Turkish Journal of Zoology
http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/
Research Article
Turk J Zool
(2014) 38:
© TÜBİTAK
doi:10.3906/zoo-1311-2
Checklist of Turkish Raphidioptera on the basis of distribution pattern and
biogeographical analysis
1,2,
Savaş CANBULAT *
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu, Turkey
1
Received: 01.11.2013
Accepted: 01.07.2014
Published Online: 00.00.2013
Printed: 00.00.2013
Abstract: An updated checklist of the species of Turkish Raphidioptera and further analysis concerning their zoogeographical distribution
are presented in this study. The present checklist has been based on studies from the literature and includes records from extensive
material that I have identified over the last few years. The Turkish Raphidioptera presently comprises 40 species in 8 genera and 2 families.
There are 38 species of Raphidiidae, while there are only 2 species of Inocelliidae in Turkey. Among these species, 19 species are recorded
as endemic and the endemism rate is 47.5%. Distributions of these species within Turkey are given according to data provided from
81 provinces of the country. Three species have been known only from the type locality, whereas the other species have been recorded
from various parts of the country. Analyses of the species of Turkish snakeflies were based on their origins. The faunal assemblage is
represented by 28 taxa from Mediterranean, 8 species from Pontocaspian, 2 species from Syrian, 1 species from Cyprio-Syrian, and
1 species from Euro-Siberian elements in the Turkish fauna. Mediterranean subregion species are the most dominant constituents
representing characteristic features of the fauna (70%), and 8 species are widely distributed in the Pontocaspian subregion (20%). The
elements of the Mediterranean subregion of Turkey’s fauna are represented by 4 groups: 20 taxa from Anatolopontomediterranean, 6
species from Balkanopontomediterranean, and 2 species from Pontomediterranean faunal elements. Taxa are arranged hierarchically
under the categories of family, genus, subgenus, and species. The addition of examined material turns this manuscript into an original
contribution on the Turkish fauna, with new records of species of Raphidioptera in some provinces. The investigated specimens, of 40
in total, belong to 15 species. First records are 16, concerning 9 species and 11 provinces.
Key words: Raphidioptera, checklist, zoogeography, endemism, Turkey
1. Introduction
Snakeflies are one of the most eminent groups of insects
due to their important functions as predators of aphids and
mites in integrated pest management, but their biology
and distributions are not well known (Aspöck et al., 1991).
The Turkish raphidiopteran fauna was studied by
several scientists from Austria and Germany in the second
half of the 19th century and the 20th century. Numerous
samples collected in Turkey from these investigations are
exhibited in European museums. Contributions from
Turkish scientists for the identification of this fauna took
place at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of
the 21st century (Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006).
The faunal data compiled to date were created by the
experts among European raphidiopterists (Aspöck et al.,
1991, 2001), and these data are still an important source
for the western Palearctic raphidiopteran fauna. The first
research on species of Raphidioptera of southeastern Europe and Anatolia was conducted by Aspöck and Aspöck
*Correspondence: [email protected]
(1964a). In that study, identified Raphidioptera samples
collected from Turkey were exhibited and basic information about their distributions was generated. Additionally,
a number of studies (Hagen, 1867; Albarda, 1891; EsbenPetersen, 1913; Aspöck and Aspöck, 1964b, 1964c, 1965a,
1965b, 1965c, 1966a, 1966b, 1967a, 1967b, 1972, 1996;
Aspöck et al., 1968, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981,
1982, 1984, 1991, 2001; Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006; Dobosz, 2007; Gepp, 1974; Şengonca, 1979) have provided
important information about the Turkish fauna of Raphidioptera.
Through many studies, particularly those conducted
by H Aspöck, U Aspöck, H Rausch, J Gepp, RÇ Şengonca,
S Canbulat, and R Dobosz, many new species and records
have been added to the fauna of Turkish Raphidioptera.
Previous and future studies on the fauna of Turkish
Raphidioptera will provide more detailed information
about its taxonomy, ecology, economic importance, and
distributions.
1
CANBULAT / Turk J Zool
Because of the importance of snakeflies, the present
study was designed to construct a new version of the
checklist for Turkey. In this study, 40 species in 8 genera
and 2 families were recorded in the field. The distribution
of the families includes 38 species from Raphidiidae and 2
species from Inocelliidae.
Nomenclature by Aspöck et al. (2001) was used for the
construction of the new checklist of families and species.
The zoogeographical categories suggested by De Lattin
(1967) and Aspöck et al. (1977, 1980, 2001) were used in
the determination of origins. The present checklist brings
together the published records on Turkish raphidiopterids
and adds information from extensive material that we
have identified in the last few years.
2. Materials and methods
Related publications (between 1867 and 2013) on
Raphidioptera from Turkey were analyzed. Examined
material of the author’s research carried out between 2005
and 2007 was added. Thirty-five publications were utilized
for the construction of the checklist in this work. A map
of Turkey’s provinces and regions is shown in the Figure.
Figure. Maps of Turkish provinces and regions.
2
3. Results
Order: Raphidioptera
Family: Raphidiidae Latreille, 1810
Phaeostigma (Phaeostigma) pilicollis (Stein, 1863)
Distribution in Turkey: Kırklareli (Dobosz, 2007).
Range: Greece, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Turkey (Aspöck
et al., 2001; Dobosz, 2007).
Phaeostigma (Crassoraphidia) cyprica (Hagen, 1867)
Distribution in Turkey: Mersin, Konya, Antalya (Dobosz, 2007).
