What are the names of some metals?
The names of some metals are gold, silver, steel and iron.
Which of these four metals has the greatest value?
Gold has the greatest value.
Are you wearing anything made of silver?
Yes, I’m wearing something made of silver. / No, I’m not wearing anything made of silver.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she was/wasn’t wearing something/anything made of silver.
Does our country produce any products made of steel?
Yes, our country produces some products made of steel.
Do you agree that steel and iron are widely used in building industry?
Yes, I agree that steel and iron are widely used in building industry.
Can iron be found in the human body?
Yes, iron can be found in the human body.
EXERCISE
55 .e.1
Change the sentences using indirect speech. Always change the tense and the time/place expression.
1.
Emily: “Our teacher is wearing a ring made of pure gold today.”
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Helen said, “I didn’t hear it when my mobile phone rang yesterday.”
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
My father: “I am going to buy this wooden table tomorrow.”
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
Patricia said, “My mother will celebrate her birthday next week and I’m buying her a present.”
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
You: “My husband left for work an hour ago.”
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
Your best friend: “I bought a fake T-shirt last week and I want to change it for an original one.”
......................................................................................................................................................
44
7.
Susan: “I will have to get up at 6 o’clock in the morning next week because I have so much work to
do.”
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
John says, “I live here, in this beautiful house.”
......................................................................................................................................................
9.
Your brother: “I can’t find the square plate here.”
......................................................................................................................................................
10. The teacher: “These children behave very well.”
......................................................................................................................................................
VOCABULARY
55.v.6
international
domestic
politics
political
medzinárodný
domáci
politika
politický
Q&A
55.qa.6
Can you name some domestic animals?
The names of some domestic animals are…
Do you like to watch international football matches?
Yes, I like to watch… / No, I don’t like to watch…
Are you interested in both international and domestic politics?
Yes, I’m interested in both international and domestic politics. / No, I’m not interested in both/either international
and/or domestic politics.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she was/wasn’t interested in both international and domestic politics.
VOCABULARY
55.v.7
avoid
predísť, vyhnúť sa (niečomu)
Q&A
55.qa.7
Do you agree that political conflicts between countries can be avoided by an open discussion?
Yes, I agree that political conflicts between countries can be avoided by an open discussion. / No, I don’t agree that
political conflicts between countries can be avoided by an open discussion.
How can you avoid being ill?
I can avoid being ill by eating a lot of fruit and vegetables, wearing warm clothes in winter, doing sports, sleeping
regularly…
Is there anyone in your life who you rather avoid when it is possible?
Yes, there is someone in my life who I rather avoid when it is possible.
45
VOCABULARY
55.v.7
hope
doubt
forever
nádej, dúfať
pochybnosť; pochybovať
navždy
Q&A
55.qa.7
Do you hope to live forever?
Yes, I hope to live forever. / No, I don’t hope to live forever.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she hoped/didn’t hope to live forever.
Do you usually have many doubts before you make an important decision?
Yes, I usually have many doubts before I make an important decision. / No, I don’t usually have many doubts
before I make an important decision.
Would you doubt my words if I told you that I was a millionaire?
Yes, I would doubt your words if you told me that you were a millionaire.
VOCABULARY
55.v.8
be worth
mať cenu, oplatiť sa
Q&A
55.qa.8
Do you think it is worth learning English?
Yes, I think it is worth learning English.
Do you think that life without hope is worth living?
Yes, I think that life without hope is worth living. / No, I don’t think that life without hope is worth living.
Translate: Neoplatí sa robiť rýchle rozhodnutia.
It isn’t worth making quick decisions.
VOCABULARY
55.v.9
save
rescue
economise
protect
conserve
store
zachrániť
šetriť
ochrániť
konzervovať
uložiť
DEFINITION
55.def.3
The verb save has different meanings, such as: to rescue, to economise, to protect, to conserve and to
store. Study the following examples:
1. He rescued me / saved from falling down.
2. I have to economise / save money now, I can’t buy useless things.
3. We should conserve / save our natural resources.
4. I stored / saved the photos into my computer.
46
Q&A
55.qa.9
What are the different meanings of the verb to save?
The different meanings of the verb to save are to rescue, to economise, to protect, to conserve and to store.
Have you ever saved any of your money and put it in the bank?
Yes, I have saved some of my money and put it in the bank. / No, I have never saved any of my money and put it in
the bank.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she had/hadn’t saved some/any of his/her money and put it in the bank.
If you saw a man trying to kill himself, would you try to save him?
Yes, if I saw a man trying to kill himself, I would try to save him. / No, if I saw a man trying to kill himself, I wouldn’t
try to save him.
Are there many phone numbers saved in your mobile phone?
Yes, there are many phone numbers saved in my mobile phone. / No, there aren’t many phone numbers saved in
my mobile phone.
Do you try to save water at home?
Yes, I try to save water at home. / No, I don’t try to save water at home.
If you were charged with a crime, would your family save you?
Yes, if I were charged with a crime my family would save me. / No, if I were …
EXERCISE
55 .e.2
First, correct the mistakes in the following sentences, and then form questions from the sentences.
1.
This around circle is made from wooden.
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
He was able to rescue some money last year, because he didn’t waste money on useles products.
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
Politics and religion problems don’t interested me.
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
You should think carefully before you do a decision.
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
I always conserve all new phone numbers into my mobile phone.
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
When people get asleep their eyes are usually open.
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
The company has succeeded at making a big profit this year.
......................................................................................................................................................
47
8.
Lucy used to obeying her parents when she was younger, they weren’t mad about her very often.
......................................................................................................................................................
9.
The murderer was shoot by the police in Monday.
......................................................................................................................................................
10. We are very proud on our two sons.
......................................................................................................................................................
DICTATION
55.d.1
My cousin said that she would keep in touch and would visit us weekly. Even though she broke up with her
boyfriend because he had cheated on her, she has forgiven him and wants to keep on living with him. The
ship sank very quickly and nobody survived in the cold ocean. A dangerous criminal was being watched by
the police for several weeks before he was arrested and charged with all his crimes. Do you always feel guilty
when you do something wrong?
48
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH III
UNIT 56
WARM UP QUESTIONS
56.wq.1
Be the teacher.
Súhlasíš, že autonehodám sa možno vyhnúť opatrným jazdením?
Do you agree that car accidents can be avoided by driving more carefully?
Yes, I agree that car accidents can be avoided by driving more carefully.
Čo povedal/a?
What did he/she say?
He/ she said (that) car accidents could be avoided by driving more carefully.
Poznáš niekoho, kto ešte nikdy nezachránil nikomu život?
Do you know anybody who has never rescued someone’s life?
Yes, I know somebody who has never rescued someone’s life. / No, I don’t know anybody who has never rescued
someone’s life.
Čo povedal/a?
What did he/she say?
He/She said (that) he/she knew somebody who had never rescued someone’s life. / He/she said that he/she didn’t
know anybody who had never rescued someone’s life.
Je v tejto miestnosti niečo vyrobené z ocele?
Is there anything in this room made of steel?
Yes, there is something in this room made of steel. / No, there isn’t anything in this room made of steel.
Keby si si mohol vybrať, kúpil by si si radšej prsteň vyrobený zo striebra alebo zo zlata?
If you could choose, would you rather buy a ring made of silver or gold?
If I could choose, I would rather buy a ring made of…
VOCABULARY
56.v.1
command
order
request
rozkaz, rozkázať
nariadenie, rozkaz; nariadiť, rozkázať
požiadavka, požiadať
DEFINITION
56.def.1
Besides common positive and negative sentences, we can change also questions, requests and
commands from direct into indirect speech.
QUESTIONS
When we want to report a question in indirect speech we use the word “ask” instead of “say”, we don’t
use a question mark and we put the subject before the verb as in a normal positive sentence. Study
this example:
She says, “What will you do on Wednesday?”
ĺ She asked me what I would do on Wednesday.
49
Tom says, “Are you going to go the cinema with us?”
ĺ Tom asked me if I was going to go to the cinema with them.”
Q&A
56.qa.1
Is it possible to change a question from direct into indirect speech in English?
Yes, it is possible to change a question from direct into indirect speech in English.
Do you have to change the tense if you want to put a question into indirect speech?
Yes, you have to change the tense if you want to put a question into indirect speech.
What verb do we use when we change a question from direct into indirect speech?
We use the verb ask when we change a question from direct into indirect speech.
Do you have many English books at home? What did I ask?
You asked if I had many English books at home.
Do you want to buy this wooden table? What did I ask you?
You asked me if I wanted to buy that wooden table.
Has your friend ever seen a famous person? What did I ask?
You asked if my friend had ever seen a famous person.
Translate this question, please:
Kedy si včera v noci zaspal?
When did you fall asleep last night?
What did he/she ask?
He/She asked when I had fallen asleep the previous night.
DEFINITION
56.def.2
COMMANDS, ORDERS
When we want to put a command into indirect speech we use the words “tell”, “command”, “order”
instead of “say”, we change the Imperative into the Infinitive.
She says, “Open the window!” ĺ She told me to open the window.
In case of a negative command, “do not” becomes only “not”. Study this example:
Tom says, “Don’t shout at me!” ĺ
Tom ordered me not to shout at him.
Q&A
56.qa.2
Open it immediately. What did I order you to do?
You told me to open it immediately.
Don’t listen to him. What did I tell you?
You told me not to listen to him.
Give her your pen. What did I order you to do?
You ordered me to give her my pen.
Don’t let them enter the room. What did I tell you?
You told me not to let them enter the room.
50
DEFINITION
56.def.3
REQUESTS
When we want to put a request into indirect speech, we use the words “ask” or “request”, and in the
rest of the sentence we use the Infinitive.
Study this example:
She says, “Please, call me at 5.” ĺ She asked me to call her at 5.
Tom says, “Please, don’t tell anybody what happened!” ĺ Tom requested me not to tell anybody
what had happened.
Q&A
56.qa.3
Help me to move this table, please. What did I request?
You requested me to help you to move that table.
Close the window, please. What did I ask you to do?
You asked me to close the window.
Don’t smoke, please. What did I ask you not to do?
You asked me not to smoke.
Translate this request, please: Prosím, nemeškajte.
Don‘t be late, please.
What did he/she request you?
He/she requested us not to be late.
VOCABULARY
56.v.2
surname
photo
pronounce
priezvisko
fotka, fotografia
vysloviť
Q&A
56.qa.4
Do you think that it would be easy for you to read and pronounce Chinese surnames?
No, I don’t think that it would be easy for me to read and pronounce Chinese surnames.
Tell me your surname, please.
My surname is …………..
What did I ask him/her to do?
You asked him/her to tell you his/her surname.
Do you have any photos of you and your friends hanging on the walls at home?
Yes, I have some photos of me and my friends hanging on the walls at home. / No, I don’t have any photos of me
and my friends hanging on the walls at home.
Do famous people sometimes give their photos to their fans?
Yes, famous people sometimes give their photos to their fans.
Why?
Because some people collect photos of famous people.
51
VOCABULARY
56.v.3
sign
pleasure
peace
relax
znak; podpísať
potešenie
mier
relax; relaxovať
Q&A
56.qa.5
What is the verb of the noun “signature”?
The verb of the noun “signature” is “sign”.
When people get married, must they sign any documents?
Yes, when people get married, they must sign some documents.
What is the sign of the Christian religion?
The sign of the Christian religion is a cross.
Is it a great pleasure for you to relax in the bath?
Yes, it is a great pleasure for me to relax in the bath. / No, it isn’t a great pleasure for me to relax in the bath.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that it was/wasn’t a great pleasure for him/her to relax in the bath.
When people want to relax, what do they usually do?
When people want to relax they usually go for a walk, watch TV, read books, do sports …
Is world peace one of your greatest wishes?
Yes, world peace is one of my greatest wishes. / No, world peace isn’t one of my greatest wishes.
If you had been born 80 years ago, would you have lived in peace?
No, if I had been born 80 years ago, I wouldn’t have lived in peace.
VOCABULARY
56.v.4
mind
brain
memory
physical
myseľ
mozog
pamäť
fyzický
DEFINITION
56.def.4
The difference between mind and brain is that we use mind in an abstract sense and we use brain in a
physical sense.
Q&A
56.qa.6
What is the difference between mind and brain?
The difference between mind and brain is that we use mind in an abstract sense and we use brain in a physical
sense.
Is memory a part of the brain?
No, memory isn’t a part of the brain, but it’s a part of the mind.
Do you think that you have a good memory?
Yes, I think that I have a good memory. / No, I don’t think that I have a good memory.
52
If there is not enough memory in your computer, will it work slowly?
Yes, if there is not enough memory in my computer, it will work slowly.
Are small boys generally physically stronger than men?
No, small boys aren’t generally physically stronger than men. They are physically weaker.
VOCABULARY
56.v.5
change one’s mind
brainy
smart
more or less
rozmyslieť si, zmeniť názor
múdry
šikovný, múdry
viac-menej
DEFINITION
56.def.5
When we say that somebody changed his mind, it means that he changed his previous opinion or
decision.
Q&A
56.qa.7
What does it mean when we say that somebody changed his mind?
When we say that “somebody changed his mind”, we mean that he changed his previous opinion or decision.
Are you in the habit of changing your mind often?
Yes, I’m in the habit of changing my mind often. / No, I’m not in the habit of changing my mind often.
Are the words “brainy” and “smart” more or less synonyms?
Yes, the words “brainy” and “smart” are more or less synonyms.
Do you know any other synonyms of these words?
Yes, some other synonyms of these words are “intelligent”, “clever”, “wise”…
Who’s the brainiest in your family?
My ………….. is the brainiest in my family.
Don’t change your mind all the time. What did I ask you not to do?
You asked me not to change my mind all the time.
VOCABULARY
56.v.6
support
ambition
(walking) stick
lonely
podpora; podporiť
ambícia
(chodecká) palica
osamelý
Q&A
56.qa.8
Do you have many ambitions in your life?
Yes, I have many ambitions in my life. / No, I don’t have many ambitions in my life.
Do your family members support your ambitions?
Yes, my family members support my ambitions. / No, my family members don’t support my ambitions.
Do you have more or less the same ambitions as your best friend?
Yes, I have more or less the same ambitions as my best friend. / No, I don’t have more or less the same ambitions as
my best friend, but I have different ambitions.
53
If the walls didn’t support this ceiling, would it fall down?
Yes, if the walls didn’t support this ceiling, it would fall down.
Does a walking stick support an old person’s body while walking?
Yes, a walking stick supports an old person’s body while walking.
When you feel lonely, what or who is your greatest support?
When I feel lonely, …………. is my greatest support.
VOCABULARY
56.v.7
because of
definitely
kvôli
určite
Q&A
56.qa.9
Do you agree that when somebody feels lonely, it is definitely because of his nature?
Yes, I agree that when somebody feels lonely, it is definitely because of his nature. / No, I don’t agree that when
somebody is lonely, it is definitely because of his nature.
And what about…?
Do you think that you will definitely realize your ambitions one day?
Yes, I think I will definitely realize all my ambitions one day. / No, I don’t think I will realize my ambitions one day.
And what about…?
Have you ever been late for school because of the morning traffic jam?
Yes, I have been late for school because of the morning traffic jam. / No, I have never been late for school because
of the morning traffic jam.
And what about…?
VOCABULARY
56.v.8
wonder
tempt
tempting
temptation
čudovať sa, zamýšľať sa
pokúšať, lákať
lákavý
pokušenie
Q&A
56.qa.10
Do you sometimes wonder what the purpose of living in this world is?
