Dear Colleagues,
It is both my privilege and pleasure to welcome you to the Second International
Conference on Positive Psychology in the Czech Republic, organized jointly by the
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University and by the Czech
Positive Psychology Centre, held from May 22 to May 24, 2013 in Brno.
The main objective and purpose of this international meeting with the presence of
first-rate scholars from Positive Psychology science, research and practice is, above all,
to give an opportunity for enriching and sharing our knowledge and experience.
In addition, there is also a scope for inspiration and fruitful views exchange.
The conference will also enhance further international and interdisciplinary collaboration.
Those involved in the basic and applied research in the field of Positive Psychology as
well as those who would like to share their experience with the application of Positive
Psychology in practice are most welcome to present their oral or poster presentations.
Students and those interested in passive participation are cordially welcome as well.
At the international CPPC 2013 conference, you will have a unique opportunity
to benefit from attending the invited lectures delivered by international scholars and
experts from the field of Positive Psychology, as well as from attending lectures delivered
in the conference’s various thematic sessions. A poster section, as well as pre-conference
workshops, will be a part of the conference program, too.
Varied international participation is given by representation of foreign participants
coming from 26 countries of the world.
The subtitle of the CPPC 2013 conference is “Giving Hope – Giving Future”.
Positive Psychology is a promising approach, emphasizing the importance of positive
aspects of human existence, and it has come up with valuable scholarly theories on their
causes and contexts, as well as their conditions and consequences.
In practice, Positive Psychology offers specific implications for the future by
encouraging hopeful thinking, cultivation of character strengths and virtues, suggesting
interventions of positive psychotherapy aiming to greater life satisfaction and happiness,
developing positive education and, last but not least, dealing with issues on
meaningfulness and spirituality.
It is hope, that in the time of distress, uncertainty, personal, social, and economic
crisis, builds for us a meaningful bridge to a better future.
Hope, that shows direction, suggests a way and strengthen our belief in attaining the
meaningful goals, can therefore become a vital buffer protecting us against negativity,
resignation and despair. It is hope, that can become a key to optimal functioning of an
individual and society.
Dear Conference participants, let me wish you a pleasant, inspiring and enriching stay
in Brno.
Alena Slezackova,
CPPC 2013 Chair
III
Vážené a milé kolegyně, vážení a milí kolegové,
je mi ctí a potěšením přivítat Vás na 2. mezinárodní konferenci pozitivní psychologie
v ČR, kterou pořádá Psychologický ústav Filozofické fakulty Masarykovy univerzity
a Centrum pozitivní psychologie v ČR ve dnech 22. až 24.5. 2013 v Brně.
Smyslem a účelem tohoto mezinárodního setkání za účasti špičkových odborníků
z oblasti vědy, výzkumu a praxe pozitivní psychologie, je především nabídnout příležitost
pro vzájemné obohacování a sdílení poznatků a zkušeností, prostor pro inspiraci
a výměnu názorů a také pro podporu mezinárodní a mezioborové spolupráce.
K aktivní účasti přijali pozvání ti, kteří se věnují základnímu a aplikovanému
výzkumu v oblasti pozitivní psychologie, i ti, kteří se rádi podělí o svoje zkušenosti
s uplatněním pozitivního přístupu v praxi. Vítáme také studenty a pasivní účastníky
konference.
Vědecký program mezinárodní konference CPPC 2013 zahrnuje zvané přednášky
tuzemských odborníků a významných zahraničních představitelů pozitivní psychologie,
běžné přednášky v paralelních tématických sekcích, posterovou sekci i předkonferenční
workshopy.
Pestrá mezinárodní účast je dána zastoupením zahraničních účastníků z 26 zemí světa.
Podtitul konference CPPC 2013 zní "Dávat naději – dávat budoucnost".
Pozitivní psychologie je nadějným přístupem, který vyzdvihuje význam pozitivních
aspektů lidské existence a přináší cenné vědecké poznatky o jejich příčinách
a souvislostech, podmínkách i důsledcích.
V praxi pak nabízí konkrétní přesah do budoucnosti v podpoře nadějného myšlení,
v kultivaci silných stránek charakteru, v intervencích pozitivní psychoterapie směřujících
k větší životní spokojenosti a štěstí, v rozvoji pozitivní edukace a v neposlední řadě
v otázkách smysluplnosti a spirituality.
Je to právě naděje, která v časech nepřízně, nejistoty, osobních, společenských
a ekonomických krizí nabízí smysluplné přemostění k lepší budoucnosti.
Naděje, která ukazuje směr, naznačuje cestu a posiluje víru v dosažení smysluplných
cílů, se tak může stát důležitým obranným faktorem proti negativitě, rezignaci a beznaději
a užitečným klíčem k optimálnímu prospívání jednotlivce i společnosti.
Vážení účastníci CPPC 2013, přeji Vám příjemný, inspirativní a obohacující pobyt
v Brně.
Alena Slezáčková
za Vědecký výbor CPPC 2013
IV
Contents / Obsah
Invited Speakers / Zvaní přednášející.................................................................................3
Session 1A / Sekce 1A
Positive Psychology at Work and Organizations
Pozitivní psychologie v práci a organizaci .......................................................................13
Session 1B / Sekce 1B
Positive Relationships
Pozitivní vztahy................................................................................................................17
Session 2A / Sekce 2A
Assessment of Well-Being and Positive Functioning
Měření osobní pohody a pozitivního fungování................................................................21
Session 2B / Sekce 2B
Positive Interventions and Fostering Strengths
Pozitivní intervence a podpora silných stránek.................................................................25
Session 2C / Sekce 2C
Character and spirituality
Charakter a spiritualita.....................................................................................................28
Session 3A / Sekce 3A
Positive Education
Pozitivní vzdělávání.........................................................................................................34
Session 3B / Sekce 3B
Happiness, Well-Being & Emotional Intelligence
Štěstí, pohoda a emoční inteligence..................................................................................39
Session 3C / Sekce 3C
Life Challenges and Growth
Životní výzvy a seberozvoj...............................................................................................43
Session 4A / Sekce 4A
Positive Approach in Schools
Pozitivní přístup ve výchově a vzdělávání........................................................................51
Session 4B / Sekce 4B
Quality of Life and Flourishing
Kvalita života a optimální prospívání...............................................................................57
Poster Session I. / Posterová sekce I.................................................................................64
Poster Session II. / Posterová sekce II..............................................................................78
Author Index....................................................................................................................93
1
INVITED SPEAKERS / ZVANÍ PŘEDNÁŠEJÍCÍ
The Role of Passion in Positive Psychology
Robert Vallerand
Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Comportement Social
Département de Psychologie
Université du Québec à Montréal
Canada
[email protected]
In positive psychology, much is said about the role of positive emotions, flow, and
well-being in leading a happy life. However, much less is said regarding how to
experience these positive psychological outcomes. In this talk, I show that having
a passion for a meaningful activity represents one way to experience these adaptive
outcomes. Passion is defined as a strong inclination or desire for a self-defining activity
that we love, value, and spend a considerable amount of time in (Vallerand, 2010;
Vallerand et al., 2003). Two types of passion are proposed: a harmonious and an obsessive
passion. Obsessive passion is involved when people feel that they can’t help themselves
and have to surrender to their desire to engage in the passionate activity. It is as if the
activity controlled the person. On the other hand, harmonious passion refers to a strong
inclination for the activity that nevertheless remains under the person’s control. The
person can choose when to and when not to engage in the activity, thus preventing conflict
from arising between the passionate activity and other life activities. In this talk, I review
research that shows that Harmonious Passion positively contributes to emotional,
psychological, physical and relational well-being, as well as optimal performance.
Although Obsessive Passion may at times positively contribute to some of these elements,
its overall effects are less positive and at times, even negative. Implications for the role of
passion in positive psychology are proposed.
Key words: passion, well-being, optimal performance
Positive Psychology and the Challenge of Diversity
Antonella Delle Fave
University of Milano
Italy
[email protected]
The investigation of well-being is a complex task, due to the variety of perspectives
adopted by researchers, professionals, and lay people in the definition and interpretation
of this term. Nevertheless well-being is a universal concern, shared by individuals and
communities living in different historical and cultural contexts, as well as under different
circumstances. This diversification requires greater attention to the contexts in which
well-being studies are conducted, and to the cultural nuances that characterize
conceptualizations and strategies to achieve well-being in each community. The issue of
diversity has been only marginally addressed in the first decade of positive psychology
3
development. Models and studies are still prominently grounded into a Western,
individualistic, and pragmatist outlook. The limitations of this perspective will be
exemplified through a brief analysis of well-being conceptualizations and evaluations in
the domain of health and across cultures.
Key words: well-being, health, cultures
Positive Psychology: Evidence-based Self-help for Depression
Miriam Akhtar
Positive Psychology Consultant, Trainer, Coach & Author
Bristol
United Kingdom
[email protected]
Positive psychology is known as the science of well-being with a mission to increase
the tonnage of happiness on the planet but what does it have to offer the leading threat to
mental health – depression? This talk will explore how positive psychology interventions
– that is treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings,
positive behaviors, or positive cognitions (Sin & Lyubomirsky, 2009) can be used to
recover as well as raise well-being. Positive psychology interventions differ from talking
therapies by focusing on developing well-being rather than exploring pain and difficulty.
This approach of building on positives (the sunny side of life) has also been found to
reduce negatives (the shadow side). Sin & Lyubomirsky’s 2009 meta-analysis showed that
positive interventions are efficacious both in enhancing happiness & well-being and
alleviating depression. Low positivity is one of the symptoms of depression. I will
describe how positive psychology interventions such as savouring, gratitude, using your
strengths and practising optimistic thinking build positivity and resilience, showing how
positive psychology can be used as evidence-based self-help for mild-to-moderate cases
of depression.
Key words: positive psychology interventions, depression, well-being
Současný stav psychologického studia štěstí a spokojenosti
Present State of the Psychological Studies of Happiness
and Subjective Satisfaction
Jaro Křivohlavý
Emeritní profesor, Univerzita Karlova, Praha
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Zážitky štěstí a jevů jemu blízkých - stavu psychického blaha, životní spokojenosti jsou v posledních 20 letech předmětem velice intenzivního empirického studia. Je to
možno vidět i v tom, že se v tomto rámci zrodilo několik diagnostických metod -
4
PANAS, SWLS, PERMA a relativně nových postupů studia (např. metody Experience
Sampling).
Mnoho pozornosti je věnováno horizontálnímu pojetí štěstí, tj. jevu blízkému klasickému hedonickému pojetí štěstí. Velké množství studií se přitom zabývá faktory, které
tento stav štěstí kladně či negativně ovlivňují – jde např. např. o vztahy mezi lidmi, vliv
manželství, rodiny, práce, rekreace, věku, množství peněz a osobnosti.
Soudobé psychologické studie si však stále více začínají všímat i vertikálního pojetí
štěstí, které bere ohled na kvalitu zážitku štěstí, na cíle, snahy a smysluplnost angažovanosti daného člověka – viz pojetí autentického štěstí, flourish, flow aj. Vytváří se tak
podstatně širší pojetí, bližší klasickému filosofickému pojmu štěstí.
Tímto krokem směrem k vertikálnějšímu pojetí štěstí vnáší pozitivní psychologie do
našeho pojetí perspektivu naděje.
Klíčová slova: štěstí, pohoda, spokojenost se životem, metoda PANAS, SWLS, PERMA,
flow, flourish
The affective states called happiness, life satistfaction, subjective or psychological
well-being etc., are the topic of an enormous number of psychological studies in the last
20 years around the world. The emergence of diagnostic methods like PANAS, SWLS,
PERMA, or the Experience Sampling Method are examples of this activity.
Enormous amount of attention is directed to the horizontal conception of happinesss –
the sensory or hedonic variety of satisfaction. The positive and negative influence of
interpersonal relations, marital or family status, age, work, free time activities, the amount
of money available, and personality, are systematically studied.
Contemporary psychological studies pay in the last decades more attention to the
vertical concept of happiness, which relates to the aims, targets and meaningfulness of the
activities and quality of the happiness experience – see e.g. the concept of authentic
happiness, flow, flourish, etc. The classic philosophical concept of happines of the nonhedonic variety is targeted in this way.
These studies of the vertical or qualitative concept of happiness offer a promising
perspective and bring hope for the future.
Key words: happiness, well-being, satisfaction with life, PANAS, SWLS, PERMA, flow,
flourish
What Is Optimism and Does It Have an Impact on Our Life?
Charles Martin-Krumm
University of Western Brittany, CREAD Research Labatory,
France
[email protected]
Optimism is what Christopher Peterson called a “Velcro Construct”. Everything sticks
to it for reasons that are not always obvious (2006, p. 119). But what is exactly optimism?
An illusion? Is there only one way to define it? What kind of effect does it have? Which
processes is it involved in? Answering these questions will be the main target of this
keynote.
5
Optimism as a psychological construct will be defined according to two ways: a direct
one and an indirect one. In the first conception, we will argue that Carver and Scheier’s
dispositional optimism theoretical framework explains different kinds of effects on
cognitive, affective or behavioural variables. Nevertheless, we will show that optimism is
more complex than only a kind of optimism/pessimism continuum. The second
conception of optimism, which is linked to the explanatory styles, will be presented. Some
direct links will be explained in the fields of school, sports, workplace or health. Some
indirect links have been indentified thanks to experimental or longitudinal designs. Some
studies in the school context have highlighted how explanatory styles may be involved in
processes, which predict rebound faculties after failure, or motivation. These elements are
in accordance with the theoretical framework.
Does it mean that it is as simple as it looks like? Again, optimism according to the
explanatory styles may reflect a more complex psychological construct than only an
optimism/pessimism continuum as mentioned for dispositional optimism. Some previous
studies have demonstrated that some persons showed high levels in both, optimism and
pessimism, what is quite surprising according to these theoretical frameworks. This may
explain why everything sticks to optimism. Maybe the reason is a definition which has to
be more relevant, and which enables the expression of the human complexity.
Experimental designs meant to test the effect of four profiles instead of two, in
success and failure feedback conditions, should give more information to explain the
effects of the styles on cognitive, affective, physiological, or behavioural variables, and
how it may have an impact on our life.
Key words: optimism, pessimism, explanatory style, cognitive style
Jsme připraveni na pozitivní formulace při psaní
psychologického nálezu?
Are We Ready for Positive Formulations in Writing of Psychological Report?
Marek Preiss
Psychiatrické centrum Praha, Czech Republic
[email protected]
Autor popisuje způsoby psaní psychologických klinických nálezů na psychiatrických
odděleních. Zvažuje míru a význam negativních a pozitivních informací v těchto nálezech. Navrhuje, jak formulovat závěry psychologického vyšetření pozitivněji a více ve
prospěch seberozvoje pacienta.
Klíčová slova: negativní a pozitivní formulace, psychologické vyšetření, psychiatrie
The author describes variants of formulations of psychological and clinical reports
at psychiatric wards. He considers the amount and meaning of negative and positive
formulations in these reports. He presents suggestions how to reformulate results
of psychological assessment more positively and more appropriately for self-development
of the patients.
Key words: negative and positive formulation, psychological report, psychiatry
6
Spiritualita jako klíč k výchově
Spirituality as a Key to Education
Pavel Říčan
Emeritní badatel Psychologického ústavu AVČR a učitel Univerzity Karlovy v Praze
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Spiritualita se v psychologii chápe jako vysoká svébytná hodnota a její studium je
proto legitimní součástí pozitivní psychologie. Psychologicky definovaný pojem spirituality má svůj původ v protestu amerických hippies šedesátých let, kteří vyjadřovali
zklamání církevním náboženstvím své doby. Tento protest byl jedním z projevů hluboké
proměny celé společensko-kulturní atmosféry Západu. Charakteristické heslo (špatně přeložitelné) znělo: I AM NOT RELIGIOUS BUT I AM SPIRITUAL. Došlo k polarizaci
pojmové dvojice spiritualita versus náboženství. Náboženství se začalo chápat jako něco
zastaralého, rigidního, svazujícího, jako nauka, instituce, morálka – v kontrastu se spiritualitou, která se jeví jako něco nového, spontánního, svobodného, individuální prožitek,
kosmické vhledy, blažená extáze. Pargamentovo racionální řešení – ponechat pojmu náboženství původní obsah, a spiritualitu chápat jako prožitkové jádro náboženství – narazi lo na ideologicky motivovaný odpor. Elkinsova formulace humanistické spirituality
vyjadřuje ideální tradici Západu. Jak upozorňuje Halík, jiní autoři akcentují orientální in spiraci a v chápání spirituality ožívá také idealizovaný paganismus.
V současné multikulturní Evropě se snaží poskytovat spiritualitu mnoho náboženských i nenáboženských pospolitostí. Jednou ze základních praktických otázek je,
jak tuto hodnotu zprostředkovávat dětem od malička, zvláště v rodinné výchově. Jednou
ze základních složek spirituální výchovy je etická/morální výchova zacílená k tomu, aby
se ideál dobra, krásně vyjádřený např. skautským slibem, stal radostně prožívaným
ústředním motivem mladého člověka. Druhou složkou spirituální výchovy je kulturní výchova, jejímž cílem je, aby se dětský smysl pro hudbu prohloubil a zjemnil až ve
schopnost cítit, že se skrze ni zjevuje něco posvátného, že koncertní síň může být svého
druhu chrámem, podobně jako výstavní síň nebo divadlo kultivující smysl pro katarzi.
Také filosofická výchova začíná od raného dětství, když děti učíme mít radost z náhledu,
že věci mohou být zcela jiné, než se jeví na první pohled, nebo když je vedeme k respektu
vůči tajemství.
Klíčová slova: spiritualita, náboženství, výchova, etika.
In psychology, spirituality is understood as a precious, distinctive value and its study
may be considered a legitimate part of positive psychology. Psychologically defined
concept of spirituality has its origin in the protest of the American hippies of the Golden
Sixties, who expressed their disappointment by the church religion of their time. This
protest was one of the manifestations of a deep transformation of the whole socio-cultural
atmosphere of the West. A characteristic motto was: I AM NOT RELIGIOUS BUT I AM
SPIRITUAL. A polarization occurred between the concepts of spirituality and religion.
Religion became understood as something out of date, rigid, binding, as teaching,
institution and morality – in contrast to spirituality, which appears as something new,
spontaneous, free, as individual experience, cosmic insights, blissful ecstasy. Pargament
proposed a rational solution – to leave to the concept of spirituality its original content,
7
and to conceive spirituality as the experiential core of religion. He met, however, with
an ideologically motivated opposition. David Elkins’s formulation of the humanistic
spirituality expresses the mainstream tradition of the values of the West. As Halík points
out, other authors accentuate Oriental inspiration, and also a revival of idealized paganism
may be observed.
In the contemporary multicultural Europe, many religious as well as non-religious
groups try to offer spirituality. One of the key practical issues is how to convey this
supreme value to children from the earliest age on, especially by means of the family
spiritual education. One of the basic components of spiritual education is the ethical/moral
education with the aim that the ideal of the Good, well expressed for example in the Scout
promise may become a central motive of the young girl/boy, experienced with pleasure.
Another component, or carrier, of spiritual education is cultural education. Its goal is that
children’s sense of music gradually deepens and grows more and more delicate, up to the
ability to feel that something sacred is being revealed; to feel that the concert hall may
become a cathedral, similarly as the art exhibition hall or the theater cultivating the sense
of catharsis. Also, philosophical education begins from early childhood, when we teach
children to take pleasure in the insight that things may be quite different than they seem
at the first glance, when we lead them to respect the mystery, etc.
Key words: spirituality, religion, education, ethics.
Zürich Studies in Positive Psychology
Willibald Ruch
Department of Psychology, University of Zürich
Switzerland
[email protected]
Positive Psychology emerged as a name for a research field within psychology
15 years ago but is based on older traditions and research programs within psychology.
The talk will give an overview of research conducted in W. Ruch's laboratory which is
related to positive emotions, the assessment of character strengths and verification of the
model, selected strengths (like humor and appreciation of excellence and beauty), positive
interventions and character training, and application of positive psychology in schools and
the workplace.
Key words: positive emotions, character strengths, application of positive psychology
8
Pozitivní aspekty stáří – humor u seniorů
Positive Aspects of Old Age: Humor in Elderly People
Jiří Mareš
Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Lékařská fakulta v Hradci Králové
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Životní etapa označovaná jako stáří, je tradičně chápána jako období, kdy se většina
důležitých funkcí člověka zhoršuje. Pozitivní psychologie obrátila pozornost odborné
i laické veřejnosti k těm stránkám osobnosti, které se ve stáří mohou zlepšovat, činit život
bohatším. Připomeňme např. vděčnost, rozvážnost, moudrost, realistické sebepojetí,
životní spokojenost, spirituálnost, hledání smyslu života, předávání kulturního dědictví.
Specifickou pozitivní stránkou osobnosti některých seniorů je humor. Empirické výzkumy
toho, jak funguje humor u starých lidí, jsou zatím vzácné. Přehledový referát shrne dosavadní poznatky o vlivu humoru na kvalitu života, o jeho různých funkcích, determi nantách, o diagnostických nástrojích a cílených intervencích, které se se snaží humor
u seniorů rozvíjet. Speciální část referátu přiblíží užití humoru ve zdravotnické péči o seniory a vliv humoru na jejich léčení.
Klíčová slova: humor, senioři, kvality života, diagnostika, intervence, zdravotní péče
Old age in human beings is traditionally viewed as the stage of life when most
important functions are on decline. Positive psychology, however, has turned both
scientific and public attention to those aspects of personality which could actually
improve with old age and make life a more fulfilling experience. Some of these include
gratitude, prudence, wisdom, realistic self-concept, satisfaction with life, spirituality,
search for meaning in life, and passing on cultural heritage. One distinctive positive trait
found in many old people is humor. At the moment, empirical studies devoted to the
question of how humor works in old people are scarce. The contribution summarizes
existing knowledge regarding the impact of humor on quality of life, functions and
determinants of humor, as well as assessment issues and intervention options focusing on
the enhancement of humor in elderly people. One part of the paper is devoted especially
to the employment of humor in senior health care and the effects of humor on the curing
process.
Key words: humor, old people, quality of life, assessment, intervention, health care
9
The Happy Classrooms Program:
Positive Psychology Enters the Classrooms
Ricardo Arguís Rey
Silvia Hernández Paniello
SATI Team. Zaragoza
Spain
[email protected]
The “Happy Classrooms” Program is a recent pioneering project launched in Spain,
aimed at promoting the application of Positive Psychology in the field of Education
(Positive Education). It is designed for students of Preschool, Primary and Secondary
Schools (children and youth aged 3 to 18 years old). The two axes of the program are
mindfulness and the education of character strengths (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). The
goal of the program is twofold: to enhance the personal and social development
of students, and to promote happiness in students, teachers and families alike.
This program is situated within the framework of the Key Competences underlying
the current European educational systems. Specifically, it allows teachers to work on the
three most transversal Competences: autonomy and personal initiative, social and civic
competence, and competence of learning to learn. It can be developed in all areas of the
school curriculum, as well as in tutorial action and values education.
This project is the result of five years of work by a team of counsellors and teachers
linked to the Teachers' Centre “Juan de Lanuza” in Zaragoza (Spain). The authors - SATI
Team - have grounded the program on the most recent contributions of Positive
Psychology, and offer general proposals as well as more than 300 hands-on activities for
students. The program was first published on the Internet in October 2010, and the second
edition has been released in November 2012. Nowadays, it has achieved widespread and
international recognition by the scientific community and education professionals. It has
been presented at many forums and events, such as the Second World Congress on
Positive Psychology (Philadelphia, USA, July 2011), and the First National Congress on
Positive Psychology (El Escorial, Madrid, March 2012). It has been included as
a reference manual in university training programs, master’s degrees and doctorates, by
various Spanish and foreign universities. In addition, there are currently several ongoing
investigations to validate experimentally the effectiveness of this program, whose results
we hope to know soon. And last but definitely not least, there is a growing number
of schools around the world which are applying this program with students aged 3 to 18.
For now, the program is only available in Spanish, but in next few months an English
translation will come out. Its distribution is gratuitous and completely free. The authors
allow its diffusion and reproduction, but always with non-commercial purposes and
quoting the original source. It can be downloaded from the following website:
http://catedu.es/psicologiapositiva
Key words: Happy Classrooms, positive education, positive psychology in schools
10
Témata pozitivní psychologie ve výuce budoucích lékařů
Issues of Positive Psychology in Education of Future Physicians
Květoslav Šipr
Lékařská fakulta Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Pozitivní psychologie by snad mohla být chápána jako metoda práce, než považována
za samostatný obor. V pozitivní psychologii se pozornost soustředí především na kladné
aspekty života: radost, naději, podporu dobře fungujících interpersonálních vztahů, pohodu a štěstí (Slezáčková, 2012). Na začátku třetího tisíciletí definoval Martin Seligman pozitivní psychologii jako vědu, která se zabývá pozitivními emocemi, příjemnými
životními zážitky, opravdovým štěstím, pozitivními a silnými charakterovými rysy a dobře fungujícími společenskými vztahy (Seligman, 2002, 2004). Někteří vědci ovšem již
dlouho předtím zdůrazňovali potřebu optimismu a kladného přístupu k životu, u nás například psychologové Zdeněk Matějček a Libor Míček.
Je třeba připustit, že v lékařství došlo k obdobnému procesu dokonce dříve než v psychologii, pozitivní pohled na zdraví se zdůrazňuje již od poloviny minulého století. Vymezit pojem zdraví je přirozeně obtížnější než určit rysy jednotlivých nemocí.
Poprvé byla obecně platná definice zdraví přijata jako součást konstituce Světové
zdravotnické organizace 22. června 1946 v New Yorku na závěr mezinárodní konference
o zdraví: Zdraví je stav úplné tělesné, duševní a sociální pohody, nikoli jen nepřítomnost
nemoci nebo vady. Tato definice nebyla nikdy změněna a je dosud obecně uznávána,
i když je třeba přiznat, že jde o vymezení spíše deklarativního charakteru a že nezahrnuje
vysvětlení pojmu pohoda. Po několik desetiletí je v naprosté většině klinických oborů
podpora zdraví chápána jako nejdůležitější úkol.
Pozitivní pohled na zdraví je samozřejmě také součástí výchovy budoucích lékařů,
i když je v různých oborech chápán rozdílně. Obecně se dnes uznává, že nejdůležitějším
úkolem lékaře není léčit nemoci, ale podporovat zdraví. V preventivním lékařství, ve veřejném zdravotnictví a v pracovním lékařství se ochrana zdraví považuje za hlavní cíl výchovy.
Medicína a psychologie mají mnoho společných zájmů. Nepřekvapuje, že psychologie
je jedním z předmětů vyučovaných na lékařských fakultách a že se na druhé straně určitá
znalost zdravovědy vyžaduje od studentů psychologie. Studenti medicíny si dnes stěžují
na nedostatečnou přípravu pro kontakt s nemocnými (Procjuk, Košťálová, Kovář, 2008)
a zkušení lékaři poukazují na žalostně nízký počet klinických psychologů (Mihál, 2004).
Slovo pohoda (well-being) je klíčovým pojmem v medicíně i v psychologii, a zejména
v pozitivní psychologii. Dalo by se tedy očekávat, že se budeme setkávat s mnoha publikacemi věnovanými problémům, které jsou společné pozitivní psychologii a medicíně.
Tento předpoklad se bohužel nepodařilo potvrdit.