Range: Cyprus, Lebanon (Hagen, 1867; Aspöck et al.,
1991, 2001).
Phaeostigma (Crassoraphidia) knappi (H. Aspöck &
U. Aspöck, 1967)
Material examined: 1♀, Sakarya, Geyve, Köprübaşı village, 40°32′43″N, 30°16′23″E, 134 m, 31.05.2007; 1♂, Sakarya, Akyazı, Taşburun village, 40°35′32″N, 30°38′38″E,
373 m, 06.06.2007; 1♂, Yalova, Termal, Güneyköy,
40°33′53″N, 29°17′19″E, 365 m, 20.07.2007; 1♀, Bursa,
İznik, Mahmudiye village, 40°31′17″N, 29°36′23″E, 325
m, 13.08.2007.
Distribution in Turkey: Konya (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1967b); Bilecik (Şengonca, 1979); Denizli, Konya, Mersin
CANBULAT / Turk J Zool
(Aspöck et al., 1991); Burdur, Denizli, Isparta (Canbulat
and Kıyak, 2006); Kırklareli, Mersin (Dobosz, 2007);
Antalya, Burdur, Denizli, Isparta, Karaman, Konya, Mersin
(Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (SW and S Anatolia) (Aspöck et al.,
2001).
Remarks: The records are from the north of the known
distribution area.
Phaeostigma (Crassoraphidia) klimeschiella H.
Aspöck & U. Aspöck & Rausch, 1982
Distribution in Turkey: Antalya (Aspöck et al., 1982,
1991; Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006; Dobosz, 2007).
Range: Turkey (SW Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Phaeostigma (Magnoraphidia) robusta (H. Aspöck &
U. Aspöck, 1966)
Material examined: 3♂♂, Kastamonu, Azdavay,
Sada village, 41°44′27″N, 32°28′05″E, 812 m, 18.06.2006;
3♂♂, 2♀♀, Kastamonu, Ağlı, 7 km from Ağlı to Camili,
41°42′13″N, 33°38′50″E, 1150 m, 18.06.2006; 5♂♂,
3♀♀, Kastamonu, Seydiler, Uyuk village, 41°40′33″N,
33°42′25″E, 1113 m, 18.06.2006; 1♂, Kastamonu, Center,
Kıyık village, 41°21′53″N, 33°43′53″E, 986 m, 19.06.2006;
1♂, 3♀♀, Kastamonu, Center, Ballık village, Güneyi,
41°11′32″N, 33°45′46″E, 1294 m, 19.06.2006; 1♂, 2♀♀,
Kastamonu, Center, Çorumlu village, 41°21′19″N,
33°51′09″E, 888 m, 20.06.2006; 2♂♂, 2♀♀, Kastamonu,
Center, Elmayakası village, 41°19′25″N, 33°54′47″E,
1014 m, 20.06.2006; 1♂, Kastamonu, Center, Elmayakası
village, 41°18′06″N, 33°55′28″E, 928 m, 20.06.2006;
1♂, Kastamonu, Taşköprü, Çevik village, 41°26′51″N,
34°13′27″E, 733 m, 20.06.2006; 1♂, Kastamonu, Hanönü,
Dere village, 41°37′57″N, 34°25′33″E, 503 m, 21.06.2006;
2♂♂, 1♀, Kastamonu, Devrekani, Çatak village (50 km
from Çatalzeytin to Devrekani), 41°42′57″N, 33°59′29″E,
1255 m, 23.06.2006; 2♂♂, Kastamonu, Daday, Kavakyayla
village, 41°29′43″N, 33°34′26″E, 1210 m, 28.07.2006; 1♂,
Kastamonu, Pınarbaşı, Uyukören village, 41°36′15″N,
32°58′43″E, 995 m, 29.07.2006; 1♂, Kastamonu,
Pınarbaşı, Dizdarlı village, 41°39′41″N, 32°55′39″E, 560
m, 29.07.2006; 1♂, 1♀, Kastamonu, Azdavay, Yumacık
village, 41°40′08″N, 33′22′10″E, 872 m, 31.07.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Ankara (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1966b); Ankara, Artvin, Denizli, Kastamonu (Aspöck
et al., 1991); Balıkesir (Dobosz, 2007); Afyonkarahisar,
Ankara, Artvin, Balıkesir, Bilecik, Bursa, Denizli, İzmir,
Kastamonu, Kütahya, Manisa (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (W, NW, SW, NE Anatolia) (Aspöck et
al., 2001).
Phaeostigma (Pontoraphidia) pontica (Albarda,
1891)
Material examined: 3♂♂, 1♀, Amasya, Göynücek,
Şeyhoğlu village, 40°26′966″N, 35°26′559″E, 590 m,
17.07.2005; 3♂♂, 2♀♀, Amasya, Osmancık, road
Osmancık-Gümüşhacıköy, İnegöl Mountains, 40°59′N,
34°59′E, 700 m, 21.07.2005; 1♂, 2♀♀, Bolu, Mudurnu,
Dokurcan, Tavşansuyu village, 40°35′11″N, 30°55′26″E,
623 m, 12.06.2006; 1♂, Bolu, Mudurnu, Tosunlar village,
40°35′04″N, 31°02′03″E, 488 m, 13.06.2006; 1♂, Bolu,
Mudurnu, Dedeler village, 40°32′52″N, 31°20′10″E, 922
m, 13.06.2006; 1♂, 1♀, Bolu, Mengen, Avşar village,
40°51′35″N, 31°50′19″E, 692 m, 24.06.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Amasya, Bursa, Sivas (Albarda,
1891); Van (Aspöck and Aspöck, 1965b); Van (Gepp,
1974); Artvin, Niğde, Muş, Van (Aspöck et al., 1991);
Isparta (Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006); Adıyaman, Ankara,
Bingöl, Bitlis, Bolu, Erzurum, Muş, Tunceli (Dobosz,
2007); Artvin, Bayburt, Bitlis, Gümüşhane, Hakkari, Kars,
Muş, Niğde, Van (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (N, E, S, and central Anatolia), Armenia (Albarda, 1891; Aspöck et al., 2001).