Yes, I sometimes wonder what the purpose of living in this world is. / No, I never wonder what the purpose of…
Are producers often tempted to produce low quality products in order to make more money?
Yes, producers are often tempted to produce low quality products in order to make more money.
If you were offered 1 million euros and told to murder the president, would it be a great temptation
for you?
If I were offered 1 million euros and told to murder the president, it would/ wouldn’t be a great temptation for me.
EXERCISE
56.e.1
Change the following commands, questions and requests into indirect speech.
54
1.
“What do you want?” she asked him.
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
He asked me, “Are you feeling lonely?”
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
The teacher ordered to the class, “Be quite.”
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
My mother asked me, “Don’t waste your money, please.”
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
The passenger asked, “When will the train arrive?”
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
“Are you looking for a special present?” the shop assistant asked me.
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
I said, “Don’t worry Sue!”
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
You requested me, “Don’t listen to what he says, please.”
......................................................................................................................................................
9.
The policeman, “Pronounce your surname slowly.”
......................................................................................................................................................
10. He asked her, “Will you marry me?”
......................................................................................................................................................
EXERCISE
56.e.2
Translate these questions, orders and requests into English and then change them into indirect
speech.
1.
Používaj pri rozprávaní mozog!
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Nechaj ma chvíľu relaxovať, prosím.
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
Prečo nemáš žiadne ambície?
......................................................................................................................................................
55
4.
Pozri sa na túto fotku našej rodiny.
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
Nepi alkohol!
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
Chceš večerať teraz?
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
Pomôž mi s utieraním prachu, prosím,
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
Začni sa o seba starať!
......................................................................................................................................................
9.
Nehovor otcovi, koľko to stálo, prosím.
......................................................................................................................................................
10. Prídeš pred polnocou?
......................................................................................................................................................
VOCABULARY
56.v.9
increase
attribute
a catch
except
exit
housework
proof
narastať, stúpať
atribút, vlastnosť
háčik, prekážka
okrem
vyjsť, opustiť
domáce práce
dôkaz
READING
56.r.1
The husband store
There is a new store selling husbands in our city. A single woman can just walk in and simply choose a
husband from hundreds of men. The shop has of 6 floors, and the higher you go, the better husbands you
will find. But there is a catch. If you go a floor higher, you can choose a husband there or go out of the shop,
but you can’t go back down. A few days after the store opens, a single woman goes in to find a husband.
There is a sign on the first floor, saying:
Floor 1 – Men that have jobs.
The woman sees the sign and thinks: "Hmm, my boyfriend was unemployed, so this better already, but I want
to see what’s upstairs." She takes the stairs and goes up a floor.
The second floor also has a sign, which says:
Floor 2 – Men that have jobs and are really handsome.
The woman starts thinking "That’s even better, but I want to see what’s upstairs.”, and goes up another floor.
56
The third floor sign says:
Floor 3 – Men that have jobs, are really handsome and want to have children.
"That’s really great" the woman thinks to herself, “but I want to see what’s upstairs.”
The sign on the fourth floor reads:
Floor 4 - Men that have jobs, are really handsome, want to have children and like to do housework.
"Wow!" says the woman, "that’s just super! But after this, there must be something really amazing upstairs!"
So she goes up to the next floor.
The fifth floor sign says:
Floor 5 - These men have jobs, love children, are extremely good looking, help with the housework and are
very romantic.
"Oh, that’s even better than I expected! Just imagine what I will find upstairs!" And she walks the stairs to the
sixth floor.
The sixth floor sign says:
Floor 6 – Welcome to the top floor! You are the visitor 8,610,307,288th to this floor. There aren’t any men on
this floor. We have built it as proof that women are never satisfied with anything. Please exit the building.
Thank you for shopping at our husband store, good-bye and have a nice day!
QUESTIONS AND TASKS
Prosím preložte otázky do slovenského jazyka.
1. What is a husband store? Describe it in your own words, please.
2. Can you return to the previous floor after moving to the next floor?
3. What did the sign on the fifth floor say? Use indirect speech, please.
4. Do you agree with the opinion that women are never satisfied with anything?
5. If you had the possibility to buy a husband in this store, which floor would you choose from and why?
6. Translate the words: okrem, vyjsť, domáce práce, háčik, vlastnosť, narastať, dôkaz. Use the words in
sentences.
57
WELCOME TO MY HOME!
UNIT 57
VOCABULARY
57.v.1
welcome (to)
vítať (niekde)
WARM UP QUESTIONS
57.wq.1
What is the difference between a house and a home?
The difference between a house and a home is that a house is a building and a home is a place where we live.
What kind of rooms are there generally in a two-roomed flat?
The kinds of rooms which are generally in a two-roomed flat are a bedroom, a living room, a kitchen and a
bathroom.
In your opinion, is it a good idea to have air-conditioning in the room where you sleep?
In my opinion, it isn’t a good idea to have air-conditioning in the room where you sleep.
What is the difference between a cupboard and a wardrobe?
The difference between a cupboard and a wardrobe is that we put plates in a cupboard and clothes in a wardrobe.
What kind of furniture do people usually have in their living rooms?
The kind of furniture that people usually have in their living room is a sofa, some chairs, a coffee table etc.
VOCABULARY
57.v.2
location
noisy
centre
suburbs
poloha
hlučný
centrum
predmestie
Q&A
57.qa.1
When people build a house, do they usually care much about the location?
Yes, when people build a house, they usually care much about the location.
What do we call the quiet part of the town which is outside the centre?
We call the part of the town which is outside the centre the suburbs.
Are the flats right in the centre of a town usually cheaper than the flats in the suburbs?
No, the flats right in the centre of a town are not usually cheaper than the flats in the suburbs but they are usually
more expensive.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that the flats right in the centre of a town were more expensive than the flats in the suburbs.
Do most people prefer to live in the city centre although it is a very noisy location?
Yes, most people prefer to live in the city centre although it is a very noisy location.
58
Why?
Because they usually work in the city centre and there are also shops, post offices etc.
VOCABULARY
57.v.3
floor
ground floor
poschodie
prízemie
Q&A
57.qa.2
Would you be more afraid to live in a flat on the 11th floor than on the ground floor?
Yes, I would be more afraid to live in a flat on the 11th floor than on the ground floor.
If you fell from a ground floor window, would you hurt yourself very badly?
No, if I fell from a ground floor window, I wouldn’t hurt myself very badly.
What do we call the part of a house which is under the ground floor?
We call the part of a house which is under the ground floor the basement.
VOCABULARY
57.v.4
surround
surroundings
fence
gate
obklopovať
okolie
plot
brána
Q&A
57.qa.3
What surrounds this building?
Other buildings and some trees surround this building.
When there is no fence around your house, is it probable that people will steal vegetables from your
garden?
Yes, when there is no fence around my house, it is probable that people will steal vegetables from my garden.
Did you use to climb over fences when you were a child?
Yes, I used to climb over fences when I was a child. / No, I didn’t use to…
Why? Were you looking for anything?
Do you agree that it is safer to live in a house surrounded by a fence than in a house surrounded by
trees?
Yes, I agree that it is safer to live in a house surrounded by a fence than in a house surrounded by trees.
Describe the surroundings of your house.
My house is surrounded by a fence, some trees and it is in a noisy/quiet location…
What do we call the door in a fence?
We call the door in a fence the gate.
VOCABULARY
57.v.5
steps
connect
schody; kroky
spájať, spojiť
59
DEFINITION
57.def.1
The difference between steps and stairs is that steps are usually in public buildings or outside a house
and stairs are usually inside a house and are often covered with a carpet.
Q&A
57.qa.4
What’s the difference between steps and stairs?
The difference between steps and stairs is that steps are in public buildings or outside a house and stairs are usually
inside a house and are often covered with a carpet.
Am I right when I say that stairs usually connect two floors inside a house?
Yes, you are right when you say that stairs usually connect two floors inside a house.
How many steps do you have to walk up in order to get into this classroom?
I have to walk up about… steps in order to get into this classroom.
How many steps would you have to make if you wanted to get from one side of this room to the other?
I would have to make about… steps if I wanted to get from one side of this room to the other.
What does the expression “step by step” mean?
The expression “step by step“ means “krok za krokom“.
VOCABULARY
57.v.6
another
other
besides
iný, ďalší
iní, ďalší
okrem
DEFINITION
57.def.2
We always use the word “another” before a singular noun. We say “another person” and not “another
people”.
We usually use the word “other” before a plural noun, for example: other people.
Q&A
57.qa.5
When do we use another and when do we use other?
We use another before a singular noun and we use other before a plural noun.
Do you have another shirt besides the one you are wearing now?
Yes, I have another shirt besides the one I am wearing now.
Do you care what other people think?
Yes, I care what other people think. / No, I don’t care what other people think.
Do you study another language besides English?
Yes, I study another language… / No, I don’t…
Are there any other languages you would like to study?
Yes, there are some other… I would like to study… / No, there…
VOCABULARY
57.v.7
the other
ten druhý, zvyšný; tí druhí, zvyšní
60
DEFINITION
57.def.3
The expression “the other” can be used either before a plural or a singular noun. Its meaning is
usually: ten/tí druhý/í, ten/tí posledný/í, ten/tí ďalší.
For example:
Tom is standing on one side of the street and Jerry is standing on the other side.
I drink coffee and the other people in this classroom prefer to drink tea.
Instead of the other people we usually prefer to say the others.
Q&A
57.qa.6
Do you live on the other side of this street?
Yes, I live on the other… / No, I don’t live…
Are you going to study all the other levels of this method?
Yes, I am going to study all the other levels of this method. / No, I am not…
EXERCISE
57.e.1
Decide: another – other(s) – the other(s).
1.
I've found one of my black shoes but I can't find the .......................
2.
You have already drunk six glasses of whisky! – Only six?! Give me .......................!
3.
Do you know those women speaking to each other? – Yes, I know Brigit, but who is
.......................woman?
4.
We don’t like these carpets. Could you show us some .......................?
5.
Rachel and Jennifer are watching TV. .......................girls are out.
6.
All right, ....................... guests have arrived. We can begin to serve dinner.
7.
We are probably going to move to .......................city.
8.
He lives on .......................side of the lake.
9.
There are many .......................possibilities.
10. I would like to borrow .......................book from the local library.
11. You have to sign the document over here and there should be .......................signature.
12. Three people moved out of that flat and two .......................moved in it.
61
VOCABULARY
57.v.8
roof
chimney
fireplace
brick
strecha
komín
kozub
tehla, tehlový
Q&A
57.qa.7
What do we call the top covering of the house?
We call the top covering of the house the roof.
If you decided to build a cottage in the countryside, would you rather build a wooden or a brick
cottage?
If I decided to build a cottage in the countryside, I would rather build a…
Is a chimney usually made of wood?
No, a chimney isn’t usually made of wood, but it is usually made of bricks.
Do you find it dangerous to have a fireplace in a bedroom?
Yes, I find it dangerous to have a fireplace in a bedroom. / No, I don’t find it dangerous to have a…
VOCABULARY
57.v.9
knock
doorbell
front door
klopať
zvonček na dverách
predné, vchodové dvere
Q&A
57.qa.8
When you go to visit a friend, do you prefer to ring a doorbell or to knock on his front door?
When I go to visit a friend, I prefer to…
Does Santa Claus knock on the front door when he wants to enter a house at Christmas time?
No, Santa Claus doesn’t knock on the front door when he wants to enter a house at Christmas time.
So, how does he get into the house?
He gets into the house through the chimney.
Has it already happened to you that you wanted to visit someone, but you rang a wrong doorbell?
Yes, it has already happened to me that I wanted to visit someone, but I rang a wrong doorbell.
What did you do then?
I ran away/ I apologized…
VOCABULARY
57.v.10
microwave (oven)
oven
heat
mikrovlnná rúra
rúra na pečenie
zohrievať, teplo
Q&A
57.qa.9
What kinds of things can you usually see in a kitchen?
The kinds of things I can usually see in a kitchen are a fridge, a sink, cupboards, a cooker, an oven a microwave etc.
Is it now possible to bake a cake even in a microwave?
Yes, it is now possible to bake a cake even in a microwave.
62
However, what do we generally use a microwave for?
We generally use a microwave for heating meals.
Have you ever prepared a very good dinner in an oven?
Yes, I have prepared a very good dinner in an oven.
What did he/she say?
He/ she said that he/she had prepared a very good dinner in an oven.
Is it usually expensive to heat a large house built somewhere in the north of Europe?
Yes, it is usually expensive to heat a large house built somewhere in the north of Europe.
QUESTION TIME
57.qt.1
Translate and choose someone in the class to answer your question.
Prečo si mi povedala, aby som postavil komín, keď nechceš kozub?
Why did you tell me to build a chimney when you don’t want a fireplace?
I told you to build a chimney because…
Keď ideš na dovolenku, je pre teba poloha hotela dôležitá?
When you go on holiday, is the location of your hotel important?
When I go on holiday, the location of my hotel is/isn’t important.
Prečo je podvádzanie partnera také lákavé pre niektorých ľudí ?
Why is cheating on a partner so tempting for some people?
Cheating on a partner is so tempting for some people because the more forbidden something is, the more
tempting it is.
Býval si v centre alebo na predmestí, keď si mal 15 rokov?
Did you live in the town centre or in the suburbs when you were 15 years old?
I lived in… when I was 15 years old.
Zamýšľal si sa niekedy nad tým, prečo sú niektorí ľudia takí štedrí, zatiaľ čo ostatní sú sebeckí?
Have you ever wondered why some people are so generous while others are selfish?
Yes, I have wondered why some people are so generous while others are selfish. / No, I have never wondered why
some…
VOCABULARY
57.v.11
mirror
toilet
washbasin
soap
zrkadlo
toaleta
umývadlo
mydlo
Q&A
57.qa.10
When you leave home in the morning, do you look at yourself in the mirror to make sure that you look
good?
Yes, when I leave home in the morning, I look at myself in the mirror to make sure that I look good. / No, when I
leave home in…, I don’t always look at…
Is the mirror in your bathroom hanging on the same wall as the washbasin?
Yes, the mirror in my bathroom is hanging on the same wall as the washbasin. / No, the mirror in… isn’t…
Are you used to having a quick shower without using soap when you are in a hurry?
Yes, I am used to having a quick shower without using soap when I am in a hurry.
63
DEFINITION
57.def.4
In a kitchen we have a sink, but in a bathroom we can have either a washbasin or a bathroom sink.
Q&A
57.qa.11
What can you find in a bathroom?
We can find either a washbasin or a bathroom sink in a bathroom.
Is it comfortable to have a toilet next to a washbasin in a bathroom?
Yes, it is comfortable to have a toilet next to a washbasin in a bathroom.
Is there any difference between the words “soup” and “soap”?
Yes, there is a difference between those words. We eat soup and we wash our hands with soap.
VOCABULARY
57.v.12
pillow
blanket
sheet
bedside table
vankúš
prikrývka
plachta
nočný stolík
Q&A
57.qa.12
If I were invited to your bedroom, how many pillows would I see on your bed?
If you were invited to my bedroom, you would see… pillows on my bed.
When you have guests at your house, do you usually let them enter your bedroom?
No, when I have guests at my house, I don’t usually let them enter my bedroom.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she usually didn’t let his/her guests enter his/her bedroom.
