76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3)
Part 1
vol 1.0 Łukasz Sambor for http://www.militarnepodroze.net/
Index
Introduction...................................................................3
Information....................................................................3
Bulgaria..........................................................................6
Croatia............................................................................7
Czech..............................................................................8
Hungary.........................................................................9
Lithuania......................................................................10
Poland..........................................................................13
Serbia...........................................................................70
Slovakia........................................................................71
Introduction
In this document are all 76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3) \ from Poland, Czech Republic,
Croatia, Slovakia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Hungary, Serbia,Romania, Bulgaria, Montenegro
This document is a compilation of photos published on the web. I would like to thank especially
Michał Szafran, Grzegorz Płoński, DaSk, Paweł Matysiak and Tomek Spólnicki who deserved a
great part of the job on this document, and also the people who took these photos and
put them on their websites, or sent them to me, and those who helped me doing these lists.
For any question, you can email me at [email protected]
I’m looking for photos 76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3) from:
Czech - Vojenské technické muzeum Lešany
Czech - Monument in Hrabyně
Poland - Bielsko Biała – Private Museum
Poland - Elbląg – Military Area
Poland - Grabownica Starzeńska
Poland - Jarosław – Military Area
Poland - Krotoszyn
Poland - Krzeczów
Poland - Mława
Poland - Szczecin - two localisation – Military Area
Poland - Tomaszów Mazowiecki - Museum
Poland - Wizna
Slovakia - Vojenské muzeum Králíky
...and all others what I forgot.
Information
The 76-mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3) (Russian: 76-мм дивизионная пушка обр. 1942 г.
(ЗиС-3)) was a Soviet 76.2-mm divisional field gun used during World War II. ZiS stands for
Zavod imeni Stalina (Stalin plant), the official title of Artillery Factory No. 92, which
constructed this gun first.
History
The design works of ZiS-3 started in the end of 1940 on the Artillery Factory No. 92 under
supervision of V. G. Grabin, the chief designer of medium caliber Soviet guns. There was no
order for this work; moreover, at this time the attitude toward such development programs on
the part of artillery commanders, such as Marshal Kulik, the head officer of Soviet artillery, was
extremely negative. So the project was run purely on the initiative of Grabin, his design bureau
and the Artillery Factory No. 92 head and his deputies. None of them informed state authorities
(i.e. Marshal Kulik) about the ZiS-3 project.
The ZiS-3 was a combination of the light carriage from the 57 mm ZiS-2 anti-tank gun and a
powerful 76.2 mm barrel from the previous divisional field gun F-22USV. In order to decrease
the gun's recoil a muzzle brake was installed. This allowed the barrel to be mounted on a
relatively light carriage without the risk of mechanical damage when firing. In comparison with
the F-22USV gun, the ZiS-3 utilized better production technology. Many parts of the gun were
cast, stamped or welded in order to reduce the amount of machine work. As a result, the
amount of work required to construct a single ZiS-3 gun was three times less than that of the
F-22USV gun. Furthermore, the cost to produce a ZiS-3 gun was only two thirds that of an
F-22USV.
After having been built, the first ZiS-3 gun was hidden from the wathchful eyes of state
authorities, who continued to ignore the Red Army's need for light and medium field guns. The
authorities' main argument was the information that German heavy tanks carried exceptionally
strong armour. In reality Germany did not have such tanks in early 1941 and this
misinformation was the result of successful Nazi propaganda about the Neubaufahrzeug multiturreted prototype tank. Marshal Kulik had believed the propaganda and sent orders to stop
the production of light 45 mm anti-tank guns and 76.2 mm divisional field guns.
The beginning of the Great Patriotic War showed that German tanks had weaker armour than
was anticipated. Some were even vulnerable to large caliber DShK machine guns. Pre-war
models of 76 mm divisional guns penetrated German vehicles with ease, but almost all these
guns were lost in battles or captured by Germans in holding facilities. Some of them were later
used against Soviet forces as different kinds of Panzerjäger self-propelled guns. Marshal Kulik
ordered that mass production of 76.2 mm divisional field F-22USV guns be relaunched. Grabin
and the head staff of Artillery Factory No. 92 decided to organize the mass production of ZiS-3
guns instead of F-22USVs. They succeeded, but ZiS-3 was not officially tested and adopted for
Red Army service.
Red Army soldiers were in urgent need of these guns, the guns themselves were fine and
numerous due to improved production technology, but all of them were in stock at Artillery
Factory No. 92, since the military representatives refused to receive non-official guns. After
some internal struggle between Grabin's team and military representatives, ZiS-3 guns were
finally transferred to the Red Army under personal responsibility of Grabin and Artillery Factory
No. 92 head staff.
