BALKANÜLKELERİİLE
KAMUYÖNETİMİNDEETKİNLİKVEVERİMLİLİKÇALIŞTAYI
WORKSHOP ON EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
AMONG BALKAN COUNTRIES
24-25Nisan2014,Ankara,April24-25,2014,Ankara
ÇALIŞTAY SONUÇ RAPORU
WORKSHOP FINAL REPORT
ANKARA
1 TEMMUZ 2014 / 1 JULY 2014
Basım Tarihi:
1 Temmuz 2014, ANKARA
Başbakanlık Uzmanları Derneği Yönetim Kurulu
ÖNSÖZ
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasasının 112 nci maddesine göre, Başbakan, Bakanlar
Kurulunun başkanı olarak, Bakanlıklar arasında işbirliğini sağlar ve hükümetin genel
siyasetinin yürütülmesini gözetir. Her bakan, Başbakana karşı sorumlu olup ayrıca kendi
yetkisi içindeki işlerden ve emri altındakilerin eylem ve işlemlerinden de sorumludur.
Başbakan, bakanların görevlerinin Anayasa ve kanunlara uygun olarak yerine getirilmesini
gözetmek ve düzeltici önlemleri almakla yükümlüdür. Kısacası, Anayasamızın ortaya
koyduğu şekliyle ve parlamenter demokrasinin bir gereği olarak Başbakan, diğer Bakanlıklar,
kamu kurum ve kuruluşları üzerinde hem koordine edici, hem yönlendirici hem de denetleyici
bir yetki ve sorumluluğa sahiptir.
Başbakanlık Makamının bu yetki ve sorumlukları yerine getirebilmesi için, 1984
yılında Başbakanlık Merkez Teşkilatını yeniden düzenleyen 3056 sayılı Kanun çıkarılmıştır.
Başbakanlık Merkez Teşkilatı Meslek Memurluğu olarak Başbakanlık Uzmanlığı da bir
kariyer meslek olarak bahse konu bu Kanun ile ihdas edilmiştir. Hukuk, Kamu Yönetimi,
Uluslararası İlişkiler, İktisat ve İşletme bölümlerinden mezun olma şartı taşıyan meslek için
alımlar ilk defa 1986 yılında yapılmıştır. Benim de içinde yer aldığım ilk Başbakanlık Uzman
Yardımcıları 1986 yılının Ağustos ayında göreve başlamışlardır. Bu tarihten sonra,
Başbakanlık Uzmanlığı kamu idaresinde üst düzey yönetici olmaya aday bir meslek grubu
olarak görülmüş ve bu nedenle gerek yurt içinde gerekse de yurt dışında ciddi bir meslekî
eğitime tabi tutulmuştur. Zaman içerisinde alınan Başbakanlık Uzmanları özellikle
Başbakanlık Merkez Teşkilatı ve bürokrasinin birçok noktasında çok önemli görevler
üstlenmişlerdir.
Bu önemli görevleri icra eden Başbakanlık Uzmanları arasında dayanışmayı
sağlamak ve görev alanları ile ilgili seminer, konferans, çalıştaylar düzenlemek ve yayınlar
hazırlamak amacıyla 2009 yılı Mart ayında Başbakanlık Uzmanları Derneği kurulmuştur.
Derneğimiz, Başbakanlık Uzmanlarının mesleki bilgi birikiminin artırılması amacıyla
kuruluşundan bugüne kadar düzenlediği konferans, seminer ve eğitim faaliyetleri ile kuruluş
amacını gerçekleştirmeye çalışmaktadır.
Bu itibarla, yakın tarihsel ve kültürel bağlarımızın olduğu Arnavutluk Cumhuriyeti,
Bosna-Hersek, Kosova Cumhuriyeti, Makedonya Cumhuriyeti'ni içine alacak şekilde Balkan
ülkeleri odaklı bir projenin Türk kamu yönetiminin son yıllarda göstermiş olduğu başarılı
çalışmaların uluslararası kamuoyu ile paylaşılmasına büyük katkı sağlayacağı konusunu
gündemimize aldık. Çünkü Başbakanlık Merkez Teşkilatının başarılı projelere imza attığı ve
Derneğimizin üyeleri olan Başbakanlık Uzmanlarının proje sorumlusu veya koordinatör
olarak görev aldıkları başta kaliteli mevzuat hazırlama, bürokrasinin azaltılması ve e-devlet
gibi konularda bir tanıtım projesinin hayata geçirilmesinin, hem üyelerimizin çalışmalarını
tanıtmaya hem de dost ve kardeş Balkan ülkeleri ile olan diyalog zeminimizin geliştirilmesine
bir nebze olsun katkı sağlayacağını değerlendirdik.
1
Bülent TAŞAN
Yönetim Kurulu Başkanı
Başbakanlık Uzmanları Derneği
2
BALKAN ÜLKELERİ İLE KAMU
YÖNETİMİNDE ETKİNLİK VE
VERİMLİLİK ÇALIŞTAYI
ÇALIŞTAY SONUÇ RAPORU
ANKARA
1 TEMMUZ 2014
3
1. ARKA PLAN:
Küresel dünyada, düzenlemeler ülkelerin performansları ve rekabet
edebilirliklerinde önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Devletler, ekonomik kalkınmayı sağlamak,
refahı artırmak ve kamu yararını gözetmek amacıyla mali ve parasal politikalar yanında
düzenlemeleri de önemli bir araç olarak kullanmaktadırlar. Bu kapsamda, kamu yönetimi
reformları ile birlikte düzenleyici çerçevenin oluşturulması ve geliştirilmesi büyük önem arz
etmektedir çünkü yüksek kalitedeki düzenleyici çerçeve piyasaların etkin bir şekilde
işlemesini, küresel risklerle mücadeleyi ve özel sektör ile kamuya somut faydalar sağlar.
Kamu yönetiminde etkinlik ve verimliliği artırmak, düzenleyici çerçevenin
güçlendirilmesinin ilk adımıdır. Etkin ve verimli işleyen bir kamu yönetimi olmadan, yüksek
kalitedeki düzenleyici çerçeve oluşturulamaz.
Etkinlik genel olarak ulaşılmak istenen hedef veya görevleri yerine getirebilmek
amacıyla harcanacak zaman, emek ya da paranın ne düzeyde kullanıldığını ifade etmektedir.
Etkinlik, belirlenen çıktıların etkili bir şekilde minimum maliyet, zaman ya da emek
kullanılarak üretilebilmesi için kaynakların optimum düzeyde kullanılmasıdır.
Öte yandan verimlilik ise, ulaşılmak istenen amaçların gerçekleşme düzeyini ifade
etmektedir. Diğer bir ifade ile amaçlara ne derecede ulaşıldığını ve belirlenen problemlerin ne
derecede çözüldüğünü göstermektedir.
Kamu yönetiminde etkinlik ve verimliliğin artırılması ile demokrasi, insan hakları,
şeffaflık, hesap verebilirlik, hukukun üstünlüğü ve eşitlik ile ilişkilendirilen iyi idari yönetim
sağlanmaktadır. İyi idari yönetim ise yüksek kalitedeki düzenleyici çerçeveyi mümkün
kılmakta ve teşvik etmektedir. Bu kapsamda, kamu yönetiminde etkinlik ve verimliliğin
sağlanması, idari kapasitenin profesyonel hale getirilmesi ve kalitesinin artırılması ve böylece
düzenleyici çerçevenin geliştirilmesi için hayati önem taşımaktadır.
Kamu yönetiminde etkinlik ve verimliliğin artırılması için, kaliteli mevzuat,
bürokrasinin (kırtasiyeciliğin) azaltılması ve e-devlet gibi bazı kamu yönetimi reform
uygulamaları kullanılabilir.
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2. KALİTELİ MEVZUAT UYGULAMALARI:
Kaliteli mevzuat politikaları, ülkelerin hukuki altyapılarını iyileştirmek ve ekonomik
kalkınmalarını sağlamak için gereklidir. Kaliteli mevzuatla önemli hukuki ve sosyal hedeflere
ulaşılırken, daha iyi yatırım ve kolay iş yapma ortamı sağlanmaktadır. Taslak düzenlemeler ile
yürürlükteki mevzuatın sistematik bir biçimde değerlendirilmesi, bunların sosyal ve
ekonomik faydalara ulaşılmasına gerçekten hizmet edip etmediğini belirlemektedir. Bununla
birlikte kaliteli mevzuatın, mevzuat yapma sürecindeki şeffaflığı ve katılımı içeren açık
toplum boyutu ise düzenleyici performansı artırmaktadır.
