EUROPEAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, LTD, KUNOVICE
PROCEEDINGS
„ UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR
SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“
7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 2011
21st January, Hodonín, Czech Republic
Team of authors
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“
7TH International Conference 2011
Publisher, Copy rights, produced by:
© European Polytechnic Institute Ltd.
The English publication has not been corrected.
The authors are responsible for the correct content.
ISBN 978-80-7314-220-9
“UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY
AND REGION DEVELOPMENT”
7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 2011
Organized by
EUROPEAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, LTD. KUNOVICE
in cooperation with
Technical University in Brno
Plekhanov Russian Economic Academy in Moscow
Institute of Economics Podolsko
University of Matej Bel in Banska Bystrica
College in Sládkovičovo
College of Economics and Management in Bratislava
National University "L'vivs'ka Politekhnika", Lviv, Ukraine
Conference Program Committee Chairman
Ing. Oldřich Kratochvíl, h. prof., Ph.D., Dr. h. c., MBA
CONFERENCE PROGRAMME COMMITTEE
Hon. prof. Ing. Oldřich Kratochvíl, Ph.D., Dr.h.c., MBA, European Polytechnic Institute Ltd.
Kunovice, CZ
Dr. Grišin Viktor Ivanovič, Russian Economic Academy, Moscow, RF
Prof. Ruslan I. Khasbulatov, Dr.Sc., Russian Economic Academy, Moscow, RF
Prof. Alexej Aleandrovič Nikulin, Dr.Sc., MBA, Institute of economics, Podolsk, RU
Dr. Jan Telus, University of Economics, Tourism and Social Sciences, Kielce, PL
Prof. Ing. Karol Polák, DrSc., Dr.h.c., University in Sládkovičovo, SR
Prof. PhDr. Beata Kosová, CSc., University of Matej Bela in Banská Bystrica, SR
Prof. Ing. Viera Cibáková, CSc., University of Economics and Management of Public
Administration, Bratislava, SK
doc. PaeDr. Marek Pribula, PhD., University of International Business ISM Slovakia, Prešov, SR
Doc. Ing. Miroslav Mečár, Csc., European Polytechnic Institute Ltd. Kunovice, CZ
Plk. Prof. JUDr. Jozef Králik, CSc., Police Academy Bratislava, SR
Prof. Dr. Vladimir V. Tabolin, Ph.D., Moscow Business Academy in Moscow
Prof. Dr. hab. Jan W. Wiktor, Economic Academy Krakow, PL
Prof. Ing. Milota Vetráková, Ph.D., University of Matej Bela in Banská Bystrica, SR
Prof. Ing. Jaroslav Ďaďo, Ph.D., University of Matej Bela in Banská Bystrica, SR
Prof. PhDr. Karel Lacina, Dr.Sc., University in Pardubice, CZ
Prof. Ing. Imrich Rukovanský, CSc., European Polytechnic Institute Ltd. Kunovice, CZ
plk. Doc. JUDr. Jozef Kuril, CSc., Police Academy Bratislava, SR
Doc. PhDr. Milan Vinklárik, CSc., European Polytechnic Institute Ltd. Kunovice, CZ
Doc. Ing. Judita Štouračová, CSc., University of International and Public Relation, Prague, CZ
Mgr. Iveta Hashesh, Ph.D., h. doc., MBA, European Polytechnic Institute Ltd. Kunovice, CZ
Doc. Ing. Jozef Strišš, CSc., European Polytechnic Institute Ltd. Kunovice, CZ
Section no. 1: University as the Facilitator for Society and Region Development.
Moderated by: Prof. PhDr. Karel Lacina, DrSc.
Section no. 2: New Models of University Supporting the specific Needs in the region.
Moderated by: Doc. Ing. Jozef Strišš, CSc.
Opponents committee:
Prof. Ing. Jaroslav Ďaďo, Ph.D., University of Matej Bela in Banská Bystrica, SR
Doc. Ing. Josef Vodák, Ph.D., Žilina University in Žilina, SK
Doc. Ing. Antonín Malach, CSc., European Polytechnic Institute Ltd. Kunovice, CZ
Contents
FOREWORD .................................................................................................................................................................... 9
BASIC ASPECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF CONTROLLING IN THE COMPANY SPHERE ................... 13
DUŠAN BARAN .................................................................................................................................................................. 13
THE MOTIVATION MATHODS DURING FINANCIAL CRISIS ......................................................................... 17
ZUZANA BODOROVÁ ......................................................................................................................................................... 17
COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ............................................................................ 23
IVAN DLUGOŠ.................................................................................................................................................................... 23
PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM .................................................................................................................. 29
IVANA DLUGOŠOVÁ .......................................................................................................................................................... 29
DETERMINANTS OF THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INFLOWS ...................................................... 35
ALEXANDER FERIANC ....................................................................................................................................................... 35
STRATEGY: A GUIDELINE TO OPERATION........................................................................................................ 41
ANNA HAVRANOVÁ .......................................................................................................................................................... 41
THE INFLUENCE OF DIRECT TAXES ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED COMPANIES IN THE CZECH
REPUBLIC...................................................................................................................................................................... 47
JURAJ DUBOVEC, TIBOR HLAČINA, JAROSLAV KAVKA ..................................................................................................... 47
FIGHTING MONEY LAUNDERING ......................................................................................................................... 51
TIBOR HLAČINA, JOZEF KRÁLIK, PŘEMYSL MICHÁLEK ..................................................................................................... 51
BUSINESS PROCESS REINGINEERING IN A REGIONAL AGRO-INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM ......................... 61
VALENTINA CHERMYANINA, ANDREI POLTARYKHIN ........................................................................................................ 61
DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENT INTO FOOD INDUSTRY OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION.......................... 65
SVETLANA IVANOVA ......................................................................................................................................................... 65
HUMAN RESOURCES, HUMAN CAPITAL AND BUSINESS ENTERPRISE..................................................... 71
LADISLAV JARINA ............................................................................................................................................................. 71
BUSINESS STRATEGY AND BALANCED SCORECARD ..................................................................................... 77
LADISLAV JARINA ............................................................................................................................................................. 77
PROBABILITY MODEL OF THE ADVERTISEMENT PENETRATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE
ADVERTISEMENT COSTS ......................................................................................................................................... 83
ALEŠ KOZUBÍK .................................................................................................................................................................. 83
INNOVATION IN LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT AS KEY FACTORS REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT ...... 89
VILIAM LENDEL, MICHAL VARMUS .................................................................................................................................. 89
TOWARDS JOB CHANGES – CASE STUDY TO ADDITIONAL PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES AT THE EPI,
LTD. KUNOVICE .......................................................................................................................................................... 95
OLDŘICH KRATOCHVÍL, ANTONÍN MALACH ..................................................................................................................... 95
RESEARCH OF INTERNATIONAL AND RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE IN MODELLING THE CONSUMER
MARKET ...................................................................................................................................................................... 105
MEŠKOV A. A., MUSATOV B. V., SEJFULLAEVA M. E. .................................................................................................... 105
THE ANALYTICAL PHASE IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS TOWARDS WORKING TIME
ARRANGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................ 115
LUCIA MURÍNOVÁ ........................................................................................................................................................... 115
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PRODUCT POSITIONING – CREATION OF APPROPRIATE COMPETITIVE PORTFOLIO IN SERVICE
COMPANY ................................................................................................................................................................... 121
MARGARÉTA NADÁNYIOVÁ, JOZEF STRIŠŠ ..................................................................................................................... 121
WHERE IS GOING SMALL AND MEDIUM – SIZED ENTERPRISES AND SELF CONFIDENCE IN THE
BUSINESS..................................................................................................................................................................... 125
JAN PRACHAŘ .................................................................................................................................................................. 125
ФИНАНСОВОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ИННОВАЦИОННОГО РАЗВИТИЯ ВЫСШЕЙ ШКОЛЫ РОССИИ131
ТАТЬЯНА. Н. РОДЕНКОВА ............................................................................................................................................... 131
NEW METHODS OF HIGHER EDUCATION TO SUPPORT THE SPECIFIC NEEDS OF THE REGION.. 135
MILOSLAV ROSENBERG, MIROSLAV MEČÁR ................................................................................................................... 135
REGIONAL PROJECTS............................................................................................................................................. 141
RADIM ROUDNÝ, IVANA UREŠOVÁ ................................................................................................................................. 141
MANAGEMENT STRATEGY AND STRATEGY MAPS....................................................................................... 145
VERONIKA ŠRAMOVÁ ...................................................................................................................................................... 145
MARKETING MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES ON GLOBAL MARKETS ..................................................... 149
JOZEF STRIŠŠ, MICHAL CULEK ........................................................................................................................................ 149
NEW VIEWS ON MARKETING MIX...................................................................................................................... 153
JOZEF STRIŠŠ, ANNA ZÁVODSKÁ ..................................................................................................................................... 153
TO THE METHODOLOGICAL QUESTION OF SOCIOSYNERGETIC CLASSIFIKATION OF WORLD
AND SCIENCE............................................................................................................................................................. 157
DUŠAN TURAN ................................................................................................................................................................ 157
SOME TOOLS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT........................................................................................ 165
JOSEF VODÁK, IVANA TESAROVIČOVÁ ............................................................................................................................ 165
MODERN FORMS OF EDUCATION, ITS QUALITY AND OVERALL STATUS OF HIGH SCHOOLS...... 175
MILAN BŘEZINA, KAMIL TŘOS ........................................................................................................................................ 175
CONDITIONS FOR SYSTEM CHANGES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION...................................................... 179
JOZEF HABÁNIK, JAROSLAV KAVKA ............................................................................................................................... 179
NUMERACY OR THE NEED OF BEING EDUCATED IN MATHEMATICS ................................................... 183
DANIELA HRICIŠÁKOVÁ, JITKA JABLONICKÁ, MARTIN SENTL ........................................................................................ 183
HIGH SCHOOL AS ONE OF POSSIBLE ELEMENTS FOR INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE
REGION........................................................................................................................................................................ 187
ROBERT JURČA ................................................................................................................................................................ 187
CALCULUS EDUCATION ADDED BY THE OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE..................................................... 191
ALEŠ KOZUBÍK ................................................................................................................................................................ 191
UNIVERSITIES CONTRIBUTION TO MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS DEVELOPMENT .................... 199
KAREL LACINA, MILAN VINKLÁRIK ................................................................................................................................ 199
BUSINESS EDUCATION AND ITS ROLE IN HUMAN RESOURCE PROCEEDINGS ................................... 203
MIROSLAVA LOVICHOVÁ, ONDŘEJ ŠABATA .................................................................................................................... 203
PERSONAL FINANCE – THE FUTURE OF HIGH SCHOOLS WITH FINANCIAL STUDY PROGRAMS. 207
MILOŠ MAJERNÍK ............................................................................................................................................................ 207
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THE COOPERATION OF THE TOWN OF KUNOVICE AND EPI, LTD. WITHIN THE BUSINESS
INCUBATOR KUNOVICE – PANSKÝ DVŮR ........................................................................................................ 213
IVANA MAJÍČKOVÁ ......................................................................................................................................................... 213
THE POSITION OF TEACHERS EARLIER AND TODAY.................................................................................. 215
LADISLAV OBDRŽÁLEK, VLADIMÍRA HLAVÁČKOVÁ ....................................................................................................... 215
LEGAL LANGUAGE AS A FACILITATOR OF LEGAL KNOWLEDGE .......................................................... 219
RADOMÍRA VESELÁ, MARTIN SENTL............................................................................................................................... 219
KNOWLEDGE CREATION IN MARKETING MANAGEMENT CASE OF: ESAI CO., LTD ........................ 223
ANNA ZÁVODSKÁ, JAKUB SOVIAR .................................................................................................................................. 223
AUTHOR INDEX......................................................................................................................................................... 229
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
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FOREWORD
Dear Friends,
On 21st January 2011 the 7th international conference “University as the Facilitator of Society and Regions” took place
at our private university EPI Ltd, Kunovice in the campus Hodonín.
The conference is exceptional as it was held under the auspices of Prime Minister Mr. Petr Nečas. Many outstanding
scientists and politicians took part at the conference.
It is my duty to thank all members of the conference programme committee – rectors of the Czech Republic, Ukraine,
Poland and Slovak Republic.
I would like to thank for prefect leading of sections, namely to Prof. PhDr. Karel Lacina, DrSc. and Doc. Ing. Jozef
Strišš, CSc.
I would like to thank the members of opponent committee for their fair work. I can only state that the papers were
relevant and I would like to appreciate the scientific approach to the problem solution. All the papers are in English or
Russian language so we can distribute them to universities and their libraries in this country or abroad.
I hope all who prepared and realized the conference will continue on the work for benefit of our society and they will
present their scientific results during the next international scientific conference on 20th May 2011 in Luhačovice.
I hope that all information will be used by readers for both their academic work and for the benefit of their regions.
I wish you a nice day.
Oldřich Kratochvíl
Ing., h. prof., Ph.D., Dr. h. c., MBA
rector
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
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„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
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Section no. 1
University as the Facilitator for Society
and Region Development
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
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„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
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BASIC ASPECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF CONTROLLING IN THE COMPANY SPHERE
Dušan Baran
European Politechnical Institute Ltd.
Abstract: A large number of entrepreneurs from the sphere of small- and medium-size companies are
facing problems which are solvable with difficulties by standard instruments used in the company´s
economic and managerial practice. Stagnating turnovers in oversaturated markets, rising costs, the
increased concentration in the home market and abroad increase the pressure on costs and consequently
on the profit. If these problems are to be better controlled by companies, entrepreneurs are forced to
change their thinking due to the fact that methods and instruments applied so far are already insufficient
for the successful company management
Key words: company, market, costs, management, controlling, development, information, quality, liquidity
economic
INTRODUCTION
New concepts, instruments and techniques should be used to improve the revenue and financial standing of companies
and also to ensure the easier achievement of profitability and liquidity representing the two most important objectives.
The important instrument which helps, implement these objectives and in this way secure the company existence for
a long period is controlling. It follows that the systematic planning, efficient control and continuous management of
individual processes must be adopted in order that responsible workers might take better decisions and thus decrease the
existing measure of uncertainty. For this reason the system of the well-functioning information being processed for the
purpose of regular decisions made every month is needed. The introduction of controlling into the company practice in
Slovakia is only at the beginning. Its application is employed primarily by foreign corporations operating in our country
or by corporations with the foreign capital participation [1]. Controlling is represented as a significant managerial tool
which overlaps the common management functions and is oriented on narrow profiles in the company. When
controlling is in the phase of implementation, the aspects of simplicity, practicality and economy must come to the fore.
1 INFORMATON SYSTEM AND CONTROLLING
In profit-oriented corporations as well as in publicly-prosperous institutions their prosperity, successfulness and
achievement of defined goals are ensured. In the course of time our wishes and expectations bound to companies
managed by us become stronger.
The dynamic development in the sphere of the company management, economics and globalization sets demanding
tasks on the management. The assessment of the performance, effectiveness of processes, and relationships among
companies in the supplier-customer ring has become a relevant element for the successful management of companies.
The processing of a great number of information, its presentation in an understandable form for decision-making
requirements, the comparison of trends and the transformation of key indicators into the production process in the form
of performance criteria have become crucial factors of the development of the company and of its establishment in the
international market.
During the evaluation of achieved results and states the imperfection and disfavour of the surrounding environment are
very often pointed out. On the other hand, it must be admitted that our managerial ability, problems concerned with the
unsuitable intercompany information system and also the choice of managerial methods and styles participate in the
failure of the defined aims.
For the functioning of companies, regions, states, multinational entities and the whole world are necessary information
systems. The successful fulfillment of fundamental functions of the organization is possible, only if the information
system is of the respective quality. The role of the information system is to ensure the collection, transmission,
maintenance, processing, distribution and presentation of the information which is inevitable for correct decisions in the
organization. The growing significance of the early and high-quality information for the successful existence of
companies is reflected in the growing informatization of the whole society. Information systems of the high quality
belong to strategic factors of the prosperity and competitive ability of each company.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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2 CONTROLLING AND MANAGERIAL PRACTICE
The concept of controlling is much-frequented not only in the managerial practice but also in the theory and
methodology. It becomes an integral part and attribute of the effective management and lays stress on the suitable way
of navigation of the company on its route directed to a certain aim. Controlling reveals to the company management
a true reality, participates in its prosperity and achieves the defined objective adequate to given conditions.
Controlling was applied, to a large extent, in the practice of European companies as a result of the great extension of
branches of the American firms. The use of controlling in our country started as late as after the year 1989 due to the
influx of the foreign capital and owing to the development of market-economic conditions. The penetration of the
foreign capital is supposed to continue also into other companies in Slovakia. Most of our producers tackle the problems
of placing their products in the market not only because of their utility properties but also because of their value
parameters, i. e. the level of their costs. The management often falls into the situation in which are important its
decisions which arise questions whether to produce the particular product or not, what products should be preferred in
the particular period, how to react flexibly to market requirements, etc. For the implementation of such decisions
managers need an extensive and simultaneously a flexible information system permitting one to choose the high-quality
information.
Controlling has a functional character and as a tool of the management it promotes entrepreneurial decision-making and
managerial processes. The high-quality controlling of the company is directed towards the implementation of the cooperative management style and expects the functional planning and information system. The successful controlling in
the company does not mean the application of “routine” works in the management but, on the basis of the adequate
information, it draws attention to the “narrow profile” which hampers the achievement of stipulated goals [3].
2. 1 DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT OF CONTROLLING
In the specialized literature it is possible to find many definitions of controlling. However, the most accurate definition
is that of Peter Horvath who was the first author stressing the co-ordination function of controlling. This German author
defines controlling as “a tool of the management, the function of which is the co-ordination of planning, control and
creation of the information basis aimed at the improvement of the company´s results as well as at the achievement of
the predetermined aims”. The high-quality information basis can be attained when there exist:

the control and evaluations of all processes in the company and their results (feed-back),

the orientation of all management instruments towards the future (forward-back),

the transition from cost centres to profit ones,

the new approach to calculations of the economic result in the company made on the basis of variable costs and
the contribution per standby costs.
All definitions are more or less similar and can be summarized into these basic points:

controlling is kept under the control by a company in that way that it indicates the existence of crisis in time and
takes measures to prevent or eliminate it,