Combat experience showed the superiority of ZiS-3 over all other types of divisional level field
guns. This allowed the ZiS-3 to be presented to a group of state authorities headed by Joseph
Stalin and thus obtain all needed approval. After the demonstration was over Stalin said: "This
gun is a masterpiece of artillery systems design." There was a five-day official state test run in
February 1942. The result of this test was quite clear - ZiS-3 was adopted by the Red Army as
divisional field gun model 1942 (full official name).
Grabin and his team soon begun to improve on the technology used in the ZiS-3 mass
production. Artillery Factory No. 92 was equipped by conveyor assembly lines, which allowed
the factory to produce ZiS-3 in even greater numbers with a low qualification workforce but
without significant quality loss. Experienced laborers and engineers worked on complicated
equipment and served as brigade leaders. Some of the young men who worked on Artillery
Factory No. 92 were exempt from conscription. They learned the production process well and
became high quality workers and engineers. This was yet another boost for the ZiS-3
production volume. As a result, at the end of World War II, ZiS-3 was the most numerous
Soviet Army field gun. The total number of ZiS-3s produced exceeds 103,000 pieces.
After the war ZiS-3 mass production ceased. It was replaced by the next model of divisional
field gun, D-44, which had a larger caliber (85 mm) and better anti-armour capabilities. But it
weighed much more and its mobility was thus inferor to that of the ZiS-3.
The Finns captured 12 units, and designated them 76 K 42.
Combat history
Soviet soldiers liked ZiS-3 guns for their extreme reliability, durability, and accuracy. It was
easy to maintain these guns and train novice crews with them. Light carriage allowed the ZiS-3
to be towed by trucks and heavy jeeps (such as the American lend-leased Dodge 3/4) or even
hauled by the crew.
ZiS-3 had good anti-armour capabilities, it could knock-out any German light and medium tank
with its armour-piercing round. The appearance of the Tiger I and later the Panther, however,
made the lives of ZiS-3 crews much harder.
A battery of ZiS-3 consisted of four guns, with three batteries combined into a division, or
battalion. Independent anti-tank regiments consisted of six batteries with no divisions. In
addition to the gun batteries there was a staff battery which included a fire control section.
ZiS-3 in our time
In the Cold War many ZiS-3s were transferred to different Soviet allies. From there ZiS-3s
were often resold onto third world countries. So armies of some African and Asian countries
have ZiS-3s in active service now. Moreover, these guns are still used in combat during
numerous local conflicts and border skirmishes.
Soviet ZiS-3s were officially withdrawn from active service. Some of them were scrapped,
some were transferred to holding facilities and others were converted to Great Patriotic War
memorial signs. These memorial cannons are quite common in modern Russia and Belarus. In
Russian Army some ZiS-3s are used as decorations of buildings and gardens in artillery units
quarters; another part of survived ZiS-3s is still operable. Sometimes ZiS-3s are used as small
salute guns or in history-dedicated military shows.
Bulgaria
Edal Anton Lefterov http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:National_Museum_of_Military_History.jpg
Sofia - National Museum of Military History
Croatia
Rafał Białecki
http://www.militarnepodroze.net/muzea.html
Kralovac - Muzejska Zbirka Naoružanja Domovinskog Rata
Czech
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/muzea.html
Vyskov - Nadace LHS VYSKOV
Hungary
http://www.geocaching.hu/caches.geo?id=846&show_logs=i
Kiskunmajsa - County Bács-Kiskun – Museum
Lithuania
Tomek Spólnicki
http://www.militarnepodroze.net/muzea.html
Kovno
Poland
Ludek
Rafał Białęcki
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arlamow_wejscie.jpg
Arłamów – Gate Guard
http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Bartoszyce - Monument
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Bemowo Piskie – Military Unit
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Białystok - Museum
Tadeusz Wojewódzki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Borne Sulimowo - Monument
Łukasz "Lupac" Pacholski http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Bydgoszcz - Museum
DaSk http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Czaplinek - Monument
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Dębica - Museum
Krzysztof Bartosik http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Dobigniew - Museum
Romek_77 http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Drzonów – Lubuskie Military Museum
Piotr Michno http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Dukla - Museum
Piotr Michno http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Dukla - Museum
Rafał Białęcki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Dywity - Private
Michał Szafran http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Gdańsk – Private Collection
Michał Szafran http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Gdynia - Museum
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Grajewo - Museum
Czarek Piotrowski “Alkali" http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Grudziądz – Monument Citadel
Paweł Kupisz http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Grudziądz - Monument
