Turkish Journal of Botany
Turk J Bot
(2014) 38: 617-622
© TÜBİTAK
doi:10.3906/bot-1307-53
http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/
Research Note
Additions to the Turkish Discomycetes
1,
2
2
3
Yusuf UZUN *, İsmail ACAR , Mustafa Emre AKÇAY , Ilgaz AKATA
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van, TURKEY
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van, Turkey
3
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
1
Received: 20.07.2013
Accepted: 23.01.2014
Published Online: 31.03.2014
Printed: 30.04.2014
Abstract: In this study, Mollisia ventosa P.Karst., Hymenoscyphus herbarum (Pers.) Dennis, H. immutabilis (Fuckel) Dennis, H. robustior
(P.Karst.) Dennis, Ciboria amentacea (Balb.) Fuckel, and Peziza fimeti (Fuckel) E.C.Hansen have been recorded in Turkey for the first
time. Comments on their morphological and anatomical features, geographical position, locality, collection date, and distribution and
short descriptions and photographs related to macro- and micromorphologies of the taxa are provided.
Key words: Biodiversity, Discomycetes, new records, Turkey
1. Introduction
The apothecial ascomycetes that produce cup-shaped
ascomata with various colors are commonly known as
discomycetes. They represent approximately 9000 taxa,
which are saprobic, parasitic, mycorrhizal, or lichenized.
Some discomycetes are used in drugs or as biological
control agents. Therefore, the fungal resources of the
group are significant for biodiversity conservation (Gargas
and Taylor, 1995; Wu, 2005).
According to checklists on Turkish macromycetes
(Solak et al., 2007; Sesli and Denchev, 2008) and recently
contributed data (Akata et al., 2012; Akata and Kaya,
2012a, 2012b, 2013; Kaya et al., 2012; Akata and Yaprak,
2013; Güngör et al., 2013; Sesli and Helfer, 2013), Mollisia
ventosa P.Karst., Hymenoscyphus herbarum (Pers.) Dennis,
H. immutabilis (Fuckel) Dennis, H. robustior (P.Karst.)
Dennis, Ciboria amentacea (Balb.) Fuckel, and Peziza
fimeti (Fuckel) E.C.Hansen have not been previously
reported from Turkey.
The purpose of this study is to make contributions to
the Turkish discomycetes by adding new taxa.
2. Materials and methods
Apothecia were collected from Bingöl, Hani (Diyarbakır),
Çatak (Van), Beşikdüzü (Trabzon), and Zigana
(Gümüşhane) in eastern Turkey between 2006 and 2012.
Relevant ecological and morphological properties of the
specimens were noted and they were photographed in their
natural habitats. Samples were taken to the fungarium for
*Correspondence: [email protected]
detailed studies. Distilled water, Melzer’s reagent, and 5%
KOH were used for microscopic investigation.
Microphotographs of apothecia were taken under a
light microscope (Leica DM 1000). The specimens were
identified with the help of Breitenbach and Kränzlin
(1984), Hansen and Knudsen (2000), Spooner (2001),
Moravec (2005), and Medardi (2006). The identified
samples were deposited at the fungarium of Yüzüncü Yıl
University in Van (VANF) and the ANK herbarium.
3. Results
Short descriptions, photographs of apothecia, and
microphotographs of asci and spores are provided. The
taxonomy of the taxa follow that of Kirk et al. (2008).
HELOTIALES
3.1. Dermateaceae Fr.
3.1.1. Mollisia ventosa P.Karst. (1871) (Figure 1)
Syn: Mollisia ventosa P.Karst. (1871) f. ventosa, Mollisia
ventosa P.Karst. (1871) subsp. ventosa, Belonidium
ventosum (P.Karst.) W.Phillips (1887), Mollisia ventosa
f. major Le Gal (1939), Mollisia ventosa P.Karst. (1871) f.
ventosa, Mollisia ventosa P.Karst. (1871) subsp. ventosa.
Macroscopic and microscopic features: Apothecia
sessile, 0.5–15 mm broad, disk-shaped with a rounded or
slightly in-rolled margin. Hymenium grayish to yellowish
gray, outer surface glabrous, brownish to ochre-brown.
Asci 110–150 × 5–6 µm, cylindrical to clavate, 8-spored,
uniseriate, amyloid at apex. Paraphyses 2.5–3 µm broad,
filiform and septate. Spores 11–14 × 2.5–3 µm, ellipsoid,
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Figure 1. Mollisia ventosa: a) apothecia, b, c) asci and paraphyses, d) amyloid apex of ascus, d) spores.
sometimes rather curved, unicellular or with 1–2 septa,
hyaline and smooth (Figure 1).
Ecology: On dead branch of alder (Alnus spp.); other
records on barkless decaying wood and decorticated shed
twig (Breitenbach and Kränzlin, 1984; Dimitrova, 1997).
