İÇİNDEKİLER
ÖN SÖZ..................................................................................................V
BÖLÜM 1................................................................................................ 1
ANATOMİ VE FİZYOLOJİYE GİRİŞ......................................................... 1
Anatomi ve Fizyoloji........................................................................................................... 1
BÖLÜM 2................................................................................................ 9
HAREKET SİSTEMİ (SYSTEMA LOCOMOTORIUM)............................... 9
İSKELET SİSTEMİ (SYSTEMA SKELETALE)...................................................................... 9
Kemik Dokusu Tipleri.......................................................................................................12
Kemiğin Yapısı ve Sertliği................................................................................................12
Kemikleşme (Ossification)..............................................................................................13
Kemik Yapımı (Osteojenez) Üzerine Hormonların Etkisi......................................13
Kemik Yapımı Üzerine Beslenmenin Etkisi...............................................................13
Rikkets (Rickets).................................................................................................................14
Osteomalazi (Osteomalacia)..........................................................................................15
Osteoporöz (Osteoporosis)............................................................................................15
1. Baş Kemikleri (Ossa cranii).........................................................................................18
Neucranium (Kafatası kemikleri)..................................................................................18
Splanchnocranium (Yüz kemikleri).............................................................................20
2. Omurga (Columna vertebralis)................................................................................22
Boyun ve Bel Omurlarının Eğriliği...............................................................................24
Omurga Eğriliği Bozuklukları........................................................................................25
Bel Fıtığı (Disk hernisi).....................................................................................................26
3. Göğüs İskeleti (Thorax, Ossa thoracis)..................................................................27
4. Üyeler (Skeleton appendiculare).............................................................................28
Üst Taraf Kemikleri (Ossa membri superioris).........................................................28
Alt Taraf Kemikleri (Ossa membri inforioris)............................................................30
Diz Yaralanmaları...............................................................................................................32
Düz Tabanlık (Pes planus)...............................................................................................33
Eklemler (Articulatio, Juncturo ossium)....................................................................34
Eklem Yüzeyleri..................................................................................................................34
Eklem Kıkırdağı..................................................................................................................35
Eklem Menisküsleri...........................................................................................................35
Diskuslar...............................................................................................................................35
Eklemlerin Sınıflandırılması...........................................................................................36
İnsan Boyunun Ortaya Çıkması....................................................................................38
Romatizma (Rheumatism)..............................................................................................38
Artrit (Arthritis)...................................................................................................................39
Romatoid Artrit (Rheumatoid arthritis, RA).............................................................39
Osteoartrit (Osteoarthritis, OA veya dejeneratif artrit)........................................39
Gut veya Gutlu Artrit........................................................................................................39
Bursit (Bursitis)....................................................................................................................39
Ankilozan Spondilit (Ankylosing spondilitis)..........................................................40
Osteomiyelit (Osteomyelitis).........................................................................................40
Osteosarkomalar...............................................................................................................40
Çıkık (Dislocation, Luxation)..........................................................................................40
Burkulma ve İncinme ......................................................................................................41
Kırıklar ...................................................................................................................................41
Kemik Kırıklarının İyileşmesi..........................................................................................41
BÖLÜM 3..............................................................................................43
KAS SİSTEMİ (SYSTEMA MUSCULARE)..............................................43
Kas Dokusunun Karakteristikleri..................................................................................43
Kas Tipleri.............................................................................................................................45
İskelet Kasının Mikroskobik Anatomisi......................................................................46
Miyofilamentler..................................................................................................................46
Miyozin .................................................................................................................................46
Aktin ......................................................................................................................................46
Sinir - Kas Kavşağı (Motor son plak, motor uç plak)..............................................49
Kasılmanın Enerji Kaynakları.........................................................................................51
VIII
İskelet Kasının Kan Damarları ve Sinirleri..................................................................51
İskelet Kası Tipleri..............................................................................................................52
Kasılma Tipleri.....................................................................................................................52
İskelet Kaslarının Hipertrofisi ve Body Building.....................................................54
Kas Tonusu ..........................................................................................................................55
Yaşlanmanın Kas Üzerine Etkisi....................................................................................55
EMG........................................................................................................................................56
Rigor Mortis (Ölüm sertliği)...........................................................................................56
Kas Hareketi ile Kaldıraç İlişkisi.....................................................................................57
İskelet Kaslarının Adlandırılması..................................................................................57
Vücut Kasları........................................................................................................................59
Baş Kasları (Musculi capitis, Mm. capitis)..................................................................59
Deri Kasları...........................................................................................................................59