When a flight takes more than six hours, are passenger usually provided with (any) blankets and
pillows?
Yes, when a flight takes more than six hours, passengers are usually provided with some blankets and pillows.
Would you be able to fall asleep in a bed without sheets?
Yes, I would be able to fall asleep in a bed without sheets.
What kinds of things are lying on your bedside table?
The kinds of things that are lying on my bedside table are some books, a lamp, an alarm clock, my mobile phone
etc.
EXERCISE
57 .e.2
Translate the sentences and form the questions.
1.
Pred desiatimi rokmi sme mali v obývačke starý, ale krásny nábytok.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Ak by som našiel na podlahe v mojej spálni vankúš, zdvihol by som ho a položil na posteľ.
......................................................................................................................................................
64
3.
Nie, nepoznám nikoho, kto chcel zohriať svoju mačku v mikrovlnke.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
Nikdy som sa nesnažila postaviť tehlovú chatu, lebo viem, že je veľmi drahé vykúriť niečo také.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
Áno, keď sa mi bude páčiť nejaký dom na predmestí tohto mesta, kúpim si ho.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
Predtým, než som sa presťahoval do nového bytu, býval som v dome bez komína, zvončeka na
dverách a rúry na pečenie.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
Mal by si kúpiť hrubé prikrývky predtým, než začne zima, pretože bude chladno.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
Áno, dieťa si zvyčajne zabúda umyť ruky v umývadle, keď sa vráti domov zo školy.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
65
EXERCISE
57 .e.3
Describe what you can see in the pictures. Would you like to live there? Why? Why not? What would
you suggest to change about the house/room?
Describe the house or the flat where you live. Why have you chosen it?
66
EVERYDAY PROBLEMS
UNIT 58
WARM UP QUESTIONS
58.wq.1
Be the teacher.
Zvykol si sa často pozerať na seba do zrkadla, keď si bol tínedžer?
Did you often use to look at yourself in the mirror when you were a teenager?
Yes, I used to look at myself in the mirror when I was a teenager. / No, I didn’t use to look at myself in the mirror
when I was a teenager.
Myslíš si, že človek si dokáže zvyknúť na počúvanie klebiet o sebe samom?
Do you think a man is able to get used to listening to gossips about himself?
Yes, I think a man is able to get used to listening to gossips about himself. / No, I don’t…
Bol by svet lepší, keby všetci ľudia na svete boli ženy?
Would the world be better if all the people in the world were women?
Yes, the world would be better if all the people in the world were women. / No, the world wouldn’t be…
Často si pýtaš extra vankúš alebo prikrývku, keď letíš niekam lietadlom?
Do you often ask for an extra pillow or blanket when you fly somewhere by plane?
Yes, I often ask for an extra pillow or blanket when I fly somewhere by plane. / No, I don’t often ask for a…
Chcel by si bývať na prízemí tejto budovy?
Would you like to live on the ground floor of this building?
Yes, I would like to live on the ground floor of this building. / No, I wouldn’t like to live on the ground floor of this
building.
VOCABULARY
58.v.1
household
housewife
housework
domácnosť
domáca pani
domáce práce
Q&A
58.qa.1
What do we call a married woman who is in charge of her own household?
We call a married woman who is in charge of her own household a housewife.
Would you rather have a badly-paid job than to do housework?
Yes, I would rather have a badly-paid job than to do housework. / No, I wouldn’t rather have a… than…, but I
would rather have a badly-paid job than…
DEFINITION
58.def.1
The difference between housework and homework is that housework is done by a housewife in
a house and homework is done by a pupil at home.
67
Q&A
58.qa.2
What’s the difference between the words “housework” and “homework”?
The difference between the words “housework” and “homework” is that housework is done by a housewife in
a house and homework is done by a pupil at home.
Do husbands in this country usually help their wives with housework?
Yes, husbands in this country usually help their wives with housework. / No, husbands in this country usually don’t
help…
Do you think they should?
Yes, I think they should.
VOCABULARY
58.v.2
dust (the furniture)
mop
vaccum
vaccum cleaner
prach, utierať prach (na nábytku)
mop, umývať dlážku
vysávať
vysávač
Q&A
58.qa.3
What do we dust and what do we mop?
We dust the furniture, and we mop the floor.
Would you get tired if you had to vacuum all the carpets in your house or flat?
Yes, I would get tired if I had to vacuum all the carpets in my house/flat. / No, I wouldn’t get tired if I had to…
because we don’t have many carpets in our house/flat.
When a person stays at a guesthouse, must he dust the furniture and mop the floor in his room?
No, when a person stays at a guesthouse, he doesn’t have to dust the furniture and mop the floor in his room.
Is your neighbour in the habit of vacuuming in the middle of the night?
No, fortunately, my neighbour isn’t in the habit of vacuuming in the middle of the night.
And what would you do if he was/were?
If he was/were, I would knock on his door and complain.
VOCABULARY
58.v.3
iron
wash
washing machine
žehlička; žehliť; železo
prať, umývať
práčka
Q&A
58.qa.4
Are you going to do some washing and ironing tonight?
Yes, I am going to do some ironing and washing tonight. / No, I am not going to do any ironing and washing
tonight.
What did he/ she say?
He/she said that he/she was/wasn’t going to do…
Were housewives using washing machines five hundred years ago?
No, housewives weren’t using washing machines five hundred years ago.
Could you operate a washing machine when you were 5 years old?
No, I couldn’t operate a washing machine, when I was 5 years old.
68
VOCABULARY
58.v.4
make the bed
wash up
wash the dishes
dishwasher
ustlať posteľ
umyť riad
umyť riad
umývačka riadu
Q&A
58.qa.5
Have you made your bed today?
Yes, I have made my bed today. / No, I haven’t made my bed today.
Is washing the dishes the most horrible housework you can imagine?
Yes, washing the dishes is the most horrible housework I can imagine. / No, washing the dishes isn’t the most
horrible housework I can imagine.
What is the most terrible housework you can imagine?
The most terrible housework I can imagine is…
What did he/she say?
He/she said that the most terrible work he/she could imagine was…
Are parents usually proud of their children when they don’t make their beds in the morning?
No, parents aren’t usually proud of their children when they don’t make their beds in the morning, but they are
usually mad at them.
Is it quite common nowadays to have a dishwasher in a kitchen?
Yes, it is quite common nowadays to have a dishwasher in a kitchen.
VOCABULARY
58.v.5
tax
electricity
supply
daň
elektrina
zásobovať, dodávka
Q&A
58.qa.6
Do you have to pay a tax for keeping pets at home?
Yes, I have to pay a tax for keeping pets at home.
How much do they usually charge you for electricity supply monthly?
They usually charge me about… euros for electricity supply monthly.
Do you know where this town gets its water supply from?
Yes, I know where this town gets its water supply from. / No, I don’t know where…
What did he/ she say?
He/she said that he/she knew/didn’t know where this town got its water supply from.
When you don’t pay your electricity bill when you should, what will probably happen?
When I don’t pay my electricity bill when I should, I will probably pay a fine.
69
DEFINITION
58.def.2
OUGHT TO
We can often use the expression “ought to” instead of “should” because they have a very similar
meaning. Do not forget to use the word “to” after “ought”.
For example:
I ought to see the doctor tomorrow. OR I should see the doctor tomorrow.
Q&A
58.qa.7
Do we use the word “to” after the verb should?
No, we don’t use the word “to” after the verb should.
Translate this sentence, please: Dnes by si mal umyť riad.
You should wash the dishes today. / You ought to wash the dishes today.
Translate this sentence, please: Ján by sa mal viac učiť.
John should study more. /John ought to study more.
What ought we to do in order to be successful in life?
We ought to learn a lot in order to be successful in life.
Do you think that your parents should be proud of you?
Yes, I think that my parents should be proud of me.
EXERCISE
58.e.1
Correct the mistakes.
1.
Do you make your bed yesterday morning or do you forgot to do it?
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
In my opinion, housewifes not do nothing difficult, they just have clean the windows, mop the floor
and sometimes they must to prepare lunch or dinner.
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
You have always remember to pay for your electricity bill at time?
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
Parents ought take care for their childrens. If they don’t, their childrens would became criminal or
murders.
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
I like to buy a dishwasher because I really hate wash up the dishes. It is the worse homework.
......................................................................................................................................................
70
6.
Why do your brother want vacuum all the carpets on the steps in your house? I don’t know a man
which is mad at vacuum.
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
Most the people not like ironing and the other are crazy.
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
My husband asked me, if I will borrow him some money tomorrow. I don’t, because he is very
irreliable.
......................................................................................................................................................
9.
What you was doing last night? Your boyfriend told to me that you fall asleep quiet early but I heard
you speaking to one another.
......................................................................................................................................................
10. I have just decide to build a brick cottage in a country therefore I cannot introduce the world
without nature.
......................................................................................................................................................
VOCABULARY
58.v.6
break down
to be out of order
repair
pokaziť sa
nefungovať
opraviť
Q&A
58.qa.8
What can we say instead of “The lift is not working”?
We can say “the lift has broken down” or “the lift is out of order” instead of “the lift is not working”.
Q&A
58.qa.9
What do people have to do when a lift is out of order?
People have to climb the stairs when a lift is out of order.
Have you ever tried to repair something that was not working?
Yes, I have tried to repair something that was not working.
What? When? Did you succeed in repairing it?
When people buy a new car, do they usually hope that it will be working forever?
No, when people buy a new car, they usually don’t hope that it will be working forever, but they realize that it will
break down one day.
Do you get angry when you are somewhere out looking for a bathroom and all the public toilets are
out of order?
Yes, I get mad when I am somewhere out looking for a bathroom and all the public toilets are out of order.
71
When was the last time your mobile phone broke down?
The last time my mobile phone broke down was…
How did you feel?
VOCABULARY
58.v.7
throw – threw – thrown hodiť
burn – burnt – burnt
fire-fighter/ fireman
by accident
(s)páliť, horieť
hasič
omylom, náhodou
Q&A
58.qa.10
When your computer breaks down, do you just put it into a box and throw it away?
No, when my computer breaks down, I don’t put it into a box and throw it away but I call someone to repair it.
Have you ever burnt yourself while you were ironing clothes?
Yes, I have sometimes burnt myself while I was ironing clothes. / No, I have never…
What did you do? Did you call for the fire-fighters?
No, I didn’t call for the fire-fighters/firemen.
Have you ever thrown anything away what was worth a lot of money by accident?
Yes, I have thrown something away what was worth a lot of money by accident. / No, I have never thrown
anything…
Did you burn your breakfast this morning?
No, I didn’t burn my breakfast this morning. / Yes, I burnt my…
If you heard your neighbour shouting: “Fire!”, what would it mean?
If I heard my neighbour shouting: “Fire!”, it would mean that something in his house was on fire.
Would you like to be a fire-fighter?
Yes, I would like to… / No, I wouldn’t like to…
Would you be surprised if I suddenly threw a stone at that window?
Yes, I would be surprised if you suddenly threw a stone at that window.
What is the paradigm of “throw”?
The paradigm of “throw” is “throw-threw-thrown”.
VOCABULARY
58.v.8
drop
hold
pour
spill – spilt - spilt
pustiť, padať; kvapka
držať
liať, naliať
rozliať, rozsypať
Q&A
58.qa.11
Are you going to drop that pen you are holding in your hand?
No, I am not going to drop this pen I am holding in my hand.
What will probably happen if you pour too much liquid into a glass?
If I pour too much liquid into a glass, the water will spill.
72
What did he/she say?
He/she said that if he/she poured too much liquid into a glass, it would spill.
Do you think that your mobile phone would be still working if you dropped it from the second floor
window?
No, I don’t think that my mobile phone would be still working if I dropped it from the second floor window.
What do you put into your eye when it hurts?
I put eye drops into my eye when it hurts.
VOCABULARY
58.v.9
wound
injury
injure
weapon
bleed
rana; poraniť
zranenie
zraniť
zbraň
krvácať
DEFINITION
58.def.3
There is a difference between an injury and a wound. A wound is when you bleed because somebody
wanted to hurt you, usually with a gun, a knife or another weapon. An injury is when you are hurt in a
part of your body in an accident, at a game etc.
Q&A
58.qa.12
What is a wound?
A wound is when you bleed because somebody wanted to hurt you, usually with a gun, a knife or another weapon.
Do you know anybody who was wounded during the Second World War?
Yes, I know somebody who was wounded in the Second World War. / No, I don’t know anybody who…
Do you believe that 50 per cent of injuries happen at home?
Yes, I believe that 50 per cent of injuries happen at home.
Did you get injured at home whilst you were doing some housework?
Yes, I got injured at home whilst I was doing some housework.
What happened?
I cut myself/ I broke my arm/ I burnt my finger…
What is the noun of the verb “injure”?
The noun of the verb “injure” is “injury”.
How can we avoid being injured?
We can avoid being injured by being more careful.
VOCABULARY
58.v.10
duty
povinnosť; clo
Q&A
58.qa.13
Do you usually have a lot of duties and a lot of problems during the day?
Yes, I usually have a lot of duties and problems during the day.
73
Do you think that a child’s life is much easier that the life of an adult?
Yes, I think that a child’s life is much easier than the life of an adult.
Why?
Because children have fewer duties than adults.
What is a duty-free shop?
A duty-free shop is a shop at the airport where you don’t pay a duty on goods.
EXERCISE
58.e.2
Decide Present Simple/Present Continuous/ Past Simple/ Past Continuous.
1.
Don't forget to take your umbrella. It ........................... (rain)
2.
A: What ........................... when the accident ...........................? (you do, happen)
B: I ........................... dinner. (prepare)
3.
Be quiet. John ............................ (sleep)
4.
Sebastian ........................... at Susan's house a little before 9:00 pm, but she ........................... there. She
........................... at the library for her French exam. (arrive, not be, study)
5.
Sharon ........................... in the room when John told me what happened, but she ...........................
anything because she ............................ (be, not hear, not listen)
6.
Every Monday, Sally ........................... her kids to their football training. (drive)
7.
The doctor ........................... that Tom ........................... too sick to go to work and that he ........................... to
stay at home for a couple of days. (say, be, need)
8.
A: I ........................... you last night after dinner, but you ........................... not there. Where ...........................
you? (call, not be, be)
B: I ........................... sorry, I ........................... answer the phone because I ........................... to make an
important decision. (be, cannot, try)
VOCABULARY
58.v.11
ostrich
genie
rub
chick
ass
pštros
džin
trieť, šúchať
kurča; kočka (príťažlivé dievča)
zadok
READING
58.r.1
A man walked into a bar with a large ostrich following him. When they sat down, the waitress came to them
to take the orders. The man said, "A whiskey with no ice," then looked at the ostrich, "What do you want to
drink?" "I'll have the same, thank you," said the ostrich.
74
The waitress came back with the drinks a moment later and said it would be $8.60. The man reached into his
pocket and gave the waitress exactly $8.60 without looking at the money.
A day later, the man and the ostrich came to the bar again. The man said, "A whiskey with no ice." The ostrich
said, "I'll have the same, thank you."
When the waitress brought the bill, the man gave her the exact amount again, without looking. The same
thing happened every day, until the man and the ostrich came to the bar on Saturday. “Can I get you the
usual?” asked the waitress. "No, it’s Saturday, I will have a double whiskey and a bottle of coke," said the man.
"The same for me," said the ostrich.