Balkan ülkelerindeki kaliteli mevzuat uygulamaları esas itibarıyla 4 ana başlığı
kapsamaktadır: (i) yeni düzenlemelerin sistematik olarak değerlendirilmesi (etki analizi ve
diğer yöntemlerin kullanılması), (ii) mevzuat stokunun yönetiminin geliştirilmesi, (iii)
mevzuat hazırlama sürecinde şeffaflığın artırılması ve istişare sağlanması ve (iv) idari yüklerin
azaltılması ve mevcut kanunların basitleştirilmesi amacıyla idari basitleştirme programı
uygulanması.
Kaliteli mevzuat yapılması amacıyla, aşağıdaki hususlar dikkate alınmaktadır:
• Yeni bir düzenleme sadece gerekli olduğunda ve söz konusu düzenlemenin
getireceği yüklerin düzenlemenin amacı ile orantılı olması durumunda yapılmalıdır.
Düzenlemelerin gerekliliği ve düzenleyici kalitenin değerlendirilmesi amacıyla etki analizleri
çoğunlukla kullanılan yöntemler arasında yer almaktadır. Etki analizlerinin uygulanması,
Düzenleyici Etki Analizi gibi, kamu yönetimindeki kapasite ve kültür ile doğrudan ilintilidir.
Bu nedenle, etki analizlerinin kullanılmasına yönelik stratejiler belirlenirken iyi uluslararası
uygulamar ile kademeli yaklaşımın uzlaştırılması büyük önem arz etmektedir.
• Mevzuat stokunun yönetimi ilk olarak mevcut düzenlemelere tüm kullanıcılar
tarafından kolay bir şekilde erişilebilmesini gerekli kılmaktadır. Düzenlemelerdeki
değişikliklerin konsolide edilmesi ve mevcut düzenlemelerin internette yayımlanması ile söz
konusu gereklilik karışılanabilir. Diğer taraftan, bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin etkin bir
şekilde kullanılması ve yeterli kaynak tahsisi ile mevzuat stokunun yönetimi geliştirilebilir.
• Mevzuat hazırlama sürecinde şeffaflığın artırılması ve istişare yapılması,
meşruluk sağlamakta ve düzenlemelerin kamu yararına yönelik hazırlanmış olduğunu
göstermektedir. Bu kapsamda, düzenlemelerle ilgili ve düzenlemelerden etkilenen tüm
taraflar zamanında bilgilendirilmeli ve görüşlerini iletebilmelidir. Yeni düzenlemelerin
kamuoyuna açıklanması ve mevzuat hazırlama sürecinde zorunlu olarak istişare
toplantılarının düzenlenmesi şeffaflığı ve istişareyi artırmaktadır.
5
• İdari basitleştirme programı ekonomik kalkınma için büyük öneme sahiptir. İdari
yüklerin azaltılması ve mevcut kanunların basitleştirilmesi, merkezi yönetim ile yerel
yönetimler arasında ve aynı zamanda özel sektör ile koordinasyon sağlanmasını gerekli
kılmaktadır. Düzenlemelerin etkilerinin izlenmesi ve değerlendirilebilmesi için geri bildirim
mekanizması oluşturulması çok önemlidir. Mevzuat hazırlarken, gerçekleştirilmesi mümkün
olan ve kolay bir şekilde izlenip değerlendirilecek somut amaçlar konulması
düzenlemelerdeki kalite ve hesap verebilirliği artırmakta ve aynı zamanda idari basitleştirme
sağlamaktadır. Bu kapsamda, basitleştirme uygulamarının teşvik edilmesi ve görünebilirlik
sağlanması amacıyla "hızlı sonuç" alabilmek için basitleştirme uygulamaları yapılırken
düzenlemelerdeki belirli bölümlere odaklanılabilir.
• Kaliteli mevzuat prensipleri ile Avrupa Birliği (AB), Ekonomik İşbirliği
ve Kalkınma Teşkilatı (OECD) ve SIGMA (Yönetimde Gelişme İçin Destek) gibi
uluslararası kuruluşlarının tavsiye ve çalışmaları, ülkelerin kaliteli mevzuat hazırlama
girişimlerine katkıda bulunmaktadır. Örneğin OECD Düzenleyici Politika ve Yönetim Kurulu
Tavsiye Metni, ülkeler nezdinde kaliteli mevzuat ve düzenleyici reform çalışmalarında
önemli bir kaynak teşkil etmektedir.
• Yeterli bir kurumsal yapı, Balkan ülkelerinde başarılı bir şekilde kaliteli mevzuat
stratejilerinin belirlenebilmesi için gereklidir. Türkiye ve Makedonya'daki kaliteli mevzuat ve
düzenleyici reform için geliştirilmiş olan "gözetim birimi" bu anlamda kurumsal yapı için
güzel bir örnek oluşturmaktadır. Gözetim birimi kaliteli mevzuat stratejileri geliştirebilir,
hükümet politikalarının uygulanmasını izleyebilir ve kamu kurumlarına tavsiyerde
bulunabilir. Aynı zamanda, gözetim birimi tutarlılık ve koordinasyon sağlanması için de
katkıda bulunabilir. Böylelikle, hem mevzuat stoku hem de yeni düzenlemelerin
oluşturulması için gerekli olan tüm düzenleyici sistemi kapsayacak genel ve bütüncül bir
düzenleyici politika geliştirilebilir ve devam ettirilebilir.
6
7
4. E-DEVLET:
E-Devlet, devlet, vatandaşlar ve iş alemi olmak üzere üç grubu içermektedir. Bunlara
ilişkin tüm kurumlar içi ve kurumlar arası ilişkiler e-devleti oluşturmaktadır. Bu çerçevede, edevlete giden yolda en önemli unsur devletin büyüklüğü ve karmaşıklığıdır.
Teorikte, e-Devlete ulaşmak için e-hizmet, e-kurum ve e-Devlet olmak üzere önemli
üç tane adım bulunmaktadır. Günümüzde, e-Devlete geçiş için tüm kamu hizmetlerinde ehizmet uygulamasına geçilmesi gerektiği yönünde yanlış bir anlayış bulunmaktadır. Halbuki,
tüm kamu hizmetlerinin elektronik ortamda sunulması aynı zamanda e-kuruma ve e-devlete
geçileceği anlamına gelmemektedir. Aşağıda e-devlete geçişte yer alan adımlar yer
almaktadır:
I.
e-Devletin 3 unsurunun elektronik ortamda değişik kodlarla tanımlanması,
II.
Merkezi bir noktada, tüm kamu hizmetlerinin birbirleriyle ilişkilerini ortaya
koyacak şekilde süreç analizinin yapılması,
III.
Tüm kurumları kapsayacak şekilde idari ve teknik standartların
belirlenmesi,
IV.
Kurumsal veri sözlüklerinin hazırlanması ve bunların konsolide edilerek
kamu veri sözlüğünün oluşturulması,
V.
Kamu veri sözlüğünü esas alacak şekilde kurumlar tarafından geliştirilen eUygulamaların santralini oluşturan kamu veri yönetim sisteminin oluşturulması.
Klasik kamu yönetiminden e-Devlete geçişte tümevarım ve tümdengelim olmak
üzere iki temel yöntem bulunmaktadır.
a.
Tümevarım yöntemi, kamu hizmetlerinin tek tek ve birbiri ile ilinti olacak
şekilde e-hizmete dönüştürülmesi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bu yöntem kullanılırken,
elektronik uygulamalardaki birlikte işlerliği sağlamak için genel standartların etkin bir şekilde
belirlenmesi önem arz etmektedir.
b.
Tümdengelim yöntemi, e-Devlet sisteminin planlanması ve tasarlanması,
tüm standartların genel bir yaklaşımla belirlenmesi ve daha sonrasında ise tüm kamu
hizmetlerinin belirlenmiş olan plan çerçevesinde e-hizmete dönüştürülmesi olarak
tanımlanmaktadır. Bu yöntem kullanılırken, kamu hizmetlerinin, iş süreçlerinin ve veri akış
şemalarının tasarlanması ve planlanması işlemlerinin kusursuz bir şekilde yapılması önem arz
etmektedir.
Vatandaşlar ve iş alemi için, devletin dönüşümü tüm kamu kurumlarının tek bir kamu
kurumu bünyesinde toplanması anlamına gelmektedir. Çünkü, tek bir e-Devlet kapısına
erişildikten sonra, kullanıcılar sadece bir tane kamu kurumu ile muhatap olacakları için
alacakları kamu hizmetlerinin usulüne dikkat etmek zorunda kalmayacaklardır.