Çiğneme Kasları.................................................................................................................62
Boyun Kasları (Mm. colli)................................................................................................62
Sırt Kasları (Mm. dorsi).....................................................................................................62
Göğüs Kasları (Mm. thoracis)........................................................................................62
Karın Kasları (Mm. abdominis)......................................................................................64
Üst Taraf Kasları (Musculi membri superioris).........................................................65
Omuz ve Kol Kasları..........................................................................................................65
Ön Kol ve El Kasları............................................................................................................65
Alt Taraf Kasları (Musculi membri inferioris)............................................................66
İntramuskular İnjeksiyon (İ.m. injeksiyon)................................................................67
Gluteus Maximusa İnjeksiyon.......................................................................................67
Tetanoz (Tetanus)..............................................................................................................69
Myastenia Gravis (Tehlikeli kas zayıflığı)...................................................................69
Fıtıklar....................................................................................................................................70
IX
BÖLÜM 4..............................................................................................71
SİNİR SİSTEMİ (SYSTEMA NERVOSUM).............................................71
Sinir Sisteminin Organizasyonu...................................................................................73
MERKEZİ SİNİR SİSTEMİ (Systema Nervosum Centrale).......................................76
Beyin (Encephalon) ..........................................................................................................76
Beyinin Başlıca Kısımları..................................................................................................77
1. Serebrum (Cerebrum).................................................................................................77
Limbik Sistem.....................................................................................................................79
2. Diencephalon ................................................................................................................82
3. Beyin Sapı........................................................................................................................83
Retiküler Formasyon........................................................................................................85
4. Serebellum (Cerebellum, beyincik, küçük beyin)..............................................85
Kranial Sinirler ....................................................................................................................86
Kan-Beyin Engeli (Blood-Brain Barrier)......................................................................87
Omurilik (Medulla spinalis)............................................................................................88
Nervi Spinales.....................................................................................................................90
Serebrospinal Sıvı (Beyin-omurilik sıvısı, BOS)........................................................90
Refleks...................................................................................................................................91
Bazı Önemli Refleksler.....................................................................................................92
Dermatomlar ve Miyotomlar.........................................................................................94
Öğrenme ve Hafıza...........................................................................................................95
OTONOM SİNİR SİSTEMİ..................................................................................................96
Sempatik Sinir Sistemi.....................................................................................................97
Parasempatik Sinir Sistemi.............................................................................................97
Sempatik ve Parasempatik Sinir Tellerinin Sinaptik Transmitterleri................99
Sempatik ve Parasempatik Etkiler...............................................................................99
Kavga-kaçma (Fight or flight).................................................................................... 100
Uyku ve Beyin Dalgaları............................................................................................... 102
Yaşlanmanın Sinir Sistemine Etkisi........................................................................... 103
X
Beyin Tümörleri............................................................................................................... 103
Baş Ağrıları........................................................................................................................ 104
Ensefalit............................................................................................................................. 105
Hidrosefali......................................................................................................................... 105
Menenjit............................................................................................................................ 105
Kuduz (Hidrofobi)........................................................................................................... 106
Poliomiyelit (Poliomyelitis)......................................................................................... 106
Siyatik................................................................................................................................. 107
Epilepsi (Sara).................................................................................................................. 107
Serebral Felç (Spastik felç, paraliz)........................................................................... 108
Omurilik Yaralanmaları................................................................................................. 108
Parkinson Hastalığı........................................................................................................ 109
Alzheimer Hastalığı........................................................................................................ 109
Multiple Skleroz (MS, Multiple Sclerosis)............................................................... 110
Havale................................................................................................................................. 110
BÖLÜM 5............................................................................................111
DUYULAR VE DUYU ORGANLARI (ORGANA SENSUUM)................111
Genel Duyular (Somatik, visseral)............................................................................. 111
DERİ (DERMA, DERMİS, CUTİS, CORİUM)................................................................ 112
Deri Bezleri........................................................................................................................ 113
Kıllar (Pili)........................................................................................................................... 114
Tırnaklar............................................................................................................................. 115
Yaşlanmanın Deriye Etkisi........................................................................................... 115
Deriden Diagnoz............................................................................................................. 115
Derinin Rengi .................................................................................................................. 116
Deri Kanseri...................................................................................................................... 116