"Ok, that will be $17.84." The man put exactly $17.84 on the table, again without looking.
That really surprised the waitress, so she finally asked "I’m sorry sir, sir. How can you always pull out the exact
amount of money from your pocket without even looking at the money?"
The man answered: "I was cleaning out my garage a few years ago and I found an old lamp. I wanted to clean
it, but when I started rubbing it, a genie flew out of it, and said I can have two wishes. So I wished that if I ever
have to pay for anything, I just reach into my pocket and pull out the exact amount of money."
"That's very clever!" said the waitress. "I would just have said I wanted a million dollars, but you will always
have the money you need!"
"Yes, exactly. If I want to buy a hot-dog, the money is there. If I want to buy a car, the money is there again,"
said the man.
The waitress turned away to leave, but then turned back and asked the man: "there is one more thing I don’t
understand. Why is the ostrich following you?"
The man said, "The second wish was tall chick with long legs and a big ass who always agrees with
everything I say."
QUESTIONS AND TASKS
Preložte otázky do slovenského jazyka.
1. What was the story about?
2. What was surprising about the man's behaviour?
3. If you found a magic lamp, what would you wish for? Do you believe there is something like that
somewhere in the world?
75
COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY
UNIT 59
VOCABULARY
59.v.1
communication
technology
IT (information technology)
expect
komunikácia; komunikačný
technológia
IT (informačné technológie)
očakávať
Q&A
59.qa.1
Is communication an important part of our daily lives?
Yes, communication is an important part of our daily lives.
Do you expect that information technology will become even more widely used in the future?
Yes, I expect that information technology will become even more widely used in the future. / No, I don’t expect that
information technology will become even more widely used in the future.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she expected/didn’t expect that information technology would become even more widely used
in the future.
What do you expect will happen to you in the next few years?
I expect that I will… (finish my studies, find a good job, marry, have children)
Would you like to work in IT?
Yes, I would like to work in IT. / No, I wouldn’t like to work in IT.
Why?
And what about…?
VOCABULARY
59.v.2
internet
access
connection
online
offline
internet
prístup, možnosť pripojenia
spojenie, pripojenie
v spojení (v súvislosti s internetom)
bez spojenia
Q&A
59.qa.2
Do you have an Internet connection at your home?
Yes, I have an Internet connection at my home. / No, I don’t have an internet connection at my home.
Is there an Internet access everywhere in your town?
No, there isn’t an Internet access everywhere in my town, but there is Internet access only in some areas of my
town.
Do you know anybody who likes to spend every minute of his free time online?
Yes, I know somebody who likes to spend every minute of his free time online. / No, I don’t know anybody who likes
to spend every minute of his free time online.
76
When you are using the Internet, does it mean that your computer works online or offline?
When I’m using the Internet, it means that my computer works online.
VOCABULARY
59.v.3
e-mail (electronic mail)
by post
elektronická pošta
poštou
Q&A
59.qa.3
Do you send e-mails to your colleagues at work?
Yes, I send e-mails to my colleagues at work. / No, I don’t send e-mails to my colleagues at work.
When people have to send some important documents, do you think it is safer to use e-mail or to send
them by post?
When people have to send some important documents, I think it is safer to use e-mail/to send them by post.
VOCABULARY
59.v.4
software
hardware
screen
keyboard
softvér
hardvér
obrazovka
klávesnica
Q&A
59.qa.4
Is computer memory a part of the hardware or the software?
Computer memory is a part of the hardware.
Do you clean the screen of your computer regularly?
Yes, I clean the screen of my computer regularly. / No, I don’t clean the screen of my computer regularly.
What did he/she say?
He/she said that he/she cleaned/didn’t clean the screen of his/her computer regularly.
Is it necessary to use a keyboard when you want to write something on your computer?
Yes, it is necessary to use a keyboard when I want to write something on my computer. / No, it isn’t necessary to use
a keyboard when I want to write something on my computer.
When you have a virus on your computer, does it mean that there is a software or hardware problem?
When I have a virus on my computer, it means that there is a software problem.
VOCABULARY
59.v.5
mouse
click
cut
copy
paste
icon
myš
kliknúť; kliknutie
vystrihnúť
kopírovať
nalepiť
ikona
Q&A
59.qa.5
Can you cut, copy or paste documents in your computer by clicking the mouse?
Yes, I can click, copy and paste documents in my computer by clicking the mouse.
77
Are there usually many icons on the screen of your computer?
Yes, there are usually many icons on the screen of my computer. / No, there aren’t usually many icons on the screen
of my computer.
Have you ever cut anything important from your report by accident?
Yes, I have cut something important from my report by accident. / No, I have never cut…
Do you usually download all the photos from your camera to your computer?
Yes, I usually download all the photos from my camera to my computer. / No, I don’t usually copy all the photos
from my camera to my computer.
VOCABULARY
59.v.6
account
chat
chat room
reply
text message
účet, konto
neformálny rozhovor, chat
diskusná miestnosť
odpovedať
textová správa
Q&A
59.qa.6
Do you usually have to have an account when you want to use chat rooms on the Internet?
Yes, I usually have to have an account when I want to use chat rooms on the Internet.
Do more people have bank accounts nowadays than they used to have in the past?
Yes, more people have bank accounts nowadays than they used to have in the past.
Do you agree that children younger than 15 shouldn’t be allowed to enter chat rooms?
Yes, I agree that children younger than 15… / No, I don’t agree that children younger than 15…
When two people fall in love, do they usually send many text messages to each other?
Yes, when two people fall in love, they usually send many text messages to each other.
When you get an e-mail at work, do you usually reply immediately or do you take your time?
Yes, when I get an e-mail at work, I usually reply immediately. I don’t take my time. / No, when I get an e-mail at
work, I don’t reply immediately, but I take my time.
Which way of communication do you prefer – writing text messages, chatting or talking on the phone?
I prefer ………………………..
VOCABULARY
59.v.7
print
printer
cable
wireless (wifi)
tlačiť, vyltačiť
tlačiareň
kábel
bezdrôtový
Q&A
59.qa.7
Do you need a printer for your work or could you work without it?
Yes, I need a printer for my work, I couldn’t work without it. / No, I don’t need a printer for my work, I could work
without it.
How is a printer usually connected to a computer?
A printer is usually connected to a computer with a cable.
Where was this book printed?
This book was printed in Slovakia.
78
If there is a wireless icon on the screen of your computer, do you always need a cable in order to
connect to the Internet?
No, when there is a wireless icon on the screen of my computer, I don’t always need a cable in order to connect to
the Internet.
Do you expect that there will be a free wireless Internet access in your whole town in the future?
Yes, I expect that there will be a free wireless Internet access in my whole town in the future. / No, I don’t expect that
there will be a free wireless Internet access in my whole town in the future.
VOCABULARY
59.v.8
switch on
switch off
crash
laptop/notebook
zapnúť
vypnúť
zrútenie (systému); zrútiť sa
prenosný počítač
Q&A
59.qa.8
Has your laptop ever crashed the moment when you needed to do something important on it?
Yes, my laptop has crashed the moment when I needed to do something important on it. / No, my laptop has never
crashed the moment when I needed to do something important on it.
What is the opposite of the verb “switch on”?
The opposite of the verb “switch on” is the verb “switch off”.
When you switch off your notebook, what colour is the screen?
When I switch off my notebook, the screen is black.
Do you have to switch on the light in the room if it is dark in there and you want to read a book?
Yes, I have to switch on the light in the room if it is dark in there and I want to read a book.
When a computer crashes, can you lose all your documents?
Yes, when a computer crashes, you can lose all your documents.
VOCABULARY
59.v.9
cd/dvd player
digital
cassette
invent
CD/DVD prehrávač
digitálny
kazeta
vynájsť, objaviť
Q&A
59.qa.8
Is it common to find a CD and DVD player in most households these days?
Yes, it is common to find a CD and DVD player in most households these days.
Do you prefer to listen to a CD or the radio?
I prefer to listen to ………………..
What had people listened to before the CD was invented?
People had listened to the radio or to cassettes before the CD was invented.
Do you know which country invented the first digital computer?
Yes, I know which country invented the first digital computer. It was the USA and Great Britain. / No, I don’t know
which country invented the first digital computer.
79
EXERCISE
59 .e.1
Complete the sentences with the words written below.
virus
memory
save
print
laptop
cut
crash
copy
paste
1.
If you click on …………………, the computer will store a document for you.
2.
If you click on …………………, you will have the same document twice.
3.
If you click on …………………, the computer will take something out of a document.
4.
If you click on …………………, the computer will add into a document something you wanted.
5.
If you click on …………………, you can get a paper copy.
6.
If the computer has a ………………… because there is a software problem, it could
…………………
7.
If you computer is very slow, it may need more …………………
8.
If you want to work on a plane or train, you need to use a …………………
EXERCISE
59 .e.2
Choose the correct tense of the verb.
1.
I …………………… (chatted/was chatting/had chatted) in my favourite chat room when somebody
…………………… (had entered/was entering/entered) the room and …………………… (switched
off/was switching off/had switched off) the light.
2.
Before her laptop …………………… (crashes/was crashing/crashed), she ……………………
(wrote/had written/was writing) about ten pages of the report, but she …………………… (didn’t
save/not saved/hadn’t saved) them.
3.
If they …………………… (are connect/were connected/had connected) to the Internet, they would
be able to send the e-mail, but they…………………… (can’t /couldn’t/won’t be able to) find a
network.
4.
You …………………… (not see/aren’t seeing/can’t see) very well. I…………………… will/am/am
going to) switch the light on.
5.
Tom …………………… (bought/was buying/has bought) a new keyboard this afternoon; the old
one …………………… (hasn’t worked/didn’t work/hadn’t worked).
6.
He …………………… (isn’t finishing/hasn’t finished/didn’t finish) the essay yet, but he
…………………… (will finish/finishes/is going to finish) it in 5 minutes.
80
7.
…………………… (Did/Have/Has) my assistant already …………………… (printing/print/printed)
the pages I …………………… (was asking/asked/am asking) for?
8.
Look, the computer …………………… (is connected/has been connected/is being connected) to
the Internet right now.
VOCABULARY
59.v.10
type
link
join in
college
code
písať na klávesnici
spojiť
pridať sa, pripojiť sa (ku skupine)
typ amer. vysokej školy
kód
READING
59.r.1
The story of the internet
Today, many people use the Internet. You turn on a computer, type in a few words, and you’re
connected to the Internet. You can listen to music. You can get information. You can also send e-mail letters
to friends. E-mail communication is a very good thing. It does not cost much and it is quick. But on the other
hand it is possible that your message has not been read, has been ignored or even deleted immediately. The
other nuisance is the fact that you can get lot of SPAM or junk e-mail.
Have you ever wondered how the Internet got started? In the 1960s, the US government wanted to
connect some of its computers together in order they could share information. Someone on one computer
could get information from another.
The government’s computers were in different places. Some were even in different states.
Computers in different places had never been connected together before. People had to find out how to do
it and it was hard work.
Finally, in 1969, four computers were connected. Telephone lines linked them together. People sent
information from computer to computer, so they were able to share information. This was the beginning of
the Internet.
Many more computers were linked to the Internet. Scientists at universities and research institutes
joined in. The Internet was growing in business too. Still, home computers weren’t part of the Internet yet.
That’s because the Internet was hard to use. People had to type in complicated codes.
In 1991, the World Wide Web was created. It helped make the use of Internet easier. But people still had to
know some codes.
In 1992, a new computer program was invented. People didn’t have to know the codes to use the World
Wide Web. The new program let people click on words and pictures. Then almost anyone could use the
Internet.
Questions and tasks
Preložiť otázky do slovenského jazyka.
1. Why was the Internet started?
2. When were the first four computers connected together?
3. Why did it take several years to link the four computers together?
4. Why did it take so long to connect home computers to the Internet?
5. What was created in 1991?
6. Translate the words: písať na klávesnici, zistiť, spojiť, pridať sa, kód. Use the words in sentences.
81
COMMUNICATION IN DAILY LIFE
UNIT 60
VOCABULARY
60.v.1
(hold) a conversation
accent
concentrate
confuse
(viesť) rozhovor
prízvuk, dôraz
sústrediť (sa)
zmiasť, popliesť si
Q&A
60.qa.1
Are you able to hold a simple conversation in English?
Yes, I’m able to hold a simple conversation in English. / No, I’m not able to hold a simple conversation in English.
Do you speak English with a strong French accent?
No, I don’t speak English with a strong French accent, but I speak English with a Slovak accent.
Where is the accent in the word “excellent”?
The accent in the word “excellent” is on the first syllable.
Do you have to concentrate more when you speak English than when you speak Slovak?
Yes, I have to concentrate more when I speak English than when I speak Slovak. / No, I don’t have to concentrate
more when I speak English than when I speak Slovak.
Have you ever confused the meaning of the verbs “wear” and “carry”?
Yes, I have confused the meaning of the verbs “wear” and “carry”. / No, I have never confused the meaning of the
verbs “wear” and “carry”.
Would you be confused if I said that the lesson was already over?
Yes, I would be confused if you said that the lesson was already over.
Why?
Because the lesson has just started.
VOCABULARY
60.v.2
emphatic do
emphasize
emphasis
deny
exclamation
dôrazné “do”
zdôrazniť
dôraz
poprieť, zamietnuť
zvolanie
DEFINITION
60.def.1
We already know that we use the verb “do” in the Present Simple Tense when we want to form a
question or a negative sentence, for example: Do you like chocolate? No, I don’t like chocolate.
It is also possible to use the verb “do” in a positive sentence, when we want to emphasize a certain
fact. For example: Yes, I do like chocolate. In this case, we put a strong emphasis on the word “do”,
which is called the emphatic do.
82
Q&A
60.qa.2
Can we use the verb “do” also in a positive sentence?
Yes, we can use the verb do also in a positive sentence.
When do we use the verb “do” in a positive sentence?
We use the verb do in a positive sentence when we want to emphasize a certain fact.
How do we call the verb “do” in a positive sentence?
We call the verb “do” “the emphatic do” in a positive sentence.
DEFINITION
60.def.2
We usually use “the emphatic do” when somebody denies something what we know is true or we
believe it to be true.
For example, you may say: “I write my homework every day.” But your teacher denies it and says: “No,
you don’t write your homework every day.” You know that he is wrong and you are right, so you
emphasize your statement: “Yes, I do write my homework every day.”
Q&A
60.qa.3
When do we usually use the emphatic do?
We usually use the emphatic do when somebody denies something what we know is true or we believe it to be
true.
Translate this sentence, please: Utieram prach z nábytku každú sobotu.
I dust the furniture every Saturday.
Deny his/her statement, please.
No, you don’t dust the furniture every day.
Correct your colleague using the emphatic do, please.
Yes, I do dust the furniture every Saturday.
DEFINITION
60.def.3
We can also use the “emphatic do” in the past, but in this case, we have to change it into “did”. For
example: He played tennis yesterday. – No, he didn’t play tennis yesterday. – Yes, he did play tennis
yesterday.
Q&A
60.qa.4
Give the answers to these questions using the emphatic form, either in the present or in the past.
Her parents didn’t miss their flight.
Her parents did miss their flight.
She doesn’t think that it will rain later.
She does think that it will rain later.
You didn’t come to school yesterday.
I did come to school yesterday.
You don’t understand my words.
I do understand your words.
83
DEFINITION
60.def.4
We can also use the emphatic do in an exclamation, for example: “You do speak English well!” or “I do
hate onion!”
