kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
)074(3.119:2.031 :KDU
ninaquK riminarB
tetlukaf iksfozoliF
akuL awaB
IK^ITSITNALTA I OVTSJIZAORVE
KADEROP INLABOLG
ejifozolif evonso i ujirotsi i`olzi oktark ad ej adar qiC :tkartspA
-umok awatavhirpen emejirv u i avtsrac goksuR amols nokan golatsan avtsjizaorve
iksjizaorvE .edvarp akterop i ejedi eksur enverd ewe`art otungerpan oak amzin
-az amerp vatsvitorp oak anidog hitesedavd mokte~op ilatsan us ajiroet i terkop
-rutluk ujiroet ajivzar ikceburT jalokiN .ukterop mok~itilop i monevt{urd mondap
jalokiN a ,arotsorp ujiroet uksjizaorve ikcivaS rateP ,atejivs amzilarulp gon
,mok~itsilaudividni mondapaz torpusaN .avarp i eva`rd ujifozolif vejeskelA
i eva`rd envarp ijedi ,ijirotsi i uvt{urd zalirp ik~itsiloh ujavinsaz icjizaorve
-az ,adoran ovarp i itson`ud eva`rd ujedi ujaqvatstorpus avarp hiksduq ijiroet
-itarkoedi i ujitarkomed uksnagro ujaqvatsvitorp ijitarkomed jonlarebiL .acindej
.edvarp uva`rd ,uj
-inredom ,e}ib ,rotsorp ,emejirv ,ovtsjizaorve ,mazitnalta :i~ejir en~uqK
-sI ,dapaZ ,tsonemervas ,mazilarebil ,mazigolotno ,mazicirotsi ,ajicidart ,ajicaz
,onpok ,ovtstarb ,advarp ,miR i}erT ,mazilanosrep ,maziloh ,mazilaudividni ,kot
-arkoedi ,ajitarkomed ,mazinumok ,mazilatipak ,mazilajirepmi ,ajicazilivic ,erom
,ajicazilabolg ,eqvalsovarp ,mazitnatsetorp ,mazilajidnom ,tson`ud ,ovarp ,ajit
.niranaP ,niguD ,voqimuG ,vejeskelA ,ikcivaS ,ikceburT
mokte~op goneqvonbo aterkop ,avtsjizaorveoen ira~iteroet i}edoV
-naskelA us azevas gonlatnenitnok gok~itsinumok amols nokan hitesedeved
-om hud oak ava~anzo mazicirotsi niguD .niranaP radnaskelA i niguD rad
-if uksur ,un~otsi aqvatstorpus anemerv imgidarap jondapaz i ehope enred
-te~op an atejivs gonemervas tsonsapo i vozazi i}evjaN .arotsorp ujifozol
abert ijok ukterop monlabolg mok~itsitile u idiv niranaP akejiv IXX uk
.mojicazilabolg mone|ov ikstarkomed itiropso
edvarp ejedi i akterop gok~itilop gonemervas awatip ewartamzaR
oak ejirotsi ek~itilop enemervas ewavanzop i ewavi|erdo aqvatsopterp
.eksfozolif i en~uan ,ejiroet ek~itilop enemervas i
-ervas avolop ewavi|rvtu an eju}upu san awavi`artsi ajigolodoteM
-ilop edovziorp mewaterk mijovs ,mokitkelajid mojovs ijok atejivs gonem
-zi ot{ ,soah ik~itilop ili kaderop ik~itilop iken i ad`om i tovi` ik~it
onrops ejin ijirotsi jok~itilop jonemervas U .ejin~at i ejintavorejv adelg
an }eV .ovtsjizaorve i mazitnaltaorve ivolop it invar jonlabolg an us ad
-emzi ebrob rotsorp oak ejuqvajop aporvE es ad iti~ou ome`om delgop ivrp
96
ninaquK riminarB
eva`rD ek~iremA enewidejS ujaqvatsderp sanad ijok atejivs gokstnalta u|
.lop igurd ini~ ajok ejisuR onsondo ,ejizaorvE ejin~at ili ejizA i
.ajirotsi ak~itilop anemervas ewi~op adak ewatip es aqvatsoP
-rvaz op tsej ot ,enidog .8191 ewi~op ajirotsi anemervas ad artams }i~emkE
ejirotsi enemervas kate~op az oka ,mitu|eM .atar gokstejvs govrP ukte{
-uK mewajavso ujirepmi ujovs aravts ad ewi~op akiremA adak .8981 omemzu
ad i}er ome`om adno )albat aksvoha{ akileV ,iksni`e`B( anipiliF i eb
,akejiv gondej do e{iv }ev ejart ad i anidog tesedavd a`ud ajirotsi at ej
—4091 ewi~op bokus iksjizaorve-okstnalta inemervaS .anidog 801 ejin~at
e}uju~uldo unapaJ ek{rdop mokitilop mojovs akiremA ej adak enidog .5091
-qops qic invalg i ne|erdo ej mivO .atar goksnapaj-oksur dohsi an alacitu
atovi` gok~itilop zi ewawalku i eweqbals ej ot a ,ekiremA ekitilop en
.akinrapus gonlajicnetop i gonravts gejin}omjan gonew atejivs gonemervas
-ats tsar i jovzar indervirp narub alami emejirv ot u ej ajok ,ajisuR ej oT
i mondervirp an atejivs aqmez a}edov enatsop ad amidelgzi as avt{invon
.unalp mok~itilop-onjov
)ejitamolpid ajirotsI ,nikmetoP( amiwe~amut minsejvzi amerP
-atirB akileV ej alargido atar gokstejvs govrP uwawi~opto u ugolu unvalg
-u|em u elis enlatnenitnok eksjizaorve e}edov ejivd alibalso ib ad ajin
-tejvs gogurD kate~op az ekvatsopterp a ,ujisuR i uk~ameW — ubokus monbos
-icoslanoican gok~amew unopsu mok{rdop mojovs DAS us elirovts atar goks
us ejok amaqmez — amziratilim goksnapaj i amzi{af goksnajilati ,amzilaj
-umok eweri{ elava}ugomeno i zevaS ikstejvoS ik~itsinumok elavi`urko
anasilortnoK ,iksmo^( utejivs u akterop gok~itsilatipak inarbdo u amzin
-jizaorve en}om ,azevaS gokstejvoS i azevas goksva{raV molS .)ajitarkomed
acideqsop oak ej oidejilsu ,akejiv XX mejark ejirepmi ek~itsinumok eks
-az aksporvE ,)adanaK i DAS( akiremaolgnA eni~ ujok elaretalirT avtsjed
tatluzer oak ,onvaran ,i )ajisimok anlaretalirT ,vomarvA( napaJ i acindej
-agod ijin`avjan us oT .akterop got itsobals hiw{artunu deqsu awava{uru
alib canolso invalg ej iji~ ,mazilatipaK .akejiv XX ejirotsi ek~itilop ija|
.ej oidejibop ,akiremA
-otkoejilsop goksur ajiroet ak~itilop i anevt{urd ej ovtsjizaorvE
.1291 es olivajoP .anidog hitesedirt i hitesedavd avt{ineqesi goksrab
-op icoison i akinrobz icsiP .ijifoS u kotsI an zalzI mokinrobz enidog
-vuS rateP ,iksvorolF ejigroeG ,ikceburT jalokiN ,ikcivaS rateP us aterk
-kelA jalokiN i us ilavovtse~u avtsjizaorve ejigoloedi idarzar U .iksni~
eksur icinelsop itunkatsi igurd i nivasraK vaL ,ikcanreV jigroeG ,vejes
-ok amiwadzi migonm u enavi|arzar us avtsjizaorve ejedi envonsO .erutluk
-oP .uziraP ,ulesirB ,unilreB ,udargoeB ,ugarP ,ijifoS u alivajop es us aj
-og tseanavd mokoT .on~ils i awavaderp ,evopuks ejovs oavozinagro ej terk
derop es us jojok u akinorh aksjizaorvE ej anavadzi ,7391 od .5291 do ,anid
-agro hiksjizaorve utovi` o ilajiretam i ilaviqvajop akanal~ hiksjiroet
-jizaorvE .ajizaorvE kinqejden oizalzi .9291 i .8291 ej uziraP U .ajicazin
jow U .ejedi eksur acavarp hijine|arzarjan do mindej artams es ajiroet aks
-olif evo ut{iders U .ejirotsi eksur ajifozolif anlatsomas anejivzar ej
-sI eniboso avawidejs ibes u ajok aqmez aneboso ajisuR ej ad vats ej ejifoz
u tnenitnok ujavejimuzardop en icjizaorve mojizaorvE doP .adapaZ i akot
i udapaz an rotsorp ,ajizaorvE anrevejs ej ano ,hiw aZ .ulsims moksfargoeg
07
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
i avonso ej ijok amivtsjovs mindorirp mineboso as ,amaninalp ne|emo uguj
ivonso u ej oT .atovi` i a}ib gonvohud i gok~itilop ,gonevt{urd gonbesaz
,urutluk undej u adoran hiti~ilzar ovt{onm avawidejbo ijok ejisuR rotsorp
-otsi i utejivs u izolu i uretkarak movs op unevtsnidej ,uksjizaorve-oksur
-urd i hindorirp uwavolejd monmajazu an anavonsaz ej arutluk avO .ijir
op akstejvs i ila alatsan ej mok an morotsorp ane|erdo ,acalini~ hinevt{
-reS ara~irotsi hiksur edelgop an ilawalso es us icjizaorvE .uja~anz movs
higurd i goksvelinaD ajalokiN mitaz ,goksve~uqK ajilisaV i avojvoloS ajeg
uvonso ilizalan arotsorp uvtsnidej u us ijok ejirotsi eksur a~avi`artsi
-rejv ,arutluk hivohiw itsoksilb ,adoran ajovzar goksjirotsi avt{indejaz
-ugomo us idivu ivO .azev hik~itilop hitsrv~ qemet i akizej ,awa}ejso hiks
.ejisuR tson}udub i tsol{orp an delgop ivon erovts ad amicjizaorve ili}
-at az jacitsdop na`ans ilib is amzinumok ewatavhirpen i avtsrac molS
-aravts aja{ukop zin oak ediv icjizaorve atnenitnok ujirotsI .awagart avk
hinzar enarts do eva`rd enlatnenitnok eksjizaorve enevtsnidej endej aw
-ur eweri{ onepetsop oak ujatavhs ujirotsi uksur ,enarts egurd S .a~ajavso
-erk hinvohud i hik~itilop ,hinevt{urd hi}ujaravogdo umew i eva`rd eks
,acajizaorve uweq{im op ,es arotsorp ovtsnideJ .tnenitnok vati~ an awat
ujuwejco icjizaorve .7191 ujiculoveR .mik~itilop i minevt{urd avawupod
-op i atejivs goksporve ge|ut jow zi ejisuR kazalzi — abod govon kate~op oak
us icjizaorve govrP arteP emrofeR .ajovzar goksjirotsi gonlatsomas kate~
,amilifonevols ontorpuS .ejisuR awavozieporve kate~op oak ilavaropso
-nom-oksrataT .irutluk joksur u calini~ iksnarut ,in~otsi ilacitsi us ino
-zi ulsims u ok~alaravts oak ilinejic us ejirotsi eksur eqbodzar okslog
-ej gonrutluk erovzi us icjizaorvE .itsonva`rd apit i eva`rd eksur ewdarg
-niX ijirepmi u ilizalan apit gonrutluk goksjizaorve uvajop uvrp i avtsnid
-urd ivon itivatsopsu metup minrim i}om e} ad iladan es us inO .anak-sig
-iC .adoran tsejivs an es i}ujawalso ejizaorvE kaderop ik~itilop i inevt{
ad olabert uweq{im movohiw op ej jols ik~aqvarpu a ,tsalv ukaj us ilinej
joksjizaorve itsonado uvonso op narib adoran zi ondersopen tungidzu edub
U .ujitarkoedi oak u{iretkarak uva`rd uksjizaorve u}udub ino okaT .ijedi
.enijovs enevt{urd i entavirp uwavizevop mondalks ili`et us idervirp
-op onbosops ono ej ad i}ujartams ,uqvalsovarp ilavadirp us ugolu unbesoP