Klíčová slova: pozitivní psychologie, lékařství, zdraví , pohoda
Positive psychology should be considered rather a method of work than a selfcontained discipline. Positive psychology focuses attention on the positive aspects of life:
joy, hope, support of well-functioning interpersonal relations, well-being and happiness
(Slezáčková, 2012). At the beginning of the third millennium, Martin Seligman defined
11
positive psychology as a science concerned with positive emotions, pleasant life
experience, authentic happiness, good and strong character traits and well-functioning
communities (Seligman, 2002, 2004). Of course, there were scholars who emphasised
optimism and life appreciation long time before him, including Czech psychologists
Zdeněk Matějček and Libor Míček.
It may be admitted that a similar process as in psychology occured in medicine, at an
even earlier time. A positive view of health has been promoted since the middle of the last
century. It is rather easy to characterise the features of particular diseases, but it is difficult
to define health.
A comprehensive definition of health was given for the first time in the WHO
Constitution accepted at the end of the International Health Conference in New York,
22 June 1946: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This definition has never been changed and it
has been acknowledged up to the present time even if it is too declarative and does not
cover an explanation of the term well-being. A majority of clinical branches has been
accepting health support as their most important task for several decades already.
Health, when understood positively, is naturally a part of the education of future
physicians although different courses address it at different levels. Today, it is generally
acknowledged that the main task of the physician is to support health, not to cure diseases.
Health protection is considered to be the main educational aim at least in some subjects,
such as preventive medicine, community medicine and occupational medicine.
Medicine and psychology have many joint interests. No wonder that psychology is
one of the subjects taught at faculties of medicine and that knowledge of some health
science topics is required from students of psychology. Students of medicine today often
complain about insufficient training in interaction with patients (Procjuk, Košťálová,
Kovář, 2008) and experienced physicians alert to the pitifully low number of clinical
psychologists (Mihál, 2004). The word “well-being” is a central term not only in medicine
but also in psychology, especially in positive psychology. The emergence of a high
number of publications devoted to the problems connecting positive psychology with
medicine could have been expected. Unfortunately, such an assumption was not
confirmed.
Key words: positive psychology, well-being, medicine, health
12
SESSION 1A / SEKCE 1A
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK AND ORGANIZATIONS
POZITIVNÍ PSYCHOLOGIE V PRÁCI A ORGANIZACI
The Positive Is the Best Friend of the Negative
Günter Lueger
Solution Management Center Vienna
Austria
[email protected]
“The Better is the Enemy of the Good” is a very well known saying of the philosopher
Voltaire. Consequently “the good is the enemy of the worse” and so on, a very
pessimistic/combative view in the (management) world. In this presentation it will be
shown that this very often used quote of Voltaire is in no way helpful for developing
resources. The relationship between “Positive” and “Negative” can be seen in
a completely different and positive way. Both (Positive and Negative) are best friends and
- even more - can only exist together as “better and worse” (concept of Dualisms). It is
a co-evolution and “both sides” need mutual appreciation and tolerance.
Examples and practical implications of re-constructing and using the relationship of
“Positive and Negative” in a constructive way will be demonstrated in the field of
management (performance management, motivation of employees) as well as
schools/universities (feedback, evaluation of students).
Key words: positive management, organisations, optimism at work, hope in difficult
situations
Resilience, Self-Efficiacy and Wisdom Correlates
in Latvian Bussiness Leaders Sample
Guna Svence
Vineta Grivza
Riga teacher Training and Education Management Academy
Latvia
[email protected]
The aim of this study is to investigate relationship between positive psychology
resources – resilience, general self-efficacy and wisom dimensions – cognitive, reflective
and affective at different levels in business leaders, and to investigate the difference
between two groups of leaders – those with high general self-efficacy and those with low
general self-efficacy. The study was carried out based on theories of psychological
resources. Today’s business environment of rapid changes challenges not only leaders’
knowledge, skills and abilities, but also self-conceptualizations of their leadership
capabilities and psychological resources. Resources not only buffer against the potentially
harmful stress effects of the demands of working life, but may promote development and
13
optimal performance, which is necessary for leaders to be able to meet increasing
demands of their role. 83 respondents (57 women, 26 men) participated in the study –
different levels of business leaders from various industries: banking, finance, accounting,
information technology, telecommunications, etc. Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale
(3D-WS, Ardelt, 2003), The Brief Resilience Scale (Smith, 2008) and The General SelfEfficacy Scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995) were used in the study. Spearman’s
correlation analysis and univariate analysis of variance with Scheffe post-hoc test was
used to test relationships, while differences were tested using Mann-Whitney test.
Key words: resilience, self-efficacy, wisdom, leaders
Positive Organizations: Measuring and Enhancing the Positive
Interaction Styles of Day Program Staff Working with Adults
with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Lori Ann Dotson
Leah Vanono
Director of IABA-North Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis
California, USA
[email protected]
Positive interactions in social relationships between staff and individuals with
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) is an emerging area of research.
An operationalized definition of ‘Positive Interaction’ is required in order to support
monitoring and implementation of Positive Behavior Support in services. To this end,
a pilot study was conducted on the measurement and evaluation of a positive interactions
observational tool and interactive intervention workshop, at a day program service in
California with three staff and fourteen clients participating in a multiple baseline withinparticipants experimental design study. Preliminary results indicated good reliability of
the Positive Interactions Checklist and social validity of the Positive Interactions
Intervention Workshop. Recommendations include systematic staff monitoring and
development of a minimum standards framework around social interaction between
frontline staff and individuals with intellectual disabilities and behavior that challenges
services.
Key words: positive organizations, adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities
and complex needs, quality of life
14
How Democratic Workplace Affects Employees? Psychological
Analysis of the Mechanisms Investigated in the Largest
Democratic Workplace in the World – Mondragón Corporate
Cooperative in Basque Country
Aleksandra Blawat
Jagiellonian University
Poland
[email protected]
The aim of the presentation is to share the experience of applied positive
organizational psychology gained while conducting the qualitative research on the
implicit theories of work among members of Mondragón Corporate Cooperative (MCC)
in Basque Country in Spain. MCC is the biggest world cooperative, and a star example to
be followed by other organizations trying to introduce democratic practices to their
workplace. In Mondragón Group around 130 companies are owned by almost 40 000
employees – members of the cooperative. They have a real influence on crucial
organizational decisions which are made by the Governing Board, an organ chosen by all
members, due to the golden rule “one member, one vote”. Employees have access to all
information, including the salaries, which are distributed in a way that implies the
maximum proportion between the highest wage and the lowest wage as 6:1.
Organizational hierarchy is very flat and the benefits the organization is gaining are
divided by all members of the cooperative. All those organizational characteristics of the
workplace stemming form cooperative model of the organization have an enormous effect
on employees’ attitudes, motivation, behavior and understanding of their work.
Conducting research in such a workplace was fruitful in observations of many
positive psychological mechanisms developed in such work environment. In the
presentation I will try to address the following issues: how the ownership of the company
and financial participation may affect employees, what work means for members of such
a democratic workplace, what possible positive and negative psychological repercussion
may result from shared reasonability followed by participation in decision making. The
above topic will be approached from the perspective of positive organizational scholarship
– the strongest trend in organizational studies, anchored in the idea of positive
psychology.
Key words: employee participation, cooperative, organizational psychology
15
Job, Career or Calling? Relationship Between Work
Orientations, Basic Psychological Needs and Well-Being
of Elementary School Teachers
Majda Rijavec
Lana Jurčec
Dubravka Miljković
Faculty of Teacher Education, Zagreb
Croatia
[email protected]
There is evidence that most people see their work as either a job (focus on financial
rewards and necessity rather than pleasure or fulfillment), a career (focus on
advancement), or a calling (focus on enjoyment of fulfilling, socially useful work).
The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between work orientations, basic
psychological needs and well-being of elementary school teachers. Three questionnaires
were administered to 150 elementary school teachers: modified University of
Pennsylvania Work–Life Questionnaire (Wrzesniewski et al.,1997, measuring job, career
or calling orientation towards work), modified Basic Psychological Needs Scale (Ilardi
i sur, 1993) and Life Satisfaction Scale (Diener et al., 1985). Work satisfaction was
measured by one item. Basic psychological needs scale was divided into two subscales:
fulfilment and unfulfilment of needs.
The teachers scored highest on calling orientation, followed by career and job
orientation.
It was hypothesized that calling as work orientation would be positively related to life
and work satisfaction, and that this relationship would be mediated by fulfilment of basic
psychological needs. On the other hand, job and career orientation would be negatively
related to work and life satisfaction and that this relationship would be mediated by
unfulfilment of basic psychological needs.
Career orientation was related neither to satisfaction of basic psychological needs nor
to life or work satisfaction and was excluded from further analysis.
To test the relationship between the job and calling orientation, basic psychological
needs and life and work satisfaction, path analysis was performed. The hypothesized
model seemed to fit the data reasonably well.
There was positive relationship between calling orientation and work and life
satisfaction that was fully mediated by fulfilment of psychological needs for life
satisfaction, and partially for work satisfaction. Negative relationship between job
orientation and life and work satisfaction was fully mediated by unfulfilment of basic
psychological needs.
Key words: work orientations, basic psychological needs, life satisfaction work
satisfaction.
16
SESSION 1B / SEKCE 1B
POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS
POZITIVNÍ VZTAHY
Meaning and Relational Well-Being: Towards a Model
Marié Wissing1
Antonella Delle Fave2
1
North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
2
University of Milano, Italy
[email protected]
Theoretical background: Meaning is about connections and relations at its core. Being
positively connected to others had been shown to be associated with psychosocial health
and well-being. Many empirical studies showed that interpersonal relationships (in family
and other contexts) are the main sources of meaning in life for many people in various
Western contexts. This is also true of the experience of meaning in an African context, but
in an African context, horizontal and vertical relatedness are deeply intertwined.
Meanings are acquired in social and cultural contexts, and the interconnectednessto-wholeness assumed in various worldviews.
Focus and aim of the study: In this paper we aim to suggest a meaning model with
a relational core which combines insights from the eudaimonic stream of research on
meaning in positive psychology, as well as findings from relationship science, and built
harmony in the scientific text by taking meta-theoretical perspectives, theoretical
postulates and empirical findings into account.
Summary: A meaning model with a relationship core is argued and presented taking
the various levels of the scientific text into account. Hypotheses deducted from this model
for empirical evaluation are indicated, and implications of the model for practical
applications suggested.
Key words: meaning, relational well-being, model
Do Big Five Traits Moderate the PsyCap Dimensions
in Promoting Citizenship Behaviors: A Pilot Investigation
with Early Career Academic Professionals
Rajneesh Choubisa
Kanika Bisht
Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani
India
[email protected]
The recently invoked paradox of psychological capital has been exhaustively explored
and has shown to be of prime significance for developing a flourishing and positive
workplace in positive organizational behavior. A variety of co-relational studies on and
about discretionary pro-social attitudes and behaviors have informed a number of
17
behavioral approaches, both empirically and theoretically. It has also been an established
fact that engaging oneself in citizenship behaviors is governed by various intermittent
variables which most often bear direct relevance to eudemonistic environment and
simultaneously enhance productivity. This informal assumption that psychological capital
dimensions would have a significantly positive relationship with citizenship behaviors
was explored in this paper. Using the Baron and Kenny’s (1986) mediation/moderation
considerations, the role of personality factors especially the Big Five was schematically
investigated with special reference to the manifestation of psychological capital
dimensions on organizational citizenship behaviors in a cohort of one hundred and ten
(n=110) early career professionals. The resultant model showing the standardized
regression values suggests that conscientiousness, agreeableness and extraversion have
significant bonding with hope and self-efficacy components. It was ergo propter hoc
concluded that citizenship behaviors are better reinforced and promoted by an intertwined
matrix of significant connections between PsyCap and personality determinants.
The relationships further the assumption that OCB can be shaped positively through well
conceived interventions.
Key words: positive psychology, psycap, moderation, personality, citizenship behaviors
etc.
The Determinants of Well-Being among International
Immigrants: A Systematic Literature Review
Anna Bak-Klimek
Edinburgh Napier University
United Kingdom
[email protected]
Background: Over the last decades migration has become an increasingly popular
phenomenon. Most of the scientific literature on immigrant mental health has focussed on
stress, distress and mental illness. Less attention has been paid to more positive aspects in
particular mental well-being. The existing studies among immigrants have not been
systematically reviewed to provide an overview of the factors which affect their
subjective well-being. Nor do we know the extent to which the existing integrative
theories of well-being such as the Theory of Sustainable Happiness (2005) which is based
on the studies from general population is substantiated by research conducted with
immigrants.
Aim of the study: This systematic review aims to 1) Identify factors that affect wellbeing among international immigrants 2) Determine the extent to which the existing
research among immigrants supports the Theory of Sustainable Happiness (2005).
Summary: Eight studies met the final inclusion criteria for the review representing
a total sample of 2150 immigrants. Most of the studies examined a wide range of sociodemographics such as income, education and a narrow range of psychological factors.
The review demonstrates that psychological factors such as comparison standards, coping,
personality characteristics (e.g. self-esteem) and perceived social support are more
powerful at explaining the variability of immigrants’ well-being than socio-demographics
and migration-related factors. The findings are in line with the integrative theory of well-
18
being - the Sustainable Happiness Model (2005) which suggests that 1) top-down
(personality, cognitive, motivational) factors account for most of the variance in wellbeing and 2) bottom-up (circumstantial and contextual) factors play little role due to
hedonic adaptation which is people’s tendency to become habituated to their
circumstances. Implications for future research and public health are discussed. The study
highlights the value of promoting social support and social integration as an important
means of sustaining well-being among immigrants.
Key words: determinants, migration, well-being
On the Theory of Interdependance and Its Relevance
for Further Developments of Positive Psychology
on Human Relationships and Clinical Practice
Camilo Garcia
Universidad Veracruzana
Mexico
[email protected]
This paper is based on the theory of interdependence and it focuses on current
research on social development resulting from social change. The theory of
interdependence (Kelley and Thibaut, 1972) analyzes behavior departing from “traditional
psychology” in two aspects: one, methodologically focusing on the dyads rather than on
the individual alone, and two, transcending the learning approach (actions) and integrating
the cognitive component (attributions). Furthermore, adding to this perspective, the
propositions that psychological processes are influenced if not determined by the social
ones, a series of studies on children’s cooperative behavior is presented in light
of sociocultural change in Mexico.
The original Madsen studies (1967) and Garcia (1985) were replicated in exactly the
same villages and urban settings and using same procedures and instruments. Findings
showed drastic changes from cooperation to competition. These findings suggest the need
for expanding studies of positive relationships focusing on dyads and not only on
individual’s learning of happiness since behavior results from one’s own and other’s
actions as well as on their attributions in light of the sociocultural changes. One may be as
“happy” (positive) when cooperating, just as the competitive individual when he or she
exploits the other. Actions and attributions are part of the matrix.
After all, clinical practice has also shown that the efficacy of instilling a positive
approach in couples depends not only on the clinician effective actions but on the clients’
interpretation and attributions as well. These attributions, in turn, will depend on the
sociocultural contexts.
Key words: social development, cooperation, cross-cultural theory, personal relationships
19
Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being Among University
Students: Their Link and a Comparison of Czech,
New Zealand and Indian Samples
Štěpánka Dvořáková1, Alena Slezáčková2, Kamlesh Singh3
Rajneesh Choubisa4, Aaron Jarden5, Fiona Howard6
1
Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, Czech Republic
2
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy Univerzity, Psychologický ústav, Brno, Czech Republic
3
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi , Department of Humanities and Social Sciences
New Delhi, India
4
Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, India
5
Open Polytechnic of New Zealand
6
University of Auckland, New Zealand
[email protected]
According to some international surveys New Zealand is one of the happiest countries
in the world, whereas India ranks at the bottom. Social capital shows according to
The Legatum Institute one of the biggest difference between these two countries. In our
cross-cultural study we compare subjective well-being and social capital among Czech,
Indian and New Zealand university students and look at the link between social capital
and subjective well-being. Our sample consists of 131 New Zealand, 165 Czech and 168
Indian university students. Questionnaires used in our research - SWLS (Diener et al.,
1985), The Happiness Measure (Fordyce, 1988) and Social Capital Integrated
Questionnaire (Grootaert et al., 2004) - were complemented by a qualitative methodology.
Our research reveals unexpected results: Indian students are experiencing happiness most
intensively and the level of life satisfaction of college students does not differ across the
cultures. Qualitatively we found cultural differences in subjective well-being
determinants. Social capital reflects cultural characteristics respecting our specific sample.
The link between subjective well-being and social capital was found to some of the social
capital aspects only. A link between life satisfaction and social capital was more frequent.
Key words: subjective well-being, social capital, university students, cross-cultural
comparison
20
SESSION 2A / SEKCE 2A
ASSESSMENT OF WELL-BEING AND POSITIVE FUNCTIONING
MĚŘENÍ OSOBNÍ POHODY A POZITIVNÍHO FUNGOVÁNÍ
Early Tests of an Online System for Participant Observation
of Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness
Charles J. Walker
Brandon T. Kowalski
St. Bonaventure University
USA
[email protected]
Theoretical background: Procedures for self-report of happiness have been used
extensively in research on positive psychology (Diener, 2010). However, self-reports can
be influenced by self-enhancement and self-consistency (Wilson, 2002). When trained
observers report what they see, there is less opportunity for these kinds of biases to set
limits on the reliability and validity of the results. However, the theoretical and
operational definitions of hedonic and eudaimonic happiness can also set limits on the
reliability and validity of the results. Recent research on hedonia and eudaimonia
provided the theoretical foundation for the training of observers in the present study
(Huta, 2012).
Aim of the study: To test and refine procedures for participant observation
of happiness.
Research sample: Twenty college students (10 males & 10 females) were watched by
10 observers (2 males & 8 females) for 32 days.
Methods used: Observers were trained to the criterion of .80 inter-observer agreement
on the distinctions between hedonic and eudaimonic happiness. Each was given a smartphone app then trained to use a sliding 100-point scale to unobtrusively report twice
a week the levels of negative & positive affect and languishing & flourishing in a male
and female who they knew well and could easily watch continuously. Their reports were
stored in an online database configured by time, location, observer, and identification
variables of the watched people. These procedures were endorsed by the IRB.
Main findings: The system functioned well; however, flip-phone users found it easier
to report observations with a tablet or laptop. Among many interesting findings, people
expressed more positive than negative affect and flourished more than languished,
F(3,520)=59.50, p<.001. Surprisingly, men manifested higher levels of hedonic and
eudaimonic happiness than women, F(21, 520)=2.81, p< .001. Participant observation is
feasible; more importantly, it opens new doors for research in positive psychology.
Key words: participant observation, eudaimonic & hedonic happiness, measurements of
happiness
21
Assessment of Positive Functioning: How Can We Measure
in a Standardised Way the Patients’ Strengths?
Tanja Bellier-Teichmann
Valentino Pomini
University of Lausanne
Switzerland
[email protected]
Theoretical background: Clinical psychology has been traditionally concerned with
the assessment of symptoms, distress and impairments. In contrast, positive psychology
focuses on the positive functioning of human beings, such as self-esteem, hope,
motivation or authenticity. Evidence suggests that concentrating on strengths serves
a preventative function against future psychopathology and relapse (Fredrickson, 1998,
2001; Garland et al., 2010; Watson et al., 2010).
This perspective led to a variety of new psychometric instruments. Nevertheless, only
few standardised tools assessing positive functioning exist in clinical psychology and
psychiatry (Joseph & Wood, 2010). These instruments generally measure one specific
feature; they rarely give a global profile of the patients’ strengths.
Focus and aim of the study: This study aims to review different instruments in order to
identify the principal components of an assessment measuring the patients’ strengths.
How can we measure in a standardised way a strength profile of psychiatric patients?
Which principal features should be part of a tool assessing positive functioning?
Summary: We identified different types of psychometric instruments assessing
patients’ strengths. These instruments applied two approaches. The continuous approach
measures difficulties and strengths on the same continuum. The discrete approach
separates the assessment of difficulties and strengths in different tools. Three broad
categories of strengths were acknowledged in the reviewed instruments: 1. Internal
strengths related to affective regulation processes (positive emotions, aspirations), 2.
Internal strengths related to cognitive regulation processes (self-esteem, self-efficacy),
3. External strengths (social support)
We will present a draft of a new instrument measuring a general profile of patients’
strengths based on the three categories mentioned above. In order to be adjusted for
patients with cognitive or language difficulties, our instrument will be based on figurative
items rather than on a questionnaire.
Key words: patients' strengths profile
The General Factor of Personality (GFP) and Well Being
Janek Musek
University of Ljubljana
Slovenia
[email protected]
The General Factor of Personality (GFP) represents a recent construct in personality
theory, yet since the very first empirical article addressed to it (Musek, 2007), a close
22
relationship between GFP and well being has been repeatedly reported. The aim of this
study is a systematic analysis of the connections between the GFP and the dimensions of
well-being including the general factor of well being (GFWB) as well as the more specific
primary factors. Several multivariate and SEM analyses convincingly confirmed the
hypothetically assumed substantial association between the GFP and the dimensions of
well-being. The results justified the conclusion that GFP represents probably the best
single personality predictor of well being, especially in regard to the general factor of well
being. Additionally, the results also contribute to the better understanding of the entire
structure of conative (non-cognitive) domain of personality. It seems probable that a very
comprehensive general psychological dimension underlies all most prominent conative
variables including the narrower personality domain (e.g. the Big Five), well being, selfconcept, self-esteem, affect, motivation and coping. Consequently, the GFP and GFWB
could be conceived as the representatives of this superdimension with its distinctive
psychological and bioevolutionary features.
Key words: well being, general factor of personality, personality theory, personality
structure
The Greek Version of the Resilience Scale, the Mindful
Attention Awareness Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale:
Translation, Adaptation, Validation
Danai Kirla1, Pantazi Stella1, Rera Irene1, Bozikas Vasilios2, Holeva Vasiliki3
1
1st Psychiatric Clinic of Papageorgiou General Hospital of Thessaloniki
2
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
3
Papageorgiou General Hospital of Thessaloniki
Greece
[email protected]
Theoretical background: Over the last years the Resilience Scale (RS), the Mindful
Attention Awareness Scale (MASS) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) have
been increasingly utilized in clinical research and practice all over the world. All of the
above are designed to measure one’s positive traits, namely resilience, mindfulness and
subjective well-being. Furthermore, there has been a growing number of research papers
concerning positive psychology and its practice. However, limited research activity has
been conducted with Greek samples in this area of interest, despite the great need for
instruments accounting for positive characteristics.
Aim of the study: The present study aimed to translate, adapt and validate the
Resilience Scale (RS), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the
Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in the Greek population. In addition, these
questionnaires were to be correlated with the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and
the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), in order to further investigate their psychometric
properties.
Research sample: A random sample of Greek-speaking participants (N = 780), aged
18-78, was recruited for this study. The participants completed either a hardcopy set of
questionnaires or an internet-based one. The participation was voluntary and anonymous.
23
Methods used: The translation and adaptation procedure was designed according to
the WHO guidelines (forward translation, expert panel back-translation, pilot study and
final version). The reliability procedure concerned the exploration of internal consistency
(Cronbach a coefficient). Finally, the scales were correlated with the BDI-II and the BAI
inventory in order for the validity to be examined.
Main findings: The Greek versions of the Resilience Scale, the Mindful Attention
Awareness Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were proved to have favorable
psychometric properties. Therefore, they should be considered as useful tools for
measuring core positive psychology features in research or clinical settings, even under
socially stressful circumstances.
Key words: mindfulness, resilience, satisfaction with life
Mastery in Happiness - the Role of Expertise in Everyday Life
Agnieszka Bożek
Ryszard Stocki
Wojtyla Institute - Sience Foundation
Poland
[email protected]
The research is based on Robert Sternberg’s (1999) theory of intelligence as
developing expertise with an emphasis on the role of tacit knowledge in everyday life as
well as many years of research on happiness (i.a. Kahnemann, 1999; Diener, 2000;
Lyubomirsky, 2001; Veenhoven, 2003; Czapiński, 2012). The main purpose of the study
was to find whether tacit knowledge in everyday life increases happiness. Secondary aim
was to explore whether there is any dependency between happiness and gender in the life
time; continuous education; community religious activity and frequent contact with God;
the quality of relationships with others and social support; proactivity, self-perception. On
the basis of Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Managers (Wagner and Sternberg, 1987) the
Tacit Everyday Knowledge Inventory was created for measuring expertise in everyday life
situations. The level of happiness was measured with Happiness Scale referring to both
hedonistic and eudaimonistic dimensions of happiness. The pilot study was conducted
among 24 experts of both sexes aged 35 to 70 and 152 social media users both sexes aged
18 to 56. Preliminary results confirm the influence of expertise on the feeling of happiness
and the dependency between happiness and continuous education or satisfaction with
relationships with others. After making expedient corrections in the methods the research
is being continued. The results will be presented at the conference.
Key words: tacit knowledge, expertise, happiness, everyday life
24
SESSION 2B / SEKCE 2B
POSITIVE INTERVENTIONS AND FOSTERING STRENGTHS
POZITIVNÍ INTERVENCE A PODPORA SILNÝCH STRÁNEK
Building Resilience in Psychologists:
Utilising Positive Psychology to Inform a Growth-Fostering
Supervision Approach
Fiona Howard
University of Auckland
New Zealand
[email protected]
The cultivation and maintenance of resilient individuals and environments is emerging
as a way to reduce negative and increase positive outcomes of stress in the mental health
and related professions (McCann, Beddoe, McCormick, Huggard, Kedge, Adamson
& Huggard, 2013). One practice that can provide effective protection against stress and
burnout is professional supervision (Mor Barak, Travis, Pyun & Xie, 2009). However,
there is little to guide the participants about how to conduct the restorative or growthfostering aspect of supervision effectively and ethically. This paper addresses this gap for
those who work with distress, trauma, and workplace stressors. Findings from studies
within positive psychology potentially provide the evidence base upon which to base
a methodology for supervision or coaching of healthcare professionals.
Methods: A relational and contextual approach to supervision was devised based upon
evidence from the study of psychologists’ resilience. Recent literature and findings from
a survey and focus group interviews with New Zealand psychologists' (McCormick,
2013) exploring individual, environmental, relational, professional, and spiritual resources
provided the background.
Results: The proposed approach is a proactive approach to the restorative function of
supervision. It features a strong and positive supervisory relationship at the center,
embedded within a network of growth-fostering peer and collegial relationships. Values
such as the acceptability of emotional vulnerability and the importance of self-reflection
and personal therapy during training and beyond are made explicit. The supervision focus
includes self-care practices and encouragement of the use of evidence-based resilience
building interventions drawn from the field of positive psychology.
Discussion: The approach could be integrated into a supervisors’ existing supervision
practice or as a complement to a resilience-building educational programme. Further
research would be needed to determine its efficacy in practice.
