Progress in Exergy, Energy, and the Environment
Ibrahim Dincer • Adnan Midilli • Haydar Kucuk
Editors
Progress in Exergy, Energy,
and the Environment
Editors
Ibrahim Dincer
Faculty of Engineering
and Applied Science
University of Ontario
Oshawa, ON, Canada
Adnan Midilli
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Recep Tayyip Erdog˘an University
Rize, Turkey
Haydar Kucuk
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Recep Tayyip Erdog˘an University
Rize, Turkey
ISBN 978-3-319-04680-8
ISBN 978-3-319-04681-5 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-04681-5
Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014939508
# Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014
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Preface
Exergy appears to be a well-established and distinct discipline which has come out of the second
law of thermodynamics and gone beyond thermodynamics to be used in many other disciplines,
such as chemical, biotechnology, civil, environmental, architectural, industrial, electrical,
geology, and topography in engineering and chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, business, information technology, economy, and medicine in non-engineering areas.
At present, humanity faces great challenges about energy, economy and environment, and
there is a strong need to better design, analyze, assess and improve energy processes, systems
and applications. This can only be done by exergy method, rather than energy method. This is
why we use exergy analysis in addition to energy analysis. The exergy method of analysis
overcomes the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based
on both first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. Exergy analysis
clearly indicates the locations of energy degradation in a process and can therefore lead to
improved operation or technology. Exergy analysis can also quantify the quality of heat in a
waste stream. One of the main goals for exergy analysis is to identify meaningful exergy
efficiencies and the causes and true magnitudes of exergy losses.
The emphasis is now on system analysis and thermodynamic optimization, not only in the
mainstream of engineering but also in physics, biology, economics, and management. As a
result of these recent changes and advances, exergy has gone beyond thermodynamics and
become a new distinct discipline because of its interdisciplinary character as the confluence of
energy and environment. It was a prime motive to initiate a conference series on Exergy,
Energy and Environment in 2003. The conference, since then, has been running successfully
under the title of “International Exergy, Energy and Environment Symposium (IEEES).”
The conference has a multidisciplinary nature, covering three main areas of exergy, energy
and the environment and aims to provide a forum for researchers, scientists, engineers and
practitioners from all over the world to exchange information, to present high-quality research
results and new developments in the wide domain covered by exergy, energy, and the
environment, and discuss the future direction and priorities in the field.
This unique book contains, in addition to some invited contributions, the selected
papers from the latest, the Sixth International Exergy, Energy and Environment Symposium
(IEEES-6), which was held in Recep Tayyip Erdogan University in Rize, Turkey. It covers
a broad range of topics on energy conservation and management; energy and exergy
analyses; entropy generation minimization; exergy, energy and environmental modeling;
exergoeconomics and thermoeconomics; hydrogen energy technologies; fuels and alternatives;
heat and mass transfer; renewable energies; new and clean energy technologies; refrigeration
and heat pump systems; combustion technologies; thermal systems and applications;
air-conditioning systems; thermodynamic optimization; modeling of energy systems; combustion/gasification; process optimization; sectoral energy and exergy utilization; waste exergy
emissions, etc.
v
vi
Preface
In conclusion, the editors gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by several
individuals, including Dr. Ugur Akbulut, Dr. Rasim Volga Ovali, and Mr. Mert Ozsaban in
reviewing and revising several chapters, checking for consistency and finalizing them for
publication. The editors also register their sincere appreciation to the authors for their
contributions which have made this unique book possible. Dr. Dincer acknowledges the
support provided by the Turkish Academy of Sciences.
Oshawa, Ontario, Canada
Rize, Turkey
Rize, Turkey
Ibrahim Dincer
Adnan Midilli
Haydar Kucuk
Contents
Part I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Exergy
Exergy Analysis of a Hybrid Solar–Wind–Biomass System
with Thermal and Electrical Energy Storage for a Community . . . . . . . . . .
Kevork Hacatoglu, Ibrahim Dincer, and Marc A. Rosen
3
Exergetic Evaluation of a High-Pressure Hydrogen
Production System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selcuk Inac, Adnan Midilli, and Ibrahim Dincer
15
Exergetic Performance Assessment of a Binary Geothermal
Power Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yildiz Kalinci, Arif Hepbasli, and Ibrahim Dincer
23
Exergetic Assessment of a Hybrid Steam Biomass Gasification
and SOFC System for Hydrogen, Power, and Heat Production . . . . . . . . . .