Phaeostigma (Pontoraphidia) setulosa setulosa (H.
Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1967)
Distribution in Turkey: Denizli (Aspöck et al., 1991);
Antalya, Kütahya, Isparta, İzmir, Muğla (Dobosz, 2007);
Isparta (Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006); Denizli, İzmir,
Kırklareli (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Bulgaria, Hungary, Macedonia, Turkey (Aspöck
et al., 2001).
Phaeostigma (Pontoraphidia) rhodopica (Klapálek,
1894)
Distribution in Turkey: Kırklareli (Dobosz, 2007).
Range: Bulgaria, Turkey (Aspöck et al., 2001; Dobosz,
2007).
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) raddai (U. Aspöck &
H. Aspöck, 1969)
Distribution in Turkey: İzmir (Yamanlar Mountains
and Yenice) (Aspöck and Aspöck, 1969); Aydın, İzmir
(Aspöck et al., 1991); Antalya, Aydın, Isparta (Canbulat
and Kıyak, 2006); İzmir (Dobosz, 2007); Aydın, İzmir,
Muğla (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Greece, Turkey (W Anatolia) (Aspöck et al.,
2001).
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) ressli (H. Aspöck. & U.
Aspöck, 1964)
Distribution in Turkey: Konya (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1964a); Isparta (Eğirdir: “Egerdir”) (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1969); Denizli, Isparta (Aspöck et al., 1991); Antalya,
Aydın, Burdur, Denizli, Isparta (Canbulat and Kıyak,
2006); İzmir, Antalya (Dobosz, 2007); Antalya, Burdur,
Denizli, Isparta, Uşak (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (SW Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) vartianorum (H.
Aspöck. & U. Aspöck, 1965)
Distribution in Turkey: Denizli (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1965a); Muğla, Antalya (Şengonca, 1979); Muğla (Aspöck
et al., 1991); Denizli, Muğla (Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006);
Burdur, Denizli, Muğla (Zobodat, 2013).
3
CANBULAT / Turk J Zool
Range: Turkey (SW Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) noane (H. Aspöck. &
U. Aspöck, 1966)
Material examined: 2♂♂, Bolu, Mudurnu, between
Sarılar village and Çamurluk village, 40°25′06″N,
31°04′31″E, 1167 m, 13.06.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Elazığ (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1966a); Mersin, Niğde (Aspöck et al., 1991); Antalya (Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006); Mersin (Dobosz, 2007); Eskişehir,
Konya, Mersin, Niğde (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (E, S, central Anatolia) (Aspöck et al.,
2001).
Remarks: New records indicate that the spread of the
species is expanding towards northwestern Turkey.
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) remane (H. Aspöck, U.
Aspöck & Sengonca, 1976)
Distribution in Turkey: Hakkari (Aspöck et al., 1976);
Hakkari, Van (Aspöck et al., 1991); Van (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (E and SE Anatolia), North Iraq, Syria
(Aspöck et al., 1991, 2001).
Phaeostigma (Caucasoraphidia) caucasica (EsbenPetersen, 1913)
Distribution in Turkey: Artvin, Gümüşhane (Aspöck
et al., 1991); Artvin, Erzincan, Gümüşhane (Zobodat,
2013).
Range: Georgia, Turkey (NE Anatolia) (Aspöck et al,
2001; Esben-Petersen 1913).
Phaeostigma (Superboraphidia) turcica (H. Aspöck,
U. Aspöck & Rausch, 1981)
Distribution in Turkey: Izmir (Bozdağ) (Aspöck et
al., 1981, 1991); Aydın, Denizli, İzmir, Manisa (Zobodat,
2013).
Range: Turkey (S, SW Anatolia (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Dichrostigma flavipes (Stein, 1832)
Distribution in Turkey: Asia Minor (Toros “Taurus”)
(Albarda, 1891); Kırklareli (Dobosz, 2007).
Range: Austria, Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czech Republic, Germany, France, Liechtenstein,
Greece, Hungary, Croatia, Italy, Macedonia, Moldavia,
Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey,
Ukraine, former Yugoslavia (Aspöck et al., 2001; Dobosz,
2007).
Dichrostigma adanana (Albarda, 1891)
Distribution in Turkey: Adana (Albarda, 1891); Taurus (Navás, 1914); Mersin (Aspöck and Aspöck, 1964b,
1965b); Mersin, Muş (Şengonca, 1979, Aspöck et al.,
1991); Adana, Bitlis, Gaziantep, Mersin, Muş (Dobosz,
2007); Adana, Kahramanmaraş, Mersin, Muş (Zobodat,
2013).
Range: Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Turkey (SE Anatolia)
(Aspöck et al., 1991; Aspöck and Hölzel, 1996).