Q&A
60.qa.5
Translate this exclamation please: Milujem túto knihu!
I do love this book!
EXERCISE
60.e.1
Deny the sentences or emphasize the exclamations given using the emphatic form.
1.
Paul doesn’t have a new girlfriend.
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Lucy never understood her father.
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
They don’t come here very often.
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
You didn’t wash the dishes.
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
She doesn’t clean her teeth regularly.
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
He speaks five foreign languages!
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
I love my children!
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
She doesn’t want to help her brother.
......................................................................................................................................................
9.
David and Ana didn’t pay bill.
......................................................................................................................................................
10. You don’t study as you ought to.
......................................................................................................................................................
84
VOCABULARY
60.v.3
in my opinion
personally, I think
as far as I’m concerned
podľa môjho názoru
osobne si myslím
čo sa mňa týka
Q&A
60.qa.6
What, in your opinion, is the best way to spend your free time?
In my opinion, the best way to spend my free time is to…
Do you personally think that Chinese is a very difficult language?
Yes, I personally think that Chinese is a very difficult language.
Translate this sentence, please: Čo sa mňa týka, celý večer bol strata času.
As far as I‘m concerned, the whole evening was a waste of time.
Who, in your opinion, is the best film star in the world?
In my opinion, the best film star in the world is…
VOCABULARY
60.v.4
I partly agree
I totally disagree
I agree to some extent
depend (on)
level
čiastočne súhlasím
úplne nesúhlasím
súhlasím do určitej miery
závisieť od, záležať na
úroveň
DEFINITION
60.def.5
When we want to disagree with somebody, we may say “I partly agree”, “I agree to some extent” or “I
totally disagree”, depending on the level of disagreement.
Q&A
60.qa.7
Which of the following expressions would you use if someone told you that the sun was blue: “I totally
disagree” or “I agree to some extent”?
If someone told me that the sun was blue, I would use expression “I totally disagree.”
Do you partly agree that English is in some ways easier than Slovak?
Yes, I partly agree that English is in some ways easier than Slovak.
If you were planning to buy a flat, would your choice depend on the amount of money you had?
Yes, if I were planning to buy a flat, my choice would depend on the amount of money I had. / No, if I were planning
to buy a flat, my choice wouldn’t depend on the amount of money I had.
Some people prefer to spend their holidays in hot countries and some people in cold countries. What
does this depend on?
It depends on the type of sports they prefer to practice. / It depends on the type of the weather they like.
Do small children depend on their parents?
Yes, small children depend on their parents.
What level of English studies are you in at the moment?
I am in the 6th level of English studies at the moment.
85
VOCABULARY
60.v.5
excuse me
I’m sorry
I beg your pardon
pardon?
I apologise for
prepáčte
prepáčte
prepáčte, prosím? (keď nerozumieme, nepočujeme)
prosím? (keď nerozumieme, nepočujeme)
ospravedlňujem sa za
DEFINITION
60.def.6
We can apologise in different ways. We use the expression “Excuse me” before we do something and
we use the expression “I’m sorry” after we have done something. The expression “I beg your pardon”
means the same as “I’m sorry”, but is rather formal. In writing, we often use the expression “I
apologise (for).”
Q&A
60.qa.8
Which expression do we use before we do something?
Before we do something we use the expression “Excuse me.”
Translate this sentence, please: Prepáčte, ako sa, prosím, dostanem na stanicu?
Excuse me, how do I get to the station, please?
If you came late to the appointment with your friend, how would you apologise?
If I came late to the appointment with my friend, I would apologise with the words “I’m sorry I’m late.”
Translate this sentence into Slovak, please: I beg your pardon, I didn’t hear your name.
Prepáčte prosím, nepočul som Vaše meno.
When a teacher asks you a question and you didn’t understand, what do you say?
When a teacher asks me a question and I didn’t understand, I say “Pardon?”
VOCABULARY
60.v.6
that’s OK
don’t worry
never mind
no problem
to je v poriadku
netráp sa
nevadí
žiadny problém
DEFINITION
60.def.7
When people apologise to us, it is very common to say something to tell them that everything is OK
and that we are not mad at them. All four expressions: “That’s OK”, “Don’t worry”, “Never mind” and
“No problem” are very common in English.
Q&A
60.qa.9
If your best friend apologised to you for not keeping his promise, what would you tell him?
If my best friend apologized to me for not keeping his promise, I would tell him “Don’t worry / That’s ok / Never
mind / No problem”.
Translate, please: Netráp sa, že si nenašiel tú knihu. Je to v poriadku.
Don’t worry that you haven’t found that book. That’s OK.
86
VOCABULARY
60.v.7
matter
it doesn’t matter
it matters
material, záležitosť; záležať
to nevadí
na tom záleží
Q&A
60.qa.10
What kind of matter is this book made of?
This book is made of paper.
Do you think that the possibility of another world war is a serious matter?
Yes, I think that the possibility of another world war is a serious matter.
Does it matter to you what kind of food you eat
Yes, it matters to me what kind of food I eat. / No, it doesn’t matter to me what kind of food I eat.
Do you think that it matters to have good marks at school?
Yes, I think that it matters to have good marks at school. / No, I don’t think that it matters to have good marks at
school.
Translate, please: Nevadí, že si tie dokumenty nevytlačil. Nie je to problém.
It doesn‘t matter that you haven’t printed the documents. No problem.
VOCABULARY
60.v.8
thank you (very much)
thanks a lot
that’s very kind of you
you’re welcome
not at all
no problem
ďakujem (veľmi pekne)
ďakujem pekne
to je od teba veľmi milé
nemáš za čo
nemáš za čo
nemáš za čo, žiadny problém
DEFINITION
60.def.8
When we want to thank somebody we may say: “Thank you (very much) for…“ or “Thanks a lot”,
which is rather informal. The answers to these expressions could be: “You’re welcome”, “Not at all”,
“No problem.”
Q&A
60.qa.11
If your friends invited you for dinner at their house and you spent a really nice evening with them,
what would you say?
If my friends invited me for dinner at their house and I spent a really nice evening with them, I would say “Thank
you very much for inviting me”.
If someone thanked you for a glass of water, what would you reply to him?
If someone thanked me for a glass of water, I would reply to him “Not at all”/”You’re welcome”.
Translate, please: Ďakujem veľmi pekne, že povysávaś moju izbu. Je to od teba veľmi milé.
Thank you very much for vacuuming my room, it’s very kind of you.
VOCABULARY
60.v.9
cheers
good luck
bless you
nazdravie (prípitok)
veľa šťastia
nazdravie (kýchnutie)
87
congratulations
well done
gratulujem
dobra práca
Q&A
60.qa.11
When you have a drink with your friends, what do you say to express good wishes?
When I have a drink with my friends, I say “Cheers” to express good wishes.
Is it polite to say “bless you” when you hear somebody sneezing?
Yes, it is polite to say “Bless you” when I hear somebody sneezing. / No, it isn’t polite to say “Bless you” when I hear
somebody sneezing.
What do people usually say when they want to support somebody before a difficult situation?
People usually say “Good Luck” when they want to support somebody before a difficult situation.
Has anyone wished you good luck before today’s lesson?
Yes, somebody has wished me good luck before today’s lesson. / No, nobody has wished me good luck before
today’s lesson.
Translate, please: Gratulujem! Spravil si najťažšiu skúšku!
Congratulations/Well done! You have passed the most difficult exam.
VOCABULARY
60.v.10
have a nice evening/weekend
same to you
pekný večer/víkend
nápodobne, aj tebe
DEFINITION
60.def.9
When someone has wished us a nice day/evening/weekend etc., and we want to wish him the same
thing, we say “Same to you”.
If I said “Have a nice day”, what would you reply to me?
If you said “Have a nice day”, I would reply „Same to you“.
QUESTION TIME
60.qt.1
Translate and choose someone in the class to answer your question.
Záleží ti na tom, čo si o tebe myslia iní ľudia?
Does it matter to you what other people think about you?
Yes, it matters to me what other people think about me. / No, it doesn’t matter to me what other people think
about me.
Súhlasíš, že anglický prízvuk je úplne odlišný od slovenského prízvuku?
Do you agree that the English accent is completely different from the Slovak accent?
Yes, I (totally) agree that the English accent is totally different from the Slovak accent.
Zaželáš mi na zajtra veľa šťastia, keďže musím urobiť veľmi dôležité a nepríjemné rozhodnutie?
Will you wish me good luck for tomorrow as I have to make a very important and unpleasant decision?
Yes, I will wish you good luck for tomorrow as you have to make a very important and unpleasant decision.
Chystáš sa ospravedlniť za chybu, ktorú si práve urobil?
Are you going to apologise for the mistake you have just made?
Yes, I am going to apologise for the mistake I have just made.
88
Sústredíš sa na každé učiteľovo slovo počas hodiny angličtiny?
Do you concentrate on every word of the teacher during the English lesson?
Yes, I concentrate on every word of the teacher during the English lesson. / No, I don’t concentrate on every word of
the teacher during the English lesson.
EXERCISE
60.e.2
Rewrite the sentences using the word given in the brackets. The meaning must stay the same.
1.
In my opinion, more people should go to university. (concerned)
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
I totally agree with you. (right)
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
You passed the exam. Congratulations! (done)
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
I partly agree with what you are saying. (extent)
......................................................................................................................................................
5.
John says that they will come this evening. (according)
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
Thank you very much for helping me with my homework. (a lot)
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
It doesn’t matter that you missed last lesson. (worry)
8.
......................................................................................................................................................
EXERCISE
60 .e.3
What could you say in these situations?
1.
Someone says something to you, but you didn’t hear all of it. What do you say?
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Your sister tells you that she has just won a competition. What do you say?
......................................................................................................................................................
3.
Your brother is going for a job interview this afternoon. What do you say?
......................................................................................................................................................
4.
You came late to work and your boss was waiting for you in your office. What do you say?
......................................................................................................................................................
89
5.
Your colleague has wished you a nice weekend. What do you say?
......................................................................................................................................................
6.
You are in a bus full of people and you want to get off. What do you say to other passengers?
......................................................................................................................................................
7.
You have a drink with your friends. What do you say before you start drinking?
......................................................................................................................................................
8.
Your brother sneezed. What do you say?
......................................................................................................................................................
DICTATION
60.d.1
Would you like to welcome guests at your house every day? I don’t agree with people who say that being a
housewife and taking care of a household is an easy job. “Ought to” and “should” are very similar in meaning.
It must be very pleasant to have a fireplace at home that keeps you warm in winter. She had to pay a lot for
her telephone bill last month because she was abroad and spent many hours connected to the Internet over
the phone.
90
REPETITION PRE-INTERMEDIATE II.
UNIT 51 - 60
EXERCISE
rpi.e.1
Put in the correct form of the verb in the Passive Voice. Choose the right tense (Present Simple,
Present Perfect, Past Simple, Will Future)
1.
All the new words ..................... by the teacher already. (explain)
2.
Don’t worry! This car ...................... until tomorrow. (sell)
3.
I am really nervous, because my keys ...................... . (lose)
4.
I ..................... a book by my friend last Friday. (give)
5.
The dishes …......already ..................... by my little brother. (wash)
6.
When …......this building .....................? In 1999. (build)
7.
I have heard that he ..................... with a murder a week ago. Is it true? (charge)
8.
The class ..................... to open their books a second ago. (order)
9.
All the furniture in my house ..................... this week. (dust)
10. Wednesday ….... always ..................... by Thursday and Tuesday ..................... by Monday. (follow,
precede)
DICTATION
rpi.d.1
When two people have cheated on each other, they usually become mad and shout like they were crazy. I
committed so many crimes that I don’t even remember all of them. I shot someone a few hours ago, but I
hope I won’t be charged with it. I would be really satisfied if it was forbidden by law to produce fake products
which cannot be compared with the original. As far as I am concerned, she hates all kinds of housework,
especially ironing. I totally disagree that printers were invented earlier than computers. I used to believe in it
but then I realized that somebody was lying to me.
EXERCISE
rpi.e.2
Translate the sentences and always change the tense in Indirect speech.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Povedal, že sa chystá kúpiť si ďalší týždeň umývačku riadu.
Požiadal ho, aby mu požičal nejaké vankúše, prikrývky a plachty.
Prikázali mu, aby dnes neostal v práci do polnoci.
Nepovedal si mi, že si ženatý.
Povedala som, že nemám žiaden bankový účet na sporenie peňazí.
Ten muž povedal, že neukradol pas a zlodeja nevidel.
Poprosila som ho, aby sa pokúsiť udržať so mnou jednoduchú konverzáciu v angličtine.
Myslela som si, že ste mi povedali, že ste blázni do výrobkov vyrobených z dreva.
Povedala som mu, aby položil nejaké koberce na schody, ale neurobil to.
91
10. Môj priateľ sa spýtal, či sa s ním zajtra rozídem. Povedala som mu, že neviem.
EXERCISE
rpi.e.3
Direct and Indirect speech.
Change the direct speech into the indirect speech. Always change time and place expressions.
1.
She said: “I’ve bought it today” ....................................................................................................
2.
She said: “I saw him yesterday.” ..................................................................................................
3.
She said: “I am getting a new car this week.” ..............................................................................
4.
She said: “Tom is tired now.” .......................................................................................................
5.
She said: “We bought it a week ago.” ..........................................................................................
6.
She said: “I was on holiday last week.” ........................................................................................
7.
She said: “I’ll see you tomorrow.” ................................................................................................
8.
She said: “I have an appointment next week.” .............................................................................
9.
She said: “I live here.” ..................................................................................................................
10. She said: “These shoes are nice.” ...............................................................................................
Q&A
rpi.qa.1
Be the teacher.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Súhlasíš, že ľudia boli štedrejší pred 100 rokmi, než sú teraz?
Stretol si niekedy človeka, ktorý sa ti odmietol predstaviť?
Potlačíš alebo potiahneš tieto dvere, keď sa táto hodina skončí?
Myslíš, že by malo byť dovolené chovať nebezpečné zvieratá v domácnosti?
Čo by si robil, ak by sa s tebou tvoj priateľ/priateľka rozišla cez telefón?
Veríš, že jedného dňa bude možné vypnúť televízor len zatlieskaním?
Čo, podľa teba, je tá najstrašnejšia domáca práca?
Keď sa ti pokazí vysávač, si schopná opraviť ho?
Je nutné zavolať hasičov, keď je tvoj komín plný dymu?
Keby si spadol z desiateho poschodia, čo by sa ti pravdepodobne stalo?
Aký je rozdiel medzi domácou prácou a domácou úlohou?
Ak by si bol väzňom počas prvej svetovej vojny, bol by si spokojný a šťastný?
Čím je obklopený dom v ktorom bývaš?
Ako ľudia prali oblečenie, predtým než boli vynájdené práčky?
Čo musím spraviť, keď chcem prilepiť niečo do mojej správy?
Sú rodičia hrdý na svoje deti, ak si zabudnú ustlať postele?
Ak by ti niekto poďakoval za vysvetlenie, čo by si mu odpovedal?
Záleží ti na tom, čo si iní ľudia o tebe myslia?
92
EXERCISE
rpi.e.4
Choose the right option.
