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Yirminci yüzyÕlÕn baúÕndan itibaren, insanÕn dÕú dünyayÕ nasÕl anladÕ÷Õ ve
algÕladÕ÷Õ sosyal bilimlerin baúlÕca meselelerinden biri olmuútur. DÕú dünyada
insandan ba÷ÕmsÕz, kendi baúÕna bir gerçekli÷in var oldu÷undan giderek
vazgeçilmesiyle birlikte, insanÕn gerçekli÷in inúacÕsÕna dönüútü÷ü modernlik
koúullarÕnda, ‘gerçekli÷in insanlar arasÕndaki uzlaúmanÕn bir sonucu oldu÷u’
giderek yaygÕn bir tartÕúma konusu haline gelmiútir. Buna paralel olarak, felsefe ve
sosyal bilimler alanÕnda, insanÕn dÕú dünyayÕ nasÕl algÕladÕ÷Õna yönelik problemler
ile giderek daha fazla ilgilenilmeye baúlanmÕútÕr. Bu sayede, algÕ teorilerine ilginin
giderek artmasÕyla birlikte, nesneyi farklÕ açÕlardan algÕlayan öznenin konumu,
iúlevi ve etkinli÷inin biçimi daha önemli bir mesele haline gelmiútir. ønsanÕn
gerçekli÷e ulaúmak için nasÕl bir metot kullanmasÕ gerekti÷i probleminden, insanÕn
gerçekli÷i kendi konumuna göre nasÕl farklÕ tarzlarda algÕladÕ÷Õ problemine geçiúse,
çeúitli sosyal ve düúünsel geliúmelerin bir sonucudur. Nominalizmin Kuzey
Avrupa’da etkin ve belirleyici bir düúünce akÕmÕ haline gelerek, önce tüm
Avrupa’ya, daha sonra ise tüm dünyaya yayÕlmasÕ, sürecin belirleyici faktörüdür.
Önceleri Luther ile Erasmus daha sonra ise Descartes ile Hobbes arasÕnda
gerçekleúen ‘özgür irade ve determinizm problemi’ne dair tartÕúmalarda, modern
öznenin her úeyin merkezinde konumlandÕrÕlmasÕyla, ‘özgür iradeci’ yaklaúÕmÕn
yaygÕnlÕk kazanmasÕ algÕ teorilerine yönelik ilginin artmasÕnÕ sa÷layan baúlÕca
etkendir. Bu nedenle günümüzde, özellikle sosyal psikoloji ve iletiúim bilimlerinde
yaygÕn biçimde baúvurulan algÕ teorilerinin teolojik kökenleri, düúünce tarihi
çalÕúmalarÕ çerçevesinde, dikkatle ele alÕnmalÕdÕr. Bu sayede, teolojik çalÕúmalar ile
sosyal bilimler arasÕndaki ba÷lar ortaya çÕkarÕlarak, algÕ teorisinden faydalanan
kimi bilim sahalarÕnÕn, kullandÕklarÕ metotlarÕn düúünsel kökenlerine dair
farkÕndalÕk elde etmeleri temin edilebilir. AyrÕca, özellikle, iletiúim bilimlerinde
kullanÕlan çeúitli metotlarÕnÕn biçimlenmesinde etkili olan algÕ teorilerinin teolojik
kökenlerinin incelenmesi zaruridir. Zira insanÕn dÕú dünyayÕ nasÕl bir biçimde
algÕladÕ÷Õna dair incelemeler iletiúim sistemlerinin inúasÕnda etkili olmaktadÕr.
Anahtar Kelimeler: AlgÕ Teorisi, Özgür ørade, Determinizm, Nominalizm,
Aristotelesçilik
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137
Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Cilt: XV, SayÕ 2, 2013
Theological Origins of Modern Perception Theory: The Problem of
Free Will and Determinism
$EVWUDFW
Since the beginning of 20th century, how people understand and perceive
external world has become a perennial concern of social sciences. The existence of
a solitary reality apart from human stance was relinquished. By following this idea,
it became a common discussion topic that ‘reality is the result of a convention
among people’ in the modern conditions which people become builders of each
reality. In parallel with this idea, the problems regarding how people perceive
external world in philosophy and social sciences have become more significant.
Therefore, the position, function and facility of the subject which perceive the other
objects from different viewpoints became a more significant issue with the
increasing interest in perception theories. To reach the reality, the transition from
the problem of which methods people should follow to the problem of how people
perceive reality based on their position is the outcome of various social and
intellectual developments. Nominalism dominated Northern Europe and became
determinative. Then, it expanded, first, to Europe and, then, to the world. In the
discussions of ‘free will and determinism’ between, first, Luther and Erasmus, and
then, between Descartes and Hobbes, there are two major components increasing
the interest toward perception theories that they positioned the modern subject in
the center of everything, and free will became widespread. In this sense, theological
roots of perception theories which appeal particularly to social psychology and
communication sciences should be scrutinized within the context of intellectual
history. Thus, the interconnections between theological studies and social sciences
can be revealed, and some certain science fields which make use of perception
theory can become aware of the intellectual roots of the methods and techniques
they have been using. Furthermore, perception theories are so effective on shaping
several methods used in communication sciences that the theological origins of
these perception theories should be analyzed because the analyses about how people
perceive outer world have significant effects on the establishment of communication
systems.
Key Words: Perception Theory, Free Will, Determinism, Nominalism,
Aristotelianism