Abdussalam Abuadala and Ibrahim Dincer
33
Exergoeconomic Analysis of a Hybrid Steam Biomass
Gasification-Based Tri-Generation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abdussalam Abuadala and Ibrahim Dincer
51
Exergoeconomic Analysis of a Cascade Active Magnetic
Regenerative Refrigeration System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hadi Ganjehsarabi, Ibrahim Dincer, and Ali Gungor
69
Energy and Exergy Analyses of Solar-Driven ORC
Integrated with Fuel Cells and Electrolyser for Hydrogen
and Power Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Md. Ali Tarique, I. Dincer, and C. Zamfirescu
81
Application of Scroll Expander in Cryogenic Process
of Hydrogen Liquefaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Md. Ali Tarique, I. Dincer, and C. Zamfirescu
91
Energy and Exergy Analyses of an Integrated Solar
Based Hydrogen Production and Liquefaction System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tahir A.H. Ratlamwala and Ibrahim Dincer
99
Energy and Exergy Analyses of Copper–Chlorine (Cu–Cl)
Based Integrated Systems for Hydrogen Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ahmet Ozbilen, Ibrahim Dincer, and Marc A. Rosen
111
Simulation and Exergy Analysis of a Copper–Chlorine
Thermochemical Water Decomposition Cycle
for Hydrogen Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mehmet F. Orhan, Ibrahim Dincer, and Marc A. Rosen
121
vii
viii
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Contents
Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Combined
Multigeneration System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Janette Hogerwaard and Ibrahim Dincer
133
Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Zero Emission Power
Plant for Coproduction of Electricity and Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Canan Acar and Ibrahim Dincer
145
Thermodynamic Analysis of Geothermally Driven
High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis System
for Hydrogen Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mustafa Tolga Balta, Ibrahim Dincer, and Arif Hepbasli
157
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Solar Driven Tri-generation
System for Building Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hasan Ozcan and Ibrahim Dincer
169
Thermodynamic and Cost Analyses of a Residential
Hybrid PV–Fuel Cell–Battery System for a Canadian House . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mehdi Hosseini, Ibrahim Dincer, and Marc A. Rosen
181
Thermodynamic Assessment of Waste Heat Operated
Combined Compression–Absorption Refrigeration System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abdul Khaliq and Ibrahim Dincer
193
Thermoeconomic Optimization of Scroll-Based Organic
Rankine Cycles with Various Working Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emre Oralli and Ibrahim Dincer
207
19
Efficiency Assessment of Crude Oil Distillation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sayem Zafar and Ibrahim Dincer
20
Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel
Cell-Gas Turbine Combined Heat and Power System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pouria Ahmadi, Mohammad Hassan Saidi, and Ibrahim Dincer
227
Performance Assessment of a Small Solar Pond Stratified
with Magnesium Chloride Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sibel Deniz, Ismail Bozkurt, Mehmet Karakilcik, and Ibrahim Dincer
243
Performance Assessment of a Recuperative Helium Gas
Turbine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rami Salah El-Emam and Ibrahim Dincer
251
21
22
219
23
Investigation of Exergy Ratios of a Solar Pond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mehmet Karakilcik and Ibrahim Dincer
24
Assessment of Desalination Technologies Integrated
with Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Halil S. Hamut, Ibrahim Dincer, and Marc A. Rosen
279
Exergetic Performance of a Low Bypass Turbofan Engine
at Takeoff Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hakan Aydın, Onder Turan, Adnan Midilli, and T. Hikmet Karakoc
293
Exergetic Analysis of a Vertical Ground-Source Heat Pump
System with Wall Heating/Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ugur Akbulut, Ozgen Acikgoz, Olcay Kincay, and T. Hikmet Karakoc
305
25
26
267
Contents
ix
27
Energy and Exergy Analysis of an R134A Automotive Heat
Pump System for Various Heat Sources in Comparison
with Baseline Heating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Murat Hosoz, Mehmet Direk, K. Suleyman Yigit, Mustafa Canakci,
Ali Turkcan, and Ertan Alptekin
28
Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Perlite Expansion Furnace . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mert Gu¨rtu¨rk, Hakan F. Oztop, and Arif Hepbaslı
29
Thermodynamic Performance Evaluation of a Geothermal
Drying System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hu¨seyin Utku Helvacı and Gu¨lden Go¨kc¸en Akkurt
30
Performance Evaluation for Different Configurated HRSGs . . . . . . . . . . . .