an ej uvt{ineqesi moksur U .ejizaorvE urotsorp an erejv eti~ilzar itazev
-nevrp ewavad i awe~u goksjizaorve mazitate iwjark oizalian uduso urt{o
-nok zi oaketop tatkid ik{oloedi ,u}{on~il derp icindejaz ,uvt{urd avts
-idop es terkop iksjizaorve anidog hitesedavd mejarK .ejitarkoedi ejicpec
-ats olava`rdop onerovto ej ejok ajizaorvE atsil oko olirk ovejil an oilej
aterkop agoloedi hitunkatsi zin i ikceburT .olirk onsed i tsalv uksniq
oak ovtsjizaorve anidog hitesedirt moniders a ,miw s ezev ilunikerp us
.ijotsop ad ejatserp terkop ik~itilop inavozinagro
-ajR asalokiN mojiduts iciremA u ej oidoru ovtsjizaorve az seretnI
goksjizaorve zakirp iqobjan a ,7691 msinaisarue fo ecnegreme ehT goksvonaz
niE .reisaruE red erheL eiD iziwk u enidog .1691 seB otO camejiN ej oad awe~u
-obuS naliM e{ip ,strednuhrhaJ .02 sed ethcihcsegneedI nehcsissur ruz gartieB
-otsi e`alzi jojok u ,et{ivonats oksjizaorve ,ejisuR tuP iziwk jojovs u }it
.ejiroet ek~itilop oak avtsjizaorve ujir
17
ninaquK riminarB
-esedeved mokte~op ovtsjizaorve ,ijisuR u amzinumok amols nokaN
.ejifozolif i ejiroet enevt{urd eksur amet hinvalg do andej ejatsop hit
-atip an irovogdo e`art onevtsnevrp es umew u ;emet en~uan do e{iv ej onO
alatsop akejiv XX mejark ej ajizaorvE .ejisuR ew{anad ecimuoden i aw
gokstejvoS modapsar aS .arovog gew{adikavs i ekitilop majop ineja~ibou
gok~itilop govon ewatip anidog hitesedeved mokte~op ej onerovto azevaS
.ijizA amerp asondo gonew i eporvE awe|erdo goksjicazilivic-onrutluk i
-ilatipak gon{i`rt adejbop anartams ej mon~anok amzinumok momols aS
i onerovto ej ovonoP .eva`rd ekstarkomed-onlarebil i avt{urd gok~its
{oj ,akejiv XIX govati~ mokot onaqvarpsar eporvE i ejisuR asondo ewatip
-zar ot{en ilad us notgnitnaH i amajukuF .alifonevols hinar anemerv do
acinarg ewaqvatsop i ewavi|rvtu e} il aD .atejivs govon awe|iv ati~il
invalg itib irejv an hinavonsaz ajicazilivic i arutluk hiti~ilzar u|emzi
i anemerv goksvotarondalhtsop ,govon abokus hik~itilop rovzi i temderp
tejivs az tsonsapo a}ev ad`om ej ili ,notgnitnaH a|ivderp okak akejiv IXX
ejiN ?ovtsjizaorve ej at[ ?adapaZ gonemervas uledom amerp ajicazilabolg
-uF us ot{ ogen iqob — anemerv ge{an evozazi an rovogdo iqob iken ono il
u iksni`e`B I ?ajicazilivic bokus vonotgnitnaH ili ejirotsi jark nimajuk
onimajukuF ?ajihrana ili anacirema xaP :itson}ugom ejivd omas idiv utejivs
-egeh an onewolso ejirotsi ewe~amut ok~itsivisergorp i ok~itsilazrevinu
uhud u mazilkic i maziralukitrap vonotgnitnaH ili ujicidart uksvol
urivko u i ad ucinewi~ adiv zi itibug abert eN ?ajibnjoT i arelgnep[
-ivs amzilarulp gonrutluk uwatavhs mok~itsivitaler aterkop goksjizaorve
-raK vaL gokceburT ajalokiN ovtsna~ejvo~ i aporvE iziwk u mone`olzi atej
uwaterk moksjirotsi-okstejvs monevtsnidej o ujiroet aqvatstorpus nivas
-ifozolif u nivasraK .irutluk joksjizaorve jonlazrevinu u eju|olpo es ejok
-ozolif eksjizaorve ~uqk izalan avorodojF ajalokiN alejd gok~indejaz ij
.mazivitka ik{olotahse vogew an es i}ujawalso ejif
-urd enew amols od i olevod ej ot{ ,tar indalh alibugzi ej ajisuR
avejthaz ewatavhirp oib ej zalzI .)amzinumok( ejiroet ek~itilop i enevt{
awatavhirp gonte~op nokan es ajisuR .atup gotitsalv ewe`art ili adapaZ
u enejirok eji~ moksjicazilivic e}erko ejirotsi awe~amut gok~itsilarebil
-velinaD ajalokiN dok onevtsnevrp omizalan u|eqsan moksjiroet moksur
i avt{urd goksur aledom govon uwe`art u hitesedeved nerovto ropS .goks
akinrobop — akawdapaz i alifonevols evarpsar erats ej oivonbo eva`rd
,inarts jondej an ,irutluk i ijicidart joksur an gonavonsaz atup gonlatsomas
-ibod ja~anz nabesoP .jogurd an ejisuR awavozieporve ge`rb akinrovogaz i
-open anemerv zi avt{ineqesi goksur oasim ak~itilop i aksfozolif ej al
-ogew uweq{im amerp ,ovtsjizaorvE .ejiculover eksrabotkO nokan onders
-ovog onO .awatip hinemervas ewe{ejr az ejedi ejad ,a~amut hiw{anad hiv
uwe`art u ejisuR utup moksjirotsi i uretkarak moksjizaorve moneboso o ir
-jizaorve gokstejvostsop avtsnidej evonso i aledom gonva`rd i gonevt{urd
-jizaorve gonemervas ara~iteroet hinvalg do nadeJ .inilejc u arotsorp goks
-tsop enlazrevinu itson}ugom o ewatip aqvatsop niranaP radnaskelA avts
avtsnidej i ewdaras itson}ugom ewatip ,ejin~at ,i ejigoloedi ekstejvos
-an jovon oak uvtsjizaorve u izalan rovogdO .adoran hiksnarut i hiksnevols
minvohud onevtsnevrp artams ovtsjizaorve niranaP .ejisuR ijedi jonlanoic
-azop zeb ujicazinredom i}ugomo ad abert ijisuR ijok motarverp ,moterkop
27
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
do goti~ilzar ,aledom goksjicazilivic goneboso ewaravts i awe~awdap
-redom ak{olonhet i ajicidart anrutluK .gok~ificap do i ila gokstnalta
-jizaorveoen ukitilop i ujiroeT .aledom got ecinderdo envonso us ajicazin
a|ov i ~avinso ,ra~itilopoeg i fozolif ,niguD radnaskelA ej oivzar avts
on~isalk idovan }itobuS ,avtsjizaorveoen evonso oaK .ejitrap eksjizaorvE
-reznok i amzilanoicidart ujifozolif ,eqvalsovarp oksur ,ovtsjizaorve
evoN .ujirotsi ukstejvos i ujigolodotem uk~itilopoeg ,ejiculover envitav
.avtsjizaorve gonrovzi ewe~amut ok~alaravts e`art itsonloko
ivonsO iziwk u niguD radnaskelA e`alzi avtsjizaorve ujifozoliF
neW .ehope enredom tib mazicirotsi ej ad eju|rvtu ovrp nO .ekitilopoeg
jokileV i ahud ijigolonemoneF u legeH oi`olzi i oitavhs ej eqobjan hud
e}iB ovoregedjaH ,akejiv XX avarpsar aksfozolif ajinja~anzjan i a ,icigol
-otsi ej legeH .niguD e{ip ,emejirv zork mone}avhs u}ib o irovog emejirv i
-otsi a ,onsrvotsi oak amiop es onO .unemerv u a}ib jovzar oak oitavhs ujir
gonsrvotsi majop aravogdo unemerv mone}avhs okaT .anevtsnidej oak ajir
gone}avhs onvolsuzeb zi nedevzi ej arotsorp majop jaT .esam zeb arotsorp
.anemerv
invitavreznoK .acvarp aksfozolif irt us anedevzi ivonso jovo aN
u ava`rdo es tsol{orp ,a}ib ujicalumuka oak atavhs ujirotsi mazicirotsi
-tulospa aqvatsopterp ajok ajifozolif avolegeH ivonso u ej oT .itsow{adas
mazipotu ik{olorutuF .itsonravts awajotsop umrof uksjirotsiderp ,ujedi un
gonvitavreznok atnajiravni ej no ,acvarp govrp mewavozitulospa ejatsan
on~anok oak atavhs e}ib mazipotu ik~itsinumok ,ik{olorutuF .amzicirotsi
-ub u ewaterk oksjirotsi itsevod e} ejok od u}onup ,ejirotsi ewe`alizaverp
ekildo envalg aqvanbo cavarp ivejil ik~ite i iksfozolif ,javO .itson}ud
-emefe ,i}erT .erejv enidejop az gonlanoicidart awavike~{i gok~itsajilih
-jan ej nO .onzalorp ,ontunert oak atavhs e}ib amzicirotsi cavarp ik~itsir
i tsol{orp ,itsonemervas eviqnejmorp katunert ej tsonravtS .ijindeqsod
-orp tsondejirv i e}ib avat{inop emejirV .enavozigolotnoed us tson}udub
-ams ewanz mazicirotsi ik~itsiremefe ,monvitavreznok torpusaN .itsol{
.ovtsuksi onzalorp oak avajop omas ijotsop ;u}ib mintorpus art
-olotnoed ak gok{olotno do e}erk es ajifozolif oak mazicirotsI
mazicirotsi ik{olorutuf i invitavreznoK .anemerv uwatavhs monavozig
-an iksjirotsien az mon~itsiretkarak mokizifatem as inazevop ilatso us
-torpus do isonerp onepetsop es ejifozolif akitamelborP .aweq{im ni~
-olotnoed i gok{olotno uvatsvitorp ak amzicirotsien i amzicirotsi itson
.amzicirotsi gonavozig
-idart mewat{upan as oivajop ajigoloedi itsalbo u es mazicirotsI
i akterpan ejedI .udapaZ an avt{urd gonemervas moknatsan i gonlanoic
-najilegeh ijigoloedi U .akejiv govon ajigoloedi avonso elatsop us ajovzar
-najilegehoen i momzi{af as ejuzevop ajurts hinemervas ratunu es ovts
{oj cavarp injedi ik~itsiremefe i ik{olorutuf us adaT .aelitne\ movts
-utuf ,alarebil i atsinumok bokus ej ijivonjaN .agans hivejil uzevas u ilib
-itulospa ijok itarkomed inlarebil uju|ejboP .agolotnoitna i agolotno-or
-irotsi ajovzar jidats i{ivjan ,iwdeqsop ej ad idrvt niguD .onzalorp ujuz
-top anemerv mohuD .amzilarebil modejbop monratenalp as nazevop amzic
evajbo ad ava}ugomo amilarebil ot{ ,itsonemervas majop avadalvo onup
.ejirotsi jark
37
ninaquK riminarB
idov i sa`u avizazi amzilarebil edejbop itsonja`rdaseb ewatavhS
-vitorP .ejigolorutuf ek~itsinumok i amzicirotsi gonvitavreznok ivonbo
-ap no ,mazicirotsi invitavreznok avat{inu ejirotsi i ejigolotno tson~ejr
ad atavhs en amzinumok mazigolotno ik{olorutuf ,enarts egurd S .ivrp ad
-oK .atkejbus ,atajiratelorp eqov enranoiculover olejd onsejvzien e}ib ej
-en iti~ejirps ugom ewaviravtso eji~ qic ,katadaz ej ajigolotno ak~itsinum
-ad ak{oloeleT .aqov aneqvatstorpus ,agurd ili itsonloko ene|ivderp
-laminim ira~iteroeT .itiravtso arom en es ajiculover ak~itsinumok ,tsot