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%ULHQ +HP ;,9 /RXLV KHP GH ,, )ULHGULFK NOWUHO VDKDGD JHUoHNOHúWLUGLNOHUL
\HQLOLNOHU LOH GDKD |QFH J|UOPHPLú JHOLúPHOHULQ JHUoHNOHúPHVLQH RODQDN
VD÷ODGÕ %RXUNH -HIIUH\ 6DQGPDQ *DUOLFN ,VKHUZRRG µ$YUXSDOÕOÕ÷ÕQ¶ IDUNOÕ SROLWLN PHUNH]OHULQ HJHPHQOLN
PFDGHOHVL LOH úHNLOOHQPHVL GH EX VUHoWH JHUoHNOHúWL dRN VD\ÕGDNL IDUNOÕ
HWQLNJUXEXQEHOLUOLSROLWLNPHUNH]OHULQSRWDVÕQGDHULWLOHUHNXOXVDONLPOLNOHULQ
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LQúDHGLOPHVLGHEXG|QHPGHJHUoHNOHúWL%LUELUOHULLOHLOHWLúLPNXUDPD\DFDN
NDGDU IDUNOÕ OHKoHOHUL NRQXúDQ \HUHOOLNOHU NOWUHO ELUOLNWHOLNOHULQL SROLWLN
PHUNH]OHULQHWUDIÕQGDELUDUD\DJHOHUHNWHPLQHWWLOHU
2Q VHNL]LQFL \]\ÕOÕQ RUWDVÕQGD WP $YUXSD¶GD SRSODV\RQ KÕ]OD
DUWPDNWD\GÕ 'Q\DQÕQ GL÷HU SHN oRN VDKDVÕ\OD WLFDUL ED÷ODU NXUDQ $YUXSD
ELU\DQGDQSROLWLNRUJDQL]DV\RQXQXLVWLNUDUOÕKDOHJHWLUPH\HoDOÕúÕUNHQGL÷HU
\DQGDQ KHP WLFDUL KHP GH UHWLP VLVWHPOHULQGH \DúDQDQ G|QúPOHUL WDNLS
HWPH\H oDOÕúÕ\RUGX $QFDN \LQH EX G|QHPGH EL]LP EXJQ PRGHUQ
SUREOHPOHU RODUDN QLWHOHQGLUHELOHFH÷LPL] \HQL ROJXODU LOH NDUúÕ NDUúÕ\D
NDOÕQGÕ 'LQ YH JHOHQHN WRSOXPVDO \DSÕQÕQ VUGUOHELOPHVL LoLQ JHUHNHQ
oHúLWOLLúOHYOHULQL\HULQHJHWLUPHNWHQJLGHUHNX]DNODúÕ\RUGXg]HOOLNOH.X]H\
$YUXSD¶GD GLQH YH JHOHQH÷H LOLúNLQ úSKHOHU DUWPDNWD\GÕ ùSKHVL] NL RQ
VHNL]LQFL\]\ÕO$YUXSD¶VÕQGDVDGHFHGLQVHOYHJHOHQHNVHORWRULWH\LVDUVPD\Õ
DPDoOD\DQELUH÷LOLPLQ PHYFXWROGX÷XLGGLDHGLOHPH]'DKDoRNNHQGLVLQL
WDUWÕúÕOPD] YH KDNLNDWL NHQGLQGHQ PHQNXO ELU ELoLPGH VXQDQ JHOHQHNVHO YH
GLQVHO NXUXPODUÕQ VRUJXODQDPD]OÕ÷ÕQÕQ WRSOXPXQ \HQL JHOLúPHOHUH D\DN
X\GXUPDVÕQÕ HQJHOOH\LFL UROQGHQ UDKDWVÕ]OÕN GX\XOPDNWD\GÕ 'L÷HU \DQGDQ
\HQL NXúDNODU LOH DWDODUÕ DUDVÕQGDNL D\UÕP JLGHUHN GDKD EHOLUJLQ KDOH
JHOPHNWH\GL
$QFDN WRSOXPODUÕQ LúOH\LúLQL VD÷OD\DQ IDNW|UOHU ELUELUOHUL\OH NDUPDúÕN
ELU ELoLPGH ED÷ODQWÕOÕ oHúLWOL \DSÕODUÕQ ELU DUD\D JHOPHOHUL\OH ROXúXU
%XQODUGDQ ELULQGH KHUKDQJL ELU GH÷LúLNOL÷H JLGLOGL÷LQGH GL÷HUOHUL GH oHúLWOL
úHNLOOHUGH HWNLOHQLU GH÷LúLU YH G|QúU %X GH÷LúLP YH G|QúPOHU oR÷X
]DPDQ NRQWURO HGLOHELOLU GH÷LOGLU 'H÷LúLPL JHUoHNOHúWLUPHN LVWH\HQLQ DU]X
HWWL÷LQLQ WDPDPHQ GÕúÕQGD VRQXoODUÕQ GR÷PDVÕ oR÷X ]DPDQ NDoÕQÕOPD]GÕU
2QVHNL]LQFL\]\ÕOGDGDKD|QFHOHULGH÷LúPH]YHLVWLNUDUOÕJ|UQHQSHNoRN
ROJX \HQL NXúDNODUD GH÷LúWLULOHELOLU YH \HULQH \HQLVL NRQXODELOLU JLEL
J|UQPH\H EDúODU *HOJHOHOLP EX GH÷LúLP ND\JÕQÕQ GD GR÷PDVÕQD QHGHQ
RODQ ELU ROJXGXU (VNL RODQÕQ ³GHQH\LPOHQPLúOL÷L´ YH ³WHNUDUODQPÕúOÕ÷Õ´
JYHQ YHUPHVLQL VD÷ODU <HQL RODQÕQ QHOHUH \RO DoDELOHFH÷L RQGDQ NXúNX
GX\XOPDVÕQD QHGHQ ROXU 2Q VHNL]LQFL \]\ÕO $YUXSD¶VÕQGD IDUNOÕ NXúDNODU
NHQGLOHULQL oHYUHOH\HQ GQ\D\Õ \RUXPODPD\D oDOÕúÕUODUNHQ \HQL GXUXP
NDUúÕVÕQGD NHQGLOHULQH \DUGÕPFÕ RODELOHFHN D] VD\ÕGD NXUXP YH GHQH\LP LOH
NDUúÕ NDUúÕ\D\GÕODU .HQGL DLGL\HWOHULQL JLGHUHN GDKD ID]OD VRUJXOX\RUODUGÕ
$\UÕFD\HQLNXUXPJHOHQHNELOJLYHGHQH\LPOHULQJHUHNOLOL÷LQGHQJLGHUHN
GDKD ID]OD HPLQ ROPD\D EDúOÕ\RUODUGÕ %XQXQ \DQÕ VÕUD NHQGLOHULQH \RO
J|VWHULFL RODELOHFHN KHUKDQJL ELU ND\QD÷D VDKLS ROPDGÕNODUÕQÕ GD
KLVVHGL\RUODUGÕ 'ROD\ÕVÕ\OD VUHo GH÷LúLPLQ QDVÕO JHUoHNOHúHFH÷LQGH
G÷POHQPH\HEDúODGÕ
%X oHUoHYHGH -RKQ /RFNH
XQ LQVDQOÕ÷ÕQ WDULKVHO GHQH\LP UHIHUDQVODUÕQÕ
GD\DQDN J|VWHUPHGHQ SROLWLND IHOVHIHVLQL JHOLúWLUGL÷LQH GLNNDW oHNPHN JHUHNPHNWHGLU
142
D.Özkan / Modern AlgÕ Teorisinin Teolojik Kökenleri: Özgür ørade ve Determinizm
Problemi
;,9 /RXLV¶WHQ LWLEDUHQ )UDQVD¶GD EDúOD\DQ PHUNH]LOHúPH 'HYULP¶LQ
úDUWODUÕQÕROJXQODúWÕUDUDNNRQWUROV]GH÷LúLPL)UDQVD¶\DGD\DWWÕ,,)ULHGULFK
LVH VDUD\ÕQÕ ELU NOWU PHUNH]LQH oHYLUHUHN ED÷ÕPVÕ] $OPDQ 3UHQVOLNOHULQL
|QFHOHUL NOWUHO GDKD VRQUD LVH SROLWLN RODUDN NHQGLVLQH HQWHJUH HWPH\H
oDOÕúWÕ %X VD\HGH ORNDO RWRQRPLOHU JLGHUHN HUR]\RQD X÷UDGÕ 6WHSKHQV
<HQL NXúDNODU ELU \DQGDQ GH÷LúLPLQ \DUDWWÕ÷Õ KH\HFDQD NHQGLOHULQL
NDSWÕUÕUNHQ GL÷HU \DQGDQ KHU DQ ELU úH\OHULQ WHUV JLGHELOHFH÷LQGHQ HQGLúH
HGL\RUODUGÕ2QODULoLQLQVDQOÕ÷ÕQRQVHNL]LQFL\]\ÕOGD\DúDQDQKHUúH\LLON
GHID GHQH\LPOHGL÷L úSKHVL]GL %X QHGHQOH RQ VHNL]LQFL \]\ÕOÕQ $YUXSDOÕ
JHQoNXúDNODUÕNHQGLOHULQGHQEDúNDELUUHKEHUHVDKLSROPDGÕNODUÕQÕJLGHUHN
GDKDID]ODKLVVHGL\RUODUGÕ
1LVEHW ³The Making of Modern Society´ 0RGHUQ 7RSOXPXQ
øQúDVÕDGOÕHVHULQGHEDWÕWRSOXPODUÕWDUDIÕQGDQLQúDHGLOHQPRGHUQWRSOXPXQ
EDúOÕFD QLWHOLNOHULQGHQ ELULQLQ GHYOHW LOH ELUH\ DUDVÕQGDNL DUDFÕ NXUXPODUÕ
RUWDGDQ NDOGÕUDUDN EXQODUÕ GR÷UXGDQ YH NDUúÕOÕNOÕ LOLúNLOHQGLUPHN ROGX÷XQX
LGGLDHGHU%XPDQDGD$OPDQLGHDOL]PLQLQYH)UDQVÕ]GúQUOHULQLQ³EL]´
QRV\RQXQX JLGHUHN GDKD ID]OD NXOODQDUDN WHPHO UHIHUDQV ND\QD÷Õ KDOLQH
JHWLUPHOHUL RQ VHNL]LQFL \]\ÕOGDNL JHOLúPHOHU KDNNÕQGD EL]H ID]ODVÕ\OD
|QJ|U VD÷ODU .DQW EX DQODPÕ\OD ³EL]´ ZLU >ZH@ QRV\RQXQX HQ ID]OD
NXOODQDQGúQUOHUGHQGLU3LQNDUG³%L]´QH\DSDFDNWÕU"2QODUD
J|UH ³EL]´ NHQGL NDGHULQL NHQGLVL oL]HFHNWLU 2QODU LoLQ ³EL]´ JHoPLú YH
JHOHQHNWHQ ED÷ÕPVÕ] RODUDN GHQH\LPLQH EDúYXUXODFDN YH \HQL ELU GQ\D
\DUDWDFDN WHN |]QH YH UHIHUDQV ND\QD÷ÕGÕU %X EDNÕú DoÕVÕ $YUXSD¶GD
GHYULPFL ELU DWPRVIHULQ \D\ÕOPDVÕQD RODQDN VD÷OD\DQ \HJkQH ROJXGXU <LQH
EX G|QHPGH HWQLN NLPOLNOHU GDKD |QFHNL G|QHPOHUGH SROLWLN DQODPODUÕ
EDUÕQGÕUPDPDNWD\NHQ JLGHUHN $OPDQOÕN )UDQVÕ]OÕN YH øQJLOL]OLN SROLWLN ELU