The public toilets in the suburbs are 1... ; we have to find 2... in the centre, but it is quite far from here,
although I have to say it could have been 3.... . 4... that old printer away; nobody 5... repair it. No, I 6... done it
yet. I 7... it every day, I am not sure if I will get used to 8... a new one. I 9... it every day, I am not sure if I will get
used to 10... it in my office. My brother said that he 11... go to Australia 12..., but he hasn’t bought any plane
tickets 13.... I am sure that our mother 14... him when I 15... home tonight. I told him that it was impossible
16... all day, but he 17... understand. What 18... do now? Before I 19... home yesterday, 20... all the carpets
because if I 21... it, my husband would have 22... me.
1. A. working
2. A. some others
3. A. even farer
4. A. Have you already throw
5. A. was able to
6. A. have
7. A. need
8. A. use
9. A. used to use
10. A. have
11. A. would go
12. A. tomorrow
13. A. already
14. A. will be shouting at
15. A. will be
16. A. smile
17. A. not wanted
18. A. I will
19. A. arrive
20. A. I had vacuumed
21. A. didn’t do
22. A. shout at
B. out of order
B. another
B. farther than
B. Did you already throw
B. could have to
B. haven’t
B. needing
B. using
B. was used
B. not having
B. is going
B. the next day
B. yet
B. will shout to
B. return
B. laugh
B. don’t
B. shall I
B. left from
B. I vacuuming
B. haven’t do
B. be angry with
C. not working
C. the other
C. even farther
C. Have you already thrown
C. wanted
C. didn’t
C. have need
C. used
C. am used to
C. see
C. was going to
C. yesterday
C. ever
C. is going to shout
C. will go
C. to keep smiling
C. didn’t want to
C. I ought to
C. left
C. have cleaned
C. hadn’t done
C. been mad at
EXERCISE
rpi.e.5
Complete the table with the translation and paradigms of irregular verbs.
TRANSLATION
PAST
BE
BECOME
BEGIN
BLOW
BREAK
BRING
BURN
BUY
CATCH
CHOOSE
COME
COST
CUT
DO
DRINK
DRIVE
93
PAST PARTICIPLE
EAT
FALL
FEEL
FIGHT
FIND
FORBID
FORGIVE
FREEZE
GET
GIVE
GO
HAVE
HANG
KEEP
KNOW
LAY
LIE
LEAVE
LEND
LOSE
MAKE
MEET
OVERTAKE
READ
RIDE
RISE
RUN
SAY
SEE
SELL
SEND
SHAKE
SHOOT
SINK
SIT
SLEEP
SPEAK
SPEND
SPILL
STAND
STEAL
SWIM
TAKE
TEACH
TELL
THINK
THROW
UNDERSTAND
WAKE UP
WEAR
WIN
WRITE
94
Express your opinion and say why:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Smoking in public buildings should be forbidden by law.
DOGS SHOULDN’T BE KEPT IN FLATS BECAUSE THEY SUFFER THERE.
PEOPLE WHO HAVE KILLED SOMEONE SHOULD BE KILLED AS WELL.
IT SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO GET A DRIVING LICENCE EVEN IF YOU ARE YOUNGER THAN 18.
95
KEY TO EXERCISES
EXERCISE
51.e.1
In the following exercise you must either choose either the right option or fill in the right word.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
I am new in this job, so I am not used to telling/ I used to people what to do.
My best friend used to live in a big house when she was a child, so she is used to/ she is used to
live large buildings.
I really used to enjoy/ enjoying his company, but now I find him quite boring.
I have never had so much money, but I am getting used to it now.
My mother cannot hear very well, so I am used to shouting /shout.
I am used/ I used to eat a lot of chocolate, but now I am on a diet.
Did you get used to his crazy nature?
I am used to keeping/ I used to keep in touch with my old friends, but now I don’t even remember
their names.
EXERCISE
51.e.2
Translate the following sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Nesúď ľudí podľa ich vzhľadu!
Don’t judge people by their appearance.
Už si sa predstavil?
Have you already introduced yourself?
Štedrými ľuďmi máme na mysli ľudí, ktorí sú ochotní požičať ti peniaze, keď ich potrebuješ.
By generous people we mean the people who are willing to lend you money when you need it.
Nezvykla som sa ospravedlňovať za svoje chyby, ale práve si na to zvykám, pretože musím.
I didn’t use to apologise for my mistakes, but I am just getting used to it, because I have to.
Odmietol si niekedy pomôct svojim skutočný priateľom, keď sa dostali do problémov?
Have you ever refused to help your true friends, when they got into trouble?
Myslíš si, že by sa zdraví ľudia mali starať o chorých?
Do you think that healthy people should take care of/look after/ care for ill people?
Je priateľstvo jednou z najdôležitejších vecí v ľudskom živote?
Is friendship one of the most important things in human life?
Znervóznieš, keď ti pekný muž zatrasie rukou?
Do you get nervous when a handsome man shakes hand with you?
EXERCISE
51.e.3
I cannot 1… my life without friendship. When you get into trouble, it is important to know someone who can
help you 2… it because true friends care about 3…. Even if they aren’t mad 4… same things, they always
have wonderful time together. True friends are able to forgive each other and are not 5… each other when
one of them cannot 6… a promise. They share every secret together. Some people are unhappy because
they 7… have such a good friend, but cannot 8… anyone like that. If they could, their lives would be 9…
beautiful, full 10… happiness and love.
1.
2.
A. perform
A. get out from
B. introduce
B. to get out of
96
C. imagine
C. to get out from
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
A. themselves
A. around
A. mad about
A. keep
A. like to
A. find
A. much more
A. with
B. each other
B. about the
B. crazy at
B. break
B. would like to
B. look for
B. less
B. from
C. one other
C. at the
C. mad at
C. hold
C. want
C. make
C. much
C. of
EXERCISE
52.e.1
Complete the list of tenses and forms and translate the expressions in the Passive Voice.
BREAK
BE
Present
Simple
He
breaks
the glass.
The glass
is
broken by him.
Present
Continuous
He
is breaking
the glass.
The glass
is being
broken by him.
Present
Perfect
He
has broken
the glass.
The glass
has been
broken by him.
Past Simple
He
broke
the glass.
The glass
was
broken by him.
Past
Continuous
He
was breaking
the glass.
The glass
was being
broken by him.
Past Perfect
He
had broken
the glass.
The glass
had been
broken by him
Future
He
will break
the glass.
The glass
will be
broken by him.
Conditional
He
would break
the glass.
The glass
would be
broken by him
Should
He
should break
the glass.
The glass
should be
broken by him.
Can
He
can break
the glass.
The glass
can be
EXERCISE
52.e.2
Guess what or who it is
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The action which is against the law is a crime.
Taking something from a shop without paying is stealing.
The action for which we need a gun is shooting.
A person the police are looking for is a criminal.
The place where all the criminals should be taken is a prison.
When you didn’t commit the crime, you are innocent.
The men whose “job” is stealing are thieves.
When somebody is guilty of a murder, he should be arrested for life.
97
broken by him.
EXERCISE
53.e.1
Write the opposites, either by adding a prefix or by writing a completely different word with the
opposite meaning.
UP - down
VISIBLE – invisible
FAIL AN EXAM – pass an exam
USEFUL – useless
FAT – slim/thin
BETTER – worse
PATIENT - impatient
FORGET – remember
HARD WORKING - lazy
LAND – take off
FRIENDLY - unfriendly
ALIVE - dead
OPEN - close
WAKE UP – go to bed
PUT ON – take off
COMFORTABLE- uncomfortable
EARLY - late
THE SAME – different
BADLY - well
BORE – interest
EXERCISE
53.e.2
Translate the following sentences and form the questions.
1. Uspela v otvorení jej nového obchodu, kde sa predáva úžasné oblečenie.
She succeeded in opening her new shop, where amazing clothes are sold.
Did she succeed in opening her new shop?
2. Keď je niekto na čele veľkého biznisu, zvyčajne mu záleží iba na jeho zisku.
When somebody is in charge of a big business, he usually cares only about his profit.
When somebody is in charge of a big business, does he usually care only about his profit?
3. Podľa mňa, najkrajším miestom na svete je nebo, pretože je plné láskavých a dobrosrdečných ľudí.
In my opinion the most beautiful place in the world is heaven because it is full of kind and generous
people.
What, in your opinion, is the most beautiful place in the world?
4. Slnko vychádza na východe a zapadá na západe.
The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.
Where does the sun rise and go down?
5. Radšej by som mojim deťom dovolil ostať vonku do polnoci než stále hrať počítačové hry.
I would rather allow my children to stay outside until midnight than to keep playing computer games.
What would you rather allow your children – to stay...or to keep...?
6. Nie, nemýliš sa, keď povieš, že strede predcháza utorok, ale máš pravdu.
No, you aren’t wrong when you say that Wednesday is preceded by Tuesday, but you are right.
Am I right when I say that Wednesday is preceded by Tuesday?
7. Za tento čln mi zaúčtovali 10 000 eur a potopil sa hneď v prvý deň na mori.
They charged me 10.000 euros for this boat and it sank right on the first day at sea.
How much did they charge you for this boat?
98
8. Ak budeme tlačiť dvere, na ktorých je napísané ťahať, neotvoria sa.
If we push the door on which the word “pull” is written, it won’t open.
If we push the door on which the word “pull” is written, will it open?
EXERCISE
53.e.3
Write the opposites.
NEARER – farther
SMOOTH – rough
PROFIT – loss
ASLEEP – awake
BE ALLOWED – be forbidden
FAIL – succeed
FRIEND – enemy
LAY – lift
WON – lost
RISE – sink
FOLLOW – precede
FORBADE – allowed
RISEN – sunk
LAID – lifted
EXERCISE
54.e.1
Yesterday you met your friend John. Below are some of the things he said to you. Later that day you
want to tell another friend what John said. Use indirect speech.
1.”I haven’t seen you for such a long time.”
John said that he hadn’t seen me for such a long time.
2.”I’m living in London now.”
He said he was living in London now.
3.”My sister is ill.”
He said that his sister was ill.
4.”Lisa and Paul are going to get married.”
He said that Lisa and Paul were going to get married.
5.”Margaret has had a baby.”
He said that Margaret had had a baby.
6.”I don’t know where Judy is going.”
He said that he didn’t know where Judy was going.
7.”I saw Helen at a party in June and she looked happy.”
He said that he had seen Helen at a party and she had looked happy.
8.”My car was stolen last month.”
He said that his car had been stolen last month.
9.”I’ll tell Mary that I saw you.”
He said that he would tell Mary that he had seen me.
10.”You can come and stay at my flat if you come to London.”
He said that I could come and stayed at his flat if I came to London.
EXERCISE
54.e.2
Change the sentences below either to direct or indirect speech.
1.
2.
3.
Tom says: “There is a good band playing in the club tonight.”
Tom said that there was a good band playing in the club tonight.
Amy said that she had seen Judy in the bank last Monday.
Amy says: “I saw Judy in the bank last Monday.”
The driver said that he was going to turn right at the traffic lights.
The driver says: “I am going to turn right at the traffic lights.”
99
4.
My brother: “I’ve returned the book to the library.”
My brother said that he had returned the book to the library.
5. The doctor said that he would send me the results soon.
The doctor says: “I will send you the results soon.”
6. They said that there are more people living in Bratislava than in Košice.
They say: “There are more people living in Bratislava than in Kosice.”
7. Susan said: “I don’t know what I’m going to do.”
Susan said that she didn’t know what she would do.
8. She said that if she had had enough money, she would have gone for a holiday.
She says: “If I had enough money I would go for a holiday.”
9. He said: “I have already eaten my lunch.”
He said that he had already eaten his lunch.
10. I said: “I don’t read any daily newspapers.”
I said that I didn’t read any daily newspapers.
READING
54.r.1
1. Čo povedal prvý muž o svojom synovi? Zopakuj jeho slová pomocou nepriamej reči.
What did the first man say about his son? Report his words using indirect speech.
2. Čo povedal druhý muž o svojom synovi? Zopakuj jeho slová pomocou nepriamej reči.
What did the second man say about his son? Report his words using indirect speech.
3. Čo povedal tretí muž o svojom synovi? Zopakuj jeho slová pomocou nepriamej reči.
What did the third man say about his son? Report his words using indirect speech.
4. Bol štvrtý muž takisto hrdý na svojho syna? Prečo?
Was the fourth man also proud of his son? Why?
5. Myslíš si, že traja synovia vedia o sebe navzájom?
Do you think that the three sons know of one another?
6. Translate the words: hanba, blahoželať, inžinier, striptér, ekonómia, prúdové lietadlo. Use the words in
sentences.
Shame, congratulate, engineer, stripper, economics, jet.
EXERCISE
55.e.1
Change the sentences using indirect speech. Always change the tense and the time/place expression.
1. Emily: “Our teacher is wearing a ring made of pure gold today.”
Emily said that their teacher was wearing a ring made of pure gold that day.
2. Helen said: “I didn’t hear it when my mobile phone rang yesterday.”
Helen said that she hadn’t heard it when her mobile phone had rung the previous day.
3. My father: “I am going to buy this wooden table tomorrow.”
My father said that he was going to buy that wooden table the following day.
4. Patricia said: “My mother will celebrate her birthday next week and I’m buying her a present now.”
Patricia said that her mother would celebrate her birthday the following week and she was
buying a present then.
5. You: “My husband left for work an hour ago.”
I said that my husband had left for work an hour before.
6. Your best friend: “I bought a fake T-shirt last week and I want to change it for an original one.”
My best friend said the she had bought a fake T-shirt the previous week and she wanted to
change it for an original one.
7. Susan: “I will have to get up at 6 o’clock in the morning next week because I have so much work.”
Susan said that she would have to get up at 6 o’clock in the morning the following week because
she had so much work.
8. John says: “I live here, in this beautiful house.”
John said that he lived there, in that beautiful house.
9. Your brother: “I can’t find the square plate here.”
My brother said that he couldn’t find the square plate there.
100
10. The teacher: “These children behave very well.”
The teacher said that those children behaved very well.
EXERCISE
55.e.2
First correct the mistakes in the following sentences and then form questions from the sentences.
1.
2.
3.
This around circle is made from wooden.
This round circle is made of wood. What is this round circle made of?
He was able to rescue some money last year, because he didn’t waste money on useles products.
He was able to save some money last year because he didn’t waste money on useless products.
Why was he able to save some money last year?
Politics and religion problems don’t interested me.
Political and religious problems don’t interest me. Do political and religious problems interest
you?
4.
You should think carefully before you do a decision.
You should think carefully before you make a decision. Should you think carefully before you
make a decision?
5. I always conserve all new phone numbers into my mobile phone.
I always save/store all new phone numbers into my mobile phone. Do you always save/store all
new mobile phones into your mobile phone?
6. When people get asleep their eyes are usually open.
When people fall asleep their eyes are usually closed. Are people’s eyes usually closed when they
fall asleep?
7. The company has succeeded at making a big profit this year.
The company has succeeded in making a big profit this year. What has the company succeeded
at?
8. Lucy used to obeying her parents when she was younger, they weren’t mad about her very often.
Lucy used to obey her parents when she was younger, they weren’t mad at her very often. Did
Lucy use to obey her parents when she was younger? Were they often mad at her?
9. The murderer was shoot by the police in Monday.
The murderer was shot by the police on Monday. Was the murderer shot by the police on
Monday? When was the murderer shot by the police?
10. We are very proud on our two sons.
We are very proud of our two sons. Are you proud of your two sons? Who are you very proud of?
EXERCISE
56.e.1
Change the following commands, questions and requests into indirect speech.
