Autor projekta
Author of project
Biljana Mickov
EVROPSKI MODELI MENADŽMENTA U
SAVREMENOJ UMETNOSTI I KULTURI
EUROPEAN MANAGEMENT MODELS IN
CONTEMPORARY ART AND CULTURE
04 • Evropski modeli menadžmenta
u savremenoj umetnosti i kulturi
Biljana Mickov
08 • Kulturna politika iza scene u Barseloni.
Novi kontekst, obnovljene strategije
Esteve Karames
24 • Mogućnosti kulturnih politika
Džim Dojl
41 • Posetilac stupa na scenu
Džonatan Gudejker
65 • Umetnost, obrazovanje i uloga
institucija kulture
Sofi Hejlz
80 • Marketing kulturnih usluga javnog sektora
Marit Keto-Sepala
99 • Gradski muzeji i urbani razvoj
Blaž Peršin
110 • Ajndhoven - grad kao laboratorija
Kes Donkers
117 • Biografije
menag
European Management Models 06
in Contemporary Art and Culture
Biljana Mickov
Barcelona Culture Policies Behind the Scene. • 16
New Context, Renewed Strategies
Esteve Caramés
The Possibilities of Cultural Policies
•
Jim Doyle
33
The Visitor Appears • 53
Jonathan Goodacre
Art, Education and the Role of the
Cultural Institution
•
73
Sophie Hayles
Marketing Cultural Services of Public Sector • 90
Maarit Keto-Seppälä
City Museums and Urban Development • 104
Blaž Peršin
Eindhoven - the City as a Laboratory
Cees Donkers
Biographies • 117
•
114
Evropski modeli menadžmenta u
savremenoj umetnosti i kulturi
• • •
Biljana Mickov
Menadžer u kulturi
Postoji jaka potreba za organizovanim sistemom koji će obezbediti ujednačen razvoj, kako u okviru samih ustanova tako i među ustanovama na regionalnom i evropskom nivou. Sa namerom da se nastavi napredak znanja neophodna je tražnja za novim veštinama u aktivnostima, odnosno neophodna
je razmena iskustava u kulturnoj praksi.
U okviru šireg konteksta, menadžment prevazilazi lokalne i regionalne
modele i nalazi se na evropskom nivou.
Predavači, koji učestvuju u ovom projektu, imaju višegodišnje iskustvo
na ovom polju, što uključuje kulturnu politiku i strategiju, strategiju razvoja
grada, modele saradnje među državama, uključivanje stanovništva, međukulturni dijalog, analizu publike, umetničko obrazovanje i interakciju… – sve
su to potrebe savremenog čoveka.
Umetničko obrazovanje je deo društvene nauke, sistem zasnovan na psihološkom razvoju savremenog čoveka, u kome ima posebno mesto. Stoga
muzeji i galerije postaju centri umetničkog obrazovanja, a obrazovni programi obezbeđuju trajnu publiku, koja ima pristup umetničkom konceptu i uticaj
na njega. Iskustva na ovom polju su više nego dobrodošla. Ovo se, takođe,
odnosi na uključivanje svih nivoa društva, od radničke klase, preko mladih i
obrazovanih ljudi, penzionera, lokalnog stanovništva, ljudi sa posebnim potrebama, itd.
Potreba za menadžmentom u savremenoj kulturi povećava se zbog pokretljivosti društva, što neumitno utiče na umetnost i, podjednako, na ustanove kulture. Menadžment u kulturi sve više postaje jedan od glavnih faktora
pokretljivosti i razvoja društva i gradova na globalnom nivou. On pojačava
demokratizaciju i razvoj. Ustanove kulture postaju mnogo otvorenije, idu u
korak sa društvenim promenama, preuzimaju aktivnu ulogu u tom procesu.
Takođe, prikupljanje sredstava (fundraising) jedno je od važnih pitanja u
okviru kulturnih aktivnosti, pa tako u Evropskoj uniji postoji organizovan menadžment aktivnosti na evropskom nivou. Takav metod aktivnosti postaje
neizbežan, čime „lokalni nivo“ zapravo postaje „evropski nivo“.
Savremena umetnost i kultura su važan dodatak savremenom životu i
povezuju aspekte popularne kulture, savremene civilizacije i tehnologije razvoja. Kroz umetnost stvara se pogled na svet vrednosti i svih otvorenih pitanja, čime umetnost pomaže napretku ljudskog bića i razvijanju specifičnog
mišljenja.
menadžment
Cilj ovog projekta jeste da predstavi i pokaže modele menadžmenta u
kulturi, kao i iskustva u okviru Evropske unije, u smislu evropske regije.
Ustanove umetnosti nepovratno moraju postati jedno „otvoreno mesto“
i za umetnike i za čitav svet, i time postići jedan „širi kontekst“.
European Management Models in
Contemporary Art and Culture
• • •
Biljana Mickov
Culture Manager
The need for management in the contemporary culture is increasing due
to movements in society which inevitably impact arts and consequently
equally affects cultural institutions. Arts and cultural management is increasingly becoming one of the major factors that facilitates mobility and development of society and cities at the global level. It enhances the development
and the democratization processes in society. Cultural institutions have become much more open, keeping pace with social changes, as well as taking an
active role in them.
The aim of this project is to present the models of management in culture
and experience within the European Union, in terms of European regions.
There is a strong need for an organized system that would ensure balanced development, both within the cultural institutions themselves, and
between institutions at the regional and European level. With the intention
to continue the advancement and dissemination of knowledge, it is necessary to demand for new skills in activities and to require the exchange of experiences in cultural practices.
In the wider context, management certainly goes beyond local and regional models, and it is located at the European level.
Lecturers who participate in this project have years of experience in this
field, including knowledge and experience in areas such as cultural policy and
strategy, the strategy of city development, models of cooperation between
states, the involvement of the population, intercultural dialogue, audience
analysis, art education and interaction… activities which all represent the
needs of a modern man.
Art education is a part of social science and system based on the psychological development of the modern man and in this context has a special place.
That is the reason why museums and art galleries have became central points
of art education, with educational programs that have an important influence
in forming the permanent audience which have the access, as well as impact,
on the art concept. All available experiences in this area are more than welcome and that applies to the participation of all levels of society, from working
population, young and educated people, pensioners, local populations, people
with special needs, etc.
The fundraising is also one of the important issues in the context of cultural activities, so in the European Union there are an organized art and cultural management activities at the European level, and this method of action
becomes more and more inevitable, thus a “local level” actually becomes a
“European level”.
Contemporary art and culture are an important addition to modern life,
which associate different aspects of popular culture, modern civilization and
technology development. A world view and values of all outstanding issues
are created trough the art, helping the progress of human race, as well as the
development of a specific opinions.
Arts institutions and facilities must irreversible become an “open place” for
artists and for the entire world, as it is the way to achieve true “wider context”.
...........
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:01
KULTURNA POLITIKA IZA SCENE
U BARSELONI. NOVI KONTEKST,
OBNOVLJENE STRATEGIJE
Esteve Karames
Savetnik za stratešku politiku
Institut kulture Barselona
• • •
Uvod. Kulturni pokret grada
Kulturna politika predstavlja centar razvojne strategije Barselone u poslednjih trideset godina. Od 1979. godine, kada je formirana prva demokratska
lokalna uprava, Gradsko veće grada promoviše ambicioznu politiku podsticanja
i omogućavanja uključivanja građana u procese kreiranja i sprovođenja kulturnih politika na nivou grada, kao i jačanja uloge gradskih institucija kulture,
kao što su Fondacija Joan Miró, Fondacija Antoni Tàpies i Muzej Picasso.
9
za kulturu“, kojim su se gradovi i lokalne samo­upra­
ve obavezale na aktivnu ulogu u razvoju kulture.
Osnovna poruka dokumenta „Agenda 21“ bila je
ukazivanje na neophodnost uključivanja kulturnog
razvoja kao ključnog elementa daljeg urbanog ra­
zvoja grada, koji obuhvata oblasti kao što su ekonom­
ski rast, društveno jedinstvo i postizanje održivog
razvoja.
Olimpijske igre, održane 1992. godine, kojima je Barselona bila domaćin,
predstavljaju odlučujuću prekretnicu. U
cilju transformacije urbanog profila i internacionalnog predstavljanja grada, u
Barseloni su mobilisane ogromne količine kolektivnog entuzijazma, kao i finansijskih sredstava iz javnog budžeta. Kao ključni element promocije urbane trans­
formacije Barselone određen je upravo mladi i inovativni kulturni profil grada.
Neposredno nakon završetka Olimpijskih igara, promocija Barselone, kao središta kulture, postala je jedna od osnovnih strategija. Upravo u tom periodu
otvorene su ključne institucije kulture, kao što su Centar za savremenu kulturu
...........
8
Prvi prioritet je predstavljalo obnavljanje katalonske kulture, koja je bila od­
bačena i zanemarena tokom četrdesetogodišnje diktature, kao i obnavljanje
javnih prostora za kulturna dešavanja i umetničke aktivnosti, koji su predsta­
vljali simbole nove slobode i društveno jedinstvo grada. Snažan kulturni identitet grada, u kom se prepliću katalonska i španska kulturna tradicija, temelji se
na širokoj mreži kulturnih entiteta i udruženja. Nema sumnje da je upravo ova
čvrsta mreža osnova za promociju i spro­
U Barseloni je 2004. godine promovisan među­
vođenje ambicioznih politika u oblasti
narodni
pokret za raspravu o ulozi kulture u savreme­
kulture na nivou grada, što i predstavlja
nim
urbanim
prostorima. Rezultat ovoga projekta
ono što kulturna politika Barselone nabila je izrada dokumenta pod nazivom „Agenda 21
stoji da promoviše u ovom periodu.
®Giannina Urmeneta Ottiker
Esteve Karames
Kulturna politika iza scene u Barseloni. Novi kontekst, obnovljene strategije
Barselone – CCCB, Muzej savremene umetnosti – MACBA, kao i nova koncert­
na dvorana L’Auditori. To je trenutak u kom je podstaknut doprinos sektora
kulture ekonomskom rastu, kako je navedeno i u tekstu prvog „Strateškog
plana za kulturu“, koji je predstavljen 1999. godine. U tom periodu dolazi i do
značajnog razvoja glavnih kulturnih manifestacija i festivala, a Univerzalni forum kultura, pod pokroviteljstvom UNESCO-a, održan 2004. godine u Barseloni,
simbolizovao je završetak perioda predstavljanja kulturne platforme grada.
Razvoj kulture u centru kulturne strategije grada
Prethodno je u Barseloni 2004. godine, kao i u velikom broju lokalnih
grad­skih samouprava širom sveta, promovisan međunarodni pokret za ra­
spra­vu o ulozi kulture u savremenim urbanim prostorima. Rezultat ovoga
projekta bila je izrada dokumenta pod nazivom „Agenda 21 za kulturu“ (www.
agenda21culture.net), kojim su se gradovi i lokalne samouprave obavezale na
aktivnu ulogu u razvoju kulture. Osnovna poruka dokumenta „Agenda 21“ bila
je ukazivanje na neophodnost uključivanja kulturnog razvoja kao ključnog
elementa daljeg urbanog razvoja grada, koji obuhvata oblasti kao što su ekonomski rast, društveno jedinstvo i postizanje održivog razvoja. Nema sumnje
da kultura ima ogroman udeo u ukupnom proizvodu lokalne ekonomije, kao i
važnu ulogu u projektima urbane rekonstrukcije, ali je osnovni prioritet dokumenta „Agenda 21 za kulturu“ da istakne kulturnu dimenziju razvoja, koja je
prisutna kao potencijal u svakoj urbanoj sredini.
Na osnovu toga Barselona je 2006. godine promovisala transformaciju
svoje kulturne strategije. Drugi po redu dokument „Strateškog plana za kulturu
grada“ (www.bcn.es/plaestrategicdecultura/english/index.html) rezultat je rada
i saradnje 400 predstavnika lokalnih kulturnih sektora. Tri osnovne poruke
ovoga dokumenta su se odnosile na podsticanje dostupnosti i učešća u lokalnim kulturnim programima, promovisanje po kvalitetu izuzetnih umetničkih
...........
10
Novi impuls u razvoju kulturne strategije definisan je tek u skorije vreme.
Stiče se utisak da postoji nekoliko osnovnih elemenata koji definišu novi kontekst: grad objedinjuje sve više različitosti (prema podacima zabeležen je rast
lokalnog stanovništva sa stranim državljanstvom, koji je u 2008. godini iznosio 17 procenata, u odnosu na 4 procenta u 2001. godini); relevantni uticaji de­
lovanja kulturnog sektora već su postali opštepriznati i uvaženi; konstant­no
umnožavanje komunikacijskih kanala i podrške povećali su mogućnosti, kao i
rizike, masovne komunikacije kulturnih projekata; izvanredan geografski položaj grada privlači veliki broj turista i posetilaca objekata i institucija kulture
(više od šest miliona posetilaca u 2008. godini), a zabeležen je i značajan rast
kreativnog sektora grada. Na osnovu navedenih činjenica bilo je sasvim opravda­
no da kulturna strategija grada bude preoblikovana i prilagođena godinama
koje dolaze, a u skladu sa navedenim elementima.
Esteve Karames
®Giannina Urmeneta Ottiker
Kako bi inovacije ostale u središtu kulturnih poli­
tika grada neophodno je kulturu postaviti u središte
strategije urbanog razvoja. Potrebno je sprovoditi
pojedinačne programe zasnovane na kulturnoj di­
menziji, koju ima svaki grad, i, konačno, potrebno je
integrisati različitosti institucija kulture i kulturnih
programa u jedinstvenu, sveobuhvatnu strategiju.
Kulturna politika iza scene u Barseloni. Novi kontekst, obnovljene strategije
• Promovisanje umetničke i kulturne produkcijske strategije sa ciljem
da se kreira dinamičan kulturni sektor
Osnovni pravac aktivnosti jeste jačanje podrške produkcijskim projektima
u oblasti kulture i umetnosti. Tradicionalno se promocija lokalnog kulturnog
razvoja temeljila na politici podrške umetničkim izložbama, u obliku težnje za
većim brojem muzeja, više festivala, više kulturnih centara, i slično. Međutim,
moderan i ambiciozan kulturni centar danas mora uzeti u obzir i postojanje di­
namične umetničke zajednice u svojim okvirima. Postojanje čvrste baze, koju
čine muzičari, izvođači, kao i likovni umetnici, generiše pojavu i prisustvo novih projekata i novih mogućnosti, koji predstavljaju izvor dinamike kulturnog
sektora.
Ostali projekti promovisanja resursa za kulturnu produkciju odnose se,
između ostalog, na obezbeđivanje novih izvora finansiranja u cilju otvaranja
mesta za održavanje živih muzičkih dešavanja u gradu, kao svojevrsnih jedinstvenih laboratorija lokalne muzičke scene, ili obezbeđivanje programa stipen­
diranja u cilju reformisanja postojećih umetničkih studija i prostora za umetničke probe i umetničke radionice.
• Investiranje u reformu gradskih institucija kulture kako bi se dala
podrška značaju kulture za grad
Kako je kulturna dinamika svakog grada zasnovana na radu i sposobnosti­
ma njegove kulturne i umetničke zajednice, značaj kulture grada se temelji na
rezultatima rada najvećih gradskih institucija kulture, kao što su veliki muzeji,
koncertne dvorane, Opera, veliki festivali. Izuzetan kvalitet rada ovih institucija odražava izuzetan kvalitet umetničke produkcije na lokalnom nivou.
...........
12
Barselona, kao centar kulture, mora da naglasi i istakne svoju podršku lo­
kalnim kulturnim stvaraocima. To je i osnovni cilj programa „Fabrika umetnosti“
(Barcelona Art Factory), u okviru kog će biti obezbeđen prostor od 20.000 me­
tara kvadratnih, namenjen isključivo za kulturnu i umetničku produkciju, kao
što su prostori za probe plesača i pozorišnih trupa, muzički centar, studio za
vizuelne umetnike ili prostor za uvežbavanje nastupa cirkuskih umetnika.
Esteve Karames
Gradske institucije kulture, kao što su Muzej savremene umetnosti –
MACBA, Teatar Lliure, Prirodnjački muzej, Centar za savremenu kulturu Barse­
lone – CCCB, trenutno su u procesima reformi kako bi svoje programe mogle
da usklade sa potrebama pružanja novih usluga. Ovaj program predstavlja
osnovu za buduće pozicioniranje Barselone kao centra kulture u međunarodnim okvirima, u čijem uspehu ključnu ulogu ima razvoj najvećih i najuticajnijih
institucija kulture grada.
• Jačanje strategije dostupnosti lokalnih kulturnih projekata
Treći program u okviru plana za promociju lokalnog kulturnog razvoja
predstavlja formiranje novih programa i projekata kojima bi se povećala dostupnost, kao i stepen učešća, posetilaca u kulturnim projektima. Konzumacija kulture je u poslednjih nekoliko godina doživela velike promene, a na njenu
transformaciju su naročito uticale informacione tehnologije. Upravo informaciono-komunikaciona tehnologija modernog doba može odigrati važnu ulogu
u formiranju širokog auditorijuma za sadržaje koje nude projekti kulture, a ko­
jima formiranje velike publike više nije jedini prioritet. Promocija i podsticaj
učešća u kulturi ogleda se u postizanju opšteg, višeg cilja kulturnog projekta,
tako da jedinstveni, pojedinačni kulturni projekti postaju sve dostupniji. To
znači da kulturni projekti moraju da razvijaju nove usluge za postizanje što
većeg stepena dostupnosti, kao što su usluge prilagođene potrebama dece i
najmlađih posetilaca, promocije jedinstvenih događaja u kulturnim prostorima, otvaranje klubova ili prilagođenih prostora u kojima bi se održavale aktivnosti programa, kao i da daju veću podršku slobodnim aktivnostima.
Najreprezentativniji program u okviru strategije razvoja jeste „Master-plan
gradskih biblioteka 1998–2010“, u okviru koga je grad uložio izuzetan napor
kako bi broj postojećih gradskih biblioteka u tom periodu bio udvostručen (sa 22
na čak 39 novih biblioteka). Osnovni cilj ovoga projekta bio je da se kreira veća
dostupnost kulturnih centara, u kojima je pristup kulturnim sadržajima promovisan u najširem smislu, od izdavanja knjiga čitaocima, besplatnog pristupa
Kulturna politika iza scene u Barseloni. Novi kontekst, obnovljene strategije
13
Strateški plan je predstavljao svojevrsnu mapu kretanja aktivnosti u cilju
implementacije inovativnih kulturnih politika u Barseloni kojima bi bila uspostavljena nova generacija programa i projekata u oblasti kulture grada. Među
mnogobrojnim smernicama koje novi programi sadrže, ovom prilikom ćemo
istaći četiri glavna pravca delovanja, a to su:
Zahvaljujući rezultatima kolektivnih napora u poslednjoj deceniji dvadesetog, kao i u prvoj deceniji dvadeset i prvog veka, možemo reći da je Barselona gotovo u potpunosti kompletirala mapu svojih najvećih i najuticajnijih
kulturnih institucija. U skladu s tim, trenutno nije osnovna preokupacija briga
o daljem povećanju broja umetničkih prostora, kao što su muzeji i dvorane,
već nastojanje da njihovi sadržaji imaju što veći kvalitet i vrednost. Upravo iz
tog razloga izrađen je ambiciozan plan finansiranja gradskih institucija kulture
sa ciljem promovisanja i podrške njihovih aktivnosti, kao što su istraživanje i
uređena dokumentacijska građa (organizovane i ažurirane biblioteke muzeja,
koncertnih dvorana i drugih gradskih institucija kulture), povećanje građe njihovih kolekcija, izgradnja novih prostora sa ciljem razvoja novih programa.
...........
produkcija, kao osnove kulturnih projekata na nivou grada, i jačanje veza unu­
tar kulturnog sektora Barselone, sa ciljem da se što efikasnije organizuju dostupni resursi za kulturu na nivou grada.
internetu, organizacije izložbi audio-vizuelnih materijala, do kulturnih sadržaja
prilagođenih deci, i mnogih drugih. Rezultati projekta su zaista izuzetni – goto­
vo 20.000 ljudi dnevno posećuje gradske biblioteke Barselone.
U cilju daljeg podsticaja učešća u kulturnim dešavanjima na nivou grada
nastavlja se promocija novih programa u pravcu širenja interkulturalnog profila kulturnog programa Barselone. Poseban program je predstavljen tokom
2008. godine, u okviru Evropske godine međukulturnog dijaloga za podršku
kulturnim projektima koji razvijaju publiku u novim zajednicama, kao što je
uključivanje kulturološki različitih festivala u okvire tradicionalnih festivalskih
dešavanja Barselone.
• Povećanje učešća u upravljanju lokalnom kulturom
Četvrti pravac delovanja strategije razvoja jeste uvođenje inovacija u obla­
sti razvoja, kao i predstavljanje novih načina i sredstava za kreiranje lokalnih
kulturnih politika na nivou grada. Jasno je da ovakav, složeniji sistem kulture
zahteva daleko bolji rad u oblasti administracije. Činjenica je i da više nije mo­
guće planirati kulturne politike iz pozicije jednog mišljenja, već je neophodno
da reorganizacija razvojne orijentacije obuhvati i uključi i suprotstavljene stavove i mišljenja, kao i otvoren dijalog.
važniji korak u jačanju lokalnog kulturnog nasleđa, ili pitanje mera koje je po­
trebno preduzeti u cilju podrške lokalne kulturne industrije, kao što je nedavno
formirani Design Hub Barcelona – Centar dizajna Barselone. Međutim, važno
je napomenuti da još uvek postoje važni izazovi za koje tek treba pronaći reše­
nja, kao što su pitanje razvoja umetničkog obrazovnog programa, formiranje
kulturne strategije za razvoj gradskog područja ili aktivniji angažman partnera iz privatnog sektora u procese kreiranja lokalnih kulturnih projekata.
Kako bi inovacije ostale u središtu kulturnih politika grada neophodno je
kulturu postaviti u središte strategije urbanog razvoja. Potrebno je sprovoditi
pojedinačne programe zasnovane na kulturnoj dimenziji, koju ima svaki grad,
i, konačno, potrebno je integrisati različitosti institucija kulture i kulturnih pro­
grama u jedinstvenu, sveobuhvatnu strategiju. Savremeni koncept, u kome su
promene i kompleksnost konstantno prisutni, zahteva da primena kulturnih
politika kreira što sveobuhvatniji pristup u budućnosti.
15
Vreme je za promene, vreme je za kulturu
Esteve Karames
...........
Cilj ovoga teksta jeste da se ukratko objasne najvažnije inovacije u kultur­
noj politici Barselone, koje su obeležile period od nekoliko poslednjih godina.
Opširniji i detaljniji prikaz ove teme svakako bi obuhvatio i pitanja kao što je
strateška politika obnove sećanja na urbanu dimenziju, koja predstavlja naj-
...........
14
To se pokazalo tačnim i u slučaju rada Veća za kulturu Barse­
lone, novoformiranog tela, koje je
nedavno predstavljeno u okviru
kulturnog sistema Barselone. Na
osnovu pozitivnog iskustva de­
bata i diskusija koje su vođene u
okvi­ru procesa kreiranja nacrta
strateškog plana kulture, Gradsko
veće je odlučilo da ovu praksu kreativne razmene mišljenja institucionalizuje
formiranjem novog tela. Veće za kulturu predstavlja telo koje ima dve uloge
– ulogu izvršnog, kao i savetodavnog tela. U okviru svog rada Veće donosi od­
luke o programima stipendiranja i nagrađivanja na nivou grada, vrši savetovanja prilikom izbora umetničkih projekata i podnosi godišnje izveštaje o stanju
u okviru kulturnih programa.
Kulturni projekti moraju da razvijaju nove uslu­
ge za postizanje što većeg stepena dostupnosti,
kao što su usluge prilagođene potrebama dece i
najmlađih posetilaca, promocije jedinstvenih do­
gađaja u kulturnim prostorima, otvaranje klubova
ili prilagođenih prostora u kojima bi se održavale
aktivnosti programa, kao i da daju veću podršku
slobodnim aktivnostima.
Kulturna politika iza scene u Barseloni. Novi kontekst, obnovljene strategije
Esteve Caramés
Strategic Policy Adviser
Barcelona Institute of Culture
• • •
Introduction. The city cultural movement
Cultural policies have been the centre of development strategies of Barcelona City over the past 30 years. Since 1979, when the first democratic local government was formed, the City Council have been promoting ambitious
policies in order to encourage and facilitate citizens’ involvement in the creation and implementation of cultural policies at the City level, as well as to
strengthen the role of City cultural institutions, such as the Foundation Joan
Miró, Antoni Tàpies Foundation and the Picasso Museum.
The 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona marked the beginning of changes
and represent a decisive turning point. In order to transform the urban profile
and international presentation of the City, huge amount of collective enthusiasm
and public budget funds were mobilised. As a key element in the promotion of
urban transformation of Barcelona was identified a young and innovative cultural profile of the City. Shortly after the Olympics, the promotion of Barcelona
as the centre of culture has become one of the basic strategies. In this period
some of the main cultural institutions of the City were opened, such as the Centre for Contemporary Culture of Barcelona – CCCB, Museum of Contemporary
Art – MACBA and a new concert hall L’Auditori. At that time the cultural sector
made an important contribution to the entire economic growth, as stated in the
...........
16
At first the main priority was a renewal of Catalan culture, which was
banished and neglected during the period of forty years of dictatorship, as
well as the renewal of public space for cultural expressions and artistic and
cultural activities, viewed as symbols of new freedom and social unity of the
City. A strong cultural identity of the City, in which are intertwined Catalan
and Spanish cultural traditions, is primarily based on the extensive network
of cultural entities and associations. There is no doubt that this solid network
is the foundation for the promotion and implementation of ambitious policies in the field of culture at the City level, and that is exactly what Barcelona’s cultural policy seeks to promote in this period.
Esteve Caramés
text of the first Strategic Plan for Culture, presented in 1999. Significant development of major cultural events and festivals has also marked this period. The
Universal Forum of cultures, under the auspices of UNESCO, was held in Barcelona in 2004, symbolizing the end of the City’s cultural platform presentation.
Cultural development at the centre of City cultural strategy
The new momentum in the development of cultural strategy has been
defined only recently. There are several essential elements that define a new
context: the City is becoming more diverse (in 2008 17 percent of the local
population had foreign citizenship, compared to 4 percent in 2001); relevant
performance and influence of cultural sector activities have already become
unanimously recognized; constant multiplication of communication channels
has increased the opportunities, as well as risks, to massively communicate
cultural projects; excellent geographical position of the City attracts a large
number of tourists and visitors to cultural institutions and facilities (more than
6 million visitors in 2008), and finally, the significant growth in the creative
sector of the City has been recorded. Based on these facts, it seemed justified
and appropriate to reshape and adapt cultural strategy of the City in accordance with these elements for the following years.
In 2004 Barcelona promoted the international
Previously in 2004 Barcelona,
as well as a large number of local movement for a discussion on the role of culture
in contemporary urban spaces. The result of this
municipal governments worldproject was the document entitled “Agenda 21 for
wide, promoted the international Culture” which committed the cities and local gov­
movement for a discussion on the ernments to an active role in the development of
role of culture in contemporary culture. The main message of the document was
urban spaces. The result of this pointing to the necessity of inclusion of cultural
project was the document entitled development, as a key element of further urban
“Agenda 21 for Culture” (www. development of the City, which covers areas such
agenda21culture.net), which com- as economic growth, social unity and achieving
mitted the cities and local govern- sustainable development.
ments to an active role in the development of culture. The main message of the document was pointing to
the necessity of inclusion of cultural development, as a key element of further urban development of the City, which covers areas such as economic
growth, social unity and achieving sustainable development. There is no
doubt that culture has a huge share of total product in the local economy and
an important role in urban reconstruction projects, but the main priority of
the document “Agenda 21 for culture” it to highlight the cultural dimension
of development, which presents an important potential in each urban area.
Based on the “Agenda 21”, Barcelona promoted transformation of its
cultural strategy in 2006. Document The second Strategic Plan for Culture
Barcelona Culture Policies Behind the Scene. New Context, Renewed Strategies
17
BARCELONA CULTURE POLICIES
BEHIND THE SCENE.
NEW CONTEXT, RENEWED STRATEGIES
...........
:01
(www.bcn.es/plaestrategicdecultura/english/index.html) was the result of cooperation and contribution of 400 local cultural representatives. Three main
messages of this document referred to: encouragement of access and participation in local cultural programs, promotion of the outstanding artistic
productions, as a basis for cultural projects at the City level, and strengthening relationships within the cultural sector of Barcelona, in order to more
effectively organize the available resources for culture at the City level.
The Strategic Plan represented the map of activities to be undertaken in
order to implement innovative cultural policies in Barcelona which would establish new generation of programs and projects in the field of culture at the
City level. Among the many guidelines included in new programs, we will
highlight the four main directions of action:
• Promoting the artistic and cultural production strategies in order to
create dynamic cultural sector
Other projects to promote cultural production resources relate to, among
others, creation of new sources of funding in order to support openings of a
live music venues in the City, as a unique laboratories for local music scene,
or the provision of scholarship programs and grants in order to reform the
existing arts studios and facilities for art workshops and rehearsals.
• Investing in the reform of City cultural institutions in order to support its cultural relevance
...........
As the cultural dynamics of any city is based on work and abilities of its
cultural and artistic community, the importance and relevance of the culture at
Esteve Caramés
.............
Barcelona, as a cultural capital, must emphasize and underline its support
for local cultural creators. This is the primary aim of Barcelona Art Factory,
which will provide 20,000 square meters of public venues exclusively for arts and
cultural production, such as rehearsal space for dancers and theatre groups,
music centre, studio for visual artists or space for practice of circus performers.
[
Institut za kulturu, Barselona / Institute for Culture, Barcelona ICUB
[
18
The basic direction of activities is to strengthen support for production
projects in the field of culture and arts. Traditionally, the promotion of local
cultural development was based on the policies of promotion and support
for art exhibitions: striving for more museums, more festivals, more cultural
centres, etc. However, modern and ambitious cultural capital today must
take into consideration the existence of a dynamic artistic community within
its frame. Existence of a solid base which consists of musicians, performers
and visual artists, generates the appearance and the presence of new projects
and new opportunities, which are feeding dynamic cultural sector.
To keep innovation at the core of City cultural
policies it is in any case necessary to place culture
at the centre of urban development strategies, to
carry out individual programs based on the cul­
tural dimension that every city has, and finally, it
is necessary to integrate the diversity of cultural
institutions and cultural programs into a single,
comprehensive strategy.
Barcelona Culture Policies Behind the Scene. New Context, Renewed Strategies
®Giannina Urmeneta Ottiker
Esteve Caramés
The main City’s cultural institutions, such as the Museum of Contemporary Art – MACBA, Lliure Theatre, Natural History Museum, Centre for Contemporary Culture of Barcelona – CCCB, are all currently in the process of reform in order to enable their programs to comply with the requirements of
new services they have to offer. This program represents the basis for the future positioning of Barcelona as an international Capital of culture, in which
development of the largest and most influential cultural institutions in the City
has the key role.
• Strengthening strategy of local cultural projects availability
The third program within the plan for promotion of local cultural development is the formation of new programs and projects to increase accessibility and participation of the visitors in cultural projects. Cultural consumption
has witnessed great changes in the recent years, particularly affected by influence of information technology. The information and communication
technologies of the modern age can play an important role in the formation
of a broad audience for cultural projects, for which the formation of a large
audience is no longer the only priority. Promotion and encouragement of
...........
...........
Owing to the results of collective efforts made in the last decade of the
twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century, we can say that
Barcelona has almost entirely completed the map of its largest and most influential cultural institutions. Accordingly, the current main preoccupation is
not the concern about further increasing the number of arts spaces such as
museums and theatres, but ensuring that their activities have a greater quality
and value and that they fulfil their task of contributing to the arts excellence.
It is the reason why an ambitious plan for funding the City’s cultural institutions was developed, with the aim to promote and support their activities,
such as research and organization of documentation material (organized and
updated libraries of museums, concert halls and other municipal cultural institutions), library collection development and building new spaces in order
to develop new programs.
Muzej savremene umetnosti Barselone / Museum of Contemporary Arts MACBA
Barcelona Culture Policies Behind the Scene. New Context, Renewed Strategies
.....
the city level is based on the results of the performance of its largest cultural
institutions, such as major museums, concert halls, opera, and influential festivals. The exceptional quality of these institutions reflects the exceptional
quality of artistic production at the local level.
[
[
In order to foster participation in cultural events, City continues to promote new programs in order to raise intercultural profile of Barcelona Cul­
tural Agenda. Accordingly, special programs were launched in 2008, within
The European Year of Intercultural Dialogue to support cultural projects that
develop new audiences in communities; such is inclusion of culturally diverse
festivals within the traditional festival events in Barcelona.
Time for changes, time for culture.
The aim of this text is to briefly explain the highlights of innovations in
Barcelona’s cultural policies over the recent years. Further and more extensive description of this theme should also have included the issues such as
strategic policies on restoration of the urban memory, as a major step to
strengthen local cultural heritage, or the measures to support local cultural
industry, such as the recent creation of the Design Hub Barcelona. However,
it should also be mentioned that there are still important challenges to be
covered, such as the issue of development of arts educational programs, the
formation of the cultural strategy for the development of the urban area, or
a more active involvement of partners from private sector in the process of
shaping and creating local cultural projects.
To keep innovation at the core of City cultural policies it is in any case
necessary to place culture at the centre of urban development strategies, to
carry out individual programs based on the cultural dimension that every city
has, and finally, it is necessary to integrate the diversity of cultural institutions
and cultural programs into a single, comprehensive strategy. The contemporary context, where changes and complexities are on scene, requires the application of cultural policies that can create a more comprehensive future.
• Increasing participation of cultural management on a local level
The fourth main direction in development strategy is introduction of
innovations in the field of development, as well as presentation of new ways
and means, for creation of local cultural policies at the City level. It is clear
that this, more complex cultural system, requires a much better performance
of the cultural administration. The fact is that it is no longer possible to plan
cultural policies from one sole voice, but it is necessary that redefinition of
the development orientation includes means of contrast and discussion.
Esteve Caramés
...........
This proved to be accurate in the case of Barcelona Culture Council, a new
body recently introduced within the cultural system of Barcelona. From the
...........
22
The most representative program within the Development strategy is the
Master Plan of Barcelona Public Libraries 1998-2010, within which the City
invested an extraordinary efforts to double the number of existing public libraries in this period (from 22 to as many as 39 libraries). The main goal of this
project was to achieve availability of a new generation in cultural centres where
the access to cultural events is promoted in its widest sense, from issuing books
to readers, free Internet access, organization of audiovisual exhibitions, facilitating children’s cultural programme, etc. Project results are truly remarkable –
almost 20,000 people visit the Barcelona public libraries per day.
successful experience of the debates and discussions carried out in order to
draft a document Culture Strategic Plan, Barcelona City Council decided to
institutionalize this practise trough the formation of a new Body. Barcelona
City Council has two main roles – the role of executive organ and advisory
body. It decides on scholarship and award program at the City level, has an
advisory role in the selection of art projects, and submit annual reports on
the situation of local cultural program.
Barcelona Culture Policies Behind the Scene. New Context, Renewed Strategies
23
participation in culture are reflected in achieving common, higher
goal of cultural projects, so unique
and individual cultural projects are
becoming more accessible. This
means that cultural projects have
to develop new services to achieve
the highest possible degree of
availability, as well as services tailored to the needs of different
target groups, such as children and the youngest visitors, services of promotion of unique cultural events in the cultural facilities, openings of clubs or
custom spaces for the activities of the program, as well as greater support for
open events and leisure activities.
Cultural projects have to develop new services
to achieve the highest possible degree of availabil­
ity, as well as services tailored to the needs of dif­
ferent target groups, such as children and the
youngest visitors, services of promotion of unique
cultural events in the cultural facilities, openings of
clubs or custom spaces for the activities of the pro­
gram, as well as greater support for open events
and leisure activities.
:02
Mogućnosti kulturnIH politikA
ničkom aktivnosti ili formom. U nekim slučajevima je sasvim opravdano tvrdi­ti
da jedan oblik umetničke aktivnosti mora biti povezan sa drugim, u nameri da
se postigne određeni umetnički cilj. Kao primer možemo navesti nastojanje
promocije bangra muzike, kao specifične, „duhovne“ kulturne aktivnosti, koja
– sa ciljem da bude predstavljena široj publici – mora na odgovarajući način da
bude povezana sa popularnom muzikom, koja ima daleko širu bazu publike.
Ovaj tekst je nastavak rada „Zašto je globalizam koristan – multikulturalna
društva, kulturna tenzija i dobre strane antagonističkih kulturnih identiteta“.
Sa sigurnošću možemo da konstatujemo kako velika brojnost ponude za
izbor zabave u slobodno vreme predstavlja veliki izazov za kulturne radnike i
menadžere, čiji je zadatak da građane opredele za svoje sadržaje, a taj zadatak
zahteva kontinuiranu inventivnost, kreativnost u pristupu osmišljavanju kultur­
nih sadržaja i događaja, kao i odgovarajuće kontekste njihovog prikazivanja i
prezentacije publici.
Kvantifikovanje kulture
U stalnom vrtlogu izazova i promena kojima
Primeri umetnika čiji je pristup stvaranju i radu interdisciplinaran, i koji
se u svom umetničkom izražavanju koriste različitim umetničkim oblicima i
praksama, toliko je veliki da bi bilo besmisleno pojedinačno nabrajanje, a čest
je slučaj i da praksa jednoga umetnika bude u direktnoj vezi sa drugom umet-
...........
24
Može se steći utisak da ovakav, smo izloženi – delovanje isključivo unutar granica
forme umetnosti može lako dovesti do stagnacije te
višestrani model pristupa kvantifi­ forme, što će za konačnu posledicu imati i stagna­
kovanju kulture dovodi do njenog ra- ciju reakcije publike. Ovako nastala stagnacija publi­
zvodnjavanja, ili čak do osporavanja ke može delimično biti smatrana kao rezultat stagna­
empirijske ideje umetnosti, kao prima cije prezentacije umetnosti, kao i njenog iskustva i
facie definicije kulture. Istina je da bi doživljaja.
mnogi kultur­ni radnici prisutnost neumetničkih aktivnosti i popularnu umetnost danas oka­rak­terisali kao „laku kul­
turu“. Međutim, ovakav pristup, u kome su tradicionalne umetničke forme,
kao što su, na primer, skulptura, slikarstvo, poezija ili teatar, definisane kao
istaknutiji i važniji oblici umetnosti u odnosu na druge kulturne aktivnosti, po­
put narodne umetnosti, zanatstva ili gastronomije, u suprotnosti je sa stvarnim
stanjem opšte percepcije umetnosti. Iskustvo i doživljaj umet­nosti pripadaju
pojedincu, oni se ne dešavaju u vakuumu. Poseta galeriji može biti uvod u ve­
černji izlazak, aktivnost nakon večere, a pred nasta­vak izlaska i odlaska u klub.
U stalnom vrtlogu izazova i promena kome smo izlo­ženi – delo­vanje isključivo
unutar granica forme umetnosti može lako dovesti do stagnacije te forme,
što će za konačnu posledicu imati i stagnaciju reakcije publike. Ovako nastala
stagnacija publike može delimično biti smatrana kao rezultat stagnacije prezentacije umetnosti, kao i njenog iskustva i doživljaja.
Džim Dojl
Mešavina politika
Prava mera u formiranju kulturnih politika, istraživanja i sposobnosti, sa ciljem privlačenja interesa publike kulturnim sadržajima, trebalo bi da odraža­va već
formirane načine na koji publika i zajednica koriste svoje slobodno vreme, istovremeno im nudeći i mogućnost sticanja nekih novih i alternativnih iskustava.
Konstantan proces preispitivanja i promišljanja, invencija i obnavljanja,
morao bi da predstavlja suštinu kulturnih politika, jer je to zaista jedini mehanizam koji pravilno odražava i prati dinamičnost i stalne promene prisutne u
globalnoj kulturi.
Globalno na pragu
Polazna tačka ove vrste politike ne odnosi se na to kako da kreiramo po­
litiku koja odražava globalnu kulturu, onu koja je prisutna na našem pragu, već
na koji način da lokalnu kulturu i njen kontekst uspešno integrišemo u nju. Naj­
prikladnije su one kulturne politike koje pomažu definisanju kulture čineći je
interesantnom. Kulturne politike koje se zasnivaju na tradiciji i nasleđu su, u
kontekstu učešća zajednice, širenja publike i kulturne raznolikosti, suštinski
podložne stagnaciji. Isključivo politika čiju suštinu predstavlja proces kontinui­
ranog preispitivanja i promišljanja konteksta i kretanja u njenim okvirima, ali
i kretanja u njenoj okolini, može dati koristan doprinos definisanju kulture i
nje­nom pravilnom pozicioniranju u savremenom okruženju. U Irskoj ovaj proces od nas zahteva da jasno definišemo, suočimo i preispitamo sadržaj koji
smatramo irskom kulturom, kako bismo stvorili osnove da ona bude redefinisana, a time i ponovo oživljena.
Kulturna politika bi trebalo da obezbedi, kroz menadžment na nekoliko
nivoa, sledeće:
– bolji pristup institucijama, što je istovremeno i dobar pristup građanima;
– uključivanje većeg broja ljudi;
– značajan stepen razvoja kulturnih politika na lokalnom nivou;
– promene modela rada unutar institucija kulture;
– povezivanje institucija u cilju razmene modela dobre prakse i politika iz­
među lokalnih institucija.
(Biljana Mickov)
Mogućnosti kulturnih politika
25
• • •
...........
Džim Dojl
Istraživač-saradnik škole GradCAM
Kulturne politike treba da:
• odražavaju lokalne i regionalne kulture u čijoj su funkciji;
• vrše neprekidan proces preispitivanja i reinterpretacije;
• nude mogućnost novih iskustava koja integrišu i približavaju tradicionalne
umetničke forme, kulturne resurse i inovativne umetničke aktivnosti;
• omogućavaju sve tokove kulturne razmene, na regionalnom, nacionalnom
i internacionalnom nivou.
Kulturna politika nam je potrebna kao podrška strukturiranju kulturnih
projekata (umetničkih projekata, opreme…) koji mogu da izvrše uticaj na celo­
kupno društvo, a njena uloga jeste da:
Čim se pojave novi, alternativni kodeksi, koji svo­
je poreklo imaju u drugim kulturama, suština pojave
monokulturalnosti se menja – njena jednostranost
nepovratno nestaje – i počinje proces njenog pre­
laska u multikulturalnost, čak i ako je u početku taj
proces nenametljiv i ne čini se značajnim. Ova nova
kulturološka realnost, suprotna istorijskom kon­
tekstu razvoja i traja­nja kulture, u sve većoj meri će
predstavljati izazov preovlađujućim doktrinama, če­
sto vodeći do reakcionarnih poziva na asimilaciju i
prilagođavanja.
Džim Dojl
.............
[
[
Laboratorija umetnosti, Dablin / LAB: Liberty Arts Building, Dublin
(Biljana Mickov)
Navedene komentare potrebno je posmatrati isključivo u kontekstu tača­
ka koje su navedene u okviru ovoga teksta, jer se ne odnose na opšte preporuke i smernice za kreiranje sveobuhvatne, opšte kulturne politike. Neka od
pitanja koja bi politika mogla da obuhvati su: podrška i razvoj regionalne i na­cio­
nalne kulturne ekonomije, razvoj infrastrukturnih kapaciteta i njihovo održava­
nje, priroda, vrednosti i potencijal kulturnih tarifa, kao i politike koje uvećavaju
(inter)kulturalne kompetencije svih svojih građana.
Uspešni i atraktivni gradovi u budućnosti biće oni gradovi kojima upravlja­
ju ljudi koji zaista razumeju potrebe nove elite. Ključni faktori u ovim okvirima
su tolerancija, različitost, dinamično tržište nekretnina, odlična infrastruktura
grada i sistem obrazovanja, te, naravno – kultura.
Mogućnosti kulturnih politika
...........
26
Izazov u kreiranju dobre kulturne politike grada u savremenom društvu
ogleda se u pravilnom pristupu, koji uzima u obzir i u jednakoj meri razmatra
sve dimenzije grada, kao što su društvena, obrazovna, ekonomska i turistička,
i međusobno ih povezuje u funkcionalnu celinu. Neophodno je stvoriti odgova­
rajuće uslove koji će umetnicima omogućiti difuziju i cirkulaciju umetničkih pro­
jekata i radova. Potrebno je, takođe, obezbediti resurse za njihov rad, kao i po­
ve­zivanje umetnika na različitim nivoima, od lokalnih, nacionalnih, do evropskih
i internacionalnih nivoa saradnje.
27
– obezbedi pravilnu preraspodelu kulturnih sadržaja u gradskim i vangrad­
skim sredinama;
– definiše objektivne pokazatelje na osnovu kojih se odlučuje o pružanju po­
drške projektima;
– podrži umetničko stvaralaštvo i umetniku pruži priliku za stvaranje u do­
brim uslovima, kako bi društvu bio osiguran izvor ideja i da bi se otvorile
mogućnosti novih pravaca kretanja.
Može se očekivati da irska kultura doživi transformaciju, kao posledicu de­
cenije ekonomskog napretka.
Lusi Koter, kritičar umetnosti
Irska prolazi kroz fazu ubrzane kulturne razmene, u kojoj se lako može izgu­
biti trag ko smo i odakle dolazimo.
Dr Mari Ni Maonej, Univerzitet Kembridž
Kako bismo odgovorili na ova pitanja potrebno je da se vratimo osnovama
koje će nam omogućiti da razumemo šta je to što čini našu definiciju kulture.
Antropološka definicija kulture kaže da je kultura sposobnost klasifikacije isku­
stava, njihovo kodiranje u vidu simbola i, naposletku, upoznavanje društvene
zajednice sa tim kodiranim simbolima. Uopštenije, kultura predstavlja modele
ponašanja, umetnost, uverenja, institucije i sve druge proizvode i rezultate ljud­
skog rada i razmišljanja na nivou jednoga društva. Ovi modeli, karakteristi­ke i
proizvodi jednog društva mogu se smatrati obeležjem određenog perioda,
društvene klase, zajednice ili čitave populacije nekog područja, kao što su, re­
cimo, pojmovi jakobinska kultura, francuska kultura ili kultura radničke klase.
Kombinacije navedenih modela, karakteristika i proizvoda često su povezane
sa drugim odredbenim kategorijama, kao što su subjekti ili oblici izražavanja,
na primer verska kultura srednjeg veka, muzička kultura ili književna kultura.
Ovi kodeksi su prepoznatljivi po međusobno zamenjivim terminima, gde
je istorija = obrazac, jezik = karakteristike, (kulturni) proizvodi = umetnost. Ovi
sekundarni opisi – istorije, jezika i umetnosti – predstavljaju prima facie i po-
...........
28
S ozbirom na to da neka od najeminentnijih imena u svetu umetničke kri­
tike iskazuju svoju zabrinutost, čini se da bi Irska morala da povede brigu o
po­sledicama „transformacije“ kroz koju prolazi, kao i o procesima „kulturne
razmene“. Nameće se pitanje – kakav bi uticaj ove posledice mogle imati na
postojeće kulturne patente u Irskoj? Kao i pitanje da li postoji dobra strana su­
dara kulture i multikulturalnosti?
Džim Dojl
Upravo je monokulturalni kodeks sa svojim linearnim modelom rasta, koji
sebe preispituje i definiše u istorijskom kontekstu, vekovima bio dominantan
model za većinu društava, a mnoge zemlje ga se još uvek pridržavaju u pogledu
definisanja svoje kulture. To je zastareo pristup, najčešće potpuno nepovezan
sa savremenom kulturom tog društva ili regije.
Monokulturalni kodeks se takođe može formirati kao neosnovana, opšta
pretpostavka, odnosno stereotip koji se vezuje za određeno društvo, formirajući ideju opšte kulturne osobine jedne grupe ili naroda, kao što je, na primer,
engleska rezervisanost ili nemački red i disciplina. Takođe, formiranje ovih ste­
reotipa može rezultirati na osnovu aktivnosti nekoga društva ili grupe tokom
određenog vremena – tako je Švajcarska okarakterisana kao zemlja satova,
Engleska kao zemlja trgovaca, a Irska kao zemlja svetaca i učenjaka. Sve su to
primeri stereotipnih modela monokulturalnih kodeksa koji su formirani tokom
vremena. Nakon nastanka, ovi modeli monokulturalnih kodeksa ujedinjuju sna­
gu sa državnim organima, čiji je primarni interes dalje održavanje i jačanje de­
finisane uloge ili modela određenog društva, čime se ovaj zločinački proces
gradnje stereotipa dalje nastavlja. U ulozi ovih organa mogu se naći i kulturne
organizacije i institucije, kao i organi državnog sektora, prvenstveno u sektoru
turizma. I ko uopšte može da ih krivi u tome kada je lakše plasirati na tržište i
prodati nešto za šta imate jasnu ideju i objašnjenje šta predstavlja. Upravo je
zbog toga u interesu državnih organa i institucija da očuvaju i jačaju ovaj stereo­
tipni model kodeksa, koji je jednostavan i lak za prihvatanje, kako unutar same
države tako i za njenu okolinu. Tako on vremenom postaje kulturološki brend
zemlje, brend čije karakteristike definišu tu zemlju i njen narod.
Razumevanje ciklične prirode kulturnog kodiranja
S obzirom na to da je monokulturalni kodeks jasno definisan i izuzetno
prepoznatljiv stiče se utisak da je takav model kulturnog shvatanja veoma jak
i otporan na promene i uticaje, ali to važi samo u onoj meri u kojoj je prisutna
jednolična demografska dimenzija kao dominantan kodeks njenog kodiranja.
Čim društvo počne da se menja brend monokulturalnog kodeksa se nađe na
udaru i pod pritiskom tih promena.
Promene u demografskim obrascima, koje vode ka većoj kulturološkoj
različitosti i kreiranju multikulturalnih društava, predstavljaju direktan izazov
ovom rigidnom brendu monokulturalnosti, jer sa sobom donose nove, alterna­
tivne i savremene kodekse, koji su u raskoraku sa postojećim, dominantnim
kulturnim brendom. Čim se pojave novi, alternativni kodeksi, koji svoje poreklo
imaju u drugim kulturama, suština pojave monokulturalnosti se menja – njena
Mogućnosti kulturnih politika
29
Irska je, kao i mnoge druge evropske zemlje, doživela velike promene u svo­
joj kulturnoj demografiji tokom poslednjih dvadeset godina. U periodu tokom
kog je Irska doživljavala ekonomski rast i razvoj bilo je moguće ignorisati posledi­ce
formiranja nove kulture, koju prvenstveno karakteriše kulturološka raznolikost.
Međutim, u uslovima opadanja ekonomskih i privrednih aktivnosti na globalnom
nivou, koje se manifestuju prvenstveno u oskudici radnih mesta i novca, nameće
se pitanje na koji način treba pristupiti potencijalnom rastu kulturnih tenzija?
pularne definicije po kojima prepoznajemo određeni narod ili područje za koje
je vezan monokulturalni kodeks.
...........
Zašto je globalizacija korisna - multikulturalna društva,
kulturna tenzija i dobre strane antagonističkih kulturnih
identiteta
Model 1 – Linearni model kulturnog kodiranja
1.Zajednička iskustva definisana kao nasleđe.
2.Internalizovana diskusija i neslaganje.
3.Internalizovan dogovor o pitanjima opštih vrednosti i standarda kulturnog
kodiranja.
4.Prva faza spoljne komunikacije kodiranog sistema vrednosti.
5.Prva faza izlaganja spoljnim uticajima i izazovima.
6.Jačanje i reafirmacija bazirana na istorijskim obrascima.
7.Učvršćivanje internog kulturnog kodiranja.
8.Stagnacija kulturnog iskustva i znanja.
9.Druga faza spoljne komunikacije kodiranog sistema vrednosti.
10.Druga faza spoljnih uticaja i izazova, nakon koje može uslediti povratak
na drugu tačku ovog modela ili napredak na jedanaestu tačku modela 2,
koji sledi.
...........
30
Od tog trenutka kretanje multikulturalnog društva postaje kontinuiran,
pokretni ciklus, koji vrši pritisak na monokulturalni kodeks, koji veoma brzo ulazi
u fazu reklasifikacije i reinterpretacije. Nakon toga dolazi faza kulturnog ko­di­
ra­nja. Vremenom, razvijajući se i oplemenjujući kroz apsorpciju sve većih multi­
kulturalnih promena, monokulturalni kodeks postaje sve manje dominantan.
Kako novi kulturni kodeks usvaja sve veći broj multikulturalnih kodeksa, on
postaje sve relevantniji za društvo koje prezentuje. Vlasništvo nad kulturnim
kodeksom prirodnim putem biva sve rasprostranjenije, obuhvatajući sve veći
broj različitih ljudi u društvu kome pripada.
Džim Dojl
Koji je isti kao prethodno navedeni model 1, s tim što ima još tri dodatne
faze, a to su:
11.Spoljna komunikacija fluidnog sistema vrednosti;
12.Kontinuirani uticaj, kao i ponovna apsorpcija spoljnog multikulturalnog
kodeksa;
13.Neprekidan proces obnavljanja i ponovnog interpretiranja.
Prednosti cikličnog modela kulturnog kodiranja su:
• potpuna sposobnost klasifikacije novih i alternativnih iskustava;
• sposobnost prihvatanja novih kompetencija;
• razvoj otvorene svesti o kulturnom kodiranju;
• kontinuirani procesi komunikacije i suočavanja stavova i mišljenja;
• neprekidan proces preispitivanja, reinvencije, ponovnog interpretiranja
i reinkorporacije kulturnog kodiranja.
Zapažanja
Linearni model kulturnog kodiranja ne prepoznaje vrednost promena i
konstantno stremi ka tome da sebe definiše kao statičan entitet čija se vrednost temelji isključivo na nasleđu. Istorijski, ovaj model predstavlja najčešći iz­
bor za većinu ljudi i društava, kao i za većinu nacionalnih država.
Ciklični model kulturnog kodiranja u sebi sadrži neprekidan vrtlog fluidnih
promena koje, iako prepoznatljivo vezane za jednu kulturu, istovremeno u zna­
­čajnoj meri u sebi sadrže elemente reinterpretacija i promena. Ovaj model u sebi
sadrži element nestabilnosti koji je direktna posledica cikličnih promena kroz koje
prolazi. On osporava potrebu za sistemom kodiranja koji počiva na premisama
definitivnog i autoritativnog, polazeći od pretpostavke da, ukoliko je kodeks
promenjiv i potrošan, ima manju vrednost jer nije trajan. Takav promenjiv ko­
deks može poljuljati samu suštinu potrebe za postojanjem sistema kodiranja.
Nestabilnost cikličnog modela kulturnog kodiranja može otežavati ljudima da sebe precizno definišu, jer je uvek prisutna mogućnost da način na koji
su sebe kodirali danas bude sasvim promenjen sutra. U uslovima kada je kodeks
nestabilan to može uticati i na razvoj nestabilnosti pojedinca, koja se može ma­
nifestovati na različite načine, od toga da se pojedinac oseća loše i uskraćeno za
svoja prava, pa do osećanja besa i osvetoljubivosti, usmeravajući svoje nezadovoljstvo ka onome što doživljava kao izvor nestabilnosti. Tako se najčešće na
udaru nalaze država, zbog svojih propusta, lokalne organizacije i institucije zbog
birokratije, spoljne kulture zbog pretnje koju predstavlja njihov uticaj, političke
Mogućnosti kulturnih politika
31
U situaciji kada je dominantan monokulturalni kodeks napadnut formira­
njem multikulturalnog društva modernog doba, prvi utisak jeste da on pokazu­
je znake nestabilnosti. U stvari, situacija je sasvim drugačija, jer upravo u ovim
uslovima monokulturalnost ima ultimativnu priliku da obnovi i povrati svoj do­
minantan kodeks. Ta prilika se ukazuje na osnovu činjenice da će statičan mono­
kulturalni kodeks, stavljen pod pritisak, pribeći neminovnim procesima samo­
pročišćenja i preispitivanja, koji će rezultirati time da on postane relevantan i
savremen, istovremeno čuvajući u svojim okvirima većinu svojih potvrđenih suštinskih karakteristika i definicija. Upravo te suštinske definicije, koje su potvrdile i osnažile svoje uporište izdržavši pritisak napada multikulturalnosti, predsta­
vljaće osnovu savremene interpretacije ranijeg monokulturalnog kodeksa.
Model 2 – Ciklični model kulturnog kodiranja
...........
jednostranost nepovratno nestaje – i počinje proces njenog prelaska u multikulturalnost, čak i ako je u početku taj proces nenametljiv i ne čini se značajnim.
Ova nova kulturološka realnost, suprotna istorijskom kontekstu razvoja i traja­
nja kulture, u sve većoj meri će predstavljati izazov preovlađujućim doktrinama,
često vodeći do reakcionarnih poziva na asimilaciju i prilagođavanja.
Veća je verovatnoća da će ciklični model biti zastupljen kod onih naroda,
ili na onoj teritoriji, koji su bili izloženi direktnom uticaju posledica rasta demo­
grafske multikulturalnosti. Te posledice se najčešće manifestuju kao nastanak
i dominacija prolazne ekonomske migracije, intenzivan kontakt i suočavanje sa
drugim kulturama, uticaj globalne ekonomije na regionalne i lokalne ekonomi­
je. Nestabilan kulturni kodeks stvara utisak celokupno nestabilne kulture, ili
bar kulture koja je u procesu stalnog menjanja.
Mnoge nacionalne države ovaj osećaj nestabilnosti doživljavaju kao eroziju i urušavanje niza kulturnih kodeksa koji su bili stvarani vekovima i predsta­
vljaju važan deo kulturnih resursa države. Iako je obogaćivanje ovih resursa
dodavanjem novih kodeksa dozvoljeno, podrazumeva se da su oni u podređe­
nom položaju u odnosu na dominantne kodekse. Na taj način pojedinac, kao
i država, sprečavaju mogućnost da budu zatrpani i brane se od nestajanja. Du­
goročno postoji mogućnost da neki od novousvojenih kodeksa dostignu rang
tradicionalnih kodeksa, ili ih čak prevaziđu, ali taj proces nikako nije moguć u
kratkom vremenskom roku.
Karakteristike cikličnog modela kulturnog kodiranja
32
1.Brze promene između fluidnih kodeksa stvaraju percepciju nestabilnosti
i ugroženosti.
2.Ta percepcija izaziva snažnu reakciju onih koji podržavaju dominaciju mo­
nokulturalnog kodeksa.
3.Kodeks se može menjati, ali je u uslovima brzih promena neminovno pri­
sustvo reakcionarnih elemenata koji će biti aktivniji i jači.
4.Multikulturalizam donosi brzinu promena koje imaju najkraće cikluse
koji su ikada pre postojali.
5.Brzina ciklusa kulturnih promena u direktnoj je vezi sa brzinom kojom
društvo postaje manje ili više multikulturalno.
:02
The possibilities of cultural policies
Jim Doyle
Associate Researcher GradCAM
• • •
This text is a follow up to the paper: Why Globalism is good for you – Mul­
ticultural Societies, Cultural tension and the benefits of antagonistic cultural
identities.
It is relatively obvious to state that the multiplicity of choices that compete for our leisure time create for the cultural operator/manager a leisure
choice challenge, a challenge that demands a continuity of re-invention, a
need for re-imagining the event, the context and the presentation.
Quantifying Culture
This many-facetted method of quantifying Culture may seem to dilute or
challenge an empirical idea of Art as the prima-facie definition of Culture.
Indeed many cultural operators would also characterize “non-Arts” activities
and popular arts as “light culture”. This definition of traditional Art forms,
sculpture, painting, poetry, theatre etc, as more prominent than other cultural activities, folk art, crafts, gastronomy etc, is contradicted by individual
realities. A cultural experience belongs to the individual; it does not take place
in a vacuum. A visit to a gallery may be prefaced by a good meal and followed
by a nights dancing. In a constantly moving vortex of challenge and change,
to operate within the limit of an art form can invite stagnation of that form,
and ultimately stagnation for and of the audience. Any stagnation in audience
may, in this sense, be considered partially as a result of stagnation in presentation and experience.
Examples of artists working across disciplines and cultural practices are
too many to enumerate here, and very often the practice of an artist is implicitly related to another cultural activity or form. It can also be suggested
that a connection to another cultural activity, say popular music, that has a
greater audience than a specialist or “secular” cultural activity, for example
Bangra music, is a necessity, especially for those artists or cultural operators
who wish to broaden and extend their audience.
A policy mix
Džim Dojl
The Possibilities of Cultural Policies
...........
...........
The right mix of policies, research and skills should be ones that reflect
the way our audiences and communities already use their leisure time, as well
as offering the new and alternative experience.
33
organizacije zbog nereagovanja i ambivalentnosti ili, u krajnjoj liniji, grupa ljudi
koja jednostavno bude označena kao krivac za nastanak nepovoljne situacije.
The departure in this type of policy is not in how we make our policies
reflect the global culture (one that exists on our doorstep), but in how we include a local context within these policies. The most suitable cultural policies
are the ones which help to define a culture and make it interesting. An antique
or heritage based cultural policy is, in terms of community participation, audience development and cultural diversity, inherently susceptible to stagnation.
A policy that has at its core a process of continual review can help to define a
culture and place it in a contemporary setting. For Ireland this process requires
us to address, challenge and reinterpret what we consider to be Irish culture
so that it can be redefined and consequently re-enlivened.
Cultural policy should ensure, through management at several levels, the
following:
34
– Better access to institutions, which also makes good access to public;
– Involvement of more people;
– Significant degree of development of cultural policies at the local level;
– Changes of working model within the cultural institutions;
– Networking institutions in order to exchange models of good practice and
policy.
(Biljana Mickov)
Cultural policies should:
• Reflect the local and regional cultures that they serve.
• Maintain an ongoing process of review and reinterpretation.
• Offer new experiences that integrate traditional art forms, cultural resources and innovative arts practice.
• Include an inward and outward flow of cultural exchange. (Regional, national and international)
...........
We need cultural policy to support the process of structuring cultural
projects (art projects, equipment...) so these projects can influence the whole
society, and its main role is to:
– Provide proper allocation of cultural facilities in urban and rural areas;
– Define objective reasons for decisions about providing the support to the
projects;
– Support artistic creativity by creating good conditions for artists’ work, so
the society has a source of ideas and new, different type of movements.
Jim Doyle
(Biljana Mickov)
These comments should only be considered in the context of the points
listed under the title and are not intended to be inclusive of all the requirements of a compressive cultural policy. Other points that might also be addressed in any policy are; the support and development of a regional and
national cultural economy, development, capacity and servicing of infrastructures, the nature, value and potential of cultural tariffs, and policies that
enhance the (inter) cultural competence of all citizens.
The successful and attractive cities of the future will be managed by
people who really understand the need of the new elite. Key factors here are
tolerance, diversity, dynamic real estate market, great infrastructure and
education, culture of course.
35
Global on the doorstep
The main challenge in creating a good cultural policy in the contemporary
society is reflected in the correct approach which must take into consideration
all dimensions of the urban City – social, educational, economy and tourism,
and properly link them together into one functional unit. It is necessary that
we create good conditions to allow artists diffusion as well as circulation of
artistic projects and work. It is also very important to provide appropriate re­
sources and connect cultural workers at various levels, from local and national
to European and international.
Why Globalisation is good for us - Multicultural Societies,
Cultural tension and the benefits of antagonistic cultural
identities
Ireland along with many other European countries has experienced massive changes to its cultural demographic over the last twenty years. While
Ireland was benefiting economically the consequences of new more diverse
culture could be ignored. Now however in this global downturn, with a scarcity
of jobs and money how do we address the possibilities of growing cultural
tensions?
“It is the expectation that Ireland transform culturally because of a dec­
ade of improved economics.”
Lucy Cotter, Irish Art Critic
“Ireland is going through an era of rapid cultural exchange, in which it is
particularly easy to lose track of where one comes from.”
Dr Marie Ni Mhaonaigh, Cambridge University
The Possibilities of Cultural Policies
...........
This continual review, reinvention and rejuvenation should be the core
of all cultural policy; indeed it is the only mechanism that correctly reflects a
dynamic and ever changing global culture.
With such eminent voices raising their concerns it seems that Ireland should
be wary of the consequence of “transformation” and “cultural exchange”?
But what effect might these changes have on our existing cultural patterns?
Is there an upside to the clash of culture against multicultural?
For an answer we have to go back to basics and understand what is it
that makes up our definition of culture? The anthropological definition of culture is: The capacity to classify experiences, encode classifications symbolically,
and teach such abstractions to others. More specifically it is the totality of
socially transmitted behaviour patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other
products of human work and thought. These patterns, traits, and products can
be considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or
population: Jacobean culture; French culture; or the culture of the working class.
Combinations of these patterns, traits, and products are often conjoined with
other categories, such as a subject, or mode of expression: religious culture in
the Middle Ages; musical culture; literary culture.
These codices are recognisable by interchangeable terms History = Pattern,
Language = Traits, (cultural) Products = Arts. These secondary descriptions:
history, language, and arts, are the prima-facie and popular definitions by which
we recognise a people or a territory for a mono cultural codex.
...........
Jim Doyle
[
Međunarodni video-festival, Dablin / International Guerrilla Video Festival, Dublin
.............
A mono cultural codex can also be formed as an abstract notion or “stereo­
type” of a society and would include ideas of a shared cultural persona such
as the English reserve, or a German order. They may also include traits that a
society has acquired or been assigned over time, such as the Swiss as country
of clockmakers, the English as shopkeepers or Ireland as a land of saints and
scholars. All are stereotypical models of a mono cultural codex that has been
fixed in time. This crime of a mono cultural codex is then compounded by
those organs of the state in whose interest the perpetuation of a typecast or
model for that society must be maintained and reinforced. These organisations can include cultural organisations and state departments and more particularly boards of tourism. And who can blame them? It is an easier task to
sell something if you have clear idea about what it is. It is then in the interest
of these organisation to perpetuate a stereotypical model of a codex that is
palatable both internally and externally for that nation state. It becomes that
country’s cultural brand, a brand on which a country or people hangs a definition of themselves.
[
36
The mono cultural codex with its linear model of growth which test and
defines itself historically has been the dominant model for most societies
over the centuries and many countries still adhere to it in terms of a definition of themselves. It is archaic and usually unconnected to the contemporary culture of that group or region.
In a constantly moving vortex of chall­
enge and change, to operate within the limit
of an art form can invite stagnation of that
form, and ultimately stagnation for and of
the audience. Any stagnation in audience
may, in this sense, be considered partially
as a result of stagnation in presentation and
experience.
The Possibilities of Cultural Policies
Changes in demographic patterns that lead to more cultural diverse societies or Multicultural societies challenge these fixed brands by creating an
alternate and contemporary codex, one that is at odds with the existing or
dominant cultural brand. As soon as new codices are introduced from other
cultures the reality of a mono culture is changed, it is no longer mono, but
multi-cultural, even if at the beginning that multiculturalism is written with a
small “m”. This new cultural reality, at odds with a historical codex, will challenge the prevalent doctrine often raising reactionary calls for assimilation or
accommodation.
At this point the landslide of a Multicultural society becomes a continuous
and moving cycle placing pressure on the mono cultural codex. Very quickly
this enters into a cycle of reclassification and re-interpretation. It has now
entered a cyclical phase of cultural encoding. Over time the Mono cultural codex
becomes less dominant absorbing more multicultural changes as it develops
and refines itself. As the new cultural codex adopts a greater number of multicultural codices it becomes more relevant to the society it is representing.
Ownership of the cultural codex begins to extend organically to an increased
and more diverse number of peoples in that society.
Model 1 – The linear model of cultural encoding
1.Shared experiences defined as heritage
2.Internalised discussion and disagreement
3.Internalised agreement on shared values and standards of cultural encoding
...........
38
When the dominating mono cultural codex is attacked by a multicultural
society we seem at first to see patterns of instability. In reality the challenges that
are placed on a mono cultural codex can ultimately rejuvenate and reinvigorate
the dominant codex. A static mono cultural codex placed under pressure will
ultimately refine and re-imagine itself thereby becoming more relevant and
contemporary, while at the same time holding many of its core patterns and
definitions as true. These core patterns, having survived the investigation and
pressure of the attack of multiculturalism will then form the basis of a contemporary reinterpretation of the previous mono cultural codex.
Jim Doyle
Model 2 – The Cyclical model of cultural encoding
As Model 1 but with three additional stages:
11.External communication of a fluid value system
12.Constant Impact and re-absorption of external multicultural codex
13.Ongoing renewal and reinterpretation
Benefits of a cyclical model of cultural encoding:
• A mature capacity to classify new and alternative experiences
• Accommodating new competencies
• Develop a fluid sense of cultural encoding
• Continuity of communication and debate
• Reassessment, reinvention, reinterpretation and reincorporation of cultural encoding
Observations
A linear model does not recognise the value of change and is constantly
striving to define itself as a static entity with a value base in heritage. It is the
model of choice for most people and societies and historically, the model of
choice for most nation states.
The Cyclical model incorporates an ongoing vortex of fluid change which
while being recognisable as adherent to one particular culture also contains
a significant element of reinterpretation and change. This model contains an
element of instability that is defined by its cycle of change. It challenges the
need for a system of encoding which is premised by a requirement for definitive and authoritative definition. It presumes that if a codex is fluid and dispensable then it has a reduced validity because it is temporary. Such fluid codex
can challenge the very need for a system of encoding.
The instability of a cyclical model makes it difficult for people to define
themselves as one thing or another, what they encode themselves as today
will be different tomorrow. Where a codex is unstable an individual may also
The Possibilities of Cultural Policies
39
Because it is a clearly defined and recognisable codex the mono culture
codex may appear a strong and resilient model, but this only remains so for
as long as that culture retains a singular demographic as the dominant codex.
As soon as a society begins to change the brand, that mono culture comes
under pressure.
4.First term of External communication of encoded value system
5.First term Exposure to external challenges
6.Reinforcement and Reaffirmation based on historical patterns
7.Solidifying of internal cultural encoding
8.Stagnation of cultural experience
9.Second term of External communication of encoded value system
10.Second term of External challenge followed by a possible return to stage 2
or progress to stage 11 in model 2
...........
Understanding the cyclical nature of cultural encoding
The cyclical model is more likely to be at play where a nation or territory
has been directly impacted by the consequences of a growth in the multicultural demographic of a county. These consequences are normally manifest
as: the emergence and dominance of transient economic migration, increased
contact and challenge with other cultures, the impact of global economics on
regional and local economies. An unstable codex for a culture creates the
impression of an unstable culture or at least a culture in flux.
Features of the cyclical model of cultural encoding
1.Rapid changes between fluid codices create a perception of instability
and challenge.
2.This perception is met by a reactionary response from adherents to the
dominant mono cultural codex.
3.A codex can change but where rapid change is required reactionary elements will be more active.
4.Multiculturalism breeds a rapidity of change that has a cycle faster than
any cycle that has existed before.
5.The speed of a cycle of cultural change is directly related to the speed at
which a society becomes more or less Multicultural.
POSETILAC STUPA NA SCENU
Džonatan Gudejker
Menadžer u kulturi i konsultant
Kembridž
• • •
Uspešan angažman posetilaca, publike i učesnika, kao i njihovo aktivno
učešće, od presudne su važnosti za naš uspešan rad u kulturnom sektoru, bez
obzira na to da li se radi o privatnom ili javnom sektoru, velikim ili malim projek­
tima, umetnosti lokalne zajednice ili visokoj umetnosti, političkim ili komercijal­
nim kulturnim aktivnostima, slici na platnu ili multimedijalnoj instalaciji. Dobar,
pravilno rukovođen odnos umetnosti i publike ne samo da obezbeđuje naš
fi­nan­sijski i javni opstanak, već daje umetnosti smisao koji joj pripada.
Velika je čast biti u Novom Sadu u Muzeju savremene umetnosti. U proteklih nekoliko dana upoznao sam divne ljude i naučio mnogo o novosadskom
pristupu umetnosti i kulturi.
Želeo bih da sa vama podelim svoje radno iskustvo u oblasti kulture, koje
sam stekao u proteklih dvadeset godina. Suština tog iskustva ogleda se u
potrebi da prestanemo da se nadamo i da počnemo da radimo, kako bismo
videli rezultate koje želimo da postignemo. Moramo da podstaknemo našu
publiku na aktivno učešće u kulturnim aktivnostima koje im nudimo, umesto
da se nadamo kako će se oni sami pojaviti. To od nas zahteva proaktivan,
planiran pristup.
Prva iskustva u radu, svojevrsno zanatsko znanje, stekao sam radeći u
umetničkom centru The Junction u Kembridžu, koji je otvorilo Gradsko veće
nakon lokalne kampanje mladih ljudi, kojom su uspeli da ih ubede da pitanje
umetničkog stvaranja i njegovu ponudu moraju shvatiti na ozbiljan način.
To je bio centar novog tipa, napravljen po evropskom uzoru, poput centra
Melkweg u Amsterdamu. Njegova struktura je bila savremena, sa usmerenjem
na mlade i kreativno stvaralaštvo koje je predstavljalo mešavinu ozbiljne i po­
pularne umetnosti.
Jim Doyle
Posetilac stupa na scenu
...........
Na početku našega rada u centru najveći deo vremena posvećivali smo
„traženju publike“. Imali smo finansijski imperativ da zaradimo novac prodajom
karata za sadržaje koje nudimo, jer – iako smo imali određena finansiranja
usmerena iz budžeta, ta sredstva nisu bila dovoljna za ono što smo mi hteli da
uradimo. Tokom devedesetih godina prošloga veka budžetski deo sredstava
koja smo dobijali predstavljao je oko 30 do 40 procenata prihoda kojima smo
raspolagali. Tako nam je za obezbeđivanje sredstava za većinu projekata koje
smo želeli da ostvarimo bila potrebna mešavina finansiranja iz lokalnog budžeta
...........
40
For many nation states this sense of instability is regarded as an erosion
of the set of cultural codexes that has been formulated over many centuries
and are seen to form part of the cultural resources of that state. While additions can be made to these resources by incorporating new codes, the new
codes are normally subservient to the dominant codex. This is the way individuals and states stop themselves from becoming swamped. In time a new
codex may reach parity or exceed some elements of the traditional codes but
not over the short term.
:03
41
be unstable, at best they will feel sick and disenfranchised at worst they will
feel angry and vengeful, directing their unhappiness at the perceived source
of instability. This anger is usually directed at the state for its failure, at a municipal organisation for its bureaucracy, at an external culture for the threat
it poses, at a political organisation for its ambivalence or at a group of people
who are deemed to be responsible for this instability.
(Endi Vorhol, umetnik)
Ja znam samo za dve vrste publike – onu koja kašlje i
onu koja ne kašlje.
(Artur Šnabel, koncertni pijanist)
Čak i u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu, gde je koncept marketinga umetnosti već
uspostavljen i funkcionalan, ne treba zaboraviti da je u pitanju relativno nov
koncept, koji je po svojoj prirodi često kontroverzan. Udruženje za marketing
umetnosti (The Arts Marketing Association), osnovano 1994. godine, nastalo je
spajanjem dva udruženja „publicista“. U jednom trenutku, početkom devedesetih godina prošloga veka, referenti za javnost postali su menadžeri marketinga, što je ukazivalo na početak promena u načinima razmišljanja.
Komunikacija ili galama?
Ako želite da izbegnete nastanak nesporazuma u komunikaciji, potrebno
je prepoznati njenu pravu prirodu.
I dalje je u sferi kulture prisutan veliki broj ljudi koji misle da ako „galamiš“
glasnije, duže i češće, nužno postižeš i više uspeha, kao i da će, ukoliko svet
preplavimo bujicom informacija, oni koji su zainteresovani i doći da pogledaju
ponuđeno.
...........
42
Čini se da osnovni razlog kontroverznog karaktera marketinga umetnosti
leži u tome što ljudi veruju da se njime kompromituje umetnost, da se ona na
taj način pojednostavljuje, da umetnik prestaje da bude inovativan, a da merilo uspeha u umetnosti – umesto kvaliteta – postaje kvantitet. Često sam bio
u prilici da čujem mišljenja umetnika, kustosa i umetničkih direktora – da je
dovoljno da publiku obavestimo o umetničkim sadržajima koji postoje, a da je
na njima da odluče da li žele u njima da učestvuju. Mogu da konstatujem da
je ovakav pristup u potpunosti korektan. Ali problem nastaje u delu u kome
„ih obaveštavamo o umetničkim sadržajima“, iz jednostavnog razloga što nikada ne postoji objektivna komunikacija koja nema neku vrstu vrednosti. Odluka o tome šta ćemo reći, kome i na koji način, predstavlja čitav niz pretpostavki i vrednosti. Nesumnjivo je da odabrana komunikacija sa umetničkom
publikom, često nesvesno, otkriva skriveno značenje koje govori „ova umetnost je samo za određenu vrstu ljudi“, a najveći deo javnosti to tumači kao
„ova umetnost je samo za određenu vrstu ljudi, a to nisam ja“.
Džonatan Gudejker
Komunikacija?
Dođite na našu izložbu!
Posetioci
Međutim, činjenica je da problem koji imate nećete rešiti proizvodnjom
velike količine štampanog materijala.
Komunikacija je (najmanje) dvosmerni proces. Mi razgovaramo sa stvarnim ljudima, koji imaju svoje ideje, stavove, interesovanja i sisteme vrednosti,
koje moramo razumeti i poštovati kako bi naša komunikacija bila efikasna.
Institucije
umetnosti
Informacije
Povratne informacije
Posetioci
Mi ovo stalno radimo u drugim situacijama. Komunikacija je dijalog a ne
jednostrani razgovor.
Ja bih mogao čitavo veče da ostanem u razgovoru sa vama, ali ukoliko vi
ne možete da razumete ono što govorim, ili mi ne verujete, ili jednostavno niste
uvereni u posledice za koje ja tvrdim da će to što radite imati, onda zaista u
svemu tome nema smisla. Međutim, vi imate priliku da mi na kraju ovog mog
kratkog izlaganja ukažete na ono što smatrate pogrešnim, a ja mogu na osnovu
te povratne informacije da poboljšam svoje izlaganje za naredni govor koji ću
održati. To je marketing.
Razumeti posetioca
Kada počnete da se bavite marketingom na ovaj način, sve se menja.
Kome se obraćamo? Šta njih zanima? Na kakve poruke će reagovati? Kakvo
mišljenje imaju o meni i mojoj instituciji? Ako ne raspolažemo preciznim i
tačnim odgovorima na ova pitanja, sav dalji rad zasnivamo isključivo na pretpostavkama, a ne na činjenicama i znanju. U umetnosti, posebno vizuelnim
umetnostima, postoji tradicionalno uvreženo mišljenje da su ljudi koje zanima
naš rad ljudi koji „liče na nas“ – što podrazumeva da shvataju naše reference,
naš način izražavanja i uopšte naš pogled na svet. Naravno da je ovakav pristup
u određenoj meri pravilan i da postoje ljudi poput nas koji su zainteresovani
za to što mi radimo, ali oni predstavljaju samo jednu grupu naše publike, i to
relativno malobrojnu. Zbog toga, ukoliko nastavimo da komuniciramo sa publikom na način koji razume samo taj njen mali deo, ne treba da nas čudi činje­
nica da će se na našim izložbama uporno pojavljivati samo mali broj ljudi.
Posetilac stupa na scenu
43
Umetnik je onaj ko proizvodi stvari koje ljudima suštin­
ski nisu potrebne, ali za koje on, iz nekog razloga, misli da je
dobra ideja da im ih ponudi.
Institucije
umetnosti
...........
i priliv novca koji smo ostvarili kroz zaradu samog centra, a
to je zahtevalo da pažnju usmerimo na ljude koji nam taj
prihod donose – našu publiku.
Složiću se sa činjenicom da u većini situacija verovatno nećemo raspolagati detaljnim znanjem o našim posetiocima, ali je naš posao upravo to da na­
đemo one grupe ljudi sa kojima imamo dovoljno zajedničkih tema kako bismo
mogli započeti dijalog na način koji će oni razumeti i prihvatiti. U marketinškoj
terminologiji to se naziva „segmentacija“.
Neki od faktora na koje je potrebno obratiti pažnju u procesu identifikacije ciljnih grupa su:
...........
Džonatan Gudejker
Kako smo već konstatovali, različite ljude zanimaju različite stvari.
Sada ćemo predstaviti neke od zaklju­
čaka koje je dalo istraživanje u oblasti
vizuelnih umetnosti u Britaniji, spro­
vedeno pre nekoliko godina (Denis
Rob, „Istraživačka praksa, rezultati
is­traživanja savremenih vizuelnih
umetno­sti“, Umetnički savet Velike
Britanije, 1992), a koje predstavlja
komentare publike na pitanje zašto
im se dopadaju posete galerijama:
„Opuštajuće su… to je vreme koje
posvećujemo sebi… pobegneš od
sve gužve i problema.“
.............
Nameće se pitanje kako da dođemo do ovih informacija? Imamo dve
mogućnosti – da direktno pitamo naše posetioce ili da upotrebimo postojeće
Postavlja se pitanje da li mi obra­
ćamo dovoljno pažnje na to šta ljudi
zapravo vole u umetnosti? Šta je to
što im se sviđa u umetničkom iskustvu? Šta žele da saznaju? Da li im išta
od toga pružamo?
[
• starosna dob: dete, student, odrasla osoba, roditelj, sredovečna osoba,
penzioner;
• socijalno-demografski faktori: društveni, ekonomski i obrazovni;
• geografski položaj;
• njihovo ponašanje i odnos koji imaju s nama: vrste događaja koje poseću­
ju u našim institucijama, koliko često dolaze, lojalnost, viđenje koje imaju
o uslugama koje im nudimo;
• njihovi stavovi, vrednosti i ponašanje uopšte: odnos prema umetnosti i
kulturi, učešće građana u aktivnostima.
Šta zanima ljude?
45
44
Ovaj citat volim iz nekoliko razloga, a to su:
• Činjenica da govori o odnosima. Najbolji odnosi su oni koji su dugoročni.
Oni prolaze kroz proces rasta i razvoja, a bazirani su na međusobnom po­
verenju, poštovanju i razumevanju.
• Činjenica da se veze koje treba negovati ne odnose samo na jednu interesnu grupu, već na više različitih grupa ljudi i relevantnih institucija.
• Poziva nas da identifikujemo ljude sa kojima želimo da komuniciramo i da
s njima komuniciramo na način koji je i za njih relevantan. To je potrebno
pravilno identifikovati, jer različite grupe ljudi imaju različite sfere interesovanja.
• Ukazuje nam na to da različite grupe ljudi reaguju na različite načine komuniciranja. Ovo je činjenica koje smo svi svesni, jer svi imamo kolege,
poznanike ili članove porodice, koji će, na primer, reagovati dobro ukoliko
s njima komunicirate uživo nego ako im pošaljete elektronsku poruku, na
koju možda jednostavno neće odgovoriti, ili ih nazovete u određeni deo
dana – kada ne odgovaraju na telefonski poziv.
• ankete i upitnike;
• konsultacije i intervjue sa korisničkim, odnosno ciljnim grupama;
• evidencije poseta institucijama, web portale i informacije o prodaji;
• javno dostupne informacije kao što su cenzusi i nacionalni statistički podaci;
• knjige utisaka, formulare koji pružaju povratne informacije, kutije za
predloge, blogove;
• strukturirano praćenje i posmatranje;
• mehanizme reagovanja, konkurenciju;
• video-dnevnike, albume sa fotografijama i isečcima.
„Psiho zgrade”, izložba u Galeriji Hejvord u
Londonu / Psycho Buildings, an exhibition
at The Hayward Gallery, London
„Veoma me zanima način na koji stvari nastaju, tehnička strana stvaranja,
tehnike koje se koriste… misterija njihovog konstruisanja ili kreiranja me
najviše interesuje.“
Posetilac stupa na scenu
...........
(Heder Mejtland, „Marketinški priručnik“, AMA, 2000)
informacije kojima sami raspolažemo ili koje dolaze iz nekog drugog izvora.
Taj proces prikupljanja informacija može obuhvatiti:
[
Marketing podrazumeva promišljanje odnosa između vaše umetničke orga­
nizacije i njenih aktivnosti i ljudi u vašoj okolini, bilo da se radi o publici, učesni­
cima, ljudima koji upravljaju fondovima iz kojih finansirate svoj rad ili sponzori­
ma. Zatim je potrebno da se obratite pravim ljudima u vezi sa pravim stvarima
na pravi način i u pravo vreme.
„Smatram da su dela Fransisa Bejkona uznemirujuća, ali je upravo to ono
što smatram izuzetnim u njegovom radu… reakciju koju on izaziva u meni…
koja može učiniti da budem srećan ili tužan. Njegova dela utiču na
moje emocije.“
Uspešan angažman posetilaca, publike i učesnika,
kao i njihovo aktivno učešće, su od presudne važnosti
za naš uspešan rad u kulturnom sektoru, bez obzira na
to da li se radi o privatnom ili javnom sektoru, velikim
ili malim projektima, umetnosti lokalne zajednice ili vi­
sokoj umetnosti, političkim ili komercijalnim kulturnim
aktivnostima, slici na platnu ili multimedijalnoj instala­
ciji. Dobar, pravilno rukovođen odnos umetnosti i publi­
ke ne samo da obezbeđuje naš finansijski i javni opsta­
nak, već daje umetnosti smisao koji joj pripada.
(„The Magic Box“, u: „Tate Modern The Handbook“, Tate Publishing, 2008)
[
3rd Ring Out: Proba budućnosti, Metis Arts, Velika Britanija /
3rd Ring Out: Rehearsing the Future by Metis Arts, UK
Ono što predstavlja zajedničku karakteristiku većine ovih komentara je
pominjanje uticaja umetnosti na emocije posmatrača. Međutim, pitanje je ko­
liko često se mi koristimo ovim uticajem u komunikaciji koju imamo sa našim
posetiocima.
.............
Tejt galerija je utočište, a utočište nam je svima potrebno. Kroz život nas
neprekidno nosi bujica aktivnosti, žurbe i stresa. Ova galerija predstavlja
istovremeno i utočište i magičnu kutiju, punu trikova i čarolije, koja nam
pomaže da se opustimo.
[
U toku svog istraživanja posetio sam i čuvenu Tejt galeriju u Londonu. Bio
sam intrigiran činjenicom da sam nešto veoma slično navedenim stavovima
posetilaca pročitao u radu Endrua Mara, političkog komentatora i izveštača,
koji je napisao:
Identifikovano je osam ključnih segmenata publike, od kojih je svaki jednako važan, ali u ponudi galerije svaki od njih želi nešto – za nijansu drugačije:
Poštovaoci – upućeni posetioci koji žele detalje;
Istinski ljubitelji – probirljivi entuzijasti koji žele hranu za dušu;
Senzualisti – posetioci koji cene emotivno iskustvo;
Istraživači – vole da budu upućeni u aktuelna kretanja u kulturi;
Oni koji rade na sebi – žele znanje – istoriju umetnosti i kontekst;
Porodice – društvena motivacija – izlazak sa decom;
Posetioci koje privlači društveni prostor – mesto na kojem se može sastajati, izvesti goste;
Turisti – žele da „probaju“ i posetu galeriji u okviru razgledanja Londona.