Yanıklar............................................................................................................................... 117
Deriden Alınan Duyular............................................................................................... 119
XI
Vibrasyonun Algılanması............................................................................................. 120
Gıdıklanma ve Kaşınma................................................................................................ 120
Stereognozi (Stereognosis)......................................................................................... 121
Sıcak ve Soğuk................................................................................................................. 121
Ağrı...................................................................................................................................... 121
Özel Duyular..................................................................................................................... 123
KOKU ORGANI (ORGANUM OLFACTORIUM) ........................................................ 123
TAT ORGANI (ORGANUM GUSTATORIUM)............................................................. 124
İŞİTME VE DENGE ORGANI........................................................................................... 126
Kulağın Anatomisi.......................................................................................................... 126
İşitmenin Fizyolojisi....................................................................................................... 128
İşitme.................................................................................................................................. 128
Sağırlık................................................................................................................................ 130
Otitis Media...................................................................................................................... 130
Barotravmatik Otit......................................................................................................... 131
Denge................................................................................................................................. 131
Hareket Hastalığı (Araç tutması)............................................................................... 133
GÖRME ORGANI (ORGANUM VISUALE).................................................................. 133
Göz Küresi (Bulbus oculi)............................................................................................. 133
Gözün Yardımcı Organları (Organa oculi accessoria)........................................ 136
Görmenin Fizyolojisi...................................................................................................... 139
Renk Körlüğü................................................................................................................... 141
Akomodasyon (Uyum).................................................................................................. 143
Gözün Kırma Kusurları.................................................................................................. 143
Yaşlanmanın Göze ve Görüşe Etkisi ........................................................................ 144
Şaşılık (Strabismus)........................................................................................................ 145
Karanlığa ve Aydınlığa Uyum..................................................................................... 145
Gece Körlüğü (Nyctalopy)........................................................................................... 146
Göz Tansiyonu................................................................................................................. 146
XII
Glokom (Glaucoma)...................................................................................................... 146
Trahom (Trachoma)....................................................................................................... 147
Katarakt (Cataract)......................................................................................................... 147
Arpacık (Hordeolum)..................................................................................................... 148
BÖLÜM 6............................................................................................149
ENDOKRİN SİSTEM (GLANDULAE ENDOCRINAE)...........................149
PİTUİTER (HİPOFİZ) ....................................................................................................... 155
Adenohipofiz................................................................................................................... 155
Nörohipofiz....................................................................................................................... 157
TİROİD................................................................................................................................. 158
Hipertiroidizm................................................................................................................. 159
Hipotiroidizm................................................................................................................... 159
Tiroidin Kalsitonin Hormonu...................................................................................... 160
PARATİROİD...................................................................................................................... 161
Hiperparatiroidizm........................................................................................................ 161
Hipoparatiroidizm.......................................................................................................... 162
ADRENAL BEZLER........................................................................................................... 162
Adrenal Korteks............................................................................................................... 163
Adrenal Medulla............................................................................................................. 164
PANKREAS......................................................................................................................... 165
Diabetes Mellitus............................................................................................................ 167
PİNEAL BEZ, EPİFİZ......................................................................................................... 168
Üreme Sisteminin Endokrin Dokuları...................................................................... 169
OVARYUMLAR.................................................................................................................. 169
Östrojenler........................................................................................................................ 169
TESTİSLER.......................................................................................................................... 170
PLASENTA.......................................................................................................................... 170
Hormon Üreten Diğer Doku veya Organlar.......................................................... 170
XIII
TİMUS.................................................................................................................................. 170
SİNDİRİM SİSTEMİ........................................................................................................... 171
KALP.................................................................................................................................... 171
BÖBREKLER....................................................................................................................... 172
LOKAL HORMONLAR: EİKOZANOİDLER.................................................................. 172
LEPTİN................................................................................................................................ 173
Hormonal Etkileşimler.................................................................................................. 174
1. Hormonlar ve Büyüme............................................................................................. 174
2. Hormonlar ve Stres.................................................................................................... 175