controlling is not the control,

controlling means to “keep something under the control”,

controlling is an active management, i. e. the management for the future [1].
Controlling is a project which serves for the maintenance of the required state (e. g. of the profit, revenue, productivity,
etc.), i. e. the project which is compared at regular intervals to achieved real states with the aim to find out whether
some interventions into the sphere of the management are necessary to maintain or achieve a desirable state [4].
Controlling is a tool of the management exceeding the functional framework of that carried out so far, and its role is to
support the top management and leading executives in their decisions. However, such management assumes that in the
company the planning method proceeding from objectives defined by the top management and other executives exists.
During the control, differences occurring in common reports submitted by individual responsible departments of the
company are ascertained by means of the method of comparing the plan with the reality. On the basis of differences
detected in this way the top management should take some corrective precautions so that the company´s aims should be
accomplished. This means that the feed-back process is permanently ongoing in the company. For the successful
functioning of controlling in the companies it is necessary to build up a suitable information system. By the continuous
control of planned values compared with real values the weak places in the company can be recognized in time. Then
the top management and leading executives can relatively easily put into effect the necessary measures.
In addition, controlling is the conception oriented to narrow profiles. The narrow profile is the weakest element in the
company which is the first determinant bringing about some difficulties in the hard situation. The development of the
company would be considerably limited without eliminating this narrow profile. The narrow profile can include the
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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market, production or liquidity. For improving the company management the price and cost recalculations with a good
callable ability should be introduced into practice. The calculations of total costs must be substituted for the calculation
of a contribution for the remittance. Simultaneously, it is necessary to constitute clearly restricted spheres of the
responsibility in which leading executives should have some authority and for whom the characterization of their work
should be worked out. Apart from this some profit centres should be established in the company [5].
2. 2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND CONTROLLING, CONTROLLING LEVELS
On applying the controlling in the company it is important to determine the relationship between the management and
controlling. As long as the management makes decisions and bears the responsibility, on the other hand, controlling
inspires, evaluates, analyzes, controls and gives recommendations. Controlling can be apprehended as a highly qualified
counselling designed for managers. In agreement with the introduction of controlling into the company the three
controlling levels are distinguished. They are illustrated in Fig. 2.
The first level is connected with the financial and intercompany accounting. The financial accounting enables some
changes of the proprietary and capital nature of the company to be observed at annual intervals and assess to what
degree the company fulfils its aims. Since the financial accounting itself is not sufficient for the efficient management,
the task of the transition of accounting into financial reporting oriented to decisions has got into the centre of attention
[3]. As long as the accounting is oriented primarily to the past or to the present time, controlling is focused on the
future, gathering the stimuli and information for the future management. The transition of accounting into controlling
has brought about some changes in the trends of economic thinking [3].
The second level compares, pursues and registers deviations from the given objective and also evaluates and proposes
some changes and improvements. In this case, the above-mentioned task of controlling, that is the task of a navigator, is
often evident. Thus the role of controlling rests not only in recording and evaluating the changes detected, but also in
suggesting some improvements in the company.
The third level supports the company management via planning, control and appraising the information, without which
it would not be effective.
2. 3 THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF CONTROLLING
The functions of controlling in the company may be derived from definitions and characterizations which can be
generalized so as they are presented in Fig. 1.
Functions of C
Analytical
and
information f.
Checking and
co-ordination f.
Counselling and
innovative f.
Personal f.
Fig. 1 Functions of controlling
On the basis of the above-indicated functions it is possible to define these controlling tasks:

the support of planning and determining the company goals:
o includes the care of the planning system and counselling during the formation of the company
guidelines, accounting, budgeting and calculations using the planning methods and
recalculations,
o includes the control of goals with respect to their realization and appraisal of alternative solutions
of the planned tasks,

the continuous acquisition and processing of the information for the support of decisions:
o is concerned with the mutual interconnection of individual spheres in the company and with the
common attitude to the management and decisions,
o incorporates the management-information system and the company financial reporting,
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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



the support of control emphasizing the analysis of deviations,
the processing of the information and its incorporation into reports and surveys required by the management,
ownerships and also by state institutions and banks (balance sheets, profit and loss statements, statistical
statements, etc.),
the participation and involvement in the choice and preparation of managers,
the observation of the economic, social and political environment of the company, primarily in the economic
sphere, and the assessment of its influence on the company [1, 3].
All these functions constitute both the subsystem and the management instrument - controlling.
CONCLUSION
The economic transformation, the change of ownership relations and the need of adapting to market conditions imply an
important qualitative change. The successful adaptation of companies to this change depends on the ability of the
company management to react to new and more and more complex conditions which are associated with the
implementation of the company in the market. The success in the market depends also on the objective analysis and
evaluation of the own possibilities, results and assumptions for achieving the success of the competition, and on this
basis on adopted correct decisions. If the matter in question are rising costs, the unfavourable economic situation or the
growing competition in home and foreign markets, the company should permanently control and improve its internal
processes and management systems and immediately react to the newly emerged situations through the new
management functions promoted just by the modern subsystem of management – controlling.
REFERENCES
[1]
BARAN, D. Aplikácia controllingu v podnikovej praxi. Bratislava : STU, 2008. ISBN 80-227-1666-9.
[2]
BARAN, D. Podnikový controlling. Bratislava : STU 2001. ISBN 80-227-1558-1
[3]
FOLTÍNOVÁ, A.; KALAFÚTOVÁ, Ľ. Vnútropodnikový controlling. Bratislava : Elita, 1998.
ISBN 80-8044-054-9.
[4]
MANN, R.; MAYER, E. Methode des Erfolgreichen Unternehmens. Praha : Prumysl a Obchod, Profit, 1992.
ISBN 80-85605-20-9.
[5]
VOLLMUTH, H. J. Controlling – nový nástroj řízení. Praha : Profess 1989. ISBN 80-85235-54-4.
[6]
BARAN, D.; PÁLFFY, A.; SCHMELCZER, B. Application of Business Process Reengineering in the
Company Practice. Bratislava : STU 2005, ISBN 80-227-2270-.
ADRESS:
Prof. Ing. Dušan Baran, PhD.
European Politechnical Institute Ltd.,
1st Private University in Moravia,
Osvobození 699,
686 04 Kunovice
Czech Republic
e-mail: dusan. [email protected] com
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
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THE MOTIVATION MATHODS DURING FINANCIAL CRISIS
Zuzana Bodorová
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Abstract: At the time, which does not allow inefficiently dispose of any source, is necessary to focus on the
most important resource, staff. Whereas human is not a machine and is not delivered with
a complete manual, it is very important to know employees and consequently gained knowledge develop
employee’s potential which is necessary for the position and will be beneficial to company. The way how
get advantage of human potential in a high but sustainable long-term effective rate with low funds, it is
necessary for survival and intersect of the company, it is the base stone of performance management. This
topic was already discussed many times, but currently companies do not pay much attention to motivation.
In this article I would like to mention not expensive but effective forms of motivation easily applicable
currently.
Key words: motivation, human potential, performance management, benefits.
1 INTRODUCTION
Organizations should concern to what should be done to achieve high level of performance through people. The
organizations can pay attention to how employees can be motivated through incentives, rewards, leadership and,
importantly, the work they do and the organization context within which they carry out that work. The intention is to
develop motivation processes and a work environment that will help employee perform as is expected.
2 MOTIVATION
A motive is a reason for doing something. Motivation is concerned with the factors that influence people to behave in
certain way. Motivating other people is about getting them to move in the direction you want them to go in order to
achieve a result. People are motivated when they expect that a course of action is likely to lead to the attainment of a
goal and a valued reward – one that satisfied their needs.
Herzberg identified two types of motivation 1:
 Intrinsic motivation – the self-generated factors that influence people to behave in a particular way or to move
in a particular direction. These factors include responsibility (feeling that the work is important and having
control over one’s own resources), autonomy (freedom to act), scope to use and develop skills and abilities,
interesting and challenging work and opportunities for advancement.
 Extrinsic motivation – what is done to or for people to motivate them. This includes rewards, such as increased
pay, praise, or promotion, and punishments, such as disciplinary action, withholding pay, or criticism.
3 MOTIVATION THEORIES
Motivation theory 2 examines the process of motivation. It explains why people at work behave in the way they do in
terms of their efforts and the directions they are taking. It describes what organizations can do to encourage people to
apply their efforts and abilities in ways that will further the achievement of the organization’s goals as well as satisfying
their own needs. It is also concerned with job satisfaction –the factors that create it and its impact on performance.
3. 1 MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 3
Maslow suggested that there are five major need categories which apply to people general. When a lower need is
satisfied, the next highest becomes dominant and the individual’s attention is turned to satisfying the higher need as
follows:
1. Physiological - the need for oxygen, food, water and sex.
2. Safety - the need for protection against danger and the deprivation of physiological needs.
1
Herzberg, F W, Mausner, B and Snyderman, B. :The Motivation to Work, Wiley, NY, 1957
Armstrong, M. : Human resource management practice, Kogan Page limited, UK, 2006
3
Armstrong, M. : Human resource management practice, Kogan Page limited, UK, 2006
2
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3.
4.
5.
Social - the need for love, affection and acceptance as belonging to a group.
Esteem - the need to have a stable, firmly based, high evaluation of oneself and to have the respect of others
Self-fulfillment - the need to develop potentialities and skills to become what one believes one is capable of
becoming
3. 2HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR MODEL 4
Herzberg’s theory defines two factors that make the employee satisfied from factors make him dissatisfied. For
example, low salary dissatisfies employee but it does not mean that high salary makes him happy. These two groups
are:
Hygiene factors:
 reliability of job,
 salary,
 post (interpersonal relationships, control),
 working conditions,
 activities and organization of the company.
Motivational factors:
 personal growth,
 career’s progress,
 status (success, responsibility)
 appreciation
 results of the work.
Two ways of motivation:
 Increasing the satisfaction of lower needs (hygiene factors) above the prevailing level
 Increasing the satisfaction of higher needs (motivational factors) above the prevailing level.
The main idea of this theory is that realization unfairness motivates, so if someone feels that he was treated unfairly,
begins to defend. Employees compare the degree of fairness, based on the ratio of what they interject into the company
and what they receive.
3. 3 EXPECTANCY THEORY 5
This theory says that employees are so motivated to work so far they expect that their different levels of work effort will
be rewarded. Their expectations are subjective and their effort is proportional to the achievement of performance, which
leads to obtain rewards.
There are three key elements:
 the option- indicates the individual's freedom to choose how will behave
 expectation - is the belief that certain behavior will or will not be successful
 preferences - are the values which attaches to different outcomes (rewards or punishment)
The motivation is the result of a combination of options, expectations and preferences of employees.
4 THE BENEFITS OF MOTIVATION
Nowadays it is very difficult to manage the company and most emotional is to manage human resources. From all sides
we are listening about firing, reducing working hours, decreasing salaries and bankrupting companies. Why it is
emphasizing on motivation during so tough times important? What contributions have motivated employees for
company?
Five concrete benefits of employee motivation6
a)
Improved productivity
Motivated employees work more efficiently, producing better products or services in less time. Unmotivated
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http://www. life123. com/career-money/career-development/motivating-employees/work-motivation. shtml
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employees waste time surfing the Web and using e-mail and instant messaging for personal benefit. They
generally take longer to accomplish the tasks assigned. By keeping employees motivated, improved
productivity can be seen.
b) Higher quality of service or product
When employees are motivated, they invest time, effort and brain power into producing the best products or
services possible. They take pride in their work, meaning they will give company a better name out in the
market simply by producing a superior product. Unmotivated employees, on the other hand, will put in the
bare minimum effort, resulting in poor customer service, and low-quality products.
c) Monetary savings
Improved productivity and higher quality services and products equal monetary gains for company. This opens
up cash for improvements in the company or to be used as benefits for employees.
d) Better employee retention rates
If employees are motivated, managers will be able to retain more of them. Every time company hire a new
employee, it have to invest time getting that person up to speed on the job requirements, integrating that person
into the workforce and figuring out exactly how that new person can contribute. Existing employees have a
wealth of knowledge about your company and how projects work. They are also already accustomed to
working with the other employees at company’s facility. By retaining employees, company saves money and
time.
e) Pleasant work environment
Motivated employees are happy employees. Better morale is contagious; it leads to a pleasant work
environment and better productivity. All this means a better workday for everyone.
5 MOTIVATION METHODS DURING THE FINANCIAL CRISIS
The ways how to motivate people are different now. Before the financial crisis, the companies could afford to invest
more in to their employees and they can afford expensive benefits such as: company car, phone financial benefits, 13th
14th salaries and others. However, during the financial crisis, the companies focused more on cost savings and more
companies began to focus on non-financial benefits.
Each person is different and it would be naive to think that all people can be motivated by the same motivational tool.
Also, companies are different and each may use a different combination of motivational tools tailored to the needs of
their employees. For purposes of this article, I decided to devote some inexpensive motivational tools which are readily
applicable and currently in use.
5. 1 ATMOSPHERE IN THE COMPANY
During the financial crisis, many companies face the unpleasant decision to fire people. It is important for the company,
that there is open and clear communication. Generally the managers are reluctant to communicate bad news, so delegate
this duty to other people. Those managers, who have the courage to speak openly about the bad news, will receive
greater attention and are more respected. In the case, when the company is going to lie off, it is necessary to inform
employees directly. The best way how to lie off is to do it once, that it might not be repeated, so in the company should
not increase uncertainty, fear, distrust, that people do not have to worry about their jobs. Unfair dealings may cause
outflow of the smartest, key people, who even in times of crisis have no difficulty to find a well paid job and the
company will suffer great financial loss. To remedy this, it is necessary to carry out professional outplacement as
professional assistance to employees and employer. It is important to prepare managers for communication with
redundant employees also with others who remain in the company. It is also important to provide support and assistance
for redundant employees to ensure that they will find a new job as soon as possible.
Since the crisis started, there is less work in the companies so the companies have the possibility to extend the internal
communication. It is good to create the small groups of people where they can openly communicate problems, the
possibilities of the company. It is good to promote an employee to the position of "partner" with whom you can discuss
various options for solving crisis situations, opportunities for improvement. Also, employees can come up with new
possibilities for solving the problem. This course of action the company gives to the employees to feel that their
employer respects them and are important for the company. Internal communication absorbs significant negative moods
in the company.
5. 2 PRAISE
Praise cost nothing. At the time when everybody economize with praise shouldn’t. It is important to rectify managers to
prise their employees even if it wasn’t usual before. When employ is prised he will feel satisfaction, self-fulfillment,
pride, that company do care about him, contribute to the company and he will be more anxious.
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Every day part of managers’ dictionary should be phrases as:
 Thank you very much….
 Well done…
 Thank you for your help/ quick response….
In order to praise afford effectively it is necessary to follow principles7:
 the goals must be achievable, more smaller goals are more effective than one huge goal
 giving the price must be specific and concrete, exactly must be said who and what is valued
 the price must be afford immediately after reaching the goal
 manager should be unpredictable- unexpected praise motivate more than expected praise
 good expressed praise is good source of motivation in teams, but it can not discredit the work of another team
member
In granting the praise is necessary to take into account the personality of the employee. If the employ is introvert, it is
better to praise him in front of one colleague. If the employ is extrovert, it is good to praise him in front of more people,
for example on meeting. Very important is that it is necessary to reproach, it must be done between 4 eyes, privately.
To very good employees, long-term employees can be written commendation, award for outstanding contribution,
which can be hung on a wall in the office.
5. 3 WORKING HOURS
At a time when the work is less good motivational tool is the flexible working hours. Allowing flexible working hours,
the employer lay to his employees’ reliance and it increase their confidence and have better feeling from work. It also
relieves them of the stress which may cause the obligations outside work such as children. Also, employees can adjust
working time to their own biorhythm to do their best. Some employees prefer to work early in the morning; on the other
hand others can give the best performances during late afternoon hours.
For certain groups of employees, as parents caring for children and elderly people, it is good to give them possibility not
to work every day for 8 hours, allow them to come and leave work when it is necessary without any permission. Than
employer require certain working hours per month. Employees will be less tense at work when they can combine job
and off the job duties.
5. 4 BENEFITS
If the company has the possibility, the benefits are a great tool for motivation. When company select benefits, it can not
forget to whom are benefits addressed and if the employees appreciate them.
In the case when a company can only provide one benefit, that should be attractive for the most employees. For others
company will select benefit next time.
If the company can provide several benefits, it is good to let staff to choose which benefits they want or let them create
a benefits package that will suit them the best and will appreciate. The benefits which do not cost much: barbecue party
with families, the company Christmas parties, trips, sports games, events, allowing employees to buy own product with
discount or use own service. Discount may have increase base on employee’s credits or employee’s loyalty.
5. 5 RELATIONSHIP TO WORK
Employee whose work enjoys will stay in the company longer than the one who makes it only because of money. It
should bear in mind employers when selecting staff. Selecting process should concentrate more on people with intrinsic
motivation, which do not need to be motivated externally so much. However, to all employees must be explained the
vision and goals of the company and contribution of their own work to achieve corporate goals. This will give
employees feeling that their work is meaningful and important for the company.
Now is a good time to get rid of unwanted people, people which do not provide a satisfactory performance. Let
inappropriate people to work in the company is unfair to employees who have to cover their shortcomings. What is
worse it can cause, that the best employees can leave. When high performing employees see that they must bear the
burden in case of another employee, than they can become frustrated and company may loses the best employees.
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The biggest impact to the level of motivation has the managers. Managers instead of relying on formal authorities of
their positions should motivate their employees through strength of personality and should be an example to their
employees. In particular, their ability to deal with employees directly and openly, fairly reward them, appreciate them
for their work, create a favorable working environment, contribute to a sense of meaningfulness of work and create a
team atmosphere. It is necessary to get rid of bad employees also it is necessary to get rid of bad managers. Suitable
method to determine whether there is something wrong with the manager is good to compare staff turnover among
several managers and if someone is in the higher turnover may mean, that the problem may be the manager. By getting
rid of wrong managers should increase the performance of employees but also managers, because they can not be sure
of their positions and prevent outflow of employees who are not satisfied with manager.
5. 6 RESTRUCTURING JOBS
In a financial crisis occurs the best chance of internal restructuring. A good time occurs to create teams of people, who
will deal with activities for which previously were not time. It is good to create teams, who will go into specific areas
such as more efficient use of existing resources, reducing costs, identifying strategic plans, new innovations, new
markets, consumers.
These strategies will allow the company to streamline its processes, facilitating the company and prepare for the time
when the crisis is over in even better shape than before the crisis.
It's good to examine the internal structure. In a personal interview with an employee may manager discover
characteristics and experience of the employee, which company may benefit in another area or position. Also, rotation
of staff and transfer to other positions avoid stereotype and burnout syndrome.
Burnout syndrome8 cause loss of professional or personal interest in helping professions or burnout as a result of a
process in which people intensively interested in a task lose enthusiasm.
 It is a psychological stage of exhaustion
 Occurs especially in occupations involving work with people or at least contact with people and dependence on
their assessment
 It consists of a series of symptoms, especially the mental, partly physical and social
 A key component of the syndrome is emotional exhaustion, cognitive exhaustion and "shabbiness" and often
also the total exhaustion
 All major components of burnout syndrome are based on chronic stress
5. 7 MONEY
A rise of unemployment rates caused, that people more appreciate their work and are willing to work for lower wages or
bonuses. The current development in the labour market allows businesses to slightly save on wages and bonuses. Each
responsible businessman knows that the relationship between him and the employees must be mutually beneficial so
that company could develop in the long-term
In times of crisis it is important to identify the key people who are crucial to the company and pay them more. For the
best employee, even during the financial crisis, is not at all a problem to find a well paid job. Also it is important to
identify the employees who are necessary for smooth running of the company and provide them with appropriate
assessment.
Financial benefits:
 Quarterly, half yearly and year-end bonuses that are derived from the real results of the company. That motivates
employees to become more involved in company events. By being more involved, feeling togetherness,
individual importance and their contribution to the good results of the company
 The share of corporate profits- company should determinate the part of corporate profit to be distributed among
employees according to merit. Equitably allocated quarterly bonuses are more motivating as the 13th-pay
 High-variable component of salaries, team bonuses- variable component of salary for each team member
affected by whole team performance- the team will force a weaker member to a higher performance. An
example of the use of team bonuses is steel company Nucor9, which determined a 50 % of bonuses directly
dependent on the performance of the team comprise of 30 to 40 people. Members of the team went to work 30
minutes earlier so that they can prepare the instruments and started to work with a buzzer. In the end, Nucor
has the most industrious bar benders. When Nucor hired 5 people, forced them to work as 10, but paid them as
8. The result was that, the company also employees, benefits from that situation.
8
9
http://www. wrongdiagnosis. com/b/burnout_syndrome/intro. htm
COLLINS, J. Good to Great. Eastone Books : UK, 2006.
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 Salary increases - a serious employer should increase salaries at least of the inflation rate but this increase should
be subject of employee contribution rates for the company.
6 CONCLUSION
Motivation is beneficial in various ways for the company, even sometimes managers do not realize it and do not want to
concern on motivation because it is “expensive”. Managers can motivate employees without spending a penny. Using
inexpensive forms of motivation, company will help employees during difficult times and will prepare for higher
performance and efficiency after the crisis ends. Satisfaction, mutual trust and open communication are the key points
of correlative success.
REFERENCES:
[1]
ARMSTRONG, M. Human resource management practice. Kogan Page limited : UK, 2006.
[2]
HERZBERG, F. W.; MAUSNER, B.; SNYDERMAN, B. The Motivation to Work. Wiley : NY, 1957.
[3]
The Benefits of Employee Work Motivation. Life123. [online]. Available from: http://www. life123.
com/career-money/career-development/motivating-employees/work-motivation. shtml
[4]
Burnout Syndrome. Health Grades Inc. [online]. Available from: http://www. wrongdiagnosis.
com/b/burnout_syndrome/intro. htm
[5]
COLLINS, J. Good to Great. Eastone Books : Bratislava. 2006.
[6]
Teórie motivácie zamestnancov. Podnikajte. sk [online]. Available from: http://www. podnikajte.
sk/prevadzka-firmy/category/vedenie-ludi/article/motivacia-zamestnancov. xhtml
AUTHOR:
Ing. Zuzana Bodorová
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
e-mail: [email protected] com
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COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Ivan Dlugoš
Makyta, akciová spoločnosť Púchov
Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to point out at important and irreplaceable role of manager
communication and presentation. This will be done through the basis of interpersonal communication
through its contexture and different types of people. Considering individual differences among people, it is
obvious that interactions and communications among people cannot always run without any
complications. Manager communicates with people daily and during communication he must inform them,
direct and coordinate their activity, influence and at the same time make their work conditions and life
easier. It is not possible to exist without communication. This fact holds good especially for manager.
Communication is the means by which people in any organization are mutually interconnected and this
helps them to come closer to one another and in the end reach common goal. Nie je možné nekomunikovať.
Key words: Communication, manager, management, psychology and sociology of management, social
interaction
INTRODUCTION
Man in working process as well as during all his life is in constant contact with other people. At this mutual contact
people influence and interact. In scientific terminology this process is called social interaction.
People do not always communicate only because they want to transfer some facty information or because they want to
share together some positive experiences. They often have different, even contradictory interests and goals which is
caused by their different personal qualities or working positions they ocupy in the hierarchy of organizational
integration.
To realize the existence and effect of all factors that colour social behavior of managed workers and the manager as
well, to understand regularities of interpersonal processes and also to adopt certain know how in this sphere represents
for each manager a goal which is definitely worth reaching. [1]
Nowadays in the period of economic recesion it is especially important to have in manager positions people who are
able to gain relevant information fast and who are capable of selfreflection and of considering others, who are flexible
and so able to have communication leading to necessary changes and decisions connected with them, who are inspiring
and innovating, temperament but do not come into conflicts, assertive and by this represent one of the basic
communicative capabilities and in the end people whose emotions do not prevail their human and professional
dimension.
1 TERM COMMUNICATION
Human qualities and capabilities relating communication are the most important and useful from all. Communication
competences influence the effects of private and professional life, play a role in friend and lover relations, influence the
position of member or leader of a small group, of speaker who by his public speech gives information to his listeners
and affects their attitudes and behaviour. [2]
Organization – employer exists through collective activity of people. In spite of it each individual is able to act in his
own way which need not be in perfect harmony with company´s strategy or instructions or such action is not delivered
correctly to people who should know about it. To reach coordinated results, it is necessary to ensure functioning
communication.
Recently organizations have been exposed to impacts of constant changes which influence the work of their employees,
their comfort and security. The change can be handled only if it is ensured that the reasons
and consequences of the change are announced and explained to those affected by it and if this is done in a clear
and intelligible way so that people can understand and accept these reasons. [3]
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Communication is transmission and understanding the meaning of announcement. To be successful, the meaning of
communiacation must be interpreted and understood. Perfect communication, if it exists at all means that transmitted
thought or idea was accepted exactly as it was meant by transmitter.
Many people think that information is good if our opinion is accepted by the other side. But we can literally understand
what the other side wants to tell us but at the same time we do not have to agree with it. It often happens that conflicts
last too long because people do not communicate effectively which reflects the incorrect attitude saying that effective
communication equals agreement.
Managerial communication involves interpersonal communication, or communication among two or more persons, it
includes also communication within organization which are all models, networks and systems of communication inside
organization. [4]
2 COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT
Communication management can be defined as a process of managing communication flows running in company and in
a wider context as a process of influencing the communication system of company in such a way which makes running,
means, movement and forms of communication help to achieve together all targets and goals of specific company. In
this context it is necessary to create such surroundings in which the efforts to set company´s goals bocome a natural
domain of all creative employees and at the same time surroundings in which the company´s goals become identical
with individual goals of the employees of any company.
Economic importance lies in contribution of communication management to adjusting and better effectiveness of
managing processes in company from the preparation phase of particular decisions (strategic, tactical and operative) to
the phase if their final implementation in operation of company´s activities. Considering the social importance of
communication management the most important aspect is the possibility of realization of communication itself among
company´s management (top, middle, line) and employees in company, among employees, among employees and
external surroundings of company. Each company and all its sections (individuals, groups, teams, units, sectors, plants)
have their own communication system. This systems ensures immediate or mediate change of information,
communication facts among participants of work or extrawork relations in company.
Communication system is a complex system of used communication channels, forms, sources. communication
situations and means, mutual sharing, understanding, feedback, ideas and expectations of all communicating
participants, that is members of company. It includes and reflects all individual and team communication systems
existing in company´s surroundings.
Effectively built up and updated communication system enables the company to realize and verbalise visions of all
categories of employees, their expectations, suggestions and perception of processes runnig in company
and of company´s surroundings. In this way it contributes to higher quality and better selfrealization of managers
and employees, further on to their higher motivation and better performances, higher level of qualitative and
quantitative parameters of desired outputs, to better identification of individual goals and aspirations with company´s
priorities. On this level social importance of communication management multiplies more its economic importance
and possible gains for company and its strategic success.
Modern trends of company surroundings as demographic changes, globalization of economy, technological changes,
internationalization, origin of huge economic and business configurations, imigration, changes in values, need of
constant quality improvement, and others impose more and more requirements on companies. Nowadays the term
competition only little describes real situation because companies find themselves in extremely competitive
surroundings very often and in this surroundings even the finest detail of company processes and its offers on
the market can play a very important role. Majority of our companies trying to ensure their prosperity and competitive
position on market prefer reduction of production, distribution, operating and marketing expenses. The consequence
of economic priority is the fact that product, its price and distribution can be easily adopted by competition. The source
of the only competitive advantage must be searched in the sphere of added value which means in relations with
important target groups as customers, business partners, share holders, investors, organs of state administration and selfadministration, media and of course employees and in this way to find clear, trustful, specialistic, far-seeing, fast
and effective information and decisions.
Company does not communicate only verbally through its employees, but mainly through its activities, by showing how
the processes work inside company and how the company appears externally. It can be said that all that company does
or often does not do (but should do) sends signals to its surroundings. Healthy and effective communication is one of
the significant factors for achieving competitiveness or factor for surviving. If we talk about communication in
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connection with company´s surroundings, it is necessary to take into account its two inseparable parts:
1) internal communication inside company (among fellow-workers, managers and subordinates),
2) external communication outside company (with subcontractors, consumer – client).
3 MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION CHARACTERIZATION
Management communication originates as a product of formal and informal relations and as a product
of functioning of organization structure and management system. All active members of organizational unit are
in various ways connected through communication network. It is realized mainly in the sphere of formal relations,
in formalized and relatively accurate communication technique. Exact formulations, terms, descriptions –
communication schemes reflecting organization structure, its hierarchy and positions of managers must be used.
Communication schemes present integrated techniques of how to use verbal and non-verbal parts of communication
which besides means of expression contain also norms, values and ethical elements produced and acknoledged by social
surroundings of organization.
Management communication is enforced on two levels:
1) In process of analysis of managing problems and decision making, where activities are realized which lead to
selection of proper managing alternatives. These activities include mainly following communication activities:
 interpretation and clarifyíng of managing problems,
 consulting
 discussions
2) In process of implementing decisions, when communication is in fact realization and putting the decisions into
practice, when manager organizes the activities of employees and ensures conditions for fulfilling desired tasks.
Implementing of decision contains two main ways of manager´s acting:
a) Indirect implementation acting the aim of which is to form necessary conditions for solving managing problems,
for creating space and overcoming various obstacles. These activities presume capabilities and competences of
police manager to negotiate – communicate not only with subordinates but also with superiors and other partners
who get involved into solving managing problems in some way.
b) Direct implementation acting, as specific managing communication including manager´s influencing his
subordinates so that decision implementation is made on time and is of high quality. In direct implementation
acting following activities are usually used:
 persuasion, gaining confidence, influencing
 enforcing manager decision
 informing, clarifying, interpretation
 argumantation, evidence, proving, objecting, defense
 enforcing oneself
The role of manager is first of all informative, regulating and convincing. Information and commanding, discussing the
tasks with subordinate workers, discussions with superior, coordination and stimulation seem to be very effective.
PERSONALITY FACTORS OF MANAGER
Managerial communication is dependent on both, the social environment of organization and also on manager´s
personality. He lives and works in social environmnet of a certain organizational unit (organization) which influences
him, regulates, develops but also hampers him. He responds to the influence of surroundings in a certain way, he
behaves and acts as a personality. It expresses individual transformation of this surroundings which as a unity of typical
physical, mental and social attributes and capabilities influences also communication potential of manager. It is realized
through communication capabilities which emerge as a complex of knowledge, capabilities, skills and attributes
necessary for successful performing of communication activity. They consist of communication components which the
manager can use relatively independent or in some combinations. In practice following components are used:
 verbal communication dispositions (voice, capabilities of verbalisation, intonation dispositions),
 non-verbal communication dispositions (mimicry, haptic form, gesticulation),
 active listening
 realization of objective feedback,
 perzuazion, - persuading, influencing, argumentation,
 empathy - ability to empathize the feelings of those participating in communicacation process,
 assertiveness – ability to conduct actively communication process.
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Do not interrupt the
speaker
Paraphrase
Do not say more
than necessary
Listen
actively
Be empathic
Keep eye contact
poččúvanii
Avoid disturbing
Ask question
Nod, have appropriate
facial expression
Obr. 1: Active listening (4)
The above mentioned competences are directly connected with professional competence and moral qualities.
The reason for such statement is the fact that communication competences are not only competences stipulating
intercommunication but also social sensitiveness, art to solve communication microsituations and conflicts.
Manager must be communicatively flexible which needs the change of communications methods according
to the situation and sensitively respond to communication signals from the surroundings. It is necessary not only
to announce one´s opinions but to listen to others. It is of importance because effectiveness of manager communication
is also defined by:
 personality characteristics of communication partners,
 grade of social consistence of managed organizational unit,
 standard of occupative activity of subordinates,
 It has been proved – verified by practice, that manager reaches as the rule better achievements in following
cases:
 he is able to put himself in employees´ situation,
 he gets to know and understand needs and interests of employees,
 he realizes effectively feedback,
 during communication and activity he shows his interest in solving the problem, he does not want to benefit.
Managerial communication should not be understood as something that is determined only by personality but it is
a result of mutual effect of personality qualities, communication competences, life experience and conditions in
organization.
CONCLUSION
Modern contemporary company must learn how to communicate first of all with own employees because they represent
a vitally important priority for the company. They ensure the realization and development of company´s activities.
There must be a relation of mutual openess and confidence among employees and company. It is a process
of long term creation of the atmosphere in which, step by step all barriers of communication are removed. It may
be dangerous to hide or to withhold information about economy of company. Facts will be replaced by suppositions
of employees and their mistrust towards own managers may lead to impairment of their solidarity with company and
to worsening their performance and activity.
Modern methods of management refuse absolutization of methods of direct management in strict hierarchial structures –
that is leading people „ by short chain“, clearly dichotomy „either-or“ concerning rewards and sanctions, or method of
„sugar and whip“. On the contrary they put stress on motivating methods of managing which stimulate people´s interest
in creation of the surroundings enabling them independent activity and consequently also open and sincere
communication between manager and worker, worker and worker, worker and external surroundings.
Among most often barriers of productivity increase in present business environment represented by specific companies
dealing with manufacturing, and offering services belong especially following ones:
 bad company´s culture not supporting increase in productivity
 unsuitable technologies,
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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