-ok us ad ilidrvt us namskilG i iveL ,norA ,kejaH i repoP — amzinamuh gon
acsarbo goksnemerv tsonjovd an us ilavizakU .irotavreznokotpirk itsinum
-luzer ej amziskram zarop ik{oloedI .ijifozolif jovohiw u amzigolotno i
-ebop“ ej amzilarebil adejboP .niguD idrvt ,emejirv zork a}ib awatavhs tat
umew i emejirv onja`rdaseb ej ejirotsi tatluzeR .”me}ib dan anemerv ad
-lanoicidart U .adejbop anja~uls ejin ,atinokaz ej oT .rotsorp i}ujaravogdo
one~inargo olib ej ono ,arejv i tim iladalv us monemerv dan uvt{urd mon
-onod kejiv ivoN .u}ib o oirovog ej tiM .a}ib mokot min`urk ,mokizifatem
.anemerv ewatavhs ovon is
-edi ,nazarp en ila ,rotsorp etsej ,unemerv ,itsonzalorp tsontorpuS
-evopen rotsorp ej oT .anemerv evogart avu~ ijok rotsorp indorirp }ev nala
-nelak kiazom ine`ols“ ,anemerv ovt{onm edovziorp ajok anemerv hinaz
u ijotsop ono ,tsonjart e~its e}ib arotsorp do i}uwi~oP .”avogurk hiksrad
on`urk ej jovzaR .unemerv u es ajivzar en ,urotsorp moksvotrakeden ,movi`
-{adas ,tsol{orP .a}ib e}onup ewajatsen in ewe`alodan ejin ,ewaterk
.ekandej ik{olotno us tson}udub i tsow
-ap aksnemerV .iksnemerv avaw{ajbo i atavhubo cazarbo inrotsorP
do andej }ev ,ejigoloedi ek~itilop envalg i awanzas avonso ejin amgidar
-orhnis gonravts oid ej ijok urotsorp monbesop u ejuqvajop es ajok acinewi~
ej urotsorp u anemerv awdovziorP .atejivs oid indapaz ej oT .atejivs gon
tsonebosO .nevtsnidej ,nabesop aduvs ej ijok esam moderopsar aneqvolsu
ekvatsopterp i asopot do gotungrto asonorh evatsderp ewaravts ej adapaZ
monemerv adapaZ jacitu doP .urotsorp monew`arpsi ,usopot monvitkif o
avadalvdan ukterop monrotsorp u emi~ arotsorp ivolejid igurd i ujadap
ej alatsan me}ib dan anemerv uwavadalvdan o ajizulI .cazarbo iksnemerv
.urotsorp mondapaz u a}ib esam mokeso
an navonsaz ej emgidarap eksnemerv kilbo inlarebil ,inejivzaR
es ejok u tsow{adas ,icunert inadikerpsI .itsonravts uzalirp montnavk
eksnemerv avonso ak~itsilanoicar i ak~itsilaudividni us e}ib at{ejms
.ijotsop en e}udub i ol{orp ,e~irop es anemerv tsondikerpeN .emgidarap
-azevopen i icnidejop inavozimota ujaravogdo unemerv montnavk moksmotA
.icilbo iksmuzar inbesaz ,in
-ilzar ejivd awapalkerp zi e~itop tsonadikerpsi ad i~amut niguD
arejm i awaterk arejm ej rotsorP .arotsorp i anemerv — itsondikerpen eti~
-erv amgidarap awjark adikerp uk~at ,anemerv i arotsorp kejserP .anemerv
oatsan amzivitizop i amzilanoicar zI .tulospa ,et{iders oak atavhs anem
-erv gonzalorp ektunert enbesaz oak atavhs tsonravts ijok hud inemervas ej
.anem
-rotsorp i uksnemerv i ejuzigolotno amgidarap anrotsorp ,ontorpuS
-o^ .dovzi inlatsomasen oak artamsop kejserp vohiw ila ,tsondikerpen un
47
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
,ik~itsilaudividni en a ik~itsilanosrep atavhs imgidarap jovo u es kejv
-ej elarebil aZ .viqejden — nalaudividni ejin ,navolsu — nalaudivid ej no
-od dovziorp ej alatso avs ,canidejop inbesaz ej tsonravts anlatsomas anid
-ejop uweq{im monrotsorp U .mazinamuh inlaminim e~itop eltadO .arovog
-adO .ibes op amas ijotsop tsonravts a ,involsu ,otunrbo ,us muzar i canid
.mazinamuh iksna~ejvo~tan voe~iN iwjark ili mazinamuhitna e~itop elt
-si en es e}iben i e}ib ,akigol aksmuzar anjovd ejin arotsorp akigoL
,awejim es ajok izans u ondejaz ejotsop ,ogurd u ondej ezalerp }ev uju~uqk
-orp tsonfeqer ejad ot i ujapalkerp es ivogurk inrotsorP .adapo i etsar
,navolsu ej arotsorp takejbus maS .anemerv tsokilonzar ,ewaterk — urots
avogew ,arotsorp atsrv do onsivaz viqnejmorp ej kejvo^ .nalatsomas ejin
-er ,aninalp zi ijotsas es kevo^“ :mazilarulp ik{oloportna ejad tsoneboso
ejiroet ensalat i entnavk urops U .”...avortev ,awitsup ,amu{ ,awemak ,ak
ot adam ,ejigolotno enterksid edejbop od alevod ej amgidarap aksnemerv
-ar vogew i acnidejop gonbesaz an anedevs ej ajok itsonravts adorirp ejin
-e{iv avejimuzardop emgidarap enrotsorp zi alketop ajiroet ansalaT .muz
i atejivs gondej ilsimaz jonlarebil ontorpus ,aqop ovtsjedu|em onralop
-ogurk minrutluk o oasim anarts ej umzilazrevinu monlarebiL .edalv endej
.avotejvs hinemervotsi uvt{onm o ,amiv
otsorp ejin ,a}ib ekils enorhnis ewavadelgas ej ovtsna~ororP
anrc alejindan tejivs dan es adak olatsan ej onO .itson}udub ewa|ivderp
u oatsan ej emgidarap ek~itsicirotsi hud ,emejirV .adapaZ ,anemerv aknejs
-aZ .adamon hivon ,acvon ovtsrac — tsonemervas oirovts ej hud jaT .umziaduj
-atsoP .ejigolotno anitsi ,arotsorp ava|rvt kotsI ,anemerv anibxato ej dap
-as azirK .ejigolotno one|obolso udapaZ an emejirv ej ot{az ewatip es aqv
.anemerv i arotsorp imgidarap sondo avaqtejvsar atejivs gonemerv
ejin ,majop ik~itilop i iksrejv ,ajedi ej anO .avksoM ,ajisuR ej kotsI
-noK acindeqsan ,miR i}erT ej avksoM .eva`rd ekilev acinotserp omas
akejiv avD .edvarp avtsrac ,avtsna}{irh goksnitsi ravu~ — aqoponitnats
-od bokuS .niguD artams ,awadaporp i awava{uksi abod us ejisuR eksvortep
-op goksjizaorve ,adapaZ i akotsI abrob etsej ,edvarpen i edvarp ,alz i arb
.amzitnalta akterop gok~avogrt i ejicidart akter
-ivs govo amarD .atejivs goksqamez et{iders onrotsorp i ej avksoM
okerp enigatraK do es arom ajicaziliviC .arom i anpok abokus amard ej atej
op i kitnaltA an iles avokejiv hiwdeqsop ekiremA i ekselgnE od enitA
-om metup edi ,dapaZ ,tejivs ikstnaltA .mazitnalta vizan alibod ej emot
tejivs — ajizaorvE ej umew torpusaN .akterpan gonlajiretam ,ejicazinred
ava{ukop on{ejpsuzeb amivokejiv dapaZ .ularom i uhud tsonrejv ,ejicidart
.atejivs mocinotserp monlatnenitnok ,movksoM adalvo ad
-derp ja~anz oazakop ej voqimuG vaL avtsjizaorve ra~irotsi i}edoV
-rd i hinevt{urd hiksur on~ipit ewaravts az ejisuR eksvoksom ,eksvortep
ala`el ejisuR eksvoksom ekitilop ivonso U .niguD e{ip ,avonatsu hinva`
-iV .ejizaorvE arutluk i aqamez awavawidejbo ,amzitnaziv ajigoloedi ej
-awidejbo — dapaZ an i kotsI an i adelg ijok oaro ilejib ivalgovd iksjitnaz
-aZ ilunerko es us ivonamoR .ejedi evo ej nemanz ,me~am en a uqvabuq hi av
iksjizaorve an ujisuR a uvksoM u ilitarv ucinotserp itsinumok us ila ,udap
,jondervirp es a}arv ,modapaZ as neqe~us ik{oloedi ,zevaS ikstejvoS .tup
iksjizaorvE .ijizA amerp aravto i itsonqovodomas jonrutluk i jonevt{urd
57
ninaquK riminarB
-alv mokot oagitsod erejmzar e}evjan ej arutluk i adoran hiti~ilzar zevas
u atajiratelorp gokstejvs kindovderp alib ej avksoM .atsinumok enivad
.amzilajinolok i amzilajirepmi gok~itsilatipak vitorp ibrob
.mojedi monva`rd i monlanoican mojovs az agart ajisuR anemervaS
.akterop gok~avogrt gokstejvs oid enatsop ad abert ano ad ujartams ilarebiL
jalokiN avtsjizaorve i~avinso inlautkeletni ililsim us eji~kurD
.voqimuG vaL i nivasraK vaL ,vejeskelA jalokiN ,ikcivaS rateP ,ikceburT
ovtsna~ejvo~ i aporvE iziwk u ,avtsjizaorve ra~iteroet invalg ,ikceburT
-reg-oksnamor ek~inlisan i ek~itsisar ovt{inrapus oak atavhs ujirotsi
atejivs golatso i retkarak inlazrevinu e~irdo jojok ejicazilivic eksnam
-luk i edobols ejovs inarbdo u ejisuR movts|ov dop inideju es ad abert ijok
-zar ejirotsi eksur ewe|iv oksjizaorvE .adapaZ iw`et hinavonsoen do arut
-op u~itsi icjizaorve ,amilifonevols torpusaN .iksdanreV jigroeG ej oiv
-op iksjizaorve ite`aS .irutluk jonvohud ,ijizaorvE ejisuR awaterko ubert
:anak-signiX e|eqsaN ,gokceburT iziwk u ej tejinzi ujirotsi uksur an delg
-itnok eksjizaorve awaravts ukitilop i ujedi ilezuerp us isuR alognoM dO
-azieporvE .joksporve entorpus ejicazilivic acnolso oak eva`rd enlatnen
ajavso ajisuR avonamoR abod U .ejisuR etevs jark i loksar alavzazi ej ajic
rabotkO .niguD idrvt ,ni~an iksrotazinolok ,indapaz on~ipit an kotsI
{oj esalk e}ujadalv ekitilop vitorp unubop undoran oak ediv icjizaorve
.ejiculover ja`rdas ik~itsiskram ilavi|uso us adam ,aloksar anemerv do
.ejedi anivadalv — ajitarkoedi ej eva`rd ajifozolif aksjizaorvE
-urd goksduq i akejvo~ awajotsop oasims ej alaedi gokosiv ewaviravtsO
-arboerp monvohud mok~indejaz ,icindejaz o irovog ajifozolif aksuR .avt{
mikstetse i mik~ite an avonatsu ewavinsaz ej ejitarkoedi katadaZ .uwe`
-eh tsalverp ,itsonrugis i awe}agob ,itsonbodu amadubop an en a amilaedi
-orve aksnitsi ej mazitnaziv ,mokceburT oP .mohud mik{anelez dan goksjor
.ajitarkoedi aksjiza
-arutkurts ejifozolif a~avinso do nadej oak i naja~anz ej ikceburT
-ilarutkurts u emgidarap en~inorhnis ,enrotsorp ewavadalvoerP .amzil
-deropu gonralope{iv ejedi eksjizaorve envalg vonso ej ijifozolif jok~its
-alvirp ej acajizaorve ewe~U .arutluk hinlanoican hiti~ilzar ajovzar gon
iksjirotsi ilejdivu us inO .atar akstejvs avd u|emzi uw`ap ukilev oli~