1. “What do you want?” she asked him.
She asked him what he wanted.
2. He asked me: “Are you feeling lonely?”
He asked me if I was feeling lonely.
3. The teacher ordered the class: “Be quite!”
The teacher ordered the class to be quite.
4. My mother asked me: “Don’t waste your money please.”
My mother asked me not to waste my money.
5. The passenger asked: “When will the train arrive?”
The passenger asked when the train would arrive.
6. “Are you looking for a special present?” the shop assistant asked me.
The shop assistant asked me if I was looking for a special present.
7. I said: “Don’t worry Sue!”
I told Sue not to worry.
101
8.
You requested me: “Don’t listen to what he says, please.”
You requested me not to listen to what he said.
9. The policeman: “Pronounce your surname slowly!”
The policeman told me to pronounce my surname slowly.
10. He asked her: “Will you marry me?”
He asked her if she would marry him.
EXERCISE
56.e.2
Translate these question, orders and requests your mother told you into English and then change
them into indirect speech.
1.
Používaj pri rozprávaní mozog!
Use your brain while talking! My mother ordered me to use my brain while talking.
2. Nechaj ma chvíľu relaxovať, prosím!
Let me relax for a while please! My mother requested me to let her relax for a while.
3. Prečo nemáš žiadne ambície?
Why don’t you have any ambitions? My mother asked me why I didn’t have any ambitions.
4. Pozri sa na túto fotku našej rodiny!
Look at this photo of our family! My mother told me to look at that photo of our family.
5. Nepi alkohol!
Don’t drink alcohol! My mother ordered me not to drink alcohol.
6. Chceš večerať teraz?
Do you want to eat dinner now? My mother asked me if I wanted to eat dinner then.
7. Pomôž mi s utieraním prachu, prosím!
Help me with dusting please! My mother requested me to help her with dusting.
8. Začni sa o seba starať!
Start to take care of yourself! My mother told me to start to take care of myself.
9. Nehovor otcovi, koľko to stálo, prosím.
Don‘t tell the father how much it cost please. My mother asked me not to tell the father how much
it had cost.
10. Prídeš pred polnocou?
Will you come before midnight? My mother asked me if I would come before midnight.
EXERCISE
57.e.1
Decide: another – other(s) – the other(s).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
I've found one of my black shoes, but I can't find the other.
You have already drunk six whiskies! – Only six?! Give me another!
Do you know those women speaking to each other? – Yes, I know Brigit, but who is the other woman?
We don’t like these carpets. Could you show us some others?
Rachel and Jennifer are watching TV. The other girls are out.
All right, the other guests have arrived. We can begin to serve dinner.
We are probably going to move to another city.
He lives on the other side of the lake.
There are many other possibilities.
I would like to borrow another book from the local library.
You have to sign the document over here and there should be the other signature.
Three people moved out of that flat and two others moved in it.
EXERCISE
57.e.2
Translate the sentences and form the questions.
102
1.
Pred desiatimi rokmi sme mali v obývačke starý, ale krásny nábytok.
Ten years ago, we had old but beautiful furniture in our living room.
What kind of furniture did you have in your living room ten years ago?
2.
Ak by som našiel na podlahe v mojej spálni vankúš, zdvihol by som ho a položil na posteľ.
If I found a pillow on the floor in my bedroom, I would lift it and lay it on a bed.
What would you do if you found a pillow on the floor in your bedroom?
3.
Nie, nepoznám nikoho, kto chcel zohriať svoju mačku v mikrovlnke.
No, I don’t know anybody who wanted to heat his cat in a microwave.
Do you know anybody who wanted to heat his cat in a microwave?
4.
Nikdy som sa nesnažila postaviť tehlovú chatu, lebo viem, že je veľmi drahé vykúriť niečo také.
I have never tried to build a brick cottage because I know that it is very expensive to heat
something like that.
Why have you never tried to build a brick cottage?
5.
Áno, keď sa mi bude páčiť nejaký dom na predmestí tohto mesta, kúpim si ho.
Yes, when I like a house in the suburbs of this town, I will buy it.
Will you buy a house in the suburbs of this town?
6.
Predtým než som sa presťahoval do nového bytu, býval som v dome bez komína, zvončeka na dverách a rúry
na pečenie.
Before I moved into a new flat, I had lived in a house without a chimney, a doorbell and an oven.
Where had you lived before you moved into a new flat?
7.
Mal by si kúpiť hrubé prikrývky predtým, než začne zima, pretože bude chladno.
He should buy some thick blankets before the winter begins because it will be cold.
Why should he buy some thick blankets?
8.
Áno, dieťa si zvyčajne zabúda umyť ruky v umývadle, keď sa vráti domov zo školy.
Yes, a child usually forgets to wash his hands in a washbasin when he gets home from school.
Does a child usually forget to wash his hands in a washbasin when he gets home from school?
EXERCISE
58.e.1
Correct the mistakes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Do you make your bed yesterday morning or do you forgot to do it?
Did you make your bed yesterday morning or did you forget to do it?
In my opinion, housewifes not do nothing difficult, they just have clean the windows, mop the floor and
sometimes they must to prepare lunch or dinner.
In my opinion, housewives don’t do anything difficult, they just have to clean the windows, mop
the floor and sometimes they must prepare lunch or dinner.
You have always remember to pay for your electricity bill at time?
Have you always remembered to pay your electricity bill on time?
Parents ought take care for their childrens. If they don’t, their childrens would became criminal or murders.
Parents ought to care for/ take care of their children. If they don’t, their children will become
criminals or murderers.
I like to buy a dishwasher because I really hate wash up the dishes. It is the worse homework.
I would like to buy a dishwasher because I really hate to wash (up)/ washing up the dishes. It is the
worst housework.
Why do your brother want vacuum all the carpets on the steps in your house? I don’t know a man which is
mad at vacuum.
Why does your brother want to vacuum all the carpets on the stairs in your house? I don’t a man
who is mad about vacuuming.
103
7.
Most the people not like ironing and the other are crazy.
Most people don’t like ironing and the others are crazy.
8. My husband asked me, if I will borrow him some money tomorrow. I don’t, because he is very irreliable.
My husband asked me if I would lend him some money the following day. I won't because he is
very unreliable.
9. What you was doing last night? Your boyfriend told to me that you fall asleep quiet early but I heard you
speaking to one another.
What were you doing last night? Your boyfriend told me that you fell asleep quite early, but I
heard you speaking to each other.
10. I have just decide to build a brick cottage in a country therefore I cannot introduce the world without nature.
I have just decided to build a brick cottage in the country because I cannot imagine the world
without nature.
EXERCISE
58.e.2
Decide Present Simple/Present Continuous/ Past Simple/ Past Continuous.
1.
2.
Don't forget to take your umbrella. It is raining. (rain)
A: What were you doing when the accident happened? (you do, happen)
B: I was preparing dinner. (prepare)
Be quiet! John is sleeping. (sleep)
Sebastian arrived at Susan's house a little before 9:00 pm, but she was not there. She was studying at
the library for her exam in French. (arrive, not be, study)
Sharon was in the room when John told me what happened, but she didn't hear anything because she
was not listening. (be, not hear, not listen)
Every Monday, Sally drives her kids to football practice. (drive)
The doctor said that Tom was too sick to go to work and that he needed to stay at home for a couple of
days. (say, be, need)
A: I called you last night after dinner, but you were not there. Where were you? (call, not be, be)
B: I am sorry, I couldn't answer the phone, because I was trying to make an important decision. (be, can,
try)
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
EXERCISE
59.e.1
Complete the sentences with the words written below.
virus
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
memory
save
print
laptop
cut
crash
copy
paste
If you click on save, the computer will store a document for you.
If you click on copy, you will have the same document twice.
If you click on cut, the computer will take something out of a document.
If you click on paste, the computer will add into a document something you wanted.
If you click on print, you can get a paper copy.
If the computer has a virus because there is a software problem, it could crash.
If you computer is very slow, it may need more memory.
If you want to work on a plane or train, you need to use a laptop.
EXERCISE
59.e.2
Choose the correct tense of the verb.
1.
2.
I …………………… (chatted/was chatting/had chatted) in my favourite chat room when
somebody ……………………( had entered/was entering/entered) the room and
…………………… (switched off/was switching off/had switched off) the light.
Before her laptop …………………… (crashes/was crashing/crashed) she ……………………
(wrote/had written/was writing) about ten pages of the report, but she …………………… (didn’t
save/not saved/hadn’t saved) them.
104
3.
If they …………………… (are connect/were connected/had connected) to the Internet, they
would be able to send the e-mail, but they…………………… (can’t /couldn’t/won’t be able to) find
a network.
4. You …………………… (not see/aren’t seeing/can’t see) very well. I……………………(will/am/am
going to) switch the light on.
5. Tom ………………….. (bought/was buying/has bought) a new keyboard this afternoon; the old
one …………………… (hasn’t worked/didn’t work/hadn’t worked).
6. He …………………… (isn’t finishing/hasn’t finished/didn’t finish) the essay yet, but he
…………………… (will finish/finishes/is going to finish) it in 5 minutes.
7. …………………… (Did/Have/Has) my assistant already ……………………
(printing/print/printed) the pages I …………………… (was asking/asked/am asking) for?
8. Look, the computer …………………… (is connected/has been connected/is being connected) to
the Internet right now.
EXERCISE
60.e.1
Deny the sentences or emphasize the exclamations given using the emphatic form.
1.
Paul doesn’t have a new girlfriend.
Paul does have a new girlfriend.
2. Lucy never understood her father.
Lucy did understand her father.
3. They don’t come here very often.
They do come here very often.
4. You didn’t wash the dishes.
I did wash the dishes.
5. She doesn’t clean her teeth regularly.
She does clean her teeth regularly.
6. He speaks five foreign languages!
He does speak five foreign languages!
7. I love my children!
I do love my children!
8. She doesn’t want to help her brother.
She does want to help her brother.
9. David and Ana didn’t pay for themselves.
David and Ana did pay for themselves.
10. You don’t study as you ought to.
I do study as I ought to.
EXERCISE
60.e.2
Rewrite the sentences using the word given in the brackets. The meaning must stay the same.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
In my opinion, more people should go to university.
As far as I’m concerned, more people should go to university.
I totally agree with you.
You are totally right.
You passed the exam. Congratulations!
You passed the exam. Well done.
I partly agree with what you say.
I agree to some extent with what you say.
John says that they will come this evening.
According to John, they will come this evening.
Thank you very much for helping me with my homework.
Thanks a lot for helping me with my homework.
It doesn’t matter that you missed last lesson.
Don’t worry that you missed last lesson.
105
EXERCISE
60.e.3
What could you say in these situations?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Someone says something to you but you didn’t hear all of it. What do you say?
I beg your pardon? Pardon?
A friend tells you he has just won a competition. What do you say?
Well done./Congratulations!
Your sister is going for a job interview this afternoon. What do you say?
Good luck!
You came late to work and your boss was waiting for you in your office. What do you say?
I am sorry for being late./I apologise for being late.
Your colleague has wished you a nice weekend. What do you say?
Same to you.
You are in a bus full of people and you want to get off. What do you say to other passengers?
Excuse me.
You have a drink with your friends. What do you say before you start drinking?
Cheers!
Your brother is cold and sneezes a lot. What do you say?
Bless you!
106
KEY TO REPETITION PRE-INTERMEDIATE II.
UNIT 51 - 60
EXERCISE
rpi.e.1
Put in the correct form of the verb in the Passive Voice. Choose the right tense (Present Simple,
Present Perfect, Past Simple, Will Future)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
All the new words .....have been explained..... by the teacher already. (explain)
Don’t worry! This car .....won’t be sold..... until tomorrow. (sell)
I am really nervous, because my keys .....are lost..... . (lose)
I .....was given..... a book by my friend last Friday. (give)
The dishes .....have..... already .....been washed..... by my little brother. (wash)
When .....was..... this building .....built..... ? In 1999. (build)
I have heard that he .....were charged..... with a murder a week ago. Is it true? (charge)
The class .....was ordered..... to open their books a second ago. (order)
All the furniture in my house .....has been dusted..... this week. (dust)
Wednesday .....is..... always .....followed by Thursday and Tuesday .....is always preceded..... by Monday.
(follow, precede)
EXERCISE
rpi.e.2
Translate the sentences and always change the tense in Indirect speech.
1.
Povedal, že sa chystá kúpiť si ďalší týždeň umývačku riadu.
He said that he was going to buy a dishwasher the following week.
2. Požiadal ho, aby mu požičal nejaké vankúše, prikrývky a plachty.
He asked him to lend him some pillows, blankets and sheets.
3. Prikázali mu, aby dnes neostal v práci do polnoci.
They ordered him not to stay at work until midnight that day.
4. Nepovedal si mi, že si ženatý.
You didn’t tell me that you were married.
5. Povedala som, že nemám žiaden bankový účet na sporenie peňazí.
I told him that I didn’t have a bank account for saving money.
6. Ten muž povedal, že neukradol pas a zlodeja nevidel.
That man said that he hadn’t stolen a passport and he hadn’t seen a thief.
7. Poprosila som ho, aby sa pokúsil udržať so mnou jednoduchú konverzáciu v angličtine.
I asked him to try to hold a simple conversation in English with me.
8. Myslela som si, že ste mi povedali, že ste blázni do výrobkov vyrobených z dreva.
I thought, that you told me, that you were mad about the products made of wood.
9. Povedala som mu, aby položil nejaké koberce na schody, ale neurobil to.
I told him to lay some crapets on the stairs, but he didn’t do it.
10. Môj priateľ sa spýtal, či sa s ním zajtra rozídem. Povedala som mu, že neviem.
My boyfriend asked me, if I would break up with him the following day. I told him that I didn’t
know.
EXERCISE
rpi.e.3
Direct and Indirect speech.
Change the direct speech into the indirect speech. Always change time and place expressions.
1.
2.
She said: “I’ve bought it today” -> She said (that) she had bought it that day.
She said: “I saw him yesterday.” -> She said (that) she had seen him the previous day/the day before.
107
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
She said: “I am getting a new car this week.” -> She said (that) she was getting a new car that week.
She said: “Tom is tired now.” -> She said (that) Tom was tired then.
She said: “We bought it a week ago.” -> She said (that) they had bought it the week before.
She said: “I was on holiday last week.” -> She said (that) she had been on holiday the previous week.
She said: “I’ll see you tomorrow.” -> She said (that) she would see me the next day.
She said: “I have an appointment next week.” -> She said (that) she had an appointment the
following week.
9. She said: “I live here.” -> She said (that) she lived there.
10. She said: “These shoes are nice.” -> She said (that) those shoes were nice.
EXERCISE
rpi.e.4
Choose the right option.
The public toilets in the suburbs are 1...B... ; we have to find 2...A... in the centre, but it is quite far from here,
although I have to say it could have been 3...C... . 4...C... that old printer away; nobody 5...A... repair it. No, I
6...B... done it yet. I 7...A... it every day, I am not sure if I will get used to 8...B... a new one. I 9...A... it every day, I
am not sure if I will get used to 10...B... it in my office. My brother said that he 11...C... go to Australia 12...B...,
but he hasn’t bought any plane tickets 13...B... . I am sure that our mother 14...A... him when I 15...B... home
tonight. I told him that it was impossible 16...C... all day, but he 17...C... understand. What 18...B... do now?