3. Hormonlar ve Davranış............................................................................................ 175
Yaşlanmanın Hormon Üretimine Etkisi................................................................... 176
BÖLÜM 7............................................................................................177
DOLAŞIM SİSTEMİ (SYSTEMA CIRCULATORIUM)............................177
KAN...................................................................................................................................... 177
Kanın Fonksiyonları....................................................................................................... 177
Kanın Yapısı....................................................................................................................... 179
Plazma................................................................................................................................ 179
Hücreler............................................................................................................................. 180
Eritrositler (Alyuvarlar, Kırmızı kan hücreleri, RBC)............................................. 180
Eritrositlerin Yapımı (Eritropoiesis)........................................................................... 181
Lökositler (Akyuvarlar, Beyaz kan hücreleri, WBC).............................................. 182
Granulositler (Polimorflar ve polimorfonukleer lökositler)............................. 182
Agranulositler (Mononukleer Lökositler)............................................................... 183
Plateletler (Trombositler)............................................................................................. 183
Hematokrit........................................................................................................................ 184
Kanın Pıhtılaşması (Koagulasyon)............................................................................ 185
Antikoagulantlar............................................................................................................. 187
Hemofili............................................................................................................................. 188
XIV
Kan Tipleri......................................................................................................................... 188
Kan Gruplarının Tayini.................................................................................................. 189
Kan Nakillerinde Uyuşmazlık...................................................................................... 189
Kan Grupları ve Kalıtım................................................................................................. 190
Polistemi............................................................................................................................ 192
Anemi................................................................................................................................. 192
Lökopeni............................................................................................................................ 194
Lösemi (Kan kanseri)..................................................................................................... 194
Trombositopeni.............................................................................................................. 194
KALP.................................................................................................................................... 195
Kalp Duvarının Yapısı.................................................................................................... 195
Kalbin Boşlukları ve Kan Akışı.................................................................................... 195
Kalbin Kan İhtiyacının Sağlanması........................................................................... 197
Kalbin İmpuls Üreten - İleten Sistemi...................................................................... 200
Kardiak Siklus................................................................................................................... 201
Kalp Sesleri....................................................................................................................... 202
EKG...................................................................................................................................... 203
Kardiak Kateterizasyon ................................................................................................ 205
Ekokardiografi................................................................................................................. 205
Yaşlanmanın Kalbe Etkisi............................................................................................. 205
DAMARLAR VE KAN DOLAŞIMI.................................................................................. 205
Arterler............................................................................................................................... 206
Kapilerler........................................................................................................................... 207
Venüller.............................................................................................................................. 208
Venler.................................................................................................................................. 208
Kan Dolaşımı.................................................................................................................... 208
Pulmoner Dolaşım......................................................................................................... 208
Sistemik Dolaşım............................................................................................................ 209
Portal Dolaşım................................................................................................................. 210
XV
Serebral Dolaşım............................................................................................................ 211
Deri Dolaşımı................................................................................................................... 211
İskelet Kası Dolaşımı...................................................................................................... 212
Fetal Dolaşım................................................................................................................... 212
Vücudun Başlıca Arterleri............................................................................................ 213
Vücudun Başlıca Venleri............................................................................................... 218
Damardan (Venadan) Kan Alınması......................................................................... 222
İ. V. İnjeksiyon................................................................................................................... 222
Nabız................................................................................................................................... 222
Tansiyon (Kan Basıncı) ve Ölçülmesi........................................................................ 224
Hipertansiyon (Yüksek tansiyon).............................................................................. 225
Hipotansiyon .................................................................................................................. 226
Koroner Arter Hastalıkları............................................................................................ 227
Anjina Pektoris (Angina pectoris, göğüs ağrısı)................................................... 227
Koroner Hastalıklarda Risk Faktörleri ..................................................................... 228
Kontrol Edilebilir Risk Faktörleri................................................................................ 228
Kontrol Edilemeyen Risk Faktörleri.......................................................................... 229
Tromboz (Trombus) ve Emboli.................................................................................. 230
Tromboflebit (Flebit)..................................................................................................... 231