LoHUL÷H VDKLS ROPD\D EDúDU %XQODUÕQ NHQGL LoLQGH EWQFO ELU \DSÕ DU]
HWPHOHUL KHU úH\GHQ |QHPOL KDOH JHOLU +HJHO IHOVHIHVLQGH HQ PNHPPHO
KDOLQH NDYXúDQ µ$OPDQ øGHDOL]PL¶QGH EWQO÷Q JHUoHNOL÷LQ EL]DWLKL
NHQGLVL ROGX÷XQXQ ÕVUDUOD YXUJXODQPDVÕ GD EX oHUoHYHGH DQODúÕODELOLU
3LQNDUG +HJHO¶LQ KHU úH\LQ ELUELUL\OH ED÷ODQWÕODQGÕ÷Õ IDUNOÕ
E|OPOHUGHQ ROXúPD\DQ VRV\DO ELU \DSÕQÕQ YDUOÕ÷ÕQÕ YH LQúD HGLOPHVL
5HVQLFN /RFNH¶XQ KHUKDQJL ELU DQWLN DQD\DVD\D JHOHQH÷H \D GD WDULKVHO SROLWLN
GúQFH\H EDúYXUPDNVÕ]ÕQ SROLWLN WHRULVLQL JHOLúWLUPLú ROGX÷XQD GLNNDW oHNHU *HUoHNWHQ
GH /RFNH >@ µTwo Treatises of Civil Government¶ DGOÕ HVHULQGH SROLWLND
IHOVHIHVLQL LQVDQL GHQH\LPLQ WDULKLQH EDúYXUPDGDQ JHOLúWLULU =LUD /RFNH LoLQ GR÷DO KDNODU
YHNXYYHWOHUD\UÕOÕ÷ÕJLELLONHOHUWPLQVDQLGHQH\LPLQ]HULQGHGXUDQHYUHQVHO\DVDODUGÕU
%XoHUoHYHGH*ODW/RFNH¶XQøQJLOL]WDULKLQHGDLUKLoELUúH\\D]PDGÕ÷ÕQDGLNNDW
oHNHUHNJHUHNøQJLOL]\DVDODUÕQÕQWDULKLQHJHUHNVHøQJLOL]SROLWLNNXUXPODUÕQÕQWDULKLQHNDUúÕ
LOJLVL]ELUGúQUROGX÷XQXYXUJXODU=LUD/RFNHoD÷ÕQÕQUXKXQDX\JXQELUELoLPGH\HQL
ELU EDúODQJÕFÕQ DULIHVLQGH EXOXQDQ WRSOXPXQXQ JHoPLúLQGHQ YH oHúLWOL X\JXODPDODUÕQGDQ
]L\DGHJHOHFHNWHQHOHU\DSDFD÷ÕLOHLOJLOLGLU
143
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JHUHNWL÷LQL ÕVUDUOD YXUJXOX\RU ROPDVÕ G|QHPLQLQ H÷LOLPL LOH SDUDOHOOLN DU]
HGHU
2QVHNL]LQFL\]\ÕOGH÷LúLPLELUDQ|QFHVD÷ODPDNLoLQJHUoHNOHúWLULOHQ
DWÕOÕPODU LOH GROX ELU \]\ÕONHQ RQ GRNX]XQFX \]\ÕO VD÷ODQDQ GH÷LúLP YH
G|QúPOHUGHQ NXúNX YH WHGLUJLQOLNOHULQ HWNLOL ROPD\D EDúODGÕ÷Õ ELU
G|QHPGLU 'HYUDOÕQDQ WP VRV\DO \DSÕODUÕQ GHULQGHQ VDUVÕOGÕ÷Õ YH \HUOHULQH
\HQLOHULQ \HUOHúWLULOGL÷L ELU \]\ÕOGD $YUXSDOÕ XOXVODU \HQL GXUXPXQ \HQL
GHQH\LPOHU YH ELOJL \DSÕODUÕQÕ JHUHNWLUGL÷LQL úLGGHWOH KLVVHGL\RUODUGÕ $úNÕQ
WUDQVFHQGHQWDO ELU UHIHUDQV ND\QD÷ÕQD EDúYXUPDGDQ VDGHFH NHQGLOHULQH
EL]HGD\DQDUDN\HQLGXUXPXQJHUHNOLOLNOHULQHFHYDSYHUPHoDEDVÕLQVDQÕQ
WRSOXPVDO \DSÕQÕQ ELULFLN EHOLUOH\LFLVL YH LQúDFÕVÕ ROGX÷XQD \|QHOLN LQDQFÕQ
JoOHQPHVLQH QHGHQ ROGX µøQVDQ¶ LQúD IDDOL\HWLQL JHUoHNOHúWLULUNHQ VDGHFH
NHQGL NÕODYX]OX÷XQD JYHQ GX\DELOLUGL %X VD\HGH WDULK GH ELU LOHUOHPH
VUHFL RODUDN DQODúÕOPD\D EDúODGÕ *HoPLú LOH EXJQ YH JHOHFHN DUDVÕQGD
GHULQ IDUNOÕOÕNODUÕQ ROGX÷X EX QHGHQOH GH HVNL GHQH\LPOHULQ EXJQ YH
JHOHFH÷LQ LKWL\DoODUÕQD FHYDS YHUHPH\HFH÷LQH GDLU LQDQo JLGHUHN SHNLúWL
<LQH EX VUHoWH LQVDQÕQ GÕú GQ\DGDNL JHUoHNOL÷L GR÷UX ELU ELoLPGH
DQODPDVÕ YH |÷UHQPHVL LoLQ QHOHU \DSPDVÕ JHUHNWL÷LQGHQ JLGHUHN
X]DNODúÕODUDN GÕú GQ\DQÕQ LQVDQ WDUDIÕQGDQ QDVÕO IDNOÕ ELoLPOHUGH
DOJÕODQGÕ÷ÕQD\|QHOLNLOJLDUWWÕøQVDQLDOJÕODPDQÕQELU\DUDWÕPVUHFLROGX÷X
YHLQVDQÕQGÕúGQ\D\ÕELUELULQGHQIDUNOÕúHNLOOHUGHDOJÕOD\DELOHFH÷LJHQHOELU
NDEXO J|UG $úNÕQ UHIHUDQVODU ELU NHQDUD EÕUDNÕOÕUNHQ LQVDQODUÕQ
|]QHOHUDUDVÕHWNLQOL÷LQLQVRQXFXRODUDNROXúDFDNX]ODúÕPODUWHPHOUHIHUDQVODU
KDOLQH JHOGL 7P EXQODU LVH 2FNKDPOÕ :LOOLDP LOH EDúOD\DQ YH µ7DQUÕ¶ LOH
µLQVDQ¶DUDVÕQGDNLYDGL\LDúÕOPD]ELUELoLPGHJHQLúOHWHQQRPLQDOLVWGHYULPLQ
GR÷DOQHWLFHOHUL\GL
1RPLQDOLVW'HYULPYH$ULVWRWHOHVoLOLN(OHúWLULVL
2UWD dD÷ +ÕULVWL\DQOÕ÷ÕQ \DQÕ VÕUD SDJDQ IHOVHIHQLQ GH HJHPHQ ROGX÷X
ELUG|QHPGLU(QGOV¶QøEHU<DUÕPDGDVÕ¶QGDQVLOLQPHVL\OHDQWLNIHOVHIHQLQ
$UDSoD oHYLULOHUL\OH WDQÕúDQ $YUXSD +ÕULVWL\DQOÕN LOH SDJDQ IHOVHIHQLQ ELU
VHQWH]LQLROXúWXUGX$QFDNEXoRNVD\ÕGDWHRORMLNWDUWÕúPD\ÕGDEHUDEHULQGH
JHWLUGL øQVDQÕQ HWNLQOLN VDKDVÕQÕQ VÕQÕUODUÕQÕQ QH NDGDU ROGX÷X YH 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ
JFQQ VÕQÕUODUÕQÕQ QHUH\H NDGDU X]DQGÕ÷Õ EDúOÕFD PHVHOHOHUGHQGL .DGHUL
7DQUÕ WDUDIÕQGDQ EHOLUOHQPLú LQVDQÕQ QDVÕO \LQH 7DQUÕ WDUDIÕQGDQ
FH]DODQGÕUÕODELOHFH÷LQH GDLU WDUWÕúPDODU $YUXSD GúQFH GQ\DVÕQÕQ WHPHO
SDUDPHWUHOHULQLGHEHOLUOHGL=LUDLQVDQLUDGHVLQLQ|]JUO÷LOHGHWHUPLQL]P
DUDVÕQGDNL WDUWÕúPD KHU QH NDGDU HVNL ELU SUREOHP ROVD GD +ÕULVWL\DQOÕN LOH
SDJDQIHOVHIHQLQVHQWH]OHQPHVLSUREOHPL\HQLELUER\XWDWDúÕGÕ
6NRODVWLNIHOVHIHHVDVLWLEDULLOHUHDOL]PLQNODVLNELoLPLQGHQGHULQL]OHU
WDúÕU (YUHQLQ WHN ELU EWQON ROGX÷X YH SDUoDODUÕQÕQ ELUELUL\OH X\XPOX
144
D.Özkan / Modern AlgÕ Teorisinin Teolojik Kökenleri: Özgür ørade ve Determinizm
Problemi
ROGX÷X LQDQFÕ KHP VNRODVWLNOHU KHP GH 3ODWRQFXOXN YH $ULVWRWHOHVoLOLN
WDUDIÕQGDQ SD\ODúÕODQ ELU J|UúWU %X DQODPÕ\OD HYUHQ KHU úH\LQ ELU DUD\D
JHOGL÷L ELU EWQONWU %X J|UúH J|UH ELUH\VHO YDUROXúODU HYUHQLQ ELUHU
SDUoDVÕ \D GD HYUHQVHO EWQO÷Q ELUH\VHO \DQVÕPDODUÕ ELoLPLQGH DQODúÕOÕU
%|\OHFH GR÷D DNÕOGDQ D\UÕODPD\DFD÷Õ JLEL DNÕO GR÷D\D \DQVÕU 'R÷D GD
DNOÕQELUoHúLW\DQVÕPDVÕGÕU'R÷DGDNLúH\OHUDNÕOVDOELUKDUPRQLLOHELUDUDGD
YDU ROXUODU %WQ WUOHU DNÕOVDO ELU WXWDUOÕOÕNOD ELU DUDGD EXOXQXU $NÕOVDO
\DSÕQÕQ GÕúÕQGD \HU DODQ ELU úH\LQ GR÷DGD PHYFXW ROPDVÕ GúQOHPH]
'R÷DGD 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ oHúLWOL \DQVÕPDODUÕ PHYFXWWXU =LUD 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ DNÕO GÕúÕ
RODELOHFH÷L GúQOHPH\HFH÷LQGHQ GROD\Õ GR÷DQÕQ DNÕOVDO WXWDUOÕOÕ÷Õ YH
\DSÕVÕ LOH 7DQUÕ DUDVÕQGD ELU X\XP PHYFXW ROPDOÕGÕU %X QHGHQOH 7DQUÕ
GR÷DQÕQ DNÕOVDO \DSÕVÕQÕQ DQODúÕOPDVÕ LOH LGUDN HGLOHELOLU *LOOHVSLH 'ROD\ÕVÕ LOH GR÷DQÕQ \DVDODUÕ 7DQUÕ¶\Õ DQOD\DELOPHN LoLQ NXOODQÕODELOLU