8
Devletin tek bir kamu birimi haline dönüştürülmesi tüm kamu kurumları arasında
"işbirliği" ve "veri paylaşımı" olmasını gerekli kılmaktadır. Bu husus ise tüm kamu
kurumlarının teknik ve idari olarak tanımlanmış standartlar çerçevesinde faaliyet göstermeleri
ile mümkün olabilmektedir. Teknik standardizasyon, idari standardizasyondan farklı unsurlara
sahip olsa da idari standardizasyon, teknik standardizasyonu kapsayıcı unsurlara sahiptir.

Teknik standardizasyonunun en önemli unsuru, "temel veri tabanı"
kullanılarak ulusal düzeydeki tüm kamu kurumları için oluşturulan "ilgili veri tabanı yönetim
sistemi" esas alınarak kamu kurumları arasındaki veri paylaşımını sağlamasıdır.

İdari standardizasyon ise yüm kamu unsurlarının belirlenmesi,
basitleştirilmesi ve tanımlanmasını ifade etmektedir.
Bu çerçevede, devletin kurumsal yapısı, kamu hizmetleri ile kamu hizmetlerinin
sunum usulleri, kamu çalışanları ve kamu çalışanlarının iş tanımları, dokümanlar ve formlar
tüm kamu kurumlarının mutabık kalacakları merkezi bir veritabanı içerisinde tanımlanmalıdır.
Tüm e-hizmetlerin entegrasyonunun sağlanması için, e-devlete esas teşkil olunacak ulusal bir
veri merkezi oluşturulması gerekmektedir.
9
10
BAŞBAKANLIK UZMANLARI DERNEĞİ
BALKANÜLKELERİİLE
KAMUYÖNETİMİNDEETKİNLİKVEVERİMLİLİKÇALIŞTAYI
WORKSHOP ON EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
AMONG BALKAN COUNTRIES
24-25Nisan2014,Ankara,April24-25,2014,Ankara
ÇALIŞTAYPROGRAMI
24Nisan2014Perşembe
19:30
Resepsiyon
11
BAŞBAKANLIK UZMANLARI DERNEĞİ
BALKANÜLKELERİİLE
KAMUYÖNETİMİNDEETKİNLİKVEVERİMLİLİKÇALIŞTAYI
WORKSHOP ON EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
AMONG BALKAN COUNTRIES
24-25Nisan2014,Ankara,April24-25,2014,Ankara
ÇALIŞTAYPROGRAMI
25Nisan2014Cuma
12
PREFACE
According to the 12th Article of the Constitution, the Prime Minister, as chairperson
of the Council of Ministers, shall ensure cooperation among the ministries, and supervise the
implementation of the government's general policy. Each minister shall be responsible to the
Prime Minister, for the conduct of affairs under his/her jurisdiction, and for the acts and
activities of his/her subordinates. The Prime Minister shall ensure that the ministers exercise
their functions in accordance with the Constitution and the laws and shall take corrective
measures to this end. In this respect, according to the political system our constitution shows
and the parliamentarian democratic understanding, the Prime Minister has the responsibility
of guidance, coordination and supervision on the ministries and public institutions.
The Prime Ministry Central Organization Law was made in 1984 in order to give
necessary tools to the Prime Minister for the effective implementation of his/her
responsibilities. The position of Prime Ministry Experts, as a career government profession,
was also established after the implementation of this Law. University degree in law, political
science, public administration, international relations or another related field has been
necessary for this position. First Prime Ministry Experts were recruited in 1986 after passing
highly competitive exams. I am also one of the members of this first group that started to work
on August of 1986. In the meantime, many groups of experts were recruited, and they have
seen as candidates for high level public bureaucracy. Indeed many of them were appointed to
the high level positions in public administration, especially in the Prime Ministry.
Prime Ministry Experts Association is a non-governmental and non-profit
organization which was founded in 2009 in order to lead projects and studies on the working
area of Prime Ministry Experts and to encourage the solidarity among its members. Our
Association has tried to reach its goals by organizing conferences, seminars and training
activities.
Within this framework, we started to plan an international Project focusing on
Balkan countries, including Republic of Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Republic of Kosovo
and Republic of Macedonia, with which we have close historical and cultural ties. We chose
the subject matter of the Project as “better regulation”, “cutting red tape” and “e-government”
because the members of our Association, Prime Ministry Experts, have worked as coordinator
or manager in the successful projects focusing on these subjects. We believe that this Project
will contribute to the promotion of recent successful Turkish experience in public
administration, and also to the improvement of cooperation among Balkan countries.
13
In the first stage of the Project, 13 members of our Association went to Albania,
Bosnia Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia on 4-13 November 2013. During this study visit,
our members visited distinguished managers and representatives of the ministries, public
institutions and universities, and shared some information about the details of the project.
In the second stage, we successfully organized “Workshop on Efficiency and
Effectiveness in Public Administration Among Balkan Countries” on 24-25 April 2014 with
the participation of distinguished representatives of Balkan countries, especially Mr. Mahir
Yağcılar, Minister of Public Administration of the Republic of Kosovo, Mrs. Kata Senjak,
President of Constitutional Court of Federation of Bosnia Herzegovina, Mr. Jahi Jahija, State
Secretary of Ministry of Information Society and Administration of the Republic of
Macedonia, Mrs. Albana Koçiu, Director of Public Administration Department of the Republic
of Albania, and Prof. Yücel Oğurlu, Rector of International University of Sarajevo.
In the third and final stage of the Project, we published Workshop Final Report in
order to show the activities made and applications done by Balkan countries within the scope
of the Project. I hope this report will contribute to the main goals of the Project; especially to
promote our country, to share Turkish experience on public administration with international
community and to improve cooperation among Balkan countries.
In addition, on behalf of the executive board of our Association, I want to thank
especially our Prime Minister Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Prof. Beşir Atalay, Deputy Prime
Minister, Mr. Naci Koru, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Serdar Çam, TİKA
President, Mr. İbrahim Kalın, Deputy Undersecretary, Mr. Özer Kontoğlu, Deputy
Undersecretary, Mr. Hüsnü Tekin, Head of Turkish Sugar Authority, Süleyman Erdem,
Secretary of Promotion Fund, İlker Astarcı, Head of External Relations Department and his
colleagues, and also all distinguished members of our Association for their highly important
contribution to this Project.
Bülent TAŞAN
President
Prime Ministry Experts Association
14
WORKSHOP ON EFFICIENCY AND
EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION AMONG
BALKAN COUNTRIES
WORKSHOP FINAL REPORT
ANKARA
1 JULY 2014
15
1. BACKGROUND:
In an increasingly globalized world, regulations are of critical importance for the
performance and competitiveness of countries. Regulations are one of the key levers alongside
fiscal and monetary interventions, by which governments act to promote economic prosperity,
enhance welfare and pursue public interest. In this context, building and strengthening
regulatory environment through public administration reforms are so essential because high
quality regulatory environment provides to improve the functioning of markets, manage global
risks and create substantial benefits for business and the public at large.
Improving efficiency and effectiveness in public administration is the first step for
strengthening regulatory environment. Without efficiently and effectively functioning
administrative system, high quality regulatory environment cannot be designed.
Efficiency generally describes the extent to which time, effort or cost is well used for
the intended task or purpose. It is often used with the specific purpose of relaying the capability
of a specific application of effort to produce a specific outcome effectively with a minimum
amount or quantity of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort.
Effectiveness, on the other hand, is commonly defined as the level of results (goal
attainment). In other words, the degree to which objec ves are achieved and the extent to
which targeted problems are solved.
Improving efficiency and effectiveness in public administration leads to good
governance which is associated with democracy, civil rights, transparency, accountability, rule
of law, and equality. Good governance, on the other hand, allows and promotes high quality
regulatory environment. In this context, efficiency and effectiveness gains in public
administration are vital so as to promote quality and professionalism in administrative capacity
and by this way, improve regulatory environment.
In order to improve efficiency and effectiveness in public administration, some tools
of public administration reforms such as better regulation, cutting red tape, and e-government
can be used.
16
2. BETTER REGULATION:
Better regulation policy is essential to improve legal infrastructure and economic
development for Balkan countries. Better regulation leads to the better investment and doing
business climate while meeting important legal and social goals. Systematic assessments of
draft and existing regulations assist to identify whether the regulation really serves to the social
and economic benefits. More over open government dimension of the better regulation,
including transparency and participation in the regulatory process, enhances the regulatory
performance.
Better regulation practices amongst Balkan countries covers mainly four basic areas:
(i) use of systematic assessments of new regulations (impact assessments and other tools), (ii)
improvement of the management of the stock of regulation, (iii) increase of transparency and
consultation in the regulatory process and (iv) administrative simplification program to reduce
regulatory burdens and simplify existing laws.