Varis (varix)........................................................................................................................ 231
Konjenital kalp hastalıkları.......................................................................................... 231
İnfeksiyöz Kalp Hastalıkları......................................................................................... 233
Dolaşım Şoku................................................................................................................... 233
Senkop (Bayılma)............................................................................................................ 234
Kardiak Aritmiler............................................................................................................. 235
Kalp Durması.................................................................................................................... 236
Kalp-Akciğer Makinesi.................................................................................................. 236
Kalp Pili (Yapay pacemaker)....................................................................................... 236
Koroner Bypass Operasyonu...................................................................................... 237
XVI
Balon Anjioplasti (PTCA, Percutaneous transluminal coronary
angioplasty)...................................................................................................................... 237
Kalp Nakli ......................................................................................................................... 239
LENFATİK SİSTEM (SYSTEMA LYMPHOIDEUM)..................................................... 239
LENF.................................................................................................................................... 240
Lenfatik Kapilerler.......................................................................................................... 241
Lenf Dolaşımı................................................................................................................... 242
Lenf Düğümleri............................................................................................................... 242
Tonsiller (Bademcikler)................................................................................................. 242
Dalak................................................................................................................................... 243
Timus.................................................................................................................................. 244
Agrege Lenf Düğümleri (Peyer plakları)................................................................. 244
Lenfatik Sistem ve Kanser............................................................................................ 244
Hodgkin Hastalığı .......................................................................................................... 244
SAVUNMA SİSTEMİ......................................................................................................... 245
Nonspesifik Savunmalar.............................................................................................. 245
Fagositler........................................................................................................................... 245
Fagositoz Mekanizması................................................................................................ 246
Doğal Öldüren (Katil) Hücreler (NK, Natural killer hücreler)........................... 247
İnterferonlar (IFN)........................................................................................................... 248
Komplement.................................................................................................................... 248
İnflamasyon (İltihap)..................................................................................................... 249
İnflamasyon Unsurları................................................................................................... 249
Ateş ..................................................................................................................................... 251
Spesifik Savunmalar, Bağışıklık ................................................................................. 252
Bağışıklık Tipleri.............................................................................................................. 252
Bağışıklığın Özellikleri................................................................................................... 253
Hücresel Bağışıklık......................................................................................................... 253
Kostimülasyon................................................................................................................. 256
XVII
Doku ve Organ Reddi ................................................................................................... 256
Humoral Bağışıklık......................................................................................................... 257
B Hücrelerinin Duyarlaşması...................................................................................... 257
B Hücrelerinin Aktivasyonu........................................................................................ 257
Antibadinin Yapısı.......................................................................................................... 257
Antibadi Sınıfları............................................................................................................. 259
Bellek Hücreleri............................................................................................................... 261
Otoimmün Hastalıklar.................................................................................................. 261
Allerjiler.............................................................................................................................. 262
Bağışıklık Yetersizliği (Immunodeficiency) Hastalıkları..................................... 263
AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome)................................................. 263
Kronik Yorgunluk Sendromu (CFS, Chronic fatigue syndrome)..................... 264
Stres ve Bağışıklık........................................................................................................... 264
Yaşlanmanın Bağışıklık Üzerine Etkisi..................................................................... 264
BÖLÜM 8............................................................................................265
SOLUNUM SİSTEMİ (SYSTEMA RESPIRATORIUM)...........................265
Solunum Sisteminin Fonksiyonları.......................................................................... 265
SOLUNUM SİSTEMİNİN ORGANİZASYONU............................................................ 266
Burun (Nasus, rhinos) ve Burun Boşluğu................................................................ 266
Yutak (Farinks) ................................................................................................................ 266
Gırtlak (Larinks) .............................................................................................................. 267
Sesin Oluşumu ............................................................................................................... 270
Soluk Borusu (Trake)..................................................................................................... 270
AKCİĞERLER (PULMO, PNEUMON)........................................................................... 271
Alveoller............................................................................................................................. 273
GAZLARIN TAŞINMASI................................................................................................... 274
Oksijen Taşınması........................................................................................................... 274
Karbondioksit Taşınması.............................................................................................. 276
XVIII
Doku ve Akciğerler Arasındaki Gaz Değişimi ...................................................... 277
Solunum Membranında Gazların Diffüzyonu ..................................................... 278
Nefes Alıp Vermenin Mekaniği.................................................................................. 279