Dichrostigma malickyi (H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck,
1964)
4
Material examined: 1♂, 2♀♀, Bolu, Göynük, Dedeler
village, 40°18′59″N, 30°52′29″E, 829 m, 13.06.2006; 2♂♂,
Bolu, Center, Kandıra village, 40°44′23″N, 31°44′33″E,
797 m, 14.06.2006; 1♂, 1♀, Bolu, Mengen, Akören village,
40°59′22″N, 33°03′51″E, 747 m, 24.06.2006; 1♂, Bolu,
Mengen, Elemen Plateau, 40°53′24″N, 31°53′03″E, 974 m,
24.06.2006; 1♂, 2♀♀, Kastamonu, Pınarbaşı, Uyukören
village, 41°36′15″N, 32°58′43″E, 995 m, 17.06.2006; 3♂♂,
Kastamonu, Küre, Uzunöz village, 41°42′20″N, 33°40′04″E,
1235 m, 18.06.2006; 1♂, 3♀♀, Kastamonu, Center, Kıyık
village, 41°21′38″N, 33°41′50″E, 1117 m, 19.06.2006; 1♂,
Kastamonu, Center, Yukarı Tüfekçi village, 41°07′01″N,
33°44′55″E, 1369 m, 19.06.2006; 3♂♂, 5♀♀, Kastamonu,
Taşköprü, Geripşah village, 41°20′04″N, 34°13′49″E, 1212
m, 20.06.2006; 1♂, 3♀♀, Kastamonu, Daday, Ballıdağ,
41°32′32″N, 33°23′22″E, 1582 m, 29.07.2006; 2♂♂,
3♀♀, Sinop, Durağan, Gökdoğan village, 41°24′34″N,
35°07′38″E, 200 m, 21.06.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Bursa (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1964a, 1965b); Ankara, Bursa, Kütahya (Şengonca, 1979);
Ankara, Bursa, Erzincan, Gümüşhane, Kütahya (Aspöck et
al., 1991); Ankara, Bolu, Çankırı, Erzurum, Tunceli (Dobosz, 2007); Amasya, Ankara, Artvin, Bolu, Bursa, Erzincan, Eskişehir, Gümüşhane, İzmit, Kastamonu, Manisa,
Sakarya, Sinop, Yozgat (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (W, N, NE Anatolia) (Aspöck et al.,
2001).
Turcoraphidia amara (H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1964)
Material examined: 10♂, 7♀, Sakarya, Akyazı,
Ballıkaya village, 40°34′25″N, 30°38′39″E, 605 m,
07.06.2007; 1♀, Sakarya, Akyazı, Durmuşlar village,
40°35′50″N, 30°44′41″E, 331 m, 09.06.2007; 1♀, Sakarya,
Taraklı, Sabırlar village, 40°28′02″N, 30°26′20″E, 730
m, 22.07.2007; 2♂♂, Sakarya, Taraklı, Tuzla village,
40°29′41″N,30°31′30″E, 945 m, 22.07.2007; 1♂, Sakarya,
Hendek, Dikmen village, 40°41′57″N, 30°53′58″E, 850 m,
10.07.2007; 2♂♂, 4♀♀, Sakarya, Karapürçek, Ahmediye
village, 40°35′44″N, 30°32′56″E, 825 m, 03.06.2007; 1♂,
2♀♀, Sakarya, Geyve, Fındıksuyu village, 40°35′59″N,
30°21′21″E, 500 m, 22.06.2007.
Distribution in Turkey: Bursa (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1964a; Aspöck et al., 1984, 1991; Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Ukraine, former Yugoslavia (Aspöck et al., 2001), Turkey (NW Anatolia).
Remarks: This species has probably spread from northwestern Anatolia.
Turcoraphidia acerba (H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1966)
Material examined: 4♂♂, 3♀♀, Bolu, Gerede,
Afşartarakçı Köyü Girişi (Gerede-Karabük Yolu),
40°49′21″N, 32°19′43″E, 1303 m, 15.06.2006; 2♂♂, 1♀,
Bolu, Gerede, İbracık civarı, 40°48′04″N, 32°09′32″E,
1291 m, 26.07.2006; 1♂, Bolu, Dörtdivan, Dörtdivan-
CANBULAT / Turk J Zool
Yeniçağa Yolu 4 km, 40°45′07″N, 32°02′26″E, 1184 m,
14.08.2006; 2♂♂, 1♀, Bolu, Dörtdivan, Güneyoyuk
Yaylası, 40°34′55″N, 32°08′33″E, 1600 m, 29.05.2007.
Distribution in Turkey: Ankara (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1966b); Ankara, Gümüşhane, Muş (Aspöck et al., 1984);
Ankara, Mersin, Muş (Aspöck et al., 1991); Ankara, Erzurum, Tunceli (Dobosz, 2007); Muş, Bitlis (Zobodat,
2013).
Range: Armenia, Turkey (N and E Anatolia) (Aspöck
et al., 2001).
Turcoraphidia hethitica H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck &
Rausch, 1984
Distribution in Turkey: Kahramanmaraş (Aspöck et
al., 1984, 1991; Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (SE and central Anatolia) (Aspöck et
al., 2001).
Turcoraphidia fuscinata (H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck,
1964)
Material examined: 1♂, Amasya, Center, Ormanözü
village kuzeyi, 40°47′N, 35°49′E, 1320 m, 21.07.2005;
2♂♂, 1♀, Amasya, Taşova, Yenidere village, 40°42′884″N,
36°06′727″E, 704 m, 22.07.2005.