In order to achieve better regulation, the following issues should be taken into
consideration:
• New regulation shall be introduced only when it is necessary and the burdens it
imposes are proportionate to its purpose. Impact assessments are commonly used tools to
check necessity and regulatory quality. Implementation of impact assessments, for instance
Regulatory Impact Analysis, depends on capacity and culture in the administration. As a result,
the strategy to adopt impact assessments should reconcile good international practices with a
gradual approach.
• Management of the stock of regulation initially requires easy access to current
regulations for all users. Governments may satisfy this need by consolidating the regulatory
amendments and online publication of current regulations. Improvement of the management
of the stock of regulation can be accomplished by effective use of information and
communications technology and allocation of adequate resources.
• Transparency and consultation in the regulatory process provides legitimacy
and ensures that regulation serves the public interest. All parties interested in and affected by
regulation shall be informed in a timely manner and they shall have chance to declare their
opinions. Making new regulations publicly available and compulsory consultation during
regulatory process will increase the transparency and consultation.
17
• Administrative simplification program is crucial for economic development.
Reducing regulatory burdens and simplify existing laws obliges coordination with central and
local levels of government as well as with the private sector. It is essential to establish feedback
mechanism to monitor and evaluate for regulatory results. When formulating the regulation,
setting concrete goals that are feasible to achieve and easy to evaluate and monitor will
improve regulatory quality and accountability in addition to administrative simplification. It
would be advisable to target specific areas of regulation for simplification in order to obtain
“quick wins” that would give visibility and administrative momentum to the simplification
effort.
• Better regulation principles and advices of international organizations and
initiatives such as the European Union, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) and SIGMA (Support for Improvement in Governance and
Management) can contribute to establish and manage better regulation attempts. For example,
OECD Recommendation of the Council on Regulatory Policy and Governance guides
governments for regulatory quality and regulatory reform.
• Adequate institutional setup is also needed for a successful better regulation
strategy for Balkan countries. Turkish and Macedonian cases which include an “oversight
body” for better regulation/regulatory reform are good institutional example to improve the
quality of regulation. Such an oversight body can develop better regulation strategy, oversees
the implementation of government-wide policies, and guides governmental bodies. It would
help ensure consistency and coordination as well. Therefore “whole-of-government”
regulatory policy that covers the entire regulatory system for both the flow and the stock of
regulation can be sustained.
18
19
20
4. E-GOVERNMENT:
E-Government basically includes three groups: government, citizens and business.
All inner and inter relations among these three groups would constitute “e-Government” in
real terms. Nevertheless, the most important element on the way to e-Government is the
government regarding its size and complexity.
In theory, there are three steps towards e-Government. These are e-Service, eInstitution and e-Government respectively. Today, there is a common misunderstanding that
the transformation to the e-Government would be realized after transferring all public services
to e-Services. However, providing even all of the public services electronically does not mean
reaching to e-Institution, leave aside reaching e-Government. These are the steps to reach eGovernment:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
Determining unique codes
Associating all public services with each other
Identifying comprehensive administrative and technical standards
Preparing institutional and general public vocabulary glossaries
Establishing Public Data Management System
There are two methods for transition from classical administration to eGovernment: inductive method and deductive method.
a.
The inductive method is defined as transforming public services to eservices one by one and subsequently associating these services with each other. In using this
method common standards should be determined effectively to avoid the problem of
interoperability among electronic applications.
b.
The deductive method is defined as planning and designing e-Government
and identifying all standards with an overall approach initially and then transforming public
services to e-services within the framework of the predesigned plan. In using this method
initial designing and planning of all public services, business process and data flow charts
should be done flawlessly.
For citizens and business, the transition of government means the transformation of
all public institutions to a single public body. Because, after the transformation to single eGovernment gateway, the citizens will no longer care about the procedure for the services they
receive since they will only deal with single government gateway.
21
Transforming government to a single public body necessitates “co-operation” and
“data sharing” among all public institutions. This can only be realized with the efforts of all
public institutions within the framework of technically and administratively
“defined/prescriptive standards”. Even if the technical standardization has different aspects
from administrative standardization, administrative standardization has complementary
features for technical standardization.
• The most important aspect of technical standardization is ensuring the data
sharing among public bodies based on “relational data base management systems” of all public
institutions on national level by using “Basic Data Base” and using one data base for the same
issue.
• Administrative standardization is the identification of all public elements and
simplifying and describing them.
In this respect, the organizational structure of the government, the public services and
their procedures, public employees and their job definitions, documents and forms should be
clearly put forth and should be defined as metadata under a central database with a consensus of
all public bodies. In order to integrate all e-Services the National Data Center which serves as
the brain of e-Government should be established.
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23
PRIME MINISTRY EXPERTS ASSOCIATION
BALKANÜLKELERİİLE
KAMUYÖNETİMİNDEETKİNLİKVEVERİMLİLİKÇALIŞTAYI
WORKSHOP ON EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
AMONG BALKAN COUNTRIES
24-25Nisan2014,Ankara,April24-25,2014,Ankara
WORKSHOPPROGRAMME
24April2014Thursday
19:30
Reception
24
PRIME MINISTRY EXPERTS ASSOCIATION
BALKANÜLKELERİİLE
KAMUYÖNETİMİNDEETKİNLİKVEVERİMLİLİKÇALIŞTAYI
WORKSHOP ON EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
AMONG BALKAN COUNTRIES
24-25Nisan2014,Ankara,April24-25,2014,Ankara
WORKSHOPPROGRAMME
25Nisan2014Friday
25
SUNUMLAR / PRESENTATIONS
26
Bürokrasi
Azaltılmasın!
Do Not Cut
Bureaucracy!
NAİL ÖZTAŞ
PROF. DR. GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İ.İ.B.F.
Bürokrasi/Bureaucracy (meanings of)
▪
Çeşitli anlamları:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Pejoratif (pejorative)
Kamu yönetimi (public administration)
Kamu personeli (civil servants)
Bir yönetim biçimi ( a type of administration)
Örgütlenme biçimi (a type of organization)
Bürokrasi/Bureaucracy (meanings
of)
▪
Pejoratif anlamı (pejorative )
▪
▪
▪
Kırtasiyecilik (red tape)
‘Yarın bir daha gel’ - Hesap vermeme ( lack of accountability)
Pahalı ve hantal yapı (expensive and non-adaptive)
27
Bürokrasi Azaltılsın mı?
▪
EVET
▪
Çözümler çok karmaşık değil
▪ Kim üretiyor?
▪ Merkezi idare
▪ Mahalli Ġdareler
▪ Meslek KuruluĢları (STKlar)
▪ Ölçemediğinizi iyileĢtiremezsiniz
▪ Veri; istatistik (koordinasyon ve kontrol edilebilirlik) –emlak değerleri
▪ E-devlet
-imza-paraf sayısı …)
▪ AnlayıĢ (vatandaĢ odaklı; iĢlem standartları
▪ Pratik bir çözüm: evrak dolaĢsın hizmeti alan/vatandaĢ değil!
Bürokrasi/Bureaucracy (meanings
of)
▪
Kamu Yönetimi (public administration)
▪ Yürütme, icra (executive branch of the state)
▪ Niye var? (rationales for public policy)
▪ Piyasa başarısızlıkları (market failures)
▪ Tam/saf kamu malları (pure public goods)
▪ Pozitif dıĢsallıklar(positive externalities)
▪ Negatif dıĢsallıklar (negative externalities)
▪ Eşitlik ( Equality)
maliyetler; yoğunlaşmış faydalar (Diffused costs concentrated
▪ Yaygın
benefits)
Bürokrasi Azaltılsın mı?
▪ Hayır
▪ Piyasa baĢarısızlıkları var
▪ Ölçek ekonomisi
▪ Ulus devletler çağı devam ediyor
▪ Kanun ve düzen ihtiyacı var
▪ Adalet ve hizmetlere eşit erişim ihtiyacı var
28
Bürokrasi/Bureaucracy (meanings
of)
▪ Bürokratlar (public servants)
Hegelci; Wilsoncu profesyonellik (Professional policy
▪ Weberci;
implementers)
▪ Tarafsız uzmanlık; gayriĢahsilik(impartial; impersonal expertise)
kurumsallık - bilgi, görgü, devamlılık kaynağı
▪ Devlette
(institutionalization)
Bürokrasi azaltılsın mı?
▪ Hayır –
▪ Türk Kamu Personeli Sayısı: 3,18 milyon
▪ Kamu Ġstihdam Oranı (Nüfusun) %4.2-2014 yılı
▪ Kuzey Avrupa (%15)
▪ ABD ‘de %6,3 (22 milyon) -2008 yılı
TÜRKİYE DE KAMU SEKTÖRÜ/DEVLET BÜYÜK DEĞİL
Kamu Personeli Sayısı
29
Büyük Devlet?