7DQUÕ¶\Õ DQODPDN LoLQ NXWVDO PHWLQOHU NXOODQÕODELOVH GH GR÷DQÕQ PDQWÕNVDO
\DSÕVÕQÕQ NDYUDQPDVÕ\OD 7DQUÕ¶\D XODúPDN PPNQGU =LUD 7DQUÕ
PDQWÕNVÕ] YH DNÕO GÕúÕ RODPD\DFD÷ÕQGDQ GR÷DQÕQ \DVDODUÕQD WDELGLU $QFDN
7DQUÕ PGDKDOHGH EXOXQDPD\DFD÷Õ GR÷D \DVDODUÕQD WDEL NÕOÕQGÕ÷ÕQGD \DVD
NR\XFX NHQGLVL ROGX÷XQGD GDKL EX \DVDODUÕ GH÷LúWLUHELOHFHN JFH VDKLS
ROPDGÕ÷Õ NDEXO HGLOPHN ]RUXQGD NDOÕQÕU %DVLQJHU %X GD \HQL
WHRORMLNSUREOHPOHULQGR÷PDVÕQD\RODoDU
$ULVWRWHOHVoLOLN $YUXSD GúQFH GQ\DVÕQGD 5HIRUPDV\RQ |QFHVLQGH
YH VRQUDVÕQGD oHúLWOL úHNLOOHUGH HWNLOL ROPXúWXU $ULVWRWHOHVoLOLN +ÕULVWL\DQ
%D\UDPPRGHUQOHúPHVUHoOHULLOHELOJL\DSÕODUÕQÕQYHGLVLSOLQOHULQLQELoLPOHQLúOHUL
DUDVÕQGDNL SDUDOHOOLNOHUH GLNNDW oHNHU øNWLGDU LOH ELOLPLQ EWQOHúPHVL LOH LQVDQÕQ GR÷D
]HULQGHNLHJHPHQOL÷LQLQGDKD|QFHKLoROPDGÕ÷ÕNDGDUPXWODNELUELoLPGHWHVLVHGLOGL÷LQL
GúQU$\UÕFD%D\UDP¶DJ|UHPRGHUQELOLPGHNLGR÷DQÕQNRQWUROQVD÷OD\DQ
PHNDQL]PDODU VRV\DO ELOLPOHULQ WHVLVL\OH WRSOXPX GHQHWOHPHN LoLQ NXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU 7P
EXQODUÕQ JHUoHNOHúPHVL LoLQ ³universitas´WDQ ³societas´D JHoLOPHVL JHUHNPLúWLU 'Q\HYL
UDV\RQHOOLN 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ LUDGHVLQLQ \HULQL DOGÕNoD PRGHUQ WDKDNNP WDU]ODUÕ WP WRSOXPX
NXúDWDFDNELUELoLPGHLúOHYVHOKDOHJHOPLúWLUøQVDQÕQKHUWUOH\OHPLQLQPHúUXODúWÕUÕOPDVÕ
YHWHNUHIHUDQVND\QD÷ÕQÕQLQVDQODUDUDVÕQGDNLLOHWLúLPHLQGLUJHQPHVLLoLQGR÷DELOLPOHULQLQ
EHOLUOH\LFL ROPDVÕQD LKWL\Do GX\XOPXúWXU %XQXQ VD÷ODQDELOPHVL LoLQ YD]JHoLOPH] RODQ
³universitas´WDQ ³societas´D JHoLú VUHFLQGH JHUoHNOHúHQ G|QúP ³sosyal eylemlerin
haklÕlaútÕrÕlmasÕ gereksiniminin … referanslarÕ farklÕ olan yeni bir etik anlayÕúla
giderilmesini gündeme getirmiútir. Modern dönemden günümüze ana felsefi çalÕúmalarÕn
tümünün kapsamÕnda yer alan etik arayÕú (bireycilik, faydacÕlÕk, varoluúçuluk vb.), bu
ihtiyacÕ gidermek üzere ortaya konmuútur´
)UHHGPDQ$ULVWRWHOHV¶LQoDOÕúPDODUÕQÕQ$YUXSDGúQFHGQ\DVÕQGDNLHWNLVLQL
EHOLUWPHN LoLQ LOD \ÕOODUÕ DUDVÕQGDNL G|QHPL NDSVD\DQ 5HIRUPDV\RQ G|QHPL
ER\XQFD$YUXSDRNXOODUÕQGDNXOODQÕODQEDúOÕFDND\QDNROGX÷XQXYXUJXODU2QDJ|UHJHUHN
IHOVHIHFLOHU JHUHNVH IHOVHIH NXUXPODUÕ $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ HVHUOHULQL NXOODQÕS NXOODQPDPDN
NRQXVXQGD KHUKDQJL ELU VHoHQH÷H VDKLS GH÷LOOHUGL $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ HVHUOHULQL NXOODQPDODUÕ
$ULVWRWHOHVoL ROPDODUÕQGDQ ND\QDNODQPÕ\RUGX $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ HVHUOHULQL VDGHFH SUDWLN
JHUHNoHOHUGHQGROD\ÕNXOODQÕ\RUODUGÕ=LUD$ULVWRWHOHV¶LQHVHUOHULPHWDIL]LNIL]LNHWLNDLOH
KD\DWÕSROLWLNDUHWRULNJUDPHUYHPDQWÕNH÷LWLPLQGH\D\JÕQELUELoLPGHNXOODQÕOÕ\RUGX
145
Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Cilt: XV, SayÕ 2, 2013
GúQUOHU DUDVÕQGD HWNLQ ROGXNoD .LOLVH¶GHQ NÕVPHQ ED÷ÕPVÕ] ELU ELoLPGH
\HQLGúQFHWDU]ODUÕGDJHOLúPH\HEDúODU$QFDNSDJDQGúQUOHULQHWNLOL
ROPDODUÕ øVODP GQ\DVÕQGD *D]DOL¶QLQ IHOVHIH HOHúWLULOHULQH EHQ]HU HOHúWLULQ
GLOH JHWLULOPHVLQH QHGHQ ROXU $ULVWRWHOHVoLOL÷L YH RQXQ +ÕULVWL\DQ GQ\DVÕ
YH GúQFHVL ]HULQGHNL HWNLOHULQL HWUDIOÕFD HOHúWLUHQ GúQUOHUGHQ HQ
|QHPOLOHULQGHQELUL2FNKDPOÕ:LOOLDP¶GÕU
2FNKDPOÕ :LOOLDP 7KRPDV $TXLQDV¶ÕQ >@ µCommentary on Aristotle's Politics¶ $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ 3ROLWLNDVÕQD ùHUK DGOÕ
HVHUL\OHHWNLQOLNND]DQDQ$ULVWRWHOHVoLOL÷H\HQLELU7DQUÕNDYUD\ÕúÕLOHNDUúÕ
oÕNDU $]L] 7KRPDV WP IHOVHIH WDULKLQL VLVWHPDWLN ELU ELoLPGH \HQLGHQ
\DSÕODQGÕUDELOHFHN NDGDU E\N ELU GHKD\D VDKLSWLU $\UÕFD $]L] 7KRPDV
\DUDWÕOÕúÕQ HSLVWHPRORMLVLQL $ULVWRWHOHVoL PDQWÕ÷ÕQ µDNÕO¶ DQOD\ÕúÕ LoLQGH
DoÕNOD\DELOHFHN NDGDU \HWHQHNOLGLU :KLWH $QFDN :LOOLDP RI
2FNKDP QRPLQDOL]PH |QFON HGHQ 5RVFHOLQ 3HWHU $EHODUG *KHQWOL
+HQU\ 'XQV 6FRWXV¶XQ oDOÕúPDODUÕQÕ GHWD\OÕ ELU ELoLPGH WDNLS HWPLúWL %X
VD\HGH 2FNKDPOÕ :LOOLDP \HQL ELU PHWDIL]LN YH WHRORMLQLQ LQúDVÕQÕ
VD÷OD\DFDN oDOÕúPDODUD LP]D DWPDVÕQD QHGHQ RODFDN JHQLú ELU oHYUHGHQ
ID\GDODQPDRODQD÷ÕHGLQPLúWL2QDJ|UHLPDQVDKLELROPDN7DQUÕ¶QÕQµKHU
úH\HNDGLU¶RPQLSRWHQWJFQLGUDNHGHELOPHPL]LoLQ\HWHUOLGLU*LOOHVSLH
7DQUÕ¶QÕQJFQHGR÷D\DVDODUÕ\ODQHGDEDúNDKHUKDQJLELUúH\
LOH VÕQÕUODQDPD] 7DQUÕ KHU úH\H JF \HWHQGLU %X QHGHQOH 7DQUÕ NHQGL
NR\GX÷XNXUDOODUÕLVWHGL÷L]DPDQEDúWDQDúD÷Õ\HQLGHQWDVDUOD\DELOLU7DQUÕ
LoLQ KHU úH\L \DSPDN PPNQGU 3HJLV 1RPLQDOLVWOHUH J|UH
EL]OHU ELU úH\LQ PDQWÕNOÕ YH X\XPOX ROGX÷XQX GúQ\RUVDN 7DQUÕ RQX
\HQLGHQ EDPEDúND ELoLPGH WDVDUODGÕ÷ÕQGD GD RQXQ PDQWÕNOÕ YH X\XPOX
ROGX÷XQXGúQU]%XQHGHQOHEL]LPELUúH\LQDNÕOLOHX\XPOXROGX÷XQX
GúQPHPL]GH7DQUÕVD\HVLQGHGLU
$UVODQ KHP $ULVWRWHOHVoL +ÕULVWL\DQ IHOVHIHFLOHULQ KHP GH øVODP IHOVHIHFLOHULQLQ
$ULVWRWHOHV¶L NHQGL GLQOHULQH X\DUODPDN DPDFÕ\OD JHUoHNWH ROGX÷XQGDQ IDUNOÕ ELoLPGH
\RUXPODPD\D oDOÕúWÕNODUÕQÕ DQFDN EX oDEDODUÕQÕQ $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ 7DQUÕ |÷UHWLVL LOH ELU
SDUDOHOOLN DU] HWWL÷LQL NDEXO HWPHQLQ PPNQ ROPDGÕ÷ÕQÕ EHOLUWLU $UVODQ¶D J|UH *D]DOL
øVODPIHOVHIHFLOHULQLQWHUVLQH$ULVWRWHOHV¶LQHVHUOHULQGHQ³ne dünyanÕn yaratÕlmÕú oldu÷u, ne