organizational structure (vertical organization with a lot of managing activities),
high absence and fluctuation of employees,
too wide production program,
bad motivation of workers,
lack or absence of communication. [5]
Company management has nowadays only two possibilities how to solve unfavourable situation which is influenced by
several objective and subjective factors:
a) to justify poor performance and low productivity of work by objective reasons, often by blaming others
(employees, foreign competition, etc),
b) to become the head of programme concentrated on how to increase production and competitiveness of company.
Relations between management and employees play a determining role at motivating employees for permanent increase
of production, cooperation of both sides is a necessary condition of long term success. Both sides must play ball not
fight against one another.
Globalization in contemporary business environment finds expression summarily in:
 shortening the time of data transmission,
 speeding up circulation of goods,
 more and more easier mobility of people,
 free flow of capital,
 internationalization of all processes, mainly of production and trade.
If you view information in a wider context, that is not only from the point of view of its contents but also of its form
(directness, comprehensibility, attractivity, and other criteria), then it, together with time dimension
of communication becomes the first-rate competitive factor (in positive and negative sense).
In Slovakia mainly big and dominant companies pay great attention to problems of work communication. They
emphasize the improvement of communication competences of their management which should improve the working
relations and increase efficiency and effectivity of work. Companies that offer trainings focused on effective
communication, managerial communication, marketing communication, communication at conducting meetings, on
development of communication capabilities and skills, have a properly built up information base although if you want
to apply needed theoretical knowledge to conditions of particular branches you must readjust and modify detailed
knowledge of comminication. In Slovakia there are big gaps in this area. An exception is only communication applied
to e. g. conditions in bank sector and greater attention is devoted to banks than to communication in transportation,
postal and telecommunication companies, in machinery and other branches of industrial production.
LITERATURE:
[1]
BEDRNOVÁ, E.; NOVÝ, I. a kol. Psychologie a sociologie řízení. Praha : Management Press, 2007. 791 s.
ISBN 978-80-7261-169-0.
[2]
DE VITO, J. A. Základy mezilidské komunikace. Praha : Grada Publishing, a. s., 2008. 482 s.
ISBN 978-80-247-2018-0.
[3]
ARMSTRONG, M. Řízení lidských zdrojů. Praha : Grada Publishing, a. s., 2007. 769 s.
ISBN 978-80-247-1407-3.
[4]
ROBBINS, S. P.; COULTER, M. Management. Praha : Grada Publishing, a. s., 2004. 514 s. ISBN 80-247-0495.
[5]
GREGOR, M.; MIČIETA B. Produktivita a inovácie. Žilina : Slovenské centrum produktivity v Žiline, 2010.
320 s. ISBN 978-80-89-19-5.
[6]
FARKAŠOVÁ, V.; ONDRÚŠKOVÁ, L. Analyzovanie komunikačného systému v podniku. MANAŽMENT V
TEÓRII A PRAXI, roč. 2, 2006, č. 3-4. ISSN 1336-7137
ADRESS:
Ing. Ivan Dlugoš, Ph. D
Makyta, akciová spoločnosť Púchov
Ul. 1. Mája 882/46
020 25 Púchov,
tel.: +421905740022
fax. : +421424631979
e-mail: ivan. [email protected] sk
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„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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28
PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM
Ivana Dlugošová
Abstract: The aim of author´s contribution is to emphasize and point out at the role of information
technologies, specifically of information technologies used in personnel management which cannot be
underestimated nowadays. At present communication and exchange of information among employees do
not depend and cannot depend on place and time any more. Common activities among scattered
individuals and teams, sharing information and integration of decision making and activities are potential
for increasing the effect and effectiveness. Personnel information software system is based on fully
integrated, completely organization chart network of data, information, services, database, tools and
transactions in the sphere of human resources that enables the improvement of personal administration,
transactions and processes running in specific organization.
Key words: Personal (personnel) information system, personal data, data, personal administration,
complexity, topicality and credibility of data.
INTRODUCTION
It is without any doubt that company´s performance is significantly influenced by effective use of information. The
quality of decision making depends first of all on how good the information is and on the capability of processing it.
Some external circumstances force companies to use new technologies to be more sophisticated, to be able to gain and
process properly some strategic information from daily activities that can be of great importance for their further
decisions.
Concerning the internal life of the company, its aim is to improve spreading and sharing of in-house information. To
achieve effective usage of information companies use the systems, the role of which is to produce relevant and quality
information needed for the process of management. The basic function of information systems is to gain, process
and provide the required quality information to the users on time whenever they need it. The users of information
system can be managers, technical and subject matter experts or office workers or common staff. Information needs of
managers differ and depend on management level of organization. This is the reason why management activities are not
equal on particular levels of management, and therefore information from different sources is used.
Vital condition of personnel work in any organization is the existence of trustful, detailed and reliable information
which is necessary for making decisions and performing all essential analyses of labour force in the organization and
results of its performances, for character of its job, effectivity of personal activities and external conditions influencing
formation and behaviour of the staff. This is the reason why personnel information system in organization must be
established and permanently developed.
Current personnel work in the form of conception of human sources management has a strategic character. That means,
it must make use of much broader range of information including information from the sources outside the organization
– employer. [1]
1 INFORMATION SYSTEM
Systems that describe and consequently reproduce in a defined way intellectual capability of man to gain, process and
evaluate data with the aim to receive information necessary for his further activity are called information systems.
Viewing the practical ralization, it means that they are systems of managing and technology of collection, transfer,
storing, processing and distribution of documents, information and information services. It is obvious that information
systems can be classified according to certain aspects, as:
 function of IS
 usage areas
 level of automation
 space arrangement of IS subsystems.
The above mentioned way of classification judges IS according to the services offered to the end user.
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2 PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM
Each process of decision is realized by help of information. Therefore it is so important to have information. Decision
making in the sphere of human resources is based on the use of suitable personal information. This information is to be:
 truthful
 exact
 topical
 relevant
 sufficiently detailed
It is important for each company to create (buy) a proper personnel information system (later only „PIS“)
and to develop and up-date it constantly so that it can regard all needs of its users.
PIS represents an ordered system for detecting, storing, processing and providing information about all relating to
personnel work in the organization. Inseparable part of PIS is a pack of methods and techniques used at work with
information, including the rules concerning the access to this information. [1]
2.1 FUNCTION, VALUE AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM
The essential function of PIS lies in securing the information needed for effective realization of personnel functions in
required volume, range, quality and time.
PIS value does not lie in information itself, but in its use for effective human resources management. In the period of
personal administration the information was processed manually. At the beginning of 1980 s information processing
was done by help of computers, however they were in separated workplaces. Separated PC s are still used. Some years
later, thanks to dynamic development of information technologies PC in companies are network connected. It means
that the personnel information system is interconnected with internal and external information systems. Network
interconnection enables one-direction or bidirectional communication:
 One- direction communication is insured through central operated PIS. Information is stored in central data
bank Information comes to lower levels that is to particular power units only through command channels from
where
it returns to central unit. There are no formal communication channels between units on the same level
 Bidirectional communication in PIS is based on mutual cooperation of all participants connected to computer
network. It means that information is not untouchably kept in central place, but it is distributed through
different PC in network according to actual need of legitimate participant. The user can communicate with
anybody in the organization, but he can also be connected to external information systems. As an example can
serve Employment office, Social and Health insurance office, Statistical office.
2.2 CONTENTS OF PERSONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM
PIS should offer a sufficiently wide range of information used not only for processing the evidence (about the number
of employees, sickness absence, overtime work, spent vacation, absence from work, evidence about foreign workers,
mothers on maternity leave or on paternal leave, etc.), statistics and reports, but this range of information helps work
out necessary analysis of labour force, work positions and effectiveness of work.
PIS should provide both, individual data and bulk data for statistical processing.
PIS provides all levels of management with current information – it means continuously updated information, but it
offers also historical information. Collection, storing, processing, analysing and distribution of personal information are
usually realized by personnel specialists.
It is desirable and required if PIS contains following subsystems:
a) Information about employees
b) Information about working positions
c) Information about personal activities
d) Information about external conditions (surroundings)
Particular subsystems can contain following types of data:
Information about employees – and types of data:
 personal and identifying data
 data about performing working function and character of employment
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