▪
▪
Maliye Bakanlığı verilerine göre, Türkiye, OECD'de 34 ülke arasında sosyal
güvenlik primleri dahil vergi yükü açısından sondan 6'ncı sırada
OECD ülkeleri arasında vergi yükünün GSYH'ye oranı
yüksek ülke % 48,2 ile Danimarka.
▪ en
% 45,8,
▪ İsveç
% 43,8,
▪ Belçika
% 43,
▪ İtalya
% 42,9,
▪ Fransa
% 42
▪ Avusturya
▪ OECD ortalaması % 33,9
▪ Türkiye % 26'lık oran ile vergi yükünde
▪ % 18,1 orana sahip Meksika,
▪ % 20,9'luk orana sahip ġili,
▪ % 24,8'lik orana sahip ABD,
▪ % 25,1 orana sahip Kore ve
▪ % 25,9'luk oran ile Avustralya'yı geride bırakıyor.
Bürokrasi/Bureaucracy (meanings
of)
▪
Yönetim biçimi (type of administration)
(
▪ Mills ‘e göre atanmıĢ uzmanların iktidarı kullandıkları yapı technocracy)
▪ Bürokratik elitizm…(bureucratic elitism)
▪ ‘Güç yozlaştırır, mutlak güç mutlaka yozlaştırır’
Ekonomik ve Siyasi iktidarın yeni sahipleri: Profesyonel
▪ Toplumsal
Yöneticiler
▪ ‘The Power Elite; The New Class; Managerialism’ Mills, Djilas …vd.
Bürokrasi azaltılsın mı?
▪
EVET
▪ Demokratik
▪ Şeffaf
▪ Hesap veren
▪ Efendi değil hizmetkar
BÜROKRATLAR
30
Bürokrasi/Bureaucracy (meanings of)
▪
Weberyen Örgütlenme biçimi ( a type of organization)
▪
▪
Burra + Cratos = Masaların Egemenliği
▪ Rasyonel toplumun parçası örgütlerin rasyonelleĢtirilmesi
Gayrişahsilik
▪ Kanunlarla düzenlenmiĢ yetki
▪ İşbölümü ve hiyerarşi
▪ Kurallara ve usullere bağlılık
▪ Davranış kuralları
▪ Teknik kurallar
karar alma noktalarını azaltarak ve standardizasyonu sağlayarak üretim
▪ «Kuralların;
etkinliğini artıran bir etkisi vardır. Kurallar, ayrıca astlara ve müĢterilere/vatandaşlara
tarafsız ve eşit davranmayı temin eder.»
▪ Yazılı kayıtlar ve arĢivleme …
Bürokrasi azaltılsın mı?
▪
▪
Hayır
▪
PERFORMANS
KURUMSALLAŞMA
▪ Kişilerin değil kararlar, kurallar ve politikaların yönetimi
▪ Öngörülebilir; şahsi
▪ Bürokratik örgütlenme modeli baĢarısız mı?
Başarılı olabiliyor : McDonalds; Citibank; Bank of
▪ ÇOK
America….bürokratik yapılardır
▪ Koşullarınıza uygunsa başarılı
Sonuç
▪
▪
▪
Bürokrasi azaltılmasın
1.
Kırtasiyecilik azaltılsın
2.
Bürokratik elitizm azaltılsın
Bürokrasi artırılsın
u
KurumsallaĢma artırılsın
1.
Öngörülebilirlik artırılsın
2.
Bürokratik etkinlik artırılsın
Bürokrasiler Değişime Direniyor:
▪ «Çünkü değişmemek üzere tasarlanmışlardır»
31
T.C.
BAŞBAKANLIK
KAYSİS
ELEKTRONİKKAMUBİLGİYÖNETİMSİSTEMİ
April2014
Ankara
KAYSİS
MERNİS
MERSİS
VEDOP
UYAP
MEBBİS
TAKBİS
MBS
SOYBİS
ULUSAL VERİ SANTRALİ
‐NATIONAL DATA CENTRAL
e‐Mevzuat
SDPS
DTVT
DBVT
KSYS
HEVT
PERSİS
HSVT
BİMER‐KMA
TEŞEKKÜRLER
Thank You
32
Cutting Red Tape
Yunus Emre ILKORKOR
April 2014, Ankara
Cutting Red Tape
• Excessive and redundant regulations created
by bureaucracy cause red tape and thus
prevent effective decision making and hinder
efficiently performing economic and social
life.
• Administrative development is a process to improve the
capabilities of administrative system and to modernize and
simplify administrative structure.
• Administrative reform and administrative simplification
constitute administrative development practices. In Turkey, Prime
Ministry Department for Administrative Development carries out
administrative reform and administrative simplification practices.
Cutting Red Tape
• Administrative simplification is one of
the better regulation strategies which
reduces regulatory complexity and
uncertainty, and cuts red tape reducing
unnecessary
burdens
caused
by
bureaucracy and paperwork.
• In order to cut red tape, administrative
simplification strategies are used.
33
Cutting Red Tape
• Administrative simplification is one of
the better regulation strategies which
reduces regulatory complexity and
uncertainty, and cuts red tape reducing
unnecessary
burdens
caused
by
bureaucracy and paperwork.
• In order to cut red tape, administrative
simplification strategies are used.
Administrative Simplification
Administrative
Simplification
Standard Cost Model
E-Government
Practices
Repeal
Simplification
Codification
Recasting
Consolidation
Simplification
Repeal
• Repeal is the process of repealing outdated legislative acts which
become irrelevant or obsolete due to technical or technological
progress.
Codification
• Codification is the process of bringing together a legislative act
and all its amendments in a single new act. The new act passes
through the full legislative process and replaces the acts being
codified.
Recasting
Consolidation
•Recasting brings together in a single new act a legislative act and all the
amendments made to it. The new act passes through the full legislative
process and repeals all the acts being recast. But unlike codification,
recasting involves new substantive changes, as amendments are made to
the original act during preparation of the recast text.
• Consolidation is the process of combining in a single text the
provisions of a basic instrument and all subsequent amendments.
There is no amendment of the content or form of the existing
material.
34
Standard Cost Model
Laws or Regulations
Information Obligation 1
Information Obligation 2
Data
Requirement 1
Administrative
Activity 1
Data
Requirement 2
Administrative
Activity 2
Information Obligation n
Internal Costs
-Hourly Rate
-Time
-Overheads
External Costs
-Hourly Rate
-Time
Out of Pocket
Costs
Data
Requirement n
Administrative
Activity n
Turkish Case
Department for Administrative Development
• Works to improve the capabilities of administrative system and to
modernize and simplify administrative structure.
• Adopts problem solving oriented and project based approach
• Has 13 experts
▫ There is division of work among experts.
▫ If necessary, other personnel are transferred from other institutions.
• Cooperates with other institutions
▫
▫
▫
▫
▫
Ministry of Development
Ministry of Economy
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Internal Affairs
The Coordination Council for the Improvement of Investment Environment in
Turkey (YOİKK)
▫ Investment Support and Promotion Agency of Turkey
35
Department for Administrative Development
• Challenges
▫ To be a part of a comprehensive reform strategy
▫ To have effective internal and external control
▫ To have a structural relation with other institutions in order not
to increase bureaucracy and paperwork
▫ Prime Minister’s incumbency
• Opportunities
▫
▫
▫
▫
▫
Social media tools
The website as “Red Tape Challenge”
Citizen Satisfaction Questionnaire
Public Relations System (BİMER)
The hierarchical power of Prime Ministry
Administrative Simplification Principles
• “By-Law on the Procedures and Principles in the Provision of Public
Services” published in the Official Gazette (date: July 31, 2009; no:
27305) presents the following principles:
• The provision of public services at the most convenient place for citizens
• Online provision of public services
• Service standardization and public disclosure
• Specialization of public services for handicapped citizens
• Reduced number of data requirements and information obligation from citizens
• Efficient methods for internal and external correspondences
Administrative Simplification Stages
• Determininginforma onobliga ons
• Measuringadministra veburdens
• Choosinganadministra vesimplifica onmethod
• Amendingregula ons
36
Cutting Red Tape Activities
2006
2009
170 bylaws were amended
421 documents were abolished
Notary public approval were
dismissed for 215 public
services
46 authorization were
transferred from central part
to rural part
26 authorization were
transferred from governorship
to lower level
1.013.045.000-TL (‰5 of
Turkish 2009 Budget) savings
were achieved.