Solunum Hızı.................................................................................................................... 280
Akciğer Hacim ve Kapasiteleri................................................................................... 280
Solunum Merkezi........................................................................................................... 281
Ekzersizler ve Solunum Sistemi................................................................................. 282
Karbonmonoksit (CO) Zehirlenmesi........................................................................ 283
Solunum Sisteminin Diğer Aktiviteleri................................................................... 283
Yaşlanmanın Solunum Sistemine Etkisi................................................................. 284
Sigaranın Solunum Sistemine Zararları.................................................................. 284
Yüksek Rakımlarda Adaptasyon ............................................................................... 285
Vurgun................................................................................................................................ 286
Hiperbarik Oksijen Tedavisi ........................................................................................ 287
Oksijen Zehirlenmesi.................................................................................................... 287
Solunum Katsayısı (Bölümü)...................................................................................... 288
Pnömoni (Pneumonia, akciğer iltihabı, zatürre).................................................. 288
Tüberküloz (tuberculosis, TB, verem)...................................................................... 288
Amfizem (Emphysema)................................................................................................ 289
Astım (Astma).................................................................................................................. 290
Nezle (Rhinitis, rinit)...................................................................................................... 290
Ani Bebek Ölümü Sendromu (Sudden infant death syndrome, SIDS)........ 290
Yenidoğanın Sıkıntılı Solunum Sendromu............................................................ 291
Kistik Fibroz (Cyctic fibrosis)....................................................................................... 291
Bronşit (Bronchitis)........................................................................................................ 292
Pulmoner Embolizm...................................................................................................... 292
Pulmoner Ödem............................................................................................................. 292
Atelektazi........................................................................................................................... 293
Akciğer Kanseri............................................................................................................... 293
XIX
Dispnö (Dyspnea, nefes darlığı)................................................................................ 293
Siyanoz (Morarma)......................................................................................................... 294
Öksürük ve Tedavisinin Önemi.................................................................................. 294
BÖLÜM 9............................................................................................295
SİNDİRİM SİSTEMİ (SYSTEMA DIGESTORIUM)................................295
Ağız (Oris).......................................................................................................................... 297
Dil (Lingua, glossa)......................................................................................................... 298
Damak (Palatum) ve Küçük Dil (Uvula)................................................................... 298
Tükürük Bezleri (Glandulae salivariae).................................................................... 298
DİŞLER (DENTES, ODONTOS)...................................................................................... 300
Diş Tipleri........................................................................................................................... 301
Dişlerin Formül ile Gösterilmesi................................................................................ 302
Yutak (Pharynx)............................................................................................................... 303
Yemek Borusu (Oesophagus)..................................................................................... 303
Yutma İşlemi..................................................................................................................... 304
Periton (Peritoneum)..................................................................................................... 305
MİDE (GASTER)................................................................................................................ 308
Mide Bezleri (Gastrik bezler)....................................................................................... 309
Pilorik Bezler..................................................................................................................... 310
Midenin Boşalmasının Kontrolü................................................................................ 311
İNCE BARSAK (INTESTINUM TENUE)........................................................................ 311
İnce Barsak Mukozasının Yapısı................................................................................. 312
KALIN BARSAK (INTESTINUM CRASSUM)............................................................... 313
Sindirim Sistemine Yardımcı Organlar ve Yapılar ............................................... 315
KARACİĞER (HEPAR)...................................................................................................... 315
Karaciğerin Görevleri.................................................................................................... 317
1. Metabolik Görevler.................................................................................................... 317
2. Hematolojik Görevler............................................................................................... 317
XX
3. Safra Yapımı ve Sekresyonu................................................................................... 318
SAFRA KESESİ (VESICA BILIARIS, V. FELLAE).......................................................... 319
PANKREAS......................................................................................................................... 320
SİNDİRİM............................................................................................................................ 321
Karbohidratların Sindirimi........................................................................................... 322
Proteinlerin Sindirimi.................................................................................................... 322
Yağların Sindirimi........................................................................................................... 323
EMİLME.............................................................................................................................. 324
Karbohidratların Emilmesi.......................................................................................... 325
Proteinlerin Emilmesi.................................................................................................... 325
Yağların Emilmesi........................................................................................................... 325
Suyun Emilmesi............................................................................................................... 326
İyonların Emilmesi.......................................................................................................... 327
Vitaminlerin Emilmesi................................................................................................... 328
Alkolün Emilmesi ........................................................................................................... 328
Feçesin (Dışkının) Oluşumu ve Defekasyon.......................................................... 329