-va`rd i anrutluk oak ej ajitarkoedi aksjizaorvE .amzinumok goksur ja~anz
.ejirotsi alop gok~itsitnalta moksitirp dop alap aniverovt an
kotsI an kazalzI ukinrobz u hine`olzi adelgop tsolejms i anivoN
unlautkeletni uksur uvati~ alsertop ej enidog .1291 ijifoS u goneqvajbo
,alarebil( ecinsed u|emzi tup i}ert ej ovtsjizaorvE .anemerv got tsonvaj
-er envitavreznok takejorp ej ot ,atsinumok i )acavitavreznok i atsihranom
-aorvE .ejicidart ewavu~o zu ujicazinredom az gonerovto avt{urd ,ejiculov
-ilatipak onbesop a ,amzilajicos i amzilatipak i icinvitorp ilib us icjiz
-oK .ijicidart joksur e|ut ,akejiv XIX eniders do ene|ovu ,edervirp ek~its
-redom az ilib us inO .akterop govon uksetorg oak ilavaqvi`od us mazinum
.amitsondejirv miksna}{irh an unavonsaz ujicazin
-aorve ajivzar voqimuG vaL eqmeZ arefsoib i azenegontE iziwk U
modoran ilartams icjizaorve us esuR .ejirotsi i ezenegonte ujiroet uksjiz
-dO .adoran hiksratat-oksrut ,acanaruT i anevolS ajops zi oatsan ej ijok
,ejirotsi eksur ewe|iv ok~irtnecoporve ,ok~awdapaz ilajibdo us on~ul
67
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
kazilb oib ej amicjizaorvE .gokslifonevols do ilaputsdo ontanz i us ila
az us iliB .ejitnaziV do tezuerp avtsrac gonvalsovarp laedi iksvortepod
-ub ,umalsi — amarejv miksjizaorve migurd amerp aqvalsovarp tsonerovto
itsontorpus ewe`alizaverp ili`art us aduvS .migurd i umziudnih ,umzid
-evtsnidej ewavizevop ovkat aZ .e{iv ,ovon ot{en u mewavizevop mivohiw
ugolu ilejdiv emot u i ,ino us ilidrvt ,ajizaorvE — ajisuR ami tsonbosops un
awavawidejs tavhudop ej advarp aksuR .ijirotsi jokstejvs u eqmez ejovs
-ur hud ej hud jaT .eporvE i ejizA ,adapaZ i akotsI alis hik~alaravts hivs
-if aneboso ej atkejorp goksjizaorve avonsO .ekitilop eksur i erutluk eks
amols nokaN .niguD idrvt ,aksur iksnitsi ej ajipotu aT .ejirotsi ajifozol
govon i ahud ,avtstarb i edvarp tejivs u adan anidej ej ano amzinumok goksur
.akejvo~
ej koD .acajizaorve hi}edov ecijort do nadej ej vejeskelA jalokiN
a avtsjizaorve unarts uk{oloedi i uk~inte-onrutluk oavi`artsi ikceburT
-orve ujiroet oirovts ej vejeskelA ,ukitilopoeg i ujifargoeg ikcivaS rateP
-os inejims ad olabert ej ajiroet avO .niguD e{ip ,avarp i eva`rd eksjiza
-iv icjizaorve us jojok u enivadalv ek~itsinumok amols nokan ovarp okstejv
.udoran moksur unevtsjovs ujigrene ukstarkoedi ilejd
-ro zi ulketop ujiroet unvarp irovts ad oib ej avejeskelA katadaZ
i eksur ujirotsi oi`artsi ej uhrvs ut U .ejisuR ajovzar gonevt{urd goksnag
alraK ,arelgnep[ oinejic onbesop ej vejeskelA .ilsim envarp endapaz
iderop niguD avejeskelA daR .ujigoloicos uk~itsicinagro uk~amew i atim[
-jizaorve carovt ej vejeskelA ;oasim unvarp uk~amew az atim[ meja~anz as
.avarp ejifozolif eks
i uvt{urd zalirp ik~itsiloh aqvatstorpus acajizaorve ajifozoliF
-azevop ik~itsinahem amota avt{urd otsejmU .mok~itsilaudividni ijirotsi
-jirotsi us imzinagro iT .mazinagro ivi` oak ovt{urd omami morovogu hin
.alt i ahud zi alatsan a}ib ,avt{urd i eva`rd ,idoran iks
eniverovt eksjirotsi-onevt{urd evs artamsop zalirp ik~itsimotA
-ejop awavawidejbo gew{aqops ,gonrovogu tatluzer oak eva`rd i edoran —
ano a ,mota — audividni omas ej anajotsop amivt{urd mivkat U .aboso hinid
-icinagrO .arovogu hiti~ilzar metup alatsan ,anlatsomasen ik{olotno us
joksucnarf i jokselgne mazilaudividni a ,jok~amew nevtsjovs e~ani ej maz
-also ejiroet ek~itsicinagro ilajivzar us ilifonevolS .ilsim jonevt{urd
-icinagro onartamsop onrotsorP .ecoilsim ek~amew an monvalgu es i}ujaw
ratunu ej okaT .udapaZ mazilaudividni a ukotsI ej nevtsjovs ,maziloh ,maz
-op us ejifozolif i erejv ek~itsiloH .ejizaorvE urotsorp u i ila ,eporvE
.ijidnI i ukotsi mokelaD enevtsjovs onbes
an navonsaz iksnoksi ej ilsim jondapaz u avarp majop ,uvejeskelA oP
-onsO .acnidejop edobols tsalbo eju|erdo ovarP .ijiroet jok~itsilaudividni
-kelA ejiroet evo enejiroK .acnidejop ijimonotua o akvatsopterp ej avarp av
-itejvsorp i avarp gonladuef okerp ap ,uvarp mok~itna u {oj izalanorp vejes
-iduq mivs gonevtsjovs oak avarp gondorirp ejiroet evoosuR od evs avtsqet
amivodar u ejinuptopjan us ene`olzi avarp ejiroet enlarebil enemervaS .am
-arp majop ,avt{urd evonal~ evs an neri{orP .anesleK akinvarp goksjirtsua
ad ejuzakod vejeskelA .avarp hiksduq ijiroet i eva`rd envarp ijedi idov av
ej nO .acavarp hi}ugom do nadej omas avonatsu i ilsim envarp jovzar vakat ej
ak~itsilaudividni ajifozolif ej aji~ adapaZ ujovzar monevt{urd nevtsjovs
77
ninaquK riminarB
majop ,uvejeskelA op ,elkaD .ukotsI e|ut ej ovarp ovkavO .ak~itsilanoicar i
ej adam ,kapI .rotsorp ik~itilopoeg i iksfargoeg ine|erdo az nazev ej avarp
-dapaZ .enatsop ot ad i`et i nalazrevinu oak ivatsderp es ad ijotsan ,vakat
-na~ejvo~ alejid gondej omas ajovzar tatluzer oak olatsan ej adam ,ovarp on
atejivs amivolejid migurd u enerovts eledom envarp egurd evs a|iverp ,avts
ad uw`et unvonso aqvanop dapaZ avarp itsalbo u I .aminemerv migurd i
-aZ .anlazrevinu oak avtsuksi anbesop ajovs enteman amidoran milatso mivs
.jok~itsicinagro anarts ej avarp ajifozolif andap
ejedi od izalod vejeskelA ,ejisuR ujirotsi unevt{urd i}uju`artsI
-ilejc oid inlatsomasen az artams acnidejop ava`rd aT .itson`ud eva`rd
-nevrp ole~an on`urdaz ej oT .ava`rd ili avkrc ,ajican ot alib avt{urd en
-az u|emzi ukilzar an avizop es vejeskelA .min~anidejop derp get{po avts
-ejc oak mogurdaz derP .sineT dnanidreF oivatsop ej ujok avt{urd i ecindej
dovziorp ej et{po uvt{urd mondapaz U .itson`ud omas ami canidejop monil
ujadapirp avarP .oksnagro ejin ,azev ,jops i~anz ej ovt{urD .gon~anidejop
.unilejc irovt ijok vonso ino us rej amivolejid
-ev hin~il dovziorp oak icnidejop jondej U .avarp ejiroet ejivd us oT
-az ja`rdas eni~ acanidejop isondo inbosu|eM .ucindejaz unrovogod erovt az
.avarp hiksduq i eva`rd envarp ejiroet vonso ej oT .avarp awatavhs gondap
oak amaudividni en a ,amagolu oak amitson~il ivab es ajiroet agurD
doran itib e`om ejok get{po izarzi us itson~iL .amacinidej minlatsomas
-us I .jow u ujulejdus ,anilejc aladaz ej ejok egolu ujaqvabo ivS .ava`rd ili
ej raC .u}ib met{po ,inilejc i`uls uvt{urd mok~itsicinagro u ,rac ,nerev
.itson~il hilatso hivs ,akinadop hijovs hivs ewavolejd az narovogdo on~il
.uvtsna}{irh i utsirH i`uls mas i rac iksna}{irH
,ujitarkomed uksnagro i uk~itsicinahem ilavokilzar us icjizaorvE
-u~uldo jojok u ejitarkomed enlarebil do ukilzar aZ .ajitomed ujavizan ujok
-terop monevt{urd i urotsorp mone|erdo u ina|arg inteqonup ivi` omas uj
-doran zi es esonod ekuldo enva`rd i enevt{urd eksnibdus ijitomed u ,uk
ewavawi~top ej ajitarkoedi I .aweqokop aksjirotsi avs eni~ ijok ahud gon
i erutluk i erejv zi ,adoran ahud zi e~itop ijok ulaedi atovi` gonevt{urd
-op od evs hiksrejv i hik~inte hiqbudjan do amanejim mivs u ejatspo onjart
itson`ud eva`rd evonso us ajitarkoedi i ajitomeD .hik{oloedi i hik~itil
ara~iteroet hivrp do nadeJ .iva`rd jondapaz i uvarp mondapaz entorpus
-vohud i inevt{urd vas ej ijok ikcoloV fisoJ itevs ej oib itson`ud eva`rd
-uR jotevs ewe`uls ,irejv i udoran ewe`uls oak oatavhs itson~il tovi` in
-ereP navI i us ilajivzar ilsim cavarp javO .uvtsrac monvalsovarp ,ijis
navI i )aqva`rdomas ewe}{rv~u az arejm( enin~irpo ra~iteroet ,votevs
-ejeskelA oP .ava`rd anson`ud otizarzi alib ej ajisuR aksvoksoM .itrvte^
ej ovtsnaqfisoJ .atsinumok hiksur i acarejvorats hinar sotap i ej itsi ,uv
.avarp i avt{urd uwatavhs mondapaz antorpus avajop aksjizaorve okobud
omas artams avt{urd goksjizaorve awavozinagro ni~an javo ikcoloV ,kapI
-ejm eputsu ad abert awe~inargo i enarbaz ad i}uja|ivu ,hi}ugom do nadej az
.u|rsolim ,itadogalb ots
-u|eM .amzilarebil do miqob oartams ovtsnaqfisoj ej vejeskelA
-rats ik{lovaz ilagalaz es us ejok az uwe|eru monevt{urd oi`et ej no ,mit
-olejd onvohud ej vonsO .iksbruK zenk i vejekirtaP najisaV ,iksroS liN ,ic
-evtsnidej gondej ivolop oak ujuqvajop tup invohud i tson`ud es okaT .ewav
87
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
ulsims mot U .i}ujavawupodan es onbosu|em avt{urd apit goksjizaorve gon
i aknidej—tson~iL .niguD idovan ,”ritsanam {an“ ajisuR ej ad oasip ej qogoG
.amzinagro goksjirotsi govi` gondej ivolop us ovtsnidej—ovt{urd
-uarp ej iji~ indapaz ej nadeJ .avt{urd apit avd ejukilzar vejeskelA
-ecopap ,gok~ilotak okerp es ijok ovt{urd oksjedujorats ,ontejvazorats roz
-ilo avat{urd hikstarkomed-onlarebil hinemervas od ajivzar gok~itsiraz
itnatsetorp ilirovts us ejok ,amava`rD mik~iremA minewidejS u hine~