118 laws,
46 regulations,
39 bylaws (by Cabinet) and
1220 Prime Ministry
Communiqués were abolished.
Cutting Red Tape Activities
The project named as “Simplification of Public Services and Cutting Red
Tape” was initiated in 2010. At first, 50 bylaw amendments were
published in the Official Gazette. With bylaw amendments, 136
documents were abolished.
In 2011, the documents demanded during banking transactions were
simplified. As a result, it was achieved to reduce a total of 21.055.709
TL administrative burden.
In 2012, 122 bylaw amendments and 1 circular were published in the
Official Gazette. With bylaw amendments, 491 documents were
abolished.
In 2012, with the effect of simplification practices during public
personnel recruitment, it was achieved to reduce a total of 12.744.095
TL administrative burden.
Within the context of simplification activities in higher education
enrollment, 222 university bylaws were amended. As a result, it was
achieved to save up a total of 154.568.259TL.
Cutting Red Tape Activities
• Ongoing Projects
▫ Public Service Inventory
▫ The Project for Simplifying Internal Security
Services
▫ The Project for Simplifying Municipality Services
▫ Activities Concerning the Action Plans of The
Coordination Council for the Improvement of
Investment Environment in Turkey (YOİKK)
▫ Simplification
Practices
Concerning
the
Problematic Areas Determined by Investment
Support and Promotion Agency of Turkey
37
Standard Cost Model Practices
In 2007, the project named as “Familiarization of SCM to
Turkish Public Administration”
In 2008, the pilot study of “Measuring Administrative
Burdens in the Process of Opening and Managing an Hotel”
In 2008, the pilot study of “Measuring Administrative
Burdens in the Process of Vehicle Registry”
In 2009, the pilot study of “Measuring Administrative
Burdens in the Process of Exporting Biscuits to Saudi Arabia”
Reform Practices
2003
Public Financial Management and Control Law
An important step has been taken to regulate the structure and
functioning of public financial management.
Public administration budgets were started to be prepared in the form of
central government budget, social security institution budgets, and local
administration budgets.
Accountability and transparency became fundamental principles of public
finance.
Financial discipline for public spendings
Strategic planning and performance based budgeting
Internal control and audit
2003
Right to Information Law
An important step has been taken for democratic and transparent
government.
Public institutions became required to provide every kind of information
and document for citizens.
38
2004
The Law about Basic Principles and Restructuring of Public
Administration
The law attempted to apply the basic principles of new public management
and to restructure public institutions in accordance with horizontal
organization and delegation of authority principles.
The law was vetoed by President and never reappeared on the agenda.
2004
Law on the Ethics for Public Service
Council of Ethics for Public Service was established
Ethical attitude principles such as transparency, impartiality, honesty, and
accountability that should be abided by the public officials were adopted.
2004-2005
Local Government Reform
(The Laws on Municipality, Metropolitan Municipality, and Special Provincial
Administration)
An important step has been taken to provide local government services in a
democratic, participative, autonomous, active and productive manner.
2005
Health Transformation Programme
The hospitals of other public institutions, including the SSK ones, were
transferred to the Ministry of Health,
Family medicine implementation, performance based supplementary
payment, and appointment for hospital services were launched and spread
out,
Value added taxes for medicines were reduced,
The coverage of green card was widened.
2006-2008
Social Security Reform
(Social Security Institution Law, General Health Insurance Law)
Three different social security institutions (for employees, for self-employed,
and for civil servants) were unified into a single institution, the Social
Security Institution.
A major change was introduced in the retirement age (by 2036, the
retirement age for women will be 58, for men will be 60) (after 2036 the
gradual increase) (by 2048, the retirement age for both women and men will
be 65)
2010
Law on Court of Accounts
Only one audit unit on behalf of the Parliament was established.
High Audit Board was unified with Court of Accounts
The coverage of audit was widened including municipality companies,
barracks, military mess, etc.
39
2011
Law on Restructuring Public Services
Based on the Law About Delegation of Authority, 35 Decree Law were
enacted.
The distribution of public services among ministries was redetermined.
Public personnel salaries were redetermined in accordance with Equal Pay
for Equal Work Act.
2012
Law on the Ombudsman
Ombudsman Institution was established to examine all sorts of actions of the
administration within the framework of human rights-based justice and
legality and conformity.
Effective mechanism of complaint concerning the public services were
initiated starting from March 29, 2013.
2008-2013
Justice Reform
Courts of appeal were established,
National justice network was created
Penalty Code was revised
The physical and technological system of courts and human resources in the
field of justice were taken into account
Thank You
Yunus Emre ILKORKOR
[email protected]
40
Ministry for Innovation and Public Administration
24 April 2014
2003-2004
First ICT strategy approved- April 2003
Begun of GovNET construction - 2004
2005
eSchools – Approved Master Plan
2007
Creation of National Center of Business register
E-Procurement
NAIS – National Agency of Information Society
2008
New law on Electronic communication
E-Treasure & E-custom
Improvement on GovNET
2009
New strategy for Information Society Approved
All procurement were online
E-Cabinet creation (government meeting online)
e-licensing : One Stop Shop for licenses and
2010
Free internet to around 550 post office
4th license of GSM
www.e-Albania.al portal
2011
Number portability
ProTIK Innovation Center
2012 – 2013 Digital Albania
41
E-government & service suppliers
Services offered in
central level:
Ministries
Other central Institutions
Service offers through
third parties support
Services offered in
local/regional :
communes,municipalities
etc
E-Government steps
Integrated
services &
interoperation
Online
Development
Total online
transaction
Interactive two
way
communication
One way
communication
Online
information
Level 0
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Concept
The main concept of Public Service Hall
is to deliver public and private services
in one space
42
Level 5
The effectiveness of service delivery depends on
numerous interrelated factors of which following issues
are vital
Providing with simple service delivery procedures
Delivering services quickly and effectively, without bureaucratic barriers
Serving customers’ in a comfortable environment
combination of those factors, which results in customer
satisfaction, is the key success element of the project
Three key elements of the reform
Separation of the role
among the back and
the front offices
Legislation
(strengthening the role
of front office)
Software
HR policy
Selection process
Recruitment
Evaluation System
Training System
Motivation System
Promotion & career path
IT Support
creating universal software
outsourcing IT support (for efficiency reasons)
developing new software applications
43
Interior/Exterior Design and Planning
Landmark
New, differentiated architectural
concept/design
Effective division of space/interior planning
Concept of interior design
Quality autonomous management
service delivery standard
waiting time standard
Quality management monitoring & controlling
system
Effective Service/Procedure Development
simplifying service delivery procedures
implementing new products
establishing standard service delivery processes
flexible terms & conditions of services
Branch Operational Management
Daily management of front office
Flexible system of the flow of documents
Customer flow management
Managing overflow
• Corruption (bribery, nepotism…)
• Bureaucracy
• Negligence of customers’ interests
• Long-lasting queues
• Heaps of documents
44
THANK YOU
April 2014
45
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORMS
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ankara, 24-25 April 2014
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Teritory 51,209 km2
Population 3.9 million people
Administrative Structure of
Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)
Dayton Constitution 21.11.1995
46
Public Administration Reform
Coordinator’s Office
PAR Strategy and Action plans
Strategy, AP1 and Revised AP1 identified 6 reform areas:
Strategic planning, coordination and policy making,
Public finances,
Human resources management,
Administrative procedures and services,
Institutional communication,
E – Government.
Defined goals, activities and indicators for each reform area
Defined key actors – the institutions obliged to implement
specific activities for achievement of the RAP1 goals.
PAR implementation
Two approaches
Institutional approach based on the activities of institutions
Project approach for implementation of the joint activities
PublicAdministra onReforms
CoMofB&H,Ins tu ons
RSgovernment,Ins tu ons
PARfund
GovernmentofFB&H,
Ins tu ons
GovernmentBD,Ins tu ons
47
Project
PARCO Projects
Projects oriented towards implementation of the RAP1
Spent 3,572,337.96 EUR
RevisedAP1
Projectidea
(Projectfiche)
PARCO
&
Supervisory
board
Approval
(ToR)
preparation
Approval
JointSteering
Commi ee
purchasing
Publicpurchasing
procedure
PARCO
Supervisoryboard
Approval
Implementa on
Consultant
realization
Approval
Approval
PARCO
Monitoring
&
Evalua on
Implementa on
team
Repor ng
M&E reports
PAR Fund
48
Progress Monitoring & Evaluation
Monitoring of RAP1 progress based on realisation of the
goal, using the “trafic light” system:
RAP1 realisation – 2013
“Continuous” goals - implementation during
the RAP1 lasting (4 years).