Distribution in Turkey: Amasya (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1964b, 1965b; Aspöck et al., 1984, 1991; Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (N Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Tauroraphidia netrix H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck &
Rausch, 1982
Distribution in Turkey: Antalya, Muğla (Aspöck et al.,
1982, 1991; Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (SW Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Tauroraphidia marielouisae (H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck
& Sengonca, 1978)
Distribution in Turkey: Mersin (Aspöck et al., 1978,
1991); Adana, Kahramanmaraş, Karaman, Mersin (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (S Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Subilla walteri (H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1967)
Distribution in Turkey: Mersin (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1967a, 1972); Isparta, Mersin (Aspöck et al., 1991); Isparta,
Mersin, Uşak (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (W and S Anatolia) (Aspöck et al.,
2001).
Subilla fatma (H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck & Rausch, 1979)
Material examined: 2♂♂, Bolu, Mengen, Güney
Gökçesu village, 40°53′10″N, 31°56′00″E, 550 m,
24.06.2006; 1♂, Bolu, Center, Çukurören village,
40°48′47″N, 31°39′20″E, 970 m, 25.06.2006; 2♂♂, Bolu,
Center, Abant Mountains, 40°40′55″N, 31°22′49″E, 1345
m, 24.07.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Balıkesir (Aspöck et al., 1979);
Antalya, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, Mersin, Manisa (Aspöck et
al., 1991); Antalya, Balıkesir, Karaman, Manisa, Mersin,
Uşak (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (W and S Anatolia) (Aspöck et al.,
2001).
Remarks: New records indicate that this species is also
present in northern Turkey.
Subilla priapella H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck & Rausch,
1982
Distribution in Turkey: Antalya, Muğla (Aspöck et al.,
1982, 1991); Antalya (Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006); Muğla
(Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (SW Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Subilla physodes (Navás, 1914)
Distribution in Turkey: Taurus (Navás, 1914); Konya
(Karapinar near Bürücek in Toros) (Popov, 1977; Aspöck
et al., 1991); Mersin (Dobosz, 2007); Antalya, Karaman,
Konya, Mersin (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (S Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Xanthostigma xanthostigma (Schummel, 1832)
Distribution in Turkey: Erzurum (Dobosz, 2007).
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Czech Republic,
Germany, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, Latvia, Moldavia, Norway, Holland, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, Finland,
Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, North Iran, Kazakhstan,
Uzbekistan, Mongolia (Aspöck et al., 2001; Dobosz, 2007).
Raphidia (Raphidia) ophiopsis mediterranea H.
Aspöck, U. Aspöck & Rausch, 1977
Distribution in Turkey: Balıkesir (Aspöck et al., 1991).
Range: Greece, Italy, Bulgaria, Southeast Romania,
Turkey (NW Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Raphidia (Raphidia) beieri H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck,
1964
Material examined: 1♂, 2♀♀, Bolu, Center,
Karacasu village, Karadağ, 40°40′29″N, 31°38′02″E,
905 m, 14.06.2006; 1♂, Bolu, Center, Rügarlı village,
40°44′25″N, 31°47′12″E, 778 m, 14.06.2006; 4♂♂, 3♀♀,
Bolu, Gerede, Afşartarakçı village (road Gerede-Karabük),
40°49′21″N, 32°19′43″E, 1303 m, 15.06.2006; 1♂, Bolu,
Mengen, Keserek village, 40°53′05″N, 31°50′27″E, 943 m,
24.06.2006; 2♂♂, Karabük, Eskipazar, Deresopla village,
40°51′42″N, 32°32′15″E, 1297 m, 15.06.2006; 1♂, 2♀♀,
Karabük, Center, between Tandır village-Mehterler village,
41°02′48″N, 32°43′35″E, 1215 m, 15.06.2006; 1♂, Karabük,
Safranbolu, İnceçay village, 41°22′35″N, 32°42′40″E, 937 m,
16.06.2006; 1♂, 3♀♀, Karabük, Ovacuma, Çiftlik village,
41°27′29″N, 32°40′09″E, 623 m, 16.06.2006; 1♂, Karabük,
Eflani, Çiftçiler village, 41°28′20″N, 33°05′08″E, 1047 m,
23.06.2006; 1♂, Karabük, Safranbolu, Örencik village,
41°23′29″N, 32°48′28″E, 933 m, 23.06.2006; 1♂, Karabük,
Ovacık, Kavaklar village, 41°07′02″N, 32°55′53″E,
954 m, 27.07.2006; 1♂, 3♀♀, Karabük, Center, Tandır
village, 41°02′48″N, 32°43′35″E, 1215 m, 27.07.2006;
1♂, Kastamonu, Azdavay, between Valay village-Kalaycı
village, 41°49′38″N, 33°22′05″E, 517 m, 18.06.2006;
5
CANBULAT / Turk J Zool
4♂♂, Kastamonu, Center, road Seydiler-Kastamonu
(25 km to Kastamonu), 41°34′08″N, 33°46′46″E, 1195
m, 18.06.2006; 3♂♂, Kastamonu, İhsangazi, Hocahacıp
village, 41°13′55″N, 33°37′07″E, 1080 m, 19.06.2006;
3♂♂, Kastamonu, Center, Cebeci village, 41°18′28″N,
34°01′41″E, 1112 m, 20.06.2006; 3♂♂, Kastamonu,
Taşköprü, Şahinçatı village, 41°13′16″N, 34°11′57″E, 1217
m, 20.06.2006; 1♂, 1♀, Kastamonu, Hanönü, Akçasu
village, 41°35′46″N, 34°22′12″E, 449 m, 21.06.2006;
1♂, Kastamonu, 23 km from Çatalzeytin to Devrekani
(Isırgan mountain pass), 41°50′53″N, 34°05′17″E, 1185
m, 23.06.2006; 1♂, 1♀, Kastamonu, Araç, Harmancık
village, 41°17′39″N, 33°14′08″E, 1063 m, 28.07.2006;
2♂♂, Kastamonu, Devrekani, Yaralıöz mountain pass,
41°46′15″N, 34°03′30″E, 1370 m, 01.08.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Bilecik (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1965b); Afyon, Ankara, Bilecik, Bolu, Bursa, Eskişehir,
Kastamonu, Karabük, Sakarya, Zonguldak (Aspöck et al.,
1991); Kastamonu (Dobosz, 2007); Afyon, Balıkesir, Bilecik, Bursa, Sakarya (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Moldavia, Ukraine,
former Yugoslavia, Turkey (NW Anatolia) (Aspöck et al.,
2001).