about working hours and working behaviour
education and qualification
data about career
about realized training activities in organization
about special capabilities or limits
data concerning rewards, taxes and fund contributions (social and health insurance)
space characteristics and characteristic of work attendance
data about disciplinary proceedings and labour confrontations.
Data about each employee are recorded on his personal card which can be in the written or electronic form, but also
materials and documents are saved in the written form in his personal file and the selection of the documents can be
recorded also in PIS. Personal file of employee contains:
3) Personal evidence
 job application
 curriculum vitae
 personal questionnaire
 identification card
 documents about education and working experience
 references and working reports
4) Labour-legal records
 employment contract,
 scope of employment
 payroll decree and payroll card
 period of employment, service record (if the employee has been employed before)
 agreement on material responsibility
 records about evaluation (assessment)
 career plans (plans of employee´s personal improvement)
 records about each mobility (placement to other position)
 records about handing in improvement suggestions and procedures
 records about evaluation (assessment)
 records and results of health inspections (if they are justified)
A special sort of information is called "soft data“. This is mainly information about:
 attitudes and approaches to work
 values,
 satisfaction or unsatisfaction of employee
The above mentioned information is important for manager´s decisions because it enables him to foresee
the behaviour and activity of employees in future.
It can be a problem to work with this kind of information because it is not easy to gain it, it may be difficult
to interpret it and the information may get old very fast. Organizations - employers can hardly exist without this kind
of information
Information about jobs and types of data:
 categories of job
 organizational enlistment of job and its position in hierarchy of work functions
 place of performed job
 characteristics of job
o if it is occupied,
o if it is a permanent or seasonal job
o possibility of risk
o if business trips are often
o if communication in a foreign language is required
 if the job is suitable for women or for people with changed capacity of work (for the juvenile)
 if it is necessary to work in shifts, and others according to special demands of employer
 demands on job holder
 date of updating of information
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Document is: job description and demands on job holder
a) Information about personnel activities and types of data:
 sphere of work analysis – methods used at creation and analysis of jobs
 sphere of planning – methods used at planning the number of employees, at planning the sources for covering
the number,
 sphere of obtaining and selection – used methods (also information about effectiveness), questionnaires, contents
and process of adaptation of employees, searching of applicants and automated activities connected with
selection
 sphere of employee appreciation – methods, questionnairies, effectiveness, performance monitoring and
automated activities connected with appreciation,
 sphere of education – methods of education and their efficiency, plans of work career, plans of succession,
 sphere of remuneration and wage agenda – system of remuneration, data necessary for wage and social benefits
processing and for payload analysis, methods of work evaluation, evidence of absence from work, evidence of
working hours, overtime work, work readiness, night work, vacations,
 sphere of employee care – obligatory and optional care, providing employment benefits (cafeteria system),
automated activities connected with identification of entitlement for social benefits and evidence of drawing
them, information about how the Social fund is being spent,
 labour standards – labour order, disciplinary order, collective labour agreement, examples of documents used
in personal work.
c) Information about external conditions and types of data:
 data about labour market, so called structural characteristics – mainly about attraction zone, namely:
o state and population trend
o school and health statistics,
o wage investigations,
o following competitor´s offers (other work possibilities)
o sociological investigations,
 labour - legal legislation – e. g. Labour Code, Employement Law, Social security law, tax legislation, etc.
2.3 ADVANTAGES OF PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM
According to British Incomes Data Services (2002) the advantages of personnel information system are as follows:

improved access to human resources data,

modern, economic, practical, rational and standardized processes,

more adequate and more exact data,

better internal profile, more modern cut of personnel sections and personnel work in organizations. [2]
3 PERSONAL DATA PROTECTION
Effective operation of PIS involves also setting of the way and form of personal data protection so that these cannot be
misused. It means that a system of information protection must be created (Personal Data Protection Law). Protection
system assumes:

that personal data are processed by manager, it is employer, who can delegate this work on another subject – so
called executor (e. g. supplier processing wages). These persons (internal and external) are bound to keep
secrecy, even after termination of their job,

that only necessary data in adequate range are assembled and processed,

special treatment must be established for so called sensitive personal data – data about:
o nationality,
o race,
o ethnic origin,
o political attitudes,
o religion,
o criminal activity,
o health state,
o sexual orientation,