¨ zc¸elik
Onur Uludag˘ and Zehra O
31
Investigation of Energy Efficiency by Making Exergy
Analysis in the Cement Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hava Gizem Kandilci and Hanifi Sarac¸
Part II
32
33
34
313
323
331
343
349
Energy
Energy Analysis of Scroll Compressor Conversion into
Expander for Rankine Cycles with Various Working Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emre Oralli and Ibrahim Dincer
361
Energy Analysis of Hydrogen Production from a Hybrid
Wind Turbine-Electrolyzer System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ersin Akyuz, Zuhal Oktay, and Ibrahim Dincer
377
Evaluation of Thermal Characteristics of a Borehole
Thermal Energy Storage System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
¨ nder Kizilkan and Ibrahim Dincer
O
385
35
Design and Assessment of a Net Zero Energy House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anwar Hassoun and Ibrahim Dincer
36
A Compact Design of Water Heating–Humidification Processes
for Solar HDD Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maher Ghazal, Ug˘ur Atikol, and Fuat Egeliog˘lu
415
Investigation of Humidity Effects on the Thermal Comfort
and Heat Balance of the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Omer Kaynakli, Mustafa Mutlu, Ibrahim Atmaca, and Muhsin Kilic
421
Thermal Comfort Analysis of Novel Low Exergy Radiant
Heating Cooling System and Energy Saving Potential
Comparing to Conventional Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aliihsan Koca, Zafer Gemici, Koray Bedir, Erhan Bo¨ke,
Barıs¸ Burak Kanbur, and Yalc¸ın Topac¸og˘lu
435
37
38
39
40
Comparison of Alternating-Current Losses in Two-Layer
Superconducting Cables Constructed by Shell-Type
and Solid-Core Cylindrical Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fedai Inanir and Ahmet Cicek
Influences of Ferromagnetic Deflectors Between Layers
of Superconducting Power Transmission Cables on Transport
Current Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ahmet Cicek and Fedai Inanir
399
447
453
x
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
Contents
Multimodal Structure for the Management of Energies
in a Residential Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hadia Bouguessa, Nadia Saadia, Nadia Touileb, and Amina Makhlouf
459
Quantum Dots Conjugated E. coli Living Cells as Fluorescent
Reporters to Detect Cytotoxicity of Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Raghuraj Singh Chouhan, Javed H. Niazi, and Anjum Qureshi
471
Mathematical Modeling of a Small Scale Compressed Air
Energy Storage System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muhsin Kilic¸, Zeliha Kamis¸ Kocabic¸ak, Elif Erzan Topc¸u,
and Mustafa Mutlu
477
Use of Transparent Insulation Materials as One
of the Measures of Improving Energy of Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mirjana Miletic
487
Experimental Insulation Performance Evaluation of Aerogel
for Household Refrigerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gamze Gediz Ilis¸
495
Full-Scale Experimental Studies of a Passive Cooling Roof
in Hot Arid Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hamida Bencheikh
507
Investigation of Latent-Heat Storage Systems for Green
Building Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Devrim Aydin, Zafer Utlu, and Olcay Kincay
517
48
Short- and Long-Term Solar Radiation Estimation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yavuz Selim Gu¨c¸lu¨, I˙smail Dabanlı, and Eyu¨p S¸is¸man
49
Energy Saving with Double-Skin Glazed Facades
in Multistorey Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Esra Lakot Alemdag˘ and Figen Beyhan
533
A New Approach for Compressor and Turbine Performance
Map Modeling by Using ANFIS Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isil Yazar, Emre Kiyak, and Fikret Caliskan
541
Performance Estimation of Gas Turbine System via
Degree-Day Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Umit Unver and Muhsin Kılıc
553
50
51
52
Evaluation of Turkish Electricity Demand Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
¨ zer
Betu¨l O
53
Optimized Analysis of Cold Energy Utilization for Cold
Storage Project of Xingtan LNG Satellite Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wendong Xu, Zhonghao Huang, and Shuanshi Fan
54
55
Comparison of Different Turbulent Models in Turbulent-Forced
Convective Flow and Heat Transfer Inside Rectangular
Cross-Sectioned Duct Heating at the Bottom Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kamil Arslan and Nevzat Onur
Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of Thermal Output
of a Steel Panel Radiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muhsin Kılıc¸, Go¨khan Sevilgen, and Mustafa Mutlu
527
559
569
577
585
Contents
xi
56
57