Raphidia (Raphidia) kimminsi H. Aspöck & U.
Aspöck, 1964
Material examined: 4♂♂, Sinop, Boyabat, Çulhalı
village (Küre Mountains), 41°35′56″N, 34°50′51″E, 997
m, 22.06.2006; 1♂, 2♀♀, Tokat, Center, road Sivas-Tokat,
Çamlıbel mountain pass, 39°57′496″N, 36°32′015″E,
1620–1690 m, 15.07.2005; 2♂♂, Tokat, Center, 2 km from
Çamlıbel mountain pass to İhsaniye, 39°59′N, 36°30′E,
1470 m, 15.07.2005; 3♂♂, 2♀♀, Amasya, Merzifon,
İnalan village kuzeyi, 40°55′892″N, 35°26′420″E, 1213 m,
21.07.2005.
Distribution in Turkey: Amasya (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1964b, 1965b); Amasya, Erzincan, Gümüşhane, Samsun,
Sinop, Sivas, Tokat, Yozgat (Aspöck et al., 1991); Ankara
(Dobosz, 2007); Amasya, Gümüşhane, Tokat, Yozgat
(Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (N and NE Anatolia, north of central
Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Raphidia (Raphidia) grusinica H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck
& Martynova, 1968
Distribution in Turkey: Artvin, Gümüşhane (Aspöck
et al., 1991; Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Georgia, Transcaucasia, Turkey (NE Anatolia)
(Aspöck et al., 2001).
Raphidia (Raphidia) mysia H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck &
Rausch, 1991
Material examined: 2♂♂, Kastamonu, Araç,
Nalcıkuyucağı village, 41°18′29″N, 33°34′42″E, 1132
m, 19.06.2006; 1♂, Kastamonu, Araç, Doğanca village,
6
41°17′13″N, 33°26′36″E, 846 m, 19.06.2006; 1♂, 2♀♀,
Kastamonu, İhsangazi, Enbiya village, 41°12′40″N,
33°31′40″E, 874 m, 19.06.2006; 2♂♂, Kastamonu, Tosya,
34 km from Kastamonu to Tosya, 41°08′22″N, 34°03′52″E,
1483 m, 20.06.2006; 1♂, Kastamonu, Tosya, Ekinciler
village, 41°05′16″N, 34°02′05″E, 1093 m, 20.06.2006;
1♂, Kastamonu, Tosya, Sulusokul village, 41°11′36″N,
34°07′59″E, 1445 m, 06.08.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Balıkesir, Çanakkale, Kütahya
(Aspöck et al., 1991; Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Greece (Lesbos), Turkey (NW Anatolia)
(Aspöck et al., 2001).
Remarks: The current distribution of this species in
Turkey is expanding to the east of the country.
Raphidia (Raphidia) ambigua H. Aspöck & U.
Aspöck, 1964
Material examined: 4♂♂, Sinop, Boyabat, Çulhalı
village (Küre Mountains), 41°35′56″N, 34°50′51″E, 997
m, 22.06.2006; 1♂, 2♀♀, Tokat, Center, road Sivas-Tokat, Çamlıbel mountain pass, 39°57′496″N, 36°32′015″E,
1620–1690 m, 15.07.2005; 3♂♂, 1♀, Tokat, Artova, Yenice
village, 40°10′N, 36°15′E, 1110 m, 15.07.2005; 3♂♂, 1♀,
Tokat, Artova, Yenice village, 40°10′N, 36°15′E, 1110
m, 15.07.2005; 2♂♂, Karabük, Center, between Tandır
village-Mehterler village, 41°02′48″N, 32°43′35″E, 1215
m, 15.06.2006; 1♂, 1♀, Çorum, Kargı, İnceçay village,
41°00′365″N, 34°17′630″E, 1224 m, 20.07.2005; 2♂♂,
2♂♂, Kastamonu, Tosya, 34 km from Kastamonu to Tosya, 41°08′22″N, 34°03′52″E, 1483 m, 20.06.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Ankara (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1964c); Konya (Aspöck and Aspöck, 1965b); Ankara,
Mersin (Aspöck and Aspöck, 1966a); Bilecik, Diyarbakır,
İzmir (Şengonca, 1979); Ankara, Konya (Aspöck et al.,
1980); Afyon, Ankara, Balıkesir, Bitlis, Çorum, Denizli, Elazığ, Mersin, Muğla, Muş (Aspöck et al., 1991); Afyon, Aksaray, Ankara, Antalya, Balıkesir, Bingöl, Burdur,
Çankırı, Denizli, Elazığ, İzmir, Kayseri, Kırklareli, Kütahya, Malatya, Mardin, Muğla, Muş, Nevşehir, Sivas, Tunceli (Dobosz, 2007); Antalya, Burdur, Isparta, Denizli (Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006); Adıyaman, Afyon, Ankara, Aydın,
Bingöl, Bitlis, Burdur, Bursa, Denizli, Elazığ, Isparta, İzmir,
Kahramanmaraş, Kayseri, Kütahya, Malatya, Manisa,
Muğla, Muş, Uşak (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Greece (Samos, Rhodes), Turkey (Anatolia)
(Aspöck et al., 2001).