Application of special codes (passwords), without which the access into database is not possible, such is a rule
and employer must guarantee that personal data can be processed only with employee´s consent (apart from the
data which do not need approval – wage data). Majority of data processed by employer do not require approval.
In spite of it is desirable if such approval is given, e. g. in employment contract.
CONCLUSION
To keep the position of goods and services on the market depends in the case of producers on their capability to apply
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new information technologies which are used within both managerial information systems and also within production
processes. Better information systems offer information necessary for decision making of better quality, and they bring
the information faster. If a company feels sufficient press from outside, it will take more unprejudiced decisions on the
basis of better information. If it does not feel this press, it is highly probable that even a good information system will
not enable to improve its decision making and reach a better quality and efficiency of its products and services.
Employers who do not pay attention to permanent introduction of modern information technologies will soon find
themselves in strategic disadvantage in comparison with top companies. Buying new information technology is not
enough, it is inevitable to recognize where the greatest gains originate. Otherwise higher costs will further worsen
economic position of organization.
Information technologies bring highest profits if their exploitation is based on a well built company strategy.
In praxis it may be a problem as managers set company objectives but information technologies are worked out
and established by specialists. In general the managers cannot orientate themselves properly in new information
technologies. On the other side experts for information science have less information about strategy of company.
To overcome this problem it is necessary for both sides to have a constructive dialogue .
LITERATURE
[1]
KOUBEK, J. Řízení lidských zdrojů – Základy moderní personalistiky. 3. vydání. Praha : Management Press,
2004. 354 s. ISBN 80-7261-033-3.
[2]
ARMSTRONG, M. 2007. Řízení lidských zdrojů. 10. vydání. Praha : Grada Publishing, a. s., 2007. 769 s.
ISBN 978-80-247-1407-3.
[3]
Budovanie a využitie podnikových informačných systémov – intranet. Referáty-seminárky. [online] [19. 12.
2010]
Available from: http://referaty-seminarky. sk/budovanie-a-vyuzitie-podnikovych-informacnychsystemov---intranet/
[4]
Personánlny informačný systém. Hladas. skl [online] [22. 12. 2010] Available from: http://referaty. hladas.
sk/referat. php/personalny--informacny--system-/26/16512
ADDRESS:
Ing. Ivana Dlugošová
Stanislava Bíroša 375/10
014 01 Bytča
Slovenská republika
tel.: +421415521582
mobil: +421908068045
e-mail: ivanka. [email protected] t-com. sk; [email protected] sk
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
34
DETERMINANTS OF THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INFLOWS
Alexander Ferianc
Žilinská Univerzita v Žiline
Abstrakt: A lot of companies are producing their products out of than their trade outlet and therefore must
carry their products which are associated with transport costs. That transport costs were kept to
a minimum must be companies located as close to the trade outlet. Environment in which companies are
located and where it works, increasing production costs through taxes, levies etc. To transport,
manufacturing and other costs were the lowest, must be company properly located. This location is the
result of t of allocation decision-making. This decision-making is influenced by many factors. This paper
identifies these factors, determining their impact on the allocation decision-making of companies and it
also describes the consequences for the economics arising from the location of foreign companies in this
economic.
Key words: allocation decision-making, foreign direct investment, determinants of the foreign direct
investment inflow.
INTRODUCTION
In the current market economy is successful that company, which can satisfy increasingly requirements needs of
customers by wide selection of new and high quality goods and services. It is not enough. These products must be
available in the right quantity at the right place at the right time with least cost. Therefore to make this happen is
necessary correct allocation of company, planning for long-term level. "Efficient allocation is characterized as a process
of investing - the location of available funds to the company’s activities, represented by business projects. The specific
allocation is the result of financial decision-making, which is seen as a process of selecting the optimal alternative
investment projects (Vlachynský, 1996). "
The main criterion of valuation individual variations (localities of a location) in most decision-making situations is the
value which these variants contribute to maximizing the market value of company, respectively what is the return on
investment. For each possible locality the company can calculate yield and costs achievable on this locality by
allocation models. The result of these models is affected by factors, which that determine the best location for
placement of company according to selected criteria. This placement and subsequent operation of the company in
locality is associated with the release of the funds needed for its construction. If the optimal location in which the
company is located is a foreign economy, then this location is for foreign economy of foreign direct investment (FDI),
and implementation of this investment has of consequences.
DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
Foreign direct investments are a manifestation of long-term international capital movements and are effective forms of
penetration of foreign capital into the economy. Some economics (mainly these in transforming process do not have
sufficient internal resources to ensure economic growth. For this economics are foreign direct investments one of the
possible ways to solve of problem with absence economic sources. The prospective investor has a lot of investment
opportunities in different regions of the world and in their implementation can compete with many countries.
According of character are foreign direct investments divided into:
 Export oriented foreign direct investments 1, they have to use specific resources and advantages of the country
and then exported. The most important advantage is the facilities resources, capital and cheap labor, which
could be a determining factor for investment inflows. In this type of foreign direct investments is the
advancing, level and size of the domestic market, a secondary factor. These investments are specifically on the
amount of production costs and seek to invest where it is cheapest.
 Market oriented foreign direct investments their objective is to create a company in the host country for the
purpose of supplying goods and services in the local market. This type of foreign direct investment will receive
the share of the host country market and this share increases over time. This is particularly important in market
size, degree of land development, infrastructure and distribution costs.
1
BALÁŽ, P. a kol.: Medzinárodné podnikanie. Bratislava : Jamex, 2001, s. 147-148.
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For bases of a location decisions are taken into account the various determinants which influence this decision-making
and his result - location. On these determinants, affecting mainly the state. State regulates them according to several
criteria such as trade balance, the state of the country's economy, the budget deficit and so on.
These determinants can be divided into different groups according to various aspects. One of these is an internal
division (based on internal conditions of corporate resources) and external determinants (complex factors based on
economic, cultural and legal environment).
External determinants can be divided into:
 determinants in the mother country - as an example support of investments in abroad, the high cost of
production, absence of raw materials,
 determinants in the host country - economic and political environment, growing market, increasing demand,
attractiveness investment environment, cheap labor, the level of infrastructure
In 2003 he was among potential investors in developed countries performed marketing research 2, which was tasked to
identify the most important determinants affecting investment in the CEE region. Each participant identified three
determinants of the points 3, 2, 1 according to their importance (which would be considered most important when
deciding on the execution of investments) being the most important factor was given 3 points. The result is in table 1.
Determinants of foreign direct investments
Sequence
Factor
Number of points
1
Political stability
115
2
Economic performance of domestic market
71
3
Financial stability
47
4
Labour force
40
5
Potential profitability
35
6
Geographical location
33
7
Competitive costs
28
8
Currency convertibility
15
9
Transport Network / Infrastructure
10
10
Legislation
6
11
Potential export base
5
12
Favorable tax system
2
Table 1: The most important determinants of FDI according to the assessment survey
Source: [2]
DESCRIBES THE MOST IMPORTANT DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS
a) Political stability
Political risk is one of the main criteria entry of foreign investors into the country because it represents for investor the
safety of his investments. Therefore, the higher political risk means less foreign direct investments.
d) Economic performance of the market
The economic performance is represents mainly by economic growth, monetary stability, the development of the
current account of payment balance and public finances. Economic performance is measured through rating, which
indicates the image of the economy and affects the perception of the country to foreign investors. Rating measure a
country grants credit rating agencies. The most important rating agencies are Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch
IBCA
e) Labour force
Among the important determinants of foreign directive investments is include human labor. Its importance is growing in
the industrial economy, where quality and quantity of labor is an essential prerequisite for production output and its
share price of the goods is significant. Once upon the time was the selection of workers focused by low wages. In
2
Hošková, A. Vplyv priamych zahraničných investícií na ekonomiku Slovenska. Bratislava : NBS, 2001.
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present is the majority of problems securing the necessary amount of skilled labor. For the investor it is important to:
 availability of labor (unemployment),
 the quality of the workforce (education and qualification),
 quantity of labor (number of people able to work in the country),
 labor productivity (quantity workforce able to produce under such conditions at that time).
f) Geographical location
Geographic location is a determinant of foreign directive investments, which cannot be changed. Is it possible to
measure the distance between country and trade outlet (one or more), access to the sea (shipping option) etc.
g) Transport Network / Infrastructure
For most companies is the existence of large transportation network (roads, railways, water transport, air transport), an
important condition for finding a appropriate locality for location of company.
Important factors are following:
 faster transport of goods (for example synchronized production),
 good transport fare (for example mass consumption goods).
h)
The tax burden
Tax systems and tax individual states are different, even though part of taxes, but some taxes (income tax, property
tax, etc. .) is levied in most modern states. For investors not only crucial tax burden but also the choice and
complexity of the tax system and tax system.
i) Investment incentives
Investment incentives provided by governments to attract foreign capital. Incentives are defined as targeted, money
measurable advantage for investors which influence his decision in profit of investment into country. It is true so rich
and developed countries are able and more willing to grant direct subsidies as indirectly acting credits and vice versa
poorer states are more or less able to provide only relief. Many governments are trying to influence potential investors
the right investment incentives (tax breaks exemption from import duties, reduction of levies, direct subsidies,
preferential treatment to other companies etc.) that are permitted by international agreements. Investors willing to
accept these incentives, but do not take them into consideration in their allocation decisions (see Table 1).
As proof of the impact of these determinants of foreign direct investments inflows can use their development over time.
In the figures 1 and 2 is shown time develop and the correlation between them.
Figure 1: relationship between foreign direct investments inflows and labor productivity.
Source: myself processing.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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37
Figure 2: Correlation between foreign direct investments inflows and political stability
Source: myself processing.
SUMMARY
According to time developed of described determinants which affecting foreign direct investments inflows and foreign
direct investments inflows alone it is can these determinants divided into two groups.
In the first group are the determinants of foreign direct investments, which is changing the level don’t affecting foreign
direct investments inflow or influence a few, but they must be the minimum level sufficient to investor ever thought
about allocating investments into the country. This groups includes for example determinants political stability (see
figure 1), rating, qualification of the labor force, labor productivity, transportation infrastructure, investment incentives.
Further raising the level of these determinants above minimum required level is important only for attracting large longterm investment.
In the second group are determinants whose size and development plays an important role in attracting investors into
the country. For example, the average monthly wage, unemployment, tax legislation, currency convertibility and
currency levels decide about selection of country and their level is generally difficult controllable state. Also, their sizes
affects directly or indirectly proportion the size of foreign direct investments inflows (see figure 2).
Inseparable part of the influence of foreign direct investments inflows are identified determinants of foreign direct
investments effects of a given economy. These effects may be positive (economic growth, increasing the technological
level of the country, employment, access to foreign markets, etc.) and negative (growth in unemployment, little added
value, poor repatriation of profits, etc.) in the short and long term.
One of the important effects of the overall theory describes the race to the bottom. This theory says that the rivalry of
countries on foreign direct investments by providing larger and larger economic incentives will lead to growing losses
for the warring countries and the benefit of investors who provide foreign direct investments. The result is a paradox
that countries needing assistance helps investor, who need this help at all.
REFERENCES
[1]
VLACHYNSKÝ, K. Finančný management. Bratislava : Elita, 1996.
[2]
HOŠKOVÁ, A. Vplyv priamych zahraničných investícií na ekonomiku Slovenska. Bratislava : NBS, 2001.
[3]
JAROLÍM, M. Zahraniční investice a produktivita firem, finance a uvěr. Praha, 2000.
[4]
BALÁŽ, P. „Medzinárodné podnikanie“. Bratislava : Jamex, 2001.
[5]
NEWTON. Přímé zahraniční investice: Přístup z pohledu teorie. Praha, 2001.
[6]
DJANKOV, S.; HOEKMAN, B. Foreign Investment and Productivity Growth in Czech Enterprises. The World
Bank Economc Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2000.
[7]
Štatistický úrad SR. http://portal. statistics. sk/
[8]
Schéma regionálnej pomoci pre veľké podniky. Ministerstvo hospodárstva Slovenské republiky. [online]
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
38
[9]
[10]
Available from: http://www. economy. gov. sk/schema-regionalnej-pomoci-pre-velke-podniky--pravidla-voblasti-poskytovania-regionalnej-pomoci-investorom--6395/128080s
Slovensko. Zákon č. 561 o investičnej pomoci a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov ze dne 29. októbra 2007.
In: Zbierka zákonov Slovenské republiky. Fig. 235, p. 4150 – 4160. Available from: http://www. economy. gov.
sk/zakon-c--561-2007-z--z--o-investicnej-pomoci-a-o-zmene-a-doplneni-niektorych-zakonov5393/127078s&rct=j&q=Zákon
%20561/2007
%20o
%20investičnej
%20pomoci&ei=D8UTdWPIIGRswaAhsX-BA&usg=AFQjCNGPSSdYGw2kflOsGlk_I4UisBeIUg
Štatistická ročenka - súhrnné tabuľky. Ústav informácií a prognóz školstva. [online] Available from: http://www.
uips. sk/prehlady-skol/statisticka-rocenka---suhrnne-tabulky
ADRESS:
Ing. Alexander Ferianc
Žilinská Univerzita v Žiline
Fakulta riadenia a informatiky
Katedra makro a mikro ekonomiky
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
Slovenská republika
Tel. : +421 041 5134 4428
e-mail: alexander. [email protected] uniza. sk
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European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
40
STRATEGY: A GUIDELINE TO OPERATION
Anna Havranová
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Abstract: Formulating strategy is the role of the managers of all companies and their business units. It
aims to provide the unified expression of all perspectives of the business about the way it should follow in
the future. The strategy formulated in form of Balanced Scorecards guarantees representation of all
essential elements of the system which focuses on achieving general vision, mission and objectives.
Strategy maps then design the strategy in form of a legible diagram adding the cause-and-effect linkages
among objectives in the four Balanced Scorecard perspectives. The alignment of all processes and
operation with the strategy forms a strategy-focused organization which ensures that the purpose of all
actions taken in the company is to meet the strategic objectives. However, the operation of companies is in
day-to-day activities, the strategy must be linked to the operation to be executable. These papers suggest
the ways of formulating strategy, making the employees familiar with it through Balanced Scorecards and
strategy maps and aligning the strategy and linking it to operational execution.
Key words: Strategy, strategic management, Balanced Scorecard, strategy maps, alignment
INTRODUCTION
"Strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long-term: which achieves advantage for the
organisation through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and
to fulfil stakeholder expectations" 1. “Strategies are the unique and sustainable ways by which organizations create
value” 2.
Strategy belongs to one of the most discussed topics of management theories and practices in the current economic and
academic world. The importance of the meaning of strategy may be derived from the existing situation in the economic
environment today. The situation in business has never been as dependent on good management and high-quality
guidance as it is now. Global economy has brought enormous competition to all industries and it forces the business to
make up new and new processes to be able to keep their position on the markets. The managers have discovered the
importance of goals. They try to state the goals for their businesses and try to align the processes to achieve the goals.
However, this process can be difficult, particularly when the businesses have been running the same way for many
years and they are, let´s say, change resist. They may find it difficult to mark some activities and actions as the “useless
ones”. They may even find difficult to distinguish such processes. However, specifying the strategic way of progress
and clear identification of particular objectives to follow such a strategy and then finding the role of everybody involved
and of every their action is vital to achieve the competitive advantage.
Other problem concerns difficulty to find the balance between the priorities of the strategy and its operational
execution. It seems that the strategy is a vain document filed in the manager´s drawer and since its formation nobody
has ever heard about it. The operative actions follow some day-to-day needs and the only objectives are those specified
at every-Friday meeting. Employees come to work every day with no particular idea on the meaning of that all. They
produce or sell or promote or inspect and with no imagination of the future direction they change from creative
enthusiastic self-driven employees into the executors of routine and boring operations. It is a prerequisite of successful
implementation of strategy to make it visible for everybody and to align the strategy to everyone´s everyday job 3. And
it is essential to link the planning of strategy to its operational execution.
These papers discuss the ways of formulating strategy, making the employees familiar with it, aligning the strategy to
particular processes and roles of individuals and linking it to operational execution.
1
Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes: Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases. Prentice Hall Europe, 1998
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : Strategy Focused Organizations. How Balanced Scorecard Companies thrive in the New Business Environment.
Harvard Business School Press. Boston. 2001
3
Kaplan, R. S, Norton, D. P,: Alignment. Using the Balanced Scorecard to Create Corporate Synergies. Harvard Business School Press, Boston,
Massachusetts, 2006
2
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41
FORMULATING STRATEGY
An organization´s strategy describes how it tends to create value for its shareholders, customers and citizens 4. There is
nothing like a successful universal strategy that every business could adopt and implement to get the competitive
advantage. Every business is unique, operates in different environment, employs different people, produces different
products and disposes of different sources. No two organizations think about strategy in the same way. In the stage of
the strategy development the companies and organizations or their strategy management teams ask questions related to
their mission, vision and values. They execute strategy analysis dealing with external environment, internal
environment and the process of existing strategy, SWOT analysis and they get to necessary strategy changes.
Strategy formulating team comprises management representatives of all business units to ensure that all aspects of the
business are taken into consideration. Strategy teams look for consensus of all strategies of particular systems of
business. The team covers the financial perspective that represents the attraction of the business for shareholders.
Strategy formulating team also cares about interest´s of customers and looks for the ways to get them in order to
achieve the vision of the company. To satisfy such customers, the processes necessary for that should be taken into
consideration as well. And the last, but not the least, the improvement of employees and the whole companies is an
essential condition which must be represented in the process of formulating strategic objectives 5.
In order to find the right way to formulate the strategy with regard to every interest involved we have gotten to the
Balanced Scorecard. Balanced Scorecard is the world’s predominant strategy execution framework. Based on the
simple premise that “what gets measured is what gets done,” the BSC is also a performance management philosophy
and system that links strategy to operations 6.
Balanced Scorecard makes the gaps between the strategy and operation narrower. It formulates the company strategy in
form of scorecards specifying the objectives and measures. Balanced Scorecard is a system of specification of the
objectives of the company in four different perspectives (a financial, customer, internal processes perspective and a
perspective of education of growth) enabling their harmonisation and their measures interconnected in it. It is a
transformation of the corporate and business unit strategy into the interlinked set of measures that defines the long-term
strategic goals as well as the mechanisms to achieve them 7. It makes the processes to achieve the corporate strategy
clear for everyone involved and every business unit, using their own scorecards, can thus find their role it the process of
execution of the strategy.
The four-perspective model for describing an organization´s value-creating strategy provides a language that executive
teams can use to discuss the direction and priorities of their units 8. They can view their strategic measures as a series of
cause-and-effect linkages among objectives in the four Balanced Scorecard perspectives. The general representation of
such linkages is shown in strategy maps. Strategy maps provide an overview of different dimensions of strategy
projected in a single-page summary in a form of a map. The purpose of strategy maps is to create a legible integrated
model of the strategy connecting many different components of a plan. Strategy maps help overcome a problem with
insufficient integration of the strategies formulated by different groups in particular components of the organization.
Strategy maps visualize the cause-and-effect linkages between particular elements of the corporate strategy. General
strategy map designed by Kaplan and Norton has been derived from the 4-perspective model of the Balanced Scorecard.
The strategy map adds the next dimension to this framework – time dynamics of the strategy. Strategy map is based on
a few principles:
1) Strategy balances contradictory forces.
2) Strategy is based on differentiated customer value proposition
3) Value is created through internal business processes 9.
Translating the strategy into operative terms may be drawn in scorecards and strategy maps which show the graphic
visualization of most important strategic objectives, the ways to achieve them and even the system of their assessment.
The scorecards specify the objectives and their drivers and measures. The maps represent cause-and-effect relations in
particular processes. However, in the majority of cases – we estimate 70 percent – the real problem isn´t (bad
strategy)... it´s bad execution” 10
4
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : Strategy Maps. Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes. Harvard Business School Press. Boston. 2004
Kaplan, R. S, Norton, D. P,: The Balanced Scorecard. Translating Strategy into Action. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts,
1996
6
http://www. thepalladiumgroup. com/KnowledgeObjectRepository
7
http://www. qa. au. edu/page2/research/BSCBuildingBalancedPerfMgtSystem. pdf
8
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : Strategy Maps. Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes. Harvard Business School Press. Boston. 2004
9
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : Strategy Maps. Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes. Harvard Business School Press. Boston. 2004
10
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : Strategy Focused Organizations. How Balanced Scorecard Companies thrive in the New Business Environment.
Harvard Business School Press. Boston. 2001
5
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MAKING STRATEGY EVERYONE´S EVERYDAY JOB
Everybody working in the company should be managed by the company strategy. Thus everybody has their position in
the strategy. All operations in the company should lead to the strategy. After the detailed specification managers often
find out that not every step, not every measure taken in the company is targeted to meet the strategy. Alignment is the
right way to overcome this problem. “Without alignment, executives cannot implement their new strategies for the
changed environment of global competition, deregulation, customer sovereignty, advanced technology and competitive
advantage derived from intangible assets, principally human and information capital. ”11
The strategy formulating team has formulated the strategy and they have built the scorecards and the managers of
business unites have made their own scorecards and the strategy maps have been designed as well. It is now necessary
to make the strategy working and to get all employees to make the strategy a part of their daily job. All organizational
participants should be aligned to the strategy. The organization is able to utilize the Balanced Scorecard to align their
employees to the strategy in three distinct processes:
1) Communication and education, which helps understand the strategy through an effective communication process,
2) Developing personal and team objectives that are consistent with strategic success customizing personal
development to achieving strategic goals,
3) Incentive and reward systems to enable the employees share in the rewards when the organization has been
successful and reversely feel some of pain in case of the organization´s failure which provides the linkage between
organizational performance and individual rewards. 12
The employees are those who implement the strategy. The Balanced Scorecard offers a unique powerful tool for
communication and alignment. It is able to focus energy and talent of employees on the organization´s strategic
objectives. Alignment is not a top-down direction. It is a top-down communication 13. It is a campaign promoting the
strategy for employees similar to campaigns promoting the products for customers or the company to investors. The
potential communication channels include meetings, brochures, newsletters, education programs and company intranets.
Or new modern methods such as learning map visuals or strategy cause-and-effect trees may be used for this purpose.
Managers should also define the measures that will be used to guide and monitor the strategy on the scorecard clearly.
Every strategic objective supported by a measure should contain the intent, definition of measurement, assumptions and
targets to make it really clear for the employee. The Balanced Scorecard provides employees with a broad
understanding of company and business unit strategy. It explicates where they fit in their organizations´ strategy maps
and how they can contribute to strategic objectives. Individual objectives set within the Balanced Scorecard should
comply with the company strategy. A good way to do this is making the personal Balanced Scorecards which offer a
mechanism for aligning individual objectives to business unit and corporate objectives.
The final linkage from the corporate strategy to day-to-day actions occurs when companies link individual´s incentive
and reward programs to the Balanced Scorecard. This guarantees the real interest of employees in measures. It pays for
results. It is a powerful tool to gain people´s attention to company and business units objectives. It provides motivation
for employees to achieve strategic objectives and to help the organization to reach its targets. When all individuals
understand how their pay is linked to achieving strategic objectives, strategy becomes everyone´s everyday job.
LINKING STRATEGY TO OPERATIONAL EXECUTION
The biggest problems with the strategy occur in the moment of its execution. The Balanced Scorecards have been
prepared, the strategy maps designed, employees are all aware of the strategic objectives and have aligned to them.
However, companies do not dispose of any formal systems to help them execute their strategies. The system that links
strategy formulation and planning with operational execution is required to make the strategy implementation
successful. This system consists of six major stages:
1) Developing the strategy by managers
2) Planning the strategy using strategy maps and Balanced Scorecards
3) Aligning the organization with the strategy cascading linked strategy maps and BSCs to all organizational units
4) And in this stage we have gotten to linking strategy to operational execution by
5) Planning operations using operative management tools
6) Monitoring and learning about problems, barriers and challenges
7) Testing and adopting the strategy 14
11
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : Strategy Maps. Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes. Harvard Business School Press. Boston. 2004
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : Strategy Focused Organizations. How Balanced Scorecard Companies thrive in the New Business Environment.
Harvard Business School Press. Boston. 2001
13
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : Strategy Focused Organizations. How Balanced Scorecard Companies thrive in the New Business Environment.
Harvard Business School Press. Boston. 2001
14
Kaplan, S. R. , Norton, D. P. : The Execution Premium. Linking Strategy to Operations for Competitive Advantage. Harvard Business School Press.
Boston. 2008
12
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43
Planning operations using operative management tools should link the long-term strategy and daily operations.
Companies need to align their process improvement activities with strategic priorities. Also funding should comply with
the strategic plan. The first task is to find the most critical business process improvements for executing the strategy.
Then it is necessary to develop the resource capacity plan. The plan and measures in Balanced Scorecards must be
converted into a short-time operating plan.
After having the strategic objectives linked to a comprehensive operational plan, the company starts to execute their
strategic and operational plans, monitor the performance and improve operations and strategy according to the new
gained information and learning. Companies use two kinds of meetings to avoid having short-term operational and
tactical issues drive out discussions of strategy implementation – operational review meetings and strategy review
meetings. At the operational review meetings they review short-term performance and they respond to recent problems
requiring immediate attention. Strategy review meetings bring together the leadership team to review the progress of the
strategy. Discussing the BSC objectives, measures and initiatives has established the meetings by strategic themes
which reviews one or two of them in-depth only and that way gives a chance to each theme to be reviewed after a
specific period of time.
Separate meetings are conducted to test whether the fundamental strategic assumptions remain valid. The executive
team meets to question and challenge the strategy and to adapt it if necessary. As the executive team modifies and
updates its strategy, it also changes strategy maps and Balanced Scorecards. This way the loop closes and another cycle
of strategy planning and operational execution starts.
Developing the strategy
Strategy
maps
Planning the strategy
Balanced
Scorecards
Aligning the organization
Planning operations
Monitoring and learning
Testing and adopting the strategy
Figure 1. Implementation of strategy into day-to-day activities.
The scheme in Figure 1has deigned the process of implementation of strategy and its linkage to operational execution
showing the closed loop of the process after the stage of testing and adopting the strategy and according to the results
subsequent reassessment of the strategy and new developing and formulating of it appears.
CONCLUSION
Well formulated strategy itself cannot guarantee the competitive advantage for a company. There are a lot of other steps
required for successful implementation of strategy. Kaplan and Norton have suggested particular process of
implementation of strategy into daily operations and the above papers have discussed particular steps of that process. I
have emphasized the role of Balanced Scorecards, strategy maps, the role of learning of all participants of the process
and the necessity to align the elements of the processes and staff of the company to achieve a strategy-focused
organization.
REFERENCES:
[1]
JOHNSON, G.; SCHOLES, K. Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases. Prentice Hall Europe, 1998.
[2]
KAPLAN, S. R.; NORTON, D. PStrategy Focused Organizations. How Balanced Scorecard Companies thrive
in the New Business Environment. Boston : Harvard Business School Press, 2001.
[3]
KAPLAN, R. S.; NORTON, D. P Alignment. Using the Balanced Scorecard to Create Corporate Synergies.
Massachusetts : Harvard Business School Press, 2006.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
44
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
KAPLAN, S. R.; NORTON, D. P. Strategy Maps. Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes. Boston
: Harvard Business School Press, 2004.
KAPLAN, R. S; NORTON, D. P. The Balanced Scorecard. Translating Strategy into Action. Boston : Harvard
Business School Press, 1996.
http://www. thepalladiumgroup. com/KnowledgeObjectRepository
http://www. qa. au. edu/page2/research/BSCBuildingBalancedPerfMgtSystem. pdf
KAPLAN, S. R.; NORTON, D. P. The Execution Premium. Linking Strategy to Operations for Competitive
Advantage. Boston : Harvard Business School Press, 2008.
ADRESA:
Mgr. Anna Havranová
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline, FRI
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
email: [email protected] com
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
45
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
46
THE INFLUENCE OF DIRECT TAXES ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED COMPANIES IN
THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Juraj Dubovec, Tibor Hlačina, Jaroslav Kavka
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd Kunovice
Abstract: This paper is the result of the solution of the research task done by the department Finance and
Taxation at European Polytechnic Institute Ltd,Kunovice.
Key words: Direct taxes, indirect taxes, tax period, the subject of taxes, tax payer, subject of taxes, the tax
rate, and pay
INTRODUCTION
The aim of the paper is to clarify the notion “direct taxes” or to describe what is taken as direct taxes and what the taxes
influence in business. Further the paper will outline the problems of the tax level in the Czech Republic including the
introduction of programmes for support of small and medium sized companies.
The tax incomes are tools for influencing:
 Macroeconomist issues (supply and demand),
 Microeconomics issues (economical behaviour of companies and its impact on taxes that influence investment,
and economical growth of the company…).
In the Czech Republic the tax system is progressive currently as shown in the table below:
BASIC DIVISION OF TAXES IN THE CR.
Direct taxes. (taxation at formation)
Indirect
taxes
(taxation
after
consumption)
- income tax
a) income tax of individuals
b)Income tax of legal entity
- general
a) V.A.T (5 a 19 %)
- selective (on chosen sort of goods)
a) consumption
….of mineral oils
….of spirit
…of beer
….of wine,
….of tobacco products
b) duty
- property tax
Tax of property
….of property
….of property transfer
b) heritage
c) gift tax
d) silniční
The division of the faxes systém comes out of valid laws.
Picture no. 1: Basic division of taxes in the CR.
DIRECT TAXES
The direct taxes are characterised above all that they are loaded on the entrepreneurial subject which cannot transfer the
tax to anyone else as it is possible with indirect taxes. These taxes are income tax of individuals and legal entities and
property taxes. Further there are heritage tax, gift tax and road tax. Each of the taxes is characterised by its own base.
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INCOME TAXES OF INDIVIDUALS 1
Subject of taxes:
 Income of dependent income and functional benefit
 Income of businesses and other self employment activity
 Income of capital
 Income of rent
 Other incomes
TAX PAYER
There are two groups of tax payers and according to the group their incomes are taxed. The citizens are in the first
group. These are people with permanent address on the territory of the Czech Republic or the human beings “usually”
staying in the country (at least 183 days in a year). Their whole world incomes are taxed. The other group is marked as
non citizens. In this there are those who do not meet the conditions of citizens. Those human beings who do not have a
permanent address in the country but usually live in the Czech Republic because of study or healing are also in this
group. Only their incomes on the territory of the Czech Republic are taxed.
Ministry of Industry and Trade is the main body responsible for running and development of entrepreneurship in the
Czech Republic and it creates different developing programmes in different sectors. The Czech Republic realizes the
importance of small and medium enterprises very well. As mentioned in the chapter above in the Czech Republic the
small and medium entrepreneurs are very important and from the economical point of view they are main money
suppliers and employers. It is clear that the Czech Republic is interested in the whole entrepreneurship and it has been
trying to develop the entrepreneurship in the Czech Republic. This country has got its own law no.47/2002 Sb for the
support of small and medium sized companies.
The Czech Republic has been creating and realizing various programmes for many years. The support of small and
medium companies is shown in the table and the graph below. The figures show the fast growing trend for the support
of small and medium sized companies.
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Government subsidy in mil CC
4 695,40 4 608,40 6 576,50 9 850,00
650,00
800,00
Table no. 1: The support development of small and medium sized companies in the Czech Republic.
Source: MPaO ČR
Graf The supprt develo pment of sma ll and mediumsized companies in the Czech
Republic
14 000,00
.
12 000,00
10 000,00
8 000,00
C
C
li
m 6 000,00
4 000,00
2 000,00
0,00
2004
2005
2006
2007
rok
2008
2009
vládní podpora
Graph no.1: The support development of small and medium sized companies.
Source: MPaO ČR
1
BENEŠOVÁ, L a kol.Zákon o dani z příjmu s komentářem.,2007 p. 1-251.
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There is the necessity to realize that the support programme is growing. The companies realize the need to invest and
improve the working conditions and that is why they use this financial support. The reason of slow support increase of
small and medium sized companies is poor knowledge of the whole system for the support of small and medium sized
companies.
The position of small and medium sized companies has been stabilized in the last 7 years. From the achieved situation
and from the development tendency the following conclusions result and they show why the Czech Republic will try to
support the development of small and medium sized companies in the future.
 Small and medium sized companies represent stabilizing factor of employment where they keep 60 % of the
total and the tendency is going up.
 Small and medium sized companies were able to be abreast the development of efficiency in large companies.
This is shown by their share of GDP and export (around 35 %), performance and produced added value. (over
50 %).
 Small and medium sized companies significantly prevail with the rate of employment and added value in
restaurants, services, trade and civil engineering and their share is more than 80 %.
 Small and medium sized companies have got about one third of employment and created added value in
transport and industry.
 Small and medium sized companies’ portion on investment realized in the Czech Republic overcame 55 % in
2008 and the trend continuous on.
 From the sector structure point of view, small and medium sized companies have the most important share in
some branches of processing, trade and services.
 Sustaining lag of technology in many sectors is compensated by cheap labour and relatively long real working
hours in order to achieve competitiveness.
THE PROSPECT OF LOWERING THE DIRECT TAXES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
The prospect of lowering the direct taxes in the Czech Republic has been one of the main questions of every day
political situation recently. Lowering the direct and other taxes was one of lures of parliament election. We all can
remember how the political parties promised different tax discount, social and health discount and not only economical
but also other promises before election. There were a lot of promises. We should realize that we cannot speak only
about the direct taxes but about the whole pension system and other areas. Nowadays operating system is due to every
year deficit of the state budget and growing debt of the Czech Republic not ethical and not enough functioning.
CONCLUSION