Key words: supervision, resilience, positive interventions and psychologists
25
Happiness and the University Experience:
Promoting the Well-Being of Students
Sonya L. Flessati
Janet Miller
Anna-Lisa Ciccocioppo
Mount Royal University, Calgary
Canada
[email protected]
University is a demanding and stressful time for students (Gerdes & Mallinckrodt,
1994). In the midst of facing the challenges of academic demands, career decisions,
developmental changes and transitions, some students may falter (Pancer, Hunsberger,
Pratt & Alisat, 2000). At one extreme, there can be despair, depression, and at times,
suicidality. At the other extreme, a lack of motivation, social disconnection,
disengagement from studies and an inflated focus on extrinsic rewards (e.g. academic
grades). Indeed, much of the university experience supports this focus. Research (e.g.,
Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005; Otake, Shimai, Tanaka-Matsumi, Otsui
& Fredrickson, 2006) suggests that happiness is more likely to be sustained when
individuals are intrinsically motivated; that intrinsic rewards can trigger upward spirals of
positivity. The authors of this paper will discuss how happiness interventions can foster
resilience, support wellness, and assist students in navigating the labyrinth of the
university experience. This paper will discuss ideas around how happiness can be brought
to campus. The authors of this paper are three registered psychologists working in student
counselling services at two Canadian universities. Collectively, they have over 45 years
of experience in working with students. Together they will draw from the history
of happiness, current literature in the positive psychology realm, and effective
interventions used in their own practice.
Key words: happiness, positive psychology, resilience, university students, counseling,
student retention, wellness
Effect "Recognition of Acquired Competences"
for Vulnerable Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Manja van Wezep, Anne Marije Rijkaart, Hans Kroon, Harry Michon
Trimbos Institute, Utrecht
The Netherlands
[email protected]
RAC-v, Recognition of Acquired Competencies for volunteers, is an intervention
which is based on the strengths of people. People with a 'large distance' to the labour
market because of social and psychological vulnerabilities can determine their experience,
skills and talents in a certificate.
Our aim is to determine the effectiveness of this intervention: does it result in
participants feeling more empowered? In addition, we are interested in how the
participants of EVC experience the intervention and how this intervention works in their
26
opinion. Both the control and the experimental group are assessed three times (T0, T6,
T12 months) by standardised questionnaires. For answering the question how this
intervention works we used interviews with participants and their coaches. In total, 257
clients (126 EVC; 131 waitlisted) of 26 organisations were recruited. Preliminary results
of T0-T6 showed effect on empowerment and insight in competences. The qualitative part
of the study suggests that EVC makes participants more aware of their strengths, increases
their self-confidence, it helps them undertake more and have more faith for the future.
At the 3th World Congress on Positive Psychology we will present the main results
regarding the outcomes of the 12 months follow up (follow-up rate is 76%).
Key words: intervention, volunteers, competencies, trial
Hungry 4 Performance:
Exploring Well-Being and Optimism at Work
Paul Pahil
Hungry 4 Learning Ltd, Positivity Centre, Budapest
Hungary
[email protected]
The focus of this presentation is to outline notable trends and differences of a positive
intervention that was commissioned by a multi-national company from Hungry
4 Learning (H4L). H4L is a research-based consultancy that specializes in developing
flourishing individuals and teams via engaging in positivity as operationalized by
Csikszentmihalyi, Fredrickson and Linley.
This multi-national company has sites in Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and
England, so this organisational case-study allows for useful cultural comparisons
in relation to well-being levels. Also this case-study examines who finds the state of
optimism energising. Implications are discussed in relation to employee engagement and
leadership development.
Key words: optimism, flourishing, positive intervention
27
SESSION 2C / SEKCE 2C
CHARACTER AND SPIRITUALITY
CHARAKTER A SPIRITUALITA
Skúsenosti so slovenskou verziou Snyderovej škály nádeje
Experience with the Slovak Version of the Snyder Hope Scale
Peter Halama
Trnavská univerzita, Trnava
Slovakia
[email protected]
Snyderov koncept nádeje definuje nádej ako myšlienkový proces, ktorý má dva komponenty: snahu, t.j. kognitívnu schopnosť postupovať na ceste za dosahovaním cieľa,
a cestu, t.j. percipovanú schopnosť generovať jeden alebo viac fungujúcich spôsobov dosahovania cieľa. Hoci táto teória vznikla na začiatku 90-tych rokov ešte pred vznikom pozitívnej psychológie, po jej objavení sa stala jedným z jej dominantných konceptov.
Snyderova škála nádeje, ktorá meria uvedený koncept, bola už dávnejšie preložená do
slovenčiny (Halama, 2001) a použitá vo viacerých výskumoch. Tento príspevok má za
cieľ prezentovať doterajšie skúsenosti so slovenskou verziou škály, so zameraním na psychometrické ako aj výskumné štúdie. Výsledky psychometrických štúdií poukazujú na
adekvátne vlastnosti škály. Výskumné štúdie zasa poukázali na to, že nádej funguje ako
významný prediktor či mediátor rôznych aspektov optimálneho fungovania osobnosti.
Klíčová slova: nádej, snaha, cesta, Snyderova škála nádeje
Snyder’s hope theory defines hope as a thinking process with two components:
agency, which is cognitive ability to continue in pursuing goals, and pathway, which is
a perceived ability to generate one or more working ways to achieve a goal. Although this
theory appeared in early 90s, when positive psychology did not exist, lately it became one
of the central concepts of positive psychology. Snyder’s Hope Scale, which measures this
concept, was translated into Slovak (Halama, 2001) and used in several research studies.
This presentation aims to present the experience with the Slovak version of this scale,
including psychometric studies and research studies. The results of psychometric studies
show adequate properties of the scale in the Slovak language. The research studies point
to the fact that hope is an important predictor or mediator of different aspects of optimal
personality functioning.
Key words: hope, agency, pathway, Snyder Hope Scale
28
Integrita – verifikácia inventára na jej meranie
Integrity: Verification of the Inventory for Its Measurement
Eva Nábělková
Mária Kahancová
Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici
Slovakia
[email protected]
Príspevok mapuje viaceré poňatia integrity (v kontexte manažmentu, psychológie
osobnosti, salutogenézy) s dôrazom na poňatie pozitívnej psychológie. Tu je integrita chápaná ako vnútorná celistvosť človeka, ktorý je skutočne sám sebou a súkromne aj verejne
zastáva svoje vnútorné stavy, zámery a záväzky (Seligman – Peterson, 2004). Ďalej sú
v príspevku prezentované výsledky výskumu (realizovaného na vzorke VŠ študentov psychológie), ktorého cieľom bolo overiť psychometrické vlastnosti autorkami navrhnutého
sebaposudzovacieho inventára INTE, ktorý zisťuje mieru integrity prostredníctvom
desiatich položiek opatrených päťbodovou škálou výstižnosti. Ako validizačné metodiky
boli použité: Dotazník životnej orientácie, resp. citu pre integritu (sense of coherence)
A. Antonovského, Inventár integrity študenta psychológie (vlastnej konštrukcie) zisťujúci
aspekt integrity v zmysle súladu medzi tým, kým som (rola študenta) a osobným prežívaním toho, kým som, a napokon slovenská modifikácia položiek relevantných pre charakterovú prednosť integrita z inventára VIA (Values in action) autorov M. Seligmana a Ch.
Petersona. Ako validizačné kritérium bola tiež použitá miera stotožnenia sa (na škále od
0 do 100%) s kvalitami integrovaného človeka obsiahnutými v básni „Ak“ od R. Kiplinga
a miera stotožnenia sa s dezintegrovaným bytím opísaným v texte o dezintegrite súčasného človeka v jeho svete od D. Kováča. V rámci konštruktovej validizácie boli Inventárom
NEO-FFI (Costa – McCrae) v slovenskom preklade I. Ruisela a P. Halamu merané aj
osobnostné vlastnosti Big Five.
Cronbachov koeficient alfa poukázal na dostatočnú reliabilitu v zmysle vnútornej
konzistencie overovaného inventára INTE. Kritériová validizácia preukázala zmysluplné
vzťahy integrity meranej overovaným inventárom so všetkými zvolenými kritériami.
Okrem toho vykázala integrita stredne tesné pozitívne korelačné vzťahy s extroverziou,
prívetivosťou a svedomitosťou, ako aj negatívny vzťah s neurotizmom.
Klíčová slova: integrita, pozitívna psychológia, cit pre integritu (sense of coherence), big
five, validita, reliabilita
The paper maps several conceptions of integrity (in the context of management,
personality psychology, salutogenesis) with the emphasis on positive psychology concept,
where integrity is understood as an internal compactness of person who is really himself,
and who – private or public – maintains his own internal states, intentions and
commitments (Seligman – Peterson, 2004). Further, the paper presents the results of
research (conducted on a sample of university students of psychology) the purpose of
which was to verify psychometric properties of the authors’ proposed self-report inventory
INTE that measures degree of integrity through ten items supplemeted with a five-point
accuracy scale. Validation measures included: Sense of Coherence Questionnaire of
A. Antonovsky, Inventory of Psychology Student Integrity (own design) that measures
aspects of integrity in terms of consistency between who I am (student role) and personal
29
experience of who I am, and finally, a Slovak modification of items relevant to the
character strength integrity from the VIA (Values In Action) inventory by authors
M. Seligman and Ch. Peterson. Another validation criterion applied was the degree of
self-identification (on a scale from 0 to 100%) with qualities of integrated person
contained in Kipling´s poem "If", and the degree of self-identification with disintegrated
being as described in the text about disintegrity of contemporary man in his world by
D. Kováč. During the construct validation process the Big Five personality traits were
measured using the NEO-FFI inventory (Costa – McCrae) in Slovak translation by
I. Ruisel and P. Halama.
Cronbach alpha coefficient indicated sufficient reliability in terms of internal
consistency of the verified inventory INTE. Criterion validation process demonstrated
meaningful relationships of integrity measured by the verified inventory to all selected
criteria. In addition, the integrity showed moderate positive correlations with extraversion,
agreeableness, and conscientiousness, as well as negative relationship with neuroticism.
Key words: integrity, positive psychology, sense of coherence, big five, validity, reliability
Dobrý charakter z pohledu psychologie morálky
Good Character from the Perspective of Moral Psychology
Pavel Vacek
Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity Hradec Králové, Katedra pedagogiky a psychologie,
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Příspěvek se zabývá vývojem a utvářením dobrého charakteru v kontextu základních
koncepcí psychologie morálky.
Cílem pojednání je analýza váhy(důležitosti) jednotlivých složek charakteru a jejich
hierarchizace ve vazbě na zákonitosti, jejichž respektování je podmínkou dosažení vyšší
úrovně morálního vývoje.
Analýza se opírá především o komparaci se stadiálními teoriemi morálního vývoje
(Piaget, Kohlberg).
Text vyúsťuje v pokus o propojení a hledání styčných bodů "silných stránek charakteru" předkládaných reprezentanty pozitivní psychologie s dynamickými modely výchovy
charakteru a výchovy k hodnotám.
Klíčová slova: dobrý charakter, ctnosti, morální vývoj, psychologie morálky
This contribution concentrates on the development and formation of good character
within the frame of basic moral psychology concepts.
Its aim is to analyze how significant individual character components are and how
they are hierarchized in relation to the rules which must be respected in order to reach
a higher level of moral development.
The analysis is based mainly on the comparison with stadial moral development
theories by Piaget and Kohlberg.
30
The paper concludes with an attempt to find links between the common features of
„strong aspects of character“ as described by positive psychology representatives and
dynamic models of character education and values education.
Key words: good character, virtues, moral development, moral psychology
Pohledy na smrt očima řeholních sester
v kontextu jejich hodnot
Perception of Death through the Eyes of Nuns in the Context of Their Values
Zdeňka Dohnalová
Masarykova univerzita, Brno
Fakulta sociálních studií, Katedra sociální politiky a sociální práce
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Cílem příspěvku je hledání odpovědi na výzkumnou otázku: Jaký je pohled řeholních
sester na smrt, na umírající a na zesnulé? Autorka zde předkládá dílčí výsledky kvalita tivního výzkumu, který realizovala s řeholními sestrami zaměstnanými v jednom
z domovů pro seniory na pozici všeobecných sester. V článku je pojednáno o náhledu řádových sester na životní situaci osob na sklonku života a na okolnosti vztahující se
k jejich profesnímu působení s touto cílovou skupinou v kontextu jejich životních hodnot.
Autorka dále prezentuje zjištěný pohled řádových sester na zesnulé a zaznamenání spe cifik jejich práce s těly zemřelých. Z výsledků vyplynulo, že sestry vnímají smrt jako udá lost zahalenou tajemstvím, tvořící součást jejich a našich životů a znamenající návrat
k Bohu; i přes tyto vesměs pozitivní konotace je pro ně smrt rovněž důvodem k obavám.
Klíčové slova: Řeholní sestra, všeobecná sestra, domov pro seniory, smrt, umírání
The present article aims to answer the research question: How do nuns perceive death,
the dying and the deceased? The author presents partial results of her qualitative research
conducted among the nuns employed in one of the nursing homes as nurses. The article
presents the perception of dying persons on the part of the nuns, as well as their
professional approach to these persons in the context of their personal values. Further, the
author presents the perception of dead persons on the part of the nuns, and looks at their
specific ways of treating the bodies of the deceased. As for the results of the research, it
can be stated that the nuns perceive death as a mysterious event that constitutes a part of
their and our lives and represents a return to God; however, in spite of these mostly
positive connotations, death is for them nevertheless a disquieting event.
Key words: nun, nurse, nursing home, death, dying
31
Naděje jako součást smyslu života
Hope as the Component of Meaningfull Life
Vladimír Smékal
Katedra psychologie FSS MU, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Lze najít řadu styčných bodů pozitivní psychologie s pozitivní psychoterapií N. Peseschkiana a s logoterapií / logoteorií V. E. Frankla. Všechny tyto tři teorie osobnosti (a významné psychoterapeutické teorie) se explicitně věnují naději jako významnému postoji či
charakterové síle nezbytné pro zvládání úkolů života, životní pohodě a k vytvoření optimistické životní orientace. Rovněž bude poukázán na význam racionálně emoční behaviorální terapie vytvořené A. Ellisem, která je rovněž nástrojem k obnově naděje.
Přednáška poukáže na souvislosti uvedených přístupů ve využívání naděje při
realizaci smysluplného života a na význam splnění základního vývojového úkolu podle
E. Eriksona – totiž vytvoření základní důvěry.
Klíčová slova: naděje, smysl života, logoterapie, logoteorie, pozitivní psychoterapie,
racionálně emoční behaviorální terapie, optimismus naučená bezmocnost
There are many corresponding points of positive psychology with positive
psychotherapy of N. Peseschkian and with logotherapy / logotheory of V. E. Frankl.
All these theories of personality (and at the same time important psychotherapies) have as
a key concept “hope“ which could be viewed as a central attitude or character strength
necessary for effective coping with life tasks, for life well-being and for optimistic life
orientation. Also, rational emotional behavioral therapy of A. Ellis is an important tool for
restoring hope.
The lecture will show implications of all mentioned psychotherapies in applying hope
to the practice of meaningful life. The importance of developing basic trust (according
E. Erikson theory) in the practice of hopeful life will also be mentioned.
Key words: hope, meaning in life, logotherapy, logotheory, positive psychotherapy,
rational emotion behavioral therapy, optimism, learned helplessness
Špirála osobnostného rastu a charakterové ctnosti
The Spiral of Personal Growth and Character Strengths
Magda Nišponská
Katedra pedagogiky a psychologie, Fakulta přírodovědně-humanitní
a pedagogická,Technická univerzita v Liberci
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Osobnostný rast, či individuácia nie je v psychológii jednoznačne definovaným
pojmom. Predispozícia k rastu je ľudsky univerzálna, rovnako ako je univerzálna
32
spiritualita, či charakterové ctnosti VIA, ktoré sú vysoko cenené v každej kultúre.
Opierajúc sa o fenomenologické a hermeneutické východiská, predbežne definujeme
osobný rast ako neustálu dynamiku rozvíjajúcu a prehlbujúcu účastné porozumenie
zmyslu skutočnosti (Nišponská, 2006). Moment dynamiky je prítomný už v povodnej
definícii Gordona Allporta (1937), ktorý vymedzuje “Personal Growth” ako neustály
pohyb medzi procesom diferenciácie a integrácie. V našej práci prezentujeme model OR,
v ktorom sa snažíme integrovať prínos autorov G. Allporta, C.G. Junga, V. Satirovej
a ďalších. Pre ilustratívne znázornenie rastu sme sa inšpirovali hermeneutickou
predstavou o špirálovom vzostupe ľudského poznania prekračovaním horizontu doposiaľ
poznaného. V obraze špirály je rast implicitne prítomný ako “stúpanie nahor”
a rozširovanie sa. Každý rast sa vyznačuje rozširovaním hraníc prijímaním niečoho
nového zvonku (skúsenosti, informácie, živiny). Pri pohľade na OR sa zamerievame
predovšetkým na 1. vymedzenie procesu OR a 2. hľadanie kľúčových súvisiacich
faktorov. V tomto príspevku prezentujeme výsledky našej štúdie. V súvislosti s OR sme
skúmali premenné: prijatie minulosti, spokojnosť so životom, zmysluplnosť života,
spiritualita, sebeprijtie, charakterové ctnosti. Výsledky naznačujú, že jedným z kľúčových
faktorov, ktoré zrejme podmieňujú OR je prijatie minulosti, ktorú sme rozčlenili do
4 kategórií. Ukázalo sa, že pre OR má primárny význam prijatie minulosti spojenej
s rodičmi - prijatie rodičov. Ďalšie premenné, u ktorých naše výsledky naznačujú ich
nepostrádateľnosť pre úspešný osobnostný rast, sú 3 charakterové ctnosti (z 24 ctností
VIA). Významnými prediktormi osobného rastu sa ukázali byť „Pokora“, „Vďačnosť“
a „Skromnosť“. V našom príspevku sa venujeme diskusii o povahe a význame daných
vlastností.
Klíčová slova: osobnostný rast, charakterové ctnosti, prijatie minulosti
Personal growth is a very complex and multidimensional phenomenon that has not
been yet clearly defined theoretically, mainly because of its apparent complexity. Yet this
term is widely used in common sense. Predisposition to growth seems to be universal to
all humans. In this study we present an integrative spiral model of PG, based upon the
principles of humanistic psychology. In this model the upward spiral movement could be
a useful metaphor for PG, similar to the well-known hermeneutical spiral of knowledge.
Any growth is characterized by enlarging oneself by crossing borders already existing and
taking in something new from outside - which means psychologically new experiences,
or information.
The present study is focused on variables that were hypothesized to play the
crucial role in the spiral model of personal growth. We explored several supposedly
relevant variables, e.g. satisfaction with the life, meaning of life, spirituality, self-esteem,
character strengths and acceptance of the past. The results of SEM and regression
analyses indicates that four observed variables (attitudes) may by causally connected to
positive personal growth. As significant predictors of personal growth have emerged
3 character strengths (out of 24 strengths VIA) and acceptance of the past. The three
character strengths are "humility", "gratitude" and "modesty". In our paper we will discuss
the nature and importance of these characteristics in context of spiral model of PG.
Key words: personal growth, acceptance of the past, character strengths
33
SESSION 3A / SEKCE 3A
POSITIVE EDUCATION
POZITIVNÍ VZDĚLÁVÁNÍ
PositivitiES. Applied Positive Psychology for European Schools.
Needs Analysis and Identification of Teachers Training Course
Elements for Positive Education
Raquel Albertín1, Benjamin Zufiaurre2, Ana Albertín2, Rosa Vitale3, Elena Arrivabene3
Jette Bjorn Hansen4, Antonella Delle Fave5
Andrea Fianco5,Hans Henrik Knoop6, Toni Ventura1
1
Flow Foundation for Social Innovation, Education and Happiness, Barcelona, Spain
2
Public University of Navarra
3
Comprehensive Institute of Iseo and Paratico, Iseo, Italy
4
N.J. Fjordsgades Skole, Aarhus, Denmark
5
Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
6
University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
[email protected]
Background: PositivitiES is a European project supported by the European
Commission, with the aim to develop and evaluate a methodology to introduce positive
psychology methods and resources in the European schools by integrating training, selfexperience and practice.
Aim of the study: Within the PositivitiES project, a need and requirements analysis
was carried out with the objective of identifying those variables and aspects in schools
in which positive psychology could have a relevant impact for improving well-being
in education, such as quality of interactions among different members of the educational
community, teachers and students participation and motivational factors, classroom and
school atmosphere, and physical environment aspects.
Research sample: 150 teachers from primary and secondary schools from Denmark,
Italy and Spain have participated in the study.
Method: The needs and requirements analysis was based on a survey specifically
prepared by the PositivitiES research group. Ten open questions related to the previously
mentioned aspects composed the survey; answers should identify strengths and
weaknesses on each of them.
Main findings: Results show that there are some priorities at schools in which
PositivitiEs project can make a difference using a positive psychology approach: a) the
engagement in learning projects and activities; b) the atmosphere in the classroom; and
c) the relationships. PositivitiES meet these needs developing a teachers training
programme that is focused in building educational communities that stimulate awareness
and motivation, where children develop their emotional abilities, nurturing positive
relationships, finding meaning in learning and acquiring skills for the life. The programme
will focus on the quality of experience, attending the emotional, cognitive, and
motivational factors that make teaching and/or learning experience meaningful for teacher
and students.
Key words: positive education, positive psychology, teachers training, learning experience
34
Building Education for the Future: From Marginalization
to Essential Inclusion of Underachievers
Ognen Spasovski
Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Department of Psychology
Republic of Macedonia
[email protected]
Background: If “the chief purpose of education is to teach young people to find
pleasure in the right things” (PLATO, c400 B.C.), it is questionable whether this goal is
reached especially in regard to the children showing academic underachievement.
If families could not provide appropriate support in the learning process, the school
should substitute it. On the contrary, prevailing policies and practices are mainly
“palliative”, built on the assumption of “immanent limitations” in these children.
Aim: The aim of the empirical study was to explore the actual educational practice
with children achievers in the Macedonian context, and complementary, to identify best
practices according to the most relevant actors in the educational process.
Sample: Research is conducted in 17 elementary schools countrywide, varying in
terms of: rural-urban areas, mixed or homogeneous ethnic background, and infrastructural
and socioeconomic parameters of the community. 438 teachers participated in
a quantitative survey. The participants of the qualitative study included 120 teachers, 98
children-underachievers, and 19 representatives of the expert staff.
Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative methodology was used. Appropriate
questionnaires were developed by the researchers. Regarding qualitative methodology,
focus group discussions were conducted separately with teachers and studentsunderachievers. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with school
principals, psychologists, pedagogues, or special educators.
Findings: During remedial classes with underachievers, teachers mainly repeat the
content in the same manner as in regular classes. Unacceptably, they lower the assessment
criteria for underachievers. Children from the vulnerable groups are stigmatized and under
severe risk of exclusion.
Main recommendations made were to develop appropriate training for teachers to
improve their competencies for work with children with educational difficulties, to change
the role of the expert staff in schools, and to increase the pre-school attendance.
Ultimately, we need deconstruction of the discourse of pathologising the low achiever
when in fact it may be the system which is failing the learner.
Key words: inclusive education, children-underachievers, stigmatization, teacher
competencies, expert staff
35
Integrating Positive Psychology into the Teaching of History
Doug Harmon
Bridgewater College
Virginia, USA
[email protected]
This presentation is predicated on the work of Dr. Marty Seligman (Flourish, 2011)
and Paul Tough (How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity and the Hidden Power
of Character, 2012) who both argued that determination and character were better
predictors of success than IQ scores. It will outline the teaching of history in 20th century
America and argue that it is time to return to an earlier model of education that
emphasized positive role models. At the turn of the last century educators took as their
goal the creation of good citizens. History was taught through the examples of great men
who had triumphed over adversity, which, at the same time, taught positive attitude. With
the coming of the civil rights movement in the 1950s and the women’s rights movement
of the 1960s this pattern of education was replaced due to its lack of diverse examples. As
the history of minorities and women was being written, emphasis shifted from positive
role models to victimization and subjugation by social elites. But times have changed.
In the 21st century both ethnic history and women’s history are firmly established and
have provided a wealth of positive role models from all social backgrounds. This paper
will argue, much like Seligman and Tough, that the time has come to return to a belief in
personal responsibility, and return to the teaching of positive attitudes towards life
through historical examples.
Key words: positive education, positive role models, teaching history, personal
responsibility
Engaging Students in Learning and Using Positive Mental
Health Prinicples
Rebecca Harmon
Univerity of Virginia, School of Nursing
Virginia, USA
[email protected]
Educating Psychiatric Nurses Using Appreciative Methods
Significance: The Carnegie Foundation published key challenges for the future,
Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation. Key issues for the future include
the need for faculty to coach students, use narrative strategies, and support student inquiry
and research (Benner, Sutphen, Leonard, & Day, 2010).
Findings: Although mental health faculty traditionally focus on teaching critical
thinking, the Carnegie report indicates that excessive use can result in self-doubt,
cynicism, and negativity. Recent research indicates that negative emotions narrow
thoughts while positive emotions inspire creativity and acceptance, two essential
components needed to give hope for a positive future. The language we choose affects our
36
students’ motivation as well as their ability to function as confident professionals who
help others (and themselves).
Theoretical Framework: Based on Communication Theories
Brief Description: Appreciative Inquiry (AI) builds on interviewing skills psychiatric
mental health nurses already learn and teaches how to recognize and replace negative
or judgmental phrases with positive, affirmative questions to achieve an appreciative
teaching and caring environment.
Implications: In order to transform our teaching and practice, educators need creative
methods that are easy to master such as Appreciative Inquiry, an approach pioneered
in business that is transforming organizations worldwide, and can transform psychiatric
mental health nursing.
Key words: positive mental health education, appreciative teaching methods
On the Relationships Between 24 Character Strengths,
School-related Positive Affect, and Positive Experiences
and Behavior at School
Marco Weber
Lisa Wagner
Willibald Ruch
University of Zurich
Switzerland
[email protected]
Character strengths matter in young people’s lives (e.g., Ruch, Weber, Park,
& Peterson, in press). Yet, little is known about their role at school, although a first study
in this specific context demonstrated meaningful results (Weber & Ruch, 2012). For
example, strengths of the mind (e.g., perseverance, love of learning) seem to be relevant
for both satisfaction with school experiences and school success. However, character
strengths are expected to be related to further positive school-related aspects (e.g., schoolrelated positive affect, school engagement, motivation to learn, positive classroom
behavior). Specifically, character strengths are hypothesized to be a key resource to
experience school-related positive affect, which might be one very relevant subjective
experience supporting further positive outcomes at school. Thus, the present study
investigated the relationships between character strengths, school-related positive affect,
and positive experiences and behavior at school in detail. A sample of about 190 Germanspeaking Swiss pupils (aged between 10-14 years) and their teachers from 10 classrooms
participated in this cross-sectional study. The pupils completed the Values in Action
Inventory of Strengths for Youth (VIA-Youth) and measures on school-related positive
affect (PANAS-C), school engagement, and motivation to learn. Furthermore, teacherratings on pupils’ positive classroom behavior (CBRS) were collected. The analyses will
include correlation analyses between all investigated variables. Additionally, to test our
main hypothesis, a mediation analysis will be used to determine whether positive affect
mediated the relationship between character strengths and positive aspects (e.g.,
engagement, motivation) at school. This study will provide evidence on the relationships
between character strengths and positive affect at school, and whether this positive affect
37
is associated with desired school-related experiences (e.g. learning motivation) and
behaviors (e.g., cooperative, reliable). The results will be discussed, and an outlook for
future research and possible implications for practice will be presented.
Key words: character strengths, positive school experiences, positive affect, adolescents.