Combined Effect of Viscous Dissipation on the Coupling
of Conduction and Mixed Convection Along a Vertical Slender
Hollow Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ahmet Kaya and Orhan Aydin
Effect of Radiation–Conduction Interaction on Mixed
Convection from a Slender Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ahmet Kaya and Orhan Aydin
595
609
58
Novel Fin Design for the Panel Type Radiators Using CFD . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emir Aydar, ˙Ismail Ekmekc¸i, and Yas¸ar S¸en
59
Hydrodynamic Aspects of Oscillating Flow Through Porous
Media Consisting of Steel Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
¨ zdemir
Mehmet Turgay Pamuk and Mustafa O
633
Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of an Empty
Refrigerated Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ersin Alptekin, Mehmet Akif Ezan, and Nuri Kayansayan
641
60
61
62
63
Numerical Simulation of 1-D Compression Stroke Using
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tarek El-Gammal, Essam Eldin Khalil, Hatem Haridy,
and Essam Abo-Serie
617
653
Performance Evaluation of Eco-friendly Humidifying Material
Using Hwangto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hyeon Ku Park, Seong Seok Go, and Myeong Yeol Ryu
663
Common Applications of Thin Layer Drying Curve Equations
and Their Evaluation Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Haydar Kucuk, Aydin Kilic, and Adnan Midilli
669
64
Experimental Study of Thin Layer Drying Behavior of a Fish . . . . . . . . . . .
¨ ztop, and Fethi Kamıs¸lı
Murat Erdem, Yasin Varol, Hakan Fehmi O
65
Comparing Corn Drying in Fluidized Bed Dryer
and Convective Tray Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mert Gur and Mesut Gur
687
Investigation of Drying Characteristics of Blueberry
Using a New Solar Air Collector Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adem Acir, Mustafa Aktas¸, and Fatih Danis¸man
695
66
Part III
67
68
69
681
Environment
Exergy-Based Sustainability Indicators for a Single Layer
Solar Drying Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adnan Midilli and Haydar Kucuk
Investigating the Exergetic and Environmental Effects
of Subcooling and Superheating Processes on the Performance
of Direct Expansion Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M. Ziya Sogut, Hikmet Karakoc¸, Zuhal Oktay, and Arif Hepbasli
Investigation of Exergetic and Environmental Performance
of HFCs with 20-Year and 100-Year GWP Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M. Ziya Sogut
705
713
723
xii
70
Contents
Performance Evaluation of the Bio-char Heavy Metal
Removal Produced from Tomato Factory Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
¨ nal, Nurgu¨l O
¨ zbay, Adife S¸eyda Yargıc¸,
Eylem O
¨ zgu¨l Go¨k
Rahmiye Zerrin Yarbay S¸ahin, and O
71
Ecological Performance Analysis of Irreversible Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
¨ zkol
Yusuf Yeg˘iner, Serkan Kenc¸, Gu¨ven Ko¨mu¨rgo¨z, and I˙brahim O
72
Environmental Effect Evaluation of Topography and
Natural Gas Usage on Air Quality: A Case Study of K. Maras¸ . . . . . . . . . . .
Muharrem I˙mal and C
¸ elebi Karapınar
73
Efficient Anionic Dyes Adsorption on Activated Algerian Clays . . . . . . . . . .
Soumia Zen, Fatima Zohra El Berrichi, and Ammar Maoui
Part IV
74
733
741
751
761
Renewable Energy
Investigation of Turbidity Effect on Energy Transmission
in a Solar Pond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ayhan Atiz, Ismail Bozkurt, Mehmet Karakilcik, and Ibrahim Dincer
773
75
Performance Analysis of a Solar Pond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ismail Bozkurt, Ayhan Atiz, Mehmet Karakilcik, and Ibrahim Dincer
76
Parametric Analysis of Pumped Storage Hydropower-Coupled
Wind Turbine Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kurtulus¸ Deg˘er, Birol Kılkıs¸, and Tahir Yavuz
791
Torrefaction of Agriculture and Forestry Biomass
Using TGA-FTIR-MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noorfidza Yub Harun and Muhammad T. Afzal
805
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
Model-Based Performance Analysis of a Concentrating
Parabolic Trough Collector Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
˙Ibrahim Halil Yılmaz, Mehmet Sait So¨ylemez,
Hakan Hayta, and Recep Yumrutas¸
783
815
Wind Energy Resource Assessment of Ergan Mountain
Ski Center, Erzincan, Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ahmet Tandırog˘lu and Murat C¸etin
829
Investigation of the Use of Solar Thermal Buffer
Zone in Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asad Jan, Mohamed S. Hamed, Ghani Razaqpur, and Simon Foo
841
Determination of a Geothermal Energy Field with
Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) Data at the South of Manisa, Turkey . . . . . .