The whole tax system in the Czech Republic can be marked as strict and too complicated. The government collects high
taxes and instead of easing and simplifying the whole system it creates a complicated tax system in which there is need
for administrative activity. Our economy has been growing even if there are obstacles and the rate of growth is hindered
by the world crisis.
LITERATURE:
[1]
BENEŠOVÁ, L a kol. Zákon o dani z příjmu s komentářem. Český Těšín : Nakladatelství PORADCE, s.r.o.,
2007. 241 s. ISBN 978-80-7365-256-2.
[2]
SUCHÁNEK, P.; ŠPALEK, J. Analýza dopadu daní na financování podniků v ČR. vydání. Brno : Nakladatelství
MZLU PEF Brno, 2006. 549 s. ISBN 80-7302-117-X.
[3]
Česko. Zákon č. 125 ze dne 19. března 2008, o přeměnách obchodních společností a družstev. In: Sbírka zákonů
České
republiky.
part
40,
p.
1570-1629.
2008.
Available
from:
http://aplikace.mvcr.cz/archiv2008/sbirka/2008/sb040-08.pdf
[4]
Opatření Ministerstva financí č.j. 05/13 797/2008-152
[5]
Finanční zpravodaj č. 2/2008
ADDRESSE:
Ing. Juraj Dubovec, PhD.
Žilinská Univerzita Žilina
Fakulta riadenia a informatiky
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
e-mail: [email protected]
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Ing. Tibor Hlačina
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
Ing. Jaroslav Kavka
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
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FIGHTING MONEY LAUNDERING
Tibor Hlačina, Jozef Králik, Přemysl Michálek
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Kunovice
Abstract: The paper partly analyses the basic instruments of the fight against the money laundering and
financing the terrorism in the Czech Republic.
Key words: organized crime, legislation, laws, money laundering, layering, integration, placement,
terrorism.
1. LEGALIZATION OF MONEY LAUNDERING
What is “dirty money” and organized crime?
Dirty money is the income from a crime activity. Mainly the profits come from so called organized crime. The huge
profit created by the crime structures is around one billion USD in the whole world (only drugs dealing bring more than
500 billion USD). In the Czech Republic the profit from crime is estimated to be 200 billion Czech Crowns a year.
This huge profit of organized crime creates the possibility for financing the various trades which leads to loss of the
legal companies’ competitiveness and to the dependence of whole sectors on the illegal capital flow. This could lead to
destabilization of the society and political systems.
Besides the economic power, the crime groups have been trying to penetrate into the political and state institutions in
other words they want to have the real power in governments.
The following sorts of organized crime and other serious criminality are the sources of dirty money:
1) Financial and economy criminality, finance frauds
2) Drugs dealing
3) Organized prostitution
4) Munitions trade
5) Illegal migration
6) Robberies, intimidation
7) Counterfeiting and forgery
8) Illegal employment
9) Copyright breaking
10) Customs and tax leakage
The fight against the legalization of profits from crime resulting in withdrawal or minimizing the profit from the
organized crime should be one of the means in the fight against the organized crime and terrorism.
The process of profit legalization.
Legalization of the profits from crime called as money laundering is the activity covering the illegal source of money
with the aim to pretend that the profit is coming from legal activity. The operation aimed in legalization of incomes
from crime activities can be divided into three steps covering:
1) Placement cash into the financial system
2) Hiding the illegal origin of “dirty money” (layering)
3) Returning “dirty money” into economy (integration)
1ST STEP
Placement cash into the financial system (placement)
During their illegal activity crime organizations collect huge amount of money every day and they face the problem
how to change this income into no currency form due to a few reasons. The first reason is that there is a lot of cash
which is difficult to transfer. Other reason is that in the developed countries using huge cash is always suspicion issue.
Putting money on bank accounts is executed e. g. by placement small amount of money into different banks. This is
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a very demanding method since one form is represented by saving money at certain limit being under the sum which
evokes the responsibility of the bank to identify the costumer.
Other way of collecting and placing cash is so called mixing the incomes. Incomes from legal and illegal activities are
mixed so that the illegal profit is disguised by legal income from regular businesses (restaurants, exchange offices,
consultancy, advertising agencies etc.)
Another trick used in this practise is to use the dummy person or a fictive firm. The principle is basically the same as
with mixing incomes, the only difference is that there is no legal income. The legal activity including the profit of the
firm is only pretended and the real profit comes from the crime activity.
Further, I describe the transactions which are less risky and they mix cash to one or a few accounts using non currency
transfers. The most efficient way of legalizing profits from illegal activities is through banks. Saving dirty money at the
financial institutions is enormously important for the crime organizations as these profits can be transferred to different
accounts in various banks in the world through electronics or no currency operations. Across the border money can be
smuggled and saved in banks that cooperate with the criminal network and then it can be used internationally.
In the first step the crime organizations use the dummy persons or firms to integrate profits from illegal activities.
2ND STEP
Hiding the illegal origin of dirty money (layering)
Profits from crime activity which have been separated from their illegal source at the first step of legalization go
through the no currency and currency operations in the second step. They enter the accounts in banks to leave them in a
very short time to be used for the purchase of stocks and bonds which are sold again and money is used for buying the
precious stones, gold, real estate, art products or antiquity and returned to accounts in other banks etc. The second step
is very important as during this time the capital coming from the illegal activities must be cleaned. The reason is to give
to this capital a new identity and cut off the possibility to follow the flow of money so that its origin cannot be traced.
Illegal profits saved in the international monetary system are transferred through many institutions if possible in various
countries.
From these reasons money is transferred to the accounts in countries which strictly keeps the bank confidence, these
countries are called the tax paradise banks. The other possibility is to transfer the money to the accounts of covered
firms which actually belong to the crime organizations.
3RD STEP.
Integration of illegal money into economies. (integration)
In the last step of legalization of money coming from illegal activities, the gained capital is returned into economies in
the way which pretends the legal profits. The two economies e. i. legal and illegal are interconnected in this way and
that is why the process is called integration. Seemingly legally gained money is used for purchasing real estate, stocks
and bonds, gold etc. Money can come back to the country of origin in the form of loans offered by the foreign firms.
The crime organizations invest in a strategic way. They are trying to get the real estate in the country where they act for
example they gain transport organization which allows them to smuggle goods. Other possibility is to invest into
businesses allowing easier legalization of crime activities like casinos, lottery, supermarkets chains, exchange
institutions, tourism, advertising agencies, marketing etc. We cannot expel the possibility to create own banks in the
countries of Eastern Europe. Legalized profits which went through both steps and hid their origin are coming back in
the form of perfect and very often taxed income to the original owner.
2 FINANCIAL TERRORISM
2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FINANCIAL TERRORISM
According to the definition of the International agreement for suppressing the terrorism the primary goal is “to frighten
the citizens or to force the international organization not to act or to act”. The successful terrorist group must be able to
build up and maintain the financial structure. For this purpose it has to create the finance sources, the way of laundering
it and it has to ensure the way of deploying the sources for purchase of material and other logistics issues needed for
crime activities.
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2.2 FINANCIAL SOURCES FOR TERRORISTS SUPPORT
The first source of the financial support comes from the government or institution with large infrastructure so that they
can collect money and then they can support the terrorist organization. The substantial support may also come from the
personal sources. As we know Usama bin Ládin supported by his premises the creation and maintenance of the terrorist
network al-Kajdá. The other source of finance for terrorist support is income from the various “profitable activities”.
Similarly as with the crime organization, the terrorist organization can get incomes from crime activities and other
illegal performance. The terrorist group can support itself by blackmailing and kidnapping in certain areas.
In this scenario the income is created by ransom, hush money paid by shops, big scale smuggling, the various frauds,
stealing, robbing, and drugs dealing. They used so called haw all where money is transferred in large amounts by
specially trained persons knowing each other and in this way laundering and integration is realized. The financial
sources for terrorist groups can include incomes from legal sources as a contrast to crime groups financing or
a combination is also possible. Financing of crime and terrorists group is the key contrast differing these two activities.
Charity and other non profit organizations or other legal entity can play a very important role in the process of financing
the terrorists groups.
2.3 LAUNDERING CONNECTED TO TERRORISM
Terrorists and organizations supporting them use very often the same method of laundering as the crime groups. Some
methods identified at the terrorist organizations are listed below:
 smuggling money
 structured savings at banks and withdrawing money
 purchase of money tools (travellers checks, banks checks, money vouchers)
 usage of credit cards or loan cards
 banks transfer
2.4 LEGALIZATION OF PROFITS FROM CRIME ACTIVITIES VERSUS FINANCING THE TERRORISM
Laundering and financing terrorism have a few common features which are the reasons for coordination and connection
of fight with these threats. The summary below gives a brief description of these problems.
Differences
Laundering
Financing the terrorism
Profit is the motive
Ideology and political goals
Incomes from crime activities
Directed donation, incomes from a legal activity
Gathering premises
Social needs and terror
Large and repeated transactions.
Lower and not frequent transactions.
Common features
Movement of currency and a need to disguise the processes of transactions
Global range and impact
Difficult revealing of the connection between incomes and crime activities
Remote management of processes
Chart no 1: Own resource
From the above summary it is clear that the priority aim of the terrorist organization is the fulfilment of the ideological
and political goal not laundering. There is a need to highlight that without money these goals cannot be achieved.
Terrorism is more dangerous than laundering. Nevertheless the possibility, to get huge sums of money from illegal
business through laundering, offers a strong source for financing the activity and development of terrorism. That is why
some international organizations try to fight not only against the terrorism but also against laundering which is closely
connected to it.
3.RESPONSIBILITY AND WAY OF IDENTIFICATION
At the very beginning of this chapter we should clarify who is responsible for identification of persons. They are called
“obligatory administrators” that are exactly and widely specified by law as finance institutions like banks, saving
institutions, loan society and insurance companies. Namely the Czech Consolidation Agency, holders of the post licence
and a legal entity or a sole trader authorised for dealing with foreign currency on own account or on the client’s account
that can manage the transfer of cash or currency or deal with it or can issue no currency payment tools. Among others
the Czech National Bank if it serves accounts or offers other bank services. The Equities Centre or other legal entity
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authorised to administrate the operation of the Equities Centre. Also the holders of a licence for gambling in casinos,
betting or lotteries, a legal entity or sole traders authorised to deal with real estate or factoring agencies, managing the
savings and loans or insurance activities are among those obligatory individuals. There are auditors, tax consultants,
accountants, executors, barristers, registrars their responsibility for reports is modified by the last amendment to the
law, other legal entities or sole traders if their activity is directed on planning and realization of given transactions. We
cannot forget the legal entity and sole traders authorised for dealing with second hand goods, cultural monuments or
other art goods and also a legal entity or sole traders who accept cash at one transaction reaching 15 000 EUR are listed
in the law. The obligatory entity is also a branch of a foreign organization acting in the Czech Republic
3.1 TRADES CONNECTED TO THE DUTY FOR IDENTIFICATION
 Trade at the value higher than 15 000 EUR
 Suspicion trade (especially at banks) without no matter the value is
3.2 IDENTIFICATION OF THE TRADER ACCORDING TO THE LAW ABOUT BANKS
According to the law about banks the bank clerk has the duty to identify the client whose transaction is higher than
100 000 CC (transaction in cash).
3.3 HOW TO IDENTIFY
The primary identification of a person is done “face to face” that is when the person is present with the identity card.
Legal entity is identified by the statement of registrar where it is obligatory listed or by other legal document showing
the existence of the company or by face to face of the person dealing on behalf of the legal entity.
3.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE THIRD PERSON
If the actor deals on the base of the warrant of attorney the actor is identified and the warrant of attorney confirmed by
certified signature of constituent must be added. If during the transaction the clerk is in doubt that the trader is dealing
on behalf of his name or he/she disguise that he/she is dealing on behalf of the third person, the clerk make the actor
declare in a written form on whose behalf he/she is dealing and add the information of the third person.
3.5 IDENTIFICATION REFUSAL
If the trader, whose duty is to identify himself, refuses the identification process or he/she refuses the identification of
the third person then the clerk:
 Must not conclude the deal
 His/her responsibility is to inform the ministry
3.5.1 IDENTIFICATION OF PERSONS
range of identification data
a) individual is identified by
a. first and family name in case of need all names
b. identity number or date of birth
c. gender
d. permanent or other stay
e. nationality if these data are in the identity card and further the clerk checks
f. identity of photo at the identity card and reality
g. number and validity of the identity card
h. the department or the government that issued the identity card
b) sole trader identification is additionally checked by
a. company name
b. further specification of the firm
c. identification number
c) legal entity
a. company name including differences and other specification
b. company seat
c. identification number or similar number given abroad
d. names and identification numbers including the permanent or temporal residence of persons being the
legal representatives or members of the company
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e.
f.
g.
majority owner or the governing person
the founder of the company
identification of the individual that is dealing on behalf of the company
If the accredited representative deals on behalf of the legal entity then identification covers:
 company name or specification
 seat
 identification number or other number given abroad
 identification data of persons that are the accredited representative or members of the company
3.5.2 SUBJECTS TO BE IDENTIFIED IN A LIMITED PROCESS
The following subjects are identified in a limited process:
4) Majority owner or governing person of the legal entity
5) Founder of the legal entity
6) Accredited body or the member of it
7) Accredited body or a member of accredited body
8) Individuals being the accredited body or a member of it
3.5.3 IDENTIFICATION OF INDIVIDUALS (SOLE TRADERS), IDENTIFICATION CARDS
The clerk’s duty is to ensure that the identity documents or other documents presented to be identified meet the
following criteria:
 The identity document is valid and real
 The photo of the individual is that of the owner of the identity card as well as other data connected to the
individual as age, gender etc.
 The photo on the identity card has been prepared in an original way
 The validity of the identity card has not expired
 The data on the identity card are the same as those in the bank registration
Identity cards:
Citizen of the Czech Republic:
Identity card
Passport
The Czech driving licence
Supporting documents for the identity purpose are above all:
Confirmation of identity card
Confirmation about the changes in names
Confirmation of the changes in the permanent residence
A foreigner:
Passport
Confirmation of residence permit
Confirmation of residence permit for the member of the EU
3.5.4 IDENTIFICATION OF THE SOLE TRADER AND THE LEGAL ENTITY
Documents confirming the identification of sole traders and legal entity must be in original state or copies certified. In
the case of foreign legal entities the official translation of documents must be submit
Document which can be used for identification of the sole trader are:
 Extract from the trade registrar
 Trade certificate, concession or confirmation issued by the Trade Licensing Office for those acting as sole
traders.
 Confirmation or an extract from the list of individuals acting as entrepreneurs for example lawyers, auditors, tax
consultants, doctors, registrars, judiciary, experts and translators.
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Document which can be used for identification of the legal entity are:
Legal entity in the Czech Republic:
 Extract from the trade registrar
 Articles of incorporation, deed of foundation, regulations, statute, organizational chart, deed of the foundation
for subjects founded for the entrepreneurial purposes
Foreign legal entity:
 Extracts from documents showing the legal subjectivity
3.5.5 THE DUTY FOR IDENTIFICATION IN THE CASE OF ELECTRONIC TRADE
The Board for Equities (further only the board) took over by the Czech National Bank is responsible for looking after
the legal activities in the area of the capital market. In this accountability frame the Board interprets and applies the
legal rules for the capital market. The goal of the board is to contribute to a protection of investors and the development
of the market. This is the reason why I mention the duties for identification in the electronic trade according to the
Methodology for prevention of legalization of incomes from a crime activity and financing the terrorism issued by the
Board for Equities.
The board recommends the financial institutions to devote a higher attention to new possibilities of laundering offered
by new technologies ensuring the customer’s anonymity. The board suggests financial institutions to submit such
measures which will withdraw the laundering by using a new technology.
The Board suggests the financial institutions to screen the customers trading through electronics trade. The Board
recommends the first identification of the customer to be while he/she is physically present, if possible.
The board suggests the financial institutions to identify the customer by an employee of the financial institution or a
registered middlemen cooperating with the financial institution if the identification takes place outside the financial
institute. The process and rules for identification through the authorised middlemen must be a part of the internal rules
preventing laundering.
If the customer is a foreigner and the identification through a middlemen is not possible then according to the board
opinion the identification documents must be accompanied by the electronic signature 12 or the certification of
documents must be approved by a notary.
The board recommends the financial institutions to ensure the information system of the institution in the way which
refuses any manipulation with finance and investment instruments (e. g. giving orders to brokers) unless the precise
identification has been completed and also the system eliminates misuse of identification symbols or passwords by the
third person
The Board also suggests the financial institutions to designate within the frame of the internal rules the way of
verification customer’s identity before the customer’s transfer order given electronically is executed.
The Board suggests the financial institutions (broker) to devote attention for trade orders with the investment
instruments delivered by e-mail. If the customer gives the order for trading by e-mail the Board thinks that this order
should be accompanied by an electronic signature.
If the customer gives the instruction to the dealer with equities through the dealer’s web boundary the Board thinks the
identification of the customer should be accomplished through the given name and the password so that the access is
protected against unauthorised entry and order by the third person. The password and the name to log in should be
delivered to the customer by the dealer personally or in a registered letter. The Board does not recommend the password
and the name to be sent by e-mail (there is a danger of the third’s person detection of data when an electronic post is
used).
4 SUSPICIOUS (UNUSUAL) TRADE
The suspicious trade or in other words laundering is:
 The trade is accomplished at circumstances evoking the suspicion of the effort to legalize the profit
 Suspicion of using money for financing terrorism, a terrorist activity or terrorist organizations
Suspicious trade is above all:
a) Deposit in cash and immediate withdraw or transfer to the other account
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b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
Opening accounts by one client showing a disproportion between the number of accounts and activities and
property situation and transfer between accounts
Changes on client’s accounts which clearly do not meet the character and the range of business or the owner’s
property
The number of changes on the accounts during one day or during successive days do not show the usual financial
operation of the client
Transaction which are not based on the economic origin
Cases when the participant of the trade is an individual or legal entity towards whom the international sanctions are
placed with agreement of special law rules
Cases when the subject of the trade is fully or partly the sanctioned goods or person
Transaction directed to countries which unsatisfactory measures against legalization of incomes
The basic problem is that during the economical conditions of transition economy sooner or later every owner of the
bank account can complete an unusual deal.
A few examples to demonstrate this idea:
A. A sole trade has a budget account at a bank. He deposits regularly 10 000 CC from his activity. Due to his good
performance he has got a reward at the amount of 15 000 CC which is sent to his account together with his monthly
salary. It is clear that such a case is an exception from his range of business and by definition it is unusual trade.
B. A legal entity has a turnover meeting its sort of business. At a certain moment they decided to sell a redundant
property e. g. the chalet in the mountains. The purchase price substantially excess the payment amount to the current
account. This performance is off the regular business of the legal entity.
C. A current account of a successful manager of an important firm shows constantly the six digits balance. One day the
manager decides to buy a chalet and he withdraws substantial part of his savings. This event shows an irregularity.
The examples show that everybody decides sooner or later or is forced by circumstances to act in an unusual way. The
question is if the definition of an unusual trade and the responsibility to announce such a trade is not too general and
does cover the real substance of unusual and undesirable trade.
4.1 THE ANNOUNCEMENT RESPONSIBILITY
If the obligatory person finds out a suspicion trade or other circumstances which could confirm a suspicious trade
he/she announces this to the ministry including the information about the identification of the client.
The announcement is to be completed without any delay within 5 calendar days since the detection of the trade. If there
is a danger of a delay the clerk’s duty is to inform the ministry immediately after the suspicious trade has been revealed.
4.2 DELAY IN ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE CLIENT´S ORDER
An important legal instrument, the aim of which is to protect the benefits from the crime activity to avoid the authority
of criminal procedures, is to delay the customer’s order.
The obligatory person can accomplish the customer’s order connected to the suspicious trade 24 hours after receiving
the announcement from the ministry earliest.
The delay in execution of the customer ´s order is not allowed for operation done by credit cards or if the delay could
disconcert the investigation of the suspicious trade.
If the investigation of the suspicious trade will take longer time then the ministry can order the obligatory person to
prolong the time to 72 hours. If the ministry does not submit a complaint the obligatory person accomplishes the order.
If the complaint was applied within the lapse the obligatory person will execute the client’s order three calendar days
after the complaint was submitted unless the authority of criminal procedure has decide to take over or interlocking
suspicious trade.
The obligatory person is not accountable for loss due to fulfilling his/her responsibility, the state is responsible. (2)
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4.3 DISCRETION DUTY AND OTHER RESPONSIBILITIES
The announcer of the suspicious trade has the discretion duty to the third person and to the person that the information
is related to. The ministry and its departments employees have the discretion duty of the actions executed and about
information gained while implementing the law against the laundering.
The discretion duty does not finish with the end of the work contract or other relation to the obligatory person or the
ministry or when the individual stopped practicing the activity.
The discretion duty cannot be required from
1) an authority in criminal procedure when dealing with the crime connected to the legalization of profits or if there is
an announcement duty related to such a crime.
2) The court in the public procedures related to such a trade or charge from the law,
3) Individuals executing audit
4) The board authorised by special rules to the deprivation of the certificate for entrepreneurial activity if the ministry
issues an initiative for the deprivation
5) An individual that could require the remuneration for loss created by the procedures according to the law if the
circumstances allow such a requirement; the obligatory person can inform the client that the process is legal after
the ministry has agreed in a written form.
6) A foreign body when passing the information serving for achievement the goals given by the law unless a special
rule governs it in a different way.
7) An authority involved in tasks connected to the certification of the raw diamante according to the special rules.
8) Authorities that can penalise according to the special rules through which the Czech republic apply the international
sanctions in the process of breaching this rules,
9) The national Security office, Ministry of Defence, Intelligence bureau, or Police of the Czech Republic while they
deal with the security identification in the frame of their competence or the National Security Body when executing
the security audit of the company or sole traders according to the special rules.
10) Security Information Service and Army Intelligence,
11) Finance arbiter deciding according to the special rules in the dispute of applicant and the organization realizing the
transfer.
Breach of the discretion duty is the offence which can be punished according to the special rules by the penalty till
200 000 CC and the responsibility for the loss due to the disclosure of information is not affected as well as the criminal
liability of those who breached the discretion duty.
The obligatory person when asked by the ministry gives the information about the trades which are related to the
identification duty or the events being investigate by ministry and also gives the information about persons involved
into such trades. The ministry checks whether the obligatory persons meet the requirements given by the law and if the
legalization of profits is not accomplished by the obligatory persons.
5 CONCLUSION – THE POSSIBLE WAYS OF THE LAUNDERING DEVELOPMENT.
In the Czech Republic the weakness of the young democracy was confirmed, the democracy which dropped into the
country which had not been prepared neither from the ethical point of view nor from the moral point of view. The
nation which lived for long time according to the proverb “who does not steal thus robs his/her family” was thrown into
the economical experiment which evoked more plundering similar to one followed by the won war than an economical
transition. The wider the freedom was the lower the control was applied. The lower the danger of punishment is the
higher the criminality appears. Unrestrained politics in the phase of the economical transformation without any rules
and discipline resulting in the minimum control offered a suitable environment for growth of the economical
criminality.
The minimal enforce by law, lack of the court activity, wrong legal framework and total tolerance of the society to
evident law break and demoralization resulted in the huge property movement with symbols of crime activities
exceeded the traditional balance of the organized crime (drug dealing, blackmail, prostitution) at the Czech Republic.
The laundering in the Czech Republic was in 1990s and has been connected to economical criminality – privatisation
frauds, tunnelling, plundering the companies through the bankruptcy proceedings, tax outflow and corruption being
anywhere.
What is the value of the legislation in the environment with corruption, not functioning repressive institutions or general
tolerance to the financial criminality? Where there is not a prosecutor there is not a judge. About 1 000 billion USD is in
the legalization process in the world. It is totally unbelievable that the organized crime could hide such a huge sum of
money and transfer it unwatched through the world economy if it were not in the contact with specialists like lawyers,
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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accountants, auditors or financial experts who have the technical knowledge of the world finance systems. It is these
experts that are responsible for creating and the accomplishment of transactions which disable to identify the origin and
the final recipient of the illegal finance.
If we reveal the curtain of the future we may see that banking in the future will be different than nowadays. There will
not be bank branches where we can come and withdraw money personally or give the bank order. The disadvantage is
that the rule “know your customer” will not be valid anymore. People will manage their account through the “super
safety” internet and cash will be a curiosity because everything will be paid by plastic cards.
Unfortunately, according to my opinion, it will bring a heyday for money laundering by hackers who are able to
penetrate even a “super safety” system.
LITERATURE:
[1]
REZKOVÁ, M. Zákon proti praní špinavých peněz s komentářem a příklady, 1. vyd. Praha : Právnické
a ekonomické nakladatelství a knihkupectví Bohumily Hořínkové a Jana Tuláčka, 2004. s. 7 - 87.
ISBN 80-7201-503-6.
[2]
ÚZ-Úplné znění, Banky, platební styk, finanční arbitr, praní špinavých peněz, Ostrava-Hrabůvka : Jiří MotlochSagit, 2006. č. 554, s. 176-191. ISBN 80-7208-560-3.
[3]
HRDINOVÁ, J. : Praní špinavých peněz, EPI, s.r.o. Kunovice, 2007, s. 46.
[4]
Terrinvest : Historie a základní charakteristika boje proti praní špinavých peněz v České republice
[on-line]. Praha. Terrinvest, 2006 [cit. 20. 4. 2007] Dostupný z WWW: http://www. ardeus.
cz/AJADEUSNEWS/Prani-spinavych-penez-historie-a-zakladni-charakteristika. Html.
[5]
IPOINT : Kauza KTP pokračuje: Podezření z praní špinavých peněz (podle vyšetřovatelů se schyluje k právní
bitvě s KB), Finanční noviny 2006. [cit. 20. 4. 2007] Dostupný z WW: http://ipoint. financninoviny. cz/kauzaktp-pokracuje-podezreni-z-prani-spinavych-penez-podle-vysetrovatelu-se-schyluje-k-pravni-bitve-s-kb.html,
ISSN 1214-2131.
[6]
BISKUP, P. Česko zřejmě čeká další vlna bankovních podvodů, deník Právo, 2006, 3. 10. 2006, titulní strana.
[7]
Vláda České republiky, Důvodová zpráva k zákonu č. 61/1996 Sb., ASPI : 137, publikovaný názor, platný na
území ČR.
[8]
ČTK: MF chce zpřísnit zákon proti praní špinavých peněz [on-line] cit. 26. 6. 2007, Dostupný z www:
www.ct24.cz/ekonomika/index_view_.php?id=210822.
ADDRESSES:
Ing. Tibor Hlačina
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
Česká republika
e-mail: [email protected]
Prof. JUDr. Jozef Králik
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
Česká republika
e-mail: [email protected]
JUDr. Přemysl Michálek
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
Česká republika
E-mail: [email protected]
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„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
60
BUSINESS PROCESS REINGINEERING IN A REGIONAL AGRO-INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM
Valentina Chermyanina, Andrei Poltarykhin
Altai Institute of Financial Management
Abstract: The article discusses the issues of the regional specialized extended reproduction system
formations in the context of agro-industrial system sustainable development; it also analyzes the local food
production cluster from the reengineering perspective and evaluates the potential of the cluster with the
help of reversed reengineering tools.
Keywords: production clustering, food production cluster, regional agro-industrial system, reengineering,
agro-industrial production.
The modern stage of the national economy development amidst the world economic crisis has been shaping
prerequisites and creating an objective need for developing priority directions aimed at overcoming the crisis through
efficient market structures and mechanisms, provided there is efficient government management through the economic
leveraging. One of the ways to solve the problem is to form specialized regional systems for extended reproduction in
the context of the agro-industrial business development. Specifically, the production stability is the most important
condition for any industry’s effective functioning and that determines the expedience for transformation in an agrarian
region, based on the justification of the production process economic clustering mechanism in the regional
agroindustrial system. A review of the clustering experience in other industries, as well as of the relevant international
experience, has allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the regional food production cluster strategy
development. The model is universal and can be used for creating either intra-regional or inter-regional agro-industrial
business clusters. An agro-industrial strategy can be developed and executed only in situations when partners,
government authorities, and business closely coordinate their interests, thus ensuring an increasing competitiveness of
the agro-industrial system in the region.
The result of the food production cluster functioning is determined by its operational efficiency, which, in turn, is
achieved through manifestation of the self-determination, self-governing, self-education, self-financing, selfdevelopment and other principles in accordance with the Law of Emergence and, eventually, leads to strengthening the
cluster parts integration. Since each foodstuffs cluster (grain, milk, meat, sugar, etc.) represents a set of organizationaleconomic relationships, amply contributing to the country’s food supply security, we have analyzed the clusters from
the reengineering standpoint.
Reengineering is a fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes with the goal to achieve
substantial improvements of the modern business key performance indicators. According to M. Hummer and
D. Chapman, reengineering can be fully characterized by the following four key words.
The first key word is “fundamental”. By performing reengineering, the entities of a foodstuffs cluster should pose
fundamental questions regarding the cluster itself and the nature of its activities: “Why are we in this business?”, “Why
are we conducting it in a certain way?” By asking such basic questions, the economic entities are often forced to take a
fresh look at the existing unspoken rules and suppositions, by which they manage their business. Oftentimes, when
tested, such rules turn out to be obsolete, unwise, or unacceptable. Business process reengineering is just one of the
instruments for the cluster entities to be able to reach their goals. So it is necessary to make sure that the goals are
correctly set and that the cluster has a clear strategy for their reaching.
The second key word of the definition is “radical”, which is derived from the Latin word “radix” meaning “the root”.
Radical redesign means going back to the very roots of the phenomena and not just applying some cosmetic changes or
re-shuffling the existing systems, but rather categorically rejecting everything that is ineffective and costly. Radical
redesign with reengineering does not take into consideration any existing structures or methods and assumes inventing
completely new ways of work.
The third key word is “substantial”. Reengineering has nothing to do with small, fractional or incremental
improvements, but rather, it is meant to provide a general, powerful increase of effectiveness. In any cluster entity’s
activity there are problematic areas, operations, and processes, which are not optimal. So in a cluster it is just sufficient
to remove bottlenecks, eliminate unprofitable activities, and rethink relationships.
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The fourth key word in the definition is “processes”. Of all definitions, this one is the most critical, but at the same time
it is the very notion that represents the biggest challenge for the majority of systems. Most organizations are not
“process-oriented”; they are rather focused on tasks, specific operations, people, and structures, but not on the
processes. The key importance of a process-based approach is that it provides the opportunity to target all activities on
goal achievement. The process is a natural transformer of various impacts, events, and resources into a desired
outcome. Any organization has processes, regardless of the fact whether they are formally described or not and whether
they are actively managed or not. At the same time, the process is a very convenient unit for analysis, management
optimization and automation.
This research primarily states the cluster orientation on import replacement, which eventually provides the foodstuffs
supply security. Since the intervention of the imported food is not only conditional to its supply, but is also dependable
on the supply of raw foodstuffs, as well as on the resource and technological components for the processing industry,
those of the collateral and procuring sectors.
It is appropriate to consider the target interests of the food cluster participants across all production chains, which can
potentially act as entities of a cluster formation. To that end, it is necessary to build a fragmentary matrix of the target
interest coupling of all entities, which would characterize common (unifying) elements: the entities – the state, the
cluster, research organizations, scientific and educational institutions, other types of organizations; the cells display
interaction interests of the entities in one group (rows) with the entities of another group (columns) within a cluster. So
the interest coupling of any two groups in a cluster formation is characterized by the content of two cells: for instance,
the State (horizontally) and the Processing Industry (vertically), or the Processing Industry (horizontally) and the State
(vertically) which helps reflect the sides’ interests based on each entity’s position.
The diagonal of the matrix reflects a methodological basis for the cluster formation: first of all, it is the competition
inside a cluster, which allows intensifying the self-development processes, focused innovations, and secondly, the
integration, which demonstrates itself in the accumulated knowledge exchange between the entities and in providing
competitive advantages of a cluster, as the whole, at a inter-cluster level.
The state acts as one of the significant entities, because a steady functioning of agricultural organizations is only
possible with the adequate government policy in place. The state is executing its economic policies aimed at mobilizing
the factors of the country’s industrial-production security at various levels, which are linked together within the cluster
borders and allow implementing the transformation management country-wide. The matrix shows cohesive goals and
interests of the state, which, when achieved by each following group of entities in a cluster (in a production business
cycle), eventually contribute to providing independence of the country from the food imports and their accompanying
technological components.
The cluster goals, just like the goals of the state in the hierarchical structure of goals, occupy a special place of
significance because it is the clusters that act as essential competitive units on the inter-regional, country, and
international markets. So in each of the matrix cells, the linkage of the target interests of other related entities in
a cluster unit is carried out by taking into consideration their operational specifics.
Subsequently, an evaluation of the regional food cluster potential ( aggregate capability of entities in the region) needs
to be done using the reversed reengineering tools. To evaluate the potential (taking into consideration the system of
determinants of a territory competitive advantage by Michael Porter and the key factors for cluster development per А.
Prazdnichnykh) one can distinguish between the following factor groups, arranged according to the degree of
importance during the cluster formation:
 human resources – to examine the manpower potential from the qualification level and growth possibility
standpoints;
 infrastructure – to assess the group factors in the following areas: techno parks and business incubators,
transportation infrastructure, real estate, social infrastructure objects;
 R&D – to evaluate results of the conducted fundamental and applied research, tested by the research
institutions and production companies and used outside of the target regions;
 climate and geography – to evaluate the natural-climatic factors (from the agribusiness point of view) and the
geographic location (from the interaction with other regions standpoint);
 corporation’s participation in the regional production – to evaluate the corporate influence upon the balance of
interests of the business entities, as well as the development of the intra-industry and inter-industry
competition (to determine corporate shares in creating the added value of the region’s final product);
 financial resources – to evaluate region’s financial resources, comprised by the organizational capital, federal
loans, and investments from other regions;
 related and supporting industries – to analyze the existing supporting and intersectoral production facilities that
can potentially be used for cooperation;
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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62