Krzysztof Paziewski http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Górzyn - Monument
Enek22 http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Jelenia Góra - Museum
Enek22 http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Jelenia Góra - Museum
Enek22 http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Jelenia Góra - Museum
Paweł Kupisz http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Kalisz – 6 pieces -Monument
Stanisław Cichoń http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Kłodzko – Private Collection
Łukasz Sambor http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Kołobrzeg - Museum
Łukasz Sambor http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Kraków – Polish Aviation Museum
Helios8 http://www.panoramio.com/photo/3559823
Krzeczów - Monument
http://yarpenzirgin.blox.pl/html/1310721,262146,21.html?494829
Maciejowice - Monument
Paweł Kupisz http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Mirosławiec - Museum
Arg http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Mniszew - Museum
Wojtek Zaremba http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Mordy - Monument
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Niewodnica Kościelna - Monument
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Orzysz – Military Unit
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Orzysz – Military Unit
Michał Szafran http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Poznań - Museum
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Poznań - Museum
Sebastian Rózga http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:11_Proszowice_-_cmentarz_(17.VIII.2007).JPG
Proszowice – Monument
Maciej Grabowski http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Pyrzyce - Monument
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Sanok – Military Area
http://www.brigadyr.net/pozemni_technika/muzeum_orla_bialego_08/76_k_vz42/1.htm
Skarżysko Kamienna – Museum
Paweł Kupisz http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Służewo - Monument
Paweł Matysiak http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Srebrna Góra - Museum
http://www.brigadyr.net/pozemni_technika/sochazcew_08/76_k_vz42/76_k_vz42.htm
Sochaczew - Museum
Łukasz Sambor http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Sosnowiec - Monument
http://www.powiatzdunskowolski.pl/turystyka/big/3.jpg
Strońsko - Monument
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Suwałki - Monument
Tomek Spólnicki http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Suwałki - Museum
maxikasek http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Szczecin - Monument
Waldemar Raczkowiak http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Szczecinek - Monument
Waldemar Raczkowiak http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Szczecinek - Monument
http://mojemiasto.swidnica.pl/cmentarz_radziecki.htm
Świdnica - Monument
Łukasz Sambor http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Tarnowskie Góry - Monument
Raffael Roszak
Link
Toruń – Private Collection
DaSk http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Toruń – Museum of Artillery
Lufcik http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Tuligłowy – Private Collection
Paweł Suchorski http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Uniszki Zawadzkie - Monument
Grzegorz Płoński http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Warszawa - Polish Army Museum, Al Jerozolimskie
Grzegorz Płoński http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Warszawa - Polish Army Museum, Fort IX Czerniakowski
Marek and Ewa Wojciechowscy
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:6_Warszawa_369.jpg
Warszawa – Military Area - Monument
Hubert Śmietanka
link
Warszawa - Kozielska street
Paweł Matysiak http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Walim - Museum
Burza
Link
Węgierska Górka - Monument
Burza
Link
Węgierska Górka - Monument
http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Węgorzewo - Monument
Astra28
http://www.papermodels.pl/topics96/interesujace-obiekty-modelarskie-vt1864.htm
Witnica – Private Museum
http://www.dziennik.swidnica.pl/foto/displayimage.php?album=36&pos=54
Witoszów Dolny – Private Museum
Paweł Kupisz - http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Wolsztyn - Monument
DaSk nhttp://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Wolsztyn - Monument
Łukasz Sambor http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Wrocław – Cementary Soviet Soldiers
Łukasz Sambor http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Zabrze – Private Collection
Paweł Kupisz http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Żagań – Military Unit
Paweł Kupisz http://www.militarnepodroze.net/zis3.html
Żagań – Military Unit
Serbia
Rafał Białęcki http://militarnepodroze.net/muzea.html
Belgrade – Kalemegdan Museum
Rafał Białęcki http://militarnepodroze.net/muzea.html
Belgrade – Kalemegdan Museum
Slovakia
Rafał Białęcki http://militarnepodroze.net/muzea.html
Banská Bystrica
Bohuněk http://forum.valka.cz/viewtopic.php/title/SOV-ZIS-3-76-mm-divizni-kanon/t/10587
Prochot - Žiar nad Hronom District
bartoldo
http://pl.wikiloc.com/wikiloc/imgServer.do?id=107411
Vrútky - Žilina Region
Peter Zelizňák
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vojenske_prirodne_muzeum_76_mm_protitank_kanon.jpg
Vyšný Komárnik - Monument
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