Kabızlık (Constipation)................................................................................................. 330
İshal (Diarrhea)................................................................................................................ 330
Mide ve Barsak Gazları (Flatus).................................................................................. 331
Laktoz İntoleransı (Tahammülsüzlüğü).................................................................. 331
Yaşlanmanın Sindirim Sistemine Etkisi................................................................... 332
Diş Çürümesi (Dental caries)...................................................................................... 332
Jinjivit (Gingivitis)........................................................................................................... 333
Ağız Kokuları ve Ağız İltihapları................................................................................. 333
Aftlar (Aphta)................................................................................................................... 334
Kabakulak.......................................................................................................................... 334
Gastrit (Gastritis)............................................................................................................. 334
Peptik ve Duodenal Ülser ........................................................................................... 335
Ülseratif Kolit.................................................................................................................... 336
XXI
Spastik Kolon................................................................................................................... 336
Megakolon ....................................................................................................................... 336
Ailevi Akdeniz Ateşi (FMF)........................................................................................... 337
Barsak Tıkanıklılığı (İleus)............................................................................................. 337
Basur (Hemorrhoid)....................................................................................................... 337
Pruritus Ani (Anal Kaşınma)........................................................................................ 338
Hepatit............................................................................................................................... 338
Siroz (Cirrhosis)................................................................................................................ 339
Safra Kesesi Taşları (Cholelithiasis)........................................................................... 339
Pankreatit.......................................................................................................................... 340
Kusma (Emesis)............................................................................................................... 340
Anorexia Nervosa........................................................................................................... 341
Bulimia............................................................................................................................... 342
Besin Zehirlenmeleri..................................................................................................... 342
Emilme Bozuklukları (Malabsorpsiyon).................................................................. 344
BÖLÜM 10..........................................................................................345
BOŞALTIM SİSTEMİ (SYSTEMA RENALE).........................................345
Boşaltım Sisteminin Fonksiyonları .......................................................................... 345
BÖBREKLER (REN, NEFROS)......................................................................................... 346
Canlılık için Suyun Fonksiyonları.............................................................................. 346
Böbreklerin İç Yapısı ..................................................................................................... 348
Nefron................................................................................................................................. 348
Kortikal ve Jukstamedüller Nefronlar ..................................................................... 349
BÖBREKLERİN FİZYOLOJİSİ.......................................................................................... 353
İdrarın Konsantrasyonunun Ayarlanması.............................................................. 353
Osmoz ve Osmolarite.................................................................................................... 354
Böbrek Fonksiyonunun Özeti..................................................................................... 355
Tubüler Reabsorpsiyonun Hormonal Kontrolü................................................... 356
XXII
Arterial Basınç ile İdrar Hacmi.................................................................................... 357
Susama Merkezleri ........................................................................................................ 357
İdrarın Özellikleri............................................................................................................ 358
Üreterler............................................................................................................................. 358
Mesane (Vesica urinaria).............................................................................................. 358
Üretra (Urethra)............................................................................................................... 359
Miksiyon veya Ürinasyon............................................................................................. 360
VÜCUT SIVILARININ pH DENGESİ.............................................................................. 360
Vücut Sıvılarının Asit-Baz Tampon Sistemleri....................................................... 361
Asit-Baz Dengesi Bozuklukları................................................................................... 362
Solunumsal Asidoz ....................................................................................................... 362
Metabolik Asidoz............................................................................................................ 362
Solunumsal Alkaloz....................................................................................................... 363
Metabolik Alkaloz .......................................................................................................... 363
Yaşlanmanın Boşaltım Sistemine Etkisi.................................................................. 363
Konjenital Böbrek Rahatsızlıkları.............................................................................. 364
Akut ve Kronik Renal Yetmezlik................................................................................. 364
Glomerulonefrit.............................................................................................................. 365
Pyelonefrit ........................................................................................................................ 365
Böbrek Taşları (Renal Calculi, Nephrolitiasis)........................................................ 365
İdrar Yolları İltihapları.................................................................................................... 366
Üremi.................................................................................................................................. 366
Diabetes İnsipitus........................................................................................................... 367
Ödem.................................................................................................................................. 367
Diüretikler......................................................................................................................... 368
Dializ Tedavisi................................................................................................................... 368
Böbrek Nakli..................................................................................................................... 370
XXIII