TanrÕ’nÕn evrenle ilgili olarak onun gerçek faili oldu÷u ne de tanrÕsal bilginin evrenin
bilgisi içinde bulundu÷u sonuçlarÕnÕ çÕkarmayarak Aristoteles’in bu konudaki görüúlerini
daha do÷ru anlamÕútÕr´*HOJHOHOLPøVODP'LQLQLIHOVHIHYDVÕWDVÕLOHDQODPDYH
DoÕNODPDoDEDODUÕQÕWDPDPHQRUWDGDQNDOGÕUDFDNELUGúQúWDU]ÕQD\RODoPDPDNJHUHNLU
%XoHUoHYHGH7RNWDú³øslam Düúüncesinde Felsefe Eleútirileri´DGOÕHVHULQGH
*D]DOL¶QLQ $ULVWRWHOHV YH 3ODWLQRV¶XQ |÷UHWLOHULQH GD\DQDQ 0HúúDL RNXOXQD \|QHOLN
HOHúWLULOHULQL VÕUDODGÕNWDQ VRQUD EX HOHúWLULOHULQ KHU WUO IHOVHIH\L LoHUHFHN ELU ELoLPGH
\RUXPODQDUDNDúÕUÕXoODUDWDúÕQPDPDVÕJHUHNWL÷LQLYXUJXODU
$UVODQ $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ 'R÷X¶GD )DUDEL %DWÕ¶GD LVH $]L] 7KRPDV ]HULQGH
|QHPOLELUHWNLGHEXOXQGX÷XQXEHOLUWLU2QDJ|UH$]L]7KRPDV$ULVWRWHOHV¶LQVDOWGúQFH
ELoLPLQGH EHWLPOHGL÷L 7DQUÕ¶\Õ +ÕULVWL\DQOÕ÷D X\DUODPDN DGÕQD VDI µYDUROXú¶ H[LVWHQFH
RODUDNWDQÕPOD\DUDN|QHPOLELUJLULúLPGHEXOXQPXúWXU
146
D.Özkan / Modern AlgÕ Teorisinin Teolojik Kökenleri: Özgür ørade ve Determinizm
Problemi
$ULVWRWHOHVoLOL÷LQ GHULQ HWNLVL DOWÕQGDNL VNRODVWLN 7DQUÕ NDYUD\ÕúÕ JHUHN
7DQUÕ¶\Õ JHUHNVH RQXQ \DUDWÕPODUÕQÕ WHN ELU DNOD YH PDQWÕ÷D WDEL NÕODUDN
RQODUÕ ]RUXQOX ELU ELoLPGH X\PDN ]RUXQGD ROGXNODUÕ \DVDODUD ED÷ÕPOÕ KDOH
JHWLULU %X 7DQUÕ LOH LQVDQ YH GL÷HU \DUDWÕPODUÕ DUDVÕQGDNL PHVDIH\L
PLQLPXPD LQGLULU 1RPLQDOLVWOHU LoLQ LVH 7DQUÕ X\PDN ]RUXQGD ROGX÷X
KHUKDQJLELUúH\LOHVÕQÕUODQDPD]2QODUDJ|UH7DQUÕVÕQÕUVÕ]ELUJFHVDKLS
ROGX÷XQGDQ KHU úH\L \HQLGHQ WDVDUOD\DELOLU $NÕO YH PDQWÕN GD 7DQUÕ
WDUDIÕQGDQ GHIDODUFD WDVDUODQDELOLU %XUDGD 3ODWRQL]P LOH $ULVWROHOHVoLOLN
DUDVÕQGDNLD\UÕPELUNH]GDKDNDUúÕPÕ]DoÕNDU3ODWRQL]PSDQWHLVWH÷LOLPOHUL
GDKDID]ODEDUÕQGÕUÕU7DQUÕKHUúH\GHGX\XPVDQÕUYHKHUúH\2¶QXQQHGHQVHO
JFQQUQGU+HGOH\
$QFDN VRUXQ 7DQUÕ KHU úH\LQ QHGHQL RODUDN NDYUDPVDOODúWÕUÕOGÕ÷ÕQGD
o|]OPú ROPD] =LUD EX GHID GD 7DQUÕ LQVDQODUÕQ LúOHGL÷L JQDKODUÕQ GD
QHGHQL KDOLQH JHOLU %X VD\HGH SUREOHP EDúND ELU ER\XWD WDúÕQPÕú ROXU
1RPLQDOLVWOHULQ 7DQUÕ LOH \DUDWÕPODUÕ DUDVÕQGD GHULQ ELU XoXUXP
\HUOHúWLUPHOHUL LQVDQÕQ HWNLQOLN VDKDVÕQÕ JHQLúOHWLU 'ROD\ÕVÕ\OD |QFH
/WHUFLOL÷H GDKD VRQUD LVH .DOYHQL]P¶H &DOYLQLVP NDSÕ DoÕOPÕú ROXU
/XWKHU.DWROLNLQDQFÕQÕQWP\DVDNODUÕQÕELUNHQDUDEÕUDNDUDNGR÷DGDQNH\LI
DOPD\D \HPH÷H LoPH÷H YH FLQVHOOL÷H NRQDQ \DVDNODUÕ NDOGÕUPD\D \|QHOLU
/WHUFLOLN LoLQ GR÷D LODKL ELU DUPD÷DQGÕU YH RQGDQ ]HYN DOÕQPDOÕGÕU
*LOOHVSLH1RPLQDOL]PDVÕOJHUoHNOL÷LQELUH\VHOúH\OHUROGX÷XQX
LOHUL VUHUHN NLúLQLQ JQGHOLN SUDWLNOHULQL JHUoHNOHúWLUGL÷L VDKDGD GDKD
VHUEHVWELUELoLPGHKDUHNHWHWPHVLQHRODQDNVD÷ODU$\UÕFDQRPLQDOL]PDNÕO
\UWPHQLQKLoELUúH\ROPDGÕ÷ÕQÕIDNDWLPDMODUÕQELUDUD\DJHWLULOPHVLQLQYH
LVLPOHULQ YDU ROGX÷XQX LGGLD HGHU %|\OHOLNOH GúQUOHU LQVDQL
GX\XPVDPDQÕQ |QHPLQH GDKD ID]OD LOJL J|VWHUPH\H EDúODU %X VD\HGH
+XPH.DQWYH%HUJVRQ¶XQLQVDQLDOJÕODPDQÕQ\DSÕVÕQDRGDNODQPDODUÕQDYH
RQ GRNX]XQFX \]\ÕOÕQ VRQX LOH \LUPLQFL \]\ÕOÕQ EDúÕQGDQ LWLEDUHQ DOJÕ
WHRULVLQLQWHPHOUHIHUDQVND\QDNODUÕQGDQELULKDOLQHJHOPHVLQH QHGHQRODFDN
\RODoÕOPÕúROXU
g]JUøUDGHYH'HWHUPLQL]P7DUWÕúPDVÕ
1RPLQDOLVWOHULQ 7DQUÕ LOH \DUDWÕPODUÕ DUDVÕQGD GHULQ ELU ERúOXN
ROXúPDVÕQD QHGHQ RODQ 7DQUÕ NDYUD\ÕúODUÕ 5|QHVDQV¶ÕQ YH KPDQL]PLQ
GR÷XúXQD |QFON HWPLúWLU øQVDQÕQ HYUHQGH 7DQUÕ LOH D\QÕ DNÕO YH PDQWÕ÷ÕQ
\DVDODUÕQD WDEL ROGX÷X J|UúQQ \HULQH LNDPH HGLOHQ 1RPLQDOLVW 7DQUÕ
QRV\RQX LQVDQD HWNLQOLNWH EXOXQDELOHFH÷L GDKD JHQLú ELU VDKD DoDU %X
VD\HGH 5|QHVDQV¶ÕQ YH KPDQL]PLQ EDEDVÕ VD\ÕODQ )UDQFHVFR 3HWUDUFK
LOHELUOLNWHLQVDQLELUH\VHOOL÷HGDKDID]OD|QHPYHULOPH\HEDúODU
(VHUOHULQGHLQVDQÕQELUH\VHOOL÷LQLLúOH\HQ3HWUDUFKWÕSNÕ'DQWHYH&KDXFHUYH
GL÷HU RQ G|UGQF \]\ÕO \D]DUODUÕ JLEL UXKX YH |]QH\L DQOD\DELOPHN LoLQ
HGHEL\DWYHVDQDWÕNXOODQPD\DEDúODGÕ6WRFN3HWUDUFK¶ÕQ
147
Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Cilt: XV, SayÕ 2, 2013
>@ úLLU YH PHNWXSODUÕQGD ELUH\VHOOL÷L LúOHPHVL LOH JLGHUHN
LQVDQÕQ |]JQO÷QH GDKD ID]OD RGDNODQÕOGÕ g]HOOLNOH 3HWUDUFK¶ÕQ \ÕOÕQGD&LFHUR¶QXQPHNWXSODUÕQÕNHúIHWPHVLLOHEDúODGÕ÷ÕNHQGLPHNWXSODUÕQÕ
GHUOHPH JLULúLPL NLúLVHO |]JQO÷Q VDQDWWDNL |QHPLQL DUWWÕUDQ HWNLOHUH \RO
DoWÕ =DN 3HWUDUFK µ6RNUDWHV¶ DGOÕ NXUJXVDO ELU NDUDNWHU \DUDWÕS
RQXQOD PHNWXSODúDUDN NHQGL |]QHOOL÷LQL YH |]JQO÷Q VHUJLOHGL :LONLQV
7DQUÕ¶QÕQLQVDQÕQKHUDQÕQÕJ|]OH\HQYHLQVDQLOHELUOLNWHWHNELU
KDUPRQLQLQ SDUoDVÕ ROGX÷XQD LQDQÕODQ VNRODVWLN J|UúOHULQ SROLWLN QHWLFHVL
WRSOXPVDO EWQO÷Q PXWODN ELU ELoLPGH WHVLV HGLOPHVLQL EHUDEHULQGH
JHWLUL\RUGX $QFDN 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ LQVDQL HWNLQOLNOHUH LOJLVL] ROGX÷X YH LQVDQÕQ
NHQGL EDúÕQD ROGX÷X LQDQFÕ \D\JÕQODúWÕNoD 7DQUÕ LQVDQÕQ ELUH\VHOOL÷LQGH
DUDQPD\D EDúODUNHQ LQVDQ GD µ\DúDP HYUHQL¶QGH OHEHQVZHOW >OLIHZRUOG@
JLGHUHNGDKDVHUEHVWELUELoLPGHKDUHNHWHGHELOLUKDOHJHOGL
/XWKHU >@ 3HWUDUFK¶ÕQ J|UúOHULQL ELUNDo DGÕP |WH\H WDúÕGÕ
/XWKHULoLQGH7DQUÕKHPVÕQÕUVÕ]JoVDKLEL\GLKHPGHL\L\GL%XQDNDUúÕ
KHP (UDVPXV¶XQ KHP GH $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ 7DQUÕ¶VÕQÕQ µX\NXGD¶ ROGX÷XQX LOHUL
VUG +HU úH\L DNOD YH LQVDQOÕ÷D LKDOH HGHQ ELU 7DQUÕ QRV\RQXQXQ
+ÕULVWL\DQOÕ÷ÕQ |] LOH ED÷GDúPDGÕ÷Õ LQDQFÕQGD RODQ /XWKHU NHQGLVLQL
+ÕULVWL\DQOÕ÷Õ SDJDQL]PLQ NDOÕQWÕODUÕQGDQ NXUWDUPDN LOH YD]LIHOHQGLUGL 2QD
J|UH JHUHN (UDVPXV¶XQ 7DQUÕVÕ JHUHNVH $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ 7DQUÕVÕ HYUHQL YH
GQ\D\ÕELUGHID\DUDWPÕúYHKHUúH\OHELUOLNWHNHQGLVLQLGHDNOÕQ\DVDODUÕQD
WDEL NÕODUDN X\NX\D GDOPÕúWÕU .HQGL 7DQUÕ QRV\RQXQGD EXQODUD \HU \RNWXU
(YUHQGHRODQKHUúH\YHKHUWUOLQVDQLHWNLQOLNVDGHFH7DQUÕQÕQDU]XVXQXQ
ELU VRQXFXGXU 7DQUÕ KHU úH\L \HQLGHQ WDVDUODPD LPNkQÕQD KHU ]DPDQ
VDKLSWLU
7DQUÕ¶QÕQ KHU úH\LQ RUWD\D oÕNÕúÕQGD EDúOÕFD IDNW|U ROGX÷X LGGLDVÕ
N|WONWHQGH7DQUÕ¶QÕQVRUXPOXROXSROPDGÕ÷ÕVRUXVXQXQGR÷PDVÕQDQHGHQ
ROXU %|\OHOLNOH ³WHRGLVH SUREOHPL´ GLQ IHOVHIHVLQLQ HQ |QHPOL
SUREOHPOHULQGHQ ELULVL KDOLQH JHOLU øONGHID (SLNU WDUDIÕQGDQ RUWD\D NRQDQ
YHSUREOHPµWDQUÕQÕQKHUúH\HNDGLUROPDVÕQDUD÷PHQQHGHQN|WO÷HPDQL
ROPDGÕ÷Õ¶VRUXVXQGDQGR÷PXúWXU.|WO÷QVHEHEL7DQUÕLVH\DUDWÕPÕRODQ
LQVDQODUÕ FH]DODQGÕUPDVÕ KDNVÕ]OÕN GH÷LO PLGLU" $QFDN H÷HU N|WON
7DQUÕ¶QÕQHWNLQOL÷LQLQGÕúÕQGDJHUoHNOHúL\RULVHHYUHQGH7DQUÕQÕQPGDKDOH
HGHPHGL÷L ELU RWRQRPLQLQ YDUOÕ÷Õ NDEXO HGLOPLú ROPD] PÕ" %X GXUXP
7DQUÕQÕQ KHU úH\LQ EHOLUOH\LFLVL ROGX÷XQX VDYXQDQ GHWHUPLQLVWOHU LOH |]JU
LUDGHQLQ YDUOÕ÷ÕQÕ VDYXQDQODU DUDVÕQGD \R÷XQ ELU ELoLPGH VUGUOHQ
WDUWÕúPDODUD QHGHQ ROXU $QFDN PHVHOHQLQ VDGHFH WHRORMLN WDUWÕúPDODU LOH
VÕQÕUOÕNDOPDGÕ÷ÕQDGLNNDWoHNPHNJHUHNLU2
0DOOH\GH\ÕOÕQGD
(UDVPXV¶XQ /WHUFL |÷UHWL\H PH\GDQ RNX\DQ ³De libero arbitrio diatribe
sive collatio´øUDGHQLQg]JUO÷QH'DLUDGOÕPHWQLLOHEDúOD\DQYHELU\ÕO
VRQUD/XWKHU¶LQ³De servo arbitrio´øUDGHQLQ(VDUHWLQH'DLUDGOÕFHYDEÕ\OD
GHYDP HGHQ WDUWÕúPDQÕQ VDGHFH WHRORMLN ELU WDUWÕúPD ROPDGÕ÷ÕQÕ IDNDW D\QÕ
148
D.Özkan / Modern AlgÕ Teorisinin Teolojik Kökenleri: Özgür ørade ve Determinizm
Problemi
]DPDQGD KPDQLVWOHULQ 5HIRUPDV\RQXQ VRQXoODUÕQD NDUúÕ oÕNÕúODUÕQGD
NXOODQGÕNODUÕ NLPL DUJPDQODUÕQ JQP] WDUWÕúPDODUÕQÕ GD HWNLOHGL÷LQL
EHOLUWLU *HUoHNWHQ GH 5HIRUPDV\RQ LOH KPDQLVW JHOHQHN DUDVÕQGD GHYDP
HGHQ oR÷X WDUWÕúPD PRGHUQOL÷LQ WHPHO |]HOOLNOHULQLQ ELoLPOHQLúLPGH VRQ
GHUHFHHWNLOLROPXúWXU
2Q DOWÕQFÕ \]\ÕOGD \DúDQDQ WDUWÕúPDODU J|] |QQH DOÕQGÕ÷ÕQGD Lo LoH
JHoPLúGúQFHGLQDPLNOHULLOHNDUúÕNDUúÕ\DNDOÕUÕ](UDVPXV>@
QRPLQDOLVWOHULQ $ULVWRWHOHVoLOLN HOHúWLULVLQGHQ IH\] DODUDN GúQFHOHULQL
JHOLúWLUPLú RODQ 3HWUDUFK¶ÕQ KPDQL]PLQGHQ HWNLOHQHUHN GL\DOHNWL÷H YH
UHWRUL÷H |QHP YHUPLú YH $QWLN <XQDQ GúQUOHULQGHQ ]L\DGHVL\OH
ID\GDODQPÕúWÕU $\QÕ JHOHQHNWHQ HWNLOHQHQ /XWKHU LVH KPDQL]PH NDUúÕ
GHWHUPLQLVW GúQFHOHU LOHUL VUPú YH <XQDQ IHOVHIHVLQLQ +ÕULVWL\DQOÕN
]HULQGHNL HWNLOHULQH NDUúÕ oÕNPÕúWÕU %X VD\HGH |]HOOLNOH /XWKHU¶LQ VRQ
\DUJÕQÕQ 7DQUÕ¶\D EÕUDNÕODUDN KDOL KD]ÕUGD \DSÕODFDNODUD RGDNODQPDQÕQ KHU
+ÕULVWL\DQ¶ÕQ ELULQFL YD]LIHVL ROGX÷XQX ÕVUDUOD YXUJXODPDVÕ GQ\HYL ELU
GQ\DJ|UúQQ\D\JÕQODúPDVÕQD\RODoDUDNoDOÕúPDDKODNÕQÕQJHOLúPHVLQH
QHGHQ ROPXúWXU 'L÷HU \DQGDQ (UDVPXV JLEL KPDQLVWOHU LVH 3HWUDUFK¶ÕQ
HWNLVL\OH LQVDQÕQ ELUH\VHOOL÷LQH RGDNODQPÕú YH EX ELUH\VHOOL÷L VDQDWÕQ
NRQXVX KDOLQH JHWLUPLúWLU 3DQRIVN\ +PDQL]PLQ ELUH\VHOOL÷H YH
|]JHOLúLPH RGDNODQPDVÕ LVH $YUXSD JHQHOLQGH SHN oRN SROLWLN VRV\DO YH
HNRQRPLNG|QúPEHUDEHULQGHJHWLUPLúWLU
7P EXQODUÕQ \DQÕ VÕUD GHWHUPLQLVWOHU LOH |]JU LUDGH\H LQDQDQODU
DUDVÕQGDNL WDUWÕúPDODU PRGHUQ GúQFHQLQ GLQDPLNOHULQL úHNLOOHQGLUPLúWLU
*DULS ELU ELoLPGH LNL IDUNOÕ \DNODúÕPÕQ WHN ELU SRWDGD HULGL÷L J|]OHPOHQLU
'HWHUPLQLVWOHU QRPLQDOL]PGHQ .DOYHQL]P¶H GDKD VRQUD LVH 3URWHVWDQOÕ÷D
JLGHQ \ROGD 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ YDUOÕ÷ÕQÕQ KHU úH\L LoHUGL÷L YH 2¶QXQ KHU úH\L HQ
EDúÕQGDQ LWLEDUHQ \HQLGHQ \DUDWDELOPH NXGUHWLQH VDKLS ROGX÷X LGGLDVÕ\OD
LQVDQÕQ\DSPDVÕJHUHNHQLQVDGHFHHWLNGDYUDQPDNROGX÷XJ|UúQGH\GLOHU
2QODUDJ|UH7DQUÕLQVDQÕVUHNOLVRUXúWXUDQELUµVDYFÕ¶GH÷LOGLUøQVDQ7DQUÕ
LOHD\QÕPDQWÕNYHDNÕOLONHOHULQHWDELROPDGÕ÷ÕQGDQNHQGLEDúÕQDGÕUøQVDQ
VDGHFH 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ KNPQH WDELGLU +NP JQQ EHNOHUNHQ HWLN
GDYUDQPDNYHNXWVDO\D]ÕODUDVFULSWXUHNXODNYHUPHNLOH\NPOGU=LUD
0D[ :HEHU >@ /XWKHU¶L UHIHUDQV J|VWHUHUHN \D]JÕQÕQ
7DQUÕ¶\D EÕUDNÕODUDN VRUXPOXOX÷XQ HWL÷LQH J|UH GDYUDQPDQÕQ PRGHUQ $OPDQ SROLWLN
\DSÕVÕQÕQELoLPOHQLúLQGHKD\DWLELUUROR\QDGÕ÷ÕQÕEHOLUWLU
+PDQL]PLQSROLWLNVRV\DOYHHNRQRPLNHWNLOHULE\NELUoHúLWOLOLNLKWLYDHGHU%XHWNLOHU
HQ PNHPPHO ELU ELoLPGH 5|QHVDQV )ORUDQVD¶VÕQGD J|]OHPOHQHELOLU /RUHQ]R GH¶ 0HGLFL
KPDQLVW DNÕPÕQ GHULQ HWNLVL LOH LQVDQÕQ \DUDWÕFÕ HWNLQOL÷LQH |QHP YHUPLú YH
)ORUDQVD¶\Õ \HQLGHQ ELoLPOHQGLULUNHQ KPDQLVW GQ\D J|UúQGHQ ID\GDODQPÕúWÕU
*HUoHNWHQ/RUHQ]RUDV\RQHONHQWSODQODPDVÕQÕQKPDQLVWNDYUDPODUÕoHUoHYHVLQGHGR÷UX
ELoLPGHELOJLOHQGLULOPLúROGX÷XQGDQ)ORUDQVDLQVDQL\DúDPLoLQLGHDOELU\DSÕND]DQPÕúWÕU
.HQW
149
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7DQUÕ NXWVDO PHWLQOHU YDVÕWDVÕ\OD LQVDQ LOH LOHWLúLPH JHoHU *LOOHVSLH g]JU LUDGH\H LQDQDODU LVH 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ NH\IL ELU ELoLPGH
GDYUDQDPD\DFD÷ÕQÕ EX QHGHQOH GH PDQWÕ÷D YH DNOD GD\DQPDVÕ JHUHNWL÷L
LGGLDVÕQGD\GÕODU 7DQUÕ KHU úH\LQ VHEHEL RODUDN NDYUDPVDOODúWÕUÕOGÕ÷ÕQGD
LQVDQÕQ JHUoHNOHúWLUGL÷L N|WONOHUGHQ GH VRUXPOX KDOH JHWLULOHFH÷LQGHQ
LQVDQÕQFH]DODQGÕUÕOPDVÕQÕQPPNQYHDGLORODPD\DFD÷ÕQÕGúQ\RUODUGÕ
%X QHGHQOH GH LQVDQL GHQH\LPH YH LQVDQL HWNLQOL÷H |QHP YHUGLOHU $\UÕFD
EX(UDVPXV¶XQµesas olanlar¶HVVHQWLDOLOHµesas olmayanlar¶QRQHVVHQWLDO
DUDVÕQGD \DSWÕ÷Õ D\UÕPÕQ WHPHOGH SUDWLN YH YDUROXúVDO YDUOÕ÷D
RGDNODQPDVÕQDGD\DQPDVÕQÕQYHGRNWULQLQJHOLúLPLQGHQoRNNLúLVHOJHOLúLPH
|QHP YHUPHVLQLQ GH WHPHO VHEHELGLU -DUURWW øQVDQL HWNLQOL÷LQ
L\LOHúHELOPHVL LoLQ 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ KHU úH\LQ VRUXPOXVX RODUDN
NDYUDPVDOODúWÕUÕOPDPDVÕJHUHNWL÷LQHLQDQGÕODU
$QFDN WP IDUNOÕOÕNODUÕQD UD÷PHQ KHU LNLVL GH LQVDQÕQ HWNLQOLN
VDKDVÕQÕQ JHQLúOHPHVLQH QHGHQ ROGX g]JU LUDGH VDYXQXFXODUÕ N|WON LOH
7DQUÕ¶\Õ ELUELULQGHQ NHVLQ ELU ELoLPGH ELUELUOHULQGHQ D\ÕUDUDN LQVDQL
HWNLQOL÷LQ L\LOHúWLULOPHVL JHUHNWL÷LQL LOHUL VUG 'HWHUPLQLVWOHU LVH 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ
PXWODNJFQHLQDQGÕNODUÕQGDQ2¶QXQKHUWUOLQVDQLHWNLQOL÷LQEHOLUOH\LFLVL
ROGX÷XQX LGGLD HWWLOHU %X VD\HGH 7DQUÕ LOH LQVDQÕQ D\QÕ NXUDOODUD WDEL
ROPDGÕNODUÕQÕ NDEXO HGHUHN EX LNLVL DUDVÕQGD GHULQ ELU YDGL DoWÕODU %X
VD\HGHLQVDQÕQ7DQUÕ¶QÕQLUDGHVLNDUúÕVÕQGDoDUHVL]ROGX÷XQXYHVRQ\DUJÕ\Õ
EHNOHUNHQ HWLN GDYUDQPDVÕ JHUHNWL÷LQL LOHUL VUGOHU 0RGHUQOL÷LQ WHPHO
|]HOOLNOHULQLQ ELoLPOHQPHVLQGH HWNLOL RODQ µoDOÕúPD DKODNÕ¶ GD 7DQUÕ LUDGHVL
NDUúÕVÕQGD oDUHVL]FH EHNOHUNHQ HWLN GDYUDQPD\D oDOÕúDQODUÕQ |]HOOLNOH
$OPDQ\D¶GD \DúDP NDUúÕVÕQGDNL GXUXúX RODUDN RUWD\D oÕNWÕ 0HDQV 'ROD\ÕVÕ\OD JQP]GH GH oHúLWOL WDU]ODUGD NDUúÕODúWÕ÷ÕPÕ]
GHWHUPLQLVWOHU LOH |]JU LUDGH\H LQDQDQODU DUDVÕQGDNL WDUWÕúPDODU HVDV
LWLEDUÕ\ODWHRORMLNN|NHQOLGLU%HQ]HUELUELoLPGHJHQHOGHSROLWLN|]HOOLNOHUL
LOHHOHDOÕQDQ+REEHVYH'HVFDUWHVDUDVÕQGDNLWDUWÕúPDGDWHRORMLNN|NHQOLGLU
%XLNLIHOVHIHFLQLQGHPRGHUQOL÷LQWHPHO\DSÕWDúODUÕQÕQúHNLOOHQLúLQGHEDúDW
ELU URO R\QDGÕNODUÕ NDEXO HGLOPHNWHGLU *HUoHNWHQ GH +REEHV PRGHUQ
SROLWLNDQÕQ WHPHO NDYUDP YH SUREOHPOHULQLQ NXUXFXVXGXU 'HVFDUWHV LVH
PRGHUQGúQúWDU]ÕQÕQYHPHWRGXQXQEDúOÕFDNXUXFXODUÕQGDQGÕU
*HUHN'HVFDUWHV¶LQJHUHNVH+REEHV¶XQGLQLOHLOJLOLGúQVHOYHSROLWLN
PHVHOHOHULQ KDG VDIKD\D XODúWÕ÷Õ ELU RUWDPGD GúQFHOHULQL JHOLúWLUGLNOHULQL
EHOLUWPHN JHUHNLU øNL GúQU GH GLQVHO oDWÕúPDODUÕQ úLGGHWOHQGL÷L YH
GúQUOHULQ 5RPD .DWROLN .LOLVHVL¶QH ED÷OÕ \DUJÕ VLVWHPL WDUDIÕQGDQ WHKGLW
HGLOGLNOHUL ELU DWPRVIHUGH GHYUDOGÕNODUÕ YH GHYDP HWPHNWH RODQ GúQVHO
SUREOHPOHUH FHYDS YHUPH oDEDVÕQGDGÕU %X oHUoHYHGH WÕSNÕ *DOLOHR JLEL
'HVFDUWHV GD 3ODWRQFX JHOHQH÷LQ GHYDP HWWLULFLVL RODUDN VNRODVWLN
$ULVWRWHOHVoL ELOLPVHO JHOHQH÷LQ HOHúWLULFLOHUL DUDVÕQGD \HU DODUDN PRGHUQ
150
D.Özkan / Modern AlgÕ Teorisinin Teolojik Kökenleri: Özgür ørade ve Determinizm
Problemi
ELOLPLQ JHOLúLPLQH |QFON HWWL 6KDSHUH $QFDN *LOOHVSLH
'HVFDUWHV¶LQ VÕNOÕNOD $ULVWRWHOHVoLOL÷H LON NDUúÕ oÕNDQ
GúQUOHUGHQ ELU ROGX÷X NDEXO HGLOPHVLQH UD÷PHQ EX J|UúQ \DQOÕú
ROGX÷XQX EHOLUWLU 2QD J|UH $ULVWRWHOHVoLOLN HOHúWLULVL RQ oQF \]\ÕOGDQ
LWLEDUHQ EDúODPÕúWÕU $\UÕFD 'HVFDUWHV $ULVWRWHOHV¶LQ NLPL J|UúOHULQL
EHQLPVHPLúROVDGD1RPLQDOL]PLQ7DQUÕQRV\RQXQXNDEXOHGHU%XQHGHQOH
GH 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ \HU\]Q ]RUXQOX ROGX÷XQGDQ GH÷LO IDNDW DU]X HWWL÷L LoLQ
\DUDWWÕ÷ÕQÕ GúQU %X DQODPGD 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ DNÕO WDUDIÕQGDQ LGDUH HGLOPHNWH
ROGX÷XQDGDLUVNRODVWLNJ|UúHNDUúÕoÕNDU
3ODWRQFXIHOVHIHQLQJHQHOLONHVLQHX\DUDN'HVFDUWHVGDLQVDQLYDUROXúXQ
LNLIDUNOÕFLVPLQELUOHúLPLROGX÷XQDLQDQÕU(OEHWWHKHPKD\YDQODUKHPGH
LQVDQODU PDGGL ELU YDUROXúD VDKLSWLU $QFDN 'HVFDUWHV +REEHV¶WDQ IDUNOÕ
RODUDN LQVDQÕQ VDGHFH PHNDQLN ELU YDUROXúD LQGLUJHQHPH\HFH÷LQL GúQU
øQVDQD\QÕ]DPDQGDUXKVDOQLWHOLNOHULEDUÕQGÕUDQDKODNLELUYDUOÕNWÕU6WHQW
%X DQODPGD LQVDQ GHYDVD PHNDQLN ELU LúOH\LúLQ VÕUDGDQ ELU
SDUoDVÕ GH÷LOGLU %X VD\HGH 'HVFDUWHV >@ \HQL ELU ELOLPVHO
\DNODúÕP JHOLúWLUPHN VXUHWL\OH LQVDQÕQ GR÷D\D KNPHWPHVLQL WHPLQ HWPH\H
oDOÕúÕU øQVDQ PHNDQLN ELoLPGH LúOH\HQ GÕú GQ\DGDQ IDUNOÕ ELU ELoLPGH
GúQVHO HWNLQOLNWH EXOXQDELOGL÷L LoLQ GR÷D\D HJHPHQ RODELOLU øQVDQÕQ GÕú
GQ\D\Õ LúOH\HELOPHVLQLQ RODQD÷Õ VDGHFH GR÷DQÕQ VÕUDGDQ ELU SDUoDVÕ
ROPDPDVÕNRúXOXLOHJHUoHNOHúHELOLU
'HVFDUWHVLQVDQLGúQPHHWNLQOL÷LQHEDúDWELUUROYHUHUHNLQVDQÕQGÕú
GQ\D LOH LOLúNLVLQL \HQL ELU ER\XWD WDúÕU øQVDQ HYUHQGH \HU DODQ GL÷HU
QHVQHOHU LOH ELUOLNWH D\QÕ KDUPRQLQLQ ELU SDUoDVÕ ROPDNWDQ oÕNDUDN RQODUÕ
LúOH\HQYHELoLPOHQGLUHQELUUROND]DQÕU%XEDNÕúDoÕVÕRQXQHSLVWHPRORMLVLQH
GH \DQVÕU *LOOHVSLH 'HVFDUWHV¶LQ LQVDQÕQ ELOGL÷L úH\OHULQ
VDGHFH LQVDQ WDUDIÕQGDQ DOJÕODQPÕú ROGXNODUÕ LoLQ ELOLQPHNWH ROGXNODUÕQÕ
GúQG÷QH GLNNDW oHNHU øQVDQ QHVQHOHUL DOJÕOD\DUDN EH\QH LOHWWLU %X LVH
LQVDQ LUDGHVLQLQ ELU VHoLPL RODUDN JHUoHNOHúLU 'DKD VRQUD %HUJVRQ >@ WDUDIÕQGDQ HWUDIOÕFD LQFHOHQHFHN RODQ EX J|Uú DOJÕ WHRULVLQLQ
ELoLPOHQPHVL LoLQ JHUHNOL GúQVHO ]HPLQLQ ROXúPDVÕQÕ VD÷OD\DFDNWÕU
*LGHUHN ELOJLQLQ LQVDQGDQ ED÷ÕPVÕ] ELU ELoLPGH YDU ROGX÷X LQDQFÕ WHUN
HGLOHFHNWLU %XQXQ \HULQH ELOJL LQVDQÕQ DOJÕOD\DUDN ELoLPOHQGLUGL÷L úH\OHUOH
VÕQÕUOÕ RODQ ELU úH\ RODUDN DQODúÕODFDNWÕU $\QÕ ]DPDQGD ELOJLQLQ ELU NHúILQ
VRQXFXROPDNWDQ]L\DGHELUoHúLW\DUDWÕPHWNLQOL÷LLOHROXúWX÷XGúQOPH\H