“One-time” goals - implementation in a
specific year.
- Realisa on hasn’t
started -
20%
32%
20%
28%
11%
- Realisa onhas
started- Par ally realised- Completely
realised -
Azra Brankovic, PhD
[email protected]
www.parco.gov.ba
49
55%
34%
Cu ngRedTape
BosniaandHerzegovina
24-25April2014
Excessive regula on – common prac ce
The "cu ng of red tape" ‐ popular electoral
promise
EU ‐ reduc on of
administra ve burdens by
25% between 2007 and
2012 increase of 1.4% in
EU GDP ( €150 billion)
1.329
Millionsof
684
307
355
285
180
2007.
2008.
2009.
2010.
50
2011.
2012.
DoingbusinessWB2014
Rankoutof189countries
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Rank
131
Ease of Doing Business Rank
Star ng a Business
Dealing with Construc on Permits
Ge ng Electricity
Registering Property
Ge ng Credit
Protec ng Investors
Paying Taxes
Trading Across Borders
Enforcing Contracts
Resolving Insolvency
174
175
164
96
73
115
135
107
115
77
Star ngaBusiness
Bosniaand
Herzegovina
Indicator
Procedures(number)
Europe&
CentralAsia
OECD
11
5
5
Time(days)
37.0
12.8
11.1
Cost(%ofincome
percapita)
14.9
6.7
3.6
Paid-inMin.Capital
(%ofincomeper
capita)
29.1
3.5
10.4
“Regula onsguillo ne”
USAID/SPIRAi FIAS/WB
Project “Regula ons guillo ne“ in Republic of
Srpska March 2006- March 2007.
Removed 21,15%, simplified 22,66% kept 56,19% of
regula on
Removed 60% processes in inspec on control
Savings of about 11,5 million €
51
Regulatory reform
Project „Regulatoryreform“
2009– 2011 Federa onofB&H,IFC/WB
Overall analyses, in order to improve laws for inspec on related
measures – I phase
Overall analysis, simplifica on and improving the administra ve
procedures at the level of this en ty – II phase
Simplified 352 administra ve procedures (licenses, permits,
approvals and cer fica on)
Savings for the private sector in the amount of 50 million €.
ImprovingBusinessEnvironment
IFC Project„ImprovingBusinessEnvironmentandstrengthening
B&H compe on”December2011– December2014
Expected results:
Reduc on of me and cost for registering of company
including licenses, permits, approvals and cer fica on;
Simplifica on of licenses, permits, approvals and
cer fica on on local and cantonal level
Nextsteps
Parco Project "Establishment and/or Strengthening of Capaci es of the
Ins tu on/s for Control of Regula ons and Establishment of the System of
Reduc on of Administra ve Barriers“
Expected results:
Established legal frame for reduc on of administra ve barriers
Established/strenghtened capaci es for reduc on of administra ve
barriers
Realised pilot projects
administra ve barriers
of
reduc on
of
Improved IT capaci es in ins tu on related to
reduc on of administra ve barriers
52
Nextsteps
Parco project “Business Registra on Reform Road Map”
Goal – create a detailed and complete business registra on reform road
map for:
establishing "points of single contact" ‐ one‐stop shops for business start‐ups so
entrepreneurs can obtain all relevant informa on and complete all procedures
physical (an office) and virtual (web);
reduc on of the me taken to register a new business to 3 days;
reduc on of number of procedures;
significant costs reduc on of the fees for business start‐ups;
establishing up‐to date business registers
Azra Brankovic, PhD
[email protected]
www.parco.gov.ba
53
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
• REGULATORYREFORM
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
One of the key strategic priorities of the Government of the Republic of
Macedonia, remains increasing economic growth and competitiveness in the
long run, higher employment rate, increase of the living standards and quality
of life.
The Government of the Republic of Macedonia at the end of 2006 began
implementing reforms in two key areas , namely:
Revise existing regulations through REGULATORY GUILLOTINE
Systematic review of new regulations‐ REGULATORY IMPACT ASSESSMENT‐ RIA
IMPLEMENTTHE GUILLOTINESTRATEGY
• DECISIONTO
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
The guillotine is primarily aimed at the first task of regulatory
reform, and so potentially involves hundreds or thousands of
regulatory instruments developed by ministries and other public
bodies across the whole of the public administration.
Careful preparation is necessary in order to achieve good
results.
The guillotine process is based on three strategies:
political, legal and administrative
54
STRATEGY
• GUILLOTINE
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
A political strategy ‐top‐down political support from the
prime minister and key ministers and builds public support
for radical reform affecting many stakeholders
A legal strategy to create an over‐arching legal framework
that enhances legal security and transparency, rather than
creating ,,legal chaos,,
An administrative strategy to carry out a highly structured
“top‐down” review process with clear filters and incentives
for reform.
• REGULATORYGUILLOTINE
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
IMPACT ASSESSMENT‐RIA
• REGULATORY
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
55
IMPACT ASSESSMENT‐RIA
• REGULATORY
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
RIA is a tool for improving the quality of regulatory decision‐
making, by providing a framework for the systematic
assessment of potential or actual impacts of regulation
measures
Can be used to assess new regulations ‐ ex ante
Can be used to evaluate existing regulations ‐ ex post
FRAMEWORK
•LEGAL
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
Decision of the Government for introducing regulatory guillotine
Rules of procedure of the Government of the Republic of
Macedonia
Regulatory Impact Assessment Methodology
Guidelines on Ministerial Procedures in the Process of Application
of the Regulatory Impact Assessment
Decision on the format and the content of the regulatory impact
assessment report
Methodology for ex post assessment of legislation
IMPACT ASSESSMENT
• MANDATORYREGULATORY
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
2009
MANDATORY
All draft laws submitted to Government must be accompanied by
RIA Report, except:
legislation adopted under a priority procedure,
legislation on ratification of international agreements,
the laws harmonizing the terminology across legislation,
the proposed budget of Government of the Republic of Macedonia
and
the law on adoption of the Budget of Government of the Republic of
Macedonia.
56
OF STAGES OF THE RIA PROCESS
• OUTLINE
ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
ORGANISATION
AND MANAGEMENT OF THE RIA PROCESS
Republic of Macedonia
• ljaghflkhaslkfh
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
TOOLS FOR PARTICIPATION
• ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
57
SINGLE NATIONAL ELECTRONIC REGISTER OF REGULATIONS
• ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
www.ener.gov.mk
E‐DEMOCRACY
• ljaghflkhaslkfh
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
e‐democracy is
not only a solution,
but a tool as well
that supports and
facilitates
democratic
processes
www.e‐demokratija.mk
E‐democracy web portal is a
response to the need of
introducing a new modern
method of public debate that
would enable simpler and more
accessible way for citizens to
take part in public policies
making with support of
modern information and
communication technologies.
2012
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
Achieving good regulation
is a big challenge, a demanding and
never ending task.
However, the results require systemic
governance framework that can provide
continuous improvement of the regulation quality.
58
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
Links:
www.mioa.gov.mk
http://mioa.gov.mk/files/pdf/Akti_PVR_1en.pdf
www.ener.gov.mk
www.e-demokratija.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Information Society and Administration
59
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
WorkshoponEfficiencyandEffec veness
InPublicAdministra onamongBalkanCountries
Turkey,Ankara,24.04.2014
RozalindaSTOJOVA
HeadofUnitfordevelopmentandpromo onof
Informa onSociety
Sectorfordevelopmentandpromo onof
Informa onSociety
What?
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
What?
Developinge-services!
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
60
Why?
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Why?
Publicadministra onreform!
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
How?Firststeps?
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
61
How?Firststeps?
Businessprocessanalysis!
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Questions asked:
What services are
provided?
How things are done?
and
Why?
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Answersgiven:
…
Raisednewques ons!
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
62
Solu on:
Administra veguillo ne!