Specimen examined: Turkey. Trabzon: Beşikdüzü,
Aksaklı village, 41°03′N, 39°11′E, 80 m, 06.09.2011, Akata
4147 (ANK).
3.2. Helotiaceae Rehm
3.2.1. Hymenoscyphus herbarum (Pers.) Dennis (Figure 2)
Syn: Peziza herbarum Pers. (1797), Calycina herbarum
(Pers.) Gray (1821), Helotium herbarum (Pers.) Fr. (1849),
Malotium herbarum (Pers.) Velen. (1934).
Macroscopic and microscopic features: Apothecia
short stipitate, 2–3 mm broad, cup to disk-shaped.
Hymenium smooth, whitish to cream, outer surface
the same color, sometimes paler. Stipe up to 1 mm long
and 0.2–0.3 mm broad. Asci 70–90 × 6–7 µm, 8-spored,
clavate, amyloid at the tips. Paraphyses 1.5–2.5 µm broad,
cylindrical. Spores 13–16 × 2–3 µm, hyaline, cylindrical to
fusoid, biseriate in the ascus (Figure 2).
Ecology: On Urtica spp., other reports from rotten
herbaceous stems, especially Urtica and Solidago (Breitenbach
and Kränzlin, 1984; Hansen and Knudsen, 2000).
Specimen examined: Turkey. Gümüşhane: Zigana
mountain, Hamsiköy, 40°42′N, 39°27′E, 1420 m,
02.09.2011, Akata 4081 (ANK).
Figure 2. Hymenoscyphus herbarum: a) apothecia, b) asci and paraphyses, c) amyloid apex of ascus, d) spores.
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3.2.2. Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuckel) Dennis
(Figure 3)
Syn: Helotium immutabile Fuckel (1871), Pachydisca
immutabilis (Fuckel) Boud. (1907).
Macroscopic and microscopic features: Apothecia
shortly stipitate, 1–2 mm broad, cup to funnel shaped.
Hymenium yellowish to orange yellow outer surface
concolorous. Stipe 1 mm long and 0.1–0.3 mm broad. Asci
80–100 × 9-10 µm, clavate, 8-spored, uniseriate, amyloid
at apex. Paraphyses septate, filiform, slightly swollen at the
tips. Spores 10–13 × 4–5 µm, fusoid to turbinate, hyaline
and smooth (Figure 3).
Ecology: On remnants of oak branch (Quercus sp.);
other records on decaying wood, leaves, and petioles of
various broadleaved trees (Hansen and Knudsen, 2000).
Specimen examined: Turkey. Bingöl, Genç, Tarlabaşı
village, 38°41′906″N, 40°29′180″E, 1253 m, 05.05.2009,
Uzun-Bingöl 1230 (VANF).
3.2.3. Hymenoscyphus robustior (P.Karst.) Dennis
(Figure 4)
Syn: Peziza rhodoleuca subsp. robustior P.Karst. (1869),
Helotium robustius (P.Karst.) P.Karst. (1871), Calycina
robustior (P.Karst.) Kuntze (1898).
Macroscopic and microscopic features: Apothecia
stipitate, 1–2 mm broad, funnel to disk-shaped.
Hymenium brownish to pallid brown, outer surface
concolorous. Stipe 1–2 mm long. Asci 100–110 × 7–9
µm, clavate to cylindrical, 8-spored, uniseriate, amyloid at
apex. Paraphyses septate, filiform, slightly swollen at the
Figure 3. Hymenoscyphus immutabilis: a) apothecia, b) asci and paraphyses, c) amyloid apex of ascus, d) spores.
Figure 4. Hymenoscyphus robustior: a) apothecia, b) asci and paraphyses, c) amyloid apex of asci, d) spores.
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tips. Spores 10–12 × 3–4 µm, hyaline, smooth, ellipsoid to
cylindrical (Figure 4).
Ecology: On remnants of Quercus sp. branch; also on
various herbs in damp habitats (Hansen and Knudsen,
2000).
Specimen examined: Turkey. Bingöl, Genç forest,
38°44′730″N, 40°34′247″E, 1123 m, 08.11.2008, UzunBingöl 1012 (VANF).
3.3. Sclerotiniaceae Whetzel
3.3.1. Ciboria amentacea (Balb.) Fuckel (Figure 5)
Syn: Peziza amentacea Balb. (1804), Rutstroemia amentacea
(Balb.) P.Karst. (1871), Hymenoscyphus amentaceus (Balb.)
W.Phillips (1887).
Macroscopic and microscopic features: Apothecia
stipitate, 5–10 mm broad, cup to saucer-shaped, becoming
flattened with margin turned downward in older specimens.
Hymenium smooth, outer surface concolorous, pale to
ochre brown. Stipe 1.5–2.5 mm long, 0.1–0.3 mm broad.
Asci 120–130 × 8–10 µm, cylindrical, 8-spored, uniseriate,
amyloid at apex. Paraphyses nonseptate, filiform, slightly
swollen at the tips. Spores 7.5–10 × 4.5–5.5 µm, ellipsoid,
smooth and hyaline (Figure 5).