Hatice Karakilcik
849
Energy Production from Municipal Solid Waste Using
Plasma Gasification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hu¨seyin Topal
857
Prediction of Daily Average Global Solar Radiation and
Parabolic Monthly Irradiation Model Parameters for Turkey . . . . . . . . . . .
Zuhal Oktay, Can Coskun, and Mustafa Ertu¨rk
867
Comparison of Energy Performance and Static Loads on a
Building Integrated Wind, Solar, and Rainwater Harvester . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ali Gurbuz, Ugur Akbulut, and Mert Ozsaban
875
Contents
xiii
85
A Solar Energy Calculation Study for the Buildings in Bayburt
in Order to Get Optimum Benefit from the Sun Directly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ug˘ur C
¸ akır and Erol S¸ahin
Part V
86
87
88
89
90
91
Hydrogen Production and Fuel Cell
Economic Assessment of Three Biomass-Based Hydrogen
Production Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mehmet Kursad Cohce, Ibrahim Dincer, and Marc A. Rosen
A Dynamic Simulation Study of a Small-Scale Hydrogen
Production System for a High Temperature Proton
Exchange Fuel Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atilla Erso¨z
Optimization of the Operation Conditions in a Direct
Borohydride Fuel Cell with Carbon Supported Au Anode . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fatma Gu¨l Boyaci San, Osman Okur, C¸ig˘dem Iyigu¨n Karadag˘,
Is¸ıl Is¸ik Gu¨lsac¸, and Emin Okumus¸
A New Carbon Nanotube-Supported Pt–Ru Anodic
Catalyst by Reverse Microemulsion for Direct Methanol
Electro-oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jenshi B. Wang, Charng-Ching Yeh, and Han-Chang Gao
899
913
927
937
Evaluation of Biohydrogen Production Potential from
Sewage Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
˙Ilknur S¸entu¨rk and Hanife Bu¨yu¨kgu¨ngo¨r
943
Asphaltene as Light-Harvesting Material in Dye-Sensitized
Solar Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rajab E. Abujnah and Russell R. Chianelli
951
Part VI
92
885
Fuels and Combustion
Plasma-Fuel Systems Utilization for Ecological and Energy
Efficiency of Thermal Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V.E. Messerle and A.B. Ustimenko
93
Plasma Technologies of Solid and Gaseous Fuels Processing . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vladimir E. Messerle and Alexander B. Ustimenko
94
Three-Dimensional Numerical Modelling of Hydrogen,
Methane, Propane and Butane Combustions in a Spherical
Model Combustor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
¨ ztu¨rk, and Serhat Karyeyen
Mustafa I˙lbas¸, Zehra Go¨kalp O
961
977
991
95
Development of a Reduced Mechanism for n-Heptane
Fuel in HCCI Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
Keyvan Bahlouli, R. Khoshbakhti Saray, and Ugur Atikol
96
Comparison of Natural Gas Fired and Induction
Heating Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009
Umit Unver and H. Murat Unver
97
Chemical Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbon Compositions
in Natural Gas Field, Northeast of Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017
Sarunya Promkotra and Tawiwan Kangsadan
xiv
Contents
98
Use of Hazelnut Oil Ethyl Ester as a Fuel in Pre-chamber
Diesel Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
Murat Cetin and Ahmet Tandiroglu
99
Mathematical Model of Petroleum Dynamics in Closed Conduit . . . . . . . . 1041
Sarunya Promkotra and Tawiwan Kangsadan
100
A Statistical Analysis of Lean Misfires in a Gasoline
Engine and the Effect of Hydrogen Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1055
Asok K. Sen, M. Akif Ceviz, and Erdogan Guner
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
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