1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
Združenie učiteľov chémie
Spojená škola, Tilgnerova 14
Prezentácia inovatívnych trendov
a koncepčných zámerov vo vyučovaní,
hlavne v predmete chémia
na všetkých typoch škôl
Zborník z 1. národnej konferencie
učiteľov chémie
Fakulta prírodných vied Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici
1. február 2013
Banská Bystrica
2013
1
Prezentácia inovatívnych trendov a koncepčných zámerov vo vyučovaní,
hlavne v predmete chémia na všetkých typoch škôl
Zborník z 1. národnej konferencie učiteľov chémie
Fakulta prírodných vied Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici
1. február 2013
Zostavovateľ: RNDr. Helena Vicenová
Recenzenti: RNDr. Jana Chrappová, PhD.
Ing. Mária Filová
Vydalo:
© Združenie učiteľov chémie, 2013
www.zuch.sk
ISBN 978-80-971278-0-0
Prezentácia inovatívnych trendov
a koncepčných zámerov vo vyučovaní,
hlavne v predmete chémia
na všetkých typoch škôl
Zborník z 1. národnej konferencie
učiteľov chémie
organizovanej
Združením učiteľov chémie
v spolupráci
s Katedrou chémie Fakulty prírodných vied
Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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Obsah
Hlavné referáty
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66
Práca s talentovanými žiakmi – chemická olympiáda
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81
Bádateľská metóda vo výučbe chémie
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98
5
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
Učitelia učiteľom – aktivity a skúsenosti učiteľov ZŠ a SŠ
104
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Lucia Dovalová
104
Skúsenosti s využívaním nových učebníc a cvičebníc vo vyučovaní chémie
na ZŠ
Martin Ramaj
111
Chemické laboratórium na základnej škole – skúsenosti a námety
Martin Homola
116
Vybrané bádateľské aktivity v digitálnej knižnici k téme Vlastnosti plastov
Petra Lechová
121
Chemická Schola ludus, interaktívna výstava Dotkni sa chémie
Elena Kulichová
128
Združenie učiteľov chémie – ďakujeme
Daniela Benčatová
133
6
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8
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11
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12
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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14
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15
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D
URþQtN
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VHNXQGD
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23
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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VHNXQGD
WHUFLD
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SRþHWKRGtQ
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WDEXĐNDþD
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K
K
K
K
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
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JUDIþE
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24
K
K
K
K
K
K
D
E
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
=iYHU/HQãN{OPDOR PLQLPiOQXþDVRY~GRWiFLX±KRGLQ\FKpPLH6WRXWR
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SRþHWKRGtQ
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E
URþQtN
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VHNXQGD
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SRþHWKRGtQ
E
URþQtN
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WHUFLD
NYDUWD
SRþHWKRGtQ
E
URþQtN
SUtPD
VHNXQGD
WHUFLD
NYDUWD
SRþHWKRGtQ
E
URþQtN
SUtPD
VHNXQGD
WHUFLD
NYDUWD
SRþHWKRGtQ
WDEXĐNDþ
D
E
E
E
E
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
JUDIþ
2Wi]NDþ
D
E
E
E
E
25
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
=iYHU 8þLWHOLD XSUHGQRVWĖXM~ ]DþtQDĢ V Y\XþRYDQtP FKpPLH Y URþQtNX
MHGQRKRGLQRYRXGRWiFLRX
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QDGRVLDKQXWLHFLHĐRYGDQêFKYV~þDVQRVWLSODWQRPâ93"
DiQR
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D
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D
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F
=iYHU5HVSRQGHQWLQHSRYDåXM~ãWYRUKRGLQRY~GRWiFLX]DGRVWDWRþQ~
$NãWYRUKRGLQRY~GRWiFLXQHSRNODGiWH]DSULPHUDQ~RGSRU~þDOLE\VWH
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RGSRU~þDQpSRUDGLHR]QDþWHþtVODPLDå±QDMYLDFRGSRU~þDWH±QDMPHQHMRGSRU~þDWH
E
URþQtN
SUtPD
VHNXQGD
WHUFLD
NYDUWD
SRþHWKRGtQ
E
URþQtN
SUtPD
VHNXQGD
WHUFLD
NYDUWD
SRþHWKRGtQ
26
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
E
URþQtN
SUtPD
VHNXQGD
WHUFLD
NYDUWD
SRþHWKRGtQ
E
URþQtN
SUtPD
VHNXQGD
WHUFLD
NYDUWD
SRþHWKRGtQ
E
URþQtN
SUtPD
VHNXQGD
WHUFLD
NYDUWD
SRþHWKRGtQ
WDEXĐNDþ
D
E
E
E
E
E
SRþHW
JUDIþ
2Wi]NDþ
D
E
E
E
E
E
=iYHU5HVSRQGHQWLMHGQR]QDþQHY\EUDOLUR]GHOHQLHKRGtQE±]DþtQDĢMHGQRXKRGLQRX
YURþQtNXDYDURþQtNXPDĢGYRMKRGLQRYN\
9\XåLOLVWHPRåQRVĢSUHVXQXWHPDWLFNpKRFHONXYSRURYQDQtVSRVWXSQRVĢRXXþLYD
Yâ93UHVSYXþHEQLFLDFK"
D1LH
EÈQR
WDEXĐNDþ
D
E
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
27
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
JUDIþ
2Wi]NDþ
D
E
=iYHU 5HVSRQGHQWL XYiG]DM~FL PRåQRVĢ SUHVXQX XYiG]DM~ Y]G{YRGQHQLDFK OHQ
SUHVXQPHG]LURþQtNPL-HWRSRFKRSLWHĐQpY]KĐDGRPQDLFKRGOLãQ~KRGLQRY~GRWiFLX
YSRURYQDQtVGRWiFLRXS{YRGQHGDQRXâ93
=DSUHGSRNODGXãWYRUKRGLQRYHMGRWiFLHRGSRU~þDWH]PHQ\Yâ93