Ecology: On remnants of willow, in the literature
usually solitary to few on old catkins of alder (Alnus Mill.),
more rarely on catkins of willow (Salix L.) and poplar
(Populus L.), fall to spring (Breitenbach and Kränzlin,
1984; Hansen and Knudsen, 2000; Jordan, 2004).
Specimen examined: Turkey. Diyarbakır, Hani county
center, road to Dicle, 38°24′118″N, 40°23′709″E, 870
m, 28.03.2010, Acar 091; Hani, Serenköy, 38°24′258″N,
40°30′623″E, 864 m, 16.04.2010, Acar 104 (VANF).
PEZIZALES
3.4. Pezizaceae Dumort.
3.4.1. Peziza fimeti (Fuckel) E.C.Hansen (Figure 6)
Syn.: Peziza bovina W.Phillips (1887), Humaria bovina
(W.Phillips) Sacc. (1889), Aleuria bovina (W.Phillips)
Boud. (1907), Galactinia fimeti (Fuckel) Svrček & Kubička
(1961).
Macroscopic and microscopic features: Apothecia
subsessile, 10–15 mm broad, disk-shaped to turbinate.
Hymenium pallid brown to yellowish brown, outer
surface glabrous, concolorous. Asci 180–200 × 10–12
µm, cylindrical, 8-spored, uniseriate. Paraphyses 4–5 µm
broad, cylindrical to fusiform. Spores 16–20 × 9–11 µm,
ellipsoid, hyaline, and smooth (Figure 6).
Ecology: On horse dung, solitary to gregarious, also on
dung of other herbivores, summer to autumn (Hansen and
Knudsen, 2000).
Specimen examined: Turkey. Van, Çatak, Kanispi
region, 38°03′075″N, 43°02′533″E, 1685 m, 16.05.2012
Uzun 6175 (VANF).
4. Discussion
Mollisia ventosa is macroscopically close to several Mollisia
members, but it is easily distinguished from the others by
its septate spores (Breitenbach and Kränzlin, 1984).
Hymenoscyphus herbarum differs from most of the
other herb-dwelling members of the genus by its mostly
sessile manner of growth and by its excipulum of prismatic
or angular-celled textura. Moreover, the original color of
the H. herbarum sample is whitish to cream. However,
it is yellow to ochre in the literature. The reason for
the difference could be variation that originated from
ecological conditions (Breitenbach and Kränzlin, 1984).
H. immutabilis could be confused with H. phyllophilus
(Desm.) Kuntze but the latter species has septate and more
slender spores (Breitenbach and Kränzlin, 1984).
H. robustior resembles H. repandus (W. Phillips) Dennis
due to its ecology and micro- and macromorphology.
Both species grow on various herbaceous stems and their
Figure 5. Ciboria amentacea: a) apothecia, b) asci and paraphyses, c) amyloid apex of asci, d) spores.
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Figure 6. Peziza fimeti: a) apothecia, b) asci and paraphyses, c) spores in portion of asci.
apothecia and spore shapes are similar, but H. robustior
has larger asci, longer stem, and brown to orange brown
apothecia, while the latter is yellow to ochraceous (Hansen
and Knudsen, 2000).
Ciboria amentacea produces apothecia that grow on
the male catkins of alder poplar and willow. It resembles C.
coryli (Schellenb.) N.F. Buchw. in many ways, but the latter
species occurs on male catkins of common hazel (Corylus
avelana L.) and has larger spores (Akata and Kaya, 2012a).
Peziza is a complicated genus and it is not easy to
find certain diagnostic characteristics to identify the
species. Micromorphology such as ascospore features,
biochemical reactions of the asci, and pigmentation of
the paraphyses are very useful to separate Peziza species
(Barseghyan and Wasser, 2011; Akata and Kaya, 2012a).
P. fimeti is macroscopically very similar to P. moravecii
(Svrček) Svrček, but, P. moravecii has sessile apothecia and
narrower spores (Spooner and Butterfill, 1999).
In the literature (Uzun et al., 2010; Akata et al.,
2012; Akata and Kaya, 2012a, 2012b, 2013; Kaya et al.,
2012; Akata and Yaprak, 2013; Güngör et al., 2013), 171
discomycetes taxa have so far been reported from Turkey.
With this study, Mollisia ventosa P.Karst.,
Hymenoscyphus herbarum (Pers.) Dennis, H. immutabilis
(Fuckel) Dennis, H. robustior (P.Karst.) Dennis, Ciboria
amentacea (Balb.) Fuckel, and Peziza fimeti (Fuckel) E.C.
Hansen are recorded for the first time from Turkey and
the number of Turkish Discomycetes species is increased
to 177.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Yüzüncü Yıl University
(Project No.: 2006-FED-B09) for its financial support.
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Additions to the Turkish Discomycetes