Before I 19...C... home yesterday, 20...A... all the carpets because if I 21...C... it, my husband would have
22...C... me.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
A. working
A. some others
A. even farer
A. Have you already throw
A. was able to
A. have
A. need
A. use
A. used to use
A. have
A. would go
A. tomorrow
A. already
A. will be shouting at
A. will be
A. smile
A. not wanted
A. I will
A. arrive
A. I had vacuumed
A. didn’t do
A. shout at
B. out of order
B. another
B. farther than
B. Did you already throw
B. could have to
B. haven’t
B. needing
B. using
B. was used
B. not having
B. is going
B. the next day
B. yet
B. will shout to
B. return
B. laugh
B. don’t
B. shall I
B. left from
B. I vacuuming
B. haven’t do
B. be angry with
C. not working
C. the other
C. even farther
C. Have you already thrown
C. wanted
C. didn’t
C. have need
C. used
C. am used to
C. see
C. was going to
C. yesterday
C. ever
C. is going to shout
C. will go
C. to keep smiling
C. didn’t want to
C. I ought to
C. left
C. have cleaned
C. hadn’t done
C. been mad at
EXERCISE
rpi.e.5
Complete the table with the translation and paradigms of irregular verbs.
TRANSLATION
stať sa
začať
fúkať
zlomiť, rozbiť
PAST
was/were
became
began
blew
broke
BE
BECOME
BEGIN
BLOW
BREAK
108
PAST PARTICIPLE
been
become
begun
blown
broken
TRANSLATION
priniesť
spáliť
kúpiť
chytiť
vybrarť
prísť
stáť
vystrihnúť
urobiť
piť
riadiť, viesť
jesť
padnúť
cítiť
bojovať
nájsť
zakázať
odpustiť
zmraziť
získať, dostať
dať
ísť
mať
zavesiť
držať, viesť
vedieť
položiť
ležať, klamať
opustiť
požičať
stratiť
urobiť
stretnúť
predbehnúť
čítať
jazdiť
stúpať, stúpnuť
bežať
povedať
vidieť
predávať
poslať, odoslať
triasť
strieľať
potopiť
sedieť
spat
hovoriť
stráviť
vysypať, preliať
stáť
ukradnúť
PAST
brought
burnt
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
did
drank
drove
ate
fell
felt
fought
found
forbade
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
had
hung
kept
knew
laid
lay
left
lent
lost
made
met
overtook
read
rode
rose
ran
said
saw
sold
sent
shook
shot
sank
sat
slept
spoke
spent
spilt
stood
stole
BRING
BURN
BUY
CATCH
CHOOSE
COME
COST
CUT
DO
DRINK
DRIVE
EAT
FALL
FEEL
FIGHT
FIND
FORBID
FORGIVE
FREEZE
GET
GIVE
GO
HAVE
HANG
KEEP
KNOW
LAY
LIE
LEAVE
LEND
LOSE
MAKE
MEET
OVERTAKE
READ
RIDE
RISE
RUN
SAY
SEE
SELL
SEND
SHAKE
SHOOT
SINK
SIT
SLEEP
SPEAK
SPEND
SPILL
STAND
STEAL
109
PAST PARTICIPLE
brought
burnt
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
done
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
felt
fought
found
forbidden
forgiven
frozen
got
given
gone
had
hung
kept
known
laid
lain
left
lent
lost
made
met
overtaken
read
ridden
risen
run
said
seen
sold
sent
shaken
shot
sunk
sat
slept
spoken
spent
spilt
stood
stolen
TRANSLATION
plávať
vziať
učiť
povedať
myslieť
hodiť
pochopiť
zobudiť sa
nosiť
vyhrať
písať
SWIM
TAKE
TEACH
TELL
THINK
THROW
UNDERSTAND
WAKE UP
WEAR
WIN
WRITE
PAST
swam
took
taught
told
thought
thrown
understood
woke up
wore
won
wrote
PAST PARTICIPLE
swum
taken
taught
told
thought
thrown
understood
woken up
worn
won
written
Express your opinion and say why:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Smoking in public buildings should be forbidden by law.
Dogs shouldn’t be kept in flats because they suffer there.
People who have killed someone should be killed as well.
It should be allowed to get a driving licence even if you are younger than 18.
110
DICTIONARY
a catch
accent
access
account
active voice
allow
amazing
ambition
amount
another
appearance
arrest
as far as I’m concerned
asleep
ass
at least
attribute
avoid
awake
be right
be worth
be worth
be wrong
because of
bedside table
besides
blanket
bless you
box
brain
brainy
break down
break up
brick
burn – burnt – burnt
by accident
by mistake
cable
calm
care about
care for (sb.)
care
careful
careless
cassette
cd/dvd player
centre
change one’s mind
charge with
chat room
chat
cheat on
cheat
cheers
cheque
chick
chimney
circle
click
háčik, prekážka
prízvuk, dôraz
prístup, možnosť pripojenia
účet, konto
činný rod
dovoliť, povoliť
úžasný
ambícia
množstvo
iný, ďalší
vzhľad
zatknúť
čo sa mňa týka
spiaci
zadok
minimálne, aspoň
atribút, vlastnosť
predísť, vyhnúť sa (niečomu)
bdelý
mať pravdu
mať cenu, oplatiť sa
mať hodnotu, cenu
mýliť sa
kvôli
nočný stolík
okrem
prikrývka
nazdravie (kýchnutie)
krabica, box
mozog
múdry
pokaziť sa
rozísť sa
tehla, tehlový
(s)páliť, horieť
omylom, náhodou
omylom
kábel
pokojný
záležať na niečom
starať sa o, stáť o niekoho
starostlivosť; starať sa
opatrný
neopatrný
kazeta
CD/DVD prehrávač
centrum
rozmyslieť si, zmeniť názor
obžalovať z
diskusná miestnosť
neformálny rozhovor, chat
podvádzať - byť neverný
podvádzať - klamať
nazdravie (prípitok)
šek
kurča; kočka (príťažlivé
dievča)
komín
kruh
kliknúť; kliknutie
code
college
command
commit
communication
concentrate
confuse
congratulate
congratulations
connect
connection
conserve
copy
crash
laptop/notebook
crazy
crime
criminal
cultural
culture
cut
daily
definitely
deny
depend (on)
digital
direct speech
(dis)obey
dishwasher
domestic
don’t worry
doorbell
doubt
drop
dust (the furniture)
duty
economics
economise
electricity
supply
e-mail (electronic mail)
by post
emphasis
emphasize
emphatic do
enemy
engineer
even
event
except
exclamation
excuse me
exit
expect
fake
fall asleep
false
far – farther – the farthest
fault
111
kód
typ am. vysokej školy
rozkaz, rozkázať
spáchať
komunikácia; komunikačný
sústrediť (sa)
zmiasť, popliesť si
blahoželať
gratulujem
spájať, spojiť
spojenie, pripojenie
konzervovať
kopírovať
zrútenie (systému); zrútiť sa
prenosný počítač
bláznivý
zločin
zločinec
kultúrny
kultúra
vystrihnúť
denne, denný
určite
poprieť, zamietnuť
závisieť od, záležať na
digitálny
priama reč
(ne)poslúchať
umývačka riadu
domáci
netráp sa
zvonček na dverách
pochybnosť; pochybovať
pustiť, padať; kvapka
prach, utierať prach (na
nábytku)
povinnosť; clo
ekonómia
šetriť
elektrina
zásobovať, dodávka
elektronická pošta
poštou
dôraz
zdôrazniť
dôrazné “do”
nepriateľ
inžinier
dokonca
udalosť, akcia
okrem
zvolanie
prepáčte
vyjsť, opustiť
očakávať
falošný, neúprimný
zaspať
nepravdivý
ďaleko/ý – ďalej - najďalej
chyba
faultless
fence
firefighter/ fireman
fireplace
floor
follow
following
forbid – forbade – forbidden
forever
forgive - forgave – forgiven
friendship
front door
gate
generous
genie
rub
get used to + -ing/noun
gold
good luck
gossip
ground floor
guilty
gun
hardware
have a nice evening
heat
heaven
hell
hold
(hold) a conversation
hope
horrible
terrible
hourly
household
housewife
housework
however
I agree to some extent
I am used to + -ing/noun
I apologise for
I beg your pardon
I partly agree
I totally disagree
I used to + inf.
I’m sorry
icon
in my opinion
include
increase
indirect/ reported speech
injure
injury
innocent
international
internet
introduce
invent
iron
iron
IT (information technology)
it doesn’t matter
it matters
jet
join in
judge (by)
judge
justice
bezchybný
plot
hasič
kozub
poschodie
(na)sledovať
nasledujúci
zakázať
navždy
odpustiť
priateľstvo
predné, vchodové dvere
brána
veľkorysý, štedrý
džin
trieť, šúchať
zvykať si na
zlato
veľa šťastia
ohovárať, klebeta
prízemie
vinný
zbraň
hardvér
pekný večer
zohrievať, teplo
nebo
peklo
držať
(viesť) rozhovor
nádej, dúfať
hrozný, strašný
hrozný, strašný
každú hodinu, hodinový
domácnosť
domáca pani
domáce práce
avšak, akokoľvek
súhlasím do určitej miery
som zvyknutý na
ospravedlňujem sa za
prepáčte, prosím? (keď
nerozumieme, nepočujeme)
čiastočne súhlasím
úplne nesúhlasím
zvykol som
prepáčte
ikona
podľa môjho názoru
zahŕňať
narastať, stúpať
nepriama reč
zraniť
zranenie
nevinný
medzinárodný
internet
predstaviť
vynájsť, objaviť
žehlička; žehliť; železo
železo
IT (informačné technológie)
to nevadí
na tom záleží
prúdové lietadlo
pridať sa, pripojiť sa (ku
skupine)
súdiť (podľa)
sudca
spravodlivosť
keep
keep (on) doing sth.
keep an appointment
keep in touch
keyboard
knock
law
(law) court
lay
level
lift
line
link
liquid
location
lonely
look after
lose
loss
mad
made of
make friends
make nervous
make the bed
wash up
(make) a decision
material
matter
member
memory
metal
microwave (oven)
mind
mirror
misjudge
monthly
mop
more or less
mouse
murder
murderer
nervous
never mind
no problem
no problem
noisy
not at all
offline
on purpose
online
order
original
ostrich
other
oven
pardon?
passenger
passive voice
passport
mobile phone
signature
paste
peace
personally, i think
photo
physical
112
držať, udržať, nechať si
stále niečo robiť, pokračovať v
práci
prísť na stretnutie
ostať v kontakte
klávesnica
klopať
zákon
súd
položiť
úroveň
zdvihnúť
čiara
spojiť
tekutina
poloha
osamelý
starať sa o
prehrať, stratiť
strata
bláznivý
vyrobený z
nájsť si priateľov, spriateliť sa
znervózňovať
ustlať posteľ
umyť riad
(urobiť) rozhodnutie
materiál
material, záležitosť; záležať
člen
pamäť
kov
mikrovlnná rúra
myseľ
zrkadlo
zle posúdiť
mesačne, mesačný
mop, umývať dlážku
viac-menej
myš
vražda; zavraždiť
vrah
nervózny, nepokojný
nevadí
nemáš za čo, žiadny problém
žiadny problém
hlučný
nemáš za čo
bez spojenia
naschvál
v spojení (v súvislosti s
internetom)
nariadenie, rozkaz; nariadiť,
rozkázať
originálny, pôvodný; originál
pštros
iní, ďalší
rúra na pečenie
prosím? (keď nerozumieme,
nepočujeme)
pasažier, cestujúci
trpný rod
pas
mobilný telefón
podpis
nalepiť
mier
osobne si myslím
fotka, fotografia
fyzický
pillow
pleasure
political
politics
pour
spill – spilt - spilt
practical
practice
precede
previous
pride
print
printer
prison
prisoner
produce
product
profit
pronounce
proof
protect
proud of sth./sb.
pull
purpose
push
rather (…than)
receptionist
refuse
relax
religion
religious
repair
reply
report
request
rescue
rise - rose - risen
roof
rough
round
same to you
satisfied
save
screen
selfish
shake – shook- shaken
shame
sheet
shoot – shot – shot
shout
sign
silver
sink - sank - sunk
smart
smooth
soap
software
square
statement
steal – stole – stolen
vankúš
potešenie
politický
politika
liať, naliať
rozliať, rozsypať
praktický
prax
predchádzať, ísť pred
predchádzajúci
hrdosť, pýcha
tlačiť, vyltačiť
tlačiareň
väzenie
väzeň
produkovať
produkt
zisk
vysloviť
dôkaz
ochrániť
byť hrdý na niečo/niekoho
ťahať
zámer, účel
tlačiť
radšej, skôr
recepčný/á
odmietnuť
relax; relaxovať
náboženstvo
náboženský,pobožný
opraviť
odpovedať
oznámiť, zreferovať
požiadavka, požiadať
zachrániť
stúpať
strecha
drsný
okrúhly, dookola
nápodobne, aj tebe
spokojný
uložiť, zachrániť
obrazovka
sebecký
triasť
hanba
plachta
strieľať
kričať
znak; podpísať
striebro
klesať
šikovný, múdry
hladký
mydlo
softvér
štvorec, štvorcový
výrok, tvrdenie
ukradnúť
steel
steps
store
stripper
suburbs
succeed (in)
suddenly
support
surface
surname
surround
surroundings
swimming pool
switch off
switch on
take care of
tax
technology
tempt
temptation
tempting
text message
thank you (very much)
thanks a lot
that’s OK
that’s very kind of you
the other
theoretical
theory
thief (pl. thieves)
throw – threw – thrown
to be out of order
toilet
true
turn off
turn on
type
vaccum cleaner
vaccum
(walking) stick
wash the dishes
wash
washbasin
washing machine
weapon
bleed
weekly
welcome (to)
well done
willing
win – won – won
wireless (wifi)
wonder
wooden
work
wound
yearly
you’re welcome
113
oceľ
schody; kroky
uložiť
striptér
predmestie
uspieť (v)
zrazu
podpora; podporiť
povrch
priezvisko
obklopovať
okolie
bazén
vypnúť
zapnúť
starať sa o
daň
technológia
pokúšať, lákať
pokušenie
lákavý
textová správa
ďakujem (veľmi pekne)
ďakujem pekne
to je v poriadku
to je od teba veľmi milé
ten druhý, zvyšný; tí druhí,
zvyšní
teoretický
teória
zlodej
hodiť
nefungovať
toaleta
pravdivý
vypnúť
zapnúť
písať na klávesnici
vysávač
vysávať
(chodecká) palica
umyť riad
prať, umývať
umývadlo
práčka
zbraň
krvácať
týždenne, týždenný
vítať (niekde)
dobra práca
ochotný
vyhrať
bezdrôtový
čudovať sa, zamýšľať sa
drevený
fungovať
rana; poraniť
ročne, ročný
nemáš za čo
LOKER s.r.o.
Obchodná 2, 811 06 Bratislava
www.royalmethod.sk
Royal method is a trademark of LOKER s.r.o.
All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior
written permission of the Publishers.
Authors:
leaded by Royalschool n.o.
expert guarantor doc. PhDr. Anna Hlavňová, CSc.
Ing. Ivana Petričová
Mgr. Katarína Petrovičová
First edition, 2012
ISBN 978-80-89615-03-2
Printed in the Slovak republic.
114
Download

royal method teacher`s book – pre-intermediate 2