Raphidia (Aserbeidshanoraphidia) nuchensis H.
Aspöck, U. Aspöck & Martynova, 1968
Distribution in Turkey: Gümüşhane (Aspöck et al.,
1991; Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (NE Anatolia), Azerbaijan (Aspöck et
al., 2001).
CANBULAT / Turk J Zool
Raphidia (Nigroraphidia) palaeformis H. Aspöck &
U. Aspöck, 1964
Material examined: 3♂♂, 1♀, Tokat, Artova, Yenice
village, 40°10′N, 36°15′E, 1110 m, 15.07.2005; 2♂♂, 1♀,
Çorum, Center, Yeşilyayla village, 40°19′N, 35°04′E, 870
m, 18.07.2005; 1♂, 1♀, Çorum, Kargı, İnceçay village,
41°00′365″N, 34°17′630″E, 1224 m, 20.07.2005; 2♂♂,
Amasya, Merzifon, Saraycık village, 40°57′N, 35°06′E, 950
m, 21.07.2005.
Distribution in Turkey: Mersin (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1964a); Karaman, Mersin, Niğde (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1965b); Ankara, Elazığ, Kahramanmaraş, Konya,
Mersin (Aspöck and Aspöck, 1966a); Adana, Antalya,
Burdur, Kahramanmaraş, Konya, Mersin (Aspöck et
al., 1991); Adana, Adıyaman, Antalya, Burdur, Konya,
Malatya (Dobosz, 2007); Antalya (Canbulat and Kıyak,
2006); Adana, Antalya, Burdur, Eskişehir, Gaziantep,
Kahramanmaraş, Karaman, Konya, Mersin, Niğde
(Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (SW, S Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Remarks: The current distribution of this species in
Turkey is expanding to the north of the country.
Raphidia (Nigroraphidia) friederikae H. Aspöck & U.
Aspöck, 1967
Distribution in Turkey: Konya (Aspöck and Aspöck,
1967a); Antalya, Isparta, Konya, Mersin (Aspöck et al.,
1991); Antalya, Burdur, Karaman, Konya, Muğla (Dobosz, 2007); Antalya, Burdur, Isparta (Canbulat and Kıyak,
2006); Antalya, Burdur, Isparta, Karaman, Konya (Zobodat, 2013).
Range: Turkey (S Anatolia) (Aspöck et al., 2001).
Family: Inocelliidae Navás, 1913
Parainocellia (Parainocellia) ressli (H. Aspöck & U.
Aspöck, 1965)
Material examined: 1♂, Bartın, Ulus, Hasanören
village, 41°37′31″N, 32°45′23″E, 616 m, 17.06.2006.
Distribution in Turkey: Antalya, Mersin (Aspöck
and Aspöck, 1965c; Aspöck et al., 1991); Mersin, Muğla
(Aspöck et al., 1980); Antalya, Isparta, Denizli, Muğla
(Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006); Adana, Adıyaman, Antalya,
Kırklareli, Mersin (Dobosz, 2007).
Range: Turkey (S and E Anatolia), Greece (Samos)
(Aspöck et al., 2001).
Remarks: The record is from the north of the known
distribution.
Parainocellia (Parainocellia) braueri (Albarda, 1891)
Distribution in Turkey: Kırklareli (Dobosz, 2007).
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Croatia,
Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, Turkey, and former Yugoslavia (Aspöck et al., 2001; Dobosz, 2007).
4. Discussion
A complete list of taxa showing zoogeographical categories
and Turkish snakeflies is presented in Table 1. The basic
zoogeographical categories suggested by de Lattin (1967)
were employed for the regulation of taxa in groups in
accordance to their origin. Aspöck et al. (1976, 1977, 1980)
used those categories suggested by de Lattin (1967). Most
of the species were found to be in the zoogeographical
category indicated by Aspöck et al. (1980, 2001).
From the zoogeographical point of view, the terrestrial
fauna of Turkey is known to be in the Palearctic
zoogeographical region of the Holarctic and is mainly
in the Mediterranean, Anatolian, and Central European
zoogeographical subregions extending through the
borders of the other zoogeographic subregions. The
impacts of 3 major zoogeographical regions are seen
in this country: northern (Euro-Siberian), represented
by cold-resistant animal species; and northern and
northeastern (Pontocaspian) and southeastern (Syrian)
and southern (Cyprio-Syrian), dominated by many
thermophilic species. Their classification was performed
by using the origins of zoogeographical categories and
is presented in Table 2. Comparison done between the
fauna of Turkish Raphidioptera revealed 5 categories; the
Mediterranean category includes 3 subcategories. The
number of Anatolopontomediterranean elements was
found to be 3 times higher than the total number of the
Balkanopontomediterranean and Pontomediterranean
elements. Mediterranean species are distributed in 28 taxa
(70%).