DQHY\åDGRYDĢY]RUFH
EQHXþLĢFKHPLFNpUHDNFLH
FQHXþLĢFKHPLFNpURYQLFH
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HLQp
WDEXĐNDþ
D
E
F
G
H
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
JUDIþ
2Wi]NDþ
D
E
F
G
H
28
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
=iYHU âHVĢ UHVSRQGHQWRY R]QDþLOR GYH PRåQRVWL =WRKR D QHY\åDGRYDĢY]RUFH DF
QHXþLĢFKHPLFNpURYQLFHR]QDþLOLWUDMDEQHXþLĢFKHPLFNpUHDNFLHDFQHXþLĢFKHPLFNp
URYQLFHR]QDþLOLGYDMDEQHXþLĢFKHPLFNpUHDNFLHDGQHXþLĢFKHPLFNpYêSRþW\R]QDþLO
MHGHQ $å UHVSRQGHQWRY R]QDþLOR PRåQRVĢ LQp 9LFK RGSRYHGLDFK VD QDMþDVWHMãLH
Y\VN\WRYDOL Qi]RU\ åH MH SRWUHEQp YãHWNR QLH MH åLDGXFD ćDOãLD UHGXNFLD 7LHWR
RGSRYHGHSUHYDåRYDOLXWêFKNWRUtPDOLDYLDFKRGtQFKpPLHDXXþLWHĐRY]J\PQi]Lt
1DãNiOHRGSRY\]QDþWHDN~PLHUXG{OHåLWRVWLSULVXG]XMHWHMHGQRWOLYêPIDNWRURPNWRUp
SULVSLHYDM~N]YêãHQLXREĐ~EHQRVWLFKpPLH±QDMPHQHMG{OHåLWp±QDMYLDFG{OHåLWp
)DNWRU\
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ISURMHNWRYpY\XþRYDQLH
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D
E
F
G
H
I
J
JUDIþD
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
2Wi]NDþD
D
D
D
29
D
D
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
JUDIþE
JUDIþF
JUDIþG
2Wi]NDþE
E
E
E
E
E
2Wi]NDþF
F
F
F
F
F
2Wi]NDþG
G
G
G
G
G
30
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
JUDIþH
JUDIþI
JUDIþJ
2Wi]NDþH
H
H
H
H
H
2Wi]NDþI
I
I
I
I
I
2Wi]NDþJ
J
J
J
J
J
31
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
=iYHU =D QDMG{OHåLWHMãLH IDNWRU\ UHVSRQGHQWL R]QDþLOL E GREUp XþHEQLFH DJ
RVREQRVĢXþLWHĐD1DMPHQãLXPLHUXG{OHåLWRVWLGDOLISURMHNWRYpPXY\XþRYDQLX
0iWHYãNROHSUHGPHWHQYLURQPHQWiOQDYêFKRYD"
DQLH
EiQR
WDEXĐNDþ
D
E
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
JUDIþ
2Wi]NDþ
D
E
=iYHU1RYêSUHGPHWHQYLURQPHQWiOQDYêFKRYDVDY\XþXMHQDãN{O
0iWHYãNROHFKHPLFNpODERUDWyULXP"
DQLH
EiQR
FXþHEĖDFKpPLHVO~åLDMDNRODERUDWyULXP
WDEXĐNDþ
D
E
F
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
32
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
JUDIþ
2Wi]NDþ
D
E
F
=iYHU8þHEĖDFKpPLHQDMþDVWHMãLHVO~åLDMDNRODERUDWyULXP
9R Y]GHOiYDFHM REODVWL ýORYHN DSUtURGD MH OHQ Y SUHGPHWH FKpPLD XUþHQê SRþHW
ODERUDWyUQ\FKSUiFSULKþDVRYHMGRWiFLLMHODERUDWyUQ\FKSUiFYGDQRPãNROVNRPURNXSUL
þDVRYHMGRWiFLLKWêåGHQQHODERUDWyUQHSUiFHDSULKGRWiFLLODERUDWyUQHSUiFH
DV~KODVtP
EQHPDOE\ĢSUHGStVDQêSRþHWODERUDWyUQ\FKSUiFSRGREQHDNRMHWRYRI\]LNHDELROyJLL
WDEXĐNDþ
D
E
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
JUDIþ
2Wi]NDþ
D
E
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33
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
VD YRSDþQRP SUtSDGH ODERUDWyUQH SUiFH QHUHDOL]RYDOL UHVS XþLWHOLD QD J\PQi]LiFK VD
REiYDM~åHE\SULãOLRPRåQRVĢGHOLĢWULHGX
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9\]QDþWHQDãNiOHRGSRPLHUXV~KODVXVMHGQRWOLYêPLYêURNPL±FKDUDNWHULVWLND
XþHEQpKRSUHGPHWXFKpPLDYâ93
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H[SHULPHQWiOQ\PFKDUDNWHURPY\XþRYDQLDXPRåĖXMHåLDNRPKOEãLH
SRUR]XPLHĢ]iNRQLWRVWLDPFKHPLFNêFKMDYRYDSURFHVRY
E2EVDKXþLYDWYRULDSR]QDWN\RYODVWQRVWLDFKDSRXåLWtOiWRN
~SOQH
QHV~KODVtP
0LHUDV~KODVX
VNWRUêPLVDåLDFLVWUHWiYDM~YNDåGRGHQQRPåLYRWH6~WR
SUHGRYãHWNêPWLHWRREODVWLFKpPLDSRWUDYtQDQiSRMRY
NR]PHWLN\OLHþLYþLVWLDFLFKSURVWULHGNRY
F=YOiãĢYê]QDPQpMHåHSULãW~GLXFKpPLHãSHFLILFNêPL
SR]QiYDFtPLPHWyGDPLVLåLDFLRVYRMXM~LG{OHåLWpVS{VRELORVWL
,GHSUHGRYãHWNêPRUR]YtMDQLHVS{VRELORVWLREMHNWtYQHD
VSRĐDKOLYRSR]RURYDĢH[SHULPHQWRYDĢDPHUDĢY\WYiUDĢD
RYHURYDĢK\SRWp]\YSURFHVHULHãHQLD~ORKU{]QHM]ORåLWRVWL
G2UJDQLFNRXV~þDVĢRXXþHEQpKRSUHGPHWXFKpPLDMHDMV\VWpP
YKRGQHY\EUDQêFKODERUDWyUQ\FKSUiFNWRUêFKVSUiYQDUHDOL]iFLDVL
Y\åDGXMHRVYRMHQLHVL]iNODGQêFKPDQXiOQ\FK]UXþQRVWtDQiY\NRY
EH]SHþQHMSUiFHYFKHPLFNRPODERUDWyULX
WDEXĐNDþ
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SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
D
E
F
G
JUDIþD
2Wi]NDþD
34
QHYLHP
D
D
D
D
D
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
JUDIþE
JUDIþF
JUDIþG
2Wi]NDþE
E
E
E
E
E
2Wi]NDþF
F
F
F
F
F
2Wi]NDþG
G
G
G
G
G
35
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
=iYHU6FKDUDNWHULVWLNRXXþHEQpKRSUHGPHWXFKpPLDNWRUiMHXYHGHQiYâ93FKpPLD
V~KODVtQDGUHVSRQGHQWRY
9\]QDþWHQDãNiOHRGSRPLHUXV~KODVXVMHGQRWOLYêPLYêURNPL±FLHOHXþHEQpKR
SUHGPHWXFKpPLDIRUPXORYDQpYâ93
~SOQHV~KODVtP
þLDVWRþQHV~KODVtP
þLDVWRþQHQHV~KODVtP
9êURN\
D&LHĐRPY\XþRYDQLDFKpPLHQD]iNODGQHMãNROHMHRER]QiPLĢ
åLDNRYVYê]QDPRPSR]QDWNRY]FKpPLHSUHþORYHNDVSRORþQRVĢD
SUtURGXþRXPRåĖXMHXåLDNRYY\WYRUHQLHSR]LWtYQHKRY]ĢDKXN
XþHEQpPXSUHGPHWXFKpPLD
EĆDOãtPYê]QDPQêPFLHĐRPY\XþRYDQLDFKpPLHQD=âMHYþR
QDMYlþãHMPLHUHSULVSLHĢNVSOQHQLXYãHREHFQêFKFLHĐRY
Y]GHOiYDQLDY\WYiUDQLXDUR]YtMDQLXNĐ~þRYêFKNRPSHWHQFLt
SURVWUHGQtFWYRPREVDKXFKpPLH
F&LHĐRPY\XþRYDQLDFKpPLHMHSRGLHĐDĢVDQDUR]YtMDQt
SUtURGRYHGQHMJUDPRWQRVWLYUiPFLNWRUHMMHSRWUHEQpUR]YtMDĢDM
þLWDWHĐVN~JUDPRWQRVĢDSUiFXVRGERUQêPWH[WRPäLDFLE\PDOL
SRUR]XPLHĢRGERUQêPWH[WRPQDSULPHUDQHM~URYQLDPDM~YHGLHĢ
DSOLNRYDĢ]tVNDQpSR]QDWN\SULULHãHQtNRQNUpWQ\FK~ORK9UiPFL
VDPRVWDWQHMSUiFHPDM~E\ĢVFKRSQtVDPRVWDWQH]tVNDYDĢSRWUHEQp
LQIRUPiFLHV~YLVLDFHVFKHPLFNRXSUREOHPDWLNRX]U{]Q\FK
LQIRUPDþQêFK]GURMRYRGERUQiOLWHUDW~UDLQWHUQHWDY\XåtYDĢ
PXOWLPHGLiOQHXþHEQpPDWHULiO\
G9\XþRYDQLHFKpPLHQDKRGLQiFK]iNODGQpKRW\SXD
ODERUDWyUQ\FKFYLþHQLDFKUHDOL]RYDQpPHWyGDPLDNWtYQHKR
SR]QiYDQLDYêUD]QRXPLHURXSULVSLHYDNIRUPRYDQLXDUR]YtMDQLX
ORJLFNpKRNULWLFNpKRDWYRULYpKRP\VOHQLDåLDNRYNWRUpLP