EDúODQDFDNWÕUøQVDQÕQGúQVHOHWNLQOL÷LQHPHNDQLNELoLPGHLúOH\HQGR÷D\Õ
YH ELOJL\L LúOH\HQ ELU QLWHOLN DWIHGLOPHVL PRGHUQOL÷L RUWD\D oÕNDUDQ WP
GLQDPLNOHULQHWNLQKDOHJHOPHOHULQLVD÷ODU.LúLVDELWELUDNÕOVDOYHPDQWÕNVDO
HWNLQOL÷H X\XP VD÷ODPDN ]RUXQOXOX÷XQGDQ D]DGH ROGXNoD |]QHQLQ YH
|]QHOOL÷LQ\DúDPÕQELoLPOHQLúLQGHNLHWNLVLJLGHUHNDUWDU
+REEHV >@ ³Leviathan´ DGOÕ HVHULQGH DoÕNoD J|UOHELOHFH÷L
]HUHWÕSNÕ'HVFDUWHVJLELLQVDQÕGR÷D]HULQGHHJHPHQNÕODFDNELUGúQFH
151
Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Cilt: XV, SayÕ 2, 2013
VLVWHPL JHOLúWLUPH oDEDVÕQGDGÕU $YUXSD¶GDNL GúQFH LNOLPL RQ \HGLQFL
\]\ÕOGD LQVDQÕ ELU IDLO NÕOPD H÷LOLPLQGHGLU øQVDQÕQ HYUHQLQ LúOH\LúLQGHNL
UROQHGDLUGúQFHOHUGHE\NELUG|QúPJ|]OHPOHQLU+PDQLVWJHOHQHN
DQWLNIHOVHIH\HJLGHUHNGDKDID]OD|QHPDWIHGHUHNLQVDQLHWNLQOL÷LQ|QHPLQH
GLNNDW oHNHUNHQ 7DQUÕ¶QÕQ PXWODN LUDGHVLQLQ KHU úH\LQ EHOLUOH\LFLVL ROGX÷X
LGGLDVÕQGDNL GHWHUPLQLVWOHU GDKL 7DQUÕ LOH LQVDQ DUDVÕQD E\N ELU YDGL
DoDUDN LQVDQÕQ VHUEHVW ELoLPGH GDYUDQDELOHFH÷L ELU VDKDQÕQ ROXúPDVÕQÕ
VD÷ODU %X DQODPGD GH÷LúLN \ROODUGDQ D\QÕ QHWLFHOHUL GR÷XUDQ LNL IDUNOÕ
GúQFH DNÕPÕ LOH NDUúÕ NDUúÕ\D NDOÕUÕ] 'ROD\ÕVÕ\OD +REEHV KHU QH NDGDU
GHWHUPLQLVW ELU \DNODúÕPD VDKLS ROVD GD 'HVFDUWHV LOH SDUDOHO QHWLFHOHU
GR÷XUDFDN ELU \DNODúÕPD VDKLSWLU 'HVFDUWHV¶WHQ IDUNOÕ RODUDN LQVDQÕQ
GR÷DGDNL GL÷HU YDUOÕNODUGDQ IDUNOÕ ELU NRQXPD VDKLS ROPDGÕ÷ÕQD LQDQÕU
*LOOHVSLH$ULVWRWHOHVoLDNÕOFÕOÕ÷ÕGHYDPHWWLUHUHNLQVDQLOHGL÷HU
YDUOÕNODU DUDVÕQGD ELU D\UÕP \DSÕODPD\DFD÷Õ VDYÕQÕ |QH VUHQ +REEHV HVDV
LWLEDUL\OH GL÷HU EWQ YDUOÕNODUÕQ HYUHQGHNL KDUHNHW GLQDPLNOHULQL
o|]POH\HUHN LQVDQ GDYUDQÕúODUÕQÕQ QDVÕO NRQWURO DOWÕQD DOÕQDELOHFH÷LQH
RGDNODQÕU 7DP GD EX QRNWDGD +REEHV LOH 'HVFDUWHV DUDVÕQGDNL IDUNOÕOÕN
EHOLUJLQ ELoLPGH RUWD\D oÕNDU 1RPLQDOL]PLQ HWNLVL LOH NHQGL IL]LN WHRULVLQL
JHOLúWLUPLúRODQ+REEHVKHUúH\LQGH÷LúLPKDOLQGHROGX÷XQXNDEXOHGHU%X
EDNÕú HYUHQLQ 7DQUÕ WDUDIÕQGDQ HQ PNHPPHO ELU ELoLPGH \DUDWÕOGÕ÷Õ
LQDQFÕQD GD\DQDQ NODVLN |÷UHWLGHQ NRSXúXQ LIDGHVLGLU $QFDN +REEHV
GH÷LúLPLQ YDUOÕ÷ÕQÕ NDEXO HGHUNHQ EXQODUÕQ oRN VD\ÕGD ELUELUOHULQGHQ IDUNOÕ
GH÷LúLPOHU ROGXNODUÕ GúQFHVLQH NDUúÕ oÕNDU +HU QH NDGDU KHUúH\ GH÷LúLP
KDOLQGH ROVD GD WP GH÷LúLPOHU PHUNH]L ELU GH÷LúLPLQ QHWLFHVL RODUDN
JHUoHNOHúWL÷LQGHQELUELUOHULQGHQIDUNOÕ\ROODUD\|QHOPH]OHU*LOOHVSLH
%XUWW µThe Metaphysical Foundations of Modern
Science¶ 0RGHUQ %LOLPLQ 0HWDIL]LN 7HPHOOHUL DGOÕ HVHULQGH +REEHV¶XQ
ELUH\VHO úH\OHUL JHUoHN YDUOÕNODU RODUDN NDEXO HGHQ RUWDoD÷ÕQ VRQ
G|QHPOHULQGHNL QRPLQDOLVW H÷LOLPOHU LOH D\QÕ oL]JLGH \HU DOGÕ÷ÕQD GLNNDW
oHNHUHN RQXQ GúQFHOHULQLQ QDWUDOL]P SVLNRORML SROLWLND ELOLPL YH
oD÷GDúODUÕ ]HULQGHNL GHULQ HWNLVLQL YXUJXODU +REEHV¶XQ PHNDQLN
UDV\RQDOL]PL KHU úH\LQ ELUELUOHUL LOH X\XP KDOLQGH KDUHNHW HWWL÷L \HQL ELU
HYUHQNXUJXVXQD|QD\DNROXU%XVD\HGHGR÷DELOLPOHULQLQKHUúH\LQ|QQH
JHoPHVLQL VD÷ODU %X VD\HGH +REEHV LOH ELUOLNWH PRGHUQOL÷LQ WHPHO \DSÕ
WDúODUÕQGDQRODQµGR÷DELOLPOHULQLQ|QFHOL÷L¶WHVLVHGLOPLúROXU+REEHVGR÷D
ELOLPOHULQH |QFHOLN YHUPHN VXUHWL\OH LQVDQODU DUDVÕQGDNL IDUNOÕOÕNODUGDQ
ND\QDNODQDQ oDWÕúPDODUÕ RUWDGDQ NDOGÕUPD\Õ DPDoODU )UDQVÕ] GHYULPL LOH
SROLWLN DUHQDQÕQ |Q NDEXOOHULQGHQ ELUL KDOLQH JHOHFHN HúLWOLNoL GúQFHOHUH
LOKDPYHUPHVLQLQVHEHELGHKHUúH\LWHNELUPHUNH]LKDUHNHWLQVRQXFXRODUDN
J|UHQ IL]LN DQOD\ÕúÕGÕU %X oHUoHYHGH 6XOOLYDQ +REEHV¶XQ
HúLWOLNoLOL÷LQLQ OLEHUDO FXPKXUL\HWoLOL÷H LOKDP YHUHUHN LQVDQL YDU ROXúXQ
152
D.Özkan / Modern AlgÕ Teorisinin Teolojik Kökenleri: Özgür ørade ve Determinizm
Problemi
PRGHUQ IRUPXQD |QFON HWWL÷LQL EHOLUWLU *HUoHNWHQ GH KHU úH\LQ GR÷D
\DVDODUÕQD WDEL ROGX÷X YH HúLWOHQGL÷L ELU HYUHQ DQOD\ÕúÕQGD µGR÷DVÕ JHUH÷L
\|QHWHQ¶ LOH µGR÷DVÕ JHUH÷L \|QHWLOHQ¶ D\UÕPÕQÕQ \DSÕODELOPHVLQH RODQDN
NDOPD]%XVD\HGHLQVDQLHWNLQOL÷HHYUHQVHOLúOH\LúLoHULVLQGH\HQLELUDODQ
DoÕOPÕúROXU
6RQXo$OJÕ7HRULVLg]QHOOLNYH+PDQL]P
7DQUÕQRV\RQXQDGDLUWDUWÕúPDODULQVDQÕQGQ\D\ÕDOJÕOD\ÕúÕQÕN|NOELU
ELoLPGH G|QúWUPúWU 7DQUÕ LOH LQVDQ YH GQ\D DUDVÕQGDNL LOLúNLQLQ QDVÕO
ROGX÷XQD GDLU WP WDUWÕúPDODU LQVDQL HWNLQOL÷LQ \DSÕVÕQÕ HWNLOHPLúWLU %X
VD\HGH LQVDQL HWNLQOL÷H YHULOHQ |QHP JLGHUHN DUWPÕúWÕU %XQXQ GR÷DO ELU
QHWLFHVLRODUDNELOJLDUDQDQNHúIHGLOHQYHHOGHHGLOHQELUúH\ROPDNWDQoÕNDU
%LOJLQLQLQVDQÕQGÕúÕQGDELUNRQXPDVDKLSROGX÷XILNULJLGHUHNJHoHUOLOL÷LQL
\LWLULU øQVDQÕQ GÕú GQ\DGD PHYFXW EXOXQDQ SHN oRN úH\GHQ VDGHFH ELU
NÕVPÕQÕDOJÕOÕ\RUROGX÷XQDGLNNDWoHNLOHUHNDOJÕODQDQEXúH\OHUHRGDNODQÕOÕU
%HUJVRQ >@ µCreative Evolution¶ <DUDWÕFÕ (YULP DGOÕ HVHULQGH
'DUYLQFL PDNLQLVW HYULP WHRULVLQH NDUúÕ oÕNDUNHQ LQVDQÕQ GÕú GQ\D\Õ
DOJÕODUNHQDOJÕODGÕ÷ÕQHVQHOHULYHGQ\D\ÕVUHNOL\HQLGHQLQúDHGHQ\DUDWÕFÕ
ELUHWNLQOLNWHEXOXQGX÷XQXLGGLDHGHU%XVD\HGHPRGHUQSVLNRORMLGHNLDOJÕ
WHRULOHULQHGH|QFONHWPLúROXU%XJ|UúLQVDQÕQ|]QHOOL÷LQHYXUJX\DSDQ
QRPLQDOL]PGHQ HWNLOHQHQ YH KPDQL]PLQ EDEDVÕ VD\ÕODQ 3HWUDUFK¶ÕQ
J|UúOHULQLQ HQ JHOLúPLú KDOLGLU 3DUoDODUÕQ ELUELUL\OH X\XPOX ELU KDUPRQL
LoLQGH ROGX÷X (YUHQ QRV\RQXQGDQ YD] JHoLOHUHN KHU SDUoDQÕQ NHQGL
ELULFLNOL÷LQGH DQODP ND]DQGÕ÷Õ ED÷ODQWÕVÕ] SDUoDFÕNODUGDQ ROXúDQ ELU (YUHQ
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Modern Algı Teorisinin Teolojik Kökenleri