The members of taxa in the endemic category
include Raphidioptera species that are not seen outside
of Turkey. These endemics are placed into local (specific
to one area), regional (found in more than one district
of a particular region), and whole-country categories
(specific to Anatolia). Endemics are highly important for
the assessment of the wealth of the region and show the
quality of a fauna.
To date, 19 endemic species (47.5% of the snakefly
species present) have been found in Turkey. Sixteen and
3 endemic species are found in the whole-country and
local categories, respectively. Sixteen species of Turkish
endemics have been found only in southern, western,
and southwestern areas of Anatolia. These species
are Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) ressli, Phaeostigma
(Aegeoraphidia) vartianorum, Tauroraphidia netrix, and
Subilla priapella from southwestern Anatolia; Phaeostigma
(Superboraphidia) turcica from western Anatolia; and
Tauroraphidia marielouisae and Subilla physodes from
southern Anatolia. Among the Turkish endemics,
Phaeostigma (Crassoraphidia) knappi, Phaeostigma
(Magnoraphidia) robusta, Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia)
noane, Dichrostigma malickyi, Subilla walteri, Subilla fatma,
7
CANBULAT / Turk J Zool
Table 1. Distribution and zoogeographical categories of the taxa of the Turkish snakeflies.
Taxa
Endemic
Zoogeographical categories
Phaeostigma (Phaeostigma) pilicollis
Stationary, Monocentric, Balkanopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Crassoraphidia) cyprica
Cyprio-Syrian?
Phaeostigma (Crassoraphidia) knappi
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Crassoraphidia) klimeschiella
Turkey
Extreme Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Magnoraphidia) robusta
Turkey
Low Expansive, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Pontoraphidia) pontica
Low Expansive, Monocentric, Pontocaspian
Phaeostigma (Pontoraphidia) setulosa setulosa
Polycentric, Pontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Pontoraphidia) rhodopica
Extreme Stationary, Monocentric, Balkanopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) raddai
Low Expansive, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) ressli
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) vartianorum
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric Anatolopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) noane
Turkey
Extreme Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Phaeostigma (Aegeoraphidia) remane
Syrian
Phaeostigma (Caucasoraphidia) caucasica
Stationary, Monocentric, Pontocaspian
Phaeostigma (Superboraphidia) turcica
Turkey
Extreme stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Dichrostigma flavipes
Expansive, Monocentric, Balkanopontomediterranean
Dichrostigma adanana
Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Dichrostigma malickyi
Turkey
Monocentric, Pontocaspian
Turcoraphidia amara
Probably Monocentric, Low Expansive, Balkanopontomediterranean
Turcoraphidia acerba
Low Expansive, Monocentric, Pontocaspian
Turcoraphidia hethitica
Turkey
Stationary. Monocentric, Syrian?
Turcoraphidia fuscinata
Turkey
Extreme Stationary, Monocentric, Pontocaspian
Tauroraphidia netrix
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Tauroraphidia marielouisae
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Subilla walteri
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Subilla fatma
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Subilla priapella
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Subilla physodes
Turkey
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Xanthostigma xanthostigma
Expansive, Euro-Siberian
Raphidia (Raphidia) ophiopsis mediterranea
Polycentric, Balkanopontomediterranean
Raphidia (Raphidia) beieri
Raphidia (Raphidia) kimminsi
Polycentric, Pontomediterranean
Turkey
Pontocaspian
Raphidia (Raphidia) grusinica
Pontocaspian
Raphidia (Raphidia) mysia
Stationary, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Raphidia (Raphidia) ambigua
Expansive, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Raphidia (Aserbeidshanoraphidia) nuchensis
Stationary, Monocentric, Pontocaspian
Raphidia (Nigroraphidia) palaeformis
Turkey
Low Expansive, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Raphidia (Nigroraphidia) friederikae
Turkey
Low Expansive, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Parainocellia (Parainocellia) ressli
Low Expansive, Monocentric, Anatolopontomediterranean
Parainocellia (Parainocellia) braueri
Low Expansive, Monocentric Balkanopontomediterranean
8
CANBULAT / Turk J Zool
Table 2. Zoogeographical categories of Raphidioptera in Turkey according to their origins.
Categories
Subcategories
Species number
% of all
Species number of endemics
Anatolopontomediterranean
20
50
15
Balkanopontomediterranean
6
15
Pontomediterranean
2
5
Pontocaspian
8
20
3
Syrian
2
5
1
Cyprio-Syrian
1
2.50
Euro-Siberian
1
2.50
Total
40
100
Mediterranean
Raphidia (Raphidia) kimminsi, Raphidia (Nigroraphidia)
palaeformis, and Raphidia (Nigroraphidia) friederikae are
found in many regions of Anatolia.
Three local endemic species in Turkey are known
to be found in the following provinces: Phaeostigma
(Crassoraphidia) klimeschiella in Antalya (Aspöck et al.,
1982, 1991; Canbulat and Kıyak, 2006; Dobosz, 2007),
Turcoraphidia hethitica in Kahramanmaraş (Aspöck et al.,
19
1984, 1991; Zobodat, 2013), and Turcoraphidia fuscinata
in Amasya (Aspöck and Aspöck, 1964b, 1965b; Aspöck et
al., 1984, 1991; Zobodat, 2013).
Acknowledgment
I am extremely grateful to Dr İlhan Doğan (İzmir Institute
of Technology) for reading the manuscript and for
linguistic improvement.
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