-a`rd uksnagro az olanz ejin ejok avt{urd pit ikstarkoet ej oT .itsinivlak
.itsalv eksrac ja~anz ej olavaropso i uv
,mokstarkoet mondapaz ontorpus ,eva`rd i avt{urd pit in~otsI
i ajisuR us eva`rd en~otsi on~ipiT .ik~itsicinagro ,ik~itsihranom etsej
-aorve i eksna}{irh ,envalsovarp us eva`rd evo ejbO .ajitnaziV ew ejirp
amizudo en rotarepmi ila ,ewe`uls oksrejv ej ovtsrac umzitnaziv U .eksjiz
mob`uls okat ej i}eni~ tsalv unvotejvs ujovs eju}evsop }ev tsalv uksrejv
-e~inargo ej um tsalv anvotejvs ,anvohud ej ahrajirtap tsalV .awe`arboerp
,eva`rd ek~itsiloh a`etonvar anlaedi ,elkad ,ej ledom iksjitnaziV .an
-~otsi ejin ava`rd aksjitnaziV .evkrc awavolejd gonvohud i ejirepmi etevs
itsalv a`etonvaR .navar ut an aladap ijirotsi jojovs u ej adam ,ajitopsed an
-arp ad artams vejeskelA .avt{urd gone{rvas akildo ej envohud i envotejvs
minlarebil mindapaz mintorpus amakvatsop an itajivzar abert ijisuR u ov
en a advarp ,elkaD .edvarp eva`rd ewaviravtso ej on`aV .avarp amajiroet
evi` jojok u itson`ud ava`rd eju|ejbzebo udvarP .ja~anz invonso ami ovarp
abert eva`rd eksjizaorve laedI .imota ,eudividni en a ,itson~il ujulejd i
-uls ale~an ,e|rsolim i tsalv ajaps ijok uledom moksjitnaziv an itavinsaz
akildo a}ert ,on~anok ,I .itson~il awe`arboerp i urbod met{po awe`
zi goneqvatsas akiazom gonlatnenitnok ewaravts ej eva`rd eksjizaorve
-~itilop i onva`rD .ajicidart i arutluk hinlanoican itson~il hiksjirotsi
-avi}agobo i eweqtejvsorp onmajazu avejimuzardop ejizaorvE ewewideju ok
-iN avarp i eva`rd ejiroet ic~uqkaz invonso us oT .arutluk hiti~ilzar ew
.avejeskelA ajalok
-og oatsop ej ijok ,modapaZ as ubokus u ne`arop ej zevaS ikstejvoS
-en ,adapaZ ajigoloedi a}ujadalv ,mazilarebiL .atejivs gonemervas radops
-erep anaR .niguD idrvt ,anratilatot ej ano ,migurd mivs amerp ej aviqeprt
.avt{urd gondapaz ujitarkomed i mazilarulp u alavorejv onvian ej akjorts
-karp i ijiroet jok~itilop ,ijifozolif jok~itilop oak umzilarebil o ropS
-edI .avt{urd aledom gondapaz ewajibdo ili ewatavhirp az naduserp ej is
-oedi ge}ujadalv sanad orgzej ej avarp hiksduq i avt{urd gonerovto ajigolo
-otahse akstnatsetorp ej ejigoloedi et rovzi i vonso iqbuD .aledom gok{ol
-nE akstnatsetorp alib ej adapaZ gonemervas eskarp i ajedi calisoN .ajigol
-ejiroP .ujicazilivic uk~avogrt ,uksromop on~ipit alirovts ej ajok akselg
renreV i rebeV skaM us ilavizakod amzitnatsetorp zi amzilatipak olk
-tnatsetorP .itnatsetorp ikselgne ilirovts us ovt{urd ok~iremA .trabmoZ
.eqmez enmorgo et movt{invonats milejic adalv atovi` ni~an i hud iks
-nakiremA .ekiremA atile ak~itilop us itnatsetorp icnoskasolgnA ilejiB
.niguD e{ip ,mojisuR monvalsovarp as abokus enidazop eksrejv insejvs us ic
.oksbofosur ej utejivs moksnoskasolgna u avtsna}{irh ewadejivoporP
gokstejvoS akterop gok~itilop i gonevt{urd itsaporp korzu ej at[
ej ijok rotsorp iksjizaorve ne~ilbou iksnagro alib ej ava`rd avO ?azevaS
97
ninaquK riminarB
.anejmorp hik{oloedi i hik~itilop do onsivazen itiri{ i itavu~ olabert
unbok an ovtsdovokur okstejvos udevan moraverp ad ilejpsu us itsitnaltA
-imaz arats onrejmzars ej oT .eva`rd ekstejvs ajedi alib ej camaM .uk{erg
-et eksna}{irh do e}erk es anO .retkarak ik~itsinamuh ejadirp es jojok oas
.avtsnosam goksporve ejedi enlarebil ,envotejvs od avtsrac ge}erT em
ujedi uksjipotu alitavhirp ej inilejc u ,atile andapaz i mitaz a ,aksporvE
-an ,erejv enbesop i}ujartams ,uva`rd ukstejvs ,undej u iduq hivs awewideju
-orp ik~itsilajidnom javo niguD .utup mot an mozalerp omas erutluk i edor
-en a}ujadalv ej jojok u ejirotsi icigol minvitorp artams ujigoloedi i takej
monemervas u ,arom i anpok ajicazilivic u|emzi tsontorpus aviqrimop
omas a}ugom adalv akstejvs ej ad i~anz oT .ekstnalta i eksjizaorve utejivs
— akterop avd avo do gondej ,ejicazilivic ejivd evo do endej edejbop nokan
-ilabolg itib e} oT .gokstarkomed-onlarebil ,gok~avogrt ili gokstarkoedi
-nidej e{iv ,ovon ondej u alop avd ewaribas en a avopit do gondej ajicaz
.niguD artams ,ovts
i amzitnalta bokus ej ad ucinewi~ unja~anz udiv u itami aberT
onsondo ,amzinumok i amzilatipak gokstejvs bokus akejiv XX avtsjizaorve
zin anidog hitesedmades mokte~op i hitesedze{ mejarK .amzilajicos goksur
.3791 ajisimok anartsorT ,7691 navonso bulk iksmiR( ajicazinagro hindapaz
nevtsnidej u amzilajicos i amzilatipak awapats ujiroet ajivzar )egurd i
-atip akstegrene i aksfargomed ,ak{oloke e`uls mi at{ az metsis ikstejvs
-itilop i amicin~uan u|em anidog hitesedmades uzevaS mokstejvoS u I .aw
ilidov i ilimerpirp us ukjortsereP .ejurts ek~itsilajidnom uja~aj amira~
-urs ad ilejpsu amzilajidnom mot{alp dop us itsitnaltA .ivogurk it ovarpu
.mazilajicos iksporveon~otsi et{inu i zevas ik~itilop iksjizaorve e{
ejuzakop ukotsI moksporve akterop gok~itilop gondapaz ewateman oburG
.ejipotu ek~itsilajidnom udorirp uvarp
-oedi i ek~itilop oini~u ,ajisuR onsondo ,zevaS ikstejvoS ej adaM
ovtsqetajirpen ,ujitarkomed unlarebil undapaz oitavhirp ,ekputsu ek{ol
isondo ijisuR amerp dapaZ es ad natsejvs itib aberT .olatso ej jow amerp
uvO .uqetajirpen amerp oak }ev ,ukinrapus moksjirotsi amerp oak omas en
.idovorps onropu es ano i iksni`e`B oasilumrof onerovto ej ukitilop
ad onsaj ej onuptop amzilajicos amols nokaN .at{upop en ujisuR an kasitirP
ej ajisuR .eqbud ogonm jow amerp adapaZ gok~itsitnalta ovtsqetajirpen ej
-evas oatsop dapaZ ej joj ad edulbaz envian ejovs do inzejirto es ad alarom
-ilop uk~awdapaz u}ujadalv an aksalerp i amzilajicos amols nokan kinz
-omas az azevas goksjizaorve govon ewaravts ej onbertoP .ujigoloedi uk~it
takejorp ejuravtso onromuen ad abert ajisuR otaZ .idobols u tovi` nalats
idorirp jonvohud i jonrotsorp jojovs op ej ajisuR .ejizaorvE awavawideju
-ovto es ad abert ano ugolu ujovs ut alaviravtso ib aD .aqmez aksjizaorve
-uqksi en tsonerovto at ,ilA .ejizA amarutluk minverd enerko ovi` i oner
envohud etitsalv ewavogew i ewavot{op avejimuzardop vitorpan }ev eju~
u ejizaorvE tsalbo anlaboirp anja~anz ej onbesoP .ejicidart ek~itilop i
-ib ut e} rej ,napaJ i aniK ,ajidnI ,kotsi iksilB ,aporvE andapaZ ezalu ujok
inlaboirp ad ejotsan itsitnaltA .momzitnalta as abokus dohsi ne{ejir it
-aorve ili ik~itsitnaltA .tsalv ujovs dop ag evats i ejisuR do ejovdo sajop
-ivarobaz abert eN .anemerv ge{an ewatip ej ot ,kaderop ik~itilop iksjiz
mogurD u napaJ i uk~ameW alidejibop akiremA amavtr` miksur ej ad it
08
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
en sanad eva`rd ejivd evO .elazav ejovs u hi alirovterp i utar mokstejvs
-as goksjizaorve meweri{ i mewa~aj aS .ukitilop unlatsomas edov ad ugom
.ejisuR adobols i agans e}{ar azev
-iloP .atsejm amen ujisuR az ukterop mok~itilop mok~itsitnalta U
hinew ewe~uqku i eqmez ekilev evo ulejdop an anerejmsu ej adapaZ akit
-ohit i uguj an iksnamilsum ,iksporve u — erotsorp ekilev egurd u avolejid
i ejisuR ovt{inzevas ,amzilajinolok gok~itsitnalta do anarbdO .iksnaeko
ili mow as ewdaras robzi derp napaJ i uporvE itivatsop e} adejsus hinew
i}omop i itunerkop e`om ajizaorvE andobols i anewidejU .mokiremA as
.ekiremA itsalverp do atejivs avolejid higurd i ewe|obolso
-ok rej aqamez hijitagob i hijinejivzar ajigoloedi ej mazilarebiL
gok~amew e}irkto ej oT .ebug ijibals ,eno ujami enivogrt endobols do tsir
-inoicalozi in a ,ajicazilarebiL .niguD e{ip ,atsiL ahirdirF etsimonoke
.ijicazinolok udohsi mon~anok u i ujotsaz idov no i rej ewe{ejr ejin maz
i ,ava`rd ecindejaz ,irotsorp ikilev omas itidejibzebo ugom tsonlatsomaS
-ilarebil anuptoP .itsirok amiw ajok mono — u}{onerovto monvitkeles ot
-op i indervirp new alamrdzu ej anidog hitesedeved edervirp eksur ajicaz
.eqmez tsotivolejc i tsonerevus ewatip u ej anedevod :kaderop ik~itil
-nevrp ,aqamez higurd i ejisuR azevas goksjizaorve eweri{ ej zalzi ,elkaD
iksjizaorvE .udapaZ amerp tsonerovto anvitkeles i adejsus hinew onevts
-oicalozi i itsonerovto jok~itsilajidnom jonlarebil torpusan ,zalzi ej tup
-jizaorve ewewideju ej ejisuR katadaz in~oroguD .tsaporp u edov ijok umzin
-rubretep i eva`rd enlanoican ijedi joksvejik torpusaN .atnenitnok goks
goksjizaorve ,edvarp ajedi ej ajedi aksvoksom ,avt{awdapaz icitilop jok{
-im eksfozolif eksur cavarp ijintnaseretnijan ej ovtsjizaorvE .avtsnidej
i acaniF ,arataT ,anevolS aniva{ejm ak~intE .niguD artams ,akejiv XX ils
eni~ilev golaz ej ujican uksurokilev undej u ilils es us ijok adoran higurd
-bo morobzi derp us ejisuR uwe`urko u eqmeZ .ahud goksur amzilazrevinu i