food supply security – to evaluate potential regional contribution into the country’s food supply security
(reaching priority goals) in specific areas of business activity.
The analysis results will allow determining a pool of potential centers for economic and innovative development, which
will guarantee the centricity of the cluster formation, as well as numerically assess a possible regional contribution into
the food supply security country-wide (specific competitive advantages compared to other regions).
So reengineering allows one to summarize, systematize, and re-justify the need to develop a food cluster structure for
the regional agro-industrial system.
Thus, the integrated entities setup based on the clustering process reengineering will allow, in our opinion, to stimulate
the innovation processes, improve the investment climate of the agro-industrial system industries and through that
strengthen the system competitiveness. In all regional subsystems, there exist prerequisites for creating a territoryproduction framework, which is based on the interaction between the research-education sector, agro-industrial
business, trade and service companies, and the state. Such symbiosis will be the growth starting point for the entire
agro-industrial production in the region.
LITERATURE:
[1]
BRYANTSEYA, L. Agro-Industrial System: Cluster Setup in Industrial-Production Subsystems. Official
website of the Center for Regional Economic Research: http://www.lerc.ru/
[2]
VINOKUROVA, Y. Types of Clusters and Main Cluster Characteristics. News of Economics and Management.
Volume 12. M.: Max Press, 2007.
[3]
PORTER, M. On Competition (translated from English). Williams Publishers, 2005.
[4]
PUTIN, V. A Priority of a Steady Development of the Agricultural Sector. Russian Agricultural Economics.
2010. # 2. – pp 11-14.
[5]
SYOMIN, A. The Synergy of the Integrational Interaction in Agro Education and Agro Science. The Economics
of Agricultural and Processing Companies. 2009. # 4. C. pp 64-68
[6]
USHACHEV, I. Integration Processes in the Agro-Industrial Systems. The Agro-Industrial Systems: economy
and management. 2006. # 9. pp 12-15
ADRESS:
Valentina Chermyanina, Ph.D
Altai Institute of Financial Management
ул. Планетная 36
125319
Москва
Andrei Poltarykhin, Ph.D
Altai Institute of Financial Management
ул. Планетная 36
125319
Москва
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
64
DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENT INTO FOOD INDUSTRY OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Svetlana Ivanova
РЭA им. Г.В. Плеханова Иванова С.В.
Abstract: The paper deals with the direct foreign investment into the food industry of Russian Federation.
The author analyses changes in agriculture and food industry in the recent period. She underlines the loss
of the government influence in the food companies of Russian federation with specific examples. The direct
foreign investment is routed into the chosen segments of food industry and in the future there is a danger
for safety of food industry in Russian Federation.
Key words: Direct foreign investment, Food industry, Agriculture of Russian Federation, food safety,
privatization of the food industry, loss of influence on the sector, foreign partners and their influence on
the sector
В современных открытых национальных экономиках происходит процесс переплетения интернационализации
и интеграции так товарных рынков, так и рынков капитала. Необходимость стимулирования прихода
нерезидентов в агропищевой сегмент России обусловлена относительной избыточностью незадействованных
производственных ресурсов, слабым финансированием (особенно сельского хозяйства), неудовлетворенным
спросом на продукты питания.
C позиции принимающей страны целями привлечения прямых иностранных инвестиций (ПИИ – FDI), прежде
всего, являются:

развитие и модернизация агропищевого сектора;

вытеснения импорта продовольствия его производством в РФ на базе российских ресурсов
и иностранного инвестирования;

по мере насыщения внутреннего рынка расширение экспортных позиций продукции российского
агропромышленного комплекса;

развитие сельских территорий за счет создания новых рабочих мест и повышение культуры производства
при сохранении местного мелкого и среднего бизнеса;

увеличение поступлений налогов в местный и федеральный бюджеты…
Общий объём совокупных иностранных инвестиций, накопленных 1 в сельском и лесном хозяйстве РФ
в 2009 г. составил 2 млрд. долларов США, что превышает аналогичный показатель 2007 г. в 1,4 раза. Размер
накопленных в 2009 г. прямых иностранных инвестиций (ПИИ) также возрос (до 1,3 млрд. долларов США) при
сохранении их доминирующей доли в структуре совокупных иностранных инвестиций рассматриваемого
сегмента – 65 %.
Совокупные накопленные вложения иностранного инвестора в пищевой сектор российской экономики имеют
туже тенденцию: рост абсолютных значений, хотя значительно менее выраженный относительно сельского
хозяйства, при сохранении доминирующей роли прямых иностранных инвестиций.
Существенная разница состоит в том, что в первом случае рост совокупных накоплений осуществляется
преимущественно за счет увеличения прямых инвестиций. Отчасти, этому способствовала агфляция 2007-2008
г.г., когда доходы агробизнеса возросли. Во втором случае, наблюдается снижении абсолютных объемов ПИИ
с 5,5 млрд. долларов США в 2007 г. до 5,3 в 2009 г. при увеличении накопления прочих инвестиций с 1,9 до 3,4
млрд. долларов США или в 1,8 раза. В среднем по народному хозяйству доля иностранных кредитов
в совокупных иностранных инвестициях значительно выше, чем в агропищевом сегменте и колеблется
в диапазоне 70 – 80 %.
Отраслевые приоритеты накопления ПИИ сохранены в пользу пищевого сектора: соответственно
5,3 и 1,3 млрд. долларов США. Но разрыв в накоплениях между рассматриваемыми секторами сократился
1
Накопленный организацией иностранный капитал - общий объем иностранных инвестиций, полученных (или произведенных) с начала
вложения с учетом погашения (выбытия), а также переоценки и прочих изменений активов и обязательств.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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65
с 6,1 раза в 2007 г. до 4,1 раза в 2009 г. (таблица 1).
Значительные изменения в структуре поступлений иностранных инвестиций в агро-пищевой сектор России ещё
ярче иллюстрирует таблица 2. ПИИ, поступившие в 2009 г. в сельское хозяйство составили 260 млн. долларов
США, в пищевую промышленность – 373 млн. долларов. На долю прямых инвестиций
в совокупных иностранных инвестициях по секторам приходилось соответственно: 59,6 % и 15,6 %. Таким
образом, в 2009 г. в структуре инвестиций нерезедентов в пищевую промышленность (в отличие от сельского
хозяйства) произошло резкое смещение в сторону иностранных займов. По данным на 1 квартал
2010 г. преобладание инвестиций, выдаваемых на возвратной основе, в совокупных инвестициях, поступивших
в пищевой сектор, сохраняется с небольшой коррекцией в сторону снижения (таблица 3).
Таблица 1
Накопленные иностранные инвестиции в экономике РФ на конец 2007г. и 2009 г., млрд. долл. США
Всего
Прямые
Портфельные
Прочие
2007г.
2009г.
2007г.
2009г.
2007г.
2009г.
2007г.
2009г.
1. Всего
220,6
268,2
103,0
109,0
6,7
10,2
110,8
148,9
2.
3.
4.
Сельское
хозяйство,
охота
и
лесное
хозяйство
Производство
пищевых
продуктов,
включая
напитки,
и
табака
3:2, раз
1,4
2,0
0,9
1,3
0,0
0,0
0,5
0,7
7,5
8,8
5,5
5,3
0,1
0,1
1,9
3,4
5,3
4,4
6,1
4,1
0,0
0,0
3,8
4,8
Таблица 2
Поступление иностранных инвестиций в агро-пищевой сектор России в 2009 г.
Поступило в 2009 г.
млн.
долл.
США
Иностранные инвестиции
81927
всего
сельское хозяйство, охота и
437
лесное хозяйство
рыболовство, рыбоводство
45
производство
пищевых
продуктов,
2382
включая
напитки,
и табака
в том числе
прямые портфельные
прочие
в
центах
к итогу
15906
882
65139
100
260
0,0
177
0,5
0,3
2
43
0,1
373
16
1993
2,9
про-
Из приведенных данных можно сделать вывод, что в условиях финансового кризиса 2009 года, размещенные в
России пищевые ТНК и некоторые национальные производства этой отрасли используют более дешёвые
иностранные займы для поддержания своих позиций на рынке. Строительство нерезедентами новых
производств на волне снижения внутренней покупательной способности имели значительные риски. Скупка
уже существующих производств, в связи со сложностью их рыночной оценки и нехваткой ликвидности у
потенциальных покупателей, также была проблематична. Сказался и тот факт, что консолидация капитала в
пищевой отрасли страны близка к завершению. Наиболее привлекательные активы уже скуплены, в том числе
иностранными инвесторами. Неудовлетворенный спрос на сельскохозяйственную продукцию послужили
позитивным фоном для прихода предпринимательского капитала в агробизнес.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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Таблица 3
Поступление иностранных инвестиций
по отдельным странам-инвесторам1), млн.долларов США
Поступило
в
I
квартале
2010г.
В % к итогу В том числе
по
виду прямые порт- прочие
экономической
фельные
деятельности
Сельское хозяйство, охота и
лесное хозяйство
106
100
61
-
45
из
Кипр
61
57,4
30
-
31
Германия
12
10,9
5
-
7
Австрия
9
8,5
9
-
-
5336
100
1063
128
4145
746
14,0
1
0,0
745
Германия
744
13,9
359
0,0
385
Соединенное
Королевство
(Великобритания)
633
11,9
47
0,0
586
из итога по обрабатывающим
производствам
производство
пищевых
продуктов, включая напитки и
табака
730
100
192
1
537
из
Бельгия
321
44,0
-
-
321
Нидерланды
119
16,3
40
-
79
Кипр
110
15,0
76
0,0
34
них:
Обрабатывающие
производства
из
Швейцария
них:
них:
__________________
1) Информация приводится по видам экономической деятельности, в которые за
отчетный период осуществлены наиболее крупные иностранные инвестиции.
Основными странами-инвесторами в сельское хозяйство России являются Кипр, Германия и Австрия. На Кипр,
который является международной оффшорной зоной, приходится более половины всех инвестиций в эту
отрасль. География притока иностранных инвестиций в пищевой сектор России определяется тремя странамиинвесторами: Бельгия, Нидерланды, Кипр. При этом Бельгия специализируется на прочих инвестициях, Кипр
и Нидерланды – на прямых. Эти же страны являются крупнейшими получателями капитала из России, что
косвенно указывает на источник иностранных инвестиций в Россию. По-сути, значительная их часть является
репатриацией ранее вывезенного из России капитала, который приобретает иной статус.
За 2006-2008 г.г. сложилось такое распределение ПИИ внутри аграрного производства: 55 % (221,1 млн.долл.)
приходится на растениеводство и 45 % (187,8 млн.долл.) – на животноводство. В растениеводстве для
иностранного инвестора наибольший интерес представляет выращивание зерновых и зернобобовых –
47 % средств, направленных в растениеводство, и в овощеводство, декоративное садоводство и производство
продукции питомников – 17,6 %. Динамично растут вложения в выращивание картофеля, столовых
корнеплодов и клубневых культур с высоким содержанием крахмала и инулина. За три года объем ПИИ,
поступивших в эту сферу растениеводства составил 20,2 млн. долл. Увеличились вложения в выращивание
кормовых
культур
и заготовку растительных кормов – 9,1 млн.долл. за три года. Поступления в выращивание маслиничных
культур совсем незначительны – менее 1 млн.долл. за весь рассматриваемый период. При низком абсолютном
значении динамично растут вложения в сбор лесных грибов и трюфелей. В условиях запрета реализации земель
сельскохозяйственного назначения иностранным инвесторам, последние используют механизм долгосрочной
аренды земель, лизинг средств производства в обмен на урожай. Есть прецеденты организации совместных
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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предприятий на условиях раздела урожая 2.
В животноводстве, более половины поступивших ПИИ, направлены на разведение сельскохозяйственной
птицы и около трети – в свиноводство. Третью позицию занимает «разведение кроликов и пушных зверей
в условиях фермы». В 2008г. в это подразделение было вложено 22 млн.долл. На выращивание КРС было
потрачено около 1 % ПИИ, поступивших в животноводство. Такая специализация обусловлена, прежде всего,
высокой оборачиваемостью вложенных в птицеводство и свиноводство средств, относительно высокой
рентабельностью (около 20 % в среднем по стране) и технологичностью производства. Такое распределение
ПИИ соответствует мировым тенденциям.
ПИИ, поступившие в производство пищевых продуктов в 2006 – 2008 г.г, делятся почти пополам между
производством напитков и продовольствием. Наибольшие инвестиции сделаны по направлению «производство
прочих пищевых продуктов», а именно хлеба и мучных кондитерских изделий разного срока хранения; какао,
шоколада и сахаристых кондитерских изделий; чая и кофе; макаронных изделий; детского питания
и диетических продуктов; готовых к употреблению пищевых продуктов и приправ. На эту группу приходится
около 20 % всех иностранных инвестиций, поступивших в производство пищевых продуктов. Вторую позицию
– 13 % занимает переработка и консервирование картофеля, фруктов и овощей. На производство растительных
и животных масел, включая маргарин, приходится 5,6 %. Производство молочных продуктов занимает
четвертое место – 4,6 %; производство мяса и мясопродуктов – 4 % или пятую позицию. Достаточно
перспективным для иностранного капитала продолжает оставаться производство готовых кормов для
животных. За рассматриваемый период около 22,3 млн.долл. поступило в комбикормовую промышленность и
16,4 млн.долл. в производство микробиологического белка, премиксов, кормовых витаминов, антибиотиков,
аминокислот и ферментов, предназначенных для сельскохозяйственных животных, содержащихся на фермах.
Остается актуальным производство готовых кормов для домашних животных (собак, кошек и др.).
Иностранные вложения в производство напитков охватывают в основном два сегмента: пиво – 56,6 % от
совокупных ПИИ в производство напитков, а также производство минеральной воды и других безалкогольных
напитков. Инвестирование производства крепких алкогольных напитков и вина очень незначительно.
Критерии выбора направления иностранных инвестиций прежние: сроки окупаемости и рентабельность
производства. Существенный мотив – достижение монопольных преимуществ на рынке. Большинство
производств с иностранным капиталом создают технологичные продукты длительного срока хранения по
ассортименту и упаковке, не имеющие аналогов в России. В соединении с сильной дистрибьюцией и рекламой
это позволяет изначально доминировать на внутрироссийском рынке.
Сопоставление отраслевой структуры вложений в сельском хозяйстве и в пищевой промышленности показало,
что иностранный инвестор не имел цели создать межотраслевой кластер. Сырьевой базой производства
изначально являлся импорт с высокой долей продуктов глубокой переработки: сублимированные компоненты
и добавки. При ничтожных вложениях в разведение крупного рогатого скота, а значит и в производство молока,
производство молочных продуктов занимает четвертое место по доле прямых инвестиций в производстве
продуктов питания. Это указывает на высокую долю использования импортного сухого молока и других
компонентов. Натуральное молоко закупается у российских молочных хозяйств на договорной основе.
Используются схемы сотрудничества на основе лизинга техники и животных с расчетом молоком. Новый
технический регламент на молоко и молочную продукцию повысит потребность молокоперерабатывающих
предприятий (МПЗ) в натуральном молоке и будет стимулировать взаимосвязи иностранного капитала
с сельским хозяйством. Анализ статистических данных о прямых иностранных инвестициях, поступивших в
молочную промышленность РФ, показал, что наибольший объем ПИИ был направлен на производство
цельномолочной продукции, в особенности в производство широкого ассортимента кисло-молочных изделий
(йогуртов, творожков, десертов…) Вторую позицию иностранных вложений в переработку молока занимает
производство сыра.
Основным носителем иностранных инвестиций в молочной промышленности России являются
транснациональные компаниями стран Европейского Союза: «Danone» и «Lactalis International» (Франция),
«FrieslandCampina» и «Unilever» (Нидерланды), «Ehrmann» и «Hochland» (Германия), «Parmalat» (Италия) и ряд
других. Форма прихода капитала – преимущественно «green-field», то есть строительство новых заводов
«с нуля». География размещения ограничивается Московской областью и рядом городов областного значения.
Финансовые возможности и степень воздействия на национальный рынок существенно различается. По
масштабам производства безусловным лидером являются подразделения «Danone», размещенные в г. Чехов
2
Государственное регулирование иностранных инвестиций в сельское хозяйство [По материалам Центрально-Черноземного р-на РФ]:
Автореф. дис... канд. экон. наук. Нестеренко В.И.-Воронеж, 2001.24 с.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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Московской области и г. Тольятти Самарской области.
На начало 2010 года уровень концентрации иностранного капитала не вызывал больших опасений с точки
зрения сохранения конкуренции. Доля продукции «Danone», произведенной в России, не превышала 11,5 % по
стоимости и 5,3 % по объему от совокупных продаж рассматриваемого сектора. Международные поглощения,
анонсированные в конце 2010 года, ломают сложившуюся картину.
15 октября 2010 г. Федеральная антимонопольная служба (ФАС) РФ одобрила объединение компаний «Danone»
и "Юнимилк". ФАС удовлетворила их ходатайство о создании совместного предприятия путем объединения
активов на базе компании "Дэйри Джейви (Сиайэс) Холдингс (Сайпрус) Лимитед". В новой компании «Danone»
будет контролировать 57,5 % акций, «Юнимилка» - 42,5 %. Сделка будет осуществлена, в основном,
посредством внесения активов. Часть акций будет куплена «Данон» напрямую и оплачена деньгами. Другая
часть перейдет в собственность французской стороны постепенно через механизм опционов «пут».
Компания «Юнимилк», зарегистрированная на Кипре, является вторым после «ВБД» игроком на молочном
рынке России, Украины и Казахстана. В активах компании находится 32 производственных площадки.
Численность сотрудников – около 16 тысяч человек. Основное направление бизнеса: молочные продукты
и детское питание. В ассортименте «Юнимилка» около 550 товарных позиций. Имеется сбалансированный
портфель национальных и региональных брендов. В соответствии с рейтингом украинской консалтинговой
компанией MPP Consulting в 2010 г. бренд «Простоквашино» стал шестым в общем списке и первым по
стоимости среди брендов молочной промышленности страны. Его стоимость оценивается в 790 млн. долларов. 3
3 декабря 2010 года американская транснациональная компания «PepsiCo» 4 договорилась с основными
акционерами ведущего российского производителя молочной продукции и напитков ОАО "Вимм-Билль-Данн
Продукты Питания" (ВБД) о приобретении компании, которую она оценила в 5,8 миллиарда долларов. PepsiCo
приобретет вначале 66 % акций ВБД у восьми крупных акционеров и двух дочерних предприятий российской
компании за 3,8 миллиарда долларов, а после получения необходимых одобрений со стороны регулирующих
органов и закрытия этой сделки сделает предложение о выкупе еще 34 % акций у остальных акционеров.
В итоге ей будут принадлежать шесть из 20 крупнейших продуктовых брендов страны и 49 производственных
предприятий, включая 38 заводов ВБД. Предполагается сохранить популярные в стране бренды «Вимм-БилльДанна": "Домик в деревне", "Веселый молочник", "Иммунеле", Beauty, "33 коровы", "Чудо", J7, "Любимый сад",
"100 % Gold", "Агуша", "Здрайверы", "Ессентуки", "Чудо-Ягода" и "Родники России" 5.
Присутствие американского гиганта на российском рынке началось ещё в советское время. В 1974 году
в Новороссийске компания начала производство напитка «Pepsi» по договору франчайзинга. За годы рыночных
реформ его позиции существенно укрепились, но не касались рынка молочных продуктов. Было построено
девять заводов, выпускающих соленые закуски (чипсы), газированные и негазированные напитки, соки. В 2008
году «PepsiCo» покупает крупнейшую российскую соковую компанию «Лебедянский», производящую
продукцию под известными марками «Фруктовый сад», «Я», «Тонус», «Северная ягода» (морсы), «Tropicana»...
Вторжение в социально значимый молочный рынок России обозначило стратегическую цель американской
ТНК – стать лидером российского рынка пищевой промышленности, довести масштабы своего присутствия до
уровня, сопоставимого с присутствием в США. В 2009 году объёмы продаж «PepsiCo» в России составили
около 2 миллиардов долларов, продажи «ВБД» - 2,2 миллиарда долларов. Ожидается, что к 2016 году выручка
поглощенной компании достигнет 6,26 миллиарда долларов.
Очевидна кардинальная смена тактики присутствия: от строительства новых заводов для выпуска относительно
новых экзотических для России продуктов к массированной скупке лучших молокоперерабатывающих заводов,
производящих широкий спектр традиционных продуктов (питьевое молоко, сметану, кефир…). Это
принципиально меняет роль иностранного капитала на молочном рынке. В случае закрытия объявленных
сделок доля иностранных компаний (по стоимости продаж) превысит 50 % всех продаж в указанном сегменте.
Такой приход ПИИ, на наш взгляд, противоречит задаче сохранения национальной и продовольственной
безопасности страны, созданию конкурентной среды. Важно и то, что молокоперерабатывающая
промышленность не относится к высокотехнологичным производствам, но играет значительную социальную
роль.
3
http://www.unimilk.ru/press/
Компания «PepsiCo» в мире является вторым (после швейцарской «Nestle») производителем напитков и продуктов питания с годовым
объёмом продаж в 200 странах мира около 60 миллиардов долларов. Была основана в 1965 году путём слияния The Pepsi Cola Company
(основанной в 1898 году фармацевтом из Северной Каролины Калебом Брэдхемом) и компании Frito Lay.
5
PepsiCo купит "Вимм-Билль-Данн": "Веселый молочник" станет американцем - http://www.rian.ru/economy/20101203/303778568.html
4
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European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
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Под лозунгом импортозамещения идёт процесс поглощения системообразующих предприятий отрасли
иностранным капиталом, усиление монопольного давления на сельское хозяйство и конечного потребителя.
И «Юнимилк», и «ВБД», возникшие вследствие приватизации 90-х годов, могли бы стать основой российских
конкурентоспособных «молочных» транснациональных компаний. На практике происходит обратный процесс:
70 лучших российских молокоперерабатывающих заводов (МПЗ) переходят в собственность крупнейших
в мировой пищевой промышленности транснациональных компаний (ТНК). Между тем, давно известна
максима: крупные ТНК характеризуются высокой степенью влияния на экономические и политические
процессы страны базирования. При этом интересы, определяющие это влияние, находятся за рубежом и не
всегда совпадают с национальными приоритетами страны - рецепиента.
Знаменательно время продажи бизнеса – конец 2010 года. Полученная от государства антикризисная
финансовая поддержка, не только укрепила позиции крупного бизнеса страны, но и подготовила вторую волну
широкой приватизации. Её участниками, видимо, станут бывшие мажоритарные владельцы «ВБД»
и «Юнимилка». Ведь производство молочной продукции имеет свои риски, связанные с состоянием молочного
животноводства. Тем более, что 2010 год оказался непростым для этой отрасли. Из-за летних пожаров и засухи,
падежа животных, закупочные цены на сырое молоко существенно выросли. Новый технический регламент на
молочную продукцию ужесточил требования к её качеству. На вырученные от сделки ресурсы можно
приобрести более стабильный и прибыльный бизнес, например, в сфере топливно-энергетического комплекса.
Можно просто вывести капитал за рубеж. Так выстраивается цепочка трансформации государственной
собственности в частную, а затем в иностранный капитал. И хотя МПЗ не вывозятся из России, направления
финансовых и товарных потоков, реструктуризации заводов будут регулироваться из американского или
французского офиса.
Таким образом, «Доктрина продовольственной безопасности России», предполагающая повышение
самообеспеченности страны молочной продукцией до 90 %, может включать в себя и такой её дополнительный
источник как прямые иностранные инвестиции. При этом важно учесть, что положительный эффект от
поступления ПИИ для принимающей страны не является автоматическим. Более того, регулирование
иностранных инвестиций означает не только их привлечение в те или иные отрасли и территории, но
и ограничение их чрезмерного присутствия в социально значимых сегментах.
ADRESA:
Svetlana Ivanova
РЭA им. Г.В. Плеханова Иванова С.В.
e-mail: [email protected]
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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HUMAN RESOURCES, HUMAN CAPITAL AND BUSINESS ENTERPRISE
Ladislav Jarina
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Abstract: In the business environment we have the opportunity to observe many companies that use
various methods of management in an effort to break through in a competitive market and increase their
financial returns fulfilling the objectives set. However, in its attempt they do not pay attention to its
performance increasing for the effective management of their own people and human resources, that
ultimately pauperize business and harm themselves. Such enterprises´ behaviour and their underutilization of human resources and human capital have the effect of creating worse atmosphere in
enterprises, employee dissatisfaction resulting in reduced performance. The undesirable fluctuation of
people is increased and the overall performance of enterprises is influenced as well as their
competitiveness in the market. If companies want to differentiate from their competitors and continue to
progress it is necessary to become aware of their process impact and change the method of enterprise
management and look after more their people.
Key words: Human resource management, strategic human resource management, human capital, human
capital investment, education, human potential.
INTRODUCTION
Nevertheless, in the field of available information about human resource management is possible to see some progress,
there are enterprises full of managers and management staff that in an effort of people leading still use their dominant,
often arrogant behavior based on their ego itself. People are already getting sensitive to such managers behaving and
refuse to work under their leading. Such managers behaving and leadership lets up to bring required results to
enterprises so economic progress becomes unacceptable.
Jan Amos Comenius said:
“Human naturalism is viable, full of movement and activity, it does not need anything else than the wise leadership ...”
Working with people is challenging and provision of good human resource management to achieve required results and
ensure satisfaction, as for the enterprises as well as their employees in maintaining of mutual respect and courtesy
requires an educated, trained and experienced managers who know not only use appropriate methods and management
tools, but also have ability to prosper from the human potential and bring new business approaches in people managing
and using of human capital.
Enterprises often forget that the basis of performance management forms human capital and target work with that
capital.
Therefore, working with people requires individuals who know not only "decide", but also put together teams of
different personality types, incorporate them to the business strategy and get required added value from people. The
well-known financier and magnate John D. Rockefeller was aware of it, when he said:
“I would have given far more for the ability to treat people properly, for this gift, than for any other ability.”
Rockeffeller exactly knew how to work with people and what added value can bring to business correct work with
human capital, especially in a difficult business environment and at worse economic situation in the market, when
companies often seek to maintain their existence or take use of the space for increase of their economic results. The
quality of control managers and the impact of people management to business performance is reflected in this period.
It is necessary to realize that proper management of human resources has an affect not only on their management, but
also on the financial returns, through labour enhancement and labour productivity increase also affects the costs.
The first condition for successful business is awareness of the importance of human resource management. It is strategic
and logical approach to managing of that most valuable issue, what organizations have. People who work in
organizations contribute individually and collectively to the business goals achievement.7
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HUMAN RESOURCE MANGEMENT
Human resource management is a strategic approach to managing people in business, while a key element of human
resource management is identify the objectives of employees with strategic business objectives. Business strategy is
a tool to achieve and ensure its long-term development and achieving the goals. Strategic human resource management
is based on the assumption that human resource strategies may contribute to the achievement of corporate strategy. 1
The system works through the human resource system that systematically links:
 philosophy HR- describes the core values and basic principles in people managing
 strategy HR- defines direction in which the management wants to move
 policy HR - there are the principles defining the realization of values and principles implemented in different
areas
 processes in the field of HR - the procedures and methods used in plans realizing,
 experience in the field of HR
 programmes in the field of HR - enable the strategy realization according to fixed plans. 2
The aim of human resource management is to ensure that enterprises will be able to successfully fill its objectives
through people. Human resource management is concerned with attaining goals in the fields such as:
 organizational effectiveness - determines business competitiveness and establish procedures for improving
business efