LGBT POPULACIJA
U ŠTAMPANIM MEDIJIMA U SRBIJI, 2011.
Beograd, 2012.
Jelena Višnjić
LGBT POPULACIJA
U ŠTAMPANIM MEDIJIMA U SRBIJI, 2011.
Labris - organizacija za lezbejska ljudska prava, Beograd 2012
Izdavač:
Labris - organizacija za lezbejska ljudska prava
11000 Beograd, Srbija
tel: +381 (0) 11 337 4018, +381 (0) 11 323 1547, +381 (0) 11 337 3048
tel/fax: +381 (0) 11 337 3011
e-mail: [email protected]
web: www.labris.org.rs
Autorka: Jelena Višnjić
Statistička obrada podataka: Ivan Milovanović
Lektura i korektura: Hristina Piskulidis
Tehničko uređenje i prelom: Adorjan Kurucz
Štampa: Standard 2
Tiraž: 300
Štampanje ove publikacije omogućeno je zahvaljujući podršci organizacije
ILGA EUROPE
LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji
UVOD
Mediji podržavaju vladajuću društvenu strukturu
i zbog toga je nužno stalno ih i iznova pratiti, jer
monitoring medijske stvarnosti treba da pokaže
da li su na delu, i ako jesu, na koji način deluju
strategije isključivanja LGBT populacije u medijskoj praksi kroz konstrukcije stvarnosti, getoizacije i njihove stereotipizacije u medijima. Politike predstavljanja rodnih identiteta mogu se
posmatrati kao izraz odnosa moći u određenom
društvu i istorijskom razdoblju, i u tom smislu
pozicija LGBT populacije u medijskom diskursu
najčešće je konstruisana i označena kao figura
“drugog”, tj. kao figura u kojoj se ogledaju preovlađujući društveni odnosi. LGBT u ovom čitanju je kategorija. Dakle, reč je o tome da je ono
što se pripisuje ovoj kategoriji, principu drugo,
drugorazredno, nepoželjno, manje vrednovano
u vladajućim ideologijama i njima svojstvenim
medijskim praksama.
i nemaju jednak tretman u društvu. Država je
dužna da sve svoje građane zaštiti od nasilja,
ali taj zadatak nije ispunjen i predstavlja gorući problem koji zahteva efikasnije i koordinirano
delovanje policije, sudstva i tužilaštva. Slabost i
odsustvo političke volje u procesu unapređivanja i sprovođenja prava LGBT populacije u Srbiji
najjasnije su se reflektovali kroz pokušaje organizovanja Parade ponosa kao političkog čina
mirnog okupljanja, kojim se ukazuje na diskriminisani društveni položaj i koji predstavlja jedan
od temelja funkcionalne demokratije. Brutalno
nasilje koje se dogodilo na prvom javnom skupu
LGBT osoba - gay paradi održanoj u Beogradu
juna 2001. godine, zabranjene Povorke ponosa
u septembra 2009. i 2011. godine, kao i nasilje koje je pratilo Paradu ponosa održanu 2010.
godine, događaji su koji su dali legitimitet diskriminaciji nad manjinskom grupom čija su prava
garantovana Ustavom Republike Srbije.
Prevod domaćeg konteksta pokazuje da bez
obzira na postojanje formalno proklamovanih
univerzalnih prava u vidu Ustava i pojedinih
zakona, homoseksualci, lezbejke, biseksualci
i transseksualci i dalje su žrtve diskriminacije
Srbija je poslednja zemlja na Balkanu u kojoj
je tek 2009. godine izglasan Zakon o zabrani
diskriminacije kao prvi pravni akt koji nedvosmisleno afirmišu prava seksualnih manjina.
3
UVOD
Srpsko lekarsko društvo je tek 14. maja 2008.
godine konačno priznalo da homoseksualnost
nije bolest, osamnaest godina nakon odluke
Svetske zdravstvene organizacije o skidanju
homoseksualnosti sa Međunarodne klasifikacije oboljenja (ICD-10).1 U Srbiji postoji ukupno
šest zakona u kojima se eksplicitno tvrdi pravo
na seksualnu orijentaciju. To su Zakon o javnom informisanju, Zakon o radiodifuziji, Zakon
o radu, Zakon o visokom obrazovanju, Zakon o
zabrani diskriminacije i Zakon o mladima. Iako
je zakonski okvir za poštovanje ljudskih prava
obezbeđen, uloga države nije dovoljno učinkovita u procesu poboljšanja položaja LGBT
osoba. Unapređenje prаva LGBT populаcije
podrаzumevа sveopštu društvenu, institucionalnu mobilizaciju i uključivаnje medijske dimenzije kаo jednog od znаčаjnih elemenаtа u
procesu formirаnjа jаvnog mišljenjа.
Medijski sadržaj treba posmatrati kao tekst u čijoj analizi iščitavamo naslage društvenih značenja, a onda im dajemo društvenu dimenziju kroz
učitavanje u spoljne, socijalne odnose u kojima
su nastali. Zato je i nužno stalno se kritički distancirati i decentrirati u odnosu na medijsku praksu,
jer stvarnost po kojoj se krećemo, značenja koja
stvaramo uvek su samo privremena zahvaljujući činjenici da u dominatnoj javnoj i medijskoj
matrici Srbije otpori modernizaciji i homofobični
diskurs opstaju i uvek iznova se regenerišu.
1 Generalna skupština Svetske zdravstvene organizacije je
zvanično 17. Maja 1990. godine uklonila homoseksualnost sa
liste mentalnih poremećaja na koju je postavljena 1977.
4
LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji
SLIKA LGBT POPULACIJE
U ŠTAMPANIM MEDIJIMA U SRBIJI 2011. GODINE
Dominantne predstave o LGBT populaciji direktno su povezane sa medijima zato što politika
medijske reprezentacije rasvetljava paradigmatične predstave o njima u jednoj zajednici. “Mediji su instrument u senzibilizaciji šire javnosti,
pri čemu je posebno značajna uloga elektronskih medija koji su poligon za proizvodnju nejednakosti i straha od drugosti koje se grade kroz
medijske sadržaje, i u kojima se svakodnevno
ponavljaju uvrežene sterotipne i negativne predstave o LGBT populaciji. Na taj način mediji formiraju ograničavajuće i krute definicije, koje ne
mogu pokriti egzistencijalnu raznolikost i razliku,
i iscrtavaju granice prihvatljivog i legitimnog ponašanja, jasno definišući pozicije margine i centra” (Višnjić, Lončarević 2010: 19).
su periodični. Iako je lezbejska i gej tematika
dugo dominirala u okviru zabavnog programa,
tekstovi o LGBT populaciji poslednjih godina
su najzastupljeniji u rubrikama društvo i politika. Najveći procenat tekstova u rubrici zabava
2011. godine zauzelo je snimanje i premijera filma Srđana Dragojevića Parada. Tokom 30.10,
31.10. i 01. 11. (dani oko premijere filma) ukupni
pres kliping koji se referira na teme vezane za
gay populaciju odnosio se upravo na ovoj film.
Objavljeno je 17 tekstova i svi su bili vrednosno
neutralni i pozitivni. U oblasti kulture ove godine desile su se dve važne izložbe koje se tiču
LGBT istorije, Article One i Nacistički teror nad
homoseksualcima od 1933. do 1945. U Beogradu je u februaru u organizaciji Kulturnog centra REX, Article One (iz Švedske) i feminističke grupe BeFem organizovana izložba Član 1,
izložba o LGBT istoriji.2 Najavu izložbe prenela
su samo dva pisana medija. Kao što su muzeji
LGBT populacija je dugi niz godina kontinuirano brisana iz teksta mejnstrim medijskih programa. Iako danas savremeni mediji imaju složeniji
i višeznačni pogled na rod i seksualnost više
nego ikada ranije, medijske slike LGBT populacije pokazuju da je to grupacija koja i dalje ne
dobija dovoljno prostora u štampanim i elektronskim medijima, a pojavljivanja i tematizacije
2 Ova izložba prikazuje delove kolekcija nekih od vodećih
muzeja u Švedskoj o istorijatu homoseksualnosti, biseksualnosti i transseksualnosti i odnosu prema savremenoj stvarnosti
(Muzej švedske policije, Muzej švedske armije, Nobelov muzej,
Nacionalni muzej nauke i tehnologije, Nacionalni istorijski muzej
Švedske). Različiti delovi izložbe pričaju različite priče, ali imaju
zajedničku temu: LGBT istoriju.
5
SLIKA LGBT POPULACIJE U ŠTAMPANIM MEDIJIMA
dugo ignorisali istoriju i specifična iskustva homoseksualnih, biseksualnih i transseksualnih
osoba, tako i mediji selektovanim odabirom i
reprezentacijom iskustva, LGBT zajednicu čine
nevidljivom. Izveštaj o izložbi Nacistički teror
nad homoseksualcima od 1933. do 19453, koju
je organizovalo udruženje ARTEQ (Arte-kju) iz
Beograda u partnerstvu s udruženjem Queer
Zagreb (Kvir Zagreb), održanoj u Muzeju grada
Beograda početkom decembra, po dostavljenom pres klipingu prenela su tri štampana medija.
Međunarodni dan ponosa razvijanjem zastave
duginih boja s balkona Ministarstva za ljudska
i manjinska prava, skup DOSTA JE koji je organizovala Gej strejt alijansa ispred zgrade Vlade Srbije u znak protesta zbog napada na A.Ž.
(24) koja je nosila majicu sa obeležjima LGBT.
Većina dnevnih listova (Pravda, Dnevnik, Politika, Blic, Press, Kurir, Večernje novosti) je
izveštavala o suđenju vođi Obraza Mladenu
Obradoviću za diskriminaciju LGBT osoba,
kao i Miši Vaciću lideru organizacije Naši 1389,
zbog rasne i druge diskriminacije. Najveći broj
tekstova je srednje veličine, ali ono što je važno
je da su gotovo svi nepotpisani i da je u sadržaju odsutan kontekstualni i politički prevod
nasilja. Osim toga, registrovano je i ponavljanje
obrasca u slučaju medijskih članaka o presudi
Višeg suda u Beogradu koji je osudio trojicu
izgrednika zbog nereda tokom Parade ponosa
u Beogradu 10. oktobra 2010. godine. U odnosu na lokaciono poreklo novinski članci su
većinom iz domaćeg javnog i političkog života.
Internacionalni i regionalni događaji o kojima
se intenzivno izveštavalo tokom same realizacije su odobrenje sklapanja istopolnih brakova
u saveznoj državi Njujork (jun 2011), otkazana
Parada ponosa u Podgorici (maj 2011), nasilje
na Paradi ponosa u Splitu (jun 2011).