.uzevas mokstnaltA awe~uqkirp ili mow as azev awaqvan
-alsi o tim ilirovts us akterop gok~itilop gok~itsitnalta icrovT
-ejvo~ onavozilivic i revejS itagob ava`orgu ijok aguJ itsonsapo jok~itsim
jojok u iqmez jot u okak ,aminamilsum as bokus u ujisuR ilkuvu ib ad ovtsna~
-inarg min`uj minew an amidejsus as i okat anoilim tseantep okerp ami hi
ewajotsop es avadvarpo itsonsapo jok~itsimalsi o atim meweri[ .amac
-isuR itsonsapo et do akintit{az egolu ewe|uN .azevas gokstnaltaonrevejS
-ovs u|em zevas i}ugom e~ejirps ad eporvE i ekiremA ,adapaZ ja{ukop ej ij
-ic ek~ajavso ejovs ujuravtso okat i ebokus ,hi elejidop ,amicinvitorp mij
iksnamilsum ej ad ej anitsi ,mitu|eM .gondej op gondej i}ujavarokop eveq
an hinewolso ajurts hiti~ilzar ovt{onm ami umew u ad ,natsrvonzar tejivs
amitsimalsi mimas u|em i ka~ ad i ,enivoket enrutluk i eksjirotsi enzar
,e|okat ,umalsi u ivonso U .awavolejd acavarp hineqvatstorpus e{iv ami
.niguD idrvt ,iksjizaorve igurd i ik~itsitnalta nadej :acvarp avd ejotsop
i amzinus gokspara cavarp ,mazibahav iksjiduas ej nerejmsu ik~itsitnaltA
aqamez higurd hiken i atpigE ,anatsikaP ,eksruT mazimalsi invotejvs
-jizaorve ej malsi ikstii{ iksnarI .apit gondapaz ijicazinredom tunerko
ecvarp eksjizaorve U .amalsi gokstinus amajurts mik~itsim as ondejaz iks
-evaS gokstejvoS do nava`rdop onemervejovs mazilajicos iksmalsi i adaps
-arts an a ,malsi ine}ejivsorp i ikstibahav ,elkad ,us adapaZ inarts aN .az
18
ninaquK riminarB
iksjizaorvE .mazilajicos iksmalsi i malsi ik~itsim ,ejizaorvE ,akotsI in
urotsorp mok~itilop u es ikstibahav i ik~itsifus ,malsi ik~itsitnalta i
hindapazorp onsondo ,adalv hik~itsilajicos hiksmalsi udiv u ujuqvajop
ivatstorpus ad ijotsan dapaZ .ajigoloedi i avat{urd hik~itsilatipak
-rdop onemervotsi i kinzevas new oatsop ib en ad ijisuR malsi iksjizaorve
hivs zevas avejithaz adapaZ akitiloP .malsi ik~itsitnalta a~aj i ava`
ej atejivs goksmalsi i ejisuR zevaS .arutluk i asar ,adoran hiksjizaorve
.ejizaorvE edobols inarbdo u nadohpoen
-arts az ewew{ajbo ujad en iksrejv i insar ,insalk — iputsirp iratS
awe|eruerp kaderop ej kaderop ik~itilop inemervaS .ejivalsoguJ ewad
-~itsitnalta ewatavhirpeN .utar mokstejvs me}ert moneqvajboen u atejivs
.ujibrS an azevas gokstnaltaonrevejS adapan korzu ivarp ej ekitilop ek
-ar akterop gokstejvs govon awaravts kate~op oib ej .1991 karI an dapaN
i eksin avotar zin zork amzitnalta enivadalv ekstejvs awaqvatsopsu ,mot
-jizaorve hikilev kanatsen i ajicazinagro akstejvs abalS .eni~aj ewders
,ajibrS .niguD eju~uqkaz ,akterop gok~itilop govon od tup us ava`rd hiks
,ejizaorvE i ejisuR aderdo gonerutsi gondapaz oak ebes ansejvs alib ej ajok
.atup got as ej anewolku
-aP radnaskelA avtsjizaorve gonemervas ra~iteroet naja~anz igurD
awatip avaqtejvso ejirotsi ekstejvs amivogurk u ajisuR iziwk u niran
.amujinelim u|emzar an anejmorp hit{po upolks u ejisuR a}ib goksjirotsi
-jirotsi gokstejvs aqbodzar gondapaz do uzalerp u ej anejmorp hit anit{uS
U .ubod mon~otsi movon ak ukejiv motseantep u ote~opaz ej ejok asulkic goks
u ujiculover une|iven oli{rvzi ej ovtsna~ejvo~ uqbodzar mondohterp
-albo u ujiculover ivabo ad um ijotsderp me}edeqs u a ,ejigolonhet itsalbo
.itsondejirv hivon uwaravts u ,ahud its
el{od us elkado ,kotsI itib ,uniranaP op ,e} evonbo et ~aterkoP
ajedi higurd amen ajicazilivic andapaz sanaD .erejv ekstejvs ekilev evs
tejivs ad ava~anzo mols iwdeqsop vohiW .amzilarebil i amzilajicos miso
-lajiretamtsop ,oksmonoketsop u ajicazilivic a ,uhope undapaztsop u aputs
.ubod mot u ejisuR amidelgzi o irovog agiwK .abod on
e`om ano es ad okilot ej ijisuR u arutluk i akizej ,adoran ovt{onM
-isuR u}eman utar mondalh u icindejboP .tejivs ilejic az moledom itartams
-atilatot es mojok ejifozolif enevt{urd enew ujicazitilop unartsondej ij
-urd ektatsoden evs az eju`utpo ,amzilanoicidart goksur dolp oak ,mazir
jat aN .umzilarebil ujusipirp ewavadalverp ovohiw kod ,atovi` gonevt{
-iverp kod ,amziratilatot olz az e`utpo ujisuR ovi~uqksi ad ele` ni~an
-om zi ,anejirok gotsi gondej zi ilkinop mazilarebil i mazinumok us ad uja|
eweravtso oib ej amziskram takejorp inevt{urD .avtsqetitejvsorp i enred
awavadalvo takejorp iksjirotsi oib ej ot ;akejiv govon iw`et hiqbudjan
-ontejvotsi awazitsod ,atkejbo i atkejbus awe|uto awavadalverp ,modorirp
.ejitarkomed akilbo gon~anok aweravtso ,itsokandej i edobols its
omas ava~anzo amzinumok goksur ili amziratilatot gokstejvos molS
katarvop jaT .atkejorp goksqetitejvsorp ubod mondohterp aktarvop ja{ukop
-qetitejvsorp enarts ejbO .e}unhadan oksnitsi ovkakin ,udan uvkakin ejad en
ewe|obolso i edorirp do itsonsivaz avt{urd ewe|obolso — atkejorp goks
avrP .mohejpsuen etinemerb elazakop es us ejicidart aksitirp do itson~il
.ezirk enlarom od agurd a ,ezirk ek{oloke ekstejvs od alevod ej aw`et
28
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
-oicidart monew u ejin ukejiv XX u ejisuR acivirk ad e{ip niranaP
uqmez ounerkop ej ijok umzitnamor moksqetitejvsorp monew u }ev ,umzilan
-si i edorirp mewavarokop min~anok as nazevop tnemirepske iksjirotsi an
ej ajisuR ak~itsinumoK .erejv — adzejing gonew i ejicidart mewaviwejrok
ewaterko eju|erdoderp ot }eV .akotsI en a ,adapaZ zalzizeb alazakop okat
.amzietemorp gondapaz do meji~kurd oak uvtsuksi mon~otsi avtsna~ejvo~
-az okak amisejpsuen ane~uop uvtsuksi mot ititarbo abert avrp es ajisuR
-anad i amzilarebil i okat ejicazilanoican i amzilajicos atkejorp gondap
.ejicazitavirp ew{
u adapaZ i akotsI atsejm unejmaz oak iti~amut abert en terkoerp jaT
ava{ukop hi niranaP .ejirotsi ajovzar goksjinilovarp u~uqk monoicamrof
udaqih oko do amiqbodzar u es jojok u ejirotsi en`urk upolks u ititavhs
rovzi oak ejuqvajop ut es kotsI .abod ondapaz i on~otsi ujuwejms anidog
dapaZ a ,ajigiler hikstejvs hikilev hivs ,ajiculover hinvohud hikilev hivs
-aqops ja`arboerp an hinerejmsu anivon hinranoiculover ~aterkop oak
o en a ,ehope hud uju|erdo ejok amatnanimod o irovog niranaP .atejivs gew{
.apicnirp gogurd ili gondej uweravtso motsi~
-amerpirp ukejiv XX u ine`anbo onuptop enredom endapaz izalzizeB
-arebil indapaz ijok ,akotsI adelgu goksjicazilivic i gonrutluk uvonbo uj
-rap ,adervirp an{i`rt us adaM .okstopsed i on~arm evs az eju`utpo mazil
akstejvs ilatsop adapaZ imuzi — ava`rd anvarp i ajitarkomed anratnemal
robzi derp itaqvats olabert ib en edoran egurd akejiv govon a}ungitsod
-ovi` i awajatsoaz goksnibdus ili ejicidart ,erutluk etitsalv awat{upan
-od urutluk ujovs i}ujavu~ inbosops us idoran igurD .atejivs ubur an awerat
oasimaz anlarebiL .adapaZ a}ungitsod i}izaverp ik~alaravts i ap ,i}its
-ed ogen e{iv inejic ujok univadalv ukstejvs an anerejmsu ej ejirotsi ajark
.ivatsopsu ej ad e}oh hijok emi u itsondejirv ekstarkom
u adapaZ ijicatimorpmok omas en idov amzinomegeh akitilop ,ot zU
hikstarkomed uwavi|ervzebo mejinja~anz {oj ad`om i }ev ,adoran higurd
-ajop i avtsqetitejvsorp atkejorp uwat{upan ,udapaZ momas an itsondejirv
.avtsravrav govon unopsu ondersopen idov ejok avtsqetitejvsorpvitorp iv
iji~ ,eva`rD ek~iremA enewidejS us sanad ejicamrofervitorp et ~aterkoP
-ew U .ajicazilivic abokus tpecnok vonotgnitnaH zarzi iksjiroet i~ajjan ej
-zi meja{ukop s enazevop ekitilop enravts ujicalumrof idiv niranaP um
govo akigoL .akiremA alaqvarpu ib mijok atejivs gonralopondej ewdarg
rej motejivs milejic as ava`rD hinewidejS ubokus idov ontimuen atkejorp
-us iksnitsi hikilev higurd mewajotsop as vijopsen ledom inralopondej ej
.ava`rd hinerev
-orp atkejorp urivko u elajatsan us eva`rd ekilev ukejiv movon U
,hindervirp — arotsorp hikilev hinevtsnidej mewaravts avtsqetitejvs
-oran hiti~ilzar awavizevop ivonso an hinvozarbo-onoicamrofni ,hinvarp
-op ubod monlarebil u a ,amajirepmi elavizan ejirp es us eniverovt evO .ad
-~inte amerp tsonsartsirpen avohiw anacitsi ej emi~ ,amajican mik~itil
-azilivic abokus ajiroeT .avt{invonats govohiw amakilzar miksrejv i mik
-oicane{iv hikilev hit ewe{ur an ovarpu anerejmsu ,uniranaP op ,ej ajic
.aniverovt hinlan
itsonazevop o mazifos i`el ajicazilivic abokus ejiroet ivonso U
-ejbzien o ka~uqkaz idovzi es age~ zi ,akilzar hiksjicazilivic i hik~inte
38
ninaquK riminarB
-uwidejs mazilarebil ik~iremA .ava`rd hinlanoicane{iv adapsar itson`
-dej i — emi~ ,adoran avarp i mazilaudividni eneqvatstorpus onbosu|em ej
an ejots ejok ava`rd hikilev asonte vitorp ejulejd iravts u — migurd i min
i adoran hilam avarP .utejivs u ejinomegeh ek~irema awaqvatsopsu utup
-atsopsu icitilop jok~irema u ava`rd hikilev ilejdop e`uls avarp aksrejv
-op ene`urko eloportem oak eva`rdrepus — atejivs gonralopondej awaqv
-inzevas ,adapaZ eva`rd enlanoicanogonm es mot irP .amajinolok min{uls
ot{ amajican mik~itilop minevtsnidej ujartams ,ava`rD hinewidejS ec
-epmi ujavizan ukotsI an eva`rd ekilev etunzrmo a ,eviqejden us ad i~anz
ejisuR nokan ozrbu e} ad )9991( ejuke~o niranaP .itit{inu abert ejok amajir
a}utsar i ani~ilev es aji~ aniK i itibod amivonalp mik~irema u sutats jat
.atejivs gonralopondej ledom ik~irema u ujapalku en }om
-ejidop e} ava`rd avo i amzinajisem gonlarebil hud ej ekiremA huD
e{ip ,amzinumok unibdus zevaS ikstejvoS i oak ejedi ejovs unibdus itil
govon awaqvatsopsu kejiv itib kejiv XX e} ad oivajbo ej nosliV .niranaP
adat od itit{inu e} ijok ,avtsna~ejvo~ golejic useretni u edvarp akterop
akiremA e} ad es olaqvatsopterP .amzioge gonlanoican picnirp i}ujadalv
gonlarebil uwaqvatsopsu utup aN .udobols az avtsna~ejvo~ ~atipsav itib
-itiloP .ejirepmi eksporve en}om ,ekilev us elajats utejivs u atarotketorp
ano sanad i a ,ametsis goksjasrev ivonso u alib ej amzitarapes gok~inte ak
oidun reltiH ej ot{ oaK .ejirepmi enlarebiloen ek~irema uweri{ i`uls
-~ameW idun iksni`e`B sanad okat ejirepmi eksnatirB amicatso aniqatS
-op avitanretlA .azevaS gokstejvoS gone|ejibop ektatso iniK i joksruT ,jok
-tejvs i}ert in{ivodu~ u idov ajok atejivs gonralopondej awaravts icitil
gok~itsilarulp ,atejivs gonralope{iv awaqvatsopsu akitilop ej tar iks
-az ajicazilivic aksporveondapaz il amI .akterop gokstejvs govon aledom
-ud joksna}{irhoeduj i ukterop monvarp moksmir ,usogol mok~rg an anavons
-anaP atip ,ijicazinakirema jolkamdo okelad erpudo es ad egans itsonvoh
iksnagap u oi~apozi monemerv es esnasener mazilaudividni iksjoreH .nir
-idni ik~itsinodeh-ok~a{ortop u ,awatsogalb gonlajiretam i ahejpsu tluk
.akejvo~ mewadaporp minvohud as oderopu edi jovzar ik~inheT .mazilaudiv
-as u oagitsod erejmzar e}evjan ej erutluk i ejicazilivic ek~inhet bokuS
-zi al{an akejiv XX inivolop jogurd u es aporvE andapaZ .iciremA jonemerv
itsonvohud eksteksa i avtsnagap gok~inhet govon aledom gok~irema u|em
otaz i udapaZ avitanretla anvohud ,avarp oib ejin zevaS ikstejvoS .akotsI
-torpus ,mazilarebiL .niranaP artams ,i}ujava`arop akejiv XX itatluzer us
-ukop ,ijigoloedi jok~itirk jogurd jokavs i }ev umziskram omas en neqvats
molejic ounteman dapaZ ej ijok atovi` ani~an e}upseb ejirkirp ad ava{
-ipak udejbop un~anok i unuptop oivajbo ej mazilarebil inemervaS .utejivs
U .ejicazilivic endapaz ivonso u esertop eqbud evs i}ujavirkirp amzilat
-dejaz ej um mijok as momzinumok az ejatsoaz en no uvtsrenirtkod mopejils
mazinom inlarebiL .itsondejirv hinvohud i hinrutluk ewaviwejctop ok~in
-aT .an{i`rt ej ajicazilivic andapaz ,et{i`rt i ujimonoke u omas ejurejv
ewajibdO .niranaP eju~uqkaz ,nalarebilitna ovarpu ej mazilarebil vak
jonlabolg jonemervas u gondohpoen amzilarulp ,ekitirkomas enoicazilivic
sanaD .itson}ugom higurd uwacitsi u akotsI ugolu ukstejvs an eju}upu izirk
tsonmitigel unlarom i ujigrene unvohud ujovs oiprcsi ej dapaZ in}om okat
.ava{rvaz es ukejiv VX u ate~az adapaZ ahopE .edvarp mojedi as unazevop
48
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
-zi et{pou ,artunzi akejvo~ ewe`arboerp ,atovi` ani~an govon awdargzI
-olso akotsI katadaz i anemerv ge{an katadaz ej itsondejirv hivon awdarg
-ozinagro ,atejivs ajicazinolok a}etejirP .ujicidart uksmujinelim an gonew
-sI ewavawideju onvonimen okori{ ujavizazi ,adapaZ tsonviserga i tsonav
-olso ag ad anbosops ajedi anbertop ej utejivs molejic ,agot do e{iv I .akot
-monoketsop evon ewaravts itunerkop e} kotsI .avtspor gonvohud do idob
indapaz rats avokejiv tse{ }eV .niranaP artams ,ejicamrof eksjirotsi eks
-na~ejvo~ movtsibuomas minvohud i mik{oloke itejirp ejicazilivic pit
e`om itsondejirv anejmorp omas }ev aledom gondapaz ewe`udorp eN .avts
-ilivic an alawalso es anredoM .avtsravrav ge}etejirp do tejivs itisaps
-an ik~ineton~uan ,udervirp un{i`rt oirovts ej ijok adapaZ ujisim unoicaz
-azilivic uvon itirovts i}om e}en kotsI ejisuR zeB .larom in~il i kaderp
arevejS ,adapaZ i akotsI eterkop ujuwidejs ijok ava`rd i doran omaS .ujic
-erp ik~itilop i injedi ite~az i iskarp hindapaz ukitirk itad e`om ,aguJ i
tsonvohud anvalsovarp ,aksna}{irhon~otsI .urutluk uvon itirovts ,dorop
-ub u tup us momzietemorp mindapaz as inazevop eva`rd pit iksjizaorve i
.tson}ud
-ilop gok~itsilarulp as mozalerp itejirp mazilabolg inemervaS
-erevus monlanoican an gonavonsaz e`etonvar endoranu|em akterop gok~it
inlajirepmi an ,itsonralopondej acalison tatkid invizirpseb an utetin
-us avarP .)0002( momzilabolg ewe{uksI iziwk u niranaP e{ip ,kaderop
-ratenalp ewavadalvo qic ej mejok mazisar ej amzilabolg gondapaz anit{
agurk zi atejivs ge}ert govati~ ewe~uqksi onemervotsi i amisruser min
.edrajilim entalz zi ,hinet{alvop
-inredomtsop ajifozolif ej amzilabolg gonemervas anarts aksduQ
-tsop gonasiurtsnoked amzilarebil adejbop ej atar gondalh tatluzaR .amz
-aP atip ,ajickurtsnoked at ijotsas es ume~ U .momzinumok dan momzinredom
-luk i gonevt{urd gokilev uwe{ur monsejvs o onevtsnevrp es idaR .niran
-ev gonevtsnidej ewaravts an gonerejmsu avtsqetitejvsorp atkejorp gonrut
-ebil ,igurd i ik~itsinumoK .anemerv goksjirotsi gokilev i arotsorp gokil
i monevt{urd mondej u es us ilavaqbokus ,takejorp ik~itsilatipak inlar
-qetitejvsorp goksporve ,enredom takejorp nadej oib ej oT .uqop monrutluk
imaS .awaviravtso govohiw ni~an }ev iveqic inrops ilib usin mok u avts
.igurd i atejvsorp ,ewatsogalb ,tsokandej ,adobols ilib us iveqic
o uzet i}etsiroK .takejorp jat i{ur amzinredomtsop ajifozoliF
goksduq ovtsnidej ewatip u edovod itsinredomtsop arutluk umzilarulp
-ilajicoS .amakilzar mik~inte i minsar sokrpu olawmus ejin es ejok u ador
avodiv do nadej oak en a ,erutluk eksur tsoneboso oak ejuqvajop okat es maz
ekvatsopterp do alizalop enredom ahope ej koD .atkejorp gonoicazinredom
-tsop ajifozolif ,itsondejirv hiksduq hik~indejaz ,arotsorp gonevtsnidej
-opuen uretkarak i ulsims movs op i eti~ilzar ,ekilzar idiv amzinredom
ej ahope anredoM .nelsimseb ejatsop amitsondejirv o ropS .erutluk evider
-itsondejirv o alirops es otaz i ador goksduq ovtsnidej u alavorejv otevs
-art ut ejucabdo anredomtsoP .eksna~ejvo~et{po ,eqobjan eno i}e`art am
i ujimonoke uk~itilop an alawalso anredom es et{ onja~uls ejiN .ujicid
a ,asergorp amajilazrevinu minevtsnidej eli`et us ejok ekuan ,ujigoloicos
u~itsi ejok ujigolonte i ujigoloportna unrutluk an awalso es anredomtsop
.niranaP eju}ejmirp ,avtsna~ejvo~ aqop gonrutluk tsonterksid
58
ninaquK riminarB
ravts ej andeJ .amakilzar minrutluk omejad ejok ewe~anz ej ontiB
i ador goksduq ovtsnidej onlejipicnirp ujavat{inop en ekilzar et oka
ot u~irdo ijok etsisar u omaravterp es oka agurd a ,evitkepsrep eksjirotsi
us enredomtsop imzifoS .amzilarulp gonrutluk do i}ezalop ovtsnidej
okaT .avtsqetitejvsorp goksporve alsims gonrovzi ewet{inu an inerejmsu
naratilatot oak takejorp ik~itsinumok ulsims mok{oloportna-onrutluk u
ejedi ibes u oavawidejs no ej adam ,ahud goksur amitsoneboso ejusipirp es
-erp ejok uvt{urd monavozinagro onlanoicar o ara~iteroet hindapaz azin
-zi eltado utar mondalh u icindejboP .ejirotsi i edorirp ejihits avadalv
-ogew as ondejaz omas itit{inu e}ugom maziratilatot ej ad ka~uqkaz edov
es mejok u utejivs u onsapo ewjark ej ot{ ,modoran miksur — mecoison miv
avtsnidej awatip es e~it enredomtsop anivon agurD .in}omdan uja}ejso
onevtsnevrp es e~it avtsna}{irh tarverp ik{olotnO .anemerv goksjirotsi
mon`urk o uvatsderp oami ej tejivs iksnagaP .anemerv goksjirotsi awatavhs
-o~ abod hintovi` ili abod hiw{idog unejms an ala}ejsdop ej ajok ,unemerv
idvarp — uqic mone|erdo ak unerejmsu ujirotsi u ejurejv mazietonoM .akejv
as olirops es ovtsqetitejvsorP .agob gonidej molis i uq{imorp une|ov
-ims oak ucvarp monadaz u uwaterk o oasim olavu~as ej ila ,movtsna}{irh
ik{olotno iti~amutorp oa{ukop amzilajicos umard ej rtraS .ejirotsi uls
-te en a ,itsonravts ene~apozi i ilsimaz entibovrp ,ejedi aradus umard oak
-noskasolgna onevtsjovs olib ej ot{ ,umard unlanoican uksur oak iksfargon
.amic
ahud awavu~o ja{ukop iwdeqsop oib ej .8691 terkop iksnidalmO
movtsnidej az uqov ej ajok enredomtsop rovogdo oidejilsu ej adat i enredom
-nidej anejmaZ .ukotsI me|ut i mondazan amerp adapaZ morizerp alinejimaz
-ev mewe{ur as oderopu e~et arutluk movt{onm arotsorp gokilev gonevts
-zi iwdeqsop oak mazilajicnetsizge ik~itsietA .anemerv goksjirotsi gokil
edelgzi ej oavad ,utejivs mondruspa u ukejvo~ udan oavad {oj ej enredom zar
-ej enazevop onoasims ejirotsi otsejmU .agob itrms nokan uvtsqetitejvsorp
hiti~ilzar ovt{onm edun itsinredomtsop awe|obolso monalp minevtsnid
-adikavs ,intunert an akejvo~ idovs aveqic hikilev ewajotsopeN .ajirotsi
.mazilarebil ijivonjan ijotsas i emot u ovarpu es ad artams niranaP .iw{
-do eksjirotsi ekavs ne|obolso kejvo~ ej ad ujartams enredomtsop ilarebiL
-inU .ejirotsi uqic i ulsims o awatip gokavs ,awavovtr`op i itsonrovog
-irv ewava~andejzi oak ejuqvajop es irutluk u arotkev goksjirotsi ewet{
uja}arvdo onja~uls en itsinredomtsoP .mazilihin oak ,iskarp hivs itsondej
-eqbugzi ej alz i arbod u|emzi akilzaR .awe|us gonsondejirv ,gonlarom do
-ok u utejivs u evkrc ugolu ali{rv ej ajicnegiletni inredom jon~isalk U .an
-op eqbodzar on{rvaz ej mazinredomtsoP .avtsna}{irh vitorp alatsu ej mej
i min{amoris amerp uw`rm unselob ejuzakop ajicnegiletni — aweqvotejvs
us ot — mazilaroma ,goksnagro ajicizopmoked ,ajickurtsnokeD .minetewgu
.enredomtsop aterkop itatluzer
ewacirop i ej onazevop enredomtsop momzilihin i momzivitaler aS
atunerko ej oasim anredomtsoP .ge}udub ajipotu hivs ,amzirotsi i ejirotsi
-ni ej ajicazilabolg anemervaS .mazitamgarp ej hud new ,uhejpsu ,mew{adas
-dus alirejm kaderpan anredom an~isalk ej kod atile ajicazilanoicanret
-erevus i ava`rd hinlanoican mewe{ur ujuzevop es etilE .adoran amanib
u moktarvop minew ,eni}ev mojicazinredomed ujuzilabolg es enO .atetin
68
kaderop inlabolg ik~itsitnaltna i ovtsjizaorvE
ajicazinredomed ej ejicazilabolg tatluzer it{pO .tsonerovtaz uksnemelp
-azilabolg ,alacimdo eqad ej ot[ .niranaP eju~uqkaz ,avt{urd gonemervas
-im oP .mow ewaqvarpu okstarkomed az edelgzi ewam alaqvatso ej ajic
-irp nu~ar an ejuravtso es ijok mazilabolg inratile jat ,aniranaP uweq{
-abolg ej anbertoP .akejiv IXX vozazi invalg ej adoran atovi` ejicazivitim
-on aT .ajican urivko u alatsan ukejiv movon u ej ajok ,ejitarkomed ajicazil
-ilanoicanretni i ujicazilabolg an rovogdo edub ad abert ajitarkomed av
gonemervas awats zi zalzi ej ejicazilabolg ajicazitarkomeD .atile ujicaz
-rav mivon itejirp ejicazilabolg emas vitorp asam anubop a}ugoM .atejivs
-otsifem oak ansapo okat ejin tson~ibes an~inargzeb in ad`oM .movtsrav
-an as itasitnemirepske ovarp ujami ad ujartams ejok atile tsoloho akslef
-erop inlabolg itidargzi ejotsan itsilabolG .motejivs milejic i ap ,amidor
.atovi` gok~itilop i gonevt{urd gonlanoicidart evonso emas i}e{ur kad
-kurtsnoker mon{ejpsu iti{rvaz arom en i {ab es ajickurtsnoked anuptoP
-oicar ewaqvatsopsu an edelgzi uju{amerp okelad asoah itson}ugoM .mojic
-ske hinrovogdoen do eni}ev atit{aZ .niranaP avarozopu ,akterop gonlan
-on}udub eksilb katadaz ijin`avjan ej atile hinlabolg hivon atanemirep
.eni}ev uqov une`arzi ikstarkomed itivatstorpus mi aberT .its
ijiroeT u movats mivosloR as nasalgas mivsas ejdvo ej niranaP
-omed o ewatip akterop gok~itilop gondevarp ,edvarp ewatip ej ad edvarp
-doranu|em u ava`rd i okat ana|arg itsokandej i idobols o okak — ijitark
avejimuzardop akterop gok~itilop gokstarkomed awdargzI .amisondo min
-if okak — eqisan okavs eju~uqksi ot{ ,ekinse~u evs az udobols ukandej
anbertoP .tejivs inemervas ne}isaz ej miw ovarpu A .onvohud i okat ok~iz
golajid ,tersus vi` ,nerovto }ev ,ajicnarelot aksrejv i ansar omas en ej
gonlajiretam alejdopsar ajindevarp i oak ,ajigiler i arutluk hiti~ilzar
u itunotop e}en tejivs ad udan ejad aterkop goksjizaorve nopsU .avtstagob
.idobols i urim u motovi` az aqov itidejibop e} ad ,ovtspor ovon
-nevrp es ewatip ovo ,edvarp ijedi i umjop o ,idvarp o omirovog okA
javO .akterop gok~itsilatipak itsondevarp ewatip oak aqvatsop onevts
-anzjan us onlanoicidart ;akilbo hiti~ilzar e{iv u ejuqvajop es kaderop
mazilatipak iksnapaj i iksporve ,iksnoskasolgna ijinejivzarjan i ijinja~
-os i mazivitavreznokoen ,mazilarebiloen oak ik~itilop ujuqvajop es ijok
-enik a ,inlarebiloen ej mazilatipak iksur inemervaS .ajitarkomedlajic
-e`arzi on`ans as ,ijine`ols ot{en ej kaderop ik~itilop i inevt{urd iks
.movt{intezuderp mintavirp min
-dobols ,gonavozilivic gonavzomas gonemervas iskarp jok~itilop U
uvarp an ,ilis an enavonsaz edvarp amjop anejmirp avadalverp atejivs gon
-tarkotsira jonew u avarp gondorirp ijedi u omizalan et{idohsi eji~ ge~aj
itirovog ej ok{et ,edvarp ijedi jomas O .atsifos hik~rg dok itnajirav joks
-jipotu ison en ibes u askarp in a ,ajiroet ak~itilop anemervas andej in rej
uskarp i ujiroet uk~itilop unemervaS .atetinamuh ejigrene ,lajicnetop iks
-og ajok atejivs gok~itilop tsonjedizeb ,mazitamgarp onevtsnevrp ejukildo
-i~ous es ad aberT .ehope enredom itsone{amorp i ap ,itsoneqprcsi o irov
hik~itilop hiksnitsi mewajotsopen ,eninzarp e}ujipav mocinewi~ as om
-iv e}ugom endej itnemom omas us ejiroet ek~itilop enemervaS .itsondejirv
egurd i ak~itsilajicos ,anvitavreznok ,anlarebiL .ilsim ek~itsinamuh e{
ejedI .katatsoden jovs jat edivu ad enmerpsen i enartsondej us ejigoloedi
78
ninaquK riminarB
-u|em i erejm ew{artunu ejovs zeb edvarp enevt{urd ,itsokandej ,edobols
-oke zi tejivs alidov ib ajok uskarp uk~itilop az evonso ujad en ezev enbos
.izalan es jojok u ezirk envohud i ek{ol
-em eli{uru us akitnaltA gonrevejs urotsorp an eqmez en}om sanaD
ej mejok u ewats oksvosboH u tejivs elitarv i kaderop ik~itilop indoranu|
-indejaz ejedi do ewacirdO ?adap govo inejirok us ejdG .kuv iva`rd ava`rd
-ilaudividni ,)enit{po eksna}{irh envokejvewders i asilop goksneleh( ec
-tejirp anlats ej ejok oltorg oksnakluv ej mazioge inlanoicar ,enredom maz
mujinelim i}ert u gogurd zi uzalerp an atejivs tsonravts i tsola`an a ,aw
-ud awe`arboerp ,awe`arboerp ajedi ej ajedi aksna}{irH .ere eksna}{irh
-or amerp omanu~ar emejirv adaM .itsokap i alz do awe|obolso ,acrs i e{
u erejv es oms ilkerdo ,akejvo~ uwe|or monvohud mogurd ,akejvo~ogoB uwe|
-e{alpu ,monja~o ukejvo^ .tovi` in~ejv u erejv ,aqetisrksaV i ewesrksav
apelhop ,miw az aqe` adul omas {oj ej alatso atovi` molsimseb derp mon
.amava`rd i amidoran ,amiduq migurd dan monivadalv i i}om az aqov i
ijicidart joqobjan u ej ad adelgzi en ono ,onrops ej eqvalsovarp ovoniguD
.ilsim eksur
ninajluK riminarB
REDRO LABOLG CITSITNALTA DNA MSINAISARUE
-nuof dna yrotsih eht ylesicnoc tneserp ot si repap siht fo esoprup ehT :yrammuS
aedi naissuR tneicna eht rof hcraes deniarts a sa ,msinaisaruE fo yhposolihp eht fo noitad
fo emit eht ta ,eripmE naissuR eht fo espalloc eht retfa depoleved ,ecitsuj fo redro eht dna
demrof erew yroeht sti dna tnemevom naisaruE ehT .msinummoc tpecca ot ssengnilliwnu
-urT yalokiN .redro lacitilop dna laicos nretsew eht ot noitisoppo na sa seitnewt ylrae eht ni
eht detrats ykstivaS reteP ,dlrow eht fo msilarulp larutluc fo yroeht eht detaerc yoksteb
dna yrtnuoc fo yhposolihp eht depoleved veexelA yalokiN dna ,ecaps fo yroeht naisaruE
-evom naisaruE eht fo srebmem eht ,hcaorppa citsilaudividni nretsew eht ot tsartnoc nI .wal
-ilagel eht fo aedi eht gnisopatxuj ,yrotsih dna yteicos ot hcaorppa citsiloh eht demrof tnem
lanoitan dna ytud s’yrtnuoc eht fo aedi eht htiw sthgir namuh fo yroeht eht dna yrtnuoc cits
ycarcomed cinagro htiw ycarcomed larebil desopatxuj yehT .ytinummoc fo aedi eht ,sthgir
.ecitsuj fo yrtnuoc eht ,ytarcoedi dna
ylrae eht ni dewener saw hcihw ,tnemevom naisaruE eht fo stsiroeht gnidael ehT
niguD rednaxelA erew ,noitaicossa tsinummoc latnenitnoc eht fo espalloc eht retfa seitenin
eh dna hcope nredom eht fo tirips a sa msicirotsih senifed niguD .niranaP rednaxelA dna
eH .ecaps fo yhposolihp naissuR ,nretsae eht htiw emit fo mgidarap nretsew eht sesopatxuj
-ytnewt eht fo gninnigeb eht ta dlrow nredom eht fo regnad dna egnellahc tsetaerg eht sees
del yllacitarcomed eht yb detupsid eb dluohs hcihw ,redro labolg tsitile eht ni yrutnec tsrif
.noitasilabolg
,noitidart ,noitasinredom ,gnieb ,ecaps ,emit ,msinaisaruE ,msicitnaltA :sdrow yeK
-oh ,msilaudividni ,tsaE eht ,tseW eht ,sseniraropmetnoc ,msilarebil ,msigolotno ,msicirotsih
-epmi ,noitasilivic ,aes eht ,dnal eht ,doohrehtorb ,ecitsuj ,emoR drihT eht ,msilanosrep ,msil
-natsetorP ,msilaidnum ,ytud ,wal ,ytarcoedi ,ycarcomed ,msinummoc ,msilatipac ,msilair
.niranaP ,niguD ,volimuG ,veexelA ,ykstivaS ,yoksteburT ,noitasilabolg ,yxodohtrO ,msit
88
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Евроазијство и атлантистички глобални поредак