Teachers' Character Strengths, Life Satisfaction, Work
Satisfaction and Relations to Work
Polona Gradisek1
Sonja Pečjak2
1
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Education
2
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Department of Psychology
Slovenia
[email protected]
Character strengths are positive personal traits that are part of what is generally
considered a good character. As there are only few studies researching teachers’ character
strengths it seems promising to investigate character strengths of teachers and
consequently work on the topic during their education. An important aspect of teaching
is whether teachers perceive it as a job, a career, or a calling. No study has reported
the relationship between people’s character strengths and their relation to work; it is only
known that zest correlates with a calling. This study investigates correlations between
teachers’ character strengths, their life- and work-satisfaction and their relations to work.
409 primary and secondary school teachers from different Slovenian regions participated
in the study. They filled in four questionnaires: VIA-IS questionnaire on character
strengths, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Satisfaction with Work Scale, and Work-Life
Questionnaire on relations to work. Correlations between life satisfaction and work
satisfaction of teachers are in line with results of previous research on general population
samples: both correlate highest with zest and hope. Unexpectedly, age negatively
correlates with both life satisfaction and work satisfaction of teachers. 65% of teachers
from our sample perceive their work as a calling. Calling correlates significantly with all
24 character strengths (highest correlations show zest, kindness, hope, and leadership);
career correlates only with originality and hope; and job shows negative correlations with
all character strengths. Linear regression shows that zest accounts for 23.6% of the
variation of work satisfaction and for 13.2% of the variation of a calling. It will be
discussed how zest and other relevant character strengths could be promoted and fostered
to improve teachers’ work satisfaction.
Key words: character strengths, life satisfaction, work satisfaction, teachers, calling
38
SESSION 3B / SEKCE 3B
HAPPINESS, WELL-BEING & EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
ŠTĚSTÍ, POHODA A EMOČNÍ INTELIGENCE
Orientations to Happiness and Subjective Well-Being:
Trait-Centred vs. Person-Centred Approach
Andreja Avsec
Tina Kavčič
University of Ljubljana
Slovenia
[email protected]
The purpose of the present study was to explore the ways people achieve their
happiness employing two approaches, i.e. a trait-centred, focusing on three orientations to
happiness (orientation to pleasure, meaning, and engagement), and a person-centred,
focusing on patterns of these three orientations within individuals. These two approaches
were used to determine the predictive validity of orientations to happiness for three
aspects of subjective well-being. Adult participants (N = 1142; 33% male) filled out the
Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire (Peterson, Park in Seligman, 2005) and the
Mental Health Continuum (Keyes, 2009). Applying the trait-centred approach, all three
orientations were related to subjective well-being. As expected, all of the orientations
represent possible and appropriate ways to achieve happiness. Person-centred analysis
yielded four groups of individuals with similar profiles of ways towards happiness.
The first cluster - full life - was characterized by high scores on all three orientations to
happiness; the second cluster - pleasurable life - by high self-ratings on orientation to
pleasure, low orientation to meaning and average orientation to engagement; the third
cluster – empty life - by low mean values on all three orientations; the fourth cluster meaningful life - by high orientation to meaning, low orientation to pleasure and average
orientation to engagement. The full life and the empty life patterns of orientations to
happiness have been already suggested in previous studies using variable-centred
approach. As expected, the full life was associated with the highest level of well-being
and the empty life with the lowest. On the other hand, pleasurable life and meaningful life
- despite having relatively similar predictive value for psychological well-being demonstrated discriminant validity for emotional and social well-being. Obtained results
suggest that the profiles are meaningfully distinct and highlight the importance of the
multiplicative influences of the three specific orientations to happiness.
Key words: orientations to happiness, subjective well-being, person-centred approach
39
A Study of the Interrelations of Trait EI and Happiness
in Adolescents and Young Adults
Maria Platsidou
University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki
Greece
[email protected]
Several research findings indicate that trait EI predicts happiness and relevant
dimensions, such as life satisfaction, positive affect, and depression-proneness, over and
above other personality traits (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007; Petrides & Furnham,
2003). Although this association is clear, far less is known about how the inner – possibly
hierarchical - structure of trait EI dimensions affect the components of happiness.
Considering the above, the present study aimed to investigate the constituent latent
structure of trait EI and happiness, as tested in a sample of adolescents and young
participants, and determine how the dimensions of EI predict the happiness components.
A sample of 280 Greek high school and university students were tested with the
Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. Regarding the inner
structure of trait EI, findings suggested that certain dimensions (Appraisal and Utilization
of emotion) predict others (Optimism/mood regulation, Social ability), thus confirming
that there are lower and higher level dimensions in the trait EI continuum, as Mayer et al.
(2008) asserted for the ability EI. Also, path analysis confirmed that the specific EI
dimensions predict happiness in a distinctive mode. Firstly, each of the happiness
components was directly predicted by at least one EI dimension: Vigor and Personal
Efficacy was predicted by Appraisal of Emotions; Positive Affect, Enjoyment and Fun as
well as Life Satisfaction were predicted by both Optimism/Mood Regulation, and Social
Ability; Social Interest was predicted by Social Ability. Secondly, the happiness
components were also indirectly predicted by the lower level EI dimensions via the higher
level EI dimensions they affect. These findings suggest that focusing on developing the
basic EI dimensions may be the key to designing effective training programmes that will
result in enhancing happiness.
Key words: emotional intelligence, happiness, Greek students, path analysis
Personality and Orientation to Happiness
as Predictors of Different Aspects of Well-Being
Gaja Zager Kocjan
Andreja Avsec
Tina Kavčič
Department of Psychology, University of Ljubljana
Slovenia
[email protected]
The present study examined the predictive power of personality and orientations to
happiness (meaning, pleasure, and engagement) for the three aspects of well-being:
emotional – EWB, psychological – PWB, and social – SWB. Prior studies have provided
40
ample evidence for great importance of personality traits for individual’s well-being.
In our study we expected orientations to happiness to predict well-being over and above
personality traits and to contribute variously to the explained variance in different aspects
of well-being. The study included 1037 participants (72.5 % females) aged from 18 to 91
years (M = 38.6; SD = 16 yrs.). They filled out the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue,
& Kentle, 1991), the Orientations to Happiness (Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005), and
the Mental Health Continuum (Keyes, 2002). After accounting for gender and age, the Big
Five personality traits predicted from 26.9 to 45.4 % of variance in the three aspects of
well-being, thus supporting previous findings about the importance of personality for
individual’s well-being. The highest proportion of variance was explained by extraversion
and neuroticism, while PWB and SWB were accounted by other personality traits as well.
Orientations to happiness added from 1.2 % to 6.3 % to explained variance in well-being.
As expected, EWB was predicted by pleasure and engagement – orientations associated
with increased positive emotions. PWB was predicted by meaning and engagement
orientations. Therefore, high PWB seems to be achieved by involving in activities that
make sense to our lives. SWB was significantly predicted by all three orientations to
happiness – positively by meaning and engagement and negatively by pleasure. According
to the obtained results, engagement and meaning generally have positive effect on wellbeing; however, pleasure seems to have a more ambiguous role in predicting well-being.
A denial of one's pleasures may be required for one’s circumstance and functioning in
society.
Key words: the Big Five personality traits, orientations to happiness, subjective wellbeing
Relationships between Hope, Optimism
and Emotional Intelligence in Spanish University Students
Valle Flores-Lucas
Alejandra Velázquez-Castañeda
M. Rosario Castañón-Rodríguez
Raquel Martínez-Sinovas
Psychology Department, University of Valladolid
Spain
[email protected]
Hope and Optimism are two strengths which are strongly related and it is well known
that people with high levels of hope and optimism have better well-being and better
interpersonal relationships than people with low levels of these two strengths. On the
other hand, high levels of emotional intelligence are also related to a successful
professional and social life.
The aim of our study is to assess the levels of hope, optimism and emotional
intelligence in 100 university degree students and analyse the relationships between hope,
optimism and emotional intelligence. We also want to analyse the relationship between
these variables and perceived self-efficacy.
Our sample was formed by 100 university education degree students who were
in their third year of the degree.
41
We used the following instruments to assess the variables studied: Hope Scale
(Snyder, 2002); LOT-R (Scheier and Carver, 1992) to assess optimism; the TMMS-24
(Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey & Palfai, 1995; Castilian adaptation by FernándezBerrocal, Extremera & Ramos, 2004-) and NGSES (Chen, Gully and Eden, 2001) to
assess perceived self-efficacy.
Our results showed a significant relation between Hope global scores and emotional
intelligence; we also found that the scores in the two components of hope (i.e. pathways
and agency thinking) also were significantly related with emotional intelligence. Our
results also showed a positive significant relation between optimism and emotional
intelligence. Finally, the three variables were positively and significantly related to the
perceived self-efficacy. Our results are interesting because they allow us to see the
relationships between these variables, and to propose a predictive model of perceived selfefficacy based on the variables studied. Such knowledge is important when elaborating
educational programs from positive psychology perspective to improve the self-efficacy
of our students.
Key words: hope, optimism, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, university students
Life Goals and Subjective Well-Being in Adults
Olga Poljšak Škraban
University od Ljubljana, Faculty od Education, Slovenia
[email protected]
Personal goals and interests play an important role in the human development because
they guide people's life planning, decision-making and consequently their future life
course. The article discusses the results of a research study which focused on agency as
well as on communion-oriented goals and their relationship with subjective well-being
in adults. Subjective well-being was studied using two components: the cognitive
component referring to an individual’s self-assessment of their life, and the emotional
component which constitutes two independent components – positive and negative affect.
The index of emotional well-being was also taken into account. 135 adults of both
genders, aged 24-46 years (M=32 years) participated in the study. The following
instruments were used: Goals-? a questionnaire for assessing life goals (Pohlman and
Brunstein, 1997), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Diener et al. 1985, Slovene
version) and The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Watson et al. 1998,
Slovene version). The participants also assessed their economic, social, psychological and
health status.
The results indicate that agency- and communion-oriented goals are significantly
correlated with the positive affect and with the index of emotional well-being. Women are
more satisfied with their social status, achieved higher positive affect and establish more
communion-oriented goals, compared to men. The research findings show that it is of
great importance for subjective well-being to develop effective self-regulatory strategies
which reduce negative affect. In addition, it is vital to create appropriate conditions to
achieve a positive affect.
Key words: life goals, subjective well-being, satisfaction with life, positive and negative
affect, adults
42
SESSION 3C / SEKCE 3C
LIFE CHALLENGES AND GROWTH
ŽIVOTNÍ VÝZVY A SEBEROZVOJ
Naděje ve zdravotnictví: přístupy, diagnostika, intervence
Hope and Health Care: Approaches, Assessment, and Interventions
Jiří Mareš
Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Lékařská fakulta v Hradci Králové,
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Přehledový referát shrne dosavadní přístupy ke konceptu naděje (běžné pojetí opírající
se o „zdravý rozum“, sociálně psychologický, zdravotnický, náboženský přístup). Předloží různé typologie naděje (podle alternativ budoucího vývoje, podle času, podle morální
přijatelnosti) a soustředí se na psychologické pojetí (naděje jako rys osobnosti a jako psychický stav). Na jedné kazuistice bude demonstrovat proměny naděje u vážně nemocného
pacienta v čase. Referát vyloží problematiku diagnostikování naděje (přístupy kvalitativní
i kvantitativní) a to jak u dospělých osob, tak u dětí. Referát bude zakončen úvahou o tom,
jak u pacientů probouzet a udržovat naději.
Klíčová slova: naděje, zdravotnictví, diagnostika naděje
The review paper summarizes existing approaches towards the concept of hope
(“common sense”, social-psychological, medical, and religious perspectives). Different
typologies of hope will be presented (based on future development alternatives, time
aspect, and moral admissibility), with special emphasis placed on psychological
conceptions (hope as a personality trait and/or psychological state). A case study will be
used to illustrate the development of hope in time in a patient suffering from serious
illness. The paper will also address the issue of assessment of hope (quantitative and
qualitative approaches) in both adults and children, and will conclude with a discussion
about the ways hope can be inspired and maintained in patients.
Key words: hope, health care, assessment of hope
43
Pozitívna psychológia - nádej pre maladaptívne schémy?
Positive Psychology – Hope for Maladaptive Schemas?
Jana Kordačová
Ústav experimentálnej psychológie SAV, Bratislava
Slovakia
[email protected]
Maladaptívne schémy sú dysfunkčné vzorce myslenia a správania, ktoré vznikajú
v ranom vývine jedinca na základe negatívnych skuseností a zážitkov (emočných zranení)
s blízkymi osobami. Môže ísť tiež o naučené postoje a presvedčenia alebo vzory správania, ktoré dieťa preberá od dôležitých ľudí vo svojom živote a nevedomo ich prenáša do
svojho neskoršieho fungovania. Maladaptívne schémy sú hlboko zakotvené v kognitívnom, emočnom aj behaviorálnom systéme jednotlivca a bránia v prežívaní plnohodnotného a šťastného života.
V príspevku sa zamýšľame nad možnosťami využitia pozitívnej psychológie pri otázkach vzniku a perzistencie dysfunkčných schém jednotlivca. K pozitívno-psychologickému pohľadu na problematiku schém nás paradoxne priviedlo štúdium dysfukčných
kognícií a osobitne tzv. raných maladaptívnych schém J. E. Younga, žiaka a nasledovníka A. T. Becka, ktorého koncepciu v príspevku približujeme. V protiklade k negatívnemu
dopadu takýchto schém na psychické zdravie a životnú spokojnosť jednotlivca ponúkame
námety a inšpirácie pre pozitívnu vývinovú, klinickú a kognitívnu psychológiu, ktorých
využitie by mohlo pomôcť znižovať výskyt maladaptívnych schém, optimalizovať psychické fungovanie človeka, podporovať osobnostnú zrelosť i celkovo pozitívne prežívanie
života v biodromálnej perspektíve.
Klíčová slova: maladaptívne schémy, možnosti pozitívnej psychológie, psychické zdravie,
optimalizácia psychického fungovania
Maladaptive schemas are dysfunctional patterns of thinking and behavior that occur
during the early stages of individual development, due to negative experience (emotional
wounds) with close persons. They can also be acquired attitudes and beliefs or behavior
patterns that a child acquires from important people in his/her life and unconsciously
adopts them into his/her later functioning. Maladaptive schemas are deeply embedded into
the cognitive, emotional and behavioral system of an individual and they impede the
experience of a full and happy life.
The paper contemplates the possibilities of applying positive psychology in questions
of formation and persistence of dysfunctional schemas of an individual. However, as
a paradox, it was the study of dysfunctional cognitions and especially the so called early
maladaptive schemas defined by J.E. Young, student and follower of A.T. Beck, whose
concept is presented in the paper, that led us to the positive-psychological view of the
problem of schemas. As opposed to the negative impact of such schemas on mental health
and well-being, we suggest themes and inspiration for positive developmental, clinical,
and cognitive psychology; application of these could – as we presume - contribute to
a gradual decrease of maladaptive schemas, optimization of psychological human
functioning, increase in personal maturity, and overall positive life experience in
biodromal perspective.
44
Key words: maladaptive schemas, possibilities of positive psychology, mental health,
optimization of human mental functioning
Posttraumatický růst u pacientů
se závažným plicním onemocněním
Posttraumatic Growth on a Group of Patients Who During Their Life Suffered
a Serious Lung Disease
Hana Valentová
Pedagogická fakulta UK, katedra psychologie, Praha
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Příspěvek informuje o výzkumné studii, která je zaměřena na posttraumatický růstu
u pacientů, kteří prodělali závažné plicní onemocnění. Teoretickým východiskem je koncept posttraumatického růstu autorů Tedeschi a Calhouna, jejichž dotazník PTGI byl využit výzkumné části, dále jsou zjištění studie vztaženy k výsledkům zahraničních studií
zaměřených na posttraumatický růst u pacientů s rakovinou. V rámci výzkumného šetření
bylo využito české verze dotazníku PTGI u 78 respondentů s karcinomem plic, chronickou obstrukční plicní nemocí či jiným život ohrožujícím onemocněním. Byly ověřová ny dvě skupiny hypotéz. První skupinu tvoří ty, které předpokládají významný vliv
subjektivního hodnocení události na míru posttraumatického růstu. Druhá skupina ověřuje
vztah posttraumatického růstu k jednotlivým charakteristikám respondenta, události nebo
prostředí (pohlaví, věk, doba od události, theismus, podpora blízkých).
Bylo prokázáno, že posttraumatický růst se objevuje u naprosté většiny respondentů.
Souvislost posttraumatického růstu s jednotlivými charakteristikami respondenta, události
a prostředí se ve vztahu k celkovému výsledku PTGI nepotvrdila. Všechny hypotézy, kte ré byly stanoveny za účelem prokázání významu subjektivního hodnocení události pacientem (míra zásahu události do života pacienta, míra ohrožení života pacienta
v současnosti a v době diagnózy) a malé významnosti objektivního hodnocení (lékařem
hodnocená míra ohrožení života pacienta v současnosti a v době diagnózy, typ onemocnění), byly potvrzeny. Byl potvrzen předpoklad, že uvědomění si ohrožení života vystupuje
jako nejvýznamnější prediktor posttraumatického růstu. Kvantitativně zaměřená studie je
doplněna o kvalitativní analýzu rozhovorů se 4 pacienty, výsledky jsou vztaženy k vý sledkům dotazníkového šetření.
Klíčová slova: posttraumatický růst, plicní onemocnění, ohrožení života
In this study posttraumatic growth was examined in a group of patients who went
through a serious lung disease. In the initial theoretical part of this thesis, first, general
information on current concepts of posttraumatic growth are given; second, the concept of
Tadeschi and Calhoun, whose PTGI is later used in the empirical part, is defined.
Next, international studies focusing on posttraumatic growth in cancer patients are
discussed. First, a Czech version of PTGI was administrated to 78 respondents who
at some time during their life suffered from either lung carcinoma, or a chronic
obstructive lung disease, or other life-threatening illness.
45
Posttraumatic growth was observed in an absolute majority of respondents. A direct
PTG link with the patient’s subjective evaluation of the event and small significance of
the objective assessment of the situation was found but there was little evidence of a link
between PTG and the patient’s characteristics, type of traumatic event, or environment.
Understanding of the life-threat stands out as the most important predictor of PTG.
Findings of the study are compared with the results of qualitative analysis - interviews
with patients with serious lung disease.
Key words: posttraumatic growth, life-threatening illness, understanding of life-threat
Stáří a moudrost:
Detekování atributů moudrosti u seniorů nezávislých na péči
The Old Age and the Wisdom:
The Detection of Wisdom Attributes by Care - Independent Seniors
Ondřej Jiráska1
Peter Tavel2
Iva Poláčková Šolcová3
1
Katedra psychologie, Filozofická fakulta Univerzita Palackého, Olomouc
2
OUSHI, Univerzita Palackého, Olomouc, Czech Republic; Health Psychology Unit –
Institute of Public Health, Medical Faculty, P.J. Safarik University, Košice, Slovakia
Academy of Science, Institute of Psychology, Prague, Czech Republic
3
OUSHI, Univerzita Palackého, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Academy of Science, Institute of Psychology, Prague, Czech Republic
[email protected]
Tato pilotní studie vychází z poznatků výzkumného týmu Institutu Maxe Plancka
v Berlíně, jenž pod vedením prof. Paula- B. Baltese a prof. Jacqui Smithové na konci 20.
století vytvořil pětifaktorový model pro výzkum moudrosti a následně jej používal při
svých bádáních.
Cílem tohoto výzkumu bylo vyzkoušet aplikování Berlínského pětifaktorového modelu na data sebraná v rámci studie Kvalita života seniorů (Hofer et al., Univerzita Trier).
Převedení a aplikování Berlínského modelu má sloužit jako impuls pro další rozvoj studia
moudrosti v našich podmínkách.
Výzkumný soubor tvoří 13 osob (8 žen, 5 mužů). Pro zařazení do výzkumného vzorku
byla stanovena následující kritéria: Minimální věk probandů musel činit 65 let, osoby musely žít v samostatné domácnosti bez závislosti na institucionální péči, musely pobírat důchod a jejich mateřským jazykem musela být čeština.
Hlavní zdroj dat tvoří přepisy polostrukturovaných rozhovorů získaných v rámci Studie kvality života seniorů. Rozhovory tematicky pokrývají všechny klíčové události život ního příběhu zkoumaných osob, výhled na možný průběh budoucnosti, vlivy na životní
příběh, kulturní očekávání a životní téma. Tyto rozhovory byly analyzovány kvalitativní
metodou a byl detekován výskyt následujících pěti faktorů moudrosti z Berlínského
modelu: bohatá znalost životních faktů; bohatá znalost životních strategií; kontextualismus životního příběhu; relativismus životních hodnot; nejistota lidského bytí.
46
Hlavním výstupem této studie jsou zkušenosti z aplikování pětifaktorového Berlínského modelu na data ze Studie kvality života seniorů. Dále zhodnocení výskytu jednotlivých
faktorů u osob z výzkumného vzorku s rozlišením výskytu dvou fundamentálních faktorů
(znalost faktů; znalost strategií) oproti třem ostatním a stručné zhodnocení Berlínského
modelu pro jeho využitelnost k dalšímu bádání v našich podmínkách.
Klíčová slova: psychologie moudrosti, psychologie stáří, Berlínský pětifaktorový model
moudrosti
This pilot study is based on the findings of the research team of the Max Planck
Institute in Berlin lead by prof. Paul B. Baltes and prof. Jacqui Smith. At the end of the
20th century the team created a five-factor model for the study of wisdom and used it in
the following research.
The goal of this study was to try out the application of the Berlin five-factor model on
the data which were collected for the study “Kvalita života seniorů” (Life quality of
seniors – Hofer et al., University Trier). The transfer and application of the Berlin model
is meant to be an impulse for further development of the study of wisdom in our setting.
The research sample consists of 13 individuals (8 women, 5 men). The subjects had to
meet the following criteria in order to be included in the sample: They had to be at least
65 years old; they had to live in a self-reliant household, independently of institutional
care; they had to be receiving pension; and their mother tongue had to be Czech.
The main source of data are transcripts of semi-structured interviews which had been
obtained for the “Study of life quality of seniors”. The interviews thematically cover all
key events in the life span of the subjects, an outlook for the possible course of future
events, the influences on the life span, cultural expectations, and the life theme. These
interviews were analysed by a qualitative method and the occurrence of the following five
factors of wisdom of the Berlin model was detected: rich factual knowledge; rich
procedural knowledge; life-span contextualism; value relativism; and uncertainty of life.
The main output of this study is the experience gained from the application of the
five-factor Berlin model on the data from the “Study of life quality of seniors”; then it is
the evaluation of the occurrence of individual factors in the research sample subjects, with
the distinction of two fundamental factors (factual and procedural knowledge) as opposed
to the three remaining factors; and finally, a brief evaluation of the Berlin model as to its
usability in further research in our setting.
Key words: psychology of wisdom, psychology of old age, Berlin five-factor model
of wisdom
47
Šport, športovanie po úraze: Nádej máš ty - dávaš iným
Sport after Injury: You Have Hope - You Give Hope
Miloslav Bardiovský
Vysoká škola zdravotníctva a sociálnej práce sv.Alžbety v Bratislave
Slovakia
[email protected]
Témou príspevku je post-traumatický rozvoj po telesnom úraze. Žitie na invalidnom
vozíku je zmysluplné, ak jednotlivec – post-traumatický vozíčkár myslí, správa sa, koná,
žije s nádejou a snahou o dosahovanie cieľov. Vyhovujúca, prospešná činnosť môže byť
šport a športovanie. Šport vo svojej podstate je zameraný na ciele, na víťazstvá. Filozofia
športovania u post-traumatických vozíčkárov je nadstavbou osobného a osobnostného
rozvoja. Môžeme povedať: trvalo udržiavaný holistický rozvoj osobnosti = teda rozvoj
a utilita človeka.
Človek vozíčkár - športovec je odolný, vytrvalý, sebaúčinný. Sebarealizácia pohybom
je prirodzená vlastnosť. Pri športe, športovaní, súťažení máme aj sociálne vzťahy, interakciu aj komunikáciu v širšom spoločenskom prostredí. Stretávame sa s „našimi“ handicapovanými a samozrejme aj s ľuďmi intaktnými.
Sme integrovaní, sme v univerze = sme. V tom je nádej a zmysel nášho života.
Klíčová slova: nezávislý život, sociálne vzťahy, sebavedomie, ašpirácie, sebarealizácia
The theme of this paper is post-traumatic growth after physical injury. If an
individual, a post-traumatic person on the wheelchair, thinks, acts, lives with hope, and
puts effort to achieve goals, living on a wheelchair is meaningful. Sport and practicing
sports can be a satisfactory and benefical activity. Sport is essentially focused on goals
and victories. The philosophy of sports is an extension of personal and personality
development of post-traumatic people on the wheelchair. One can say: permanently
maintained holistic development of the personality – thus the development and utility
of the human.
The wheelchair user – athlete is resilient and tenacious. Self-realization through
movement is a natural propensity. In sport, sports practice and competion, we also obtain
social relationships and communication in a wider social environment. We meet “our”
handicapped, as well as intact people. We are integrated, we are in the universe = we are.
That is the hope and meaning of our lives.
Key words: independent life, social relationships, self-esteem, aspiration, self-realization
48
Souvislosti výkonové motivace a prožitku flow
u klientů Spinning programu
Connections between Performance Motivation and Flow Experience
by Spinning Programme Clients
Karel Riegel
Alena Slezáčková
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy Univerzity v Brně, Psychologický ústav, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Johnny G. Spinning Programme je prvním uceleným indoorcyclingovým programem
na světě zaměřeným na rozvoj klienta podle konceptu Body and Mind. Cíleným vedením
profesionálně vyškolených instruktorů se snaží skrze tělesný výkon naučit člověka percipovat předkládané výzvy v souladu s jeho aktuálními možnostmi rovněž na psychické
rovině, motivuje jej k zaměření pozornosti ve smyslu hic et nunc na právě prováděnou
činnost a dává možnost transportu na lekci prožitých emocí i do běžného života díky zá žitku "Mám na to!" Svým pojetím tréninku eliminuje kompetitivní složku a tím i možnost
potenciálního selhání. Koncepce programu tak teoreticky vytváří optimální podmínky pro
dosažení prožitku flow ve většině svých dimenzí, tak jak je definoval M. Csikszentmihalyi (1997). Kvantitativně orientovaná studie se zaměřuje na zjištění kvality prožitku
Flow ve shodě s komponentovou teorií flow dle Jackson, Csikszentmihalyi (1999) a snaží
se popsat možné souvislosti dosažené kvality flow vzhledem k úrovni výkonové motivace
a aktuálnímu emočnímu stavu člověka, který na lekci přichází. Studie ověřuje alarmující
závěry získané s kvalitativního šetření na podobné téma viz K. Riegel (2012). Výzkumný
soubor tvořilo 101 zkušených klientů Spinning programu z různých fitness center v ČR
a SR, kteří se pravidelně účastnili minimálně 2 lekcí Spinningu týdně, po dobu minimálně
3 měsíců. Výzkum probíhal dotazníkovou formou tužka papír a administrována byla baterie následujících metod: Flow State Scale (Jackson, Marsh, 1996), D-M-V (Pardel, Maršálová, 1984), Happiness Measure (Fordyce, 1988), Questionnaire on Supervisor-Doctoral
Student Interaction (Mainhard, 2009) a Grandjean Questionnaire. Do statistického zpracování byla mimo jiné zahrnuta i komparace rozdílů mezi pohlavím a věkem respondentů,
národností i jednotlivými fitness centry.