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Results
Implementa on
Legal framework
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Legal framework
‐ Basic:
‐ Law on general administra ve procedure
‐ Law on ex‐officio data and documents providing and
exchange
‐ Suppor ng:
‐ Law on Data in electronic form and digital cer ficates
‐ Law on electronic management
‐ Law on personal data protec on
‐ Law on electronic communica on
‐ Material laws of all ins tu ons
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
63
Implementa on
‐ Guidesforimplemen ngone-stop-shop(4measures):
‐ Administra ve guillo ne
‐ Implementa on
‐ Informing the ci zens
‐ Informing the employees
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Implementa on
1. Administra veguillo ne:
a) Business process transforma on, simplifica on of the
processes, guillo ne of the list of required documents
b) Reflec on in aligning bylaws, list of laws that need to be
aligned
c) Centraliza on of data‐bases
d) Respec ng and aligning new processes with the Law for
personal data protec on
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Implementa on
2. Implementa on:
a) Adapta on of templates for submission of services
requests
b) Respec ng and aligning new processes with the Law for
personal data protec on
c) Defining the means for each data exchange, electronic
data or paper documents exchange
d) Contracts between respec ve ins tu ons for data
exchange
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
64
Implementa on
3. Informingtheci zens:
a) Promo onal ac vi es
b) Update the web‐portals with new templates
4. Informingtheemployees:
a) Intranets
b) Various face‐to‐face ac vi es
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Results
‐ MISAmonitorsandguidestheapplica on
‐ Results
‐ vary from ins tu on to ins tu on
‐ early adopters
‐ new processes and procedures
‐ new administra ve approaches
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Results
‐ Measuringresults
‐ measuring customer sa sfac on (“Semafor” ‐
h p://semafor.mioa.gov.mk/semafor/frontPage)
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
65
Ini a ves
‐ IntroducingSinglePointofContact
‐ adop ng Law on services – in process, described actors
and their responsibili es
‐ preparing SPC loca on
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
Thankyouforyoura en on!
[email protected]
Republic of Macedonia
MinistryofInforma onSocietyandAdministra on
66
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
Workshop onEfficiencyand Effec veness
In Public
PublicAdministra
Administra on
on among Balkan Countries
Turkey, Ankara, 24.04.2014
RozalindaSTOJOVA
Rozalinda
STOJOVA
Head of Unit for development and promo on of
Informa on Society
Sector for development and promo on of
Informa on Society
E‐gov and ICT projects
Legal framework
Strategic framework
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
Е-taxes
Public Revenue Office
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
67
E-taxes – etax
etax..ujp.
ujp.gov.
gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-taxes – etax
etax..ujp.
ujp.gov.
gov.mk
‐ Submission of applica on forms:
‐ simple for use
‐ available 24/7
‐ in secure manner
‐ Available for ALL taxpayers:
‐ large taxpayers – from 06.2006
di
d smallll ttaxpayers and
d self
lf employed
l d persons –
‐ medium
and
from 07.2008
‐ ccitizens
t e s – from
o 0
02.2012
0
‐ Registra on:
‐ online
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-taxes – etax
etax..ujp.
ujp.gov.
gov.mk
‐ Available applica on forms:
‐ all applica on forms: tax returns, claims, balance sheets,
reports, a achments
h
‐ controls integrated in forms
‐ Reports:
‐ status and updates
‐ tax evidence preview
‐ Tax and administra ve fees payment:
‐ payment orders created
‐ available for banks via web service
‐ eNapsys system used for administra ve taxes
‐ reminders via e‐mail
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
68
Е-procurement
Public Procurement Bureau
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-procurement – e--nabavki.gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-procurement – e--nabavki.gov.mk
‐ System:
Syste
‐ web‐based “step‐by‐step” solu on
‐ mandatory for all public contract no ces
‐ central loca on for all public procurements (government
and
d state ins tu ons when
h buying
b
goods
d and
d services))
‐ re‐engineered processes
‐ Available for ALL users:
‐ contrac ng authori es
‐ do
domestic
est c aand
d foreign
o e g co
companies
pa es
‐ Registra on:
‐ online
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
69
E-procurement – e--nabavki.gov.mk
‐ Procurement procedure:
‐ e‐technical dialog
‐ e‐No ces – publica on of the Contract no ce and tender
documenta on
‐ e‐Tendering
d
– online
l submission
b
off tenders/bids
d /b d
‐ e‐Evalua on – evalua on of bids
Auc on – tool for awarding public contracts
‐ ee‐Auc
‐ e‐Awarding – comple ng the procedure and
communica ng the results to all of the involved par es
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
Е-health
Health Insurance Fund
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-health – www
www..fzo
fzo..org.
org.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
70
E-health – www
www..fzo
fzo..org.
org.mk
‐ System
Syste m:
‐ web‐based
‐ electronic health card
‐ interoperability in place (SEA, PDIF,PRO)
‐ Users:
‐ insurees
lth care providers
id
‐ h
health
‐ Companies
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-health – www
www..fzo
fzo..org.
org.mk
‐ Services–
Services – IIphase:
phase:
‐ insurees status review
‐ insurance validity check for health services users
‐ check and change selected prime doctors
‐ digital signing contracts between HIFMand HCIs (legal
alignment in process)
‐ reports for ac veand
ve and deac vated pa ents
‐ Services
Services–– II phase:
‐ sub
submission
ss o o
of forms
o s
‐ data exchange between HIFMand HCIs
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
EXIM
Custom Administration
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
71
EXIM –– exim
exim..gov.
gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
EXIM –– exim
exim..gov.
gov.mk
‐ System:
‐ single window for EXport/IMport licensesand quotas
‐ available 24/7
‐ secured manner, based on privileges
‐ using standardized and harmonized data
‐ interoperable with 15 government bodies
l me services
i
‐ real‐
‐ Services for 58 licenses (all necessary for cross‐
cross‐border flow):
flow):
‐ e‐submission
‐ e‐issuance
‐ e‐tracingg
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-employment
State Employment Agency
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
72
E-employment – avrm
avrm..gov.
gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-employment – avrm
avrm..gov.
gov.mk
‐ System:
‐ web based
‐ available 24/7
‐ centralized data
‐ Users:
‐ unemployed and jobseekers
l
‐ employers
‐ ServicesIphase:
‐ on‐line registra on of employments
‐ on‐line termina on of employments
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-employment – avrm
avrm..gov.
gov.mk
‐ Services II phase:
‐ for jobseekers: building and upda ng personal CVs,
following adver sements and training programmes
‐ for employers: preview the list of jobseekers, announce
vacant posi ons
‐ comprehensive informa on for all services, various
analysis
y and labor market sta s cal data
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
73
E-cadastre
Agency for Real Estate
Cadastre
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-cadastre – katastar
katastar..gov.
gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-cadastre – katastar
katastar..gov.
gov.mk
‐ System:
‐ web‐based
‐ available 24/7
‐ public data
‐ Users:
‐ ci zens
i i li es
‐ municipali
‐ notaries
‐ civil engineering companies
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
74
E-cadastre – katastar
katastar..gov.
gov.mk
‐ Services:
‐ preview in complete real estate cadastre data
‐ providing services through notaries: issuing documents,
registra on of rights
‐ i‐kat
k (smart
(
phone
h
applica
l
on for
f GIS portal)
l)
‐ e‐kat (graphic data managing and exchange)
‐ digital topographic maps
‐ cadastre of infrastructural objects
‐ ee‐counter
cou te (o
(on‐linee app
application
cat o sub
submission)
ss o )
‐ GIS portal
‐ mak‐pos posi oning system
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-cadastre – katastar
katastar..gov.
gov.mk
‐ OnOn-going projects:
‐ 3D cadastre
‐ underground cadastre
‐ na onal register of real estates assessment
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-company registration
Central registry
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
75
E- CR – crm
crm..com.
com.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E- CR – crm
crm..com.
com.mk
‐ System:
‐ web‐based
‐ available 24/7
‐ Users:
‐ companies
‐ notaries
t
‐ paymentt operators
‐ legal executers
‐ trustees
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E- CR – crm
crm..com.
com.mk
‐ Services:
‐ one‐stop‐shop for companies
‐ registra on of companies
‐ registra on of legal en es, changes and dele on
‐ e‐payment of registra on fees
‐ issuing cer ficates in electronic or paper format
i
th i d persons with
ith th
bli t
‐ registra
on off authorized
the obligatory
social security (pension and health insurance)
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
76
E-education
Ministry of Education and
Science and MISA
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-educa on – emis
emis..mon.
mon.gov.
gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
.edu.
E-educa on – ednevnik
ednevnik.
edu.mk Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
77
E-educa on – ucebnici.mon.gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-educa on – skoool.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-educa on – e--ucebnici.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
78
E-reminder
MISA
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-reminder e--potsetnik.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-payment
MISA
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
79
E-payment – e--plakanje.gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-learning
MISA
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
E-learning – e--obuki.mioa.gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
80
E-learning
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
Open data
MISA
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
Open data – opendata
opendata..gov.
gov.mk
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
81
Thank you for your
attention !
[email protected]
Republic of Macedonia
Ministry of Informa on Society and Administra on
82
BAŞBAKANLIK UZMANLARI DERNEĞİ
Adres
Telefon
Belgegeçer
E-posta
:
:
:
:
Tuna Caddesi Aydın Apt.14/14 Kızılay ‐ Ankara
0 (312) 431 90 60
0 (312) 431 61 51
[email protected]
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