Building Resilient & Sustainable Cities in TURKEY Livable Cities Symposium 2014 – EMBARQ & IZKA Developing Policies for Sustainable Transport and Participation May 17th, 2010 Izmir, Turkey-- November 20, 2014 Why “Sustainable Cities” in Turkey? Context • • • • Rapid urbanization and shift to secondary cities Increasing traffic congestion and air pollution Weak urban planning framework and application High energy dependency and reliance on imports Relevance • Modality for implementing elements of 10th National Development Plan, KENTGES, and other national strategies and plans • Adding 14 new Metro Municipalities and expansion to provincial boundaries Turkey’s Rapid Urbanization 100 • Turkey’s rapid urbanization has transformed the country demographically. Urban population has grown from 25% (1950s) to 75% (today). • Like Korea, sharp urban growth over past 60 years Argentina 90 Brazil 80 Republic of Korea Mexico 70 Bulgaria 60 Turkey Hungary 50 South Africa 40 Greece 30 Portugal Georgia 20 China 10 Egypt India 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Economic shift with demographic shift Can secondary cities leverage economic spillovers? Spatial Distribution of Firms Established from 2007 to 2010 Increasing demand for infrastructure services Urban transport options have not kept pace with urban growth Meters of High Transit Capacity per capita 250 200 197 178 152 150 100 92.54 83.54 62.6 50 59.55 35.32 33.47 26.27 16.1 0 Source: TRACE Studies and Database, 2012 15.3 13.74 10.8 10.13 5.52 Car ownership has grown rapidly in Turkey Economic growth and car ownership rates are linked 160 Motorization Rate Growth (Base year = 100) Poland 150 Romania 140 130 Turkey 120 Russia 110 EU-27 UK 100 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 …and also in individual cities Number of registered vehicles per 1000 population 275 Ankara 250 225 İzmir Konya Eskişehir Adana İstanbul Bursa Kayseri 200 Gaziantep Samsun 175 150 2007 2008 2009 2010 …and will continue to grow as income grows …and will continue to demand fuel High Petroleum Intensity in Turkey Annual consumption (tons) per GDP (USD) 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 US Japan UK Germany France Turkey … with lifestyle changes causing urban sprawl Rapid population growth in secondary cities Demand for high quality and larger housing As density drives up housing price in the city center, residents move further to suburban areas for larger space, at trade-off with longer commuting …such as this city in Turkey As cities grow they need to plan to avoid costly problems Increasing demand for urban land Land use planning that provisions for green space Provisioning for green space: increasing urban land values are placing new pressures on city officials to develop land Many Turkish cities have low Green Space/person ratios. Strengthened land use planning can improve this Many Turkish cities are down here. Sustainable Cities Project Concept Partnering with Iller Bank Principles • Design a Policy Instrument that enables implementation and monitoring of 10th National Development Plan, Energy Efficiency Law and Strategy, KENTGES, and other national plans and strategies • Establish a Platform that enables effective investment programming Modalities • SCP will drive urban planning and investments • Multiyear CIPs will provide investment framework to leverage IFI financing – as an alternative to “one-off” investments -opportunities to work with the French Development Agency and EIB as cofinanciers Sustainable Cities Framework Emphasis on three dimensions of sustainability at the city level Social Sustainability Affordability, accessibility, safety for all citizens Mitigating air pollution, noise, greenhouse gas Environmental Sustainability Source: TRACE Studies and Database, 2012 Financial and Economic Sustainability Value-for-money of investments, managing assets, stability of funding Linking SC Program with National Policy Objectives • Benefitting from EU IPA2 grant funding for planning dimension • Expanding into urban transport and energy efficiency for the first time with Iller Bank City Environmental Sustainability (e.g. Energy, Transport Audit) City Financial Sustainability (shadow credit ratings, MF selfassessment) City Social Sustainability (participation, access) Sustainable Cities Project Component 1; Planning & Management Systems Sustainable City Action Plan: - Collect Baseline Data - SC Index - Benchmarking & Performance Monitoring - Establish Database Component 2: Financing Sustainable Investments Component 3: Institutional Capacity Building and Project Management Implementation 2015-21 • Emphasis on linking planning with investment financing National Legislation & Policies: Alignment with 10th National Development Plan and EU Policy Directives Improving Urban Mobility Non-motorized modes of Transport Sustainable Urban Mobility: Inclusive transport Environmental monitoring, management • Non-motorized transport should be fully integrated into traffic management schemes • Needs pedestrian safety improvements in city centers • Non-motorized “last-mile” connection between public transport stations and residential areas could encourage greater public transport use • Air quality monitoring is at an early stage • Need to develop and enforce vehicle emissions standards for public transport vehicle fleet and private cars Improving and integrating management Public transport management is often fragmented among multiple units Light-rail-transit management and operation Municipal bus operation and dispatching Dolmuş management and operation By a municipal company or a department/unit in metropolitan government By a department/ unit in metropolitan government, but often separated from rail operation Coordination difficulties of UKOME to ensure route coverage in an integrated system Needs to be coordinated in one public transport authority, responsible for route planning, performance monitoring and management Options to Expand Electric Vehicles Unlike many countries Turkey can benefit from its private sector Integrated Metropolitan Municipality Planning Framework Sustainable Cities Project Component A With grant funding support from the European Union’s IPA2 Facility SCP cities will be supported in updating and strengthening their planning systems. Some potential areas of support are: • • • • • • • • • • • Transportation Planning Housing Market Analysis Energy Efficiency Planning Resiliency to Disaster Risk Planning Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment (SEIA) Urban and Peri-urban Green Area Strategy Solid Waste Management Planning Community Participation in all stages of the process Urban/rural linkages Capital Investment Programming–CIP Urban Data Bases with Indicators integrated into a GIS system Municipal Investments Sustainable Cities Project Component 2 • Smart Urban Transport. Linking planning (EU funding for sustainable urban mobility planning) with investments – public transport, pedestrian walkways and bikepaths, green & energy efficient vehicles • Energy Efficiency & Climate Change: Turkey is heavily reliant on imported energy which accounts for 6% of GDP – Cities account for, on average, 70-80% of a country’s energy consumption • Water Management & Conservation: Measures to reduce NRW losses – Turkey is a water surplus country but at risk of becoming a water deficit country – NRW is as high as 50% or more in some cities; Treatment is just over 50% -- link with EU Water Acquis • Solid Waste & Climate Change: Turkey has high levels of methane gas emissions attributable to solid waste combustion. Moving Forward TEŞEKKÜRLER! THANK YOU!