Z výsledků šetření vyplývá, že český i slovenský klient s dostatečnou spinningovou
zkušeností zažívá během lekce prožitek flow, jehož kvalita koreluje s úrovní výkonové
motivace a jejími subškálami. Výsledky naznačují, že mírně nadprůměrná úroveň výko nové motivace je významným rysem osobnosti českého i slovenského klienta Spinningu.
Jako taková může být za určitých okolností prediktorem vyšší kvality optimálního prožívání nebo naopak jejím inhibitorem.
Klíčová slova: spinning program, prožitek flow, výkonová motivace
Johnny G. Spinning Programme is the first structured indoorcycling programme in the
world focusing on the client's development according to the Body and Mind concept.
Thanks to prefessional leadership of skilled instructors it shows the client how to perceive
all the challanges not only in the physical but also in the mental way and motivates him to
hold the attention in the sense hic et nunc on the activity. This way the programme
49
provides a possibility of positive emotional transfer to the everyday life of client with the
experience: “I'm strong enough to do it!” The concept of training eliminates the
competitive part of physical performance, needed to avoid the potential failure. This way,
optimal conditions are created to reach the flow state in most of its key dimensions as
defined by M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1997. This quantitative study describes possible
connections between the quality of optimal experience and the level of performance
motivation and actual emotional state of the client before, during and after the lesson of
Spinning. The study also examines the alarming conclusions of the qualitative pilot-study
on a similar topic by Riegel, 2012. Research was conducted on the population of 101
skilled Spinning clients in different fitness centres in the Czech Rep. and Slovakia. Each
of these clients was a regular visitor of Spinning lessons in the count of min. 2 trainings
a week during the period of min. 3 months. Methods, administred in the pen-and-paper
form, included: Flow State Scale (Jackson & Marsh, 1996), D-M-V (Pardel & Maršálová,
1984), Happiness Measure (Fordyce, 1988), Questionnaire on Supervisor-Doctoral
Student Interaction (Mainhard, 2009), and Grandjean Questionnaire. Statistical analysis of
data included, among other things, gender and age comparisons, as well as differences
between nationalities and individual fitness centres.
According to the results, the flow experienced by Czech and Slovak clients during
Spinning classes, correlates with level of performance motivation, both supporting anxiety
and limiting anxiety. Slightly above-average performance motivation seems to be the
significant aspect of personality of Czech and Slovak Spinning clients. Thus, it could be
understood as a predictor of the higher level of optimal experience or as its inhibitor as
well, depends on the circumstances.
Key words: spinning programme, flow experience, performance motivation
50
SESSION 4A / SEKCE 4A
POSITIVE APPROACH IN SCHOOLS
POZITIVNÍ PŘÍSTUP VE VÝCHOVĚ A VZDĚLÁVÁNÍ
Jak mluvit s dětmi pozitivně
aneb Náměty a zkušenosti ze seminářů pro rodiče dětí
How to Talk to Children Positively:
Suggestions and Experiences from Workshops for Parents
Jana Marie Havigerová
Hana Karásková
Ústav sociální práce, Univerzita Hradec Králové
Czech Republic
[email protected]
V příspěvku jsou prezentovány techniky nabízené rodičům v rámci veřejných seminářů Jak mluvit s dětmi pozitivně a jsou shrnuty zkušenosti ze seminářů realizovaných s ro diči dětí předškolního a mladšího školního věku v Královéhradeckém kraji. Prezentované
techniky pro podporu pozitivní komunikace vznikly jako reakce na (překvapivé) výsledky
výzkumu lexikální negace a jsou uspořádány plynule od identifikace lexikálně negativních výroků, přes nácvik lexikálně pozitivních reformulací po obsahově pozitivní refra ming. Reakce rodičů mají veskrze povahu aha-zážitku a za nejpřínosnější je zpravidla
považována technika Brýle (reframing).
Klíčová slova: rodiče, lexikální negace, pozitivní komunikace
The paper presents techniques offered to parents in public seminars How to talk with
children positively and summarized experiences from the workshops carried out with
parents of preschool and primary school age children. Presented techniques for promoting
positive communication were built in the reaction to the (surprising) results of the lexical
negation research. Techniques are arranged continuously from identifying lexically
negative statements, through training positive lexical reformulation, to positive reframing.
Parents’ reactions usually have the nature of an aha-experience and the Glasses technique
(reframing) is generally considered to be the most beneficial for parents.
Key words: parents, lexical negation, positive communication
51
Flow ve výtvarném umění a výtvarné výchově
Flow in Art and Art Education
Markéta Kvasničková
Univerzita J.E. Purkyně, Katedra výtvarné kultury, Ústí nad Labem
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Flow nabízí mnoho možností jak zlepšit edukační proces a naučit studenty využívat
svých možností plně a radostně. Je výzvou pro učitele a mohlo by být ukazatelem
hodnotné výuky. Učitel zároveň využívá tvořivosti a individuálního potenciálu studentů.
Tvořivost zahrnuje psychologické-dynamické pochody a smyslové zkušenosti osobnosti.
Ty mohou být ve flow obsažené, ale nejsou popsány. Proces tvoření i flow mají vlastní
specifický průběh, který působí v edukačním procesu pozitivně, ale odlišně. Ve vnímání
výtvarného umění a výuce výtvarné výchovy se u obou jevů objevuje estetická zkušenost
a radost.
Klíčová slova: flow, tvořivost, umění, výtvarná výchova
Flow offers a great chance to improve educational process and teach students to use
their potentials fully and with joy. It is a challenge for teachers and it could indicate
a worthy lesson.The teacher also has a creative process in mind, as well as individual
potentials of students. Creativity involves psychological dynamic process and sensual
experience of a man. These could be contained in flow, although the process is not
described. Creative process and flow have their own specific evolution, which is positive,
but different. Perception of art and art education both represent aesthetic experience as an
achievement of both creative process and flow.
Key words: flow, creativity, art, art education
Jak vzdělávat nadané žáky v předmětu matematika?
How to Educate Gifted Children in the Subject of Mathematics
Veronika Homolková
Irena Plevová
Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci, Czech Republic
[email protected]
Teoretická východiska: Příspěvek je zaměřen na seznámení s připravovanou výzkumnou studií, která má podobu experimentu. Výzkum směřuje do oblasti vzdělávání
nadaných žáků v primární škole v předmětu matematika. Mnoho odborníků poukazuje na
skutečnost, že pro žáky se speciálními vzdělávacími potřebami, tedy i pro nadané žáky, je
nutná změna kurikula (Fořtík a Fořtíková, 2007; Kaprálek, Bělecký, 2004). Ne všichni
nadaní žáci mají možnost navštěvovat specializované třídy, určené pouze pro nadané děti.
Většina nadaných žáků je integrována do běžné školy. U nadaných dětí se často vyskytují
poruchy chování, sociálně-emocionální problémy apod. Možnosti přístupu a vzdělávání
52
nadaných žáků na běžné škole jsou různé, jak uvádějí například (Portešová, 2011; Fořtík
a Fořtíková 2007; Vágnerová, 1997; Hubatka, 2011; Gallagher, Kirk, 1989; Mesárošová,
1998). V našem výzkumu vycházíme z teoretických předpokladů a již provedených výzkumů např. (Mönks a Ypenburg, 2002; Fořtík a Fořtíková, 2007; Jurášková, 2003; Hříbková, 2005, Blatný a Plháková, 2003; Machů, 2009).
Cíle výzkumu: 1) diagnostikovat nadané žáky v běžné škole, 2) vytvořit a ověřit návrh
dílčího vzdělávacího programu.
Výzkumný soubor: Výzkumný soubor budou tvořit žáci z běžných pátých tříd základních škol. Budeme pracovat s experimentální (obohacený vzdělávací program)
a kontrolní skupinou (běžný vzdělávací program).
Metody: Před a po aplikaci vzdělávacích programů: Nominace učitelem, Didaktický
test, Urbanův figurální test tvořivého myšlení (TSD-Z), Dotazník VARK
V průběhu výuky: Dotazník pro žáky - subjektivní zhodnocení programu, Pozorování
žáka a rozhovor.
Hlavní zjištění: Výzkumná studie je realizována ve fázi předvýzkumu. Výzkum vychází z požadavků učitelů, jak v praxi pracovat s nadanými žáky v běžné třídě základní
školy v předmětu matematika.
Klíčová slova: nadané děti, vzdělávací program, základní škola, matematika
Theoretical Foundations: This contribution is aimed at presentation of the prospective
research study, which takes the form of an experiment. As the title indicates, this article
deals with education of gifted pupils in primary school in the subject of mathematics.
Many experts say that for pupils with special educational needs, including gifted students,
it is necessary to change the curriculum (Fořtík and Fořtíková, 2007; Kaprálek, Bělecký,
2004). Not many of the gifted students have the opportunity to attend specialized classes
for gifted children. Many gifted students are integrated into regular schools. Frequently
occurring in gifted children are behavioral problems, social-emotional problems, etc.
Various kinds of education of gifted pupils are possible in regular school (e.g. Portešová,
2011; Fořtík and Fořtíková 2007; Vágnerová, 1997; Hubatka, 2011; Gallagher, Kirk,
1989; Mesárošová, 1998). In our research we start from the theoretical assumptions and
research already carried out (e.g. Monks and Ypenburg, 2002; Fořtík and Fořtíková, 2007;
Jurášková, 2003; Pepper, 2005; Blatný and Plháková, 2003; Mach, 2009).
Research objectives: 1) diagnostics of gifted students in regular schools, 2) create and
verify part of the educational program
The research sample: The research sample will consist of students from the current
fifth grade of elementary school. We will work with an experimental (enriched educational program) and a control group (regular educational program).
Methods: Before and after the application of educational programs: Teachers’ nominations, Didactic test, Urbans figural test of creative thinking (TSD-Z), Questionnaire
VARK
During the course: Questionnaire for pupils - a subjective evaluation of the program,
Observation of students and interview.
Main findings: The research study is currently conducted in the preliminary research
phase. The research is based on the requirements of teachers, how they can work with
gifted students in the regular elementary school in the subject of mathematics.
Key words: gifted children, curriculum, elementary school, math
53
Rezilencia a školské správanie žiakov
Resilience and the School Behavior of Students
Anna Jenčová
Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Katedra spoločenských vied
Slovakia
[email protected], [email protected]
Koncept reziliencie v SR je skúmaný hlavne v oblasti edukačnej reziliencie. Jedna
z možností, ktorá je vhodná aj ako indikátor úspešnosti výchovy, by mohla byť rezilientnosť, čiže spôsobilosť zvládať záťažové situácie, neúspechy, príkoria, protivenstvá, nedať
sa nimi zlomiť a vyrastať ako zdravá, plnohodnotná osobnosť. Zameraním vedeckej štúdie bolo skúmanie rôznych aspektov školského správania žiakov v období adolescencie v
súvislosti s rezilienciou - odhaliť, v akom vzťahu je reziliencia chápaná ako stav rozvoja
osobnosti k správaniu žiaka v školskom prostredí a k jeho školskej výkonnosti. Výskumný súbor tvorilo 252 žiakov dvoch typov gymnázií v prvom ročníku ich štúdia. Cieľom
bolo odhaliť, ako sa miera reziliencie odráža v relevantných prejavoch školského správa nia. Výskum bol realizovaný šiestimi dotazníkmi, ktoré mapovali školské správanie. Autorka štandardizovala Wagnild-Youngovej Škálu reziliencie v populácii 15-ročných
žiakov. Dospela k záverom, že reziliencia je viditeľná aj v bežných prejavoch správania sa
žiakov v škole. Škola v prvom roku štúdia málo rozvíja vnútorný potenciál žiakov, málo
rozvíja svoje možnosti v ponímaní vonkajšieho zdroja podpory. Výsledky vedeckej práce
odhalili súvislosti prepojenia teórie s edukačnou praxou v oblasti diagnostiky potencionalít žiakov, ale aj odporúčania pre prax, ktoré sa týkajú budovania osobnosti žiakov, ich
reziliencie, autoregulácie a prekonávanie záťaží. Reálne uplatnenie poznatkov je príspevkom pre edukačnú prax, v poznaní stavu výchovného pôsobenia pre formovanie osobnosti
žiakov v školách. Zistené poznatky umožňujú konkretizáciu edukačnej praxe v školských
vzdelávacích programoch, v poradenskej a diagnostickej práci, v budovaní školského étosu. Reziliencia aj v školskom prostredí môže byť chápaná ako faktor duševného zdravia.
Klíčová slova: reziliencia, školské správanie, zistenia a odporúčania pre prax
The concept of resilience in Slovakia is examined primarily in the area of educational
resilience. One possibility, which is also suitable as an indicator of the successfulness of
education, could be resilience, which means the ability how to cope with stress situations,
failures, injustice and hardships, not be broken by them, and to grow up as a healthy,
whole personality.
The aim of the study was to examine different aspects of students' behaviour in
adolescence regarding resilience – to discover in what relation resilience is perceived as
a state of development of personality due to a student´s behaviour in school environment
and to his school performance. The sample was formed by 252 students of two types of
grammar schools in the first year of their studies. The goal of the study was to discover
how the extent of resilience gets reflected in relevant manifestations of school behaviour.
The research was conducted using six questionnaires that mapped the school behaviour.
The author standardized Wagnild-Young Resilience Scale in the population of 15-year old
students. She came to the conclusion that resilience is visible in the common behaviour
of students in school. In the first year of study, the school develops little inner potential
of students and their possibilities in terms of external sources of support. The results of
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the research study have revealed relations of connecting theory with educational practice
in the field of diagnostics of students’ potentials, as well as recommendations for practice
concerning the development of students’ personalities, their resilience, self-regulation and
overcoming stressful events. The real-life application of the findings is a contribution to
the educational practice – in the understanding of the current state of educational
influence on forming students’ personalities in schools. The established findings enable
the concretisation of educational practice in school educational programmes, in advisory
and diagnostic work, in building of school ethos. The resilience in the school environment
can be understood as a factor of mental health.
Key words: resilience, school behavior, findings and recommendations for praxis
Kvalita perinatální péče očima rodiček
a dopady na rodičovskou self-efficacy
Quality of Perinatal Care from the View of the Parturient
and Consequences for Parental Self-Efficacy
Simona Hoskovcová, Eliška Kodyšová, Lea Takacs, Jitka Seidlerová
Katedra psychologie, Filozofická fakulta, Univerzita Karlova
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Teoretická východiska: Závěry řady studií naznačují, že flexibilita strategií zvládání
tváří v tvář různorodým zátěžovým situacím působí i v období stávání se matkou jako dů ležitý ochranný faktor. Zvyšování rodičovské self-efficacy a dalších aspektů psychické
odolnosti nastávajících rodičů je tedy důležitou intervencí při práci s touto cílovou skupi nou.
Cíle výzkumu: Cílem výzkumu bylo ve velké studii získat přehled o spokojenosti žen
s péčí v českých porodnicích. V návazné studii jsme se soustředili na dopady sociálně
psychologických determinant porodního zážitku na změnu rodičovského self-efficacy.
Výzkumný soubor: Soubor je ve studii Psychosociální aspekty v současném porodnictví tvořen reprezentativním souborem 1195 žen, které rodily v českých porodnicích v le tech 2005 - 2012. Studie vlivu sociálně psychologických faktorů u porodního zážitku na
ranou rodičovskou self-efficacy zahrnuje data 118 z období před porodem a po něm.
Metody: Zvolily jsme metodu dotazníkového šetření. Ve studii spokojenosti byl
administrován dotazník KLI-P (Takacs, Sněhotová, Hoskovcová, 2012). V návazné studii
byly administrovány dotazník dostupné opory v rámci sociální sítě, dotazník Porodní selfefficacy (Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory; Lowe, 1993) a dotazník Rodičovské selfefficacy (založený na Parental Expectations Survey; Reece, 1992). Po porodu byl
administrován dotazník spokojenosti s porodem, dále byla zjišťována vnímaná bolest při
porodu, spokojenost s oporou doprovodu při porodu a dále sociální opora v období péče
o dítě po porodu. Opakovaně byl administrován dotazník Porodní a rodičovské selfefficacy.
Hlavní zjištění: Ženy projevovaly celkově vysokou porodní i rodičovskou selfefficacy jak před porodem, tak po něm. Své dítě vnímaly převážně jako klidné a snadno
utišitelné. Ženy jsou převážně spokojené s poskytovanou sociální oporou ze strany svých
55
blízkých. Převládá pozitivní hodnocení klimatu v porodnici. Zůstává tu však třetina žen,
která pociťuje nedostatky v zapojování do rozhodování, v omezeném poskytování
informací a nerespektování přání žen. Ženy vnímají nepříznivě také neosobní, a rutinní
přístup některých zdravotníků zejména ve fakultních porodnicích a porodnicích s více než
800 porody za rok.
Spokojenost s porodem je predikována oporou ze strany zdravotníků, vnitřní
kontrolou při porodu a tím, že žena nezažila nepostupující porod. Nárůst rodičovské selfefficacy je predikován primárně nižším skórem předporodní rodičovské self-efficacy,
snadnou utišitelností dítěte a vyšším skórem opory ze strany zdravotníků při porodu.
Klíčová slova: rodičovská self-efficacy, vnímaná osobní účinnost, porod, rodičovství,
perinatální péče
Theoretical Foundations: The conclusions of several studies suggest that the flexibility
of coping strategies in the face of diverse stressful situations is also active in parturient
as an important protective factor. Increasing parental self-efficacy and other aspects
of psychological resistance is an important part of intervention when working with fresh
parents.
Research Goals: The general aim of the research was to study women’s satisfaction
with perinatal care in Czech maternity hospitals. In the follow-up study, we focused on the
impact of social and psychological determinants of birth experience on changes in
parental self-efficacy.
Sample: The study provides information on women’s satisfaction with perinatal care
based on a representative sample of 1,195 women who gave birth in the Czech Republic
in the years 2005-2012. The study of the influence of social and psychological factors in
the birth experience on early parental self-efficacy includes data of 118 parturients.
Methods: We gathered the data using questionnaires. In the study of satisfaction we
used our own questionnaire KLI-P (Takacs, Sněhotová, Hoskovcová, 2012). In the study
on parental self-efficacy we used the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory (Lowe, 1993) and
the Parental Expectations Survey ( Reece, 1992). After childbirth, there was a second data
collection using additionally the questionnaire about the satisfaction with childbirth,
perceived pain during labor, satisfaction with supportive accompaniment at birth and
social support in the care of the child after birth.
Main findings: Women report generally high birth and parental self-efficacy both
before birth and after it. Their child was perceived mainly as a quiet and easy to calm.
Women are largely satisfied with the social support provided by their relatives. There is
generally positive assessment of the psychosocial climate in the hospital. But there still
remains one third of the women who experience lack of participation in decision-making,
lack of information and disrespect to women’s wishes. Women also negatively perceived
the impersonal and routine treatment especially in the large maternity hospitals with more
than 800 births per year.
Satisfaction with childbirth is predicted by support from health professionals, internal
control during childbirth and the experience of obstructed labor. Increase of parental selfefficacy is predicted primarily by lower score of the antenatal parental self-efficacy, ease
to calm child, support and a higher score on the part of health professionals during
childbirth.
Key words: parental self-efficacy, childbirth, parenting, perinatal care
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SESSION 4B / SEKCE 4B
QUALITY OF LIFE AND FLOURISHING
KVALITA ŽIVOTA A OPTIMÁLNÍ PROSPÍVÁNÍ
Psychometrika štěstí: osobnost a patologie
The Psychometrics of Happiness: Personality and Pathology
Jiří Kulka
Institut pozitivní systémové psychoterapie ARCANA, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Autor prezentuje teorii H (štěstí) a teorii osobnosti, na jejichž základě byl zkonstruován inventář IHAB, jenž byl posléze aplikován v rámci psychoterapie u klientů s různými diagnózami. Bylo získáno několik typických profilů patologických osobností a byly
vyvozeny psychologické závěry pro pozitivní psychoterapii.
Klíčová slova: štěstí, osobnost, pozitivní psychoterapie.
The author presents a theory of H (happiness), and of personality. Under the
framework of these theories and clinical practice, Inventory IHAB, which was
administered to clients with various diagnoses in psychotherapy, was constructed.
Several profiles of pathological personalities are presented and psychological
conclusions for positive psychotherapy are made.
Key words: happiness, personality, positive psychotherapy
Základné psychologické potreby vo vzťahu k motiváciia
a užívaniu alkoholu
Basic Psychological Needs in Relation to Motivation of Alcohol Use
Jozef Benka, Oľga Orosová
Univerzita P. J. Šafárika v Košiciach
Slovakia
[email protected]
Teoretická východiska: Táto práca sa opiera o teoretické východiská Self-determinačnej teórie (Deci & Ryan) a Motivačného modelu užívania alkoholu (Cox & Klinger). Zatiaľ čo SDT špecifikuje vzťah medzi jednotlivcom a jeho prostredím formou troch
základných psychologických potrieb (autonómia, kompetencia a potreba vzťahov) v súvislosti s optimálnym fungovaním jednotlivca (organizmu) a osobnostným rastom, Motivačný model užívania alkoholu definuje štyri typy motivácie vzťahujúce sa ku kombinácii
vnútorných a vonkajších motivačných faktorov (zlepšenie nálady, sociálna motivácia,
konformita a zvládanie záťaže) a ponúka styčné body oboch prístupov.
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Cíle výzkumu: Cieľom prezentovaného výskumu je preskúmať vzťah medzi základnými psychologickými potrebami a jednotlivými typmi motivácie užívania alkoholu a samotným užívaním alkoholu na vzorke vysokoškolských študentov.
Výzkumný soubor: Výskumná vzorka pochádza z väčšej medzinárodnej štúdie
SLiCE. Výskumnú vzorku tvorilo 237 (79% žien) vysokoškolských študentov študujúcich
na Slovensku, ktorí vyplnili online dotazník.
Metody: Základné potreby boli merané pomocou BMPN (Balanced measure of psychological needs) – pozostávajúcej z troch subškál merajúcich uspokojenie základných
psychologických potrieb (autonómia, vzťahy, kompetencia; α = 0,60-0,71). Užívanie
alkoholu bolo merané dotazníkom AUDIT (The Alcohol Use Identification Test). Ide
o štandardizovaný dotazník zameraný na identifikáciu problémového užívania alkoholu.
Motivácia ohľadom užívania alkoholu bola meraná DMQ-R (Drinking Motivation Questionnaire). Tento dotazník je zameraný na identifikáciu štyroch typov motivácie užívania
alkoholu a to zlepšenie nálady, sociálna motivácia, konformita a zvládanie záťaže,
α = 0,70-0,90. Dáta boli analyzované pomocou korelačnej analýzy a t-testov v programe
SPSS 21.
Hlavní zjištění: Uspokojenie všetkých potrieb bolo v negatívnom vzťahu s konformitou a zvládaním motivovanou konzumáciou alkoholu ( r = -0,21-0,32 ; p<0.05). Ďalej respondenti, u ktorých bolo zistené problémové užívanie alkoholu (AUDIT), dosahovali
vyššie skóre vo všetkých typoch motivácie okrem konformity (p<0,05) a tiež dosahovali
nižšie skóre u potreby kompetencie (p<0,05) ako respondenti bez problémového užívania
alkoholu.
Klíčová slova: základné psychologické potrebe, problémové užívanie alkoholu, motivácia
Theoretical background: This study is based on the assumptions of the SelfDetermination Theory (Deci & Ryan) and the Motivation Model of Alcohol Use (Cox
& Klinger). SDT defines the relationship of an individual and his environment through
three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness). Fulfillment of
these needs leads to flourishing and personal growth. The Motivational Model of Alcohol
Use specifies four types of drinking motivation combining internal and external factors
(enhancement, social motivation, conformity and coping) and provides integrating points
of these approaches.
Aims: The aim of the present research was to explore the relationship between basic
psychological needs and the types of motivation of alcohol use as well as the alcohol use
itself on a sample of university students.
Sample: The sample was taken from a larger international study SLiCE. The research
sample consisted of 237 (79% women) university students studying in Slovakia, who
filled in an online questionnaire.
Methods: The basic needs were assessed by the BMPN (Balanced measure of
psychological needs α = 0.60-0.71) consisting of three subscales measuring satisfaction
with basic psychological needs. Alcohol use was assessed by AUDIT (The Alcohol Use
Identification Test) which is a standardized questionnaire aimed at identifying problematic
alcohol use. Motivation of alcohol use was measured by the DMQ-R (Drinking
Motivation Questionnaire). This measure identifies four types of motivation of alcohol
use such as enhancement, social motivation, conformity and coping α = 0.70-0.90. Data
were analyzed by correlation analysis and t-tests in SPSS 21.
Main findings: Need satisfaction with all needs was negatively associated with both
conformity motivation and coping motivation of alcohol use (r = -0.21-0.32; p<0.05).
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In addition, respondents who were identified as problem drinking individuals (AUDIT)
showed higher scores in all motivations regarding alcohol use except for the conformity
motivation (p<0,05) and scored lower in the competence need (p<0.05) in comparison
with the non-problem drinking respondents.
Key words: basic psychological needs, problematic alcohol use, motivation
Vztah mezi časovou perspektivou a flow u uživatelů facebooku
The Relationship between Time Perspective and Flow of Facebook Users
Zdeněk Krpoun, Martina Kolářová
Psychologický ústav, Filozofická fakulta, Masarykova univerzita, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Předkládaná práce si klade za cíl popsat vztahy mezi časovou perspektivou a fenoménem flow u uživatelů facebooku. Časová perspektiva je způsob, jakým přemýšlíme
o času. Obsahuje pět faktorů (hédonismus, fatalismus, pozitivní a negativní minulost a budoucnost). Z pohledu pozitivní psychologie je nejzajímavější optimální časová perspektiva, která představuje ideální a pro život člověka nejpřínosnější způsob pojímaní času.
Flow je obvykle popisováno jako optimální prožívání, které může mít nejen pozitivní, ale
i negativní efekt na kvalitu života (zejména s ohledem na drogovou či počítačovou závislost a workoholismus). Sběr dat na vzorku studentů Masarykovy univerzity proběhl
v Centrálních počítačových učebnách MU. Podmínkou výběru respondentů byla aktuální
aktivita na sociální síti facebook. Výzkumu se účastnilo 214 respondentů (109 žen),
jejichž průměrný věk byl 22,53 (sd=3.00, md=22). Byly použity dotazníky časové perspektivy (ZTPI) a flow (FSS – 2). Respondenti byli v průběhu surfování na facebooku do tazováni na průměrnou délku jeho užívání a na jejich postoj k této sociální síti. Zřejmě
nejzajímavějším zjištěním je, oproti předchozímu očekávání, nalezení záporného vztahu
mezi fenoménem flow a časem stráveným na facebooku. Dalším zajímavým výsledkem je
kladný vztah mezi optimální časovou perspektivou a flow. Optimální časová perspektiva
tak představuje jakýsi ochranný faktor proti závislosti na Facebooku a jeho nadměrnému
užívání. Výsledky jsou statisticky významné. Vzhledem k aktuálním výzkumům a teoriím
v daných oblastech jsou diskutovány alternativní vysvětlení.
Klíčová slova: časová perspektiva, flow, facebook
The purpose of the present study is to describe the relationship between time
perspective and flow of Facebook users. Time perspective is the way of thinking about
time. It consists of five factors (hedonism, fatalism, positive and negative past and
future). From the perspective of positive psychology, the concept of optimal time
perspective is of particular interest, one that is ideal for human life and the most beneficial
way of treating time. Flow is usually referred to as optimal experience and can have not
only positive, but also negative impact on quality of life (mainly with regard to drugs
or computer addiction and workaholism). As research methods, we used questionnaires of
time perspective (ZTPI) and flow (FSS – 2). Data collection took place in the Central
Computer Rooms, Masaryk University. The main condition for the selection of
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respondents was current activity in the social network Facebook. The research involved
214 respondents (109 women) whose average age was 22.53 (SD = 3.00, MD = 22).
Respondents were asked about their experience of flow during surfing on Facebook, the
average length of use, and attitudes toward this social network. Probably the most
interesting finding, contrasting with the expectations, is a negative relationship between
the flow and time spent on Facebook. Another interesting result is a positive relationship
between optimal time perspective and flow. Optimal time perspective thus represents
a protective factor against dependence on Facebook and its excessive use. The results are
statistically significant. With regard to the current studies and theories in these areas,
alternative explanations are also discussed.
Key words: time perspective, flow phenomenon, Facebook
Life Dynamic - koncept rozvoje osobnosti a týmů využívající
prvky pozitivní psychologie
Life Dynamic - A Concept of a Personal and Team Growth Using Principles
of Positive Psychology
Lukáš Dastlík
Elio, o.s., Praha
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Life Dynamic je relativně nový koncept rozvoje osobnosti a týmů, který využívá prvků několika již etablovaných psychologických a terapeutických přístupů. V současné době
existují tři výcvikové skupiny tohoto směru, dále se vyučuje v rámci různých předmětů Psychologie zdraví, Psychohygiena apod. na několika VŠ v republice. Přístupem prošlo
v posledních 5ti letech již kolem 4 500 jedinců, někteří z nich přístup zdárně využívají ve
svém osobním i pracovním životě. Koncept je tvořen třemi částmi. První je "Analýza současného stavu" v následujících kategoriích: 1. Vztah k sobě a ke světu, 2. Původní rodina,
3. Současná rodina či partnerství, 4. Škola, zaměstnání, kariéra, úspěch a 5. Volný čas
a kamarádi. Hledáme zde možné potenciály rozvoje, silná místa, o které se může jedinec
opřít. Druhou částí je "Akční plán konkrétních kroků", ve kterém testujeme možnosti realizace potenciálů a přání daného jedince. Systémů k použití se nabízí vícero, nejčastěji používáme SMART. Třetí částí konceptu je "Transformace mysli", mind setting, který je
ovlivněn koncepty NLP, pozitivních afirmací či ideomotorického tréninku. Celý koncept
pak vychází z přesvědčení, že KAŽDÝ z nás má v sobě potřebné zdroje k realizaci svých
přání a představ. Přednáška se dále bude věnovat konkrétním aplikacím v každodenním
životě jednotlivce, ale také možnostem uplatnění konceptu v týmech.
Klíčová slova: Life Dynamic, transformace mysli, rozvoj osobnosti, pozitivní psychologie
Life Dynamic is a relatively new concept for personal and team development, which
uses elements from several already established psychological and therapeutic approaches.
Currently, there are three training groups in this direction and the concept is taught in
various subjects - Health Psychology, Psychohygiene etc. - at several universities in the
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country. In the last 5 years, around 4,500 individuals have undergone this kind
of treatment, and some of them are using the approach successfully in their personal and
professional lives. The concept consists of three parts. The first is the "Analysis of the
current situation" in the following categories: 1. Relationship to myself and to the world,
2. Original family, 3. Current family or partnership, 4. School, work, career and success,
and 5. Leisure and friends. We are looking for potential of possible development, strong
points one can rely on. The second part is the "Action plan of concrete steps," in which we
test the potentials and possibilities of realization of the wishes of the individual. There are
many possible systems to be used; we usually use SMART. The third part of the concept
is "Transformation of the mind", mind setting, which is influenced by the concepts
of NLP, positive affirmations, or ideomotor training. The whole concept is based on
the belief that each of us has within himself/herself the necessary resources to carry out
their wishes and ideas. The lecture will also be devoted to specific applications in the
everyday life of the individual, but also the possibilities of application of the concept
in teams.
Key words: Life Dynamic, mind setting, personal growth, positive psychology
Výzkum protektivních faktorů ve vztahu k syndromu vyhoření
v České republice a v zahraničí
Research and Professional Burnout Loads in the Czech Republic and Abroad
Tereza Ponížilová
Eva Urbanovská
Univerzita Palackého, Pedagogická fakulta, Olomouc
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Hlavní teoretická východiska: Rozmanité studie přinášejí přehled hlavních protektivních faktorů syndromu vyhoření (například Kyriacou, Sutclife, 1991; Vašina, 1997; dle
Holeček, Jiřincová a Miňhová (2001); Řehulka, Řehulková, 2001, aj.). Odolnost jakožto
osobnostní nastavení ve smyslu – hardiness, sense of coherence, resilience jsou prezentovány jako protektivní faktory ve vztahu k vyhaslosti. Klíč k ovlivnění škodlivosti psychosociálního stresu je tedy možné hledat především na úrovni osobnosti jedince.
Zaměření a cíl studie: Tato přehledová studie se zabývá tématem salutorů ve vztahu
k syndromu vyhoření. Jejím cílem je zmapovat a zhodnotit současný stav bádání v oblasti
protektivních faktorů profesní zátěže a syndromu vyhoření u pedagogických pracovníků
v ČR i v zahraničí.
Studie je strukturována do několika oddílů, které jsou tématicky utříděny, komparovány a jsou zhodnocena výzkumná zjištění. Tyto celky zahrnují přehled výzkumů zamě řených na způsob zvládání zátěže a salutory syndromu vyhoření. Studie zahrnuje
výzkumy prezentované v pracích předních odborníků i výzkumy realizované studenty
v rámci zpracování jejich kvalifikačních prací.
Na základě analýzy a komparace výzkumných zjištění budou vysloveny závěry, které
poslouží jako teoretická východiska pro realizaci výzkumného šetření v rámci zpracování
disertační práce.
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Shrnutí: Hlavním přínosem je zmapování současného stavu výzkumu podpůrných faktorů ve vztahu k syndromu vyhoření. Přehledová studie poskytuje podklady pro projektování a realizaci výzkumu v méně probádaných oblastech.
Klíčová slova: Syndrom vyhoření, pomáhající profese, příznaky, prevence
The main theoretical background: Multiple studies bring an overview of the protective
factors of burnout (e.g. Kyriacou, Sutclife, 1991; Vašina, 1997; as cited by Holecek,
Jiřincová and Miňhová, 2001; Řehulka, Řehulková, 2001; etc.). Resistance as a personal
setting in the sense of hardiness, sense of coherence, or resilience is presented as
protective factors in relation to the burnout syndrome. A key to the harmful influence
of psychosocial stress could thus be found mainly at the level of individual personality.
The focus and goal of the study: This overview paper examines the topic of salutors
in relation to burnout. Its aim is to map and assess the current state of research in the field
of protective factors against occupational stress and burnout among teachers in the Czech
Republic and abroad.
The study is divided into several sections that are topically categorized, compared and
contrasted, and evaluated in their research findings. These sections present an overview of
research on coping and salutory burnout syndrome. The study includes research presented
in the works by leading experts as well as in students’ theses.
Based on the analysis and comparison of research findings conclusions will be
derived which will serve as a theoretical basis for doctoral dissertation.
Summary: The main contribution is an analysis of the current state of research
on supporting factors in relation to burnout syndrome. The overview provides a basis for
designing and implementing research in less explored areas.
Key words: Syndrom burnout, salutory, protective factors
Můj první týden ve tmě
My First Week in the Darkness
Marek Malůš, Martin Kupka
Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, Filozofická fakulta, Katedra psychologie
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Tzv. terapie tmou, která pracuje s principy techniky omezené zevní stimulace
(konkrétně senzorickou deprivací a sociální izolací), nabízí jedincům v rámci týdenních či
delších pobytů velmi netradiční, intenzivní a růstovou sebezkušenost. Ta je obvykle velmi
pestrá – jak mezi jedinci tak v rámci jedinečné individuální zkušenosti. Působí celistvě, tj.
na všech rovinách bio-psycho-socio-spirituální jednoty člověka. Zastavme se na chvíli u
jedné z těchto neopakovatelných zkušeností, která následně podnítila výzkum právě této
oblasti. Autor příspěvku se otevřeně podělí o vlastní prožitky z roku 2007, kdy se jako jeden z prvních v České republice odevzdal léčivé náruči tmy, ticha a samoty v jedné prostě,
ale útulně zařízené chatce v Beskydech.
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Klíčová slova: Technika omezené zevní stimulace, REST, senzorická deprivace, terapie
tmou, dunkelterapie
The so-called dark therapy that works with the principles of restricted environmental
stimulation technique (specifically, sensory deprivation and social isolation), offers to
individuals during one-week or longer stays some very unusual, intense and growthenhancing self-experience. It usually varies widely – both interindividually and within the
unique individual experience. It works holistically, ie. at all levels of bio-psycho-sociospiritual unity of a human. Let us pause for a moment at one of those unrepeatable
experiences, which has stimulated research in this field. The author of the contribution
will openly share his own experience from 2007, when he was one of the first in the
Czech Republic who submitted himself to the healing power of darkness, silence
and solitude in a simply but comfortably built cottage in Beskydy.
Key words: Restricted environmental stimulation technique, REST, sensory deprivation,
dark therapy, dunkelterapie
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POSTER SESSION I. / POSTEROVÁ SEKCE I.
Trénink kognitivních funkcí jako součást pozitivního přístupu
k osobám po poranění mozku
Training of Cognitive Functions
as a Part of a Positive Approach to People after Brain Injuries
Aneta Dorazilová
Pavel Humpolíček
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, Psychologický ústav, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Trénink kognitivních funkcí je významným prvkem rehabilitace s osobami po poranění mozku. Díky krátkým cvičením na počítači nebo na papíře mohou klienti posilovat,
udržovat, nebo zlepšovat svou paměť, pozornost, výbavnost, schopnost učit se, slovní zásobu nebo orientaci v prostoru. Klienti se scházejí v malé skupině jednou týdně a před
jejich zařazením do skupiny probíhá diagnostika kognitivních funkcí pomocí příslušných
testů. Trénink je realizován metodou tužka-papír nebo pomocí počítače. Celý tréninkový
běh obsahuje 12 hodinových setkání každý týden. Klienti dostávají rovněž úkoly domů.
Naším cílem je co nejvíce přispět k optimálnímu fungování a návratu do běžného života.
Klienti jsou pozitivně motivování, aby i v domácím prostředí sami přiměřeně zatěžovali
svůj mozek. Sdružení Cerebrum, které tuto službu poskytuje, nabízí své služby i rodinným příslušníkům osob po poranění mozku, kteří mnohdy prožívají silnou zátěž, protože většinu času pečují o své blízké. Kognitivní trénink vychází z předpokladu, že lidský
mozek má určitou schopnost restrukturalizace, a poznávací funkce díky procvičování
mohou upevnit nebo rozšířit svou oblast v něm. Při tréninku kognitivních funkcí vycházíme z knihy Jak provádět trénink kognitivních funkcí (2010) autorů Malii a Brannagan
a další související literatury, a samozřejmě zejména z aktuálních potřeb klientů.
Klíčová slova: kognitivní rehabilitace, poranění mozku, paměť, pozornost, řeč, spolupráce
s rodinou
Training of cognitive functions is an important element of rehabilitation for persons
with brain injuries. By practicing short exercises and tasks clients can enhance, maintain,
or improve their memory, attention, word fluency, ability to learn, vocabulary, or
orientation in space. Clients meet in small groups once a week. Before their inclusion in
the group their cognitive cognitive functions are assessed using the appropriate tests.
Training is carried out using paper and pencil or a computer. The entire training course
includes 12 weeks of 1 hour sessions. Clients are also assigned homework. Our goal is to
contribute as much as possible to the optimal functioning and return to a normal life.
Clients are also positively motivated to adequately challenge their brains in their own
home environment. Cerebrum association offers services also to the family members
of people after brain injuries, who often experience a heavy burden, because most of the
time they take care of their loved ones. Cognitive training is based on the assumption that
the human brain has some capacity for restructuring, and cognitive function can reinforce
or extend its area in it through practice. Training of cognitive functions is based on the
64
book How to Assess Cognitive Training (2010) by authors Malia and Brannagan and other
related literature, and of course the clients’ actual needs.
Key words: cognitive rehabilitation, brain injury, memory, attention, speech, cooperation
with family
Does following an Online Positive Psychology Intervention
Increase Well-being and Resilience?
Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Linda Bolier, Merel Haverman, Jop Masselink,
Jan Walburg, Sanne Lamers, Ernst Bohlmeijer
Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction
The Netherlands
[email protected]
Psyfit (www.psyfit.nl) is an online mental fitness self help program, based on positive
psychology principles. The online program aims to support positive mental health in
general and strengthens self-management in case of mental problems. With the assistance
of Psyfit people can train their mental fitness, in a way analogous to improving physical
condition.
In a pragmatic randomized controlled trial the effectiveness of Psyfit was examined.
During one month almost 900 people registered for participation in the study from which
284 participants were included and randomized. Participants in the Psyfit experimental
condition (n=143) reported significantly higher levels of wellbeing and fewer depressive
and anxiety symptoms at post test and 4-month follow up compared to the waiting list
control group (n=141). In a secondary analysis we have examined if Psyfit can help to
increase resilience in comparison to the control group. We have looked at a subgroup of
people facing major negative life events (such as divorce or death of a loved one), and
examined if they cope well and maintain their level of well-being.
Key words: positive psychological interventions, internet, prevention, resilience
Cognitive emotion regulation strategies as mediators
of the relationship between resilience and optimism
Vesna Gavrilov-Jerković, Veljko Jovanović,
Dragan Žuljević, Dragana Brdarić, Ivan Jerković
University of Novi Sad
Serbia
[email protected]
A growing body of research shows that resilience plays an important role in
promoting well-being and mental health (Windle, 2011). The results of previous research
65
suggest that positive future-directed cognitions are one of the mechanisms linking
resilience and well-being (Mak, Ng, & Wong, 2011). Resilient individuals and individuals
that have capacity to overcome challenging situations are more likely to expect positive
outcomes in future, which in turn leads to better psychological functioning. The main aim
of the present research was to examine the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation
strategies in the relationship between resilience and optimism. The main research
hypothesis was that individuals who perceive themselves as resilient will activate
functional regulation strategies and develop optimistic beliefs. The sample consisted of
669 students (83% females, age range 18-34) from the University of Novi Sad, Serbia.
During an initial assessment, participants completed the 10-item Connor-Davidson
Resilience Scale (Campbell-Sills & Stein, 2007). Six months later, participants completed
the Personal Optimism Scale (Schweizer & Koch, 2001) and the Cognitive Emotion
Regulation Questionnaire (Garnefski, Kraaij, & Spinhoven, 2002). A regression analysis
showed that resilience was significantly associated with optimism (B = .32, p < .001). To
establish whether the indirect effects were significant, a bootstrapping procedure, with
1000 replications was applied to estimate standard error (Preacher & Hayes, 2004). The
total indirect effect was .149, z = 7.96, p < .001, implying that cognitive emotion
regulation mechanisms do mediate the relationship between resilience and optimism.
Resilient individuals are more likely to use adaptive emotion regulation strategies (refocus
on planning, positive reappraisal, positive refocusing, and putting into perspective) and
less likely to use self-blame in negative emotional experiences, which in turn leads to the
development of positive expectations.
Key words: resilience, optimism, emotion regulation, multiple mediation
Association Between Positive Affect and Functional Ability
in Community-dwelling Older Adults
Mayumi Hirosaki, Yasuko Ishimoto, Yoriko Kasahara
Masayuki Ishine, Ryota Sakamoto, Kiyohito Okumiya, Taizo Wada, Kozo Matsubayashi
Kansai University
Japan
[email protected]
Background: Several studies have shown that positive affect has a stronger association
with mortality and morbidity than negative affect. The aim of this study was to test the
association of positive affect as measured by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale
(GDS-15) with risk of functional decline among community-dwelling older Japanese.
Methods: A 2-year prospective study was carried out among 505 residents aged
65 years and older without disability in carrying out basic activities of daily living
(BADL) at baseline. Positive affect was measured using the GDS-15, which includes 5
items that reflect positive affect, as well as 10 items that reflect negative affect.
Information on functional ability, sociodemographic factors and medical conditions, was
obtained using a self-administered questionnaire.
Results: A total of 72 (14.3%) participants reported a decline in BADL at the 2-year
follow up. Of the five positive items, three items (feeling satisfied with life: OR = 0.49,
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95% CI = 0.25–0.95; feeling happy most of the time: OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.25–0.99;
and feeling full of energy: OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22–0.95) were significantly associated
with lower risk of functional decline, after adjusting for potential confounding factors.
These associations were also independent of negative affect. In contrast, none of the
negative items predicted functional decline after controlling for confounding factors.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that the feeling of satisfaction with life, happiness
and energy, might have a favorable effect on the maintenance of functional ability in
community-dwelling older adults.
Key words: positive affect, basic activities of daily living, community-dwelling elderly,
Geriatric Depression Scale
Obecná self-efficacy studentů VŠ a její vliv na zvládání zátěže
General Self-efficacy at Students, its Influence on Coping with Stress
Hana Chýlová, Ludmila Natovová
Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze, Czech Republic
[email protected]
Příspěvek navazuje na výsledky studie autorek Specifika volby copingových strategií
u vysokoškolských studentů (Konference pozitivní psychologie 2012). Současná studie se
snaží zodpovědět zejména otázky možností ovlivnění volby konstruktivních pozitivních
strategií zvládání stresu. S ohledem na trénink a prevenci se jeví jako vhodné zaměřit se
na self-efficacy. Slezáčková (2012) uvádí, že výsledky řady studií ukazují na významnou
ochrannou roli self-efficacy proti působícímu stresu, na její úzkou spojitost s kvalitou
života, úspěšným zvládáním těžkostí a dalšími žádoucími proměnnými a také poukazuje
na její uplatnění při nácviku zvládání stresu. Podle Griffina a Clarka (2011) zmírňuje vysoká úroveň self-efficacy negativní následky pracovního zatížení. Kebza a Šolcová (2005)
považují self-efficacy za jednu z hlavních složek well-beingu.
Předkládaný výzkum si klade za cíl zmapovat self-efficacy u VŠ studentů a věnovat se
možnému využití souvislosti s ovlivňováním úspěšného zvládání zátěžových situací
a well-beingu.
Výzkumný soubor byl tvořen 280 studenty České zemědělské univerzity v Praze
(65 % žen), ve věku od 18 do 54 let (průměrný věk 21,9 let).
K získání dat byl využit dotazník General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer, Jerusalem,
2000) v překladu Jaro Křivohlavého. Výhodou využití této metody je mimo jiné i možnost
porovnání výstupů naší studie s dalšími dostupnými výsledky z ČR nebo zahraničí. Data
byla statisticky analyzována pomocí jednovýběrového t-testu.
Průměrná self-efficacy je v aktuálně zkoumaném souboru studentů VŠ významně vyšší (P<0,01) než u studentů ze studie z roku 2004 (Lukeš), a ve srovnání s německou populací vyšší (P<0,05), oproti souboru podnikatelů z roku 2004 jsou výsledky našich
studentů naopak významně (P<0,01) nižší. Uváděný posun a rozdíly v self-efficacy,
aspekty pravděpodobně související s volbou strategií zvládání stresu a využití jejich vzá jemného vztahu pro prevenci negativních dopadů stresu a dalšího pozitivního rozvoje studentů jsou diskutovány v závěru.
Klíčová slova: self-efficacy, studenti, zátěž
67
The paper is a follow-up of previous study done by the authors on Specifics in
Selection of Coping Strategies in university students (Conference on Positive Psychology
2012). The current study tries to address namely the issues of how the selection of
constructive stress coping strategies can be influenced. With regard to training and
prevention, it seems sensible to focus on self-efficacy. According to Slezáčková (2012),
the outcomes of a number of studies indicate an important protective role of self-efficacy
against stress, a close connection to the quality of life, effective coping with stress and
other desirable variables, and also an important part in stress coping training. Griffin and
Clark (2011) mention the diminishing function of high self-efficacy on negative effects of
work load. Kebza and Šolcová (2005) consider self-efficacy to be one of the main
components of well-being.
The main aim of this study is to map self-efficacy in university students and to
identify the possibilities of application of its relation with successful coping strategies and
well-being.
The research sample consists of 280 students of Czech University of Life Sciences
(65 % of women), in the age ranging from 18 to 54 years (average age is 21, 9).
The data were collected using General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer, Jerusalem,
2000). The advantage of this method is the possibility of comparison of our outcomes
with previous results from CR or other countries. The data were statistically analysed with
the use of t-test.
The average self-efficacy of our sample is significantly higher (p < 0,01) than in the
sample of students from 2004 (Lukeš) and higher in comparison to the German population
(p < 0,05); on the other hand, it is lower (p < 0,01) compared to the group of managers
from the 2004 research. The shift and the differences in self-efficacy level, aspects
connected with the stress coping strategies, as well as potential uses in the prevention of
negative stress impacts and further positive development of the students are further
discussed.
Key words: self-efficacy, students, stress
Trochu nádeje pre deti s ADHD
Some More Hope for Children with ADHD
Emil Komárik
Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa, Nitra
Slovakia
[email protected]
Východiskom príspevku je Hartmannovo (1997) konštatovanie o podobnosti symptómov ADHD so súborom predpokladov pre úspešnosť pri získavaní potravy lovom a tiež
podobnosti štandardného školského správania so prácou roľníka. Na základe tohto poznatku T. Hartmann vyslovil hypotézu že ADHD nie je porucha, ale geneticky podmienené mentálne nastavenie, ktoré je potlačené masívnou historickou prevahou úspešnosti
farmárskeho života.
Pedagogická prax opierajúca sa o túto hypotézu vychádza z predpokladu, že spôsob
správania typický pre riešenie situácií vyžadujúcich rýchle rozhodovanie v podmienkach
neistoty a ohrozenia ostane človeku ako životný štýl na celý život. Na rozdiel od školy,
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ktorá vyžaduje len farmárske spôsobilosti, realita hospodárskeho a spoločenského života,
obsahuje množstvo segmentov (obchod, podnikanie, politika) v ktorých sú práve takéto
vlastnosti predpokladom úspechu.
Zdrojom nádeje pre rodičov a vychovávateľov je predovšetkým otvorenie perspektívy,
že zápas o budúcnosť dieťaťa nie je vopred stratený boj, ale že aj tieto deti s ADHD prevažujúcim majú všetky šance byť v živote úspešnými, aj keď treba vykonať množstvo
práce na to aby sa lovec dokázal vyrovnať s farmárskym prostredím školy a okolia.
Klíčová slova: ADHD, hypotéza farmár-lovec, výchova
A starting point of this paper is Hartmann's (1997) finding concerning similarities
between symptoms of ADHD and prerequisites for success in obtaining food by hunting
as well as the similarity of the standard school behavior with the work of farmers. Based
on this fact T. Hartmann hypothesized that ADHD is not a disorder but a genetically
determined mental state which has been suppressed by a massive historical predominance
of success of the farming life style.
Teaching experience which is based on the hypothesis founded on the assumption that
a behavior successful in dealing with situations requiring quick decision making under
uncertainty and danger remains a life style during the whole life span, Unlike school,
which requires only farming ability, economic and social realities possess a number
of segments (business, entrepreneurship, politics) in which hunter’s abilities become
necessary for success.
Source of hope for parents and educators is primarily in opening the perspective that
the struggle for the child’s future is not lost before it even started, but that these ADHD
children have every chance to be successful in life, even though a lot of work is to be
done to have a hunter cope with the prevailing farmer´s environment of school and
community.
Key words: ADHD, farmer-hunter hypothesis, education
Zvládání stresu u studentů v širším rámci:
copingové strategie a chování
Coping Adopted by University Students in Broader Sense:
Coping Strategies and Behavior
Ludmila Natovová
Hana Chýlová
Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Předchozí studie autorek se zaměřovali na mapování strategií zvládání zátěže u studentů z různých hledisek, jako například odlišnosti používání různých copingových stra tegií se zřetelem na rozdílný věk, pohlaví nebo typ studia u skupiny vysokoškolských
studentů (Chýlová, Natovová, 2011; Natovová, Chýlová, 2011). Jak uvádějí O´Connor
a Conner (2011), na základě výzkumných poznatků se jeví, že stres ovlivňuje lidské
69
zdraví jak přímo (prostřednictvím vlivů ve vegetativní, neuroendokrinní a biologické oblasti), tak i nepřímo prostřednictvím změn chování, které následně ovlivňují zdraví (změny ve složení a množství přijímané stravy, konzumace alkoholu, kouření atd.). Z tohoto
důvodu jsme u části zkoumaného vzorku mapovali kromě copingových strategií také míru
chování indikující zranitelnost stresem, kterou v tuzemské literatuře uvádí Schreiber
(1992). Hlavním cílem tohoto příspěvku je tedy nalezení odpovědi na otázku, zda existuje
souvislost mezi skupinami převládajících copingových strategií a chováním, které indikuje vyšší míru zranitelnosti stresem. Na výzkumu participovalo 277 vysokoškolských
studentů České zemědělské univerzity v Praze s převahou žen (184 žen, 89 mužů, 4 osoby
své pohlaví neuvedly), ve věku 19 – 54 let (M = 29, Me = 26 let, SD = 8,45). Studentům
byl zadán dotazník SVF-78 (vyplnilo 275 studentů) a dotazník pro mapování zranitelnosti
stresem (vyplnilo pouze 61 studentů). Pro identifikování vztahu mezi proměnnými byly
vypočítány koeficienty korelace (Pearson, Spearman). Na základě výpočtů parametrických korelačních koeficientů se ukazuje vztah mezi charakteristikami chování vedoucími ke zranitelnosti stresem a skupinami copingových strategií, nicméně výsledky této
studie je potřeba interpretovat s respektem k jejím omezením (především velikost vzorku
a menší skupina dat z druhé metody).
Klíčová slova: copingové strategie, chování, stres
In our previous research work we mapped coping strategies adopted by university
student according to different age groups, study modes or gender (Chýlová, Natovová,
2011; Natovová, Chýlová, 2011). According to O´Connor and Conner (2011, p. 275), “…
stress affects health directly through autonomic, neuroendocrine, and biological processes
and also indirectly through changes to behaviors that influence health” (amount and
composition of food, alcohol consumption, smoking etc.). Due to this fact we measured
coping strategies and also behavioral markers indicating higher vulnerability to stress. The
main aim of this paper is to answer the question about the relationship between some
coping strategies and behavioral indicators. 277 university students of Czech University
of Life Sciences took part on our research (184 women, 89 men, 4 cases missing) in the
age of 19 – 54 years (M = 29, Me = 26, SD = 8,45). As a research method we used the
SVF 78 questionnaire and the stress index (Schreiber, 1992). Correlation coefficients
(Pearson, Spearman) for identifying a relationships between variables were calculated.
Results of this study indicate a relationship between groups of coping strategies and stress
index. At the moment, however, the interpretation of the results must be done with
caution, with respect to the limitations of this study (sample size; lower N in the second
method).
Key words: coping strategies, behavior, stress
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Kozmológia vedomia a psychológia
Cosmology of Consciousness and Psychology
Magda Nišponská
Technická univerzita v Liberci
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Kvantová kozmológia vedomia je intenzívne sa vyvíjajúca nová vedná oblasť, ktorá
skúma povahu vedomia a jeho miesto vo vesmíre. Vedomie je veličina, ktorá možno zohráva významnú úlohu v sebaorganizujúcich štruktúrach, ktoré vo vesmíre pozorujeme od
atomárnych škál, cez živé organizmy až po štruktúru samotného vesmíru a časopriestoru.
V kvantovej teórii existujú desiatky teórii vedomia, ktoré sa viac, alebo menej dotýkajú
psychológie, hoci nie sú predmetom záujmu psychológov. Tieto dve vedy pracujú s natoľko odlišnými metodológiami, že v systéme vedeckých disciplín koexistujú vzájomne her meticky izolované. Dôvodom može byť nesmierna zložitosť výpočtov, ktoré kozmológia
vedomia používa pre formulovanie a overovanie teórií, či myšlienkových i praktických
experimentov. Integrácia týchto konceptov do psychológie je nevyhnutná a neodvratná
a bude mať výrazný dopad predovšetkým na našu predstavu o sebauvedomení, identite,
kognitívnych procesoch, spiritualite. V tomto príspevku diskutujeme o teóriách vedomia
v spojitosti s presahom smerom k psychológii.
Klíčová slova: kozmológia vedomia, teórie vedomia
Quantum cosmology of consciousness is a recently evolving discipline of theoretical
physics which explores the nature of consciousness and its place in the universe.
Consciousness is an entity which can play an important role in self-organizing structures
that we see in the universe from atomic scales through living systems and the structure of
the spacetime to the universe itself. Dozens of sophisticated quantum theories of
consciousness have already been discussed in scientific journals. These theories could be
of high importance for further evolution of psychology. We feel an urgent need to
integrate the the topic of consciousness in the sphere of psychology and psychological
research. The topic has been already deeply discussed among physicists. Physics and
psychology coexist in the system of scientific disciplines as if mutually isolated. The main
reason for this situation might be the use of very different methodology and language.
Psychologists try to make “poetic” sense from observation of chaotic people’s behaviour,
while physicists consider mind to be a part of their observation, kind of a natural force
with quantum-like and non-local properties that might be mathematically understood in
the future. We do not even know how to use quantum computing that each neuron might
regularly use to process information (Penrose). Theories of consciousness will surely have
deep impact on many ideas that formed the innermost core of psychology as we knew it for example personality and identity. In this paper we discuss several selected theories of
consciousness (ORCH OR, Syntropy etc.) and their possible effects on prevailing
psychological conceptualisations of human identity.
Key words: cosmology of consciousness, theories of consciousness
71
Parametre nádeje u dospelých ľudí zaradených
do terapeutického procesu v resocializačnom zariadení
Parameters of Hope with Adults Enrolled in the Therapeutic Process
in a Social Reintegration Centre
Gabriela Ručková
Univerzita sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave
Slovakia
[email protected]
Vychádzajúc z definície nádeje (dôvera, či viera v niečo pozitívne) a dostupnej literatúry sme naše výskumné zameranie orientovali do izolovaného prostredia resocializačného zariadenia. Na základe teoretických východísk je našim zámerom proces nádeje
s vhodnými motivačnými prvkami aplikovať ako cielene zameranú aktivitu. Cieľom výskumu je nájsť a špecifikovať parametre nádeje u dospelých jedincov, ktorí sú vytesnení
z klasického kolobehu života v dôsledku svojich vlastných postojov, chcení a protizákonných rozhodnutí a majú záujem pracovať na zmene. Na základe zistení je následne možné
realizovať vhodné terapeutické postupy či už v individuálnej, skupinovej alebo postupne
v rodinnej forme. V našej štúdii sme sa zamerali na dospelých ľudí, závislých na alkohole,
liekoch či iných drogách bez ohľadu na pohlavie, ktorí dobrovoľne podstupujú resocializačný proces v chránenom prostredí, majú ukončené stredoškolské vzdelanie a v priebehu
posledného polroka neboli v recidíve. Výsledky, ktoré sme získali zberom údajov (osobné
anamnézy, štruktúrované rozhovory, kresbové prejavy, štandardizované dotazníky NEO,
STAI, Profil životných postojov - Škála nádeje, Škála osobnej pohody) potvrdili, že
u všetkých sledovaných participientov i napriek ich narušenej osobnostno-sociálnej stability a neistoty vychádzajúcej z predchádzajúceho spôsobu ich vlastných životov, že sú
motivovaní pre zmenu, ktorá sa im i napriek vlastnému chceniu náročne prijíma a ťažko
realizuje. Nádej pri zaraďovaní sa do bežného života cítia v opore zariadenia, do ktorého
boli umiestnení a „podržalo ich“, v ľuďoch s podobnými životnými prekážkami a určitých
prípadoch aj v rodine (i napriek tomu, že veľakrát rodina už nemá o záujem). Aktuálne
ponúkame len časť výsledkov a to vzhľadom na skutočnosť, že náš zámer je dlhodobý, citlivý práve vzhľadom na vlastné racionálne postoje a emocionálne posuny cieľovej
skupiny a to s perspektívou zvládania ich narušeného osobnostného spektra.
Klíčová slova: nádej, psychoterapia, klient, změna
Based on the definition of hope (bound with trust and faith in something positive) and
the relevant literature we focused our research in the isolated environment of social
reintegration centres. With the theoretical background, our intention is oriented to the
process of hope application as a form of appropriate motivational element and specifically
directed activity. The aim of the research is to identify and specify parameters of hope
with adults, who are separated from the normal cycle of life because of their own
attitudes, wishes and unlawful decisions, but would llike to work on a change. Based on
the findings it would be possible to implement appropriate therapeutic procedures,
whether in an individual, community or family form. Our study focuses on adults,
addicted to alcohol, medication or drugs, regardless of sex, who voluntarily undergo the
re-socialization process in protected environment, with completed secondary education,
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and who were not in relapse over the last six months. The results obtained from data
collection (personal history, structured interviews, speeches, paintings, standardized
questionnaires NEO, STAI, Life Attitude Profile - Scale of Hope, Personal Scale of Wellbeing) confirmed that in all studied participants, despite their disturbed personal - social
stability and uncertainty stemming from their own previous lives, they are personally
motivated to change themselves, which is nevertheless demanding and difficult to
implement. Hope for their integration into common daily life is felt as coming the support
of the centre where they were placed, where just the centre "anchored them", and also
from the people of similar life obstacles and in some cases also from the family (even
though many times the family is no longer interested in providing support). At the
moment we offer only a part of the results, mainly considering our long-term sensitive
aim, and also considering the rational attitudes and emotional shifts of the target group,
mainly from the perspective of coping with their disturbed personality spectrum.
Key words: hope, psychotherapy, client, change
Šťastní a zdraví?
Souvislosti duševní pohody, optimálního prospívání
a subjektivně hodnoceného fyzického zdraví u studentů VŠ
Happy & Healthy? Relationships between Well-being, Flourishing
and Subjective Health in College Students
Alena Slezáčková, Kristina Bolebruchová, David Fójcik
Martina Halúzová, Petra Horáková, Kateřina Švecová, Kristýna Tománková
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, Psychologický ústav, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Studie zkoumala souvislosti duševní pohody, optimálního prospívání (flourishing)
a subjektivně hodnoceného zdraví u českých vysokoškolských studentů. Výzkumný soubor tvořilo 352 studentů VŠ (286 žen a 66 mužů) ve věku od 19 do 30 let (průměrný věk
22,3) různého studijního zaměření.
Použity byly metody Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF; Keyes, 2009),
jež zjišťuje míru psychologické, emocionální a sociální pohody, Flourishing Scale, měřící
stupeň tzv. optimálního prospívání, a Škála pozitivních a negativních emocí Scale of Positive and Negative Experience SPANE (Diener, Wirtz, Tov, Kim-Prieto, Choi, Oishi,
& Biswas-Diener, 2009). Zjišťovali jsme také demografické proměnné a subjektivně
hodnocený zdravotní stav respondentů. Pro statistické zpracování dat byly použity po pisné statistiky, analýza rozptylu a Pearsonův korelační koeficient.
Z výsledků vyplývají významné pozitivní korelace mezi skóry všech použitých metod
(s výjimkou škály negativních emocí, kde byly vztahy negativní).
Respondenti, kteří se cítí subjektivně zcela zdraví, dosahují významně vyšší úrovně
emocionální a psychické pohody než méně zdraví jedinci, a častěji také za uplynulý měsíc prožívali pozitivní emoce. Respondenti žijící v dlouhodobém partnerském vztahu do sahují vyšší úrovně emoční pohody než svobodní (single). Ostatní demografické
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ukazatele, jako je věk, pohlaví, obor studia, náboženství a místo bydliště nehrají v míře
sledovaných proměnných roli.
Klíčová slova: duševní pohoda, optimální prospívání, zdraví, studenti VŠ
The study investigates relationships between well-being, flourishing and subjective
health in college students. The research sample consisted of 352 Czech college students
(286 females and 66 males) of various fields of study. The respondents´ age was 19 to
30 years (Mean Age = 22.3, SD=2.29).
We used Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF; Keyes, 2009), The
Flourishing Scale and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE; Diener, Wirtz,
Tov, Kim-Prieto, Choi, Oishi, & Biswas-Diener, 2009). We also examined connections
with the respondents’ subjective health and demographic data. For data analysis we used
descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients.
Results show that scores in all measures were positively and significantly
intercorrelated, except for the Scale of Negative Experience.
Respondents who perceived themselves completely healthy attained higher levels
of both emotional and psychological well-being and experienced more positive emotions
during the past month, compared to their less healthy peers. Students who lived in a long
term relationships achieved higher levels of emotional well-being and flourishing than
those who were single. Other variables, such as gender, age, field of study, religion and
place of residence, did not show any significant relationships with the variables measured.
Key words: well-being, flourishing, subjective health, college students
Seberegulace v kontextu vynořující se dospělosti
Self-regulation in the Context of Emerging Adulthood
Martin Šmíra, Dagmar Adamcová, Terézia Dlhošová
Radovan Kyrinovič, Tibor Žingora, Katarína Millová
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, Psychologický ústav, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Cíle výzkumu: Seberegulace je důležitou součástí adaptivního fungování člověka
v průběhu celého života. V takovém kontextu se využívají strategie zvládání života – tři
základní seberegulační strategie: selekce, optimalizace a kompenzace. Většina dosavadních výzkumů je studovala spíše u lidí v středním věku a ve stáří. My jsme se zaměřili na období vynořující se dospělosti, kdy procesy seberegulace podstatně ovlivňují další
směr vývoje. Metody: Údaje jsme získali od 190 studentů (44 mužů) ve věku 19 – 28 let
(průměrný věk byl 21,5 let). Použili jsme Dotazník selekce, optimalizace a kompenzace
(SOC). Výsledky: Zjistili jsme, že seberegulační charakteristiky se projevují ve vynořující
se dospělosti jiným způsobem ve srovnání s výsledky u starších lidí. Využití seberegulačních strategií je podprůměrné až průměrné, co souvisí právě s charakteristikou
zkoumaného období. Významné genderové rozdíly jsme nenašli, neobjevila se ani žádná
souvislost s věkem. Nicméně se pomocí faktorové analýzy potvrdila existence očekávaných čtyř faktorů (dobrovolná selekce, selekce založená na ztrátě, optimalizace
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a kompenzace), které se projevují i v starším věku. Závěr: Tyto výsledky naznačují zajímavou dynamiku seberegulace v celoživotním kontextu.
Klíčová slova: seberegulace, vynořující se dospělost, selekce, optimalizace, kompenzace
Objectives: Self-regulation is an important part of human adaptive functioning
throughout life. People use three fundamental self-regulatory strategies as lifemanagement strategies in this context: selection, optimization and compensation. Most
previous research studies have studied them mostly in middle age and old age. We
focused on the period of emerging adulthood, when self-regulation processes importantly
affect the future direction of development. Methods: We obtained data from 190 students
(44 men) aged 19-28 years (mean age 21.5 years). We used Selection, Optimization and
Compensation questionnaire (SOC). Results: We found that self-regulatory characteristics
are reflected in emerging adulthood in a different way compared to the results in older
people. The use of self-regulatory strategies is below average to average, as typical of the
characteristics of the examined period. We did not find significant gender differences;
there has been no connection with age either. However, factor analysis confirmed the
presence of the expected four factors (elected selection, loss based selection, optimization
and compensation), which manifest in older age. Conclusion: These results suggest
an interesting dynamics of self-regulation in a lifelong context.
Key words: self-regulation, emerging adulthood, selection, optimization, compensation
Positive Changes in Crewmembers
after 520 Days of Simulation of Space Flight to Mars
Iva Šolcová
Alla Vinokhodova
Iva Poláčková Šolcová
Institute of Psychology, Czech Academy of Sciences
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Background: Mars 500 has been the first full duration simulation of a manned flight to
Mars. During the stay the “marsonauts“ were isolated and their lives and work has been
designed similarly as that of an ISS crew. Connection with mission control centre has
been disrupted and realistic delays were implemented. The crew members had to follow
rather strict schedule of scientific experiments, daily exercise and eating.
Method: The study comprised 6 volunteers aged between 27 – 38 years of age
(M = 32.16; SD = 4.99), all males. At the baseline measurement Locus of Control, Brief
Resilient Coping Scale, and Proactive coping scale were administered to the participants.
The follow-up measurements included baseline methods (to assess the changes in the
input variables), and a structured interview with crew members. Complete data has been
collected from five participants.
Results: In the follow-up measurement, resilience increased in two participants, and
remained on the same level in three participants. Locus of control became more internal in
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four of five participants. Proactive coping increased in three participants, in one stayed on
the same level and in one participant very slightly decreased.
Conclusion: The results are good news for space psychology. The majority of crew
members were able to gain positive strengths from the demanding situation.
Key words: Stress-related growth, extended spaceflight simulation, crew
Riziko syndromu vyhoření u pracovníků pomáhajících profesí
The Risk of Burnout Syndrome in Assisting Staff
Eva Urbanovská
Irena Plevová
Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Teoretická východiska: Pozitivní psychologie zaujímá významnou roli v prevenci proti syndromu vyhoření, kterým jsou ohroženi především pracovníci pomáhajících profesí.
Proces vyhořívání je determinován vzájemnou interakcí rizikových i podpůrných faktorů.
Na základě dosavadních zjištění lze předpokládat souvislost syndromu vyhoření
s osobnostními charakteristikami, ale i se specifiky určité profese a profesního zařazení.
Cílem prezentované studie bylo porovnat výstupy našich dosavadních výzkumů míry
syndromu vyhoření u učitelů s výsledky zkoumání v jiných profesních skupinách. Výzkumný soubor tvořilo 559 učitelů různých stupňů škol, 101 pracovníků vazební věznice
a 140 pracovníků ve zdravotnictví. Metody: Míra vyhoření byla zjišťována Dotazníkem
vyhoření (Hennig, Keller, 1996), který umožňuje zhodnotit účinky stresu ve čtyřech
osobnostních dimenzích: kognitivní, emocionální, tělesné a sociální. Výsledky: Celková
průměrná míra vyhoření skupiny učitelů byla nižší než míra vyhoření skupiny lékařů
a zdravotních sester. Byly naznačeny rozdíly v míře příznaků syndromu vyhoření z hlediska osobnostních dimenzí. Závěr: Porovnávací sonda naznačila rozdíly v celkové míře vyhoření a struktuře příznaků. Jejich existenci je ovšem nezbytné prokázat dalším
výzkumem.
Klíčová slova: syndrom vyhoření, učitelé, zdravotnická profese, pracovníci vězeňské
služby, dotazník vyhoření
Theoretical bases: Positive psychology plays an important role in the prevention of
burnout, to which people in helping professions are especially vulnerable. The process of
burnout is determined by the interaction of risk and supportive factors. Based on the
existing findings it can be assumed there is a relationship between burnout and personality
characteristics, but also the specifics of certain professions and professional occupations.
The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of our present research on
the degree of burnout among teachers with the results of research done on other
occupational groups.
The research sample consisted of 559 school and college teachers, 101 prison
employees and 140 health care workers. Methods: The degree of burnout was measured
using the Burnout Questionnaire (Hennig, Keller, 1996), which allows for the evaluation
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of the effects of stress on four personality dimensions: cognitive, emotional, physical and
social.
Results: The overall average degree of burnout in teachers was lower than the degree
of burnout in doctors and nurses. Differences in the symptoms of burnout along the
personality dimensions were indicated. Conclusion: The comparation study indicated
differences in overall structure and burnout symptoms. It is necessary, however, to verify
the results in further research.
Key words: burnout, teachers, health professions, prison service staff, Burnout
Questionnaire
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POSTER SESSION II. / POSTEROVÁ SEKCE II.
Pozitívne emócie učiteľa vyjadrené v jeho interakčnom štýle
Positive Emotions Expressed in Teacher's Interaction Style
Andrea Baranovská
Univerzita sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave
Slovakia
[email protected]
Štýl vyučovania, komunikácia, priebeh výučby, postupy učiteľa pri výučbe sú dôležitými faktormi, ktoré ovplyvňujú študenta a jeho postoj k predmetu a motiváciu k učeniu.
Avšak veľmi dôležitou súčasťou vyučovania je postoj učiteľa a tiež jeho schopnosť vyjadrovať pozitívne emócie. Štúdia sa zaoberá modelom osobnosti Learyho a jeho aplikáciou
v školskom prostredí. Sústreďujeme sa na vymedzenie pozitívnych emócií v interakčnom
štýle učiteľa ako relatívne stabilnej charakteristiky. Jadro článku tvorí porovnanie pred stavy žiakov o ideálnom učiteľovi a jeho vlastnostiach meraným Dotazníkom interakčného štýlu učiteľa z hľadiska pozitívnej psychológie a ich slovným hodnotením takéhoto
učiteľa vo všeobecnosti aj z hľadiska veku študentov.
Klíčová slova: učiteľ, interakčný štýl, emócie, interpersonálne správanie
The teaching style, communication, lesson structure and teaching methods are
important factors that affect a student's attitude toward the subject and motivation for
learning. But a very important part of teaching is also the teacher's attitude and his ability
to express positive emotions. The study looks at Leary's model of personality and its
application in the school environment. We focus on the definition of positive emotions
in the teacher's interaction style as a relatively stable characteristic. The main part of the
article deals with the comparison of the pupils’ ideas about the ideal teacher and the
characteristics measured by the Questionnaire of Interaction Styles of the Teacher in terms
of positive psychology and verbal evaluation of such teachers in general, depending on
the age of students.
Key words: teacher, interaction style, emotion, interpersonal behavior
Emotional Intelligence and Generalized Expectancy
for Success as Determinants of Wellbeing
Aurora - Adina Colomeischi
"Stefan cel Mare" University, Suceava
Romania
[email protected]
This paper intends to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence, the
general expectancy for success, and wellbeing. The main goal is to find out if there is
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a correlation between emotional intelligence and wellbeing on the one hand, and between
general expectancy for success and wellbeing on the other hand. We try to figure out what
variable is a better predictor for wellbeing.
The sample of our study comprised 470 subjects, adults, with different ages, and
belonging both to rural and urban area, teachers and people with different professions.
The instruments used are The 33-items questionnaire for measurement of the emotional
intelligence, Ryff Wellbeing Scale and Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale.
The results indicate the differences in terms of gender and environment, and also in
terms of profession.
The results show an image regarding the relationship between emotional intelligence,
generalized expectancy for success and wellbeing and could be useful in developing
strategies for enhancing wellbeing.
Key words: wellbeing, emotional intelligence, generalized expectancy for success
Přednost přednostem
Giving Preference to Strengths
Lucie Čížková, Miroslava Vobecká, Jitka Štádlerová
www.scio.cz, s.r.o., Praha
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Projekt Přednost přednostem si klade za cíl vytvořit a v pilotních bězích ověřit
užitečnost kurzu postaveného na objevování, popisu a rozvíjení silných stránek, včetně
osobnostního testu silných stránek. Cílovými skupinami pro projekt jsou maminky
vracející se po rodičovské dovolené na trh práce, dále absolventi škol, kteří na trh práce
teprve vstupují, a dlouhodobě nezaměstnaní, kteří se tam hodlají vrátit. Architektura kurzu
vychází z metody organizačního rozvoje Appreciative Inquiry - AI (z angl. appreciative:
oceňující, uznalý, vnímavý, pozorný, vděčný, vnímající a inquiry: zkoumání, ptaní se,
dotazování, pátrání) aplikované na život jednotlivce (známé též jako Appreciative Living AL).
Cílem projektu je převést do českého prostředí přístup, který se jak u jednotlivců, tak
v práci se skupinou či komunitou primárně soustřeďuje na identifikaci toho, co dobře
funguje, co se daří a co přináší radost a pozitivní energii. To, čemu věnujeme pozornost
a na co se zaměřujeme, má tendenci růst a rozvíjet se. Proto se v rámci projektu systema ticky věnujeme objevování tzv. pozitivního jádra a naším cílem je účastníkům pomoci for mulovat „životopis snů a silných stránek“ – tj. dopátrat se těch životních zkušeností,
prožitků a tužeb, které poslouží k sebeuvědomělejšímu a sebevědomějšímu přístupu na trh
práce.
Projekt Přednost přednostem je financován Evropským sociálním fondem v ČR
z Operačního programu Lidské zdroje a zaměstnanost a realizuje jej vzdělávací společnost
Scio. Projekt má zahraniční partnery z Velké Británie a Nizozemska a v rámci České
republiky spolupracuje s Úřady práce, Unií center pro rodinu a komunitu a s dalšími organizacemi. Pilotními běhy kurzů projde nejméně sto osob spadajících do cílových sku pin. Kromě metodiky k samotnému kurzu a vytvoření testu silných stránek bude
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výstupem projektu i příručka týkající se metody a přístupu Appreciative Inquiry a Appreciative Living.
Klíčová slova: silné stránky, appreciative inquiry, zaměstnanost
Giving Preference to Strengths is a project whose goal is to develop and pilot-run
a course that is based on the discovery, description and development of character
strengths, including a personal strengths test. The target groups for the project are mothers
returning to the labour market after parental leave, school graduates who enter the labour
market for the first time, and the long-term unemployed. The design of the course is based
on an organizational development approach called Appreciative Inquiry and its principles
applied to personal life (known as Appreciative Living).
The aim of the project is the transfer of a strength-based approach to the Czech
context. While working with individuals, groups and in communities, it identifies and
focuses on what works well, what brings joy and energy. And what we focus on tends to
grow and develop. That is why we systematically focus on discovering the so called
"positive core" and we want to assist the participants in formulating their "strengths and
dream CV" as part of the project. That means to explore all the life experiences and
aspirations that will contribute to greater self-awareness and self-confidence in accessing
the labour market.
Giving Preference to Strengths is financed by the European Social Fund in the Czech
Republic (Human Resources and Employment Operational Programme) and is being
carried out by Scio, a private company working in the field of education and assessment.
The project has international partners from the UK and the Netherlands and cooperates
with several partner organizations within the Czech Republic. One hundred people from
among the target groups are going to participate in the pilot runs of the course.
The tangible outcomes of the project are going to be a methodological handbook for
the course, the development of a strengths test as well as a manual mapping the
Appreciative Inquiry and Appreciative Living methods and approaches.
Key words: strengths, appreciative inquiry, employment
Towards a Practical Model
for Eudaimonic Wellbeing and Human Flourishing
Eskil Frydenberg
Eötvös Loránd University
Hungary
[email protected]
This is a pilot study of an internet-based intervention program which attempts
to address the challenge of how to measure, promote and increase eudaimonic wellbeing
individually as well as collectively. A pre- and post-test experimental design is used for
this study, with an experimental group participating in the eudaimonic intervention
program and a control group not participating. The study hypothesizes that those who
participate in the intervention program will have a higher measure of eudaimonic
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wellbeing at post-test than those who do not participate in the program. Result in
concordance with this assumption will validate the effectiveness of the intervention and
the feasibility for a larger study and further progression of the program. It is an ongoing
study.
A fully functional eudaimonic wellbeing intervention can have practical
applications in organizations, businesses, and within educational systems, to increase,
promote and measure eudaimonic wellbeing, which has numerous positive health and
psychological benefits to individuals as well as economical benefits to organizations.
A practical model for eudaimonic functioning holds great promise for successful identity
formation, and subsequently, for subjective and psychological wellbeing. It can be
promoted within families, schools and communities, ensuring wellbeing as a sustainable
and beneficial factor throughout the life span.
Key words: eudaimonic wellbeing, meaning in life, flourishing, intervention
Pozitivní přístup k nadaným žákům v praxi
A Positive Approach to Gifted Students in Practice
Veronika Homolková, Irena Plevová, Miluše Rašková, Zdeňka Jančíková
Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Problematice vzdělávání nadaných žáků v primární škole se v současnosti věnuje
velká pozornost ze strany pedagogů i psychologů (Hříbková, Štech, Portešová).
Poster ukáže, jak se s přístupem k nadaným žákům vyrovnali v Základní škole ve Zlíně, kde využívají specifické způsoby výuky, rozšířený vzdělávací program a individuální
přístup k nadaným žákům.
Z vybraných základních škol, ve kterých se specializují na výuku nadaných žáků, uve deme v posteru základní zásady a fotodokumentaci pozitivního přístupu k nadaným
žákům v primární škole.
Klíčová slova: nadané děti, vzdělávací program, základní škola
The education of gifted pupils in primary school currently attracts a lot of attention on
the part of teachers and psychologists (Hříbková, Štech, Portešová).
The poster presents approaches for gifted pupils attending a primary school in Zlín,
where the teachers use specific teaching methods, enriched educational program and
individual approach to gifted pupils.
We selected elementary schools specializig in the education of gifted students. In the
poster we will present the basic principles and photographic documentation of a positive
approach to gifted pupils at primary school.
Key words: gifted children, curriculum, elementary school
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Does the “School for Parents” Program Improve
their Levels of Emotional Intelligence,
Family Communication and Satisfaction?
Maria Platsidou, Evdoxia Tsirogiannidou, Georgia Diamantopoulou
University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki
Greece
[email protected]
One of the reasons emotional intelligence (EI) has become so popular nowadays is the
notion that it can be taught and improved via interventions (i.e., educational programs
focusing on the EI dimensions to be developed). A large number of such programs have
been targeted at children and their parents with the aim of improving family relations and
functioning. However, although these programs are popular, there is a lack of research
data regarding their effectiveness.
Taken into consideration all the above, the present study aimed at evaluating the
effectiveness of “School for Parents”, a non-formal adult education program of group
counseling based on the methodology of experiential learning (Dewey, 1938; Kolb, 1984).
Specifically, it aimed at testing whether parents who attended this program improved their
EI abilities, their satisfaction with their relations, and their communication within their
families. Participants were parents attending the “School for Parents” programs that were
implemented during Fall 2012 and Winter 2013. The programs took up 8-10 two-hour
sessions. Participants were tested twice, at the beginning and at the end of the program, so
that approximately 100 paired-samples were formed. The research tools used were (a) the
Emotional Intelligence Scale (Schutte et al.,1998), (b) the part of Davis’s (1980)
Interpersonal Reactivity Index addressed to “perspective taking”, (c) the Family
Communication Scale (Olson & Barnes, 1985), (d) the Family Satisfaction Scale (Olson
& Wilson, 1989), and (e) the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (Spielberger, 1988).