(Eva Kler, šef marketinga Tejt galerije, „Šta mi nudite?“, Konferencija AMA, 2008)
...........
46
Tejt je ogromna organizacija koja raspolaže fantastičnim resursima, ali
njen uspeh nikako nije stvar slučaja. Rezultati koje su ostvarili u 2008. godini
pokazuju da su imali 7,7 miliona posetilaca u svojim galerijama, a da je još
24 miliona ljudi ostvarilo interakciju s njom putem interneta. Odnedavno Tejt
sarađuje sa pionirima menadžmenta u kulturnom sektoru, konsultantskom
organizacijom Morris Hargreaves McIntyre, kako bi se što detaljnije i bolje
upoznali sa svojim posetiocima, odnosno svojom ciljnom grupom.
® Simon Daw
Džonatan Gudejker
Posetilac stupa na scenu
Dakle, kada imamo više znanja o našim posetiocima imamo i mogućnost
da prilagodimo naš rad njihovim potrebama i izazovemo kod njih osećaj zadovoljstva našom ponudom.
„Uđite u sobu koja eksplodira“
„Preveslajte liniju horizonta“
„Zaplovite na plastičnom oblaku“
Jasno je da je posetilac svestan činjenice da soba neće bukvalno eksplodirati kada on u nju uđe, već da se govori o osećaju koji će kod njega izazvati
ulazak u tu prostoriju, tj. njegov doživljaj izložbenog prostora. Ovo je rizičan
pristup i sasvim je sigurno da se rukovodioci galerije na njega nisu odlučili lako
i bez dosta razgovora i promišljanja. Na kraju se izbor pokazao kao pravilan,
izložba je doživela veliki uspeh i niko se nije žalio na činjenicu da soba nije eks­
plodirala.
Izložba Psycho Buildings je od početka startovala odlično, ostvarivši zna­
čajan rezultat u pretprodaji, kao i na samom početku trajanja izložbe, sa ukup­
nim ostvarenim rezultatom od 158% u odnosu na planiranu zaradu… Ukupan
broj posetilaca koji je video izložbu u roku od tri meseca bio je 117.000 ljudi.
Ostvareni rezultati izložbe predstavljaju veliki uspeh i – posmatrano iz perspek­
tive napora uloženih u razvoj i širenje publike – pružaju nam priliku da saču­
vamo novu publiku koja je prošlog leta posetila izložbu, kao i da nastavimo da
gradimo reputaciju Hejvarda.
(Selena Virels, šef marketinga South Bank centra, u prepisci sa autorom)
...........
48
Bio sam zaista pod jakim uticajem kampanje koju je u cilju promocije izlo­žbe
Psycho Buildings tokom leta 2008. godine provela Galerija Hejvard (koja radi
u okviru South Bank centra u Londonu). Kampanja se publici obraćala divnim
jednostavnim jezikom, govoreći o iskustvu koje možete steći ukoliko posetite
izložbu. Neki od slogana su bili:
Džonatan Gudejker
Promene koje je potrebno napraviti odnose se na način rada kulturnih institucija i organizacija. Tako bismo mogli razmotriti ideju da izložbene prostore
otvaramo u kasnijim večernjim satima, kako bismo se prilagodili onima koji
imaju duže radno vreme, kao što je slučaj sa praksom Muzeja Viktorije i Alberta
u Londonu. Kao još jednu dobru ideju mogu navesti primer mog rodnog grada,
Kembridža, gde je lokalni bioskop doneo odluku da nedeljom u svoj program
uvrsti projekciju filma pod nazivom „Veliki vrisak“ (igra reči, na engleskom: „The
big scream“; scream – vrisak, screen – bioskopsko platno), koja je namenjena
posetiocima sa decom, kako bi mogli da pogledaju film ne razmišljajući (previše)
o pometnji koju deca prave. Tokom rada u centru The Junction uspešno smo
povećali posećenost nastupa stand-up komičara kroz samo nekoliko izmena:
pomerili smo vreme početka nastupa za samo pola sata (sa osam na pola
devet uveče) i preuredili smo enterijer prostora po ugledu na kabare. To znači
da nismo uticali na rad umetnika, namećući im obavezu da promene svoj nastup, već smo iskoristili druga sredstva kako bismo trans­formisali iskustvo
publike koja dolazi da posmatra nastup, što predstavlja i suštinu ideje.
Ciljana komunikacija
Već smo izneli zapažanje da ljudi
različito reaguju na različite načine komunikacije. Razlog za to je činjenica da
ljudi imaju različito poreklo, različite referentne kulturološke tačke, različite in­
terese, stavove i vrednosti. Upravo zbog
toga je okvir za komunikaciju, tj. njegova
širina, od velike važnosti.
49
Šta ćemo učiniti u tom pogledu?
Međutim, važno je ne zaboraviti da ništa od navedenog ne podrazumeva
promenu umetnosti ili njene suštine. Sve ovo nikako ne znači da ćemo se vratiti
Pikasu i reći „da li bi mogao da ne stavljaš toliko plave boje na svoje slike“.
Dobar odnos počinje susretom stranaca
i nastavlja se kroz različite faze rasta i ra­
zvoja njihovog odnosa sve do viših nivoa u
kojima nastaju poverenje i lojalnost. Dobre
marketinške kampanje funkcionišu po istom
principu.
Od trenutka kada stupite u kontakt sa vašom publikom/gledaocima/posetiocima postaje prirodno da s njima komunicirate na prikladan način. Radeći
za agenciju Momentum Arts na svom poslednjem projektu obnove umetnosti,
pod nazivom Being Here (2002–2007), u jednom primorskom gradu u Britaniji,
imao sam priliku da često radim sa učesnicima, odnosno publikom, na izradi
promotivnog materijala sa ciljem da on odražava njihovu kulturu i stavove.
Radeći sa hip-hop plesnom grupom, pod nazivom Sin Cru, izradili smo
dva kompleta štampanih materijala, jedan namenjen za hip-hop publiku, a
drugi namenjen za publiku čije interesovanje predstavlja savremeni ples. Dakle, jedan umetnički projekat i jedan nastup, ali dva različita promotivna pristupa, prilagođena potrebama raznolikih ciljnih grupa.
Posetilac stupa na scenu
...........
Kao rezultat procesa segmentacije posetilaca i odnosa prema njima, upra­
va Tejta je donela zaključak da se puno pažnje poklanja prvim dvema grupama
posetilaca, a drugima nedovoljno. Bilo je još nekih konkretnih promena koje
su usledile nakon razmatranja pojedinih grupa posetilaca i njihovog ponašanja,
sa ciljem da se postigne njihov bolji angažman i reakcija. Tako je, na primer,
uočeno da „poštovaoci“ čitaju više nego „senzualisti“, pa su u skladu s tim na­
pravljene izmene u prezentovanju natpisa na izložbama, tako da su se detaljne
informacije, koje zanimaju „poštovaoce“, našle na kraju umesto na početku
teksta, a materijal o kontekstu i emotivnim motivacijama je stavljen na početak teksta.
Odnosi
Prikupljanje sredstava se u Velikoj Britaniji tumači kao veoma širok pojam
koji podrazumeva obezbeđivanje resursa iz različitih državnih izvora, lutrije,
trustova, fondacija, od sponzora i donatora iz privatnog sektora. Iako se, uglavnom, pojam prikupljanja ne odnosi isključivo na redovno budžetsko finansiranje, ni na ostvarenu zaradu kroz prodaju ulaznica, ili, na primer, prodaju neke
robe, sve više se uviđa da su ovi izvori finansiranja međusobno povezani, i da
samo određeni, relativno mali broj organizacija kulture može računati na garan­
tovano dugoročno finansiranje iz budžeta. Kao potvrdu ove tvrdnje možemo
uzeti činjenicu da Umetnički savet Engleske sve češće umesto pojma „budžetsko
finansiranje“ koristi pojam „investiranje“.
Stvarno stanje u oblasti ekonomije i finansija u kulturnim organizacijama
Velike Britanije je takvo da njihov prihod sve manje čine sredstva iz javnog
budžeta.
U umetničkom centru The Junction, koji sam već pominjao, mi smo morali balansirati prihode koje smo ostvarivali kroz rad noćnog kluba, a kojima
smo nastojali finansirati umetničke projekte koje smo nameravali da ostvarimo. Tako je godinama naš jeftini, dobro posećeni klub interno finansirao naše
avanturističke, skupe, i manje posećene, umetničke događaje.
U svakom slučaju, ono što želim da istaknem jeste da je prikupljanje sredstava neodvojivi deo marketinga, jer dele istu filozofiju. Suština je u razmeni i
odnosu. Bilo da prodajete katalog za izložbu, radionicu školi ili neku uslugu na
godišnjem nivou lokalnoj upravi, činjenica je da svi oni žele neku vrednost za
novac koji su uložili.
Iz tih razloga su organizacije koje su dobre u marketingu dobre i u prikupljanju sredstava. One razumeju ulogu i važnost pitanja izgradnje i negovanja
odnosa, kao i dvosmerne komunikacije, koju neprekidno održavaju sa svim
interesnim grupama. U skladu sa tom praksom, njihova politika se definiše
kroz pitanje „na koji način možemo da sarađujemo na obostranu korist“, ume­
sto molbe „dajte nam neki novac“.
...........
50
Kao primer možemo navesti Tejt galeriju, koja oko 60 procenata svoje ukup­
ne zarade ostvaruje iz nevladinih izvora, a ukoliko uzmemo u obzir činjenicu da
se visina njene zarade kreće u proseku od 90 do 100 miliona funti – jasno uvi­đa­
mo da se radi o značajnom novčanom iznosu, odnosno zaradi koju ostvaruje.
Džonatan Gudejker
Ja čvrsto verujem da je suština u razvoju odnosa. Ovu ideju opisuje i tako­
zvani „marketing odnosa sa kupcima“ (customer relationship marketing – CRM)
koji ima jak komercijalni prizvuk, ali u suštini predstavlja upravo ono čime se
uspešne kulturne organizacije neprekidno bave.
Dobar odnos počinje susretom stranaca i nastavlja se kroz različite faze
rasta i razvoja njihovog odnosa sve do viših nivoa u kojima nastaju poverenje
i lojalnost. Dobre marketinške kampanje funkcionišu po istom principu.
Ovaj model se često koristi u marketingu i aktivnostima vezanim za prikupljanje sredstava i predstavlja smernice za razvoj poverenja i lojalnosti koje že­
limo da ostvarimo kod naše publike. Naša komunikacija sa posetiocima mora
biti promišljena i prilagođena potrebama naših ciljnih grupa i u velikoj meri će
zavisiti od toga koliko poznajemo našu publiku, jer je način na koji komuniciramo sa nepoznatom osobom neminovno drugačiji od načina na koji komuniciramo sa prijateljem koga poznajemo godinama. Ukoliko posetilac nikada pre
nije bio u našem prostoru biće mu potrebna značajno opširnija i detaljnija
uputstva i smernice nego redovnim posetiocima.
ZAGOVORNIK
Osobe koje vole vašu organizaciju, spre­m­
ne su da doniraju novac i šire pozitivnu
reklamu!
REDOVNI POSETILAC
Osobe koje redovno posećuju vašu organizaciju.
KORISNIK
Osoba koja je posetila vašu organizaciju.
OČEKIVANI KORISNIK
Osobe koje su zainteresovane, ali još nisu
počele da posećuju vašu organizaciju.
MOGUĆI KORISNIK
Osobe koje bi mogle biti zainteresovane za
posetu vašoj organizaciji.
Dakle, potrebno je da razvijamo različite odnose sa posetiocima. Neki od
njih nas posete samo u prilici kada mi je potrebno da se sklone sa kiše u zatvo­
ren prostor, neki dolaze u nameri da postanu naši doživotni prijatelji.
Posetilac stupa na scenu
51
Nedavno sam došao do saznanja i potpunog shvatanja bliske povezanosti marketinga i prikupljanja sredstava, kao i činjenice da oni funkcionišu na
istim principima, što smo već pominjali kao razvoj dvosmernog odnosa.
...........
Marketing i prikupljanje sredstava
:03
Zašto nam je stalo?
Znam da sada pripovedam onima koji već veruju i da sama činjenica da
ste ovde znači da vam je stalo. I meni je stalo. Ja volim umetnost i želim da naj­
veći mogući broj ljudi u njoj uživa. Umetnost predstavlja osnovni princip onoga što mi, kao ljudska bića, jesmo i šta predstavljamo. Umetnost je izraz naših
emocija, jer predstavlja ono čemu se nadamo i ono od čega strahujemo, našu
ljubav i naše vrednosti.
The Visitor Appears
Jonathan Goodacre
Art Manager and Consultant
Cambridge
Imao sam priliku da radim sa ljudima kojima je umetnost promenila život
i pružila im nove, predivne poglede na svet.
Successful engagement with visitors, audience or participants, is essential to the success of our work in the cultural sector. This is true regardless of
whether that work is in domain of public or private sector, represents large or
small project, community arts or high art, political or commercial cultural
activities, canvas painting or multimedia installation. A good, well managed
relationship between art and audience, not only ensures our financial and
public survival, but makes art meaningful as well.
Zar nije naša obaveza da to divno iskustvo podelimo sa najvećim mogućim brojem ljudi?
Zar nije upravo publika ta koja oživljava umetnost i daje joj smisao?
It is a great honour to be in Novi Sad Museum of Contemporary Art. In
the past few days, I have met great people and had a chance to learn a lot
about local way to access arts and culture.
Ja ne mislim da umetnost treba da predstavlja privilegiju izabrane manjine, upravo suprotno – ona bi trebalo da
bude nešto u čemu svi imaju jednako
pravo i mogućnost da učestvuju.
I would like to share with you my own work experiences in the field of
culture that I have gained over the past twenty years. The essence of this
experience is suggestion that we need to stop hoping and start doing, so we
can see the results we want to achieve. We need to encourage our audience
to actively engage in cultural activities that we offer them, rather than merely
hope that they will turn up. It requires a proactive, planned approach.
Pitati zašto je kultura potrebna ljudima bilo bi isto kao pitati zašto je
ljudsko biće ljudsko biće.
(Vaclav Havel, Forum za kreativnu Evropu, 2009)
I served my apprenticeship working for The Junction, an innovative artistic centre in Cambridge which was built by the City Council, after a local
campaign conducted by young people, who managed to persuade them to
take arts provision more seriously.
At the time it was the centre of a new type, made according to European
standard, such as the Centre Melkweg in Amsterdam. Its structure was contemporary with focus on work of young and creative people, which represented a mixture of high and popular art.
...........
Hvala.
®Džonatan Gudejker
[
Zato, uvedimo posetioca u umetnost
– učinimo ga vidljivim.
Tejt galerija, London
/ Tate Modern, London
Džonatan Gudejker
At the beginning of our work in the Centre most of our time was devoted
to “seeking the audience.” We had a financial imperative to earn money by
selling tickets for the content we offered, although we had some public funding it was not sufficient for all the projects we wanted to do. Our public funding for most of the 1990s was around 30 to 40 percent of our total income.
Therefore most of our projects required a mix of subsidy and earned income
and this demanded a focus on the people who would bring this income – our
audience.
The Visitor Appears
...........
Citiraću ovom prilikom velikog Luja
Armstronga, koji je rekao: „Muzika nema
nikakvu vrednost ako ne možete da je
predstavite publici“.
[
52
Temeljno promišljen i osmišljen mar­
ketinški pristup od fundamentalne je važnosti za kreiranje dugoročno održivog kul­
turnog sektora, obezbeđujući mu vodeću
ulogu u samom centru društva, a ne mesto
statiste na njegovim marginama. Gledalac,
slušalac ili poštovalac umetnosti je njen
integralni deo, koji je kompletira i daje joj
smisao, a naš je posao da taj proces omogućimo.
53
• • •
“An artist is someone who produces things that people
don’t need to have but that he – for some reason
– thinks it would be a good idea to give them.”
(Andy Warhol, artist)
“I know two kinds of audience only – one coughing and
one not coughing.”
(Artur Schnabel, concert pianist)
„Biti ovde”, Sautend na moru, Momentum Arts, Velika Britanija
/ Being Here, Southend-on-Sea, Momentum Arts, UK
[
Communication or Shouting?
If you want to avoid misunderstanding, it is worth considering the true
nature of communication.
In the sphere of culture still remain large number of people who think
that if you ‘shout’ louder, longer and more frequently then others, you are
bound to be more successful, and if we swamp the world with enough information, then those who might be interested will come.
The Visitor Appears
...........
...........
[
54
It seems that the main reason for the controversial nature of marketing
in arts lies in the fact that people believe that it compromises the art, ‘dumb
it down’, prevents artists being innovative and changes the measures of success in art, so instead of quality it becomes quantity. Frequently, I have been
told by artists, curators and artistic directors that we should just inform public about the art, let them know that the arts facilities exist, and then leave it
to them to decide whether they want to participate. Fair enough. But the
problem arises from the part where we are supposed to “inform them about
the art”, for the simple reason – there is never objective or value free communication. The decision about what to say, to whom and in what manner,
reveals a whole range of assumptions and values. It is indisputable that the
selected communication with the art audience, often unconsciously, reveals
the hidden meaning that says “this art is only for certain type of people” –
and the major part of the public interprets this as “this art is only for certain
type of people, and that is not me.”
55
.............
Even in the UK, where the concept of arts marketing is established and
functional, it’s worth remembering that it is a relatively new concept, which
is often controversial. The Arts Marketing Association was founded in 1994,
formed through the merging of two existing societies of ‘publicists’. At one
point in the early nineties, publicity officers became marketing managers,
indicating the development of new ways of thinking.
Visitors
However, you will not solve your problems by producing ever greater
quantities of print.
Communication is (at least) two-way process. We talk to real people,
who have their own ideas, attitudes, interests and value systems and we
must understand that in order to communicate effectively.
Arts
Institutions
Information
Feedback
Visitors
We do this all the time in other situations. Communication is a dialogue
not one way conversation.
Successful engagement with visitors, audience
or participants, is essential to the success of our
work in the cultural sector. This is true regardless
of whether that work is in domain of public or pri­
vate sector, represents large or small project, com­
munity arts or high art, political or commercial
cultural activities, canvas painting or multimedia
installation. A good, well managed relationship
between art and audience, not only ensures our
financial and public survival, but makes art mean­
ingful as well.
Understanding the visitor
Once you start conducting marketing in this way everything changes.
Who are we talking to? What are they interested in? What messages will they
respond to? What do they think of you and your Institution? If we do not have
precise and accurate answers to these questions, all further work is based
solely on assumptions rather than facts and knowledge. In arts, especially
visual arts, there is traditionally widespread opinion that people who are
interested in our work, are people who “like us” – which means that they
understand our references, our way of expression and our world view in general. For sure, there are people like us who are interested in what we do, but
they represent only one group of relatively small number of people. If we
...........
56
I could stay here the whole evening
talking to you, but if you cannot understand what I am saying, or do not believe
me, or simply don’t appreciate what consequences it has for what you are doing,
then there is really no point. However,
you have the opportunity at the end of
my short exposure to point out what in
my speech you consider wrong, and I can
use that feedback to improve my presentation next time. That is marketing.
Jonathan Goodacre
continue to communicate with our public in a way that only this small number
of people understands, we should not be surprised with the fact that only a
small number of people turn up at our exhibitions.
‘Marketing involves thinking through the relationship between your arts
organisation and its activities and the people around you, whether they are
audiences, participants, funders or sponsors. Then you need to talk to the
right people about the right things in the right way at the right time.’
(Heather Maitland, ‘The Marketing Manual’, AMA, 2000)
I love this quotation for a number of reasons:
• The fact that it speaks about relationships. The best relationships are
those who are long term. They go through the process of growth and
development, based on mutual trust, respect and understanding.
• The fact that relations need to be nurtured with all sorts of people and
institutions, not just one interest group.
• It wants us to identify people we want to talk to and to talk to them in a
way that is relevant to them. Different groups of people are interested
in different things.
• It point out that different groups of people respond to different ways of
communication. We all know this, as we all have certain colleagues, friends
or family members that will respond well if you meet them in person,
but won’t answer an email or the phone call at certain times of the day.
Okay, I will agree with the fact that in most cases we will probably not
have detailed knowledge about our visitors, but our job is to find those groups
of people with whom we have enough in common, so we can start a dialogue
in a way that they can understand and accept. In marketing, this is called market segmentation strategy.
Some of the factors that we need to pay attention to in this process of
identifying our target groups are:
• Age: child, student, adult, parent, middle aged people, retired.
• Socio-demographic factors: social, economic and educational background.
• Geographic location.
• Their attitudes and behaviour related to us: types of events they attend
at our institution, frequency of attendance, loyalty, their views and impressions of our service.
• Attitudes, values and behaviour in general: attitudes towards the arts
and culture, the activity of participants/citizens.
This raises the question how to get this sort of information? We have
two options – we can either directly ask our visitors, or we can use the infor-
The Visitor Appears
57
Communications?
“Come to our exhibition!”
...........
Arts
Institutions
mation that we have previously collected, or come from another source. The
process of gathering information may include the following activities:
“Tate Modern is a refuge and we all need a refuge. We are carried through
our lives in a constant gurgle of activity and anxiety. This Gallery is both, a
refuge, as well as magic box of tricks which helps us to relax and unwind.”
(‘The Magic Box’, in ‘Tate Modern The Handbook’, Tate Publishing, 2008)
• Surveys and questionnaires.
• User groups, consultation, focus groups, interviews.
• Entrance information, websites, and sales information.
• Public information such as censuses and national statistics.
• Guest books, feedback forms, suggestion boxes, blogs.
• Structured observation.
• Response mechanisms, competitions.
• Video diary, scrapbooks.
What characterises many of these comments is a reference to the emotional effect which art has on the visitor. However, the question is how often
we use this influence in the communication we have with our public?
Tate is a massive organization with fantastic resources, but its success is
not matter of chance. In 2008 they had 7.7 million visitors to their galleries
and another 24 million people interacting with them online. Recently, they
have worked with ground-breaking UK Arts Consulting Agency Morris Hargreaves McIntyre to get more detailed view of their main target groups.
What are people interested in?
The question is whether we pay enough attention to what it is that people actually like about the Arts? What is it exactly what they like in the artistic
experience? What they want to know? Do we manage to provide them with
any of that?
As we have already noted, different people are interested in different
things. Now we will introduce some of the conclusions provided by the research
in the field of visual arts in Britain conducted a few years ago (Rob Denis, research
practice, the results of contemporary visual art, Art Council England, 1992),
which represent comments from the public about why they like galleries:
“It’s relaxing… it’s a time for yourself… you get away from all the hustle.”
“I’m very interested in the way how things are produced, the technical side of
creation, used techniques… it is the mystery of their creation that interests
me the most.”
“…I find Francis Bacon art disturbing,
but that’s what I consider great about
his work… the reaction it provokes
inside you… it’s something that can make
me feel happy or sad. It’s something
which affects my emotions.”
(Eva Clare, Head of Marketing, Tate, ‘What’s in it for me?’, AMA Conference 2008)
Britanija / “Virtual Stages”, Momentum Arts, UK
Jonathan Goodacre
As a result of this segmentation and
Good relationship starts with an encoun­
analyse of visitors attitude, the Tate re- ter between strangers and continues through
alise that a lot of attention is paid to different stages of growth and development
the first two groups of visitors, and not of their relationship to higher levels of trust
enough to others. There were also some and loyalty. Good marketing campaigns
other concrete changes that followed, operate on the same principle.
in order to achieve better visitors engagement – as they realised that ‘aficionados’ would read more than the ‘sensualists’, they changed exhibition labels so that the detailed information are
placed at the end instead at the beginning of the text, and context and emotional motivation material is placed at the beginning of the text.
The Visitor Appears
...........
...........
[
.........
In the course of my research I visited much hallowed Tate Modern Gallery
in London, UK. I was intrigued to read
something very similar in essay by Andrew Marr, political commentator and
„Virtuelne pozornice”, Momentum Arts, Velika
broadcaster, who wrote:
[
58
Aficionados – knowledgeable visitors who want details;
Actualisers – selective arts enthusiasts who want soul food;
Sensualists – visitors who value an emotional experience;
Researchers – visitors who like to be up to date about cultural events
and happenings;
Self-improvers – visitors who want knowledge – interested in art history
and context;
Families – social motivation – visitors who want to have day out with the
children;
Social spacers – visitors interested in place for meetings, dates, place to
take their guest;
Sightseers – tourists who want to visit the Gallery as a part of London
sightseeing tour.
59
They identified eight key audience segments, all equally important, but
each of them wants something slightly different. They are:
What are we going to do about it?
the layout of the room (to a cabaret style). We didn’t ask the comedians to
change their act at all but for the audience the experience was transformed.
Targeted Communication
I was really struck by campaign for promotion of the exhibition Psycho
Buildings at The Hayward Gallery (part of The South Bank Centre, London) in
summer 2008. The campaign used wonderfully direct language, speaking about
the experience that you can expect if you decide to visit the exhibition. Some
of the slogans they used are:
In the previous text we have argued that different people respond to
different types of communication. The reason for this is the fact that people
have different origins, different cultural reference points, different interests,
attitudes and values. This is why the communication loop we are talking about
is so important.
‘Walk into an exploding room’
‘Row across a skyline’
‘Float on a plastic cloud’
Once you get engaged with your public/audience/visitor base it becomes
natural to interact and communicate with them in an appropriate manner.
Working for an agency Momentum Arts on large arts renovation project titled
“Being Here” (2002-2007) in a seaside town in Britain I had the opportunity to
often work with the participants (audience) in order to develop promotional
materials which will keep and reflect on their culture and perspectives.
(Selena Virrels, Head of Marketing at SBC, in correspondence with the author)
However, it is important to remember that none of the things mentioned
above means altering the art and its essence. We are certainly not going back
to Picasso’s work with comments such as ‘do you mind not putting so much
blue in your paintings’.
But, perhaps we might consider opening our galleries a little later for
those who are at work all day as the V&A Museum in London has done. Or in
my home town, Cambridge, the local Arts Picturehouse has an event each
week called ‘The Big Scream’; a cinema showing for parents with young children. It means that parents can watch a film without worrying (too much)
about the disruption they and their child might be making. When I was working at The Junction in Cambridge we improved the success of our stand-up
comedy nights by changing the starting time (to 8.30pm instead of 8pm) and
Jonathan Goodacre
While working with a Hip Hop dance company called Sin Cru we produced two sets of print; one for a hip hop audience and another one for a
contemporary dance audience. Same stage performance but different promotional approaches tailored to the needs of different target groups.
Marketing and Fundraising
Recently, I’ve realised how closely marketing and fundraising are connected and that they operate on the same principle, which we have already
mentioned – the development of a two way relationship.
The term fundraising is used rather loosely in the UK to represent the
resources which might be acquired from various governmental sources, lottery bodies, trusts and foundations, sponsorship and private donations. Although it tends not to refer either to regular public subsidy or earned income
(from tickets, catering or merchandise for example) these elements are
increasingly seen to be related, as only a relatively small number of cultural
organizations can count on the long term budget funding. As confirmation we
can take the fact that Art Council of England instead of the term ’subsidy’ far
more often uses the term ’investment’.
The reality is that existing mixed economy of arts and cultural funding
operating in UK means that increasingly smaller portion of cultural organization funding comes from the public budget.
The Visitor Appears
...........
“Psycho Buildings got off to an extremely strong start with pre-sales and
early-sales, eventually finishing 158% of financial target… In numbers of peo­
ple, it delivered 117,000 [over the course of three months]. From an audience
development perspective, the show has been a hugely successful, enabling us
to build on the Gormley audience from last summer, as well as continuing to
build a stronger reputation for The Hayward.”
...........
60
I think it was fully understood by visitors that the room isn’t literally going to explode when they walked into it, but that it was the sort of feeling one
might get after entering the room, the experience of the exhibition. It was
risky approach, and it is certain that decision about it wasn’t made easy or
without much discussion in SBC. But decision was proved to be correct, the
exhibition achieved great success and at the end no one complained about
the fact that the room did not really explode.
61
So, once we know more about our visitors we have the ability to adapt
and produce our work in a way that they will appreciate.
Relationships
I firmly believe that the essence is the development of relationship. The
term ‘customer relationship marketing’ (CRM) is a commercial sounding word
which describes this idea but in essence that is precisely what good cultural
organisations do all the time.
Good relationship starts with an encounter between strangers and continues through different stages of growth and development of their relationship to higher levels of trust and loyalty. Good marketing campaigns operate
on the same principle.
This is a much used model in marketing and fundraising, which outlines
the journey of loyalty which we are aiming to achieve with our public. There
are consequences for our communication because the way we talk to a stranger
is obviously different to the way we talk to a friend we’ve known for years. If
they’ve never been to your venue before they will need considerable more
guidance than the person who is used to frequent visits.
...........
62
For these reasons, organizations which are good at marketing are also
good at fundraising. They understand the role and importance of the relationship and dialogue – making it a constant communication loop rather than
a one way conversation. In accordance with this practice, their policies are
defined through the question of ’how we can cooperate for mutual benefit’,
instead of asking ’give us some money’.
Jonathan Goodacre
REGULAR
Person who regularly visits your organization.
CUSTOMER
Person who has visited your organization.
PROSPECT CUSTOMER
Person who is interested, but haven’t yet
visited your organization.
POSSIBLE CUSTOMER
Person who might be interested to visit
your organization.
So, we need to develop different relationships with our visitors. Some of
them will visit us only when they need shelter from rain, others would like to
be our friends for life.
63
In any case, what I want to emphasize is that the fundraising is an integral
part of marketing, because they share the same philosophy. Their essence is
exchange and relationship. Whether you sell a catalogue for an exhibition,
workshop to school or one year activity to the local authority, the fact is that
they all want some value in return for the money they invest.
Person who love your organization, are
willing to donate money and spread the
good publicity!
Why should we care?
I know I am preaching to the con­
verted and that the very fact that you are
here means that you care. I care. I love the
arts and I want the widest set of people to
enjoy arts. The arts are fundamental to
what we are as human beings. They are the
expressions of our hopes and fears, our
love, our values.
“To ask why people need culture is in
fact identical to asking why a human being
is a human being.”
(Vaclav Havel, Forum for Creative Europe,
2009)
I had the opportunity to work with
people for whom arts have changed lives
and gave them new, beautiful views of the
world.
The Visitor Appears
[
„Biti ovde”, Sautend na moru, Momentum Arts, Velika Britanija / Being Here,
Southend-on-Sea, Momentum Arts, UK
...........
At The Junction, which I have mentioned earlier, we had to balance the
income we generated trough the work of our night club with our artistic
projects we had ambitions to achieve. For years our low cost, well attended
night club, internally subsidised our adventurous, high cost and less attended
artistic events.
ADVOCATE
[
As an example, we can take the Tate which generates approximately 60%
of its total income from non-governmental sources. If we take into consideration the fact that their annual turnover is in the range of £90 to £100m, it’s
obvious what a large amount of money they manage to earn.
A well thought through marketing approach is of fundamental importance for the creation of long-term sustainable cultural sector, providing it
with a leading role in the very center of society, not a place on its margins.
The viewer, listener or appreciator of art is its integral part, as they complete
the artistic work and give it meaning, and that is the business we are in so our
job is to enable this process.
As the great Louis Armstrong said: “The music ain’t worth nothing if you
can’t lay it on the public.”
So let’s bring the visitor into the view – let’s make the visitor appear.
Thank you.
:04
Umetnost, obrazovanje i uloga
institucija kulture
Sofi Hejlz
Menadžer u kulturi
London
• • •
Ovom prilikom ću predstaviti iskustvo koje sam stekla tokom rada u sektoru kulture. Prvi moj posao bio je u jednoj privatnoj galeriji savremene umetno­
sti u Londonu, u sklopu male umetničke organizacije pod nazivom Savremena
umetnost ROLLO (ROLLO Contemporary Art), gde sam obavljala poslove vezane
za organizaciju izložbi, izbor i osmišljavanje izložbenih postavki, organizaciju promotivnih kampanja, kao i kreiranje i upravljanje bazama podataka o klijentima.
Nakon toga sam se preselila u Belgiju, gde sam dobila mesto menadžera
sektora za umetnost u kancelariji Britanskog saveta u Briselu, pri čemu sam
vodila multidisciplinarne umetničke projekte u Belgiji i Luksemburgu.
64
Takođe, vodila sam istraživanje i razvoj u okviru programa za globalno
liderstvo koje je sprovodio Britanski savet, pod nazivom „Internacionalno liderstvo u kulturi“ (Cultural Leadership International), a zatim i istraživanje i
obuku u okviru inicijative za razvoj kulturnih politika na teritoriji severne Afrike, Maroka, Egipta, Libana i Sirije.
Ono o čemu bih želela da govorim ovom prilikom jeste edukacija u muze­
jima i galerijama u kontekstu iskustva Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva, sa ciljem da pri­
kažem uticaj koji ove aktivnosti imaju na trenutnu ulogu kulturnih institucija
u Velikoj Britaniji.
Tekst koji sledi podeljen je u dva odvojena poglavlja.
Prvi deo teksta govori o odnosu umetničkog obrazovanja i publike, odno­
sno o iskustvu posetilaca. Moj cilj je da prikažem pregled novije prakse umetničkog obrazovanja u muzejima i galerijama u kontekstu iskustva u Ujedinjenom
Kraljevstvu.
Jonathan Goodacre
Umetnost, obrazovanje i uloga institucija kulture
...........
...........
Drugi deo teksta će se baviti pitanjem obrazovanja zaposlenih u kulturnom sektoru. To će obuhvatiti razmatranje mogućnosti širenja i razvoja znanja
i sposobnosti zaposlenih, kao i diskusiju o radnim mestima, sa ciljem sagledavanja kulturnog sektora kao šireg spektra mogućnosti za zaposlenje.
65
Is it not our duty to share this wonderful experience with a greatest possible number of people?
Is not it precisely the audience which makes the art come alive and give
it meaning?
I don’t think it should be a secret for a privileged few – it should be
something everyone can take part in.
Nastojala sam da oba segmenta kojima se tekst bavi stavim u kontekst
onoga što mi, a kada kažem mi mislim na sve relevantne kategorije u sektoru
kulture – kustose, menadžere, publiku i umetnike, očekujemo od institucija
kulture i umetnosti u XXI veku.
Kako ću u daljem tekstu pokušati da prikažem, u Velikoj Britaniji, kao i u
mnogim drugim delovima sveta, došlo je do značajnog razvoja kulturnih institucija u periodu od poslednjih dvadeset godina, što je najlakše sagledati na
osno­vu činjenice da postoji veliki broj kapitalnih projekata u oblasti umetnosti i kulture čija je realizacija u toku. Projekti otvaranja novih muzeja i galerija
postaju pokretačka snaga celokupnog razvoja gradova.
1. Obrazovanje u umetnosti u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu:
postojeće stanje
Umetnička zdanja
[
...........
U Velikoj Britaniji je shvaćena i opšteprihvaćena činjenica da iskustvo
posetioca ima veliku važnost. U većini galerija i muzeja postoje kadrovi koji su
posvećeni obrazovanju – učenju i interpretaciji. Takođe, većina galerija i muze­ja
danas raspolaže prostorima koji su namenjeni za edukaciju i učenje, a veliki
deo sredstava kojima institucije raspolažu ulaže se u izgradnju novih objekata
ili renoviranje i prilagođavanje postojećih kako bi bio obezbeđen prostor za
izvođenje obrazovnih aktivnosti.
Sofi Hejlz
...........
Posmatrano u širem kontekstu dolazeće recesije, koja će za posledicu imati
značajna smanjenja budžetskih finansiranja, nameće se pitanje šta je to što
publika može da očekuje od institucija kulture i njihovog rada, kao i da li je on
u takvom stanju održiv?
Muzej Viktorije i Alberta u Londonu / Victoria & Albert Museum, London
Kakav uticaj trenutna dešavanja imaju na institucije kulture?
[
66
Takođe, tačna je i činjenica da umetnost danas postaje sve povezanija sa
suštinskim pitanjima modernog čoveka kao što su ekologija, globalizacija, komunikacija i kulturološke promene.
.............
Istovremeno, prisutna je činjenica da je veliki broj faktora, kao što su razvoj
tehnologije, ekonomske promene, nove društvene teorije, doveo do značajne
promene dinamike tradicionalnog pristupa kulturnim institucijama i prostorima kao što su muzeji i galerije. Kako su, u ovim novim uslovima koje diktiraju
sve navedene promene, moguće i stvarne najrazličitije vrste povezivanja, tako
institucija danas može da postoji – žargonski rečeno – onlajn, tj. u virtuelnom
svetu tehnologije, tako da s njima možemo da ostvarujemo „alternativne“ kon­
takte i da ih posećujemo bez „ličnog prisustva“.
Kao primer ću navesti samo neke od velikih muzeja i galerija na prostoru
Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva koji su prošli proces reorganizacije sa ciljem da svoj rad
usklade sa novonastalim potrebama i okolnostima, to su:
Drugi novoizgrađeni prostor, pod nazivom „Studio za učenje“ (Study Studio),
predstavljaće manji, intimniji prostor, predviđen za obrazovne programe slične
tradicionalnim obrazovnim ustanovama, kao što su kursevi, debate, održavanje
skupova i sekcija u okviru umetničkog profesionalnog razvoja, kao i prostor za
aktivnosti studenata master-programa koji se sprovodi u saradnji sa londonskim Metropoliten univerzitetom, pod nazivom „Kustosi savremene umetnosti“
(Curating the Contemporary).
Muzej Viktorije i Alberta – Sakler centar
Sakler centar je otvoren 2008. godine i koncipiran kao otvoreni društveni centar za učenje u oblasti umetnosti, u sklopu Muzeja Viktorije i Alberta u
Londonu. Ovaj novi objekat u svom sastavu ima:
68
• moderno uređene i opremljene prostore za održavanje različitih radionica, kurseva i programe gostujućih predavača;
• radno-rezidencijalne studije, koji su prilagođeni za duži boravak umetnika, tako da godišnje četiri umetnika imaju mogućnost realizacije svog pro­
grama u okviru rada Centra;
• seminarske prostore, koji su namenjeni za organizaciju kurseva, predavanja i seminara; i
• sale za debate, predavanja, govore, konferencije, žive performanse i nastupe, kao i prenose.
U okviru Sakler centra je više nego dvostruko uvećan prostor za obrazovanje i edukaciju u okviru Muzeja, a njegovo osnivanje i rad finansijski su podržali
dr Mortimer i Fondacija Tereze Sakler, kao i niz drugih zadužbina i fondacija.
Galerija Vajtčapel
U okviru najvećeg projekta proširenja prostora, čije je otvaranje planirano
za proleće 2009. godine, Galerija Vajtčapel će dobiti dva dodatna, namenski
građena prostora, namenjena za obrazovne projekte i aktivnosti.
U jednom od novoizgrađenih prostora će biti smešten kreativni atelje Klor
(The Clore Creative Studio), koji će se nalaziti na poslednjem spratu sa kog se
pruža pogled na ceo London, i u kom će porodice, škole, mladi, kao i mnogobrojne lokalne grupe stanovnika, moći da učestvuju u praktičnim i eksperimen-
Sofi Hejlz
U okviru novoizgrađenih prostora Galerije Vajtčapel biće formirane i takozvane projekt-galerije, koje će biti namenjene za izlaganje radova nastalih u
okviru aktivnosti obrazovnih programa. Ovi izložbeni prostori će predstavljati
odraz rada Galerije Vajtčapel i kao takvi biće suštinski deo iskustva svakog
posetioca. Obrazovni programi, kao i programi namenjeni lokalnim grupama
stanovnika, koji će se odvijati u okviru Galerije, biće smatrani projektima koji
se odvijaju pod nadležnošću kustosa, a njihovi rezultati će biti izloženi u samom
srcu galerijskog prostora.
Izvan kulturnog zdanja
Potrebno je imati na umu da se, i pored važnosti rada na proširenju postojećih objekata, kao i izgradnje novih, namenskih prostora, aktivnosti koje
su vezane za obrazovanje u umetnosti često odvijaju van prostora kulturnih i
umetničkih institucija, tako da one imaju sposobnost da funkcionišu i van svojih
zidova. To se prvenstveno ogleda u prepoznavanju uticaja koji na posetioce
mogu imati sadržaji koji im se pružaju, bez isključivog oslanjanja na iskustvo
posetilaca kao primarnog načina njihovog angažmana. Obrazovni programi u
umetnosti ne treba da se fokusiraju isključivo na aktivnosti kao što je organizovanje posete školaraca muzejima, već treba da obuhvataju organizovane procese podsticanja, negovanja i očuvanja kritičkog angažmana u umetnosti, kao
sastavnog dela svakodnevnog života koji se odvija u učionicama, na ulici ili u
domovima posetilaca. U prilog tome svedoči i činjenica da postoji veoma malo
dokaza koji ukazuju na to da nekoliko poseta muzeju u toku detinjstva vodi ka
dugoročnom angažmanu i vezi sa kulturom i umetnošću, a zbog toga je važan
naš sveobuhvatan, promišljen i planiran pristup razvoju odnosa sa publikom.
Primer upravo ovakvog sveobuhvatnog pristupa je projekat Galerije Vajt­
čapel, pod nazivom „Ulica“. Tokom projekta proširenja tim za obrazovanje Ga­
lerije Vajtčapel je sproveo niz jednogodišnjih projekata u okruženju galerije,
tačnije na ulicu Ventvort i oko nje. U aktivnosti su bili uključeni lokalni trgovci,
stanovništvo, preduzeća i škole, a kroz njih je podsticana njihova saradnja sa
galerijom u manje formalnom obliku, u kome „posetilac ima vođstvo“.
Umetnost, obrazovanje i uloga institucija kulture
69
Detaljnije ću predstaviti nekoliko primera umetničkih organizacija na prostoru Londona koje su se u većoj meri fokusirale na razvoj prostora za obrazovanje u umetnosti, kao što su Muzej Viktorije i Alberta, te Galerija Vajtčapel.
...........
– Britanska biblioteka, 1997. godine;
– Galerija Serpentajn, 1998. godine;
– Galerija Tejt, 2000. godine;
– Centar savremene umetnosti BALTIC, 2002. godine; i
– Umetnički centar Kamden, 2004. godine.
...........
talnim aktivnostima u kojima se primenjuju tradicionalni umetnički materijali,
nove tehnologije i performansi.
Otkud ovaj fokus na obrazovanje u poslednje vreme?
Prisutan je niz uverenja da iza pojave ovog, relativno novog fokusa na
obrazovanje u umetnosti stoje određeni politički planovi. Složiću se sa činjenicom da su se radovi na zgradama kulturnih institucija, kao i razvoj prakse u
ovoj oblasti, odvijali u vreme kada je politika društvenog angažmana i uključivanja, koju su inicirali novi laburisti, došla do izražaja. Ministarstvo za kulturu,
medije i sport u britanskoj vladi (DCMS – Department for Culture Media and
Sport) usvojilo je dokument pod nazivom „Centri društvenih promena: muzeji,
galerije i arhivi za sve“, u kome je stajalo da „opšti, najširi tokovi društvenog
angažmana i uključivanja treba da budu prioritetna politika“, kao i da „postiza­
nje najšireg mogućeg pristupa kolekcijama i znanju mora biti njen cilj“. Na osno­
vu navedenog možemo zaključiti da će država nastaviti sa ulaganjima u muzeje
i galerije ukoliko fokus tih institucija bude na širenju obrazovanja u umetnosti.
.............
Kao rezultat, svedoci smo sve većeg pritiska na institucije kulture da omo­
guće što više prilika za obrazovanje u umetnosti, a primetno je da se to događa u vreme kada vlada donosi odluke o smanjenju izdvajanja za obrazovanje
u oblastima umetnosti u školama, kao i sužavanje ovih aktivnosti u okviru
nastavnog plana. Iako su ovakve politike u oblasti kulture institucije kulture i
umetnosti rado prihvatile i tumačile kao priliku za stručni razvoj i povećane mo­
gućnosti finansiranja, nameće se pitanje kakav uticaj to ima na oblikovanje
naših institucija u budućnosti?
[
Tejt galerija, London
/ Tate Modern, London
Da li možemo tvrditi da će ovakav isključiv fokus na obrazovanje u umetno­
sti u okviru galerija i muzeja, kao i odobravanje koje mu pružaju te institucije,
po­stati dominantan modus operandi institucija kulture i umetnosti? Činjenica
je da u ovim uslovima postaje sve teže naći načine finansiranja drugih ponuda i
sadržaja muzeja i galerija, posebno istraživanja, razvoja i izložbenih postavki.
...........
Umetnost je oduvek bila u poziciji da sarađuje sa najrazličitijim društvenim aktivnostima i pomaže ostvarenje njihovih planiranih ciljeva, kao što su
projekti urbanog razvoja i obnavljanja, ekonomski razvoj ili društveno ujedinjenje, ali je pitanje da li je opravdano očekivanje da institucije kulture imaju
aktivnu ulogu u njihovom ostvarenju?
Sofi Hejlz
Umetnost, obrazovanje i uloga institucija kulture
[
70
Međutim, ja ne bih tvrdila da je ovaj, relativno novi fokus na obrazovanje
u umetnosti pokrenut isključivo političkim aktivnostima. Moje je mišljenje da
on u većoj meri proističe iz istraživanja i interesa umetnika i teoretičara u obla­
stima kao što su razvoj politike identiteta, promene u umetničkoj praksi, nove
teorije obrazovanja u umetnosti, koje su rezultirale potrebom preispitivanja
kulturnih i umetničkih institucija od strane samih umetnika. Sva ova dešavanja uveliko su dovela u pitanje postojeću ulogu galerija i muzeja kao statičnih,
neutralnih prostora, koji, umesto da se kritički odnose, možda čak i podstiču
društvene i političke nejednakosti.
Na prostoru Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva broj prilika za sticanje širokog spektra kvalifikacija i obuke za zaposlene u oblasti umetnosti i kulture stalno raste,
a nude ih univerziteti, institucije kulture, različite organizacije i agencije čiji se
rad finansira budžetskim sredstvima.
...........
72
Takođe, preovladava bojazan da bi ulazak nove generacije zaposlenih u
sektor kulture mogao biti opterećen mnoštvom prepreka. Postalo je veoma
uobičajeno da mladi, nakon diplomiranja, moraju prihvatiti niz neplaćenih poslova ili period stažiranja u trajanju od čak dve godine pre nego što uspeju da
dobiju stalno radno mesto. Direktan rezultat toga je činjenica da sektor kulture
nije raznolik i da njegovi zaposleni uglavnom imaju isti profil, a radi se o ljudima
kojima finansije nisu neophodne. Poslednji izveštaji o tome koje su preovlađujuće sposobnosti potrebne za zaposlenje u sektoru kulture jasno ukazuju na to
da su one „definisane protekcijom i stažiranjem“, tj. onim koga znate, umesto
onim šta znate. Postoje i optužbe da sektor kulture iz svog rada isključuje mlade
ljude koji dolaze iz porodica koje nemaju mnogo dodirnih tačaka s njim. Budući
da živimo u gradu sa velikim društvenim razlikama i podelama, ali i gradu koji
nudi ogromne mogućnosti i prilike, postoje mnoga otvorena pitanja koja poku­
šavaju da daju odgovor na to kako se mogu stvoriti jednaki uslovi za sve.
Sofi Hejlz
Art, Education and the Role of
the Cultural Institution
Sophie Hayles
Art Manager
London
• • •
I speak from my personal experience of working in the cultural sector. My
first job was in a private contemporary art gallery in London; a small start-up
organisation called ROLLO Contemporary Art, where I played a role in devising and installing exhibitions, developing PR campaigns, and creating a clientdatabase.
I subsequently moved to Belgium where I worked as the Arts Manager in
the Brussels office of the British Council, running a programme of multi-disciplinary arts projects in Belgium and Luxembourg.
Further to this I ran the research and development for the British Council’s global leadership programme – Cultural Leadership International and
subsequently research and training initiatives for cultural policy development
in North Africa; Morocco, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria.
What I would like to do is to talk about education practice in the museum and gallery context in the UK, and use this to reflect on the role of the
cultural institution in the UK today.
The text will be divided into two different chapters.
The first section will look at arts education work in relation to the public
– the visitor experience. I will aim to provide an overview of recent arts education practise in the museum and gallery context in the UK.
The second will look at education in relation to those working in or for
the sector. This will look at skills development and include discussion of
employment, and consider the cultural sector as part of a wider spectrum of
employment opportunities.
I would like to position both of these strands within the context of what
we (and when I say ‘we’ I mean to include all categories of person – curators,
managers, public, artists) expect from an art institution of the 21 century.
As I will go on to illustrate that, in the UK as in many other parts of the
world, there has been a significant growth in cultural institutions in the last
20 years – visible through the large number of capital projects that have taken
place. New museums and galleries have become flagship projects for many
cities.
At the same time it is arguable that a number of factors, including technology, economic changes, new social theories, have changed the dynamic of
the traditional four walls of a museum or gallery. As all kinds of connections
Art, Education and the Role of the Cultural Institution
73
I pored prisustva globalne recesije, rast broja radnih mesta u okviru kreativnog sektora se nastavlja.
:04
...........
2. Obuka za menadžment u kulturi - kulturni sektor kao
poslodavac i uloga institucije kulture
And in the broader context of an impending recession that will see
significant cuts to public funding, what can the public expect from a cultural
institution, and is this sustainable?
1. Arts Education in the UK: Current Context
The Buildings
I will illustrate a couple of examples of increased focus on arts education
space, in London: from the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A), and the
Whitechapel Gallery.
The Victoria & Albert – Sackler Centre
The Sackler Centre (2008) is the V&A’s centre for public learning through
creative design and the arts. The new building houses:
• State-of-the art design, digital and art studios for workshops, courses and
drop-in programmes.
.............
In the UK is widely understood that the visitor experience is extremely
important. There are staffs in the majority of galleries and museums who are
dedicated to education; learning and interpretation. Furthermore most
museums and galleries in the UK now also have dedicated physical spaces for
education and learning – a great deal of funding been spent on new buildings,
or on upgrading existing facilities.
– British Library, 1997
– Serpentine Gallery, 1998
– Tate Modern, 2000
– BALTIC, 2002
– Camden Arts Centre 2004
[
Muzej Viktorije i Alberta u Londonu
/ Victoria & Albert Museum, London
What does this mean for the cultural institution of today?
To cite a few major examples of museum and gallery redevelopment
across the UK:
[
are possible and real, the ‘institution’ can now exist online, in ‘alternative’
adjunct, or ‘off-site’ spaces.
It is also arguable that art has become increasingly linked to the themes
of our times – ecology, globalisation, communication, and cultural change.
Whitechapel Gallery
As part of its major expansion project (to re-open in spring 2009),
Whitechapel Gallery will house two large purpose-built education spaces:
The Clore Creative Studio – this top floor room with views across London
will enable families, schools, young adults, and a wide range of community
groups to participate in practical and experimental activities involving traditional materials, new technologies and performance.
At the Whitechapel Gallery, as well as the dedicated arts education
spaces, there will also be new Project Galleries that will be focussed on showcasing the work of the education department. These Galleries will be front of
house, and thus a core part of the visitor experience. The Education and Community programmes at Whitechapel Gallery are considered as curatorial departments, with resulting projects displayed at the heart of the Gallery.
Outside the Building
Amongst the proliferation of buildings and new purpose-built spaces,
arts education work often takes place ‘off-site’. The institution works outside
its own walls; recognising the impact of reaching out to an audience, rather
than relying on a ‘visitor’ experience as the primary means of engagement.
Arts education programmes do not focus solely on bringing schoolchildren
into a museum, but are about encouraging, nurturing and sustaining a critical
engagement in the arts as part of everyday life – in the classroom, on the
street, at home. There is little evidence to suggest that a visit to a museum as
a child encourages long-term engagement with culture.
...........
76
The second space, the Study Studio will be an intimate space for discussions, courses, artists’ professional development sessions, and a base for students on a joint Masters course with London Metropolitan University entitled ‘Curetting the Contemporary’.
Sophie Hayles
Why this recent focus on arts education?
There is a line of argument that this relatively new focus on arts education is driven by political agendas. It is true to say that this building works and
practice development was taking place around the time that New Labour’s
social inclusion policies were coming to the fore. The UK Government’s Department for Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) issued a policy paper ’Centres
for Social Change: Museums, Galleries and Archives for All’ which stated that
‘Mainstreaming social inclusion should be a policy priority’ and ‘achieving the
widest possible access to collections and knowledge should be an objective’.
One can assume here that museums and galleries would continue to be
invested in by government, if there was a clear focus on arts education.
However I would not argue that this relatively new focus on arts education is entirely driven by political agendas. I would suggest that it comes more
from enquiries of artists and theorists – developments in identity politics, shifts
in artistic practise, new education theories, which led artists to challenge the
institution. It led to questioning the role of a gallery/museum as a static, neutral space, and instead one that reflects, and indeed perhaps reinforces social
and political inequalities.
Thus we witness an increasing pressure on the cultural institution to deliver educational opportunities, and notable that this happened at a time when
arts facilities within schools and art in the curriculum was being reduced by
government. While often this is embraced by cultural institutions as a growing area of expertise, and indeed of increased funding opportunities; what
impact does this have on shaping our cultural institutions of the future?
Is there a case to be made that such is the focus on and endorsement of
gallery education programmes that they will become the dominant modus
operandi of the cultural institution. It is increasingly difficult to fundraise for
the other offers of the Museum and Gallery – notably the research, development and installation of exhibitions?
Arts have always been co-opted for various agendas: urban regeneration; economic development; social cohesion; – but should arts institutions
be expected to deliver these agendas?
Art, Education and the Role of the Cultural Institution
77
The Sackler Centre more than doubled the space allocated to education
in the Museum. It is supported by the Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation, and a range of other trusts and foundations.
An example of this kind of approach is the Whitechapel Gallery’s project
‘The Street’. During the expansion phase, the education team at Whitechapel
Gallery commissioned a series of year-long off-site projects on and around a
street nearby the Gallery called Wentworth Street. The commissions involved
market traders, local residents, businesses and schools, and encouraged an
engagement with the Gallery in a less formal, ‘visitor-led’ way.
...........
• Residency studios – hosts a Residency Programme which provides the
opportunity for four artists per year to use studios in the Sackler Centre.
The artists in residence run workshops and master classes for visitors
and students.
• Seminar rooms for courses, study days and seminars.
• An auditorium for debates, lectures, talks, conferences, live performances and outside broadcasts.
2. Cultural management training - the cultural sector as
an employer, and the role of the cultural institution
Despite the global recession – employment in creative sector continues
to rise.
[
[
Tejt galerija, London
/ Tate Modern, London
Art, Education and the Role of the Cultural Institution
...........
There is also a prevalent concern that entry into working in the sector
for the next generation is beset with difficulties. It is extremely common for
a graduate to take on a number of unpaid jobs or internships for up to two
years before finding full-time employment. As a result the cultural sector
workforce is not particularly diverse: it is made up of those people who have
been able to work for free. A recent report into the skills needs in the creative
sector suggested that getting a job in this arena was ‘defined by patronage
and internships’ – who you know, not what you know. There are accusations
that the cultural sector is excluding young people who come from families
without much knowledge of the creative sector. In a City with large social
divides but extraordinary opportunities there are many questions about how
to create a level playing field.
79
In the UK there is a growing spectrum of qualifications and training opportunities available to those working in the arts and cultural sector – delivered by
universities, cultural institutions, publicly funded organisations and agencies.
.............
:05
Marketing kulturnih usluga
javnog sektora
Marit Keto-Sepala
Projekt-menadžer u kulturi
Gradsko veće Turkua, Finska
• • •
Svet se menja. Danas postoji mnogo prostora koji nude rekreaciju i zabavu. Menja se radno vreme, tako da raspolažemo sa više slobodnog vremena,
a nudi nam se do sada najveći izbor mogućnosti kako i gde da ga potrošimo.
Imamo televiziju, internet, sportove, muzeje, pozorišta, koncerte, putovanja i
još niz mogućih načina da ispunimo svoje slobodno vreme, a kao rezultat različitosti ponude postoji i jaka konkurencija između ovih sadržaja.
U ovim uslovima brzih promena pred organizacijama kulture je izazovan
zadatak da nađu svoje mesto. One pokušavaju istovremeno da zadrže staru i
privuku novu publiku. U tom procesu postoje mnoga pitanja i problemi koje
treba rešiti i za koje treba naći odgovor.
Takođe, finansiranje javnog sektora se ne povećava, tako da su organizacije koje u njemu posluju primorane da nađu načine da same ostvare zaradu.
Upravo zbog toga je neophodno da pronađu i dovedu novu publiku, a zadrže
staru.
Kada se otvori pitanje marketinga,
prvo se počne sa razmatranjem produkci­je
i ponuđenog sadržaja. Nameće se pitanje
da li je kvalitet ponude dobar? Kome je na­
menjen? Da li je to ono što publika traži?
Zaposleni u ustanovama kulture su edukovani da publici pruže kvalitetne izložbe,
koncerte, pozorišne predstave, kulturne
događaje… Oni su veoma posvećeni svom poslu. Međutim, dešava se da nji­
ho­va ponuda ne privuče interesovanje publike. Razlog za to može biti činjenica da su oni previše „unutar“ materije i da jednostavno ne mogu pravilno da
.............
Marit Keto-Sepala
[
Srednjovekovni festival, Turku, Finska / Medieval Festival, Turku, Finland
.............
...........
Institucije kulture imaju dva osnovna
cilja u informisanju i marketingu. Prvi je da
se aktivira korišćenje usluga kulturnog sek­
tora – to je spoljni cilj, a drugi je da se obez­
bedi kontinuirani protok informacija među
zaposlenima unutar samog sektora – to je
unutrašnji cilj.
[
80
Svet medija i oglašavanja se takođe menja, i to veoma brzim tempom.
Tradicionalni mediji, kao što su časopisi, televizija i radio, su još uvek tu, ali po­
red njih su se pojavili novi, veoma aktivni oblici medija. Internet, kao jedan od
njih, otvorio je čitav novi svet marketinga. Količina dostupnih informacija je
daleko veća nego ikada pre, a nove tehnologije se pojavljuju svakodnevno.
Drugi korak je predstavljalo anketiranje ovih ljudi. Poslali smo upitnik di­
rektorima gradskih institucija kulture i ljudima koji su u njima zaposleni, a koji
su u prvom koraku identifikovani kao oni koji se bave njihovim marketingom.
Nakon popunjavanja upitnika s njima smo obavili i intervjue koji su obuhvatili
dvanaest pitanja. To su:
Paralelno, pritisak na zaposlene u institucijama kulture konstantno raste
i postaje sve veći jer ljudi žele sve kvalitetnije sadržaje. Oni putuju, čitaju, gle­
daju televiziju i njihova očekivanja od iskustava i saznanja koje žele rastu. To
zahteva od zaposlenih u sektoru kulture da upoznaju svoju publiku sve bolje,
da otkriju njihove potrebe i ustanove obrasce njihovog ponašanja, kako bi for­
mirali pravilne kanale komunikacije i marketinga prema njima, kao svojim ciljnim grupama korisnika. Ovaj proces je veoma komplikovan i težak.
Usluge kulturnog sektora grada Turkua publici nude Gradsku biblioteku,
Gradsku filharmoniju, Gradsko pozorište, Kancelariju za kulturu i Muzejski
centar grada, koji u svom sastavu ima pet muzeja sa istorijskom postavkom i
jedan muzej moderne umetnosti. Gradski Odbor za kulturu je 2008. godine
odlučio da je potrebno spojiti aktivnosti vezane za marketing i informisanje.
Donesena je odluka da od 1. januara 2010. godine postoji jedan tim ljudi koji
se bavi ovim aktivnostima.
Time je otpočeo dug i sveobuhvatan proces. Prvi korak je bilo objedinjava­
nje svih raspoloživih informacija iz navedene dve oblasti – marketinga i infor­mi­
sanja. Objedinili smo i sredstva namenjena za marketing pojedinačnih orga­ni­za­
cija. Zatim smo pokušali da saznamo ko su ljudi koji se bave ovim aktivnostima,
kao i načine na koji to rade. Pokušali smo da ustanovimo o koliko ljudi se tačno
radi, kao i to da li se ovim aktivnostima bave delimično i u kolikom procentu
ukupnog radnog vremena.
...........
82
Pitanja sa kojima se suočavaju gotovo svi muzeji, pozorišta, biblioteke,
kulturni centri, muzičke trupe i koncertni prostori, dakle sve institucije i organizacije kulture, su gde naći novac za marketinške aktivnosti? Koliko novca
treba investirati da bi marketinške aktivnosti bile isplative? Gde i na koji način
doći do pravih, celovitih informacija o marketingu i aktivnostima koje u okviru
njega treba sprovesti kako bi on bio uspešan i dao dobre rezultate? Sa istim
ovim pitanjima suočavaju se i institucije kulture u Turkuu, u Finskoj.
Marit Keto-Sepala
Zaključci do kojih smo došli na osno­
vu odgovora iz sprovedenih anketa i intervjua su bili veoma jasni – nije postoja­lo
dobro planiranje, nije postojao utvrđen
raspored marketinških aktivnosti, a ljudi
koji se bave marketingom su prekasno
uključivani u proces predstavljanja sadr­
žaja. U nekim slučajevima oni nisu uopšte
bili informisani o dešavanjima, jer su pro­
ducenti sadržaja samostalno obavljali
poslove vezane za marketing i informisanje zato što su smatrali da su ljudi koji se bave marketingom autsajderi. Bilo
je potrebno da zaposleni u marketingu u većoj meri budu upoznati sa opisom
zadataka, kao i sa stepenom poznavanja korisnika usluga koje organizacije
kulture nude.
U okviru trećeg koraka svaka institucija kulture je imala zadatak da detaljno, fazu po fazu, opiše svoje postojeće aktivnosti u oblasti marketinga i
informisanja koje pruža svojim korisnicima, za šta smo im poslali odgovarajuće formulare. Zatim smo se sastali sa predstavnicima svake od tih institucija
Marketing kulturnih usluga javnog sektora
...........
Sredstva iz državnih fondova dostupna institucijama kulture stalno se
smanjuju, tako da budžetska sredstva pokrivaju sve manje troškova njihovog
rada. Zbog toga je neophodno ostvariti veći prihod kroz prodaju karata, izdavanje prostora, pronalaženje sponzora i slične aktivnosti. Broj zaposlenih u
organizacijama kulture se ne uvećava zapošljavanjem ljudi koji se bave marke­
tingom. Nameće se pitanje – šta je rešenje ove situacije, šta treba raditi?
1.Kakve su vaše marketinške aktivnosti i na koje načine ih sprovodite?
2.Koje su vaše ciljne grupe?
3.Koga identifikujete kao potencijalne korisnike vaših usluga?
4.Na koji način planirate marketinške aktivnosti i procese informisanja?
5.Koliki je vaš godišnji budžet namenjen za marketinške aktivnosti?
6.Koliko zaposlenih se bavi marketingom u vašoj organizaciji i ko su oni?
7.Ko su zaposleni koji rade u timovima za marketing i informisanje?
8.Da li ljudi koji rade u oblasti marketinga imaju zamene?
9.Da li prepoznajete dodatne potrebe za marketinškim aktivnostima; ako
je odgovor da – kakve?
10.Šta biste definisali kao najjače, a šta kao najslabije tačke vaših marketinških
aktivnosti?
11.Na koji način i koliko često sprovodite anketiranje korisnika vaših usluga?
Da li se anketiranja odvijaju redovno? Ko je zadužen za njihovo sprovođe­
nje? Koje metode koristite?
12.U kojoj meri identifikovana ciljna grupa kojoj se obraćate utiče na formiranje vaših marketinških aktivnosti?
83
sagledaju spoljni svet. Način na koji oni informišu potencijalnu publiku o svojoj ponudi je u tolikoj meri specijalizovan, kao i terminologija kojom se koriste, da publika jednostavno ne razume ono što pokušavaju da joj poruče. I ne
primetivši, oni su počeli da se obraćaju javnosti jezikom koji u celosti razume
samo struka.
Nameće se pitanje kako da povećamo korišćenje usluga sektora kulture?
Prvi korak je svakako to da izradimo odgovarajuću strategiju, zbog čega smo
održali nekoliko sastanaka koje su vodili stručni konsultanti. Na tim sastancima
su direktori i uprava organizacija sarađivali sa ljudima koji se bave marketingom,
puno radno vreme ili samo delimično, što se pokazalo kao veoma korisno i
produktivno. Sastanci jesu bili dugotrajni, ali se njihovo održavanje pokazalo
korisnim.
84
Formiran je tim za marketing i informisanje, a njegove članove su činili za­
posleni koji se u organizacijama bave marketingom i informisanjem, bilo da rade
na ovim aktivnostima puno radno vreme ili samo jedan deo radnog vreme­na.
Zatim smo oformili model funkcionisanja tima. Zaposleni su i dalje radili u okvi­
ru svojih organizacija, direktori tih institucija su i dalje bili njihovi šefovi, ali je
vođa tima bio zadužen za neposrednu organizaciju i upravljanje njihovim radom.
Sastav tima je bio od velikog značaja. Sposobnosti i znanja pojedinačnih članova
su morali biti različiti, a određeni su i partnerski odnosi među njima. Neki su bili
zaduženi za informisanje, neki za marketing, neki za aktivnosti ve­zane za inter­
net i tako dalje. Članovi tima su imali zadatak da nađu nove informacije relevantne za oblast za koju su zaduženi i da ih pravovremeno proslede ostalima.
...........
Jedno od važnih saznanja do kojih smo došli u okviru sprovedenih anketa
jeste podatak da su zaposleni koji se bave marketingom i informisanjem često
prekasno uključivani u projekte, zbog čega smo pokrenuli nove načine rada i
saradnje između njih i producenata. Dobili su zaduženje da rade zajedno tokom
čitavog procesa, jer je od velike važnosti da nadležni za aktivnosti marketinga i
informisanja budu prisutni od njegovog početka zato što oni poseduju znanje
i sposobnost da identifikuju ciljne grupe. Veoma je važno da odmah nakon iden­
tifikacije ciljnih grupa oni započnu izradu plana aktivnosti u oblasti marketinga
i informisanja. Nužno je da ustanove potreban budžet za finansiranje ovih
Marit Keto-Sepala
Svet koji mi nudimo je veoma komplek­
san, zahtevan i pruža ljudima iskustvo i za­
dovoljstvo. Mi imamo mnogo toga da im
po­nudimo, tako da možemo biti ponosni na
svoje sadržaje i dozvoliti ljudima iz oblasti
marketinga da nam svojim znanjem po­
Još jedno od naših saznanja je i to mog­nu da bolje i uspešnije promovišemo
sve ono čime raspolažemo.
da je neophodno da se marketing odvija
kroz nekoliko različitih kanala komunikacije sa ciljnim grupama, iz prostog razloga što različite ciljne grupe koriste različite kanale komunikacije. Miks marketinških komunikacionih kanala se formira nakon prikupljenih podataka o ciljnim grupama. Jedan od propusta, koji
je gotovo uvek bio prisutan, jeste evaluacija postignutih rezultata. Evalua­cija
rezultata bi morala da se odvija na godišnjem nivou, u nekim slučajevima čak
i češće, jer je to jedan od najefikasnijih načina da se upoznate sa svojom publikom.
Kako smo već istakli, marketing mora da se odvija kroz više komunikacio­
nih kanala. Identifikovali smo tri glavna:
• Prvi marketinški kanal, koji je namenjen različitim ciljnim grupama, predstavlja oglašavanje putem štampanih materijala, časopisa, letaka, razglednica i tako dalje. Iako se ovakav vid komunikacije može smatrati tradicio­
nalnim, u kritičnijem pristupu i zastarelim, činjenica koju ne smemo da
zanemarimo jeste ta da, iako je prisustvo marketinga koji se zasniva na
upotrebi informaciono-komunikacione tehnologije sve zastupljenije, ipak
postoje ljudi koji ih ne koriste, tako da potreba za štampanim materijalom
postoji, iako se njegova količina s vremenom zaista smanjuje.
• Drugi marketinški kanal je upravo informaciono-komunikaciona tehnolo­
gija. Ova komunikacija je namenjena različitim ciljnim grupama i odvija se
kroz web portale, elektronsku poštu i slične aktivnosti na internetu, a brzo
napredovanje tehnologije omogućava stalan razvoj ovog vida komuni­
kacije.
• Treći marketinški kanal predstavlja neposredni lični susret sa ciljnom
gru­pom. Ovaj vid marketinga je najefikasniji, ali i najskuplji. On podrazumeva aktivnu prodaju, a za njeno uspešno obavljanje potrebno je imati
afinitet, kao i veštinu. To zahteva da pristup bude aktivniji nego u drugim
načinima.
Marketinške aktivnosti institucija kulture u javnom sektoru su veoma za­
nimljive, jer se bavimo marketingom produkcija, odnosno izložbama, različitim kulturnim događajima, koncertima ili pozorišnim predstavama. A šta je sa
marketingom samih institucija kulture? Da li su te institucije takođe zanimljive
ili predstavljaju samo mesta na kojima se kulturne aktivnosti odvijaju? To je
Marketing kulturnih usluga javnog sektora
85
Institucije kulture imaju dva osnovna cilja u informisanju i marketingu.
Prvi je da se aktivira korišćenje usluga kulturnog sektora – to je spoljni cilj, a
drugi je da se obezbedi kontinuirani protok informacija među zaposlenima
unutar samog sektora – to je unutrašnji cilj.
aktivnosti, kao i njihov raspored. Naša saznanja svedoče o tome da je problem u
tome što producenti sadržaja daju ili pre­
malo ili pre­više informacija za obavljanje
navedenih aktivnosti.
...........
kako bismo im, u trosatnom razgovoru, detaljno predstavili aktivnosti koje je
potrebno da sprovedu u oblastima marketinga i informisanja. Nakon dve nedelje sastali smo se ponovo s njima da proverimo rezultate njihovog rada. Na
početku su zaposleni sa kojima smo bili u kontaktu ove aktivnosti smatrali
dosadnim, ali su nam kasnije priznali da je ovo bio dobar način da se stekne
jasan uvid u to šta se radi i na koji način. Prvenstveni razlog za to je činjenica
da smo kroz ove sastanke imali priliku da saznamo šta se zaista dešava u ovim
institucijama kulture i da pronađemo sličnosti među njihovim aktivnostima.
Kao rezultat ovoga pristupa dobili smo direktno rešenje nekoliko problema.
...........
86
Uvek postoje dve grupe posetilaca – to su redov­
ni i povremeni korisnici na­
ših usluga. Za nas je jeftiniji
način rada da ispunjavamo
potrebe i zadovoljavamo in­
teres redovnih posetilaca.
Izrada programa koji je u
skladu sa njihovim prefe­
ren­cijama je dobar način
oču­va­nja publike i istovremeno prilika za skupljanje informacija o njima, njihovom ponašanju, potrebama
i ukusima. Takođe, prisutno je pitanje podele na lokalne posetioce i turiste. Lo­
kalni posetioci su redovni, dok su turisti neredovna, takozvana slučajna publika. Nameće se pitanje – kako turiste privući u pozorišta, koncerte ili muzeje?
To je relativno lak zadatak ukoliko su u poseti gradu. Oni su tu da bi proveli
svoje slobodno vreme i videli nešto novo. Zbog toga dolazimo do zaključka da
je veće pitanje kako ih privući u grad, da li postoji pogodan način prevoza do
njega, kao što je to, na primer, dobra veza vozom ili let niskobudžetne avio-kom­
panije? U kojoj meri je potrebno da grad promovišemo u okviru svoje zemlje
i van njenih granica? Da li je uopšte isplativo promovisati grad u nacionalnim
okvirima ili se treba fokusirati na inostranstvo? Ukoliko se odlučite za ovu drugu
Dobar marketing poštuje umetničku produkciju i ne
krade njen identitet. Ukoliko jedni sa drugima podelimo sve
relevantne informacije možemo ostvariti uspešne rezultate.
Ponekad je potrebno marketinško znanje kupiti u kancelari­
jama marketinških agencija, jer zaposleni u njima poseduju
znanje i sposobnost da probleme sagledaju bolje, tako da
mogu ponuditi i bolja rešenja. Međutim, bez potpunih i pra­
vovremenih informacija, koje treba da daju institucije kul­
ture, marketing ne može biti zadovoljavajući. Znanje o mar­
ketingu u organizacijama kulture mora se povećati, kako
bi one znale da ga što bolje iskoriste.
Marit Keto-Sepala
Još jedna ružna reč za zaposlene u institucijama kulture jeste sponzorstvo, bar u onim uslovima kada se zbog njega gubi neza­visnost ili vlasništvo
nad umetničkom produkcijom. Otvaranje ove teme nudi niz mogućnosti. Prvo,
novac možete dobiti za produkciju ili za marketing. Postoje mnogi načini da se
nađu kvalitetni sponzori. Oni mogu sarađivati s vama u okviru neke pro­dukcije
dajući vam materijale, pomoć u prevozu i tako dalje, a usluga koju od vas za
uzvrat očekuju može biti njihov logo na vašem letku ili brošuri, ili da im obezbe­
dite karte za koncert ili ustupite prostor vaše organizacije. Možda čak imaju
želju da produkciju urade zajedno s vama. Postoji za­ista mnogo načina da im
vratite uslugu za njihovu pomoć. Ipak, najpre je potrebno da nađete potencijalne kandidate. Nameće se pitanje gde ih treba tražiti. Posto­je ljudi i organiza­
cije koji su specijalizovani za pronalaženje sponzora. Naravno, uvek imate mo­
gućnost da ih nađete i sami, posebno ukoliko znate tačno šta da po­nudite za
uzvrat i imate široku društvenu mrežu kontakata, ali morate biti sve­sni da će
vam to oduzeti vreme, a to je vreme u kome treba da se posve­tite pro­dukciji.
Treba imati na umu da je uvek lakše dobiti manje sume novca, jer novac ne do­
lazi lako. Može se dogoditi da provedete mnogo vremena u prego­vorima, a da
Marketing kulturnih usluga javnog sektora
87
Obaveštenja za javnost takođe treba da budu drugačija sa ciljem da budu
zapažena. Stil obaveštavanja treba da bude primetan i potrebno ga je često
menjati. Strategija rada treba da dâ odgovor na to kako će izgledati marketing,
kao i odgovor na pitanje da li nam je potreban poseban izgled marketinga ili
celokupan marketing formira njegov izgled.
opciju može se dogoditi da, bez obzira na to koliko novca investirate, ne postignete gotovo nikakve rezultate. U okviru države potrebno je identifikovati
ciljne grupe u onim oblastima iz kojih najviše ljudi posećuje grad. Finansijski je
najracionalnije uko­liko ovo istraživanje uradite u saradnji sa nekom drugom
organizacijom, recimo lokalnim hotelom. Takođe, postoje i veliki lanci hotela
koji imaju svoje internet­ske portale i magazine, a imaju i programe za svoje
redovne goste. Saradnja s njima je pobednička kombinacija za obe strane.
Kao najveći problem može se pokazati proces učenja novog načina razmišljanja. On se u najvećoj meri odnosi na promenu klime u procesima rada
organizacija. U institucijama kulture zaposleni su po opredeljenju humanisti,
za njih je marketing ružna reč. Ipak, u svetlu novih okolnosti modernog doba,
ovi humanisti – glumci, istraživači, muzičari i bibliotekari – moraju početi drugačije da razmišljaju. Dobar marketing poštuje umetničku produkciju i ne krade
njen identitet. Ukoliko jedni sa drugima podelimo sve relevantne informacije
možemo ostvariti uspešne rezultate. Ponekad je potrebno marketinško znanje
kupiti u kancelarijama marketinških agencija, jer zaposleni u njima poseduju
znanje i sposobnost da probleme sagledaju bolje, tako da mogu ponuditi i bolja
rešenja. Međutim, bez potpunih i pravovremenih informacija, koje treba da daju
institucije kulture, marketing ne može biti zadovoljavajući. Znanje o marketingu
u organizacijama kulture mora se povećati, kako bi one znale da ga što bolje
iskoriste. Jedan od najvećih strahova koji postoje u organizacijama kulture je­ste
to da će im marketinške agencije skupo naplatiti svoje usluge, a da za uzvrat
neće dobiti ništa. Taj strah je opravdan. Kako bi to bilo sprečeno potrebno je
znati tačno šta od njih želite da dobijete za novac koji ulažete i da s njima održa­
vate stalan kontakt. Morate biti svesni da je za njih vreme novac i da oni svoje
vreme naplaćuju.
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veoma važno pitanje za izradu dobre strategije marketinga. Neke od naših
institucija kulture imaju veoma dugu istoriju. Kao primer možemo navesti isto­
rijski muzej u prostoru dvorca Turku. To mesto je prepoznatljiv brend kao isto­
rijski spomenik, ali je istovremeno i muzejski prostor za izložbe. Svaka od tih
izložbi ne može biti prepoznatljiv brend. Neke to jesu, a neke ipak ne. Naš je
zadatak da prepoznamo one koje taj prepoznatljiv status već imaju, kao i one
koje imaju potencijal da ga dobiju vremenom. Sledeći korak je bio da za njih
napravimo portfelj. Skupili smo sve marketinške materijale i analizirali ih. Pokazalo se da postoji mnoštvo malih reklama, letaka i brošura, a da je način upo­
trebe interneta zastareo i da njegove realne mogućnosti nisu iskorišćene. Nisu
postojale marketinške kampanje, niti je pristup marketingu bio sveobuhvatan.
Iako je urađeno mnogo radilo se isključivo o pojedinačnim, malim stva­rima i
aktivnostima koje nisu imale kontinuitet niti međusobnu povezanost. Oglašavanje u lokalnim novinama je trebalo racionalizovati, tako da se oglasi objavlju­
ju nedeljno u određenim novinama – gde ljudi mogu da ih vide.
rezultati u finansijskom smislu budu jednaki nuli ili veoma mali. Konkurencija za
dobijanje sponzorstva postaje sve veća. Veće lokalne kompanije se sve češće
prodaju internacionalnim korporacijama čija uprava je locirana van zemlje, a
njihovi lokalni predstavnici neretko imaju zabranu da se upuštaju u aktivnosti
sponzorstva lokalnih institucija kulture. Sve navedeno zahteva od nas da pronađemo nove načine kako bismo ostvarili svoje ciljeve.
Unapređenje aktivnosti u oblasti marketinga i sponzorisanja, i njihovo
podizanje na viši nivo, zaista ima veliki značaj jer predstavlja jedini način da
organizacija preživi u uslovima oštre konkurencije. Ono što moramo zapamtiti
jeste da je publika zainteresovana za našu produkciju i sadržaje koje im nudimo – pozorišne predstave, koncerte, izložbe i tako dalje. Svet koji mi nudimo je
veoma kompleksan, zahtevan i pruža ljudima iskustvo i zadovoljstvo. Mi imamo
mnogo toga da im ponudimo, tako da možemo biti ponosni na svoje sadržaje
i dozvoliti ljudima iz oblasti marketinga da nam svojim znanjem pomognu da
bolje i uspešnije promovišemo sve ono čime raspolažemo.
[
[
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88
Marit Keto-Sepala
Božićna proslava, Turku / Christmas Opening Ceremony in the City of Turku
Marketing Cultural Services
of Public Sector
audience simply does not understand what they are trying to tell them. Even
without noticing, they have begun to address the public in a language that is
fully understood only by their colleagues, mainly arts professionals.
Maarit Keto-Seppälä
Project Manager
Tuku City Council, Finland
At the same time the pressure on cultural institutions staff is constantly
becoming stronger, because people want more form production offered.
They travel, read more, watch television and all together have more information than ever before, so their criteria for experience and knowledge have
grown. All this demands from employees in the cultural sector to know their
audience better, to study and discover their needs and patents of their behaviour, and to form the proper channels of communication and marketing
with them. This is certainly complicated and challenging process.
The world is changing. Nowadays there are many choices in the area of
recreation and entertainment. Changes in the working hours resulted with
more free time and we are offered with largest selection of options how and
where to spend it than ever before. There is television, internet, sports, museums, theatre, concerts, travelling and many other possible ways to spend
free time, and this diversity of supply caused strong competition.
The world of media and advertising is also changing fast. Traditional media
such as magazines, television and radio are still there, but besides them new,
highly active forms of media, have appeared. Internet, as one of them, opened
a whole new world for marketing activities. The amount of information available is far greater than ever before, and new technologies appear every day.
Every time when question of marketing is opened, first thing considered
is production. This raises questions such as – whether it has good quality. To
whom is it intended for? Is that what the audience is demanding? Employees
in cultural institutions have been educated to provide the audience with high-quality exhibitions, concerts, theatre performances, cultural events… They
are very dedicated to their work. However, it sometimes does happen that
their offer does not attract the interest of the audience. Reason for that might
be the fact that they are too ’inside’ the matter that they simply cannot see
world outside. The manner in which they inform a potential audience about
the production is so specialized, and so is the terminology they use, that the
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90
In these conditions of rapid changes cultural
There are two aims of information and
organizations of public sector have a chall­enging marketing activities in cultural sector. The
task to find and keep their place. At the same first is to activate overall services of the
time they are trying to keep the old and attract cultural sector, it is an external goal, and
new audiences. In this complicated process there the second is to ensure a continuous flow
are many questions and problems to be solved. of information among employees within the
Also, it is the fact that public sector funding is sector, it is internal goal.
not increasing, so the organizations need to
find new ways to earn money. This is why it is necessary to find and bring new
audiences, as well as keep the old ones satisfied.
Maarit Keto-Seppälä
Available public funding for the cultural institutions is constantly decreasing, and given budgetary funds cover less and less costs of their work.
Therefore, it is necessary that they achieve more revenue through ticket
sales, space renting, finding sponsorships and similar activities. Number of
employees in the cultural organizations is not increased through hiring people
who work in marketing. This raises the main question – what is the solution
to this situation, what we should do?
The issue that almost all museums, theatres, libraries, cultural centres,
musical troupes and concert venues, basically all cultural institutions and organization are facing now, is where they can find money for marketing activities? How much of it should be invested into the marketing activities so they
are effective? Where and how to get to the right, complete information on
marketing activities and how it should be done in order to achieve good results?
With these same issues are faced cultural institutions in Turku, Finland.
Cultural sector services offered to the public in the City of Turku are the
City Library, City Philharmonic Orchestra, City Theatre, Cultural Service Department and Museum Centre of Turku, which is composed of five Historical
Museums, and Museum of Modern Arts. City Board for Culture decided in
2008 that activities related to marketing and providing information should be
merged together. The decision was made that by the 1 January 2010 should
be formed one team of people engaged in these activities.
So the long and comprehensive process has started. First, we had to
coll­ect all available information from these two areas, marketing and media.
We considered the marketing budgets of all individual organizations. Then we
tried to find out who the people involved in marketing activities are, as well
as the ways they work. We tried to determine exactly how many people are
who work in marketing, whether they are engaged in these activities partially
or full time.
Marketing Cultural Services of Public Sector
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• • •
91
:05
The conclusions we reached, based on responses from surveys and interviews conducted, were very clear – there was no good planning, no set
schedules for marketing activities, and people who work in marketing used to be
involved in a process at quite late stage of productions, so they could not give
their proper contribution. In some cases they have not been even informed
about the events, as the producers deThe world we are offering is very com­
plex, demanding and it gives people the cided to independently perform tasks
unique experiences and satisfaction. We related to marketing and information
have so much to offer that we should be because they thought that people who
proud and allow the people who work in are engaged in marketing are outsiders.
marketing to help us with their knowledge We have to clarify task description bett­
so we could more effectively promote every­ er, as well as to increase the degree of
thing that we have.
knowledge about our public.
During the third step of our process, each cultural institution had task to
complete detailed, step by step, description of their current activities in the
field of marketing and information, trough submitted forms we sent them.
Then we met with representatives of each of these institutions and during
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92
1.What are your marketing activities and the ways they are managed?
2.What are your identified target groups?
3.Who have you identified as potential users of your services?
4.In what ways are you planning marketing activities and information processes?
5.What is your annual budget for marketing activities?
6.How many employees are engaged in marketing activities within your
organization and who are they?
7.Who are the employees who work in marketing and information teams
in your organization?
8.Do the employees who work in the field of marketing have a replacement?
9.Do you recognize any additional marketing activities, if so, what sorts of
them?
10.What would you define as the strongest and weakest points of your marketing activities?
11.In what way and how often you conduct customer polls and surveys of
your services? Do they take place regularly? Who is responsible for their
implementation? What methods are used?
12.To what extent identified target groups are influencing the process of
formation of your marketing activities?
Maarit Keto-Seppälä
There are two aims of information and marketing activities in cultural
sector. The first is to activate overall services of the cultural sector, it is an
external goal, and the second is to ensure a continuous flow of information
among employees within the sector, it is internal goal.
The question is how to increase the use of cultural sector services? The
first step would definitely be to start development of appropriate strategies,
so we held several meetings led by expert consultants in order to achieve
that. At these meetings, the directors and management of the organizations
worked with people who are engaged in marketing, partially or full time,
which proved to be very useful and productive approach. It is true that these
meetings took time, but they proved to be very useful and worthwhile.
We have formed marketing and information team, which members were
employees in organizations that deal with marketing and information, whether they are working on these activities full time, or only a part time. Then we
created working model for team. These employees were still working within
their organization, the director of the institution was still their boss, but the
appointed team leader was responsible for the immediate organization and
management of their work. Team structure also had a great significance.
Skills and knowledge of individual members had to be different. Some were
specialists responsible for the information, other for marketing, and some for
activities related to Internet. Team members had a task to find new information relevant to the area for which they are in charge and promptly forward
them to others.
One of the important findings that we obtained during the interviews
and surveys conducted, was the fact that employees are often engaged in
marketing and information activities too late, which is the reason why we
have initiated new ways of working and cooperation between them and producers. They have been given the task to work together throughout the whole
process, because it is of a great importance that people who work in marketing are engaged from the start because they have the knowledge and ability
Marketing Cultural Services of Public Sector
93
the three-hours meeting they had a chance to present in detail the activities
they implement in the areas of marketing and information process. After two
weeks, we met up again with them to confirm the results of their work. At the
beginning of this process employees with whom we have been in contact
considered these activities boring, but they all later admitted that this was a
good way to gain a clear insight about the things in marketing, what is done
and in what way. The reason is mainly the fact that in these meetings people
had the opportunity to find out what really is happening in their institutions as
well as to find similarities in their activities. As a direct result of this approach
we managed to get solutions for several problems.
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The second step was to conduct the survey. We sent a questionnaire to
cultural institutions management and people who are employed in them,
identifying those who deal with marketing. After completing questionnaire
we conducted interviews, composed of twelve questions. These were:
As we already pointed out, marketing has to be carried through several
communication channels. We have identified three main groups:
94
• First marketing channel that is dedicated to different target groups is
through printed advertising material, magazines, leaflets, postcards…
Although this type of communication can be considered traditional, or
even outdated, we must not ignore the fact that, although the presence
of marketing based on the use of information and communication technologies are becoming more and more common, there are still people
who do not use them, so the need for printed material is still alive, although indeed its quantity decreases with time;
• Second marketing channel is supported by information and communication technologies. This type of communication is intended for different
target groups and takes place through web portals, e-mail, and similar
activities on the Internet. Rapid advancement of technology allows the
continuous development of this type of marketing communication.
• Third channel is a direct, personal, face to face interaction with the target groups. This form of marketing is most effective, but also very expensive. It means that we are engaged in process of active selling, so we
have to have affinity, as well as skills, to conduct this type of communication effectively. It also requires far more active approach than first
two ways of marketing.
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Marketing activities of cultural institutions in the public sector are very
interesting, because we are dealing with marketing production and exhibition, various cultural events, concerts or theatrical performances. But what is
about the marketing of cultural institutions? Are they also interesting, or are
Maarit Keto-Seppälä
An announcement to the public should also be different in order to be
noticed. Their style should be noticeable and frequently changed. The proper
strategy should give an answer how the marketing will look like. It should also
give an answer to the question whether we need a special appearance and
overall marketing image.
There are always two groups of visitors, the regular and occasional users
of our services. For us the cheaper way of working is to fulfil the needs and
satisfy the interest of our regular visitors. Creating a program that is in acc­
ordance with their preferences is certainly the good way to maintain their
loyalty and it also gives as an opportunity to gather information about them,
their behaviours, needs and tastes. There is also a question of local visitors
and tourists. Local visitors are our regular public, while tourists are occasional users of our services, so called random audience. This raises an important
question – how to attract tourists to visit our theatre plays, concerts or museums? It is a relatively easy task to accomplish if they are already in the City.
During their visit they want to enjoy their free time and to see something new.
So we have come to conclusion that the biggest question is how to attract them
Marketing Cultural Services of Public Sector
95
Another of our findings was the importance of marketing taking place
through several different channels of communication with target groups, for
the simple reason that different target groups use different communication
channels. A mix of marketing communication channel is formed after consideration of collected information about identified target groups. One of the
important things that was almost always been missed was evaluation of achieved
results. Evaluation of the results should be conducted annually, in some cases
even more frequently, because it is one of the most effective ways to learn
about your audience.
they just places where the
cultural activities take place?
This is a very important iss­ue
for making a good marketing
strategy. Some of our cultural institutions have a long
history. As an example we
can cite the Historical Museum in the Turku Castle, which
is recognized as a historical
monument but also exhibition space. It is the fact that
each of the exhibitions in Museum cannot be a recognizable brand. Some of
them are, and some are not. It is our task to recognize those that have already
become brands, as well as those who have potential for that. The next step
would be to create a portfolio for them. In this process we gathered all available
marketing materials and analyzed them. We have found out that there are
many small pieces of advertisements, flyers, brochures, and that the manner
of use of the Internet is obsolete so its full potential is not exploited. There was
no marketing campaign or comprehensive approach to marketing activities.
Although there was evidence that much was done, these activities were not
properly connected, and they mainly reflected individual, small things and
activities without continuity. For example, advertising in local newspapers
had to be rationalized in a way that ads are published weekly in certain newspapers so that people can see them.
...........
to identify target groups. It is very important that, immediately after identification of target groups, they begin planning the development of activities in
the field of marketing. It is also necessary to establish the appropriate budget
for these activities, as well as their timing. It was evident that the problem
was the fact that producers use to give too little or too much information to
people engaged in marketing activities.
The biggest problem may be how to learn new ways of thinking. This
process is mostly related to change of working climate of organizations. The
employees in cultural institutions are humanists and for them the marketing
is an ugly word. However, in light of new circumstances of modern times,
these humanists – actors, researchers, musicians and librarians, must begin to
learn new ways of thinking. Good marketing respects artistic production and
does not steal its identity. If we agree to share all relevant information we can
achieve good results. Sometimes we need help from marketing agencies and
their experts, because they have the knowledge and ability to perceive problems we are facing better than us, consequently they can offer better solutions. However, without complete information provided by the cultural institutions, even with their help marketing activities and their results cannot be
satisfactory. Knowledge of marketing in cultural organizations must be increased so that they could know what to ask for. One of the biggest fears that
exist in arts organizations is assumption that marketing agencies will charge
them lot for their services, but in return they will receive nothing. And we have
to admit that this fear is justified. In order to prevent this scenario we need to
know exactly what we want them to provide for the given money and to make
sure that we maintain constant contact with them. We should be aware of the
fact that for them time is money and that they charge for use of their time.
Maarit Keto-Seppälä
Marketing Cultural Services of Public Sector
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[
[
Srednjovekovni festival, Turku / Medieval Festival, City of Turku
Another ugly word for those employed in cultural institutions is word
sponsorship, or at least in those circumstances when, because of it artistic
productions loses its independence. Opening discussion about this issue offers
a range of options. First, money is available for production or marketing. There
are many ways to find good sponsors. They might be interested in your production and help with giving you materials, help with transportation and this
kind of things, and the service they might expect in return could be many things,
such as their logo on your flyer or brochure, or tickets for events, or to give
them your organization’s space for use. Maybe they even just have a desire to
do the production with you. There are actually many ways to repay service to
97
to visit the City, are there available good connection by train or low-cost airlines? There is also question to what extent is necessary to promote the City
within the country and outside its borders? Is it cost effective to promote the
City at national level or should the focus be on promotion overseas? If you
choose this latter option what might happen is, no matter how much money
you invest, that no results are achieved. For the promotion at national level it
is necessary to identify target groups in areas from which most people come
to visit the City. It is financially rational to conduct this survey in cooperation
with another organization, for example a local hotel. Also, there are large hotel
chains, which have their own web portals and magazines, as well as tailored
programs for their regular guests and cooperation with them is win-win combination for both interested sides.
GRADSKI MUZEJI I URBANI RAZVOJ
Blaž Peršin
Menadžer u kulturi
Direktor gradskih muzeja i galerija Ljubljane
• • •
Trenutna situacija zahteva više konkretnog angažmana i specifičnih vidova učešća javnosti u cilju jačanja pozicije koju imamo u okruženju u kojem poslujemo. Dešava se da Muzej grada i njegovi ogranci posvećeni urbanoj istoriji,
kao izuzetno kompleksna institucija, ne bude dovoljno prepoznatljiv javnosti i
da ne privlači jednaku pažnju kao drugi muzeji ili kulturne institucije grada. Grad­
ski muzeji se često suočavaju sa problemom jasnog definisanja svoje misi­je,
kao i sa činjenicom da su često izvan dometa pažnje javnosti. Samo se za­pi­taj­te:
kada ste u prilici da posetite neki grad, šta je to što želite da vidite? Da li su to
možda gradski muzeji? Ukoliko jesu, šta najčešće očekujete da vidite u njima?
Kakav imidž imaju gradski muzeji u našim očima, ili – još bolje formulisano – u
očima šire javnosti?
Naravno, sada govorimo uopšteno. Postoje muzeji koji imaju inovativan
pristup, originalne koncepte rada i koji u svim oblastima svog rada i predstavlja­
nja publici idu u korak sa vremenom. U današnjim uslovima, kada je prisutna
izuzetno oštra konkurencija među muzejima, gradski muzeji su takođe primorani da se bore za svoje mesto na mapi kulturnih institucija grada.
Zbog svega što smo naveli, Gradski muzej Ljubljane je u potrazi za strateškim
partnerima čija pomoć će obezbediti da se naše planirane misije u budućnosti
i realizuju. Pored drugih partnera u ovom projektu, uloga civilnog društva je,
neupitno, od ključne važnosti. Nevladine organizacije se u ovom kontekstu
posebno ističu. Solidna mreža partnera obezbeđuje novu publiku i saradnike,
ali nameće i nove izazove u vezi sa velikim projektima.
Good marketing respects artistic production and
does not steal its identity. If we agree to share all
relevant information we can achieve good results.
Sometimes we need help from marketing agencies
and their experts, because they have the knowledge
and ability to perceive problems we are facing
better than us, consequently they can offer better
solutions. One of the biggest fears that exist in cul­
tural organizations is assumption that marketing
agencies will charge them lot for their services, but
in return they will receive nothing. And we have to
admit that this fear is justified. In order to prevent
this scenario we need to know exactly what we want
them to provide for the given money and to make
sure that we maintain constant contact with them.
We should be aware of the fact that for them time is
money and that they charge for use of their time.
Zato smo odlučili da u našu viziju muzeja u budućnosti aktivno uključimo
nevladin sektor, odnosno one njegove organizacije iz polja umetnosti, obrazova­
nja, urbanizma, arhitekture, kao i ekonomije. Javni apel smo uputili onima koji
mogu da daju doprinos našem projektu svojim novim idejama. Odgovor koji smo
dobili, posebno od organizacija koje se bave umetnošću, bio je zaista neverovatan. Naša osnovna namera, kada smo uputili poziv za reakcije, bila je da ustanovimo kako organizacije nevladinog sektora vide naš grad, njegov razvoj, i kakav
značaj za njih ima urbana kultura. Veliki broj događaja je proistekao iz toga – niz
izložbi, radionica, programa za decu samo su neki od njih. Muzej je postao otvoreniji za inicijative koje dolaze spolja, a koje su publici predstavljene uz pomoć
muzejskih eksperata. Te postavke su bile rezultat dogovora, a ne komentara ili
Maarit Keto-Seppälä
Gradski muzeji i urbani razvoj
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98
Improvement of activities in the field of marketing and sponsorship has
great significance for our work, because it is the only way for organization to
survive in a highly competitive market today. What we must always remember
is that the audience is interested in our production and content we have to
offer them, such as theatre performances, concerts, exhibitions… The world
we are offering them is very complex, demanding and it gives people the
unique experiences and satisfaction. We have so much to offer that we should
be proud and allow the people who work in marketing to help us with their
knowledge so we could more effectively promote everything we have.
:06
99
them for their help. However, your first task is to find potential candidates.
This raises the question where to look for them? There are people and organizations that specialize in finding sponsors. Of course, there is always an option
to find them on your own, especially if you know exactly what to offer in return
for their help and you also have a wide social network of contacts, but you
need to be aware of the fact that this is taking time, time you should devote
to production. It is good to keep in mind that it is always easier to get smaller
amounts of money, because money does not come easily. It should not come
as surprise if happens that, after you spent much time negotiating, achieved
results in terms of assured finances are nothing or a very small amount.
The competition for obtaining sponsorship is becoming tougher then ever.
Large local companies are being sold to international corporations whose top
management is located outside the country, and their local representatives
often have a prohibition to engage in sponsorship activities of local cultural
institutions. All of this requires us to find new ways to achieve our goals.
[
U okviru ove prezentacije nastojaću da vam dam konkretne primere i obja­
snim o kojim projektima govorim i koji su bili naši ciljevi pojedinačnih projekata
koje smo sebi postavili.
Uloga gradskog muzeja je više nego važna i presudna jer on diše i postoji
isključivo uz urbanu publiku. Upravo zbog toga razumljivo je da je urbani razvoj jedan od njegovih prioriteta. Ne zapostavljajući prošlost, njegov prioritet
jeste da stremi ka stvaranju konceptualne i humane budućnosti. Zbog toga je
važno da rad muzeja nije zaklonjen debelim zidovima koji sprečavaju prodor uti­
caja spolja. Muzej mora da otvori svoja vrata, otvarajući širu perspektivu za
događaje u gradu, ali i kritički prateći ta dešavanja i celokupnu sadašnjost.
Veoma važan uticaj na ostvarivanje po­
sredničke uloge muzeja ima upravo aktivno
učešće ljudi. To se ostvaruje saradnjom sa ne­
vladinim organizacija­ma, stručnjacima zapo­
slenim u muzeju i javnosti u najširem mogu­
ćem smislu i obimu.
Urbani razvoj mora biti pod stalnim nadzorom i kontrolom, mora mu biti
pružena puna podrška i pomoć, ali se ne sme nikada izgubiti kritička distanca.
Veoma važan uticaj na ostvarivanje posredničke uloge muzeja ima upravo
aktivno učešće ljudi. To se ostvaruje saradnjom sa nevladinim organizacijama,
stručnjacima zaposlenim u muzeju i javnosti u najširem mogućem smislu i obimu.
Interesantno je da se na prvi pogled činilo kako neki od iniciranih projeka­
ta nemaju gotovo ništa zajedničko sa gradom i njegovim urbanim razvojem,
Blaž Peršin
Izložba pod nazivom Osvetljena gerila (Lighting Guerrilla) bavila se pojmom
svetlosti i njenim značenjem, posmatrano iz ugla umetnosti. Zaključak izložbe
ukazao je na to da publika nije zainteresovana samo za lajt-šou ili svetlo­sne
instalacije, već da žele da znaju gde i na koje načine svetlost može biti upotreblje­
na. Nametnula su se pitanja – da li u našem svetu ima previše svetla, da li pre­
više svetla uzrokuje zagađenje?
Tematike opisanih projekata nisu se bavile istorijskim aspektom grada,
jer je fokus bio stavljen na trenutnu situaciju. Preplitanje prošlosti i sadašnjosti grada sa njegovom budućnosti predstavlja ključni element za razumevanje
njegovog daljeg urbanog razvoja.
Tempo i obim razvoja koji se odvija u okviru poslovanja muzeja zahteva
hitne promene u organizaciji obavljanja muzejskih poslova. Značaj rada kusto­
sa postaje sve veći, jer njihov rad više nije ograničen istorijskim i umetničkim
principima, već se fokusira na razumevanje šireg konteksta procesa koji se od­
vijaju u savremenom društvu. Novi okviri rada tako kustose čine posrednicima
novih, kreativnih ideja.
Gradski muzeji nisu više samo čuvari gradskog istorijskog nasleđa, oni sada
imaju aktivnu ulogu u interpretaciji i prenosu smernica za njegov uspešan urba­
ni razvoj.
Gradski muzeji i urbani razvoj
101
ali se vremenom pokazalo da upravo oni mogu da budu ključni interpretatori
dešavanja i perspektive razvoja grada.
...........
Jedan od najzanimljivijih projekata ovoga leta, koji se odvijao u okviru fe­
stivala glume, bilo je okupljanje ljudi u centru grada koji su držali prazne plakate.
Ovaj projekat, pod nazivom Prazni plakati, privukao je zaista mnogo pažnje, jer
prolaznici nikako nisu uspevali da odgonetnu šta je to zbog čega grupa protestuje. Neki od njih su postavili pitanja vezana za uzroke protesta, a neki su čak
dali sugestije da bi bilo bolje da nešto i piše na plakatima. Konačan rezultat je
bio protest protiv protestovanja praznim plakatima. Učesnici protesta su pod­
sticali prolaznike da osmisle svoje slogane koje bi upisali na plakate, što je dalo
novu dimenziju interesovanju za projekat, unoseći u sve i određenu dozu humo­
ra. Projekat je dopunjen izložbom u Gradskom muzeju, koja se ba­vila temom
protesta iz 1968. godine, što je projektu dalo referentni okvir.
...........
100
Kao deo našeg programa organizovali smo promotivnu kampanju u kojoj
smo predstavili zapise i citate koji su postavljeni na objektima u pešačkim zo­
nama grada, koji su ukazivali na pitanja koja često previđamo u svakodnevnom
životu. Ovi natpisi su postavljeni na ulazima gradskih institucija, kao što je zgra­
da suda, gde piše Vreme je najpravedniji i najstroži sudija – E. Quinet, što pred­
stavlja komentar na polemiku o stanju u pravosuđu. Ovakvi primeri ohrabrili
su neke ljude da podele svoje stavove s nama ili čak daju sugestije gde bi slični
komentari mogli biti postavljeni i na šta bi trebalo da se odnose.
Gradski muzej Ljubljana
/ City Museum, Ljubljana
[
tumačenja. Obe strane su imale jednako učešće. Proces saradnje je išao i korak
dalje, tako da je rezultat bio zajednička prisutnost u polju našega rada.
U skladu sa strategijom razvoja, prioriteti kulturne politike Ljubljane su:
1.aktivna kulturna politika, koja ima sposobnost da brzo reaguje na promene;
2.modernizacija kulture u javnom sektoru;
3.kulturno vaspitanje i obrazovanje u stvaralaštvu;
4.kulturni turizam; i
5.uvođenje informacionih tehnologija u kulturu.
Na kraju, možemo zaključiti da je Ljubljana dobar primer povezivanja urba­
nog i kulturnog razvoja koji je baziran na promišljenom strateškom dokumentu
i koji se ostvaruje kroz aktivne kulturne politike.
Odeljenje za kulturu grada Ljubljane
.............
[
Gradski muzej Ljubljana / City Museum, Ljubljana
...........
Tokom izrade, a pre usvajanja strategije razvoja, održani su mnogobrojni
sastanci i debate na kojima su u razmeni mišljenja učestvovali ne samo predstavnici zaposlenih u sektoru kulture, već i predstavnici nevladinog sektora i slobodni
umetnici. Strategija razvoja za kulturu predstavlja i osnovu za planiranje glavnih
investicionih programa, kao što je, na primer, novi „Centar za urbanu kulturu“,
predviđen za održavanje muzičkih, plesnih, likovnih i sličnih umetničkih i kulturnih sadržaja. Takođe, na osnovu planirane strategije, otvorene su i neke nove
javne institucije, kao što je bioskop za prikazivanje umetničkih filmova.
Ljubljana je 2008. godine bila kan­didat za Svetsku prestonicu knjige 2010,
koju bira UNESCO. Članovi komisije su u konkurenciji sedam svetskih gradova
izabrali Ljubljanu, koja će u periodu od 23. aprila 2010. do 23. aprila 2011. go­
dine biti svetski centar literature i knjige. U tom periodu planirano je održa­
vanje 500 razli­čitih događaja koji za cilj imaju podsticanje čitanja, povećanje
...........
102
Po svom sadržaju, strategija razvoja kulture slovenačke prestonice je veo­
ma ambiciozan plan, koji:
1.definiše kapitalne investicije u oblasti kulture;
2.predviđa proces modernizacije javnog sektora u oblasti kulture sa ciljem
da se ostvari veća delotvornost u njegovom radu, kao i bolji pristup kulturnim dobrima kojima se raspolaže;
3.poklanja posebnu pažnju kulturnim sadržajima i aktivnostima prilagođenim potrebama dece i mladih;
4.nastoji da odgovori na sve izazove koje nameću procesi razvoja u sektoru
kulture i umetnosti; i
5.predstavlja nove forme podrške umetnicima i kulturnim izvođačima.
Jedna od važnih karakteristika kulturne politike Ljubljane tokom poslednjih
nekoliko godina jeste podsticaj nizu pozitivnih promena kroz aktivni pristup,
od promena vezanih za institucije kulture (povezivanje starih i formiranje novih javnih kulturnih institucija), izgrađivanja kapitalnih kulturnih prostora, do
obezbeđivanja dodatne finansijske podrške kulturnim programima, što je rezultiralo u značajnoj meri bogatijim i raznolikijim kulturnim životom grada. Pro­
jekat Svetska prestonica knjige 2010. godine dodatno je doprineo povećanju
sadržaja programa kulture, koji ima internacionalni karakter.
103
Kulturna politika grada Ljubljane definisana je dokumentom „Strategija
razvoja kulture grada Ljubljane 2008–2011“ koji je Skupština grada usvojila
30. juna 2008. godine. Ovaj dokument je rezultat shvatanja da kulturna politika na nivou grada mora biti jasno definisana i da se ne može zasnivati na
preduzimanju kulturno-političkih mera i aktivnosti koje nisu planski organizovane i povezane u promišljanju celine sa određenom strateškom vizijom koja
je zvanično dokumentovana.
dostupnosti knjiga i uopšte prezentaciju literarnog i knjiže­vnog sveta. Među
ovim mnogobrojnim dešavanjima važno je istaći otvaranje prve Kuće literature
u Sloveniji.
[
Kulturna politika grada Ljubljane
:06
CITY MUSEUMS AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Blaž Peršin
Culture Manager
Manager of the City Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana
• • •
...........
Consequently, we decided to incorporate the non-governmental sector
from the fields of art, education, urbanism, architecture, and economy, into
our vision of the future of Museum. We made a public appeal to those who
can contribute to our project through new creative ideas. The response we
received, especially from organizations that deal with arts, was astonishing.
Our intention, when we called for a reaction, was mainly to determine how
the non-governmental organizations see our City, its development, and what
the importance of urban culture for them is. Numerous events have emerged
as a result; a series of exhibitions, workshops, programs for children, are just
some of them. The Museum has become more open to initiatives coming from
outside, which were presented to the audience with the help of museum
Blaž Peršin
[
Galerija Jakopič (Gradski muzej, Ljubljana) / Jakopič Gallery (City Museum, Ljubljana)
experts, and these settings were the result of an agreement, not a comment
or interpretation. Both sides have contributed productively. The process of
cooperation has gone a step further, resulting in a unified presence in the field
of our work.
In this presentation I will try to provide you with concrete examples and
to explain the projects I speak about and what have been our set goals of
each individual project.
The role of the City Museum is more than important, it’s crucial because
it breathes and exists with the predominantly urban public. Therefore it is
understandable that urban development is one of its main priorities. Without
neglecting the past, his priority is to set the precedence for striving to create
conceptual and humane future. It is therefore important that the work of the
Museum is not shielded by the thick walls, which prevent and disable the influence of the outside initiatives. The museum must open its doors, opening up
City Museums and Urban Development
...........
Therefore, the City Museum of Ljubljana is in need of strategic partners
whose help will ensure the realization of its planned future-oriented mission.
Among other partners in this project, the civil society undoubtedly plays a
crucial role. Non-governmental organizations particularly stand out in this
context. A solid network of partners provides new audiences and new associates, but also imposes new challenges regarding major projects.
.............
[
104
Of course, we are speaking in general now. There are museums with an
innovative approach and original concept and they nurture an image that moves
with the times. Nowadays, where there is an extremely tough competition
among museums, City Museums are forced to battle for place on the map of
cultural institutions in the City.
105
The current situation is in demand for more concrete engagement and
specific forms of public participation in order to reinforce position we have in
the field of our work. As a very complex institution, City Museums with its
branches dedicated to urban history, sometimes are not sufficiently distinctive to the public and as a result of that they do not attract the same attention
as other museums and cultural institutions of the City. City Museums often
struggle to clearly define their mission and lack efficiency in attracting the
interest of the wider public. Just ask yourself, when you have the opportunity
to visit new city, what is it that you want to see? Is it perhaps the City Museum?
If so, what you usually expect to see in them? What is the image of a City
Museums in our eyes, or better formulated, in the eyes of the wider public?
.............
[
[
Gradski muzej Ljubljana /
City Museum, Ljubljana
people passing by could not manage to figure out what the group was protesting against. Some of them asked questions related to the causes of the protest
some even made suggestions that it would be more useful to actually write
something on the banners. The final result was a protest against protesting
with empty banners. The participants of the protests were encouraging
passersby to come up with their own slogans which brought another dimension to the interest in the project, even provoking a good deal of humor. The
project was complemented by an exhibition at the City Museum, which dealt
with the theme of the protests held in 1968, and put the event into the referential framework.
Very important impact on achieving the intermediary role of museums
has a very active participation of people. This is accomplished through cooperation of non-governmental organizations, professionals employed in the
Museum and the public in the widest possible sense.
Urban development must be under constant supervision and control,
also it must be given full support and assistance, but critical distance must always be kept.
As part of our program, we organized a promotional campaign in which
we presented the inscriptions and quotations placed on buildings in the pedestrian zones of the City, which drawn attention to issues that are often overlooked in everyday life. These quotations are placed at the entrances of City
institutions’ buildings, such as the Court of Justice, where stands – Time is the
fairest and toughest judge, E. Quinet, which is a comment on the polemic about
the conditions in the judicature. Examples like this have encouraged people
to share their views or even give suggestions on where the similar comments
could be placed and what they should refer to.
...........
One of the most interesting projects this summer, within the Festival of
Performing Arts, was a gathering of people in the city’s centre holding empty
banners. This project entitled Blank Protest attracted much attention, because
Blaž Peršin
The exhibition Lighting Guerrilla has been exploring the concept of light
and its meaning, from the artistic point of view. The conclusion of the exhibition
suggested that the audience is not interested and attracted only by lightshow
and artistic creations, but also wants to know where and in what ways the light
can be used. This imposed the questions – are we over-lighting our world, does
too much light cause light pollution?
Themes of the described projects did not dealt with historical aspects of
the city, because the focus was placed on the current situation. Interweaving
City’s past and present with its future is a key element in understanding its
future urban development.
The pace and scope of development that takes place in the work of museums today demands urgent changes in the organization and conducting of
museum’s work. The importance of the curator role is becoming more prominent because their work is no longer restricted to the historical and artistic
principles, but focuses on understanding the broader context of processes
taking place in contemporary society. This new framework determines curators as mediators of new, creative ideas.
City museums are not just keepers of city’s historical heritage, they now
play an active role as interpretators, which pass on directions for a successful
urban development.
City Museums and Urban Development
107
106
a wider perspective of events in the City, as well as keeping critical view on the
urban development and the overall present situation.
Interestingly, at first glance it seemed that some of the initiated projects
have almost nothing in common with the City and its urban development, but
as it proved later, they can be the key interpreters of the City’s perspective.
...........
Very important impact on achieving
the intermediary role of museums has a
very active participation of people. This is
accomplished through cooperation of non-governmental organizations, professionals
employed in the Museum and the public in
the widest possible sense.
Cultural policy of the City of Ljubljana
Cultural policy of the City of Ljubljana was defined in the document De­
velopment Strategy for the Culture in the City of Ljubljana 2008-2011, which
was adopted by the City Council on 30th June 2008. This document emerged
from the realization that cultural policy has to be clearly defined and cannot
be based on taking the cultural and political actions and activities that are not
systematically organized and linked with documented strategic vision.
In accordance with the Development Strategy document, the priorities
of Ljubljana’s cultural policies are:
1.Active cultural policy, which has the ability to quickly respond to changes;
2.Modernization of the culture in the public sector;
3.Cultural upbringing and education in field of creativity;
4.Cultural tourism; and
5.The introduction of modern information technology in culture.
By its contents, the Development Strategy document is a very ambitious
plan, which:
different cultural events will take place, aimed to encourage reading, increase
the availability of books and generally present the literature and the literary
world. Among the many books related events, it is important to emphasize
the opening of the first house of literature in Slovenia.
One of the important characteristics of the cultural policy of the City of
Ljubljana over the past few years is that it has encouraged a number of positive
changes through active approach, such as the changes related to cultural institutions (connecting the old and creation of new public cultural institutions),
the building of major cultural facilities, and providing additional financial support to cultural programs, resulting in a significantly richer and more diverse
cultural life of the City. Project The World Book Capital 2010 additionally contributed to increasing the content of the culture which has an international
character.
At the end we can conclude that Ljubljana is a fine example of connecting
urban and cultural development based on a thought through strategic document, achieved through active cultural policy.
Department of Culture, The Municipality of Ljubljana
109
The process of drafting the document Development Strategy for the Cul­
ture in the City of Ljubljana 2008-2011 was preceded by wide debates in which
not only the employees of the public culture institutions took part, but also
the representatives of non-governmental cultural sector and freelance artists.
Development Strategy for Culture was a basis for planning major investment
in programs such as for example the new “Centre for Urban Culture”, which
provided space for music, dance, painting and related artistic and cultural
events. Also, based on the planned strategy, some new public institutions were
opened, such as the new Cinema for art films.
...........
In 2008 Ljubljana was a candidate for The World Book Capital 2010, granted by the UNESCO. In competition with seven world cities Ljubljana has been
selected, which means that in period of 23rd April 2010 to 23rd April 2011 the
City will be the world centre of literature and books. During this period, 500
...........
108
1.Defines capital investment in the culture;
2.Foresees the modernization of culture in the public sector in order to
achieve its greater effectiveness, as well as improved access to cultural
public goods;
3.Pays special attention to cultural events and activities tailored to the
needs of children and youth;
4.It strives to respond to the challenges posed by the processes of development in the sector of culture and arts; and
5.Introduces new forms of support to artists and cultural performers.
:07
Ajndhoven - grad kao laboratorija
Kes Donkers
Urbani dizajner
Gradsko veće Ajndhovena, Holandija
• • •
Ajndhoven je moderan grad, izrastao na industrijskoj aktivnosti kompanije Filips. Upravo ova industrija je početkom XX veka bila glavni motor razvoja
stanovništva i infrastrukture tada malog grada, koji je kroz spajanje pet okolnih
sela 1920. godine prerastao u veliku urbanu sredinu. Istraživanja u oblasti elek­
tričnog osvetljenja, kao novog tehničkog proizvoda na kraju XIX veka, koja su
se odvijala u Ajndhovenu, obezbedila su da grad preraste u novi ekonomski
centar na jugu Holandije.
Kes Donkers
Nedelja holandskog dizajna, Ajndhoven / Dutch Design Week, Eindhoven
su odborima prisutne studentske organizacije. Ekonomska kriza nas je primorala
da tražimo nove prilike i stvaramo novu klimu grada kako bismo omogućili mladim ljudima da osnuju svoje kompanije i započnu sopstveni posao. Frilanseri su
već počeli da popunjavaju mesta na novom tržištu ekonomskog rasta. Dizajneri
su analitičari i imaju sposobnost da stvari sagledaju iz različitih uglova i da ih pro­
mišljaju na nove načine. Kao što je otkriće električne sijalice 1892. godine u kompaniji Filips deo identiteta grada, tako i novi dizajn, inovacije i istraživanja posta­
ju deo njegovog identiteta, ali i korisni instrumenti razvoja nove ekonomije.
Prethodni tekst predstavlja kratak opis razvoja modernog grada Ajndhovena. Kao moderan dizajner, shvatio sam da se danas u gradu više ne radi o
„ciglama“, nego prvenstveno o „ljudima“. U procesu razvoja grada neophodno
je osluškivati glas ljudi, posebno mladu generaciju, njihove ideje o budućnosti,
kao i angažovati obrazovne institucije da razmišljaju o ovom pitanju s vama, oba­
vljaju istraživanja i pronalaze odgovore na ključna pitanja urbanog razvoja.
PAMETNO je razmišljati na drugačiji način u okviru svoje generacije, usme­
ravati snagu razmišljanja mladih studenata i udružiti snage sa honorarcima u
neformalnoj i nehijerarhijskoj mreži, koristeći aktuelnu tehničku podršku za
komunikaciju sa ostatkom sveta. Uživam da svoje znanje prenosim drugima i do­
bijam od njih povratnu energiju. Volim da balansiram, kao surfer novog (lič­nog)
doba, na talasima ekonomskog mora, koristeći vetrove inovacije.
Ajndhoven
Ajndhoven –– grad
grad kao
kao laboratorija
laboratorija
...........
...........
Nakon perioda saradnje Gradskog veća i institucija kulture i obrazovanja,
kao što su The TU/e i Akademija za dizajn, javila se ambicija za ostvarivanje sa­
radnje sa kompanijama. Pored kompanija sa piramidalnom strukturom uređe­nja
odozgo prema dole, kao što je organizacija Brainport, želeli smo da ostvarimo
saradnju i sa onim organizacijama čija je struktura obrnuta, ide odozdo prema
gore, kao što je virtuelna Akademija Brabant (www.brabantacademy.nl) u čijim
.............
Uprava grada: gradonačelnik Rejn Velshen, Stefano Marzano (Filips dizajn),
Lidevij Edelkort (predsednica i direktor Akademije za dizajn) i Henk de Vild (član
Univerzitetskog veća) započeli su projekat Ajndhoven 2000+ kao kulturni impuls u saradnji sa čuvenim dizajnerima, kao što su Mendini, Branci i Peter Ejsen­
man. Grad je otkrio bogatstvo znanja kojim raspolažu institucije i organizacije
kulture i obrazovanja i 2003. godine pokrenuo projekat pod nazivom E+, upotrebivši grad kao istraživačku i obrazovnu laboratoriju. Rezultati ovoga projekta pretočeni su u nove politike razvoja
Potreba za zaposlenjem, kao i mentalna urbanog dizajna i društvenih inovacija.
snaga nezaposlenih, rezultirale su inovaci­ Mnogi studenti su, nakon završetka studi­
jom kao novim fenomenom, koji je zamenio
ja, prestali da odlaze iz grada, priključivši
malu staklenu lampu, kao otkriće koje je obe­
se novoj industriji čiji se rad zasnivao na
ležilo XIX vek. Tako je znanje postalo novo
novoj energiji mladih ljudi. E+ projekat je
„gorivo“ regionalnog razvoja.
završen 2009. godine.
[
[
110
Tokom devedesetih godina prošloga veka proizvodnja se seli u zemlje sa
nižim cenama rada, ali smo oko 2000. godine shvatili da smo uspeli da zadržimo
industriju „proizvodnje ideja“! Potreba za zaposlenjem, kao i mentalna snaga
nezaposlenih, rezultirale su inovacijom kao novim fenomenom, koji je zamenio
malu staklenu lampu, kao otkriće koje je obeležilo XIX vek. Tako je znanje postalo novo „gorivo“ regionalnog razvoja, a pored glavne luke Roterdama i trgo­
vačke luke Amsterdama odjednom se pojavila moždana luka Ajndhovena!
112
®Pol Skala
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[
„Poslednja večera” – reklama za Nedelju holandskog dizajna 2008.
/ “The Last Supper” for the Dutch Design Week ‘08
:07
Eindhoven - the City as a laboratory
Cees Donkers
Urban Designer
Eindhoven City Council
• • •
Eindhoven is a modern city that has grown out of industrial activities of
the Philips Company. In the early twentieth century this industry was the main
engine of development and infrastructure growth of a small town, which,
through the merger of five local villages in 1920, grown into a large urban area.
Research in the field of electric lighting, which resulted with new technical
product at the end of the nineteenth century, in City of Eindhoven ensured its
place as a new economic center in southern Holland.
City Administration, including the
Mayor Rein Welschen, Stefano Marzano
(Philips Design), Lidewij Edelkoort (President and Director of the Academy of Design) and Henk de Wildt (Member of the
University Council) initiated the project
Eindhoven 2000 + as a cultural impulse in
cooperation with the celebrated designers, such as Mendini, Branzi and Peter Eisenman. The City has discovered a
wealth of knowledge in its institutions and organizations of culture and education, and in 2003 launched project called E+, using the City as a research and
educational laboratory. The results of project were transposed into the new
development policy, urban design and social innovation. Many students, upon
graduation, stopped leaving the City, and start joining the new industry based
on the new energy of young people. E+ project was completed in 2009.
Cees Donkers
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After a period of cooperation between the City Council and institutions
of culture and education, such as the TU/e and Academy of Design, there was
the ambition to achieve cooperation with private companies. In addition to
cooperation with company with a pyramidal structure of the organization
from top to bottom, as Brainport organization, we wanted to achieve cooperation with those organizations whose structure is reversed, going from down
[
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The urgent need for employment and
mental strength of the unemployed people
has resulted in innovation as a new phenom­
enon, which replaced a small glass lamp, a
discovery that marked the nineteenth centu­
ry in our City. Thus, knowledge has become
a new ’fuel’ for regional development.
Projekat „Brainport“ Kesa Donkersa / “Brainport” by Cees Donkers
[
114
During the nineties the production was moved to the low cost labour countries, but at some point in the begging of the next decade we discovered that we
retained the ‘thinking industry’! The urgent need for employment and mental
strength of the unemployed people has resulted in innovation as a new phenomenon, which replaced a small glass lamp, a discovery that marked the nineteenth
century in our City. Thus, knowledge has become a new ’fuel’ for regional
development, so in addition to the main commercial port of Rotterdam and
trade port of Amsterdam suddenly emerged the brain port of Eindhoven!
to top, like the Virtual Academy of Brabant (www.brabantacademy.nl) with
student organizations on the Board. The economic crisis forced us to seek
new opportunities and create a new City climate in order to enable young
people to establish their companies and start their own business. Freelancers
have already begun to fill positions in the new market for economic growth.
Designers and analysts have the ability to perceive things from different angles,
to think ‘out of the box’ and create new concepts. As the Philips discovery of
electric light bulb back in 1892 is a part of the identity of the City, the new
design, innovation and research became part of its identity as well, but they
are also useful instruments for development of new economy.
The previous text presents a brief description of the modern city of Eindhoven. As a modern designer, I realized that today development of the City is no
longer about the ’brick’, but rather about the ’people’ in the City. In the process
of urban development it is necessary to listen to the voice of the people, especially young generation, to hear their ideas about the future, and to use knowledge of educational institutions to make them think about this issue with you,
to conduct research and find answers to key issues of urban development.
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[
Kes Donkers: Generalni plan za objekat Bela dama
/ Cees Donkers: Masterplan of Witte Dame
[
116
It is SMART to think in a different ways, out of the box, within your own
generation, to be the coach and direct thinking power of young students and
join forces with freelancers in an informal and non-hierarchical network, using current technology to support communication with the rest of the world.
I enjoy sharing my knowledge with others and get energy back. I love finding
a new balance, as a surfer in new (personal) age, riding on the waves of economic sea, using the winds of innovation.
Cees Donkers
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Esteve Caramés is Strategic Policy Adviser at the Institute of Culture of the
Barcelona City Council. Since 2004 he has worked at the Institute on Cultural
Planning and International Relations Issues. He coordinated the Barcelona chair
of the Eurocities Culture Forum from 2005 to 2007. He is responsible for delegating candidates in the Department of Culture of Barcelona City on projects of
planning and development of local cultural policies. His main policy topics are
local cultural policies and international cultural cooperation. Previously he
worked at the UNESCO’s Unit of Cultural Policies, at the INTERARTS Foundation
and in the Mayor’s Office of International Relations.
Biografije / Biographies
Jonathan Goodacre is a manager, trainer and consultant with twenty
years of working experience in international cultural sector. He is an Associate
Lecturer at Anglia Ruskin University, member of the team of lecturers in the
program European Diploma for Cultural Project Management at Fondation
Marcel Hicter, he is working for the Arts Marketing Association and has served
on the boards and committees of several organisations, including as chairmen
of Hoipolloi Theatre.
Prior to founding the agency Gusto Arts Management and Consultancy,
Jonathan worked for The Junction Cambridge, Eastern Touring Agency and
Momentum Arts. He has extensive experience in marketing and communications, event management, community arts, fundraising and project design.
Jonathan established one of the first Internet portals dedicated to promoting
cultural institutions and organizations in the United Kingdom in 1996, developed a highly acclaimed arts regeneration project entitled ’Being Here’ in
2003, was co-author of ’Turning the Tide’ (Momentum 2007) a book about
participation in the arts. He is also currently working in the Metis Arts team in
theatre production and in project on climate change: ’3rd Ring Out: Rehearsing
the Future’.
Biografije / Biographies
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118
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119
Esteve Karames je savetnik za stratešku politiku u
Institutu za kulturu Barselone. U ovoj instituciji radi od
2004. godine na poslovima planiranja i razvoja međunarodnih odnosa. Bio je glavni koordinator tokom predsedavanja Barselone „Evropskim forumom za kulturu“, koji
je trajao od 2005. do 2007. godine. U Sektoru za kulturu
Barselone zadužen je za delegiranje kandidata na poslo­
vima planiranja i izrade lokalnih kulturnih politika.
Osnovne teme kojima se u svom radu bavi su lokalne kulturne politike i
međunarodna kulturna saradnja. Pre svog angažmana u Sektoru kulture grada Barselone radio je za UNESCO – u Odseku za kulturne politike, u fondaciji
INTERARTS i u kabinetu gradonačelnika Barselone, kao saradnik u oblasti međunarodnih odnosa.
Džonatan Gudejker je menadžer, konsultant i pre­
davač sa više od dvadeset godina iskustva u internacio­
nalnom radu u sektoru kulture. On je predavač-saradnik na Univerzitetu Anglija Rifkin i član tima predavača u
programu „Evropska diploma za menadžment u kulturi“,
u okviru fondacije Marsel Hikter. Radi za Asocijaciju mar­
ketinga u umetnosti, a bio je član odbora i komiteta ne­
koliko različitih organizacija, među kojima je i pozorišna
trupa Hoipolloi.
Pre osnivanja agencije Gusto menadžment u umetnosti i konsaltingu Džo­
natan Gudejker je radio u Centru The Junction u Kembridžu, agenciji Eastern
Touring i galeriji Monument Arts. Poseduje veliko iskustvo u oblasti marketinga
i komunikacije, menadžmenta događaja, umetnosti na nivou lokalnih zajednica,
kampanja za prikupljanje finansijskih sredstava i dizajna projekata. Uspostavio je jedan od prvih internetskih portala namenjenih promovisanju kulturnih
institucija i organizacija u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu, još 1996. godine. Izveo je
visokocenjeni projekat obnavljanja umetnosti pod naslovom „Biti ovde“ 2003.
godine. Koautor je knjige Okretanje plime, koju je izdao Momentum 2007. go­
dine, a koja govori o angažovanju u umetnosti. Trenutno je član tima Metis Arts
koji, u okviru projekta pod nazivom 3rd Ring Out: Rehearsing the Future, producira pozorišne komade i bavi se pitanjem klimatskih promena.
Biografije / Biographies
Jim Doyle must have at least two lives. Given his extensive professional and
creative career, one easily gets this impression about Jim. In a professional sense
he is a cultural manager with a specialisation in the arts and an avid interest in
the intersections between creativity and industry. (For more information please
visit: www.labforculture.org/en/users/site-users/site-members/jim-doyle). Also,
Jim deals with the research that is based on the practices through prototypes,
including a research web site: European Public Art Network (For more information please visit: EuropeanPublicArtNetwork.com), the current redevelopment of commercial space in the living units of work (live work units). In his
second life, Jim is an artist and a member of VAI: Visual Artists Ireland and
some of his works can be seen on his website jimdoyle.eu.
He is currently appointed to position of Manager of Dublin City Council’s
Arts Office, and is Associate Researcher with GradCAM, the Graduate School
of Creative Arts and Media (GradCAM). Jim is also one of the main architects
of Open Spaces programme, a series of partnership events, discussions and
critical response trough which the Dublin City Council aims to provide encouragement for dialogue, to inspire new creative thought and proposes a
partnership to support the engagement of artists in the Dublin’s open spaces.
Jim is also a member of the ORACLE network of European Cultural managers, which focuses on projects with a European dimension, and he gained
The European Diploma in Cultural Project Management.
Jim has held executive memberships at the National Association of Local
Government Arts Officers, (www.nalgao.org) as well as at the Institute of Leisure and Amenity Managers (www.ilam.co.uk) and he was appointed at the
National Representative for Events Industry Training by NOEA – The National
Outdoor Events Association England. In the period from 2000 to 2004 he run
the Cutting Edge Events, a company specialized in event management for local
authorities.
Jim is also former teacher accredited by the Teaching Council of Ireland,
engaged in the creation and realization of programs that address issues of creativity, identity and citizenship, including the organization of the IDC – Images
of Cultural Diversity.
As an artist, Jim attended Crawford College of Arts and Design Cork and
Chelsea College of Art and Design in London (www.chelsea.arts.ac.uk).
Biografije / Biographies
121
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120
Džim Dojl kao da ima bar dva života. Takav utisak
se stiče na osnovu njegove bogate profesionalne i stvaralačke karijere. U profesionalnom smislu, on je mena­
džer u kulturi, sa specijalizacijom u umetnosti i velikim
zanimanjem za pojavu preplitanja kreativnosti i umetnosti.
Takođe, Dojl se bavi istraživanjem koje je zasnovano na praksi koja se obavlja putem prototipa, uključujući istraživački veb-sajt European Public Art Network („Javna mreža evropske
umetnosti“), tekući ponovni razvoj komercijalnih prostora u žive radne jedinice
(live work units). A u svom, takoreći drugom životu, Džim Dojl je umetnik i član
V.A.I. (Vizuelni umetnici Irske), a neki od njegovih radova mogu se videti i na
njegovom sajtu jimdoyle.eu.
Trenutno je upravnik lokalnih umetnosti u Gradskom savetu Dablina i je­
dan od istraživača-saradnika u GradCAM-u, postdiplomskim studijama za krea­
tivne umetnosti i medije (Graduate School of Creative Arts and Media). Dojl je
i jedan od glavnih arhitekata programa Otvoreni prostori (Open Spaces), serije
partnerskih događaja, razgovora i kritičkih odgovora kroz koje Gradski savet
Dablina nastoji da pruži podstrek dijalogu, inspiriše novu misao i predloži krea­
tivna partnerstva kako bi se pružila podrška angažovanju umetnika u otvorenim prostorima Dablina.
Član je mreže ORACLE (mreža evropskih menadžera u kulturi), koja se u
svom radu fokusira na projekte sa evropskom dimenzijom, a stekao je i evropsku diplomu u menadžmentu kulturnih projekata.
Džim Dojl je član Udruženja upravnika lokalne umetničke vlasti Velike Bri­
tanije i jedan od menadžera na Institutu za slobodno vreme i prijatnost (Institute
of Leisure and Amenity Managers). Bio je nacionalni predstavnik na obuci za
industrijske događaje u okviru programa NOEA – Udruženja nacionalnih događaja na otvorenom u Engleskoj (The National Outdoor Events Association
England). Od 2000. do 2004. godine vodio je Cutting Edge Events, kompaniju
koja se bavi menadžmentom događaja, specijalizovanu za menadžment sajtova
i festivala za organizacije lokalnih vlasti.
Dojl je i bivši akreditovani predavač Učiteljskog saveta Irske, a bavi se i krei­
ranjem i ostvarivanjem programa u okviru kreativnosti, identiteta i građanstva,
uključujući i organizaciju ICD (Images of Cultural Diversity) – „Slike kulturne
raznolikosti“.
Kao umetnik, Džim Dojl je pohađao Kroford koledž umetnosti i dizajna u
Korku i Čelsi koledž umetnosti i dizajna u Londonu.
Sophie Hayles is External Relations Officer at Whitechapel Gallery, London. Following the acquisition of the adjoining library, the Gallery has recently
completed a dramatic expansion, doubling its gallery space in 2009. Sophie
manages the Gallery’s relationships with external stakeholders, for example in
the area of public policy, public affairs, local, pan-London, and national politics,
planning and transport, 2012 Olympics, and the broader cultural sector. Her
role is to actively monitor and pursue statutory funding opportunities including
lottery funds, local authority and section 106 funding, European, RDA, and
central government funding streams.
Sophie’s previous major work area was with the British Council, on the
development of a major new arts programme entitled ’Cultural Leadership International’. The programme involved countries in Europe, North America, the
Middle East and North Africa. Prior to this Sophie worked as the Arts Manager
in the Brussels office of the British Council, managing a programme of crossdisciplinary arts events, and prior to that in a start-up contemporary gallery,
ROLLO Contemporary Art. Sophie studied languages and her academic background is BA, French and Italian, University of Cambridge, and MA, Art History,
Early Sienese Painting, Courtauld Institute of Art.
Biografije / Biographies
--Maarit Keto-Seppälä works as a Project Manager in the City of Turku in
Finland. In more than twenty years of work experience she has been engaged
in a wide sector of public culture – from financial administration to production
of festivals, as well as working for the numerous cultural institutions.
She worked as a producer of small and large events and festivals, and
she was also actively engaged in their marketing activities. More than ten
years ago she founded and organized the production of one of the biggest
summer festivals in Turku – Medieval Market (For more information please
visit: www.medievalturku.fi). Last year Maarit Keto-Seppälä worked at the
manifestation entitled Christmas City of Turku, which lasts from six to seven
weeks, and by its nature is more marketing than the producers’ event (For
more information please visit: www.christmascity.com). It includes about
400 events, exhibitions, concerts, and similar events. Her latest project is reorganization of marketing activities in City of Turku Cultural Institutions. This
capital project is currently in its initial phase.
Biografije / Biographies
123
Marit Keto-Sepala radi kao projekt-menadžer u
gradu Turkuu u Finskoj. Za više od dvadeset godina rad­
nog iskustva bila je angažovana na različitim poslovima
u širokom polju javnog sektora za kulturu, od finansijske
administracije do stvaranja i produciranja festivala, te
rada za različite institucije kulture.
Radila je kao producent manjih i većih događaja i
festivala, a istovremeno je bila angažovana na njihovom
marketingu. Pre više od deset godina osnovala je i jedan od najvećih letnjih
festivala u Turkuu – Srednjovekovnu pijacu (www.medievalturku.fi). Marit
Keto-Sepala je prošle godine radila i na organizaciji i produkciji poznatog festi­
vala Božićni grad Turku.
Ovaj festival traje šest ili sedam nedelja i po svom karakteru je više marketinški nego proizvođački događaj (www.christmascity.com). On obuhvata
oko 400 dešavanja, izložbi, koncerata i sličnih manifestacija. Njen poslednji projekat je reorganizovanje marketinga u institucijama kulture grada Turkua. Ovaj
veliki projekat je trenutno u početnoj fazi.
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122
Sofi Hejlz je direktor kancelarije za spoljne odnose
u Galeriji Vajtčapel u Londonu. Galerija je, nakon sje­di­
njenja prostora sa Bibliotekom pored nje 2009. godine,
dramatično povećala svoj prostor, gotovo ga udvostručivši. Sofi Hejlz je zadužena za upravljanje poslovima
Galerije sa spoljnim interesnim grupama, na primer u
oblasti javne politike, javnih poslova, lokalne, panlondonske i nacionalne politike, planiranja i logistike, aktivnosti vezanih za Olimpijske igre 2012. godine, te šireg kulturnog sektora. Njena
uloga, takođe, podrazumeva nadležnosti u nadgledanju i sprovođenju zakonski
propisanih mogućnosti finansiranja, uključujući lutrijske fondove, lokalne vlasti
i tačku 106 o finansiranju, evropske finansijske tokove, kao i finansijske tokove
RDA (Agencija za regionalni razvoj) i mogućnosti finansiranja od strane centralnih vlasti.
Prethodni poslovni angažman Sofi Hejlz je imala u okviru rada Britanskog
saveta, na poslovima razvoja novih, kapitalnih umetničkih programa, pod nazivom „Internacionalno liderstvo u kulturi“. Program je obuhvatao zemlje u Evropi,
Severnoj Americi, Bliskom istoku i severnoj Africi. Pre toga, Sofi Hejlz je radila
kao menadžer u umetnosti u briselskoj kancelariji Britanskog saveta, gde je rukovodila programom međudisciplinarnih umetničkih događaja. Do tada je bila
zaposlena u Galeriji savremene umetnosti ROLLO. Akademsko obrazovanje je
stekla u oblasti studija stranih jezika – diplomirala je francuski i italijanski jezik
na Univerzitetu Kembridž, a magistrirala je istoriju umetnosti na Institutu umetnosti Kortland.
Biografije / Biographies
Cees Donkers is urban designer at the City Council of Eindhoven and the
Brabant region. He graduated from Technical University in Eindhoven, Faculty
of Architecture and Urban Design. He was engaged in the project of general
planning of Katendrehta in Rotterdam as a team leader of the City of Rotterdam. He works as senior designer at Design Bureau for Development in Helmond (near Eindhoven), and as a senior designer in the capital projects of the
City of Eindhoven: general plan for the objects previously used by Phillips
company, such as the White Lady building (Witte Dame) and public space in
the town hall square.
He has worked as urban designer, coordinator of the project entitled City
as a Laboratory and in project of collaboration with the institutions for education. He is also lecturer and active promoter of the City’s urban design. He has
also been organizing Urban Design Program in 2005, 2006 and 2007 in Design
House and in the City Hall for Dutch Design Week since 2008. In 2009 a virtual
Academy via LinkedIn was founded, covering the whole province of Brabant,
with the bottom-up organizational structure and an informal network.
Biografije / Biographies
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Blaž Peršin was born in Ljubljana, where he finished Gymnasium secondary school and graduated from the Faculty of Law. Upon graduation, he
worked as an independent producer in contemporary art, dance and theatre.
He studied Cultural management, where he gained The European Diploma in
Cultural Project Management. He was the Head of Department of Cultural
Heritage Protection and Preservation in Ljubljanja. In the period from 2003 to
2006 he was appointed as the Director of Culture in Ljubljana City Administration. Since 2006 he has been Director of the City Museum of Ljubljana,
which in the meantime was joined with the City Galleries, so the Institution
was given a new name – City Museums and Galleries of Ljubljana. He was a
member of number of councils and boards responsible for the matter of cultural politics of Ljubljana city, so he had the opportunity to work in number of
national and international projects in this area. He is currently a member of the
board CAMOC – worldwide network of city museums, as well as a member of
several cultural boards.
125
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124
Blaž Peršin je rođen u Ljubljani, gde je završio gim­
naziju i diplomirao na Pravnom fakultetu. Po završetku
fakulteta radio je kao nezavisni producent u savremenoj umetnosti, plesu i teatru. Studirao je menadžment
savremene kulture, odsek za projektni menadžment u
kulturi. Obavljao je funkciju direktora Odseka za zaštitu
spomenika kulture Ljubljane, a u periodu od 2003. do 2006. godine bio je direk­
tor Sektora za kulturu u gradskoj upravi Ljubljane. Od 2006. godine do danas
zaposlen je kao direktor Gradskog muzeja Ljubljane, koji je u međuvremenu,
spajanjem poslovanja sa gradskim galerijama, dobio novi naziv – Gradski muzeji i galerije Ljubljane. Bio je član niza saveta zaduženih za brigu o kulturnoj
politici grada i imao je priliku da radi na različitim nacionalnim i međunarodnim
projektima u toj oblasti. Trenutno je član Odbora Camoca – svetske mreže
gradskih muzeja, kao i član više odbora za kulturu.
Kes Donkers je dizajner urbanizma u Gradskom sa­
vetu u Ajndhovenu i holandskoj regiji Brabant. Završio
je Fakultet za arhitekturu i urbani dizajn na Tehničkom
univerzitetu u Ajndhovenu. Bio je angažovan na projek­tu
uređenja opšteg urbanističkog plana grada Katendrehta
kod Roterdama kao vođa tima. Radi na mestu višeg dizajnera u projektnom birou za razvoj grada Helmonda
(blizu Ajndhovena) i kao viši dizajner u kapitalnim projektima grada Ajndhovena. Učestvovao je u izradi generalnog plana za nekadašnje objekte kompanije Filips, kao što su Bela dama (Witte Dame) i javni pro­
stor Trga Gradske kuće.
Donkers radi i kao dizajner urbanizma, šef Sekretarijata za izgradnju, koordinator projekta E+, sklapa ugovore između grada i Univerziteta, honorarni
je predavač na Tehničkom univerzitetu u Ajndhovenu. U svom pristupu on
koristi grad kao laboratoriju.
Kao urbani dizajner, koordinator je projekta Grad kao laboratorija, sarađuje sa gradskim institucijama za obrazovanje, drži predavanja i gradske promocije o urbanom dizajnu. Organizovao je programe urbanog dizajna 2005,
2006. i 2007. godine u Kući dizajna (Design House), a od 2008. godine u Gradskoj
kući za Nedelju holandskog dizajna. Godine 2009. je osnovana Brabant akademija za celu provinciju Brabant. Radi se o virtuelnoj akademiji na Linkedinu sa
organizacionom strukturom odozdo prema gore i neformalnom mrežom.
© Kevin Abosch
Biljana Mickov je menadžer u kulturi i konsultant.
Diplomirala je na Univerzitetu u Novom Sadu. Takođe
ima evropsku diplomu iz projekt-menadžmenta u kulturi
iz Brisela, koju podržavaju UNESCO i Evropska komisija.
Urednik je časopisa za savremenu kulturu Nova misao.
Pored toga, radi projekte za Muzej savremene umetno­
sti Vojvodine u Novom Sadu i Zavodu za kulturu Vojvodine. Bavi se istraživanjem i razvojem kulturnih politika
u saradnji sa lokalnim upravama.
--Biljana Mickov is a cultural manager and consultant. She graduated from
the University of Novi Sad. She also has a degree in European Diploma in Cultural Project Management (Marcel Hicter Foundation), Brussels (supported
by UNESCO and the European Commission). Biljana is editor of magazine for
contemporary culture, entitled New Thought. Also, she is engaged in projects
for the Museum of Contemporary Art in Novi Sad and Institute for Culture of
Vojvodina. Her work is primarily dedicated to research and development of
cultural policies in cooperation with local authorities.
Evropski modeli menadžmenta u savremenoj umetnosti i kulturi
European Management Models in Contemporary Art and Culture
Izdavač / Publisher
Muzej savremene umetnosti Vojvodine u Novom Sadu /
The Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina in Novi Sad
Dunavska 37, 21000 Novi Sad, Tel: +381 21 6611 463, 526 634
e-mail: [email protected], website: www.msuv.org
Za izdavača / Executive Publisher
Živko Grozdanić
Urednik i autor projekta / Editor and author of project
Biljana Mickov
Stručni saradnik / Assistant
Danijela Halda
126
Producent / Producer
Jovan Jakšić
Lektura i korektura / Proofreading
Predrag Rajić
Prevod, lektura i korektura engleskog teksta
/ Translation, Proofreading
Jelena Rajić
Tiraž / Print Run
500
Štampa / Printed by
Štamparija Stojkov, Novi Sad
Septembar 2010, Novi Sad / September 2010, Novi Sad
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Pokrovitelj / Patronage
Pokrajinski sekretarijat za kulturu
Provincial Secretariat for Culture
Biografije / Biographies
Ove prezentacije su se dešavale tokom 2009. godine
u Muzeju savremene umetnosti Vojvodine
--These presentations were delivered during 2009
at The Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina
CIP – Каталогизација у публикацији
Библиотека Матице српске, Нови Сад
7:005(4)
008:005(4)
МИЦКОВ, Биљана
European management models in contemporary art and culture
= Evropski modeli menadžmenta u savremenoj umetnosti i kulturi /
Biljana Mickov. – Novi Sad : Muzej savremene umetnosti Vojvodine,
2010 (Novi Sad : Stojkov). – 128 str. : ilustr. ; 24 cm
Uporedo srp. tekst i engl. prevod. – Tiraž 500. – Beleška o autoru: str. 126.
ISBN 978-86-84773-75-5
a) Уметност – Менаџмент – Европа b) Култура – Менаџмент – Европа
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COBISS.SR-ID 259516167
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20110203-European-management-Models-in