BÖLÜM 11..........................................................................................371
ÜREME SİSTEMİ (ORGANA GENITALIA)...........................................371
ERKEK ÜREME SİSTEMİ (ORGANA GENITALIA MASCULINA)............................ 372
Testisler (Orchis, Didymis)........................................................................................... 372
Yardımcı Kanallar............................................................................................................ 373
Yardımcı Bezler................................................................................................................ 373
Penis (Phallus).................................................................................................................. 374
Sperm................................................................................................................................. 375
Spermatojenez (Spermatogenesis)......................................................................... 376
Meni (Semen, Ejakulat)................................................................................................. 377
Erkekte Cinsel Aktivite.................................................................................................. 377
Erkekte Kısırlık (Sterilite, İnfertilite).......................................................................... 378
Prostat Hastalıkları......................................................................................................... 379
DİŞİ ÜREME SİSTEMİ (ORGANA GENITALIA FEMININA)..................................... 380
Ovaryum (Yumurtalık).................................................................................................. 381
Uterin Tüpleri (Fallop Tüpleri, Tuba Uterina, Ovidükt)....................................... 382
Uterus (Hystera, Metra, Ana Rahmi)......................................................................... 382
Vajina (Colpos, Hazne).................................................................................................. 383
Vulva (Dış Genital Organlar)....................................................................................... 383
Meme Bezleri ve Memeler........................................................................................... 384
Oojenez.............................................................................................................................. 385
Uterin Siklusu veya Menstrual Siklus...................................................................... 386
Ovaryum Siklusu............................................................................................................ 388
Ovulasyon (Yumurtlama)............................................................................................ 390
Puberte.............................................................................................................................. 390
Kadında Cinsel Aktivite................................................................................................ 391
Kadınlarda Kısırlık........................................................................................................... 391
Menstrual Bozukluklar.................................................................................................. 392
Ovaryum Kistleri............................................................................................................. 393
XXIV
Göğüs Kanseri.................................................................................................................. 393
Cervix Kanseri.................................................................................................................. 393
Yaşlanmanın Üreme Sistemine Etkisi...................................................................... 394
Menopoz .......................................................................................................................... 394
Erkek Klimakteryumu.................................................................................................... 394
Cinsel Yolla Geçen (Venereal) Hastalıklar............................................................... 395
Gonore (Gonorrhea)...................................................................................................... 395
Sifiliz (Syphilis)................................................................................................................. 395
Genital Herpes................................................................................................................. 396
Genital Siğil ...................................................................................................................... 396
Trichomoniasis................................................................................................................ 396
Genital Candidiasis........................................................................................................ 396
Chlamydia......................................................................................................................... 397
DÖLLENME ....................................................................................................................... 397
Gebeliğin Belirlenmesi................................................................................................. 399
EMBRİYONİK GELİŞME................................................................................................... 400
Embriyo (Germ) Tabakaları.......................................................................................... 402
Ektodermden Türeyenler ............................................................................................ 402
Mezodermden Türeyenler .......................................................................................... 402
Endodermden Türeyenler........................................................................................... 402
Embriyonik Membranlar.............................................................................................. 403
Plasenta ve Göbek Kordonu....................................................................................... 404
Fetal Gelişim..................................................................................................................... 405
Gebelik Döneminde Beslenme................................................................................. 406
Gebelikte Kilo Artışı....................................................................................................... 406
Gebelikte İlaç Kullanımı ve Radyasyon................................................................... 407
Gebelik Toksemisi (Zehirlenmesi)............................................................................. 407
Dış (Ektopik) Gebelik..................................................................................................... 407
Gebeliğin Önlenmesi (Contraception).................................................................... 408
XXV
Amniosentez.................................................................................................................... 410
DOĞUM.............................................................................................................................. 411
Yenidoğanın Özellikleri................................................................................................ 415
Yenidoğan Sarılığı.......................................................................................................... 415
Sezaryan (Cesarean section)....................................................................................... 415
Prematür Yenidoğan..................................................................................................... 416
Çoklu Doğum .................................................................................................................. 416
Laktasyon (Emzirme)..................................................................................................... 418
Çocuğun Büyüme ve Gelişmesi................................................................................ 419
KAYNAKLAR......................................................................................421
DİZİN..................................................................................................425
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