Preliminary results showed that the parents who attended the program reported
improved levels in most of the tested variables. Further analysis will explore in detail the
effectiveness of the “School for Parents” program in relation to the above variables.
Key words: intervention, program evaluation, emotional intelligence, family, communication
Pozitivní a negativní emoce v rodině očima dětí
Positive and Negative Emotions in a Family Viewed With Children’s Eyes
Irena Plevová, Alena Petrová
Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci, Czech Republic
[email protected]
Domov je místo, kde se cítíme v bezpečí, kde je nám dobře, kde máme své místo, kam
jednoduše patříme. Jak se dítě v rodině cítí, je podstatné pro jeho šťastný život. Trvalost
a hloubka citových vztahů v rodině je mocný činitel (v rámci) utváření osobnosti dítěte.
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Poster nabídne kresby dětí, z nichž lze vyvodit vztahy dětí k rodičům, sourozencům
a emocionální ladění těchto vztahů. Děti se vyjadřovaly prostřednictvím kresby začarované rodiny.
Klíčová slova: domov, rodina, dítě, vztahy, kresba
Home is a place, where we feel safe and comfortable, where we have our own
position, where we simply belong to. How a child feels within a family is essential for the
child’s happy life. Stability and depth of emotional relations within a family represent
a strong factor for building the child’s personality.
Our poster shows children drawings, from which it is possible to infer the
relationships of children toward their parents and siblings, as well as to deduce the
emotional nature of these relationships. The children were expressing themselves by
drawing “the enchanted family”.
Key words: home, family, child, relationships, drawing
Humor with Good Intentions:
A Strengths Analysis of Benevolent and Corrective Humor
Willibald Ruch
University of Zürich, Switzerland
[email protected]
The concept of the sense of humor originated in the 18th century and was shaped by
both humanism and philosophy. In this tradition humor is kept separate from other forms
of the comic, such as wit, satire, and sarcasm. In contrast, the conceptualizations of the
sense of humor put forward by psychology are lacking this element of goodness
altogether. Based on descriptions in the literature the two concepts of benevolent and
corrective humor were developed and investigated in several samples. The former
describes a humorous outlook on life that entails the realistic observations and
understanding of human weaknesses (and the imperfection of the world) but also their
benevolent humorous treatment. In contrast, the more satirical stance of corrective humor
involves moral based ridicule; i.e., the use of mockery to fight badness and mediocrity.
A scale with 12 items in a 7-point answer format was developed and presented to 885
adults (636 women and 249 men). No item needed correction and the scales had good
reliability (.76 - .84). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) support
the two-factor structure of benevolent humor and satire: the item loadings clearly form
a simple structure in a two-factor oblimin rotation, and the CFA indicates an adequate
model fit (CFI = .91, RMSEA = .08, 90% CI [.07, .09], SRMR = .05). These two concepts
are related to other conceptualizations of humor but also to character, everyday behaviors
and well-being. Studies with the VIA-IS show that these two scales correlate with
character strengths in a meaningful way: while both have a positive relationship with
wisdom and knowledge, additionally benevolent humor is high in forgiveness whereas
corrective humor is low in forgiveness.
Key words: humor, strengths analysis, character, well-being
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Relationship between Gunas and Mental Health,
Flourishing, Positive and Negative Experience:
An Indian and Western Perspective
Kamlesh Singh1
Alena Slezáčková2
1
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi , Department of Humanities and Social Sciences
New Delhi, India
2
Masaryk University, Faculty of Arts, Dept. of Psychology, Brno, Czech Republic
[email protected]
The present research aims to study the Eastern concept of Vedic personality traits
comprising of Gunas- Sattva, Rajas and Tamas in relation to Mental Health, Flourishing,
Positive and Negative Experience in Czech students. A sample of 353 university students
(pertaining to diverse professional disciplines) was selected, consisting of 286 females
and 67 males. The age range of the sample was between 19 to 30 years with mean age of
22.2 years. The Mental Health Continuum - Short Form (MHC-SF; Keyes, 2009),
Flourishing Scale and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience SPANE (Diener, Wirtz,
Tov, Kim-Prieto, Choi, Oishi, & Biswas-Diener, 2009) and Vedic Personality Inventory
(VPI; Wolf, 1998) were used in this research. VPI is based on the three gunas which
according to the Das Gupta (1961) are ‘the universal characteristics of all kinds of mental
tendencies’. These gunas facilitate the behavior style of an individual. Descriptive
statistics was used for data analysis. The results revealed significant correlations between
specific Vedic Personality Gunas and other variables of interest. Significant positive
relationships between Sattva guna (symbolized by purity, wisdom, serenity, love of
knowledge and spiritual excellence in Indian philosophy) with Emotional well-being
(r = 0.44); Psychological well-being (r = 0.44); Social well-being (r = 0.60); Flourishing
(r = 0.67); Positive Experience (r = 0.49) at 0.01 significance level and negatively
correlated with Negative Experience (r = - 0.39) were obtained. In contrast, Rajas (which
is symbolized by egoism, activity, restlessness and desire after mundane things) and
Tamas (related to qualities such as bias, negligence, distortion in taste, thought) were
negatively correlated with all well-being indicators except negative experience which is
positively correlated. Results of the study point at interesting connections between Indian
and Western holistic approach to understand well-being and its indicators.
Key words: mental health, flourishing, Vedic personality, university students
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Štěstí jako kompetence:
Jak začleňovat pozitivní psychologii do vzdělávání
The Competence of Happiness: How to Implement Happiness in Education
Alžběta Strnadová, Beáta Holá
KTP - Společnost pro kvalifikaci na trhu práce
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Východiska: Projekt Key Competence Happiness (KCH) vycházel mimo jiné z toho,
co napsal Martin Seligman, a totiž že synergie, která panuje mezi učením a pozitivními
emocemi, signalizuje nutnost začlenění schopnosti dosáhnout štěstí do pedagogické praxe.
(Seligman, 2009) Smysluplná implementace aspektů pozitivní psychologie do osnov
může jednoznačně přispět ke zvýšení motivace studenta k učení. Motivace souvisí se studijními cíli a úkoly stanovenými učitelem a s dostatečným oceněním. Stěžejním prvkem
změny je zde tedy orientace na pozitivní zpětnou vazbu, a to i na nepatrný úspěch. (Rein,
2007)
Cíl příspěvku: Cílem příspěvku bude seznámení jednak s východisky a výsledky
projektu Key Competence Happiness, který dal vzniknout rozsáhlé otevřené databázi cvičení a vzdělávacích aktivit vycházejících z pozitivní psychologie, a jednak s jejich ná slednou transformací v právě vznikající program vzdělávání dospělých v knihovnách.
Zkušenosti autorů: Tým autorů sestává z psychologů, pedagogů a metodiků vzdělávání a zaměřuje se již více než 5 let na inovace ve vzdělávání dospělých.
Konkrétně projekt KCH byl velmi úspěšně pilotován na lektorech v jazykových
kurzech, kurzech ICT pro širokou veřejnost, kurzech grafického designu a fotografie,
přeškolovacích kurzech různého zaměření, krátkodobých workshopech a seminářích na
odborná témata.
Přínos pro praxi: KCH přistupuje k pozitivní psychologii z opačného úhlu pohledu
nežli většina psychologů. Ačkoli je tento přístup pevně zakotven ve výsledcích pozitivněpsychologické vědy, orientuje se velmi prakticky. Neprezentuje psychologické techniky
primárně jako nástroje zvyšování štěstí, nýbrž jako elementy, které je třeba nenápadně
implementovat do běžné výuky. Tyto aktivity se tak mohou stát integrální součástí vzdělávacího procesu, mít kontinuitu, dlouhodobější efekt, a tudíž i šanci změnit nikoli jednu
vyučovací jednotku, ale celkové klima v kolektivu, resp. ve společnosti.
Klíčová slova: štěstí, vzdělávání dospělých, vzdělávání pedagogů
Scopes: The Key Competence Happiness project (KCH) was based on Martin
Seligman’s claim that the synergy between learning and positive emotions indicates the
need of implementing the ability to reach happiness into the educational practice
(Seligman, 2009). Meaningful implementation of positive psychological aspects into the
curricula definitely increases the students’ motivation to learn. Motivation is further
linked with the study goals and tasks given by the teacher and with satisfactory appraisal.
Orientation to the positive feedback for even small success is the key element here (Rein,
2007).
Purpose of the poster: The purpose of the poster shall be introducing both the scopes
and results of the KCH project that produced a wide open database of positive psychology
85
based educational tools, as well as its further transformation in a currently starting adults’
education programme in libraries.
The authors’ experience: The team consists of psychologists, teachers and education
methodologists who for more than 5 years they have been focusing on innovation in adult
education.
Namely the KCH project was successfully validated in language courses, ICT courses
for the public, graphical design and photography courses, re-qualification courses
of various expertise, short-term workshops and seminars on various topics.
Benefits for practice: The KCH project approaches positive psychology from a strictly
practical point of view, however, it is naturally rooted in the results of positive psychology
science. It does not present the psychological techniques primarily as tools of happiness
increase, but as elements to be unobtrusively implemented in the everyday class. This way
these activities may become an integral part of the education process, which may be
continuous and may have a long-term effect, and thus have a chance to affect not only one
single lesson, but the entire climate in the class, or more precisely, the society.
Key words: happiness, adults education, train the trainer
Vliv morální kompetence na pozitivní přijetí skupinou
Effect of Moral Competence on Positive Acceptance by a Group
Kamila Šťastná
Fakulta humanitních studií, Univerzita Karlova
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Cílem příspěvku je prezentovat poznatky z experimentálního výzkumu o tom, jaký
vliv má morální kompetence na pozitivní přijetí jedince skupinou. Morální kompetencí
rozumíme schopnost činit morální soudy a schopnost aplikovat je ve svém jednání. (Lind
2009)
Teorie týkající se morální kompetence vychází z duálního modelu morálního usuzování od Georga Linda. (2002; 2008) Tento model představuje dvě složky, které ovlivňují morální usuzování a chování. Jedná se složku afektivní a kognitivní. Tyto složky se
nedají od sebe oddělit, odlišit však ano. Afektivní složka zahrnuje morální ideály, hodnoty, postoje a principy. Kognitivní složka určuje schopnost činit morální soudy a schopnost
aplikovat je ve svém jednání.
Samotný výzkum byl proveden v rámci předmětu etická výchova. Jako výzkumný
vzorek byly použity dvě třídy na gymnáziu 2 x 15 žáků a žákyň (12-14 let).
V rámci výzkumu byly uplatněny metody, jednak metoda MJT (Moral Judgment
Test), jedná se o dotazník, který diagnostikuje míru morální kompetence (Lind 2009), dále
byla uplatněna metoda SORAD, což je sociometrický dotazník, který zjišťuje míru
sympatií a antipatií z pohledu spolužáků, emocionální vazbu na třídu a vliv na ostatní
spolužáky. (Hrabal 2002)
Klíčová slova: morální kompetence, teorie duálního modelu morálního usuzování,
SORAD, MJT
86
The aim of this paper is to present findings of experimental research of the effect of
the moral competence on positive acceptance of an individual by a group. We understand
moral competence as an ability to make moral judgments and to apply them in a behavior
(Lind 2009). Theory concerning the moral competence is based on a dual model of moral
judgment by George Linda (2002, 2008). This model involves two components, affective
and cognitive, that influence moral judgment and behavior. These components can not be
separated, but we can distinguished between them. Affective component involves moral
ideals, values, attitudes and principles. The cognitive component determines the ability to
make moral judgments and the ability to apply them in their behavior.
The research itself was carried out within the school subject Moral education (Ethics).
As a research sample we used two school classes each of 15 pupils (age 12-14 years).
The research methods we used were Moral Judgment Test (MJT), that maesures level
of moral competence (Lind 2009), and the sociometric questionnaire SORAD, which
measures likes and dislikes in terms of classmates, emotional attachment of an individual
to the class and the effect on other students. (Hrabal 2002). The results will be presented
and discussed at the conference.
Key words: moral competence, theory of the dual model of moral judgment, sociometrics
Empatia ako podporný mechanizmus
pri výučbe cudzieho jazyka
Empathy as a Supportive Mechanism at Foreign Language Teaching
Ľubica Varečková
Univerzita sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave
Slovakia
[email protected]
Výchovu a vzdelávanie nadobúdame postupnými formami učenia. Našim zámerom je
nahliadnuť na činnosti spojené s realizáciou v určitom sociálnom prostredí, ktorými učiteľ
otvára študentovi možnosti mnohotvárneho prežívania, sebatotožnosti, a vlastnej hodnoty
v procese výučby cudzieho jazyka.
Sme v etape vzdelávania, resp. výučby cudzích jazykov, kde je potrebné sa zameriavať nielen na rozsah a obsah ale je vhodné ponúknuť prijímateľovi emóciu a radosť,
vďaka ktorým sa dá efektívne pri výučbe napredovať . Radosť z naučeného a nové pozitívne zážitky môžu posilňovať hlavne učitelia a lektori, ktorí sú správne motivovaní,
a empaticky nastavený k cieľovej skupine.
Vychádzajúc z reálnej situácie a prirodzených možností , radi sa zameriavame na nasmerovanie práve učiteľov. V našom pilotážnom experimente sa potvrdilo, že nedostat kom pozitívnych podnetov a strata motivácie vyvoláva pocity menejcennosti, a objavuje
sa i možná strata vlastnej hodnoty. Preto teraz našim zámerom je pozrieť na veci z opačnej strany a ponúknuť východiská, ktoré by pozitívne etablovali vyučujúcich a v nemalej
miere tak napomáhali samotným študentom v ich pozitívnych postojoch pri výučbe
cudzieho jazyka.
Klíčová slova: cudzí jazyk, pozitívne postoje, empatia, emócia, motivácia
87
Education and training can be gained through gradual forms of learning. Our intention
is to have a look into activities, connected and realized in certain social environments,
where the teachers allow the students to feel multi-faced survival, self- identification, and
self-evaluation in the process of foreign language learning.
We are in the era of learning, or even the era of foreign language teaching, where it is
necessary to focus not only on the scope and the content, but it is advisable to provide the
recipient with emotion and joy, through which s/he can experience progress due to the
effective teaching. The joy from the learnt, together with a new positive experience can be
mainly invigorated by teachers and lecturers who are properly motivated, and
empathically adjusted to the needs of the target group.
Based on the real and natural possibilities, we are pleased to be focused on teachers.
Our piloting experiment confirmed that the lack of positive initiative and loss
of motivation causes feelings of inferiority and possible loss of the sense of self-worth.
Our objective is to look at the issue from the other side, offer starting points for positive
establishment of teachers and helping the students develop positive attitudes in foreign
language learning.
Key words: foreign language, positive attitude, empathy, emotion, motivation
Enjoying Influencing Others: Explicit and Implicit Power
Motives Are Related to Teacher’s Well-Being and Health
Lisa Wagner1, Nicola Baumann2, Petra Hank2
1
University of Zürich, Switzerland
2
University of Trier, Germany
[email protected]
Teachers’ health and well-being have been in the focus of public attention in the
recent years due to alarming early retention and attrition rates. Even though teaching
is generally considered a stressful job, there are striking differences between individuals
that can in part be explained by personality characteristics. The significance of the power
motive for the well-being of teachers is theoretically assumed, but rarely investigated.
The present study examined the associations of implicit and explicit power motives with
the health and well-being of teachers. 170 German-speaking teachers (39 men)
participated in an online assessment, including implicit motives (measured by the Operant
Motive Test) and explicit motives as well as measures of well-being and (psychosomatic)
symptoms. We expected a congruently high power motive to be linked with the highest
well-being and the lowest symptom levels. We used polynomial regressions with response
surface analysis to also investigate the effect of the direction of motive discrepancies.
Results were consistent with our hypothesis and revealed that a combination of a low
explicit and a high implicit power motive was associated with the least well-being and the
highest amount of symptoms. No significant associations were found for discrepancies
in the affiliation or achievement motives. Findings underline the importance of motive
dispositions, especially the power motive, in understanding interindividual differences
in teachers’ health and well-being.
Key words: teachers’ well-being, teachers‘ health, implicit motives, power motive
88
Hodnotová orientace seniorů
studujících Univerzitu třetího věku
Value System of Elderly Students of University of the Third Age
Jaroslava Dosedlová, Zuzana Slováčková, Helena Klimusová
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, Psychologický ústav, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Teoretická východiska: Hodnotová orientace je ovlivněna jak souborem životních
zkušeností jedince, tak jeho aktuálním stupněm vývoje a rolemi, jež zastává. Senioři jsou
ve výzkumu hodnot opomíjenou a málo dostupnou skupinou. Podle Rokeache (1979) je
pro osoby staršího věku typický odklon od hodnot instrumentálních a příklon k hodnotám
cílovým.
Cíle výzkumu: Studie byla realizována jako součást širšího výzkumu faktorů zdraví
podporujícího a ohrožujícího chování. Cílem studie bylo prozkoumat hodnotové orientace
studentů Univerzity 3. věku; tento soubor představoval zástupce aktivní populace seniorů.
Výzkumný soubor: Výzkumný soubor tvořilo 113 studentů Univerzity 3. věku Masarykovy univerzity v Brně. V souboru zcela převažovaly ženy (92%). Věk respondentů se
pohyboval od 59 do 89 let (m = 70,1; sd = 5,0; md = 69).
Metody: Hodnotová orientace byla zjišťována dotazníkem vlastní konstrukce, zčásti
založeném na tradičním Rokeachově nástroji. Obsahoval seznam 19 hodnot, posuzovaných na 7-bodové škále. Respondenti mohli seznam doplnit o svoje individuální
hodnoty.
Hlavní zjištění: Studenti Univerzity 3. věku si vysoce cení především rodinného zázemí, následují hodnoty spojené se zdravím a fyzickou kondicí, nezávislost na péči okolí,
láska a přátelské vztahy, štěstí a vnitřní harmonie. Hodnoty spojené se společenskou prestiží, pracovním úspěchem a životem v dostatku byly považovány za nejméně důležité.
Podobně málo preferovaná byla hodnota zakotvení ve víře. Byla prozkoumána také faktorová struktura hodnot. Mezi individuálně doplněnými hodnotami byla poměrně výrazná
skupina hodnot vztažených ke společnosti a její celkové atmosféře, jako např. spravedlivá
společnost, demokracie, nekorupční společnost.
Klíčová slova: hodnoty, hodnotová orientace, stáří, univerzita 3. věku
Introduction: Values should reflect the ontogenetic development of the individual,
and that a person should develop values that are appropriate to his role, development,
and function within the society.
The value system reflects the individual’s set of life experiences and their current
stage of development and the roles they perform. Elderly population is less readily
available and therefore neglected in the research of values. According to Rokeach (1979,
the old age is characterized by the shift from instrumental values to the emphasis on the
terminal (end-state) values.
Research aims: The study was conducted as a part of a large research project, focused
on factors of health supporting/ threatening behavior. The aim of this part of the study was
to explore the value system of the University of the Third Age students; they represented
the population of active elderly people.
89
Sample: The sample consisted of 113 students of the University of the Third Age, run
by Masaryk University in Brno. The vast majority of the sample consisted of women
(92%). The age of respondents ranged from 59 to 89 years (m = 70,1; sd = 5,0; md = 69).
Instrument: The value system was measured by an instrument designed just for our
research project; it was partly based on traditional Rokeach’s instrument. It contains
19 values, rated on 7-point scale. The subjects could add their own values to the list.
Main Findings: The University of the Third Age students highly rated family, health
and physical fitness, independence on a care, love and friendship, happiness and inner
harmony. The values associated with social status, career success and wealth were
considered least important. Similarly, the religious values were less emphasized.
The factor structure of values was explored as well. Among individually added values,
there was a relatively distinct group of values related to society and its overall
atmosphere, such as a just society, democracy, non-corrupt society.
Key words: values, value system, old age, university of the third age
Chování zdraví podporující a zdraví ohrožující:
determinanty, modely a konsekvence
Health-Enhancing and Health-Threatening Behaviour:
Determinants, Models, and Implications
Jaroslava Dosedlová, Zuzana Slováčková, Helena Klimusová,
Alena Slezáčková, Lubomír Vašina, Iva Burešová, Martin Jelínek
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, Psychologický ústav, Brno
Czech Republic
[email protected]
Obecným cílem našeho plánovaného výzkumu je podrobně analyzovat proměnné
promítající se do procesu seberegulace ve vztahu ke zdraví a vytvořit modely zdraví pod porujícího a zdraví ohrožujícího chování platné nejen pro soubor vysokoškoláků, ale pro
širší českou populaci. Umožní to realizace průřezového výzkumu pracující s kohortami
adolescentů, dospělých v mladé, střední a zralé fázi dospělosti i seniorů. Součástí projektu
je i exploratorní studie zaměřující se zachycení neuropsychologických markerů (bioche mické aktivity, bioelektrické reaktivity, konektivity přináležejících neuronálních struktur
aj.) u vybraných respondentů náležejících do dvou protikladných skupin z hlediska
převahy zdraví podporujícího či zdraví ohrožujícího chování. Závěry našeho široce koncipovaného výzkumu podporovaného GA ČR (č. 13-19808S) povedou k hlubšímu pochopení vztahů mezi osobností, zdravím, postoji ke zdraví, vybranými kognitivními styly
a chováním, které se zdravím souvisí.
Klíčová slova: chování související se zdravím, optimismus, modely, neuropsychologické
markery
The general objective of our research project (supported by GACR, no. 13-19808S)
is to analyze in more detail the variables involved in the process of health-related selfregulation, and to design models of health-enhancing and health-threatening behaviour
90
which would be valid for the Czech population. This can be achieved by employing
a cross-sectional research design using cohorts of adolescents, as well as different age
groups of adults up to the old age. As a part of the project, an exploratory study will be
conducted: it will focus on neuropsychological markers (e.g. biochemical activity,
bioelectric reactivity, and connectivity of corresponding neuronal structures) at two
contrasting groups with predominance of healthenhancing vs health-threatening
behaviour. The outcomes will lead to a deeper understanding of the links between
personality, health, health attitudes, cognitive styles, and health-related behaviour.
Key words: health-behavior, optimism, models, neuropsychological markers
91
AUTHOR INDEX
Adamcová, D.....................................74
Akhtar, M..........................................4
Albertin, R.........................................34
Arguís Rey, R....................................10
Arrivabene, E.....................................34
Avsec, A.............................................39, 40
Bak-Klimek, A...................................18
Baranovská, A....................................78
Bardiovský, M...................................48
Baumann, N.......................................88
Bellier-Teichmann, T.........................22
Benka, J.............................................57
Bisht, K..............................................17
Bjorn Hansen, J.................................34
Blawat, A...........................................15
Bohlmeijer, E.....................................65
Bolier, L.............................................65
Bożek, A............................................24
Brdarić, D..........................................65
Burešová, I.........................................90
Castañón-Rodríguez, M. R................41
Ciccocioppo, A. L..............................26
Colomeischi, A. A..............................78
Dastlík, L...........................................60
Delle Fave, A.....................................3, 17, 34
Diamantopoulou, G...........................82
Dlhošová, T........................................74
Dohnalová. Z.....................................31
Dorazilová, A.....................................64
Dotson, L.A.......................................14
Dvořáková, Š.....................................20
Fianco, A...........................................34
Flessati, S. L......................................26
Flores-Lucas, V..................................41
Frydenberg, E....................................80
Gradisek, P.........................................38
Grivza, V............................................13
Halama, P...........................................28
Hank, P..............................................88
Harmon, D.........................................36
Harmon, R.........................................36
Haverman, M.....................................65
Havigerová, J.M................................51
Hernández Paniello, S........................10
Hirosaki, M........................................66
Holá, B..............................................85
Homolková, V....................................52
93
Hoskovcová, S...................................55
Howard, F..........................................20, 25
Humpolíček, P....................................64
Choubisa, R.......................................17, 20
Chýlová, H.........................................69
Chýlová, L.........................................67
Ishimoto, Y.........................................66
Ishine, M............................................66
Jančíková, Z.......................................81
Jarden, A............................................20
Jelínek, M..........................................90
Jenčová, A.........................................54
Jerković, I..........................................65
Jiráska, O...........................................46
Jovanović, V.......................................65
Jurčec, L............................................16
Kahancová, M....................................29
Karásková, H.....................................51
Kasahara, Y........................................66
Kavčič, T............................................39, 40
Kirla, D..............................................23
Klimusová, H.....................................89, 90
Knoop, H.H.......................................34
Kodyšová, E......................................55
Kolářová, M.......................................59
Komárik, E........................................68
Kordačová, J......................................44
Kowalski, B. T...................................21
Kroon, H............................................26
Krpoun. Z..........................................59
Křivohlavý, J.....................................4
Kulka, J..............................................57
Kupka, M...........................................62
Kvasničková, M.................................52
Kyrinovič, R......................................74
Lamers, S...........................................65
Lueger, G...........................................13
Mareš, J.............................................9, 43
Martin-Krumm, C..............................5
Martínez-Sinovas, R..........................41
Masselink, J.......................................65
Matsubayashi, K................................66
Michon, H..........................................26
Miljković, D......................................16
Miller, J.............................................26
Millová, K.........................................74
Musek, J............................................22
Nábělková, E.....................................29
Natovová, L.......................................67, 69
94
Nišponská, M.....................................32, 71
Okumiya, K.......................................66
Orosová, O.........................................57
Pahil, P...............................................27
Petrová, A..........................................82
Platsidou, M.......................................40
Plevová, I...........................................52, 76, 81
Poláčková Šolcová, I.........................46, 75
Poljšak Škraban, O............................42
Pomini, V...........................................22
Ponížilová, T......................................61
Preiss, M............................................6
Rašková, M........................................81
Riegel, K............................................49
Rijavec, M.........................................16
Rijkaart, A. M....................................26
Ručková, G........................................72
Ruch, W.............................................8, 37, 83
Říčan, P..............................................7
Sakamoto, R......................................66
Seidlerová, J......................................55
Singh, K.............................................20, 84
Slezáčková, A....................................20, 49, 73, 84, 90
Slováčková, Z....................................89, 90
Smékal, V...........................................32
Spasovski, O......................................35
Stocki, R............................................24
Svence, G..........................................13
Šipr, K...............................................11
Šolcová, I...........................................75
Štádlerová, J......................................79
Šťastná, K..........................................86
Takacs, L...........................................55
Tavel, P..............................................46
Tsirogiannidou, E...............................82
Urbanovská, E...................................61, 76
Vacek, P.............................................30
Valentová, H......................................45
Vallerand, R.......................................3
Van Wezep, M....................................26
Vanono, L..........................................14
Varečková, Ľ......................................87
Vašina, L............................................90
Velázquez-Castañeda, A.....................41
Ventura, T..........................................34
Vinokhodova, A.................................75
Vitale, R.............................................34
Vobecká, M........................................79
Wada, T..............................................66
95
Wagner, L..........................................88
Walburg, J..........................................65
Walker, C.J........................................21
Wissing, M........................................17
Zager Kocjan, G................................40
Zufiaurre, B.......................................34
Žingora, T..........................................74
Žuljević, D.........................................65
96
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