Pitanje odnosa prema LGBT populaciji je političko pitanje, test za Srbiju u procesu tranzicije
i demokratizacije društva. No, Srbija, bez obzira na formalni i dekorativni napor koji ulaže, je
daleko od moderne zajednice koja je otvorila
prostor za manjine, kao i za promociju politika
razlike i poštovanja istih. Delovanjem “ljudsko
pravaških” i LGBT grupa ovo pitanje je pozicionirano na političkoj agendi i u medijskom
diskursu Srbije. Ključni događaji o kojima su
mediji izveštavali su: Parada ponosa 2011, 17.
maj - Međunarodni dan borbe protiv homofobije i transfobije, predstavljanje godišnjeg izveštaja Gej strejt alijanse (GSA) o stanju ljudskih
prava LGBT osoba u Srbiji “Korak po korak”
(prisustvo gradonačelnika Dragana Đilasa svakako je doprinelo povećanju broja članaka),
Glasovi LGBT aktivistkinja/aktivista, organizacija i/ili pripadnica/ka LGBT populacije kao izvora
informacija u medijima bilo je više nego ranijih
godina. Najprisutniji su Predrag Azdejković (Gej
lezbejski info centar), Boban Stojanović (Kviria centar), Lazar Pavlović (Gej strejt alijansa) i
3 Izložba se sastoji od 150 arhivskih fotografija, tekstova i
dokumenata, koji prikazuju opštu i lične istorije oko 100.000
osoba uhapšenih zbog homoseksualne orijentacije pre i za
vreme Drugog svetskog rata. Dokumentaristički je prikazan
razvoj sistemske državne homofobije u nacističkoj Nemačkoj i
mehanizama progona koji su, u određenoj meri, ostali na snazi
do 70-ih godina 20. veka.
6
LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji
Goran Miletić iz Organizacionog odbora Parade ponosa 2011. Jovanka Todorović Savović iz
Labrisa, organizacije za lezbejska ljudska prava,
dala je najveći broj izjava u štampanim medijima pri obeležavanju Međunarodnog dana ponosa razvijanjem zastave duginih boja, simbola
LGBT populacije sa zgrade Ministarstva za ljudska i manjinska prava. Osim toga, gostovala je
na Televiziji B92, Radio televiziji Srbije, Televiziji
5 iz Niša. Dominacija muških glasova potvrda je
koncentracije moći u figurama muških lidera čak
i u okviru LGBT pokreta.
LGBT osoba i zabranio mu da ponavlja izvršenu diskriminaciju, svim medijima dao izjavu da
je “ponosan na kaznu ako je on doprineo tome
da se ne održi parada srama u Beogradu”.
Pored toga, iako Mitropolit Srpske pravoslavne crkve Amfilohije Radović nije postupio po
preporuci Poverenice za zaštitu ravnopravnosti
Nevene Petrušic i izvinio se gej populaciji zbog
“izjave o smradu sodomskom”, protiv njega nikad nije podignuta tužba zbog govora mržnje
o učesnicima Parade ponosa 2010. Odsustvo
reakcije institucionalne, društvene ili medijske
kritike predstavlja ohrabrenje svim onima koji
svakodnevno koriste govor mržnje i pravdaju
nasilje protiv pripadnika različitih manjinskih
grupa.
Iako je neutralna kontekstualizacija LGBT tematike najprisutnija u medijskom diskursu, LGBT
zajednica je i dalje izložena govoru mržnje.4
Terminologija koja se koristi često je uvredljiva
i diskriminišuća, a televizije i štampani mediji, suprotno onome na šta ih obavezuje Zakon
o radiodifuziji, emituju govor mržnje usmeren
prema osobama koje su drugačije seksualne
orijentacije od heteroseksualne. Nepostojanje
sankcija i relativizacija govora mržnje i nasilja u javnom diskursu obezbeđuju materijalne
uslove za širenje atmosfere netolerancije i linča prema pripadnicima gej populacije. Tako
je Dragan Marković Palma nakon što je Prvi
osnovni sud u Beogradu doneo prvostepenu presudu zbog teškog oblika diskriminacije
Korektna terminologija koja je korišćena u procesu imenovanja LGBT populacije/tema/odnosa je: homoseksualac, gej populacija, istopolna
ljubav, parovi istog pola, lezbejka, seksualno
opredeljenje, gej parada, transeksualac, homoseksualne žene, lezbejska ljubav, lezbejska
porodica, transvestiti, biseksualno, homofobija,
Parada ponosa. U ovom medijskom pregledu
pronađen je na nekoliko mesta uvredljivi izraz
pederčina koji su koristili nepotpisani autori.
Diskriminišuća, vrednujuća terminologija poput
izraza homić, derpe, pederčina, matora pederčina je prisutna u štampanim i elektronskim
medijima, ali ne i učestala. Njeno prisustvo se
intenzivira u toku perioda pripeme i najave Parade ponosa i obično se nalazi u kolumnama i
komentarima čitaoca (tabloidi Kurir, Alo) koji se
objavljuju kao autorski tekstovi. Zanimljivo je da
4 Nema precizne i opšteprihvaćene međunarodne definicije
govora mržnje. Komitet ministara Saveta Evrope se u Preporuci
br. 20 o govoru mržnje iz 1997. godine usaglasio je da se pod
terminom “govor mržnje” podrazumevaju svi oblici izražavanja
koji šire, podstiču, promovišu ili opravdavaju mržnju među
rasama, ksenofobiju, anti-semitizam ili druge oblike mržnje
zasnovane na netoleranciji uključujući: netoleranciju izraženu
kroz agresivni nacionalizam, etnocentričnost, diskriminaciju ili
neprijateljstvo prema manjinama, imigrantima i ljudima imigrantskog porekla.
7
SLIKA LGBT POPULACIJE U ŠTAMPANIM MEDIJIMA
su seksističku terminologiju, u najvećoj meri reč
peder, koristile sledeće novinske kuće: Kurir,
Alo, Press.
“globalnog koncepta imitacije” (Papić, 2001:
38). No, homofobija, mizoginija, nacionalizam
i seksizam, česti atributi medijskog diskursa u
Srbiji su u potpunoj sintezi u tekstu Edita voli
žene (06.07.2011, Alo!), koji problematizuje
seksualnost zamenice premijera Kosova i šefice kosovske delegacije u dijalogu Prištine i
Beograda Edite Tahiri. U našoj (medijskoj) kulturi javna diskvalifikacija žena na pozicijama
moćima upravo se sprovodi u vaginalnoj zoni,
da li kroz seksualnu opredeljenost, izraz ili nerealizovano majčinstvo, stalno joj osporavajući
pravo na vlastito telo i izbor.
I ove godine registrovano je odsustvo članaka
(kao i emisija) koje kao ključnu temu, objekat
istraživanja imaju lezbejsku egzistenciju. Na
samom početku 2011. godine povećano je prisustvo termina lezbejka zbog filma o lezbejskoj
porodici “Deca su u redu” koji je osvojio nagradu za najbolje ostvarenje u kategoriji komedije
ili mjuzikla na 68. dodjeli nagrada Zlatni globus
u Los Anđelesu. Ovo je dobar primer prakse
promocije politika razlike kroz problematizaciju
položaja marginalizovanih grupa, ali kroz “neutralizaciju i normalizaciju razlike i različitog”
(Blagojević, 2005: 26). No, optimističan početak ubrzo je savladao tradicionalan medijski
tretman lezbejskog bivanja. U toku cele godine
pojavila su se ukupno četiri teksta, prvi čija su
tema bili seksualni apetiti švedskog kralja, koji
uživa u prizorima lezbejskog seksa i potvrđuje
univerzalni karakter jedne od najzastupljenijih muških fantazija. Druga dva se odnose na
estradizaciju lezbejskog pitanja (08.06.2011.
Kuriri, Lezbijka je spopada, 06.08. 2011. Kurir,
Lezbo kume). Njihovi sadržaji govore o lezbejki koja spopada pevačicu Anu Nikolić, a drugi
je o poljupcu između dve pop i folk pevačice
Kaye i Maje Marijane. Ovo je već viđeni model
kako delovanja u zapadnoj pop kulturi, tako i
medijskog senzcionalističkog izveštavanja koji
u našem kontekstu ne predstavlja provokaciju
u odnosu na konzervativnu i tradicionalnu sredinu, već uvezeni stilski transfer kao potvrdu
Uprkos Zakonu o javnom informisanju koji zabranjuje objavljivanje informacija koje podstiču
nasilje, mržnju, diskriminaciju na osnovu seksualne orijentacije, jezik diskriminacije i govora
mržnje još uvek je prisutan u našem javnom i
medijskom prostoru. Medijski sadržaj je i ove
godine pokazao praksu ponavljanja homofobičnih, patrijarhalnih, diskriminatornih obrazaca u novom/starom medijskom okruženju u
društvenom kontekstu koji se iznova obnavlja
u strahu od drugosti i različitosti. Važno je da
oni koji medijski sadržaj proizvode budu svesni
odgovornosti javne reči i uticaja, ali i da im je po
svim etičkim novinarskim kodeksima obaveza
ne samo da redovno izveštavaju i daju prostor
manjinama već i da pažljivo pišu o temama
koje se referiraju na LGBT populaciju imajući
u vidu položaj tih grupa u našem društvu i sve
negativne predrasude koje opstaju kao dominantna vrednosna matrica koja ih prati.
8
LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji
MONITORING ŠTAMPANIH MEDIJA
2011. GODINE
Labris – organizacija za lezbejska ljudska prava, počela je 1. januara 2011. godine još jedan
ciklus praćenja dnevnih štampanih medija u
Srbiji, odnosno ponovo je krenula sa analizom
medijskog diskursa kojim se referira na LGBT
terminologiju i/ili teme. Pres kliping na dnevnom nivou obezbeđuje uvid u načine na koje
se, koliko, kada, i zašto štampani mediji u Srbiji bave temom istopolno orijentisanih osoba,
a Labris će i u toku ove godine nastaviti praksu izrade tromesečnih medijskih izveštaja, jer
analitički, kritički i aktivistički pristup stvarnosti
podrazumeva uključivanje medijske dimenzije
kao jednog od ključnih elemenata u procesu
formiranja mišljenja. Prema medijskom monitoringu Labrisa – organizacije za lezbejska
ljudska prava, u toku 2011. godine u domaćim
dnevnim štampanim medijima objavljeno je
1785 tekstova u kojima se navodi LGBT terminologija. Monitoring se sprovodio tokom čitave
godine i u sledećoj tabeli je dat prikaz učestalosti detekcije izveštavanja štampanih medija
tokom 2011. godine.
Objavljivanje članaka po
mesecima tokom 2011. godine
Frekvencija
Procenat
Januar
134
7,5
Februar
63
3,5
Mart
78
4,4
April
119
6,7
Maj
119
6,7
Jun
167
9,4
Jul
112
6,3
Avgust
266
14,9
Septembar
254
14,2
Oktobar
216
12,1
Novembar
160
9,0
Decembar
97
5,4
1785
100,0
Ukupno
9
MONITORING ŠTAMPANIH MEDIJA
Primećuje se učestalije izveštavanje o LGBT populaciji u mesecima koji su prethodili organizaciji Parade ponosa 2011, kao i u mesecima posle njene zabrane, što je i grafički predstavljeno.
266
15%
254
216
167
10%
134
119
160
119
112
97
78
5%
63
r
ce
m
ba
r
de
ba
ve
m
no
ok
to
ba
r
r
ba
em
pt
se
av
gu
st
ju
l
ju
n
aj
m
ril
ap
ar
t
m
br
ua
r
fe
ja
nu
ar
0%
Pregled dnevnih listova koji su prošle godine izveštavali o LGBT temama i učestalost izveštavanja su sledeći:
Nazivi analiziranih
novina 2011. Godine
24 Sata
Frekvencija
Procenat
136
7,6
55
Pravda
Pregled
3,1
31
1,7
Press
219
12,3
Večernje novosti
149
8,3
4
,2
Vreme
Narodne novine Niš
1
,1
Status
1
,1
TV Novosti
1
,1
Sportski Žurnal
Alo!
1
,1
154
8,6
Blic
228
12,8
Danas
216
12,1
Dnevnik
163
9,1
2
,1
Elle
Građanski list
Kurir
Politika
2
,1
203
11,4
219
Ukupno
1785
10
12,3
100,0
LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji
24 Sata
55
Pravda
136
31
Pregled
Press
219
Ve ernje novosti
149
Vreme
4
Narodne novine Ni
1
Status
1
TV Novosti
1
Sportski urnal
1
Alo!
154
Blic
228
Danas
216
Dnevnik
163
Elle
2
Gra anski list
2
Kurir
203
Politika
219
0%
5.00%
10.00%
Od objavljenih tekstova posvećenih LGBT populaciji/temi tokom 2011. godine, u kategoriju
kratkih spada 36,0 % (642), dok tekstove srednje veličine čini 31, 6% (564), a dugih je 32, 4%
(579).
Neutralna kontekstualizacija LGBT tematike i
dalje je dominantna u medijskom diskursu sa
914 tekstova (51, 2%). Negativni sadržaj je prisutan u 483 (27, 1%), dok samo 388 tekstova
pokazuje pozitivan odnos prema temi.
VREDNOSNI SUD TEKSTA
DUŽINA TEKSTA
51.2%
31.6%
Dug
Srednji
21.7%
27.1%
32.4%
36.0%
15.00%
Kratak
Pozitivan
11
Neutralan
Negativan
MONITORING ŠTAMPANIH MEDIJA
Pregled rubrika u kojima se tekst našao pokazuje da je u okviru rubrike društvo objavljeno
864 teksta, kultura 121, politika 580, sport 16,
zabava 204.
Tokom 2011. godine zabeležen je visok procenat potpisanih tekstova koji se bave LGBT
problematikom - čak 89, 1%, dok je preuzetih
tekstova ukupno 10,9%.
RUBRIKA U KOJOJ JE TEKST OBJAVLJEN
DA LI JE TEKST AUTORSKI ILI NE
11.43%
10.9%
0.90%
48.40%
32.49%
89.1%
6.78%
Društvo
Sport
Kultura
Politika
Autorski
Zabava
Ranija Labrisova istraživačka praksa je pokazivala da se najveći broj tekstova objavljuje u
okviru rubrike Zabava. No, tokom zadnje tri
godne, raste broj tekstova posvećenih aktivnostima domaćih organizacija za LGBT ljudska prava, kao i organizacijom Parade ponosa,
tako da visok procenat tekstova pripada polju
politike i društva.
Preuzet
Pored autorizacije teksta pratile su se i teme
kojima se tekst bavi, odnosno da li su teme domaće ili strane. U odnosu na lokaciono poreklo novinski članci su domaći 60, 8 %, a strani
39,2 %.
TEMA TEKSTA
39.2%
60.8%
Domaća tema
12
Strana tema
LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji
“U RALJAMA STATISTIKE”
PRIKAZ 1.
Analizom podataka utvrđena je statistički značajna povezanost između meseca kada je tekst
objavljen i vrednosnog suda teksta, rubrike u kojoj je objavljen, autorizacije teksta i teme koju
tekst obrađuje.
Mesec / Vrednosni sud teksta
Vrednosni sud teksta
Mesec
Ukupno
Pozitivan
Neutralan
Negativan
Januar
11
76
47
134
Februar
6
36
21
63
Mart
12
39
27
78
April
11
27
81
119
Maj
15
31
73
119
Jun
66
81
20
167
Jul
26
61
25
112
Avgust
41
191
34
266
Septembar
52
181
21
254
Oktobar
56
105
55
216
Novembar
49
53
58
160
Decembar
43
33
21
97
388
914
483
1785
Ukupno
13
“U RALJAMA STATISTIKE”
Mesec / Rubrika u kojoj je tekst objavljen
Rubrika u kojoj je tekst objavljen
Društvo
Mesec
Kultura
Politika
Sport
Zabava
Ukupno
Januar
59
6
24
0
45
134
Februar
22
3
12
0
26
63
Mart
45
3
5
0
25
78
April
115
0
0
0
4
119
Maj
83
0
0
0
36
119
Jun
55
20
67
4
21
167
Jul
41
8
41
5
17
112
Avgust
87
11
150
4
14
266
Septembar
97
7
144
1
5
254
Oktobar
99
21
93
0
3
216
Novembar
121
20
13
2
4
160
Decembar
40
22
31
0
4
97
864
121
580
16
204
1785
Ukupno
Mesec / Da li je tekst autorski ili ne
Da li je tekst autorski ili ne
Mesec
Ukupno
Autorski
Preuzet
Januar
121
13
134
Februar
61
2
63
Mart
71
7
78
April
76
43
119
Maj
78
41
119
Jun
155
12
167
Jul
109
3
112
Avgust
249
17
266
Septembar
229
25
254
Oktobar
203
13
216
Novembar
148
12
160
Decembar
91
6
97
1591
194
1785
Ukupno
14
LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji
Mesec / Tema teksta
Tema teksta
Mesec
Ukupno
Domaća tema
Strana tema
Januar
14
120
134
Februar
0
63
63
Mart
36
42
78
April
93
26
119
Maj
64
55
119
Jun
103
64
167
Jul
81
31
112
Avgust
231
35
266
Septembar
139
115
254
Oktobar
126
90
216
Novembar
119
41
160
Decembar
79
18
97
1085
700
1785
Ukupno
Ovako predstavljeni podaci ukazuju na prethodno utvrđeno pravilo da se izveštavanje o LGBT
temama učestalije javljalo kako se Parada ponosa 2011. približavala. Kada je u pitanju vrednosni
sud teksta, približavanje Parade ponosa uticalo je na takav način da se afirmativno izveštavanje
o LGBT populaciji smanjivalo dok je neutralni i negativni ton rastao. U odnosu na rubrike u kojima
se tekst pojavljivao izveštavanje o LGBT populaciji sa približavanjem Parade ponosa se uglavnom činilo u rubrikama rezervisanim za politiku i društvo, tekstovi su se bavili domaćim temama
i bivali su autorizovani, odnosno potpisani.
15
“U RALJAMA STATISTIKE”
PRIKAZ 2.
Značajne statističke povezanosti su utvrđene između vrednosnog suda teksta i rubrike u kojoj je
tekst objavljen:
Vrednosni sud teksta / Rubrika u kojoj je tekst objavljen
Rubrika u kojoj je tekst objavljen
Vrednosni sud
teksta
Ukupno
Ukupno
Društvo
Kultura
Politika
Sport
Zabava
Pozitivan
168
81
112
0
27
388
Neutralan
380
36
379
15
104
914
Negativan
316
4
89
1
73
483
864
121
580
16
204
1785
Naime, kada je tekst objavljen u rubrici koja govori o društvu ton teksta je uglavnom bio neutralan i negativan, dok kada se o LGBT pitanjima raspravljalo u političkim rubrikama ton teksta je
pretežno bivao neutralan i pozitivan. Sa druge strane, izveštavanje o LGBT populaciji u kulturnim
rubrikama je uglavnom bivalo pozitivno.
16
LGBT populacija u štampanim medijima u Srbiji
Takođe, u odnosu na novinsku kuću koja je tekst objavila i vrednosnog suda teksta dobila se
statistička značajna razlika.
Novinska kuća / Vrednosni sud teksta
Vrednosni sud teksta
Novinska kuća
Ukupno
Ukupno
Pozitivan
Neutralan
Negativan
24 Sata
13
23
19
55
Alo!
22
76
56
154
Blic
55
112
61
228
Danas
52
114
50
216
Dnevnik
40
77
46
163
Elle
1
1
0
2
Građanski list
1
0
1
2
Kurir
32
106
65
203
Politika
58
108
53
219
Pravda
34
64
38
136
Pregled
7
22
2
31
Press
36
126
57
219
Večernje novosti
35
80
34
149
Vreme
1
3
0
4
Narodne novine Niš
0
1
0
1
Status
0
1
0
1
TV Novosti
1
0
0
1
Sportski Žurnal
0
0
1
1
388
17
914
483
1785
“U RALJAMA STATISTIKE”
U odnosu na novinsku kuću koja je članak objavila i vrednosni kontekst u kome se spominje
LGBT populacija, pojavile su se statističke razlike koje idu u korist onih novina koje su najčešće
pisale o ovoj problematici. Naime, neutralni stav preovladava u gotovo svim novinama. U negativnom kontekstu su u najvećoj meri objavljivani tekstovi u Kuriru i Pressu. Sa druge strane, o
LGBT populaciji u pozitivnom smislu su pisali Danas, Blic i Politika.
23 Sata
Alo!
Blic
Danas
Dnevnik
Elle
Gra anski list
Kurir
Politika
Pravda
Pregled
Press
Ve ernje novosti
Vreme
Narodne novine Ni
Status
TV Novosti
Sportski urnal
0%
10%
Negativan
20%
Neutralan
18
30%
Pozitivan
40%
PRILOZI
Prilog 1: Primer diskriminatornog novinskog člankA
Press, 04.10.2011
Strana: 2
PORAZ
Autor: ĐOKO KESIĆ
komentar dana
Srbija jeste velika tajna, jer u drugim zemljama i
zajednicama ne žive slične pojave. Ukupno
istorijsko pamćenje ne seća se nacije koja je
zbog nečijeg dupeta dovela u pitanje svoj nacionalni identitet. Srbi su to uradili u ovim događanjima oko Parade ponosa. Drugim rečima
zapišavali su po svom nacionalnom identitetu,
obeležavajući tako teritoriju marginalcima koji
bi da sačuvaju lične sinekure od svojih mentora, ambasada i fondacija. Kakav poraz. Fascinira me saznanje da je otkazivanje gej parade
stvorilo više tenzije u srpskom nacionu nego
recimo poslednji napori velikih sila da iz naše
istorije proteraju i Lazara i Miloša, sva kosovska stradanja i nepravde pa još da u školske
udžbenike umesto Kosova usele nauku o pederastiji kao obavezno štivo. Ako budemo
sledili taj trag, u generacijama koje budu sazrevale za pedeset godina više će biti homoseksualaca nego nas. Dakle, da pojednostavimo problem: ja jesam nastran i volim žene.
Istina, one znatno manje vole mene, ali ja svoj
problem nisam stavio na oglasnu tablu, nego
sam se povukao u samoću i patim. U svojim
emotivnim mukama sam baš usamljen, a razna
gej udruženja traže da svi mi patimo sa njima,
pa još da šetamo i javno se držimo za ruke.
E, neće moći. Zbog čega bi njihova nastranost
bila važnija od moje?
Na moju žalost, neću dobiti podršku od one
kombi stranke SDU, koja je otkazivanje parade videla kao da je “vlast u Srbiji dokazala da
je slabija od klerofašističkih grupa ...”. “Žene u
crnom” istim povodom saopštavaju da je “jasno da je reč o činjenici da su institucije države
predale Beograd i Srbiju fašistima...”. LDP je
imao najoriginalniju i sveponižavajuću ideju .
Njihov lider Jovanović reče da je bila dužnost
predsednika Tadića i premijera Cvetkovića da
se pojave na Paradi ponosa. Boris Tadić je
imao druga posla. Zapravo, ne znam šta mu
bi, i on je podržao zabranu dotičnog pederbala. A Cvetković nije imao vremena. Otišao čovek u beli svet da nas zadužuje. Javili su se
još neki ugledni intelektualci , čak i jedno novinsko udruženje, plaču nad sudbinom “ugrožene seksualne manjine”. Sve u redu. Nisam
ja homofobičan, ali nisam ni za to da se neko
ponosi svojim seksualnim opredeljenjem kojeg
nema u Knjizi postanja niti da oni imaju bilo kakvu građansku prednost u odnosu na nas.
Ali imam ideju: da se odreknemo Adama i Eve.
Promenimo civilizaciju od njenog začeća. Valjda bismo tu našli odgovor i na pitanje kako je
Srbija došla u taj očaj gde je Parada ponosa
jedino čime može da se ponosi. Izvinjavam se
sportistima.
19
PRILOZI
Prilog 2: Primeri homofobije u medijskom tekstu
Alo!, 06.07.2011
Strana: 2
EDITA VOLI ŽENE
Autor: EKIPA ALO!
LEZBO-AFERA ŠEFICA PRIŠTINSKOG PREGOVARAČKOG TIMA NAKLONJENA ISTOM POLU
Šefovi srpskog i kosovskog pregovaračkog
tima, Borko Stefanović i Edita Tahiri, izgleda da
imaju bar jednu zajedničku osobinu - oboje vole
žene! Naime, Kosovom bruji da je zamenica
premijera te kvazidržave, navodno, naklonjena svom polu. Prema tvrdnjama dobro obaveštenog izvora “Alo!”, u južnoj srpskoj pokrajini
odavno se priča o sklonostima Tahirijeve.
Ona naravno nije deklarisana lezbijka, ali svi u
njenom okruženju pričaju kakvog je seksualnog opredeljenja. Edita ima 55 godina i navodno se nije za žene juče opredelila, tako da se u
političkim krugovima još odavno šuška da voli
dame. Velika ljubav iz mladosti bila joj je, kako
se priča, jedna danas ugledna Beograđanka
s kojom je zajedno studirala u Engleskoj, pre
skoro 30 godina, a s kojom se i danas povremeno viđa - prenosi naš sagovornik tračeve iz
diplomatskih krugova u Prištini.
Iako su visoke političke funkcije uvek bile moćan afrodizijak za žene, Editi, tvrdi naš izvor,
ni imenovanje za šefa pregovaračkog tima nije
donelo mnogo sreće u ljubavi.
Ranije se pričalo da je u vezi s jednom devojkom
koja je dosta mlađa od nje, a koja takođe radi za
vladu i često su zajedno putovale u Brisel. Navodno, nedavno su raskinule uz viku i suze, a
da li su se pomirile i da li su trenutno zajedno,
iskreno, ne znam - priča izvor “Alo!” iz bliskog
okruženja Tahirijeve.
Naš sagovornik kaže i da se u Prištini priča da
je Edita Tahiri po dolasku na vlast samoproklamovane države Kosovo uklonila i sve kompromitujuće fotografije koje je u mladosti pravila
sa svojim prijateljicama. S tim stvarima je naročito postala oprezna otkako je zamenik premijera, a i šef tima za pregovore s Beogradom.
Kosovo je vrlo konzervativna sredina i seks
skandal osobe kojoj je poverena sudbina države bi sigurno naišao na ekstremne reakcije političkih protivnika, ali i običnih građana – kaže
sagovornik našeg lista. “Alo!” je juče pokušao
i u kabinetu Tahirijeve da proveri ova saznanja,
ali se na brojeve telefona koji su objavljeni na
njenom sajtu niko nije javljao.
Antrfile:
Bila je dečak?!
Da li zbog muškobanjastog izgleda i neuobičajeno dubokog glasa za jednu ženu, tek Kosovom se nedavno proneo glas i da je Edita Tahiri
navodno rođena kao dečak. Ipak, naš izvor tvrdi da spekulacije o tome da se Tahirijeva podvrgla promeni pola nisu tačne!
20
PRILOZI
Prilog 3: Primer pozitivnog analitičkog teksta
Danas, 24.08.2011
Strana: 9
ALIBI ZA NEČINJENJE
Autorka: BORKA PAVIĆEVIĆ
Već ima naslovnica koje kao identitet “Parade
ponosa” donose fotografije krvavih ljudi, nasilje se tako ubeležava u “Paradu ponosa”, ona
je nužno nasilna. Gotovo da nema jasnijeg primera šta zapravo znači zamena teza. Jer, ako
postoji mirna, ili nenasilna demonstracija stavova i opredeljenja, onda su to parade ponosa,
svuda, pa i kod nas.
To što se svaka sredina očituje, ili se definiše,
odnosom prema paradama ponosa, to je svakako svima jasno, otuda one jesu pitanje demokratičnosti jednog društva, ili države. Koliko
je većina oličena u institucijama države sposobna da štiti manjinu. Pa se onda kaže, recimo, i da je prepoznavanje novih država, bez
prethodne zaštite manjina, jedan od ključnih
razloga velikog stradanja ljudi “na ovim našim
prostorima”, smrti i izbeglištva, ili prognaništva.
Ukratko, u javnom životu, ma šta to značilo, relativizacijom vrednosti, kako se kaže, i “istorijskim kompromisom”, i jedni i drugi su u pravu,
e da nije bilo mirovnjaka i antiratnih delatnosti,
sigurno ni rata ne bi bilo, da nije insistiranja na
ljudskim pravima, ne bi bilo ni desnice, e da
nije “izdajnika”, ne bi bilo ni “patriota”, ili što
jednom reče Dubravka Ugrešić: “Znam ko će
na kraju biti odgovoran za rat, Filip David i ja.”
Da li možemo da kažemo da nikako nije trebalo
da se organizuje Bir fest kada znamo sa čim
se sve suočava ovo društvo, koja je količina
potencijalnog nasilja svuda oko nas, počevši
od “napetosti na severu Kosova”, “hapšenja
haških optuženika”, sve veće bede nezaposlenih ljudi, imamo li mi pametnija posla do da uz
pivo pevamo i bančimo, ili se zabavljamo do
zore. Naravno, ovakva pitanja se i dedukuju i
indukuju, pa se onda može i reći šta će nam
ta skupa kultura, “elitna”, u vreme gladi, dok,
istovremeno, ništa nije tako skupo za državni
aparat, za birokratiju i administraciju, državnu i
partijsku, a u bolnicama tandrču liftovi i nema
osnovnog. Šta bi se sve u zdravstvu moglo poboljšati samo da se skrati vozni park političkih
struktura, da se voze automobili domaće proizvodnje, kada je o patriotizmu reč.
Prekjuče je u ovim novinama pisalo, da se izrazim na sasvim starinski način, kako je drveće
kestenja definitivno ugroženo ukoliko odmah
ne počnemo da skupljamo lišće koje sa njih
otpada, larve ili bakterije, iz otpalog lišća, namnožiće se do istrebljenja drvoreda kestena,
uzdrmanih, u korenu, stalnim kopanjima po infrastrukturi neophodnoj za nove vlasnike i nov
politički razmeštaj.
Ukratko, gotovo svaki građanin na pomenu bilo
kakvog “konkretnog” pitanja koje je i poziv na
akciju, ako se ima malo dostojanstva i integriteta, odgovara “ama pusti sudstvo, vidi ti šta
21
PRILOZI
se u zdravstvu događa” i tako dalje i tako dalje.
Ovakva stanovišta građana potiču od istog načina držanja i delanja institucija ovoga društva,
a o ličnom primeru onih koji su im “na čelu”
da ne govorimo. Tako će član URS zastupati u
ovom času “Paradu ponosa”, a ista će organizacija podići veliki krst posred Kragujevca, ili
neće, kroz sve institucije, počevši od vlade do
parlamenta, zastupati stavove koje iznosi u saopštenju. S jedne strane, zastupaju se institucije, a s druge, one se nizom udara, partijskih,
i narušavaju. Ili, kako se to misli da se ima politički legitimitet , ali i autoritet, ukoliko znamo,
iz izjave Čedomira Čupića, da istovremeno sa
novim tezama o smanjenju funkcija i prenošenja uprave i samouprave na mesne zajednice,
postoji i sukob interesa u kumuliranju funkcija.
Što govorila Mira Trailović, kako se to može
imati primedba na sopstvenu pozorišnu kuću,
ukoliko se u njoj radi. Pa, popravite tu predstavu, ljudi, zato ste tu. Najbolje bi bilo da stanovnici, ili građani, omoguće “Paradu ponosa”,
onemoguće nasilje na Bir festu, kupe liftove za
bolnice, a i repromaterijal, i sakupe lišće ispod
kestenova, ako hoće još jednom da vide žive
svoju decu i prijatelje, kao i bele cvetove kestena u proleće.
raznih stručnjaka i stručnjakinja, oko svakog
problema koji se tiče jedne ljudske zajednice u
celini, pa i države. Jednom smo imali vojsku, a
i sveštenstvo, dugo gajene i plaćene, da zaštite građane i da stanu na put nasilju, nismo to
dočekali, sve je bilo obrnuto, Vojska je izdala
Ustav, a mrtvi su tražili sveštenike da ih oplaču.
Biće da svako nasilje nastaje ukoliko su institucije nemoćne, ukoliko se inauguriše princip
ko je jači, i ko će koga sačekati na mostu, ili
na ćupriji, tako je nemoćno i ubogo to spočitavanje jednih drugima, baš kao da se vlada
sve samim ludacima, za čije se glasove ulazi
ne u kampanju, već u arenu. Bez obzira šta se
do sada, ili do tada, do izbora, činilo. A narodna je “Pusti ti njega šta govori, gledaj šta čini”.
“Parada ponosa” niti je nasilna, niti je predmet
predizborne kampanje, ona je čin koji definiše
odnose manjine i većine zastupljene u institucijama države, ona nije bojno polje na kome će
pobediti jači, bitka je negde drugo.
Da ne tupim, što reče jedan od mojih čitalaca,
gadno je to “degažiranje” odgovornosti sa jednih na druge, suviše je velika ta kamarila svih
aparata institucija za tako malo odgovornosti,
bedno je to računanje i sticanje poena, izbornih, kako je već ko sračunao sa kompaserijom
22
LITERATURA
Angus, I. (1988). “Media Beyond Representation”. In Ian H. Angus and Sut Jhally (eds.)
Cultural Politics in Contemporary America, New York: Routledge.
Blagojević, J. (2005). “Feminističke politike: od politike identiteta do politike razlike” u: Žene i
politički uticaj (prir. Ignjatović,T.), Beograd: Glas razlike, grupa za promociju ženskih političkih
prava.
Bolčić, S. (1994). “O svakodnevnici razorenog društva Srbije početkom devedesetih iz
sociološke perspektive” u: Kulture u tranziciji (prir. Prošić, M.), Beograd: Plato.
Cetinić, G. (2010). “Realnosti medijskog ambijenta Srbije”. MC Newslett er, 09.04.2010.
URL htt p://www.mc.rs/code/navigate.aspx?Id=1883
Debord, G. (2002). Društvo spektakla. Beograd: Aleksa Golijanin.
Hall, S. (1980). “Encoding/Decoding”. In Culture, Media, Language. London: Hutchison.
Hall, S. (1997a). “Introduction”. In Representation: Cultural Representation and Signifying
Practices. London: SAGE and Open University.46
Kelner, D. (2004). Medijska kultura. Beograd: Clio.
Marić, J. (2004). “Mediji u Srbiji”. U Mediji u tranziciji: jednaka početna pozicija?, AIM Dossiers.
URL htt p://www.aimpress.ch/dyn/dos/archive/data/2004/40430-doss-01-06.htm
Milivojević, S. (2001). “Javnost i ideološki mediji”. Reč: časopis za književnost i kulturu, i
društvena pitanja, broj 64/10.
Milivojević, S. (2008). “Kritička tradicija u istraživanju medija: kulturne studije”. CM:
Časopis za upravljanje komunikacijom, broj 8, godina III.
Milivojević, S. (2004). “Žene i mediji: strategije isključivanja” Genero, broj 3.47
23
LITERATURA
Milivojević, S. (2005). “Television across Europe: Regulati on, Policy, Independence – Serbia”.
In Television across Europe: Regulation, Policy, Independence, vol. 3, Monotring Reports.
Open Society Insti tute. pp. 1315-1383. URL = http://www.soros.org/initi ati ves/ media/arti cles_
publicati ons/publicati ons/eurotv_20051011/volthree_20051011.pdf
Milivojević, Z. (2006). Civilno društvo Srbije. Beograd: Argument.
Sudar, V. (2005). “Ekonomska nezavisnost medija: Globalni trendovi u balkanskoj krčmi”. U
Dosije u medijima, broj 16, NUNS. URL htt p://www.nuns.rs/dosije/16/21.jsp
Van Zoonen, L. (2001). “A New Paradigm”. In Denis McQuail, ed. McQuail’s Reader in
Mass Communicati on Theory. London: SAGE Publications.
Vаlić Nedeljković D. (2011). “Rod i mediji” u: Uvod u rodne teorije (prir. Milojević, I. i Mаrkov, V.),
Novi Sad: ACIMSI and Mediterran Publishing.
Veljanovski, R. (2008). “Privatizacija lokalnih medija u Srbiji – zablude i šanse”. CM:
Časopis za upravljanje komunikacijom, broj 6, godina III.
Višnjić, J., Lončarević, K. (2011). Politike reprezentacije LGBTIQTIQ populacije u medijima Srbije.
Beograd: Labris, grupa za promociju ženskih lezbejskih prava.
Višnjić, J., Mirosavljević, M. (2008). “Problem reprezentacije roda u medijima” u:
Neko je rekao feminizam? (prir. Zaharijević, A.), Beograd: Rekonstrukcija ženski fond,
Žene u Crnom, Centar za ženske studije.
24
SADRŽAJ
UVOD .................................................. 3
SLIKA LGBTIQ POPULACIJE
U ŠTAMPANIM MEDIJIMA U SRBIJI 2011. GODINE ..... 5
MONITORING ŠTAMPANIH MEDIJA 2011. GODINE ....... 9
“U RALJAMA STATISTIKE” ............................ 13
PRILOZI
Prilog 1: Primer diskriminatornog novinskog članka ..................... 19
Prilog 2: Primeri homofobije u medijskom tekstu ....................... 20
Prilog 3: Primer pozitivnog analitičkog teksta ......................... 21
LITERATURA .......................................... 23
CIP - Каталогизација у публикацији
Народна библиотека Србије, Београд
25
LGBT POPULATION
IN THE PRESS IN SERBIA, 2011
Belgrade, 2012
Jelena Višnjić
LGBT POPULATION
IN THE PRESS IN SERBIA, 2011
Labris – lesbian human rights organization, Belgrade 2012
Publisher:
Labris – lesbian human rights organization
11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Phone number: +381 (0) 11 337 4018, +381 (0) 11 323 1547, +381 (0) 11 337 3048
Phone number/fax number: +381 (0) 11 337 3011
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.labris.org.rs
Author: Jelena Višnjić
Data statistical analysis: Ivan Milovanović
Editing and proofreading: Hristina Piskulidis
Technical formatting and layout: Adorjan Kurucz
Publishing: Standard 2
Circulation: 300
This publication was published with the support of the organization.
ILGA EUROPE
LGBT population in the press in Serbia
INTRODUCTION
Media supports ruling social structure and therefore it is necessary to follow up continuously.
Monitoring of the media reality should show
whether and how strategies of excluding LGBT
population in the media practice are functioning
through constructions of reality, ghettoization
and stereotypes in the media. Reprezentation
politics of gender identities can be observed as
expression of the power relations in one society and one historical period, and in that sense
position of LGBT population in media discourse
is rather constructed and marked as the figure
of “ other”, figure which reflects prevailing social relations. In this sense, LGBT is a category.
Hence, it is a fact that what is attributed to this
category, the principle of other, the secondary,
undesirable, is of less value in the ruling ideologies and their inherent media practices.
laws. The obligation of the state is to protect all
of its citizens, but it failed to fulfill that task and
it presents a burning issue which requires more
efficient and coordinated action of the police, judiciary and prosecution. Weakness and lack of
political will in the process of improvement and
implementation of LGBT population rights most
clearly reflected through attempts of organizing
Pride parade which is a political act of peaceful gathering that presents one of the foundations of functional democracy and indicates
discriminated status in society. Severe violence
that occurred during the first public gathering of
LGBT people - gay parade, held June 2001 in
Belgrade, banning of the Pride parade in 2009
and 2001, as well as violence which followed
Pride parade held in 2010 are events which legitimized discrimination against minority group
whose rights are guaranteed by the Constitution
of the Republic of Serbia.
Rendition of Serbian contexts indicates that homosexuals, lesbians, bisexuals and transsexuals still are victims of discrimination and don’t
have equal treatment in society regardless to
the existence of formally proclaimed universal
rights in the form of Constitution and specific
Serbia is the last country in the Balkans that
in 2009 finally adopted the Anti-discrimination
law as the first legal act which definitely affirms
sexual minority’s rights. Serbian medical soci3
INTRODUCTION
ety finally acknowledged that homosexuality is
not a disease on 14. May 2008, eighteen years
after the World Health Organization decided to
remove homosexuality from the International
classification of diseases (ICD-10)1. There are
six laws in Serbia that explicitly claim right to
sexual orientation: Public information law,
Broadcasting law, Labor law, High education
law. Anti-discrimination law and Youth law. Although legal framework for respecting human
rights is secured , when it comes to the process
of improving LGBT position in society role of the
state is not efficient enough. Improving rights of
LGBT population means comprehensive social,
institutional mobilization and inclusion of media
dimension as one of the significant factors in
the shaping process of public opinion.
Media content should be viewed as text whose
analysis we read as layers of social meaning, and then we give them social dimension
through loading into external, social relations in
which they developed. Therefore it is necessary
that we constantly make distances and to decentre ourselves in relation to media practice,
because reality through which we move, meanings we create are always just provisional due
to the fact that resistance to modernization and
homophobic discourse in dominant public and
media mold in Serbia, survives and continuously regenerate itself.
1 World Health Organization’s General Assembly, on 17. May
1990, officially removed homosexuality from the list of mental
disorders where it was placed in 1977.
4
LGBT population in the press in Serbia
IMAGE OF LGBT POPULATION
IN THE PRESS IN SERBIA 2011
Dominant ideas of LGBT population are directly
connected with media because politics of media
representation brightens paradigmatic notions
about them in a certain community. “Media are an
instrument which is being used to sensitize broader public, wherein role of electronic media is of
particular importance because they are polygon of
producing inequality and fear of otherness, which
are built through media contents, and in which
widespread stereotypes and negative ideas of
LGBT people are being repeated on a daily basis.
Media is forming restrictive and rigid definitions
that cannot cover existential diversity and difference, and are drawing borders of acceptable and
legitimate behavior, whilst clearly defining positions of margins and center.” ( Visnjic, Loncarevic
2010:19).
pearances and thematizations are periodical.
Though lesbian and gay themes dominated
for a long time within entertainment programs,
during past few years, the articles about LGBT
populations are mostly present in the politics and
society columns. In 2001, the production and
premiere od Srdjan Dragojevic’s movie the Parade appeared in the majority of articles in the
entertainment column. On the October 30th and
31st and November 1st (days before movie premiere) the entire presscliping referring to themes
regarding gay population related only to this
movie. Seventeen articles were published and
all of them were either neutral or positive. This
year, two important exhibitions concerning LGBT
history were organized within the field of culture,
Article One and Nazi terror against homosexuals 1933-1945. Cultural center Rex, Article One
(Sweden) and feminist group BeFem, an exhibition called Article 1, exhibition of LGBT history2
in Belgrade in February. Only two printed media
LGBT population has been continuously deleted
from the texts of all mainstream media programs.
Although contemporary media today, more than
ever before, has more complex and ambiguous view when it comes to gender and sexuality, media images of LGBT population show that
this group of population still doesn’t get enough
space in printed and electronic media, and ap-
2 This exhibition shows parts of the collections of homosexual,
bisexual and transsexual history and relation to the modern art from
some of the main museums in Sweden. (Museum of the Swedish police department, Museum of the Swedish military, Nobel’s
museum, National museum of science and technology, National
Swedish history museum). Various parts of the exhibitions tell different stories, but they all have one common subject: LGBTIQ history.
5
IMAGE OF LGBT POPULATION IN THE PRESS
reported about this exhibition. Same as museums for a long time ignored history and specific
experiences of homosexual, bisexual and transsexual people; media is making LGBT community invisible by selective selection and representation of experiences. Only three newspapers
reported on the exhibition, held in the Belgrade
museum, Nazi terror against homosexuals 193319453 that was organized by association ARTEQ
from Belgrade in partnership with association
Queer Zagreb.
ticles in the newspapers), International pride
day, marked by spreading rainbow flag from the
balcony of the Ministry for human and minority
rights headquarters, gathering “IT’S ENOUGH”
in front of the Government headquarters organized by GSA to protest the attacking A.Z. ( 24)
who wore T-shirt with LGBT symbols. Majority
of the daily newspapers ( Pravda, Dnevnik, Poitika, Blic, Pres, Kurir, Vecernje novosti) regularly
report about court trial against leader of Obraz, Mladen Obradovic, who is being trialed for
discrimination of LGBT people, as well as trial
against Misa Vacic, leader of organization Nasi
1389, who is being trialed for racial and other
discrimination. Most of the texts are medium
sized but what is important is that almost all of
them are unsigned and without contextual and
political rendering of violence.
Furthermore, there is a registered repetition of
patterns in the case of media reporting on the
Belgrade High Court verdict, which convicted
three rowdies because they participated in the
riots during the Pride parade in Belgrade that
was held on October 10 2010. Accordingly to the
origin of location newspaper articles are mainly
from domestic public and political life. During
realization media frequently reported about international and regional events such as approval
of the same sex marriages in the federal state of
New York (June 2011), Pride parade canceled in
Podgorica, Montenegro (May 2011), violence at
the Pride parade in Split, Croatia (June 2011).
Voices of LGBT activists, organizations, members
of LGBT population, as the source of information were more present than before in the media.
Question of relation towards LGBT population
is a political issue, kind of test for Serbia in the
process of transition and democratization of society. However, Serbia is far from the modern
community that opened space for minorities
and for promoting and respecting differences,
despite inputting formal and decorative efforts.
As a result of human rights and LGBT groups’
action, this question has got its place on the political agenda as well as in Serbia’s media discourse. Media reported about these key events:
Pride parade 2011, May 17th – International day
against homophobia and transphobia, presentation of the Gay straight alliance (GSA) annual
report about the state of LGBT human rights in
Serbia “Step by Step” ( the fact that Belgrade
mayor, Dragan Djilas was present at the presentation, significaly increased number of ar3 The exhibition consists of 150 archive photos, texts and
documents that show both general and personal histories
of around 100.000 people arrested because of homosexual
orientation before and during World War II. Development of systematic state homophobia in Nazi Germany and mechanisms
of persecution that to some extent remained in force till the 70s
was shown in documentary manner.
6
LGBT population in the press in Serbia
The most were Predrag Azdejkovic (Gay lesbian
info center), Boban Stojanovic (Queeria center),
Lazar Pavlovic ( Gay straight alliance) and Goran
Miletic Pride parade 2011 Organizational committee . Jovanka Todorovic Savovic from lesbian human rights group Labris, gave the majority od statements to the press concerning the
celebration of the International Pride Day that
was celebrated by spreading the rainbow flag,
a LGBT symbol from the balcony of the Ministry
of human and minority rights headquarters. She
also made appearances on television B92, TV
5 from Nis, and national television RTS. Domination of male voices is a confirmation that the
concentration of power is in male leaders even
within the LGBT movement.
Although contextualization of LGBT themes
which are most present in media discourse is
rather neutral, LGBT community is still exposed
to hate speech . Terminology that is being used is
quite often insulting and discriminatory, and television and newspapers contrary to what they are
requested to do by broadcasting law, emit hate
speech directed towards people whose sexual
orientation differs from heterosexual. Lacking of
sanctions and relativization of hate speech and
violence in the public discourse provide material conditions for expanding the atmosphere of
intolerance and lynch towards members of gay
population. Dragan Markovic Palma gave the
statement for all the media, after First basic court
in Belgrade issued a trial verdict on the count
of severe discrimination and forbade him to repeat executed discrimination, saying that “ he is
proud on the verdict if that means that he con-
tributed to the banning of the parade of shame in
Belgrade”. Nevertheless, although Metropoliten
of Serbian orthodox church Amfilohije Radovic
didn’t act according to gender equality commissioner, Nevena Petrusic’s, recommendation and
apologized to gay population for his statement
about “Sodomic odor”, charges for hate speech
against him were never pressed.
Absence of institutional, social or media reaction is encouragement to everyone who uses
hate speech on daily basis and justifies violence
against the members of various minority groups.
Politically correct terminology used in the process of naming LGBT population/themes/relations is: homosexual, gay population, same sex
love, same sex couples, lesbian, sexual orientation, gay parade, transsexual, homosexual
women, lesbian love, lesbian family, transvestites, bisexual, homophobia, Pride parade. We
found in this media review, in several spots,
insulting expression fagot which was used
by unsigned authors. Discriminatory, evaluative terminology such as pansy, fag, fagot, old
fagot is not found very often but is present in
newspapers and electronic media. Its presence
intensifies after the announcement and during
the preparations for the Pride parade and it can
be usually found in reader’s comments and columns (tabloids Kurir and Alo) which are being
published as newspaper articles. It is interesting that this sexist terminology, mainly the word
fag, generally use newspapers like Kurir, Alo
and Press.
7
IMAGE OF LGBT POPULATION IN THE PRESS
Lack of articles (and shows) that as a key topic,
object of research have lesbian existence has
been noted this year as well. Presence of the
term lesbian was increased in the very beginning of 2011, mostly because of the movie
about lesbian family The Kids Are Alright that
was nominated in the best comedy or musical category and won the award at 68 Golden
Globe ceremony, in Los Angeles. This is a good
example of practice when it comes to promoting
politics of difference through problematization
of marginalized group’s position, but through
“neutralization and normalization of diversity
and difference” (Blagojevic, 2005:26). However,
traditional media treatment of lesbian being very
soon overcame the optimistic start. Throughout
the year a total of four articles appeared in the
newspapers, first, whose themes were sexual
appetites of Swedish king, who enjoys lesbian
sex scenes, confirming universal character of
one of the most common male fantasies. The
other two articles refer to picturing lesbian issue as part of show biz industry (8.6 2011 Kurir,
Lesbian is buffeting her, 6.8 2011 Lesbo godmothers). First article is about a lesbian who
is buffeting pop/folk singer Ana Nikolic, and the
other about the kiss that two pop/folk singers
Kaya and Maja Marijana shared. This model
has already been seen as action in Western
pop culture, as well as sensationalistic media
reporting which in our context isn’t provocation of conservative and traditional milieu, but
imported transfer of style as a confirmation of
“global concept of imitation” ( Papic, 2001:38).
However, frequent attributes of media discourse
in Serbia, homophobia, misogyny, nationalism
and sexism are in total synthesis when it comes
to the article Edita loves women ( 6.7 2011, Alo!)
which questions sexuality of the Kosovo Deputy
Prime Minister and chief of Kosovo delegation
that participates in the dialogue between Pristina and Belgrade, Edita Tahiri. Public disqualification of women who are in the positions of
power, in our (media) culture, just come down
to the vaginal zone, whether through sexual orientation, expression, or unrealized motherhood,
and it constantly denies her the right to her own
body and choice.
Despite the Law of public information which forbids publishing information that spur violence,
hatred and discrimination based on sexual
orientation, discriminatory language and hate
speech are still present in our public and media space. Media content showed, this year as
well, repetition practice when it comes to homophobic, patriarchal, discriminatory pattern in
new/old media environment in the social context which constantly renews itself in the fear
of otherness and difference. It is important that
those who produce media content are aware of
the responsibility and impact public word has,
and that it is their obligation in accordance with
all journalist codex not only to regularly report
and give minorities the space, but to carefully
write on the themes referring to LGBT population, having in mind position of these groups in
our society and all of the negative prejudice that
remain as a dominant matrix that follows them.
8
LGBT population in the press in Serbia
MONITORING OF THE PRINT MEDIA
2011
Labris – lesbian human rights organization, began on January 1 2011, another cycle of monitoring of daily newspapers in Serbia, in fact it
restarted the analysis of media discourse which
refers to LGBT terminology and/or themes.
Press clipping made on a daily level provides
insight in the ways how, when and why press
in Serbia engage in the theme of same sex oriented people, and Labris will in this year, continue the practice of making quarterly media
reports because analytical, critical and activist approach to the reality implies inclusion of
media dimension as of the key factors in the
process of opinion forming. During 2011, 1785
articles in which LGBT terminology exists were
published in the daily newspapers in Serbia
according to the Labris – organization for lesbian human rights media monitoring. Monitoring was conducted throughout the year and in
table below is the review of the frequency of
detecting of the press reporting during 2011.
Articles published
monthly in 2011
Frequency
Percentage
January
134
7,5
February
63
3,5
March
78
4,4
April
119
6,7
May
119
6,7
June
167
9,4
July
112
6,3
August
266
14,9
September
254
14,2
October
216
12,1
November
160
9,0
December
97
5,4
1785
100,0
Total
9
MONITORING OF THE PRINT MEDIA
There is a more frequent reporting about LGBT population in the months that preceded organization
of the Pride parade 2011, as well as in few months after it was banned which is graphically shown
bellow.
266
15%
254
216
167
10%
134
119
160
119
112
97
78
5%
63
r
ce
m
be
r
be
em
ov
N
De
er
O
ct
ob
r
be
Se
pt
em
gu
st
Au
Ju
ly
ne
Ju
M
ay
ril
Ap
ch
ar
M
ry
ua
br
Fe
Ja
nu
ar
y
0%
Review of the daily newspapers that reported last year about LGBT themes and frequency of
reporting follows:
Names of the analyzed
newspapers in 2011
24 Sata
Frequency
Percentage
136
7,6
55
Pravda
Pregled
3,1
31
1,7
Press
219
12,3
Vecernje novosti
149
8,3
4
,2
Vreme
Narodne novine Nis
1
,1
Status
1
,1
TV Novosti
1
,1
Sportski Zurnal
Alo!
1
,1
154
8,6
Blic
228
12,8
Danas
216
12,1
Dnevnik
163
9,1
2
,1
Elle
Gradjanski list
Kurir
Politika
2
,1
203
11,4
219
Total
1785
10
12,3
100,0
LGBT population in the press in Serbia
24 Sata
55
Pravda
136
31
Pregled
Press
219
Ve ernje novosti
149
Vreme
4
Narodne novine Ni
1
Status
1
TV Novosti
1
Sportski urnal
1
Alo!
154
Blic
228
Danas
216
Dnevnik
163
Elle
2
Gra anski list
2
Kurir
203
Politika
219
0%
5.00%
10.00%
Of all published articles that are dedicated to
LGBT population topic in 2011, 36, 0% are
categorized as short (642, medium sized are
31, 6% (564), and others are 32, 4% (579).
Neutral contextualization of LGBT themes is
still dominant in the media discourse with 914
articles (51, 2%). Negative content exists in
483 articles (27, 1%), while only 388 articles
show positive attitude towards the theme.
VALUE JUDGMENT OF THE ARTICLE
ARTICLE LENGTH
51.2%
31.6%
Long
Medium
21.7%
27.1%
32.4%
36.0%
15.00%
Short
Positive
11
Neutral
Negative
MONITORING OF THE PRINT MEDIA
Review of the sections in which articles were
found shows that 864 articles were published
within the section society, culture 121, politics
580, sports 16, entertainment 204.
In 2011, high proportion of signed articles regarding LGBT problems was reported – 89.1%,
whilst the percentage of the co-opted texts
was 10, 9%.
WAS THE ARTICLE SIGNED
BY THE AUTHOR
COLUMN WHERE THE ARTICLE
WAS PUBLISHED
11.43%
10.9%
0.90%
48.40%
32.49%
89.1%
6.78%
Society
Sports
Culture
Authors
Politics
Co-opted
Entertainment
Earlier Labris research practice showed that
most part of articles is being published within
the Entertainment section. However, in the past
three years there is a growing number of articles dedicated to the domestic organizations
for the LGBT human rights activities, as well as
to the organization of the Pride parade, therefore big percentage of the articles is found in
the sections politics and society.
Themes of the articles were followed besides
the authorization, meaning whether the topics
are domestic or foreign. Relating to the location origin newspaper articles are domestic
60.8%, and 39.2% foreign.
ARTICLE TOPIC
39.2%
60.8%
Domestic theme
12
Foreign theme
LGBT population in the press in Serbia
“IN THE THROES OF STATISTICS”
REVIEW 1
Data analysis showed significant correlation between the month when the article was published
and value judgment of the article itself, the section where it was published, article authorization
and topic.
Month / Value judgment of the article
Value judgment of the article
Month
Total
Positive
Neutral
Negative
January
11
76
47
134
February
6
36
21
63
March
12
39
27
78
April
11
27
81
119
May
15
31
73
119
June
66
81
20
167
July
26
61
25
112
August
41
191
34
266
September
52
181
21
254
October
56
105
55
216
November
49
53
58
160
December
43
33
21
97
388
914
483
1785
Total
13
“IN THE THROES OF STATISTICS”
Month / Section in which article was published
Section in which article was published
Society
Month
Culture
Politics
Sports
Entertainment
Total
January
59
6
24
0
45
134
February
22
3
12
0
26
63
March
45
3
5
0
25
78
April
115
0
0
0
4
119
May
83
0
0
0
36
119
June
55
20
67
4
21
167
July
41
8
41
5
17
112
August
87
11
150
4
14
266
September
97
7
144
1
5
254
October
99
21
93
0
3
216
November
121
20
13
2
4
160
December
40
22
31
0
4
97
864
121
580
16
204
1785
Total
Month / IS It AUTHOR’S TEXT OR NOT
Is it author’s text or not
Month
Total
Authors
Co-opted
January
121
13
134
February
61
2
63
March
71
7
78
April
76
43
119
May
78
41
119
June
155
12
167
July
109
3
112
August
249
17
266
September
229
25
254
October
203
13
216
November
148
12
160
December
91
6
97
1591
194
1785
Total
14
LGBT population in the press in Serbia
Month / Topic of the article
Topic of the article
Month
Total
Domestic topic
Foreign topic
January
14
120
134
February
0
63
63
March
36
42
78
April
93
26
119
May
64
55
119
June
103
64
167
July
81
31
112
August
231
35
266
September
139
115
254
October
126
90
216
November
119
41
160
December
79
18
97
1085
700
1785
Total
The data presented in this way indicate the previously established rule that the coverage of
LGBT topics was more frequent as the Pride Parade 2011 was approaching. When the article’s
validity comes into question, approaching of the Pride Parade influenced it in such a way that
the affirmative reporting on LGBT population was decreasing while the neutral and negative
tone was increasing. Compared to the columns where the article appeared, reports on LGBT
population alongside with the approaching Pride Parade have mainly been published in columns
reserved for politics and society topics. The articles dealt with domestic topics and were authorized, i.e. signed.
15
“IN THE THROES OF STATISTICS”
REVIEW 2
Significant statistical connections were determined between the article’s valid judgement and
the column where the article was published:
Article’s valid judgment / Column where the article was published
Column where the article was published
Article’s valid
judgement
Total
Total
Society
Culture
Politics
Sport
Entertainment
Positive
168
81
112
0
27
388
Neutral
380
36
379
15
104
914
Negative
316
4
89
1
73
483
864
121
580
16
204
1785
Namely, when an article was published in a column about society, the tone of the article was
mostly neutral and negative, while the article’s tone of LGBT topics that were being discussed in
political columns was mostly neutral and positive. On the other hand, reporting about the LGBT
population in culture columns were mainly positive.
16
LGBT population in the press in Serbia
Also, comparing to the news agency that has published an article and the article’s valid judgement, a significant statistical difference has emerged.
News Agency / Article’s valid judgment
Article’s valid judgement
News Agency
Total
Total
Positive
Neutral
Negative
24 Sata
13
23
19
55
Alo!
22
76
56
154
Blic
55
112
61
228
Danas
52
114
50
216
Dnevnik
40
77
46
163
Elle
1
1
0
2
Građanski list
1
0
1
2
Kurir
32
106
65
203
Politika
58
108
53
219
Pravda
34
64
38
136
Pregled
7
22
2
31
Press
36
126
57
219
Večernje novosti
35
80
34
149
Vreme
1
3
0
4
Narodne novine Niš
0
1
0
1
Status
0
1
0
1
TV Novosti
1
0
0
1
Sportski Žurnal
0
0
1
1
388
17
914
483
1785
“IN THE THROES OF STATISTICS”
In relation to the news agency that published the article and the article’s valid context where
LGBT population is mentioned, statistical differences emerged in favour of those newspapers
that most often wrote about this issue. Namely, the neutral attitude dominates almost all newspapers. Articles with a negative context have mostly been published in daily newspapers Kurir
and Press. On the other hand, daily newspapers Danas, Blic and Politika wrote about the LGBT
population in a positive sense.
23 Sata
Alo!
Blic
Danas
Dnevnik
Elle
Gra anski list
Kurir
Politika
Pravda
Pregled
Press
Ve ernje novosti
Vreme
Narodne novine Ni
Status
TV Novosti
Sportski urnal
0%
10%
Negative
20%
Neutral
18
30%
Positive
40%
Supplements
Supplement 1:
An example of a discriminatory newspaper article
Press, October 4, 2011
Page number: 2
DEFEAT
Author: ĐOKO KESIĆ
Comment of the day
Serbia is a great mystery because there are no
similar phenomena in other countries and communities. The total historical memory does not
recall a nation that questioned its national identity
because of someone else’s butt. The Serbs have
done so in the events happening around the Pride
Parade. In other words, they have pissed on their
own national identity, marking their territory with
people form the margins who want to preserve
personal sinecure received from their mentors,
embassies and foundations. What a defeat. I’m
fascinated to know that the cancellation of the
gay parade made more tension in the Serbian nation than for e.g. the last efforts of great forces to
expel Lazar and Miloš from our history and all the
sufferings and injustices on Kosovo and moreover
to include the science of pederasty into school
books as obligatory literature instead of Kosovo.
If we follow that lead, in fifty years time in the maturing generations there will be more homosexuals than us. Therefore, to simplify the problem: I
am deviant and I like women. Truth be told, they
like me a lot less, but I did not put my problem on
the bulletin board, I withdrawn into solitude and
I suffer. I am pretty alone in my emotional sufferings, and various gay associations demand us to
suffer with them and moreover to walk with them
and hold hands publicly. Well, that’s not going to
happen. Why would their aberrance be more important than mine?
To my regret, I will not get the support of that
one-member-in-the-assembly political party
SDU (Social Democratic Union) that has seen the
cancellation of the Parade as if, quote: “The Serbian government is weaker that the clero-fascist
groups”. Women In Black (Žene u crnom) concerning the same matter stated that, quote: “The
fact is clear, the government institutions have surrendered Belgrade and Serbia to fascists”. LDP
(Liberal Democratic Party) had the most original
and ever-humiliating idea. Their leader Jovanović
said that it was President Tadić and Prime Minister Cvetković’s idea to make an appearance on
the Pride Parade. Boris Tadić had other matters
to attend. In fact, I do not know what has gotten into him because he supported the ban of
the respective fag ball himself. And Cvetković
did not have the time. The man went to the wide,
wide world to run us into debt. Some respected
intellectuals have also appeared, even one news
association, to cry over the faith of the “jeopardized sexual minorities”. Everything is all right. I
am not homophobic, but I oppose the fact that
someone is proud of their own sexual preference
which does not appear in the Book of Genesis or
that they have any civil priority comparing to us.
But I have an idea: let us renounce Adam and
Eve. Change the civilization from its conception.
Maybe then we will find he answer to the question how Serbia got into that despair where a
Pride Parade is the only thing to be proud of. I
apologise to the athletes.
19
Supplements
Supplement 2:
Examples of homophobia in the media text
Alo!, July 6, 2011
Page number: 2
EDITA LIKES WOMEN!
Author: ALO! Team
LESBIAN AFFAIR - HEAD OF THE PRISTINA’S
NEGOTIATION TEAM IS FAVOURABLE TO
HER OWN SEX
Heads of the Serbia and Kosovo’s negotiation
teams, Borko Stefanović i Edith Tahiri, seem
to have one common interest – they both like
women! Namely, the news about the Prime
Minister’s Deputy of that quasi-state being, allegedly, favourable to her own sex, is buzzing
around Kosovo. According to Alo’s well-informed
source, there has been a lot talk about Tahiri’s affinity in the south Serbian province.
She is not a declared lesbian of course, but everybody in her surroundings talks about her sexual
preference. Edith is 55 years old and allegedly she
did not start to favour ladies since recently, so in
the political circles the rumour has it that she likes
ladies for a long time. The great love of her youth
was, as the rumour says, one respected woman
from Belgrade she used to go to university with
in England 30 years ago, whom she occasionally
sees even today – says our interlocutor who talks
gossip from the diplomatic circles in Pristina.
Even though high political positions have always been a powerful aphrodisiac for women,
for Edith, our source tells us, even the appointment to the Head of the negotiation team has not
brought her luck in love.
They used to say that she was in a relationship
with a girl a lot younger than her, who also works
for the government and that they used to travel
together to Brussels often. Allegedly, they recently broke up with a lot of yelling and crying,
but: “Whether they reconciled and are they currently together, frankly, I do not know”, says Alo’s
source from Tahiri’s close surroundings.
Our interlocutor also says that the word in Pristina
is that Edith Tahiri removed all compromising photos she made with her friends in her youth when
she came into power of the self-proclaimed state
of Kosovo. She started being especially careful
about those matters since she became the Prime
Minister’s Deputy and the Head of the negotiation
team in negotiations with Belgrade. “Kosovo is a
very conservative environment and a sex scandal of a person, who has been entrusted with the
county’s fate, would surely encounter extreme
reactions of the political opponents as well as ordinary citizens”, says our interlocutor. Alo! Tried to
check these findings with Tahiri’s cabinet office
yesterday, but no one answered the phone numbers that are published on her web site.
Text box:
She was a boy?!
The news that Edith Tahiri was allegedly born as a
boy has recently spread around Kosovo because
of her mannish looks and her chest voice which
unusual for a woman. Still, our source claims that
speculations about Tahiri’s sex change are not true!
20
Supplements
Supplement 3:
Example of a positive analytical article
Danas, August 24, 2011
Page number: 9
ALIBI FOR THE OMISSION OF ACTION
Author: BORKA PAVIĆEVIĆ
Already there are front pages which depict
the identity of the Pride Parade with their pictures of blooded people. In that way violence
is assigned to the Pride Parade and therefore
it is necessarily violent. Basically, there is no
clearer example of what substitution of theses
actually means. Hence, if there is a peaceful
or non-violent demonstration of attitudes and
preferences, then that is a pride parade, everywhere, even here.
The fact that every environment is readout, or
defined, by the attitude towards pride parades
is, of course, clear to all. Therefore, they are a
question of the level of democracy of a society
or country. How is the majority embodied in
government institutions capable of protecting
the minority? And then you say, for example,
that the recognition of new countries, without
the previous protection of the minorities, represents one of the key reasons of the great sufferings of people “on our locale”, of death and
refugees or exile.
Shortly, in the public life, whatever that means,
with the so-called relativization of values and
“the historical compromise”, both sides are
right. If there weren’t any peacemakers and
anti-war activities, there would be no war for
sure. And if there was no insistence on human
rights, there would be no right wing parties. If
there were no traitors there would not be no
patriots, or as Dubravka Ugrešić once said: “I
know who will be responsible for the war in the
end, Filip David and me.”
Can we say that we should not have organized
the Beer Fest when we know what this society is faced with, and what quantity of potential violence is all around us, starting from “the
tensions on the north of Kosovo”, “the arrest of
Hague defendants”, an increasing number of
unemployed people? Do we have better things
to do instead of singing and drinking beer or
having fun till dawn? Of course, these kind of
questions are deducted and induced, and then
you can also ask why do we need that expensive culture, an “elite” one in a time of hunger
while at the same time nothing is too expensive for the state apparatus, for bureaucracy
and administration, both state and party? Furthermore, hospital elevators barely work and
bare necessities are not provided.
Two days ago this newspaper said, to say it
in a completely old-fashioned way, how the
chestnut trees will definitely be endangered if
we don’t start to collect the fallen leaves. Larvae or bacteria from the fallen leaves will multiply to the extent of extermination of chestnut
alleys, shaken to the roots because of constant
digging for the infrastructure necessary for new
owners and new political positioning.
In brief, basically every citizen with a small
dose of dignity and integrity, on a bare mention of any “specific” question which is also
21
Supplements
a call for action, replies with: “Forget the judiciary system, look what is happening in the
health services”, and so on and so forth. These
citizens’ attitudes come from the same posture
and actions of the society’s institutions, and do
not get me started with the personal examples
their “leaders” set. In that way, a member of the
URS (United Regions of Serbia) will represent
the “Pride Parade” and the same organization
will build a cross in the middle of Kragujevac,
or will not represent the views presented in the
statement in all institutions starting from the
government to the parliament. On one hand,
institutions are being represented, and on the
other, with a series of party strikes, they are
undermined. Furthermore, how do you think
can one have a political legitimacy and authority if we know that, according to the Čedomir
Čupić’s statement, the new theses on reduction of functions and transferring the administration and self-government to local communities stands together with the conflict of interest
connected with the accumulation of functions
at the same time?
Mira Trailović used to say: “How can you have
any complaints on your own theatre house if
you work in it?” Well, fix the show people, that’s
what you’re here for. The best thing the citizens
should do is to make the “Pride parade” possible, prevent violence on the Beer Fest, buy
elevators and auxiliary goods for hospitals and
collect the fallen leaves under the chestnut
trees if they want to see their own children and
friends, as well as white chestnut spring blossoms for one more time.
To keep it simple, as one of my readers said,
transferring responsibility from one to another
is nasty, the camarilla of all those institutions’
apparatuses is too big for so little responsibility. It is miserable to calculate and gain election
points, as everybody has calculated with their
agglomeration of experts, on every problem
concerning one human community in whole,
and even the state. Once we had an army, and
even clergy, that were grown and paid well for
a long time, to protect the citizens and to oppose violence and we did not live to see them
do it. Everything turned out different, the army
betrayed the Constitution, and the dead asked
for priests to mourn them.
It is evident that violence occurs if public institutions are powerless, if they inaugurate the
who-is-stronger and who-will-collect-the-debt
principles. That confrontation is so powerless
and indigent because it looks like as if it is being governed by madmen, for whose votes you
don’t get into a political campaign, but into an
arena, no matter what has been done till now
or since then. And the proverb says: “Don’t
mind what one says, mind what one does.”
The Pride Parade is not violent nor is a topic of
pre-election campaigns, it is an act which will
define the relations between the minority and
majority represented in state institutions, it is
not a battle field where the stronger will win.
The battle is somewhere else.
22
References
Angus, I. (1988). “Media Beyond Representation”. In Ian H. Angus and Sut Jhally (eds.)
Cultural Politics in Contemporary America, New York: Routledge.
Blagojević, J. (2005). “Feminist politics from the identity politics to do politics of differences:
Women and political power” (prep. Ignjatović,T.), Belgrade: Voice of the difference, group for
the women political rights promotion
Bolčić, S. (1994). “The daily life of society torn Serbia in the early nineties from a sociological
perspective” in: Culture in the transition (prep. Prošić, M.), Belgrade: Plato.
Cetinić, G. (2010). “The realities of the media environment in Serbia”. MC Newsletter,
09.04.2010. URL http://www.mc.rs/code/navigate.aspx?Id=1883
Debord, G. (2002). “ Spectacle Society”. Belgrade: Aleksa Golijanin.
Hall, S. (1980). “Encoding/Decoding”. In Culture, Media, Language. London: Hutchison.
Hall, S. (1997a). “Introduction”. In Representation: Cultural Representation and
Signifying Practices. London: SAGE and Open University.46
Kelner, D. (2004). “Media Culture”. Belgrade: Clio.
Marić, J. (2004). “Media in Serbia”. Media in the transition: equal starting point?, AIM Dossiers.
URL http://www.aimpress.ch/dyn/dos/archive/data/2004/40430-doss-01-06.htm
Milivojević, S. (2001). “The public and ideological media”. Word: magazine for literature and
culture and social issues, no 64/10.
Milivojević, S. (2008). “ Crtical tradition in media research : Culture studies“. CM:
Magazine for the communication management, no 8, year III.
23
References
Milivojević, S. (2004). “Women and the media”
Women and the media: “Excluding strategies“ Genero, no.3.47
Milivojević, S. (2005). „Television across Europe: Regulati on, Policy, Independence – Serbia“.
In Television across Europe: Regulation, Policy, Independence, vol. 3, Monotring Reports.
Open Society Insti tute. pp. 1315-1383. URL = http://www.soros.org/initi ati ves/ media/arti
cles_publicati ons/publicati ons/eurotv_20051011/volthree_20051011.pdf
Milivojević, Z. (2006). Serbian Civil Society. Beograd: Argument.
Sudar, V. (2005). “Economic independence of the media: Global trends in the Balkan yard”.
Files in the media, no 16, NUNS. URL http://www.nuns.rs/dosije/16/21.jsp
Van Zoonen, L. (2001). “A New Paradigm”. In Denis McQuail, ed. McQuail’s Reader in
Mass Communicati on Theory. London: SAGE Publications.
Vаlić Nedeljković D. (2011). “Gender and the media” : Gender theory -introduction (prep.
Milojević, I. i Mаrkov, V.), Novi Sad: ACIMSI and Mediterran Publishing.
Veljanovski, R. (2008). “Privatization of the local media in Serbia – mistake and chances”.
CM: Magazine for the communication management, no 6, year III.
Višnjić, J., Lončarević, K. (2011). Politics of the representation of the LGBTIQ population in
Serbian printed media. Belgrade: Labris, lesbian human rights organization.
Višnjić, J., Mirosavljević, M. (2008). “Problem of the gender representation in the media”:
Someone said feminism? (prep. Zaharijević, A.), Belgrade: Reconstruction women’s fund,
women in black, Center for women studies.
24
Content
INTRODUCTION ......................................... 3
IMAGE OF LGBTIQ POPULATION
IN THE PRESS IN SERBIA IN 2011 .................. 5
MONITORING OF THE PRESS IN 2011 .................. 9
“IN THE THROES OF STATISTICS” .................... 13
SUPPLEMENT
Supplement 1: Example of discriminatory newspaper article ................ 19
Supplement 2: Example of homophobia in media article ................... 20
Supplement 3: Example of postive analitical article ...................... 21
REFERENCES .......................................... 23
25
Download

LGBT POPULACIJA