XPRåĖXMHQDFKiG]DĢY]ĢDK\PHG]LãWUXNW~URXDYODVWQRVĢDPLOiWRN
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H9ê]QDPQêPFLHĐRPY\XþRYDQLDFKpPLHMHDMRER]QiPHQLHVD
åLDNRYVFKHPLFNêPLOiWNDPLNWRUpSR]LWtYQHDQHJDWtYQH
RYSO\YĖXM~åLYRWþORYHNDFKHPLFNpDVSHNW\UDFLRQiOQHMYêåLY\
YSO\YDONRKROXQLNRWtQXDLQêFKGURJQDĐXGVNêRUJDQL]PXV
I9SUHGPHWHFKpPLDVLåLDFLPDM~YGRVWDWRþQHMPLHUHRVYRMLĢ
]UXþQRVWLDQiY\N\EH]SHþQHMSUiFHYFKHPLFNRPODERUDWyULX
3RWUHEQpMHDE\åLDFLGRVLDKOLWDN~~URYHĖSRFKRSHQLDD]YOiGQXWLD
XþLYDDE\YHGHOLY\XåLĢQDKRGLQiFK]tVNDQpYHGRPRVWL
VS{VRELORVWLDQiY\N\YNDåGRGHQQRPåLYRWH
WDEXĐNDþ
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D
E
F
G
36
~SOQH
QHV~KODVtP
QHYLHP
0LHUDV~KODVX
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
H
I
JUDIþD
JUDIþE
JUDIþF
2Wi]NDþD
D
D
D
D
D
2Wi]NDþE
E
E
E
E
E
2Wi]NDþF
F
F
F
F
37
F
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
JUDIþG
JUDIþH
JUDIþI
2Wi]NDþG
G
G
G
G
G
2Wi]NDþH
H
H
H
H
H
2Wi]NDþI
I
I
I
I
38
I
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
=iYHU 8þLWHOLD VD VWRWRåĖXM~ VFLHĐPL XþHEQpKR SUHGPHWX FKpPLD VIRUPXORYDQêPL
Yâ93 $å ~SOQH V~KODVt VYêURNRP I NWRUêP MH RER]QiPHQLH VD åLDNRY V
FKHPLFNêPL OiWNDPL NWRUp SR]LWtYQH D QHJDWtYQH RYSO\YĖXM~ åLYRW þORYHND FKHPLFNp
DVSHNW\UDFLRQiOQHMYêåLY\YSO\YDONRKROXQLNRWtQXDLQêFKGURJQDĐXGVNêRUJDQL]PXV
2EVDKRYêãWDQGDUGSUHGPHWXFKpPLD
WDEXĐNDþ
SRMP\NWRUpRGSRU~þDM~XþLWHOLDY\O~þLĢ]Râ93
SRþHWUHVSRQGHQWRY
GHULYiW\XKĐRYRGtNRY
KDORJpQGHULYiW\
SODVW\
V\QWHWLFNpYOiNQD
SRO\HW\OpQ
SRO\YLQ\OFKORULG
SRO\VW\UpQ
P\GOi
NR]PHWLFNpSUtSUDYN\
SHVWLFtG\
FKHPLFNpODERUDWyULXP
HQHUJHWLFNp]PHQ\SULFKHPLFNêFKUHDNFLiFK
PROHNXORYêãWUXNW~UQ\D]MHGQRGXãHQêãWUXNW~UQ\Y]RUHF
XKOtNRYêUHĢD]HFRWYRUHQêX]DYUHWêUHĢD]HF
QDVêWHQêUR]WRN
PROiUQDKPRWQRVĢ
MHGQRWNDPROiUQHMKPRWQRVWL
SUtURGQiVXURYLQD
OiWNRYpPQRåVWYR
MHGQRWNDOiWNRYpKRPQRåVWYD
NRQFHQWUiFLDOiWNRYpKRPQRåVWYD
RNWiQRYpþtVOREHQ]tQX
HQ]êP\
FKpPLDDNRYHGD
FKHPLFNiYêURED
FKHPLFNêYêURERN
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IDNWRU\RYSO\YĖXM~FHUêFKORVĢ
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=iYHU8þLWHOLDY\ãSHFLILNRYDOLQDMPHQHMG{OHåLWpSRMP\YREVDKRYRPãWDQGDUGH
39
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
=iYHU
2GSRYHGH UHVSRQGHQWRY SRWYUG]XM~ V~KODV VYêURNPL 3UYi RGSRYHć GRNXPHQWXMH
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ãNRO\
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40
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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41
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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42
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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43
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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44
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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45
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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46
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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$QRUJDQLFNiFKpPLDQDÒVWDYHDQRUJDQLFNHMFKpPLHWHFKQROyJLHDPDWHULiORY)&+37
678Y%UDWLVODYH2GURNXMHRUJDQL]DþQRXDRGERUQRXJDUDQWNRXDNUHGLWRYDQpKR
Y]GHOiYDQLD VWUHGRãNROVNêFK XþLWHĐRY SUtURGRYHGQêFK SUHGPHWRY -HM SHGDJRJLFNi
þLQQRVĢMHRULHQWRYDQiQDMPlQD$QRUJDQLFN~FKpPLX(NRWR[LFLWXDQRUJDQLFNêFKOiWRN
D (QYLURQPHQWiOQX FKpPLX DQRUJDQLFNêFK OiWRN D WLHå QD YHGHQLH GLSORPDQWRY
DGRNWRUDQGRY'OKRGRERVDYHQXMHYêVNXPQHMþLQQRVWL]DPHUDQHMQDâW~GLXPSUtSUDY\
DYODVWQRVWtNRPSOH[QêFK]O~þHQtQåHOH]D
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9]GHOiYDFLHDNWLYLW\VHPLQiUHRUJDQL]RYDQp)&K37678SUHVWUHGRãNROVNêFKXþLWHĐRY
VD NRQDM~ NDåGRURþQH RG URNX 9URNX ERO 6HPLQiU SUH VWUHGRãNROVNêFK
XþLWHĐRY FKpPLH SUYêNUiW DNUHGLWRYDQê QD SlĢURþQp REGRELH 2EVDKRP WêFKWR
GYRMGĖRYêFK VHPLQiURY EROL SUHGQiãN\ ]DPHUDQp QD QRYp WUHQG\ YFKpPLL D
YFKHPLFNHMDSRWUDYLQiUVNHMWHFKQROyJLL9URNXEROVHPLQiU]QRYXDNUHGLWRYDQê
QDURNRYDNR6HPLQiUSUHVWUHGRãNROVNêFKXþLWHĐRYSUtURGRYHGQêFKSUHGPHWRY7LHWR
VHPLQiUH EROL WURMGĖRYp GQL SUHGQiãN\ GHĖ ODERUDWyUQH FYLþHQLD ÒVSHãQêP
DEVROYHQWRPWêFKWRVHPLQiURYVPHXGHOLOLRVYHGþHQLDR]tVNDQRPY]GHODQt6HPLQiUH
NWRUpVDNRQDM~RGUV~XUþHQpXþLWHĐRPNWRUtVDUDGLY]GHOiYDM~DOHQHSRWUHEXM~
]tVNDYDĢ NUHGLW\ 9U VPH ]tVNDOL DNUHGLWiFLX QD SURJUDP DNWXDOL]DþQpKR
Y]GHOiYDQLD$NWXDOL]DþQpãW~GLXPSUHXþLWHĐRYRGERUQêFKFKHPLFNêFKSRWUDYLQiUVN\FK
DSUtURGRYHGQêFKSUHGPHWRYVWUHGQêFKãN{ODVWUHGQêFKRGERUQêFKãN{OYUR]VDKXK
$EVROYHQWL]tVNDM~RVYHGþHQLHDNUHGLWRY
9]GHOiYDFLHDNWLYLW\
+ODYQêP FLHĐRP VHPLQiURY NWRUp VD NRQDOL YURNRFK ± EROR SRP{FĢ
VWUHGRãNROVNêP SHGDJyJRP SUL SUtSUDYH åLDNRY QD Y\VRNRãNROVNp ãW~GLXP FKpPLH
47
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
1DVHPLQiURFKSUHGQiãDOLãSLþNRYtRGERUQtFL]QDãHMIDNXOW\6HPLQiUHEROLGYRMGĖRYp
DNRQDOLVDSUDYLGHOQHNRQFRPDXJXVWD
9URNXERO6HPLQiUSUHVWUHGRãNROVNêFKXþLWHĐRYFKpPLHSUYêNUiWDNUHGLWRYDQêþ
QD URNRY 1D ]iNODGH SRWYUGHQLD R DNUHGLWiFLL VPH EROL
RSUiYQHQt XGHĐRYDĢ DEVROYHQWRP 2VYHGþHQLD R ]tVNDQRP Y]GHODQt VFHORãWiWQRX
SODWQRVĢRX ]iNRQ þ = ] RćDOãRP Y]GHOiYDQt 2EVDKRP WêFKWR
GYRMGĖRYêFK VHPLQiURY YUR]VDKX KRGtQ EROL SUHGQiãN\ ]DPHUDQp QDMPl QD QRYp
WUHQG\ YFKpPLL YFKHPLFNHM DSRWUDYLQiUVNHM WHFKQROyJLL DQD GLGDNWLNX FKpPLH
1DNRQFL VHPLQiUD ~þDVWQtFL StVDOL GYD WHVW\ ]SUHEUDQpKR XþLYD ÒVSHãQêP
DEVROYHQWRPVPHVOiYQRVWQHRGRY]GDOL2VYHGþHQLD
+ODYQp WpP\ SUHGQiãRN NWRUp RG]QHOL QD ;9 ± ;,; VHPLQiUL MH PRåQp ]KUQ~Ģ GR
QLHNRĐNêFKWHPDWLFNêFKFHONRY
1i]YRVORYLHx9êSRþW\YFKpPLLx&KHPLFNiYl]EDx,]RPpULDRUJDQLFNêFK]O~þHQtQ
x 3URWRO\WLFNp UHDNFLH x 5HGR[Qp UHDNFLH x (OHNWURFKHPLFNp þOiQN\ x 9\XåLWLH
PXOWLPpGLtSULYêXþEHFKpPLHx3UiFDVWDOHQWRYDQRXPOiGHåRXYREODVWLFKpPLH
&KpPLDOLHþLYx9RĐQpUDGLNiO\YFKpPLLELRFKpPLLDPHGLFtQHx,RQL]XM~FHåLDUHQLH
YåLYRWHþORYHNDx*OREiOQH~þLQN\NRYRYQDåLYRWQpSURVWUHGLHx2]yQD]QHþLVWHQi
DWPRVIpUDx1RYpWUHQG\YRIRWRFKpPLL
*HQHWLFN\ PRGLILNRYDQp SRWUDYLQ\ x 3RO\QHQDVêWHQH PDVWQp N\VHOLQ\ x (Q]êPRYi
DNWLYLWDDVS{VRE\MHMUHJXOiFLH
8KĐRYRGtNRYp WHFKQROyJLH x 1RYp YOiNQLWp PDWHULiO\ SUH WH[WLOQp L WHFKQLFNp
DSOLNiFLHx$SOLNiFLDSRO\PpURYYPHGLFtQHx1RYpWUHQG\YRFKUDQHUDVWOtQ
1DVHPLQiURFKU±RG]QHORFHONRPSUHGQiãRNSRSUHGQêFKRGERUQtNRY
]QDãHM IDNXOW\ 6HPLQiURY VD ]~þDVWQLOR XþLWHĐRY ]FHONRYpKR SRþWX Y\ãH SULKOiVHQêFK ]iXMHPFRY ]FHOHM 6ORYHQVNHM UHSXEOLN\ SULþRP QLHNWRUt VD ]~þDVWQLOL
YLDFNUiW 3R VSOQHQt SRGPLHQRN Y\SOêYDM~FLFK ] DNUHGLWiFLH 2VYHGþHQLH R ]tVNDQRP
Y]GHODQt]tVNDORDEVROYHQWRYVHPLQiURY=iXMHPRVHPLQiUHVDSRVWXSQH]YlþãRYDO
YURNXVDVHPLQiUD]~þDVWQLORXþLWHĐRY]SULKOiVHQêFK]iXMHPFRY
9URNXEROVHPLQiU]QRYXDNUHGLWRYDQêþQDSlĢURNRY
SRG XSUDYHQêP Qi]YRP 6HPLQiU SUHVWUHGRãNROVNêFK XþLWHĐRY SUtURGRYHGQêFK
SUHGPHWRYÒORKRXVHPLQiURYERORSRVN\WRYDĢVWUHGRãNROVNêPSHGDJyJRPY]GHOiYDQLH
WDN DE\ EROL VFKRSQt ]YOiGQXĢ QRYp SR]QDWN\ ]SUtURGRYHGQêFK SUHGPHWRY QDMPl
FKpPLH D ELROyJLH DPRKOL LFK Y\XåtYDĢ SUL PRWLYiFLL VYRMLFK åLDNRY NãW~GLX WêFKWR
SUHGPHWRYDSULSUiFLVWDOHQWRYDQêPLãWXGHQWPL
6HPLQiUHEROLWURMGĖRYpYUR]VDKXKRGtQ3UYpGYDGQLEROLYHQRYDQpSUHGQiãNDPD
WUHWt GHĖ VD NRQDOL ODERUDWyUQH FYLþHQLD ]SUtURGRYHGQêFK SUHGPHWRY 3UHGQiãN\ EROL
]DPHUDQpQDQRYpSR]QDWN\YRYãHREHFQHMYDQRUJDQLFNHMYRUJDQLFNHMDYRI\]LNiOQHM
FKpPLL Y ELROyJLL YGLGDNWLNH FKpPLH DQD QRYp WUHQG\ YFKHPLFNHM DSRWUDYLQiUVNHM
WHFKQROyJLL /DERUDWyUQH FYLþHQLD ]FKpPLHELROyJLH DSRWUDYLQiUVNHM FKpPLH
SR]RVWiYDOL ]QLHNRĐNêFK MHGQRGXFKêFK DQi]RUQêFK SUiF NWRUp MH PRåQp UHDOL]RYDĢ
YVWUHGRãNROVNRP ODERUDWyULX -HGQRWOLYp SUiFH EROL ]RVWDYHQp WDN DE\ EROR PRåQp
SRFKRSLĢ GHMH VNWRUêPL VD VWUHWiYDPH YEHåQRP åLYRWH 1DNRQFL VHPLQiUD ~þDVWQtFL
StVDOLGYDWHVW\]SUHEUDQpKRXþLYDÒVSHãQêPDEVROYHQWRPVPHXGHOLOL2VYHGþHQLD
9M~QL Y\ãLHO QRYê ]iNRQ = ] RSHGDJRJLFNêFK ]DPHVWQDQFRFK
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Y]GHOiYDQLH VWUHGRãNROVNêFK XþLWHĐRY QD QDãHM IDNXOWH 9DXJXVWH VD NRQDO
48
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
SRVOHGQê WURMGĖRYê VHPLQiU 3R GRKRGH V~þDVWQtNPL VPH XSUDYLOLSURJUDP VHPLQiUD
WDN åH VPH QDKUDGLOL StVDQLH WHVWRY H[NXU]LRX SR Yê]QDPQêFK SUDFRYLVNiFK IDNXOW\
7HQWRURNVPHRVYHGþHQLDQHXGHĐRYDOL
3UHGQiãN\NWRUpRG]QHOLQD;;±;;9VHPLQiULEROLYHQRYDQpNDåGRURþQHLQHMWpPH
]EHåQpKRåLYRWD
6SRORþQiEXG~FQRVĢFKpPLHDELROyJLH± )\]LNiOQDFKpPLDDåLYRWx%LROyJLD
D FKpPLD x &KLUDOLWD SUtURGQêFK OiWRN x 0\NRWR[tQ\ YåLYRWQRP SURVWUHGt x
%LRORJLFN\ DNWtYQH OiWN\ Y NR]PHWLNH x 0iORUR]SXVWQp OiWN\ YSUtURGH x
%LRNRPSDWLELOQpDQRUJDQLFNpPDWHULiO\x&KHPLFNpWHFKQROyJLHDåLYRWQpSURVWUHGLH
äLYRW RNROR QiV RþDPL FKHPLND D ELROyJD ± .LQHWLND DNDWDOê]D YEHåQRP
åLYRWH x +OLQtN DMHKR ]O~þHQLQ\ RNROR QiV x &XG]RURGp D DGLWtYQH OiWN\
YSRWUDYLQiFK pþND YSRWUDYLQiFK x &KHPLFNp ]O~þHQLQ\ V SURWLQiGRURYRX
DNWLYLWRXx9ê]QDPK\GURNRORLGRYYSRWUDYLQiFKDSUtSUDYNRFKNDåGRGHQQpKRåLYRWD
x )RWRFKHPLFNp SURFHV\ YSUtURGH DYELRORJLFNêFK V\VWpPRFK x &KHPLFNp D
ELRFKHPLFNpUHDNWRU\RNRORQiVx2[LGXKOLþLWêDHQHUJLD]HNRORJLFNêFK]GURMRY
3RNURN\ Y FKpPLL DYELROyJLL ± Y\ããLD NYDOLWD åLYRWD ± 3UtURGQp OiWN\ D LFK
YSO\Y QD ]GUDYLH þORYHND x &KHPLFNp WHFKQROyJLH Y\XåtYDQLD SODVWRY ]R
VHSDURYDQpKR ]EHUX RGSDGRY x 9ãDGHSUtWRPQp åHOH]R DMHKR ]O~þHQLQ\ x 0LQRULWQp
ROHMH YR YêåLYH DYNR]PHWLNH x .RORLG\ RNROR QiV x $QWLR[LGDQW\ DLFK Y\XåLWLH
YSUD[L x 6WRURþQLFD PHGLFtQVNHM FKpPLH x +RGQRWHQLH ]GUDYRWQHM EH]SHþQRVWL
PHGLFtQVN\ Y\XåLWHĐQêFK FKHPLFNêFK ]O~þHQtQ DOWHUQDWtYQ\PL LQ YLWUR PHWyGDPL
x(OHDUQLQJYSHGDJRJLFNRPSURFHVH±SUDNWLFNpXNiåN\
9SO\YVOQHþQpKRåLDUHQLDQDFKHPLFNpDELRORJLFNpSURFHV\±6OQHþQpåLDUHQLH
± Y]QLN FKDUDNWHULVWLN\ Y\XåLWLHx 9SO\Y åLDUHQLD QD SULHEHK RUJDQLFNêFK UHDNFLtx
9SO\Y åLDUHQLD QD ELRORJLFNp V\VWpP\ x 3RPRF FKpPLH SUL RFKUDQH þORYHND SUHG
VOQHþQêP åLDUHQtP x 3ODVW\ DVOQHþQp åLDUHQLH x )RWRFLWOLYp PDWHULiO\ x .ODVLFNi
DGLJLWiOQDIRWRJUDILD
&KHPLFNpOiWN\YEHåQRPåLYRWH±&KHPLFNp SURFHV\ Y åLYêFK RUJDQL]PRFK D
Y SRWUDYLQiFK RþDPL I\]LNiOQHM FKpPLH x 9SO\Y SURVWUHGLD QD EXQNX x 9RĐQp
UDGLNiO\N\VOtNDDLFKELRPHGLFtQVN\Yê]QDPxâNRGOLYpDQRUJDQLFNpOiWN\RNRORQiV
x/LHN\GURJ\DONRKROx2OHMHDWXN\Y]GUDYHMYêåLYHx%HQ]tQQDIWDSO\QXKOLH
]GURMHHQHUJLHYEHåQRPåLYRWH
.DWDOê]D YEHåQRP åLYRWH ± .DWDOê]D KLVWyULD I\]LNiOQ\ RSLV DY\XåLWLH x
%LRNDWDOê]D Y EHåQRP åLYRWH x 3RWUDYLQiUVND ELRWHFKQROyJLD x .DWDOê]D FHVWD
NÄ]HOHQêP³ WHFKQROyJLiP x %LRSO\Q REQRYLWHĐQê ]GURM HQHUJLH x .DWDOê]D
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FKHPLFNp LQWHUSUHWiFLH Y\EUDQêFK UL]tN Y åLYRWH RNROR QiV x ,Q YLWUR KRGQRWHQLH
]GUDYRWQêFK UL]tN FKHPLFNêFK OiWRN x %H]SHþQp SRWUDYLQ\ x %H]SHþQi FKpPLD x
,QWHUDNFLD åLDUHQLD V þORYHNRP x %H]SHþQRVĢ ]ORåLHN NR]PHWLFNêFK YêURENRY x
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49
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
/& ] DQRUJDQLFNHM FKpPLH ± &KHPLFNp OiWN\ RNROR QiV DLFK UHDNFLH x 3{VREHQLH
FKHPLFNêFK SUtSUDYNRY QD NRYRYp PDWHULiO\ x 2FKUDQD NRYRY ± FKHPLFNp
SRNRYRYDQLH x )RWRFKHPLFNp UHDNFLHx 3UtSUDYD NRPSOH[QêFK ]O~þHQtQ FLWOLYêFK QD
VYHWORx3UtSUDYDDYODVWQRVWLR[LGRYGXVtNDDVtU\
/& ]I\]LNiOQHM FKpPLH ± )\]LNiOQRFKHPLFNp MDY\ RNROR QiV x )\]LNiOQD FKpPLD
YVWUHGRãNROVNRP ODERUDWyULX ± &RDFK/DE x (OHNWURFKHPLFNp GHMH x 899LV
VSHNWURIRWRPHWULD
/& ]RUJDQLFNHM FKpPLH ± 9RQQp OiWN\ SUtSUDYD D LFK Y\XåtYDQLH x ,]ROiFLD
UDVWOLQQêFKROHMRYSRPRFRXGHVWLOiFLHVYRGQRXSDURX
/& ]ELROyJLH ± &KHPLFNp ]ORåHQLH åLYHM KPRW\ x 2VPRWLFNp SURFHV\ YEXQNH x
5DVWOLQQpIDUELYi±I\WRFKHPLNiOLHFKUiQLDFHĐXGVNp]GUDYLH
/& ]SRWUDYLQiUVNHM FKpPLH DFKpPLH SUtSUDYNRY NDåGRGHQQpKR åLYRWD ± 6HQ]RULFNp
KRGQRWHQLH SRWUDYtQ x )\]LNiOQRFKHPLFNp KRGQRWHQLH QiSRMRY x 2EMHNWLYL]iFLD
VHQ]RULFNpKRKRGQRWHQLDQiSRMRYx&KHPLFNp]ORåHQLHSRWUDYtQx3ULSUDYPHVL]XEQ~
SDVWX
9URNRFK ± VPH ]tVNDOL SURMHNW\ .(*$ SRPRFRX NWRUêFK EROL VHPLQiUH
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9URNX VPH ]tVNDOL DNUHGLWiFLX QD SURJUDP NRQWLQXiOQHKR DNWXDOL]DþQpKR
Y]GHOiYDQLD VQi]YRP $NWXDOL]DþQp ãW~GLXP SUH XþLWHĐRY RGERUQêFK FKHPLFNêFK
SRWUDYLQiUVN\FK D SUtURGRYHGQêFK SUHGPHWRY VWUHGQêFK ãN{O DVWUHGQêFK RGERUQêFK
ãN{O þ ±.9 1RYê SURJUDP Y]GHOiYDQLD Y\WYiUD SUHGSRNODG\ QLHOHQ SUH
~VSHãQpSRNUDþRYDQLHYRY]GHOiYDQtXþLWHĐRYQDQDãHMIDNXOWHDOHDMSUHMHKRUR]ãtUHQLH
DSUH]YêãHQLHMHKR~URYQH3ULXVNXWRþĖRYDQtY]GHOiYDFLHKRSURJUDPXSUHGSRNODGiPH
Y\XåLWLH YãHWNêFK QDãLFK GRWHUDMãtFK VN~VHQRVWt DYHGRPRVWt WDN DE\ VPH ~þDVWQtNRP
SRVN\WRYDOL NYDOLWQp DDNWXiOQH Y]GHOiYDQLH $EVROYHQW XYHGHQpKR Y]GHOiYDQLD ]tVND
QDMQRYãLH LQIRUPiFLH D ]iURYHĖ VL SUHKĎEL UR]ãtUL DUR]YLQLH YHGRPRVWL NWRUp EXGH
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K ODERUDWyUQH FYLþHQLD D]GLãWDQþQHM IRUP\ LQGLYLGXiOQD YêXþED ]DPHUDQi QD
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SURMHNWXY\SUDFRYDQpKR~þDVWQtNRPY]GHOiYDQLDSUHGWURMþOHQQRXNRPLVLRX†RGV
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SURIHVLMQêFK NRPSHWHQFLt ]tVNDQêFK YêNRQRP SHGDJRJLFNHM þLQQRVWL YêNRQRP
RGERUQHM þLQQRVWL DOHER VHEDY]GHOiYDQtP SRGĐD † RGV SUDYLGHOQH RWYiUDPH
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50
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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52
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55
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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56
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]iNODG\ HOHNWURVWDWLN\ D HOHNWULFNpKR SU~GX PDJQHWL]PXV 9 V~þDVQRVWL V~ YlþãLQRX
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V~ MHGQRWN\ I\]LNiOQ\FK YHOLþtQ DLFK SUHPLHĖDQLH .HćåH MH SRWUHEQp GRSOQLĢ WLHWR
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57
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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PHFKDQLFNpULHãHQLHDWyPXYRGtND
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RSDWUHQLD DNR YPDWHPDWLNH 3UHG ]DþLDWNRP VHPHVWUD VD UHDOL]XMH SUtSUDYQê NXU]
YSRGREQRP UR]VDKX DNR MH SUtSUDYQê NXU] ]PDWHPDWLN\ 9WRPWR NXU]H VD UREt
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SUL QiVWXSH QD Y\VRN~ ãNROX SRþQ~F ]iNODGPL YHNWRURYpKR SRþWX FH] NLQHPDWLNX D
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]iNODGQ~ WYRUEX JUDIRY D ]iNODG\ VSUDFRYDQLD PHUDQt 1D SUtSUDYQê NXU] QDGYl]XM~
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Y\VRNêFK ãNROiFK MH FKpPLD 3UHGSRNODGRP ~VSHãQpKR DEVROYRYDQLH RGERUQêFK
FKHPLFNêFK SUHGPHWRY MH PDĢ GREUp ]iNODG\ ]R YãHREHFQHM DWLHå ]DQRUJDQLFNHM
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V~VWDY
58
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
y /iWNRYp ELODQFLH EH] FKHPLFNpKR GHMD SUtSUDYD ]PLHãDYDQLH ]ULHćRYDQLH
D]DKXVĢRYDQLHUR]WRNRYNU\ãWDOL]iFLDEH]YRGêFKOiWRNDK\GUiWRY
y /iWNRYp ELODQFLH V FKHPLFNêP GHMRP VWHFKLRPHWULFNp YêSRþW\ VSRMHQp
VI\]LNiOQ\PL GHMPL OiWNRYp ELODQFLH YV~VWDYiFK V FKHPLFNêP GHMRP ELODQFLH V
QHVWHFKLRPHWULFNêPLPQRåVWYDPLDXUþHQLHOLPLWXM~FHM]ORåN\
=YOiGQXWLH FKHPLFNêFK YêSRþWRY MH SRGPLHQNRX ~VSHãQpKR DEVROYRYDQLD SUHGPHWX
/DERUDWyUQH FYLþHQLH ]DQRUJDQLFNHM FKpPLH Y URþQtNX SUtSUDYD D]KRGQHWHQLH
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ãNRO\E\YêUD]QHSULVSHODSRYLQQiPDWXULWDQLHOHQ]PDWHPDWLN\DOHDM]FKpPLH
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VQRYêPL WUHQGPL DSUL ]Y\ãRYDQt VL RGERUQHM NYDOLILNiFLH 3ULMDWêP ãWXGHQWRP
SRPiKDPH ]YOiGQXĢ Y\VRNRãNROVNp ãW~GLXP RUJDQL]RYDQtP SUtSUDYQêFK NXU]RY
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59
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
1RYpXþHEQLFHFKpPLHSUHJ\PQi]Li
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3UREOHPDWLND XþHEQtF MH YV~þDVQRVWL QLHOHQ YFHQWUH SR]RUQRVWL WYRUFRY XþHEQtF XþLWHĐRY
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8þHEQLFD MH QHY\KQXWQêP WH[WRYêP PDWHULiOQ\P DOH LQHPDWHULiOQ\P SURVWULHGNRP
UHDOL]iFLH YêFKRYQRY]GHOiYDFLHKR SURFHVX DMHKR FLHĐRY 6SROX VLQêPL WH[WRYêPL
SRP{FNDPL VD SUH WLHWR SURVWULHGN\ ]DþtQD VWiOH YLDF SRXåtYDĢ VXPiUQH R]QDþHQLH ±
GLGDNWLFNp WH[W\ =WRKWR Qi]YX MHGQR]QDþQH Y\SOêYD åH WLHWR WH[W\ E\ PDOL E\Ģ VSUDFRYDQp
GLGDNWLFN\ PDOL E\ WHGD REVDKRYDĢ DM XUþLWp GLGDNWLFNp NRPSRQHQW\ DWDN WYRULĢ YHUEiOQ\
DOHER QHYHUEiOQ\ REUD]RYê LQIRUPDþQê FHORN NWRUê Pi Y]KĐDGRP NVYRMLP GLGDNWLFNêP
IXQNFLiP ãSHFLILFNp YODVWQRVWL XPRåĖXM~FH PX IXQJRYDĢ YGLGDNWLFNHM NRPXQLNiFLL
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DQDOê]H GLGDNWLFNHM Y\EDYHQRVWL XþHEQLFH NWRUi XUþXMH MHM NYDOLWX Y]KĐDGRP NY\XåLWLX
XþHEQLFH SUH åLDNRY $QDOê]X GLGDNWLFNHM Y\EDYHQRVWL XþHEQLFH PRåQR FKiSDĢ DM DNR
PRåQRVĢ XUþHQLD MHGQHM ]R ]iNODGQêFK FKDUDNWHULVWtN SDUDPHWURY XþHEQtF NWRURX MH LFK
SRWHQFLiOQD GLGDNWLFNi HIHNWtYQRVĢ 3RSUL ]Y\ãQêFK WURFK KODYQêFK FKDUDNWHULVWLNiFK
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YãHWNêFK ãWUXNW~UQ\FK NRPSRQHQWRY 1D ]iNODGH ]LVWHQêFK NRHILFLHQWRY SRWHQFLiOQHM
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60
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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DEVROYRYDOLW]YUHIRUPQêSUYêVWXSHĖVQRYRXSHGDJRJLFNRXGRNXPHQWiFLRXSRGĐDQRYpKR
Y\PHG]HQpKRREVDKXY]GHOiYDQLD2QHGOKREXG~SUYtÄUHIRUPQt³GHYLDWDFLStVDĢPRQLWRUþR
P{åH WLHå RGNU\Ģ þR UHIRUPD SULQLHVOD 3UYp RKODV\ GRSDGX UHIRUP\ ]URNX VPH PDOL
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61
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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62
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63
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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64
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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65
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
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WDOHQWRYDQêFKåLDNRYYREODVWLFKpPLH9\FKRYiYDM~ãWXGHQWRYNVDPRVWDWQHMDWYRULYHM
SUiFL NSRXåtYDQLX RGERUQHM OLWHUDW~U\ DNDSOLNiFLL QDGREXGQXWêFK YHGRPRVWt
]UXþQRVWtDQiY\NRYGRNDåGRGHQQpKRåLYRWD&KHPLFNiRO\PSLiGDDNRMHGQD]IRULHP
YROLWHĐQHM ]iXMPRYHM PLPRãNROVNHM DNWLYLW\ Q~WL åLDNRY SUL ULHãHQt PQRKêFK
WHRUHWLFNêFK LSUDNWLFNêFK H[SHULPHQWiOQ\FK ~ORK WYRULYR P\VOLHĢ SURGXNRYDĢ QRYp
ULHãHQLDQiSDG\DKRGQRW\YU{]Q\FKVLWXiFLiFKDU{]Q\FKREODVWLDFKĐXGVNHMþLQQRVWL
&KDUDNWHULVWLNDFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
&KHPLFNi RO\PSLiGD MH SUHGPHWRYi V~ĢDå åLDNRY ]iNODGQêFK DVWUHGQêFK ãN{O
RUJDQL]RYDQi Y6ORYHQVNHM UHSXEOLNH DNR MHGQD ]IRULHP GREURYRĐQHM ]iXMPRYHM
þLQQRVWLåLDNRYDMHQDWêFKWRãNROiFKQHRGGHOLWHĐQRXV~þDVĢRXYêFKRYQRY]GHOiYDFLHKR
81
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
SURFHVX 6~ĢDå VD XVSRUDG~YD NDåGRURþQH DþOHQt VD SRGĐD NDWHJyULt DV~ĢDåQêFK N{O
2UJDQL]DþQêSRULDGRNFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
+LVWyULDFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
6NDåGêP þL Xå V QHMDNRX V~ĢDåRX RUJDQL]iFLRX DSRGREQH VD YLDåH XUþLWi KLVWyULD
7DN LVWR MH WR DM VFKHPLFNRX RO\PSLiGRX NWRUi VD EXGH P{FĢ EXG~FL ãNROVNê URN
SRSêãLĢVSlĢGHVLDWURþQRXKLVWyULRX
3UL ]URGH FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ VWiOL ]DQLHWHQt XþLWHOLD FKpPLH 7t ]DþLDWNRP W\FK
URNRY]DþDOLRUJDQL]RYDĢV~ĢDåHQDãNROiFK3RþDVNUiWNHMGRE\VDY\SUDFRYDOLSUDYLGOi
V~ĢDåHDY\WYRULODVDRUJDQL]DþQiUDGD
=DþLDWN\ VORYHQVNHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ PDM~ NRUHQH HãWH YýHVNRVORYHQVNX NHć
FKHPLFL QDVOHGRYDOL SUtNODG I\]LNRY DPDWHPDWLNRY DUR]KRGOL VD ]RUJDQL]RYDĢ SUH
WDOHQWRYDQpGHWLDPOiGHåFKHPLFN~RO\PSLiGX8åYURNXSRGDOD.DWHGUDFKpPLH
9\VRNHM ãNRO\ SHGDJRJLFNHM Y3UDKH PLQLVWHUVWYX ãNROVWYD QiYUK QD XVSRULDGDQLH
SRNXVQHMFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\Y3UDKHVPDOêPSRþWRP~þDVWQtNRY6~ĢDåVDYãDNSUH
QHGRVWDWRNILQDQþQêFKSURVWULHGNRYQHXVNXWRþQLOD6RWRUQLN/LQNHãRYi
&KHPLFNi RO\PSLiGD VD VSRþLDWNX RUJDQL]RYDOD OHQ YQLHNWRUêFK NUDMRFK ]LQLFLDWtY\
DQDGãHQLD XþLWHĐRY FKpPLH 6~ĢDåQp ~ORK\ VL NUDMVNp NRPLVLH Y\SUDFRYiYDOL
VDPRVWDWQH 3UY~ FKHPLFN~ RO\PSLiGX RNWRUHM PiPH VSUiYX XVSRULDGDOL XþLWHOLD
]%UQD YURNX 2WUL URN\ QHVN{U REODVWQ~ FKHPLFN~ RO\PSLiGX Y%UQH
RUJDQL]RYDOL SRGREQH DNR GQHV =~þDVWQLOR VD QD QHM åLDNRY SUYêFK Då WUHWtFK
URþQtNRY VWUHGQHM YãHREHFQRY]GHOiYDFHM ãNRO\ DåLDFL GHYLDW\FK URþQtNRY ]iNODGQHM
GHYlĢURþQHM GRFKiG]N\ 9 URNX VD RNUHP WHMWR REODVWL XVNXWRþQLOD REYRGQi
RO\PSLiGD HãWH YGYRFK REODVWLDFK DWR Y3UDKH DY2VWUDYH 93UDKH MX QD]YDOL ,
REYRGQiFKHPLFNiRO\PSLiGDY3UDKHQD9LQRKUDGRFK=~þDVWQLORVDQDQHMåLDNRY
]{VP\FK Då MHGHQiVW\FK URþQtNRY MHGQRWOLYêFK VWUHGQêFK ãN{O 92VWUDYVNRP NUDML VD
]~þDVWQLOR FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ VSROX åLDNRY ]R ãN{O 7iWR V~ĢDå SDWULOD
YWRPREGREtPHG]LQDMYê]QDPQHMãLHDNFLH2VWUDYVNêNUDMY\]YDOGRV~ĢDåHFKHPLFNHM
RO\PSLiG\ DM RVWDWQp NUDMH DWDN FKHPLFNi RO\PSLiGD SRVWXSQH SUHQLNOD GR YHGRPLD
ãLUãHM FKHPLFNHM VSRORþQRVWL 9URNX D EROL XVSRULDGDQp ćDOãLH FKHPLFNp
RO\PSLiG\ Y3UDKH 3UYê RILFLiOQ\ URþQtN FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ VD XVNXWRþQLO YURNX
9WRPWR REGREt Y ãNROVNRP URNX ERO SRGDQê QiYUK DE\ VD FKHPLFNi
RO\PSLiGD UR]ãtULOD QD FHOp ~]HPLH ãWiWX DVWDOD VD WDN URYQRFHQQRX VXå YWHG\
SUHELHKDM~FRXPDWHPDWLFNRXDI\]LNiOQRXRO\PSLiGRX3UYiFHORãWiWQDV~ĢDåFKHPLFNHM
RO\PSLiG\ VD XVNXWRþQLOD YURNX DOH YãHWN\ þHVNRVORYHQVNp NUDMH VD MHM
]~þDVWĖRYDOLDåRGURNX3UYpDNFLHFHORãWiWQHKRUi]XVDXVNXWRþQLOLYURNX
Y%UQH QD 3UtURGRYHGHFNHM IDNXOWH NGH V~ĢDåLOL V~ĢDåLDFL ]R ãW\URFK NUDMRY
0DFKiþNRYi9URNXVDNRQDORWUHWLHUHSXEOLNRYpNRORY%DQVNHM%\VWULFL
9%UDWLVODYHVDSUYpPHG]LãWiWQHVWUHWQXWLHXVNXWRþQLORYURNX
2GãNROVNpKRURNXFHORãWiWQXV~ĢDåFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\SUDYLGHOQHNDåGêURN
Y\KODVRYDOL POiGHåQtFNH RUJDQL]iFLH VSROX V0LQLVWHUVWYDPL ãNROVWYD ýHVNHM
D6ORYHQVNHMUHSXEOLN\ýHVNRVORYHQVNRXFKHPLFNRXVSRORþQRVĢRXSULýHVNRVORYHQVNHM
82
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
DNDGpPLL YLHG D6ORYHQVNRX FKHPLFNRX VSRORþQRVĢRX SUL 6ORYHQVNHM DNDGpPLL YLHG
&HORãWiWQHV~ĢDåHULDGLODÒVWUHGQiNRPLVLDFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
1D SUtSUDYH V~ĢDåH FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ VXþLWHĐPL FKpPLH ]iNODGQêFK DVWUHGQêFK
ãN{O VSROXSUDFRYDOL XþLWHOLD Y\VRNêFK ãN{O þOHQRYLD ýHVNRVORYHQVNHM FKHPLFNHM
VSRORþQRVWL SUDFRYQtFL 'RPRYD D 8QLYHU]LW\ POiGHåH NUDMVNêFK SHGDJRJLFNêFK
~VWDYRY DFKHPLFNêFK ]iYRGRY 9ãHWFL URELOL SUH PODGêFK ~þDVWQtNRY RVRELWQp
SUHGQiãN\VHPLQiUQHF\NO\ãSHFLiOQHODERUDWyUQHNXU]\DãNROHQLD'LOOLQJHU
ÒORK\ YSUYêFK URþQtNRY QHEROL QiURþQp Y\FKiG]DOL OHQ ]R VWUHGRãNROVNpKR XþLYD
'{UD]VDNOiGROQDFKHPLFNpP\VOHQLHDG{YWLS1HVN{UNHćVDSRþHW~þDVWQtNRY]DþDO
]Y\ãRYDĢ VD ]PHQLO SRKĐDG QD ]DGDQLD ~ORK FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ 8þLWHOLD FKpPLH
DRVWDWQtRGERUQtFLSRGLHĐDM~FLQDWYRUEH~ORKGDQHMV~ĢDåHSRFKRSLOLåHWDOHQWRYDQêFK
åLDNRY VFKRSQêFK ULHãLĢ ~ORK\ VWUHGRãNROVNHM FKpPLH MH SUtOLã YHĐD 3UHWR VD ]DþDOR
VLDKDĢDMSRNRPSOLNRYDQHMãtFKDQiURþQHMãtFK~ORKiFK0DFKiþNRYi
2G URNX SR UR]GHOHQt ýHVNRVORYHQVNHM IHGHUiFLH V~ĢDå FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\
VDPRVWDWQH SRNUDþXMH QD 6ORYHQVNX 2UJDQL]XMH MX 0LQLVWHUVWYR ãNROVWYD 6ORYHQVNHM
UHSXEOLN\ VSROX VR 6ORYHQVNRX FKHPLFNRX VSRORþQRVĢRX SUL 6ORYHQVNHM DNDGpPLL YLHG
VSRþLDWNX SUH ãWXGHQWRY ãW\URFK NUDMRY 9URNX Y]QLNOR QRYp þOHQHQLH ~]HPLD
6ORYHQVND þR V~YLVHOR DM VR ]PHQDPL YRUJDQL]iFLL FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ 9]QLN
{VP\FKNUDMRYSULQLHVROSR]LWtYQX]PHQXNWRUiVSRþtYDYPRåQRVWL]~þDVWQLĢVDV~ĢDåH
YLDFHUêPåLDNRPDWDNWRWRMHDåGRGQHV.DåGêURNVDGRQRYpKRURþQtND]DSRMtRVHP
NUDMRY %DQVNRE\VWULFNê %UDWLVODYVNê .RãLFNê 1LWULDQVN\ 3UHãRYVNê 7UHQþLDQVN\
7UQDYVNê DäLOLQVNê NUDM $M GQHV SRGREQH DNR YPLQXORVWL FKêEDM~ ILQDQþQp
SURVWULHGN\
,QLFLDWtYD NX NRQDQLX 0HG]LQiURGQHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ Y\ãOD ]QDGãHQLD DFKXWL
þHVNRVORYHQVNêFK XþLWHĐRY FKpPLH DLQêFK RGERUQtNRY -HM SUYê URþQtN ]RUJDQL]RYDOL
Y3UDKH 'R URNX NHć GRãOR NUR]GHOHQLX ýHVNRVORYHQVNHM IHGHUiFLH EROR
ýHVNRVORYHQVNR KRVWLWHĐVNRX NUDMLQRX 0HG]LQiURGQHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ WULNUiW
3UDKDYURNX%UDWLVODYDYURNXD
6ORYHQVNR]RKUDORYUiPFL0HG]LQiURGQHMFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\YHĐPLG{OHåLW~~ORKX
1LHNWRUtVORYHQVNtþOHQRYLDYWHGDMãHMIHGHUiOQHM~VWUHGQHMNRPLVLHFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
VD SRGLHĐDOL Xå QD SUtSUDYH SUYHM 0HG]LQiURGQHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ DNR DM QD
SUtSUDYH URþQtND D URþQtND WHMWR V~ĢDåH NRQDM~FHM VD Y%UDWLVODYH
ýOHQRYLD 6ORYHQVNHM NRPLVLH FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ ]RVWDYLOL DYDSUtOL QD
GYRMGĖRYRP VHPLQiUL YâLWĜtQH SUL 3UDKH SUYê XFHOHQê RUJDQL]DþQê SRULDGRN
0HG]LQiURGQHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ NWRUê ERO VFKYiOHQê DDNFHSWRYDQê YãHWNêPL
NUDMLQDPL 6PDOêPL REPHQDPL ERO SODWQê Då GR URNX 9%UDWLVODYH S{VRELO
YURNRFKDåDMMHMVHNUHWDULiW
9URNX VD XVWDQRYLO NRQNXU] QD ]ULDGHQLH 0HG]LQiURGQpKR LQIRUPDþQpKR FHQWUD
0HG]LQiURGQHMFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\UR]KRGQXWtPPHG]LQiURGQHMSRURW\QDURþQtNX
PHG]LQiURGQHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ Y2VOR .RQNXU] QD ]ULDGHQLH 0HG]LQiURGQpKR
LQIRUPDþQpKR FHQWUD 0HG]LQiURGQHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ Y\KUDO QiYUK VORYHQVNHM
GHOHJiFLH DWDN VD VWiO\P VtGORP FHQWUD VWDOD %UDWLVODYD DUR]KRGQXWtP 0LQLVWHUVWYD
83
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
ãNROVWYDMH]DUDGHQpGRãWUXNW~U\,XYHQW\-HKRULDGLWHĐRPVDVWDO51'U$QWRQ6LURWD
3K' 0HG]LQiURGQp LQIRUPDþQp FHQWUXP 0HG]LQiURGQHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ MH
MHGLQêP SHUPDQHQWQêP RUJiQRP 0HG]LQiURGQHM FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ DSOQt IXQNFLH
DUFKtYQHKRDLQIRUPDþQpKRFHQWUDDFHQWUDSUHPHG]LQiURGQ~VSROXSUiFX6LURWD
9\KODVRYDWHOLDV~ĢDåHFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
9\KODVRYDWHĐRP V~ĢDåH FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ MH 0LQLVWHUVWYR ãNROVWYD 6ORYHQVNHM
UHSXEOLN\ VSROXY\KODVRYDWHĐRP MH 6ORYHQVNi FKHPLFNi VSRORþQRVĢ SUL 6ORYHQVNHM
DNDGpPLL YLHG 0LQLVWHUVWYR ãNROVWYD 6ORYHQVNHM UHSXEOLN\ JDUDQWXMH MHGQRWOLYp
NDWHJyULH DNROi V~ĢDåH 6ORYHQVNi FKHPLFNi VSRORþQRVĢ JDUDQWXMH RGERUQ~ VWUiQNX
V~ĢDåH
2UJDQL]iFLDV~ĢDåHFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
2UJDQL]iFLX V~ĢDåH XUþXM~ þDVRYp WHFKQLFNp DSHUVRQiOQH PRåQRVWL YV~ODGH
V2UJDQL]DþQêP SRULDGNRP FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ 8VSRULDGDQLH V~ĢDåH FKHPLFNHM
RO\PSLiG\ ULDGLD YMHGQRWOLYêFK NROiFK SUtVOXãQp NRPLVLH FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\
2EYRGQp NROR RUJDQL]XMH REYRGQi NRPLVLD NUDMVNp NROR NUDMVNi NRPLVLD DFHORãWiWQH
NROR6ORYHQVNiNRPLVLDFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
ÒORK\ SUH YãHWN\ NDWHJyULH DNROi V~ĢDåH YV~þDVQRVWL ]DEH]SHþXMH 6ORYHQVNi NRPLVLD
FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ SURVWUHGQtFWYRP DXWRUVNêFK NROHNWtYRY 7ODþ DGLVWULE~FLX ~ORK
FKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\Y6ORYHQVNHMUHSXEOLNH]DEH]SHþXMH]DULDGHQLHSUHYRĐQêþDVGHWt
POiGHåH DGRVSHOêFK 0LQLVWHUVWYD ãNROVWYD 6ORYHQVNHM UHSXEOLN\ ± ,XYHQWD 2G URNX
GR URNX EROL ~ORK\ ãWXGLMQpKR GRPiFHKR NROD GLVWULEXRYDQp QD YãHWN\
ãNRO\DWLHå~ORK\FHORãWiWQHKRNRODYRGERUQRPþDVRSLVH&KHPLFNpUR]KĐDG\NWRUêERO
]DORåHQê QD WHQWR ~þHO 2NUHP V~ĢDåQêFK ~ORK EROL Y WRPWR þDVRSLVH SXEOLNRYDQp DM
RGERUQp DPHWRGLFNp þOiQN\ SUH XþLWHĐRY DULHãLWHĐRY FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ 2G URNX
V~ ~ORK\ FKHPLFNHM RO\PSLiG\ YãHWNêFK N{O XYHUHMĖRYDQp QD ZHERYHM VWUiQNH
,XYHQW\
3RVODQLHDFLHĐFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
3RVODQtPFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\MH
x UR]ãLURYDĢSUHKOERYDĢDXSHYĖRYDĢYHGRPRVWL]UXþQRVWLDQiY\N\YFKpPLL
x Y\YROiYDĢXåLDNRYKOEãtDV~VWDYQê]iXMHPRFKpPLX
x SULVSLHYDĢ NY\KĐDGiYDQLX WDOHQWRYDQêFK åLDNRY YFKpPLL DSRGSRURYDĢ LFK
ćDOãtRGERUQêUDVW
x Y\YROiYDĢ DSHVWRYDĢ XåLDNRY XYHGRPHOê D]RGSRYHGQê Y]ĢDK NåLYRWQpPX
SURVWUHGLXMHKRRFKUDQDDWYRUEH
x SULVSLHYDĢSULYRĐEHSRYRODQLDNRULHQWiFLLQDFKHPLFNpRGERU\
x SULVSLHYDĢN~þHOQpPXDHIHNWtYQHPXY\XåtYDQLXYRĐQpKRþDVXåLDNRY
x Y\FKRYiYDĢåLDNRYNVDPRVWDWQHMWYRULYHMSUiFL
x YLHVĢ åLDNRY NY\WUYDORVWLG{VOHGQRVWL SUHVQRVWL ]RGSRYHGQRVWL DGRGUåLDYDQLX
SUHGSLVRYEH]SHþQRVWLSUiFH
84
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
x XPRåĖXMH XþLWHĐRP ]iNODGQêFK DVWUHGQêFK ãN{O VSlWQH Y\XåtYDĢ SR]QDWN\
]tVNDQpQDV~ĢDåLDFKåLDNRYQDVNYDOLWQHQLHYêFKRYQRY]GHOiYDFLHKRSURFHVXQD
]iNODGQêFKDVWUHGQêFKãNROiFK
x Y\WYiUDĢ SRGPLHQN\ QD ~VSHãQ~ UHSUH]HQWiFLX 6ORYHQVND QD PHG]LQiURGQêFK
V~ĢDåLDFK
0RåQRVWLSRVWXSXåLDNRYYMHGQRWOLYêFKNDWHJyULiFK&+2
&KHPLFNiRO\PSLiGDMHSRVWXSRYiV~ĢDåNWRUiVDXVSRUDG~YDDUHDOL]XMHNDåGRURþQHY
MHGQRWOLYp NDWHJyULiFK NWRUp ]RGSRYHGDM~ XUþLWêP URþQtNRP SUtSDGQH W\SRP ãN{O
-HGQRWOLYp NDWHJyULH VD XUþXM~ QD NDåGê URN RVRELWQH YV~þDVQRVWL V~ WR QDVOHGRYQp
NDWHJyULH
7DEXĐND3UHKĐDG]DUDGHQLDV~ĢDåLDFLFKGRNDWHJyULtFKHPLFNHMRO\PSLiG\
.DWHJyULD
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7\SãNRO\
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RVHPURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
ãWYRUURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
SlĢURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
ãHVĢURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
RVHPURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
VWUHGQiRGERUQiãNROD
ãWYRUURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
SlĢURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
ãHVĢURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
RVHPURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
VWUHGQiRGERUQiãNROD
]iNODGQiãNROD
SlĢURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
ãHVĢURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
RVHPURþQpJ\PQi]LXP
VWUHGQiRGERUQiãNROD
5RþQtN\SUHNWRUpMH
SUtVOXãQiNDWHJyULDXUþHQi
DURþQtN
DURþQtN
DURþQtN
VHSWLPDDRNWiYDDURþ
URþQtN
URþQtN
URþQtN
VH[WDURþQtN
URþQtN
URþQtN
URþQtN
URþQtN
NYLQWDURþQtN
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GYDQDMY\ããLHURþQtN\
URþQtN
DURþQtN
WHUFLDDNYDUWDDURþQtN
~URYHĖ(åLDFLNWRUt
QHXNRQþLOLURþQtN
~URYHĖ)åLDFLURþQtNRY
2EVDKRYiQiSOĖYMHGQRWOLYêFKNDWHJyULiFKMHRUJDQLFN\VSlWiVREVDKRPXþLYDFKpPLH
Y\XþRYDQRPQDGDQRPW\SHãNRO\
.DWHJyULD $]DKUĖXMH ~ORK\ NRQFLSRYDQp SUREOpPRYR QDSU WHRUHWLFNp ~ORK\
]DQDO\WLFNHM DQRUJDQLFNHM I\]LNiOQHM D RUJDQLFNHM FKpPLH ELRFKpPLH Y\XåLWLH
SR]QDWNRY DY]ĢDKRY Y\SOêYDM~FLFK ]0HQGHOHMHYRYHM SHULRGLFNHM V~VWDY\ SUYNRY
I\]LNiOQRFKHPLFNêFK SULQFtSRY UHDNþQêFK PHFKDQL]PRY ]KRPRORJLFNêFK UDGRY
85
1. národná konferencia učiteľov chémie
RUJDQLFNêFK]O~þHQtQDSRGREQH3UDNWLFNp~ORK\P{åXE\Ģ]RYãHWNêFKREODVWtFKpPLH
VUR]OLþQêPFLHĐRPDOHYåG\VR]QDNPLYHGHFNpKREiGDQLD
.DWHJyULD % REVDKXMH ]YlþãD ~ORK\ RULHQWRYDQp QD RUJDQLFN~ FKpPLX DQD QLHNWRUp
SUREOpP\ ]DQRUJDQLFNHM I\]LNiOQHM D YãHREHFQHM FKpPLH 3UDNWLFNi þDVĢ EêYD
]DPHUDQiQDSUREOpP\YãHREHFQHMDQRUJDQLFNHMDDQDO\WLFNHMFKpPLH
9NDWHJyULL & V~ ~ORK\ XSULDPHQp SUHYDåQH QD YãHREHFQ~ DQRUJDQLFN~ DRUJDQLFN~
FKpPLX 3UDNWLFNp ~ORK\ Y\FKiG]DM~ ]DQRUJDQLFNHM DDQDO\WLFNHM FKpPLH NYDOLWDWtYQHM
DYL]XiOQHMDQRUJDQLFNHMDQDOê]\
2EVDKRY~ QiSOĖ NDWHJyULH '] D'J WYRULD ~ORK\ SUHYDåQH ]DQRUJDQLFNHM FKpPLH
]iNODGQp Y]RUFH URYQLFH VWHFKLRPHWULFNp YêSRþW\ I\]LNiOQH DFKHPLFNp YODVWQRVWL
]iNODGQêFK SUYNRY DLFK DQRUJDQLFNêFK ]O~þHQtQ SUtSUDYD UR]WRNRY NODVLILNiFLD
FKHPLFNêFK UHDNFLt ]iNODGQi RULHQWiFLD Y0HQGHOHMHYRYHM SHULRGLFNHM V~VWDYH SUYNRY
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105
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107
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108
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109
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133
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134
Prezentácia inovatívnych trendov a koncepčných zámerov vo vyučovaní,
hlavne v predmete chémia na všetkých typoch škôl
Zborník z 1. národnej konferencie učiteľov chémie
Fakulta prírodných vied Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici
1. február 2013
Zostavovateľ: RNDr. Helena Vicenová
Za jazykovú a štylistickú úpravu príspevkov zodpovedajú autori.
Vydalo: © Združenie učiteľov chémie, Bratislava 2013
www.zuch.sk
ISBN 978-80-971278-0-0
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Zborník z 1. národnej konferencie učiteľov chémie