Building
Resilient &
Sustainable
Cities
in
TURKEY
Livable Cities Symposium 2014 – EMBARQ & IZKA
Developing Policies for Sustainable Transport and Participation
May 17th, 2010
Izmir, Turkey-- November 20, 2014
Why “Sustainable Cities” in Turkey?
Context
•
•
•
•
Rapid urbanization and shift to secondary cities
Increasing traffic congestion and air pollution
Weak urban planning framework and application
High energy dependency and reliance on imports
Relevance
• Modality for implementing elements of 10th National Development
Plan, KENTGES, and other national strategies and plans
• Adding 14 new Metro Municipalities and expansion to provincial
boundaries
Turkey’s Rapid Urbanization
100
• Turkey’s rapid urbanization
has transformed the
country demographically.
Urban population has
grown from 25% (1950s) to
75% (today).
• Like Korea, sharp urban
growth over past 60 years
Argentina
90
Brazil
80
Republic of
Korea
Mexico
70
Bulgaria
60
Turkey
Hungary
50
South Africa
40
Greece
30
Portugal
Georgia
20
China
10
Egypt
India
0
1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
Economic shift with demographic shift
Can secondary cities leverage economic spillovers?
Spatial Distribution of Firms Established from 2007 to 2010
Increasing demand for infrastructure services
Urban transport options have not kept pace with urban growth
Meters of High Transit Capacity per capita
250
200
197
178
152
150
100
92.54
83.54
62.6
50
59.55
35.32
33.47
26.27
16.1
0
Source: TRACE Studies and Database, 2012
15.3
13.74
10.8
10.13
5.52
Car ownership has grown rapidly in Turkey
Economic growth and car ownership rates are linked
160
Motorization Rate Growth (Base year = 100)
Poland
150
Romania
140
130
Turkey
120
Russia
110
EU-27
UK
100
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
…and also in individual cities
Number of registered vehicles per 1000 population
275
Ankara
250
225
İzmir
Konya
Eskişehir
Adana
İstanbul
Bursa
Kayseri
200
Gaziantep
Samsun
175
150
2007
2008
2009
2010
…and will continue to grow as income grows
…and will continue to demand fuel
High Petroleum Intensity in Turkey
Annual consumption (tons) per GDP (USD)
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
US
Japan
UK
Germany
France
Turkey
… with lifestyle changes causing urban sprawl
Rapid population growth in secondary
cities
Demand for high quality and larger housing
As density drives up housing price in the
city center, residents move further to
suburban areas for larger space, at trade-off
with longer commuting
…such as this city in Turkey
As cities grow they need to plan to avoid costly problems
Increasing demand for urban land
Land use planning that provisions for green space
Provisioning for green
space: increasing urban land
values are placing new
pressures on city officials to
develop land
Many Turkish cities have low
Green Space/person ratios.
Strengthened land use
planning can improve this
Many Turkish cities
are down here.
Sustainable Cities Project Concept
Partnering with Iller Bank
Principles
• Design a Policy Instrument that enables implementation and
monitoring of 10th National Development Plan, Energy Efficiency Law and
Strategy, KENTGES, and other national plans and strategies
• Establish a Platform that enables effective investment programming
Modalities
• SCP will drive urban planning and investments
• Multiyear CIPs will provide investment framework to leverage IFI
financing – as an alternative to “one-off” investments -opportunities to work with the French Development Agency and
EIB as cofinanciers
Sustainable Cities Framework
Emphasis on three dimensions of sustainability at the city level
Social Sustainability
Affordability,
accessibility, safety for
all citizens
Mitigating air
pollution, noise,
greenhouse gas
Environmental
Sustainability
Source: TRACE Studies and Database, 2012
Financial and
Economic
Sustainability
Value-for-money of
investments,
managing assets,
stability of funding
Linking SC Program with National Policy Objectives
• Benefitting from EU
IPA2 grant funding
for planning
dimension
• Expanding into urban
transport and energy
efficiency for the first
time with Iller Bank
City
Environmental
Sustainability
(e.g. Energy,
Transport Audit)
City Financial
Sustainability
(shadow
credit ratings,
MF selfassessment)
City Social
Sustainability
(participation,
access)
Sustainable Cities Project
Component 1;
Planning &
Management
Systems
Sustainable City
Action Plan:
- Collect Baseline
Data
- SC Index
- Benchmarking &
Performance
Monitoring
- Establish Database
Component 2:
Financing
Sustainable
Investments
Component 3:
Institutional
Capacity Building
and Project
Management
Implementation 2015-21
• Emphasis on linking
planning with
investment financing
National Legislation & Policies: Alignment with 10th National
Development Plan and EU Policy Directives
Improving Urban Mobility
Non-motorized modes of Transport
Sustainable
Urban
Mobility:
Inclusive
transport
Environmental
monitoring,
management
• Non-motorized transport should be fully
integrated into traffic management schemes
• Needs pedestrian safety improvements in city
centers
• Non-motorized “last-mile” connection
between public transport stations and
residential areas could encourage greater
public transport use
• Air quality monitoring is at an early stage
• Need to develop and enforce vehicle emissions
standards for public transport vehicle fleet and private
cars
Improving and integrating management
Public transport management is often fragmented among multiple units
Light-rail-transit
management and
operation
Municipal bus
operation and
dispatching
Dolmuş
management and
operation
By a municipal
company or a
department/unit in
metropolitan
government
By a department/
unit in metropolitan
government, but
often separated
from rail operation
Coordination
difficulties of
UKOME to ensure
route coverage in an
integrated system
Needs to be coordinated in one public transport authority, responsible for route
planning, performance monitoring and management
Options to Expand Electric Vehicles
Unlike many countries Turkey can benefit from its private sector
Integrated Metropolitan Municipality
Planning Framework
Sustainable Cities Project Component A
With grant funding support from the European Union’s IPA2 Facility SCP cities will be supported in
updating and strengthening their planning systems. Some potential areas of support are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Transportation Planning
Housing Market Analysis
Energy Efficiency Planning
Resiliency to Disaster Risk Planning
Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment (SEIA)
Urban and Peri-urban Green Area Strategy
Solid Waste Management Planning
Community Participation in all stages of the process
Urban/rural linkages
Capital Investment Programming–CIP
Urban Data Bases with Indicators integrated into a GIS system
Municipal Investments
Sustainable Cities Project Component 2
• Smart Urban Transport. Linking planning (EU funding for sustainable
urban mobility planning) with investments – public transport, pedestrian
walkways and bikepaths, green & energy efficient vehicles
• Energy Efficiency & Climate Change: Turkey is heavily reliant on
imported energy which accounts for 6% of GDP – Cities account for, on
average, 70-80% of a country’s energy consumption
• Water Management & Conservation: Measures to reduce NRW losses
– Turkey is a water surplus country but at risk of becoming a water deficit
country – NRW is as high as 50% or more in some cities; Treatment is just
over 50% -- link with EU Water Acquis
• Solid Waste & Climate Change: Turkey has high levels of methane gas
emissions attributable to solid waste combustion.
Moving Forward
TEŞEKKÜRLER!
THANK YOU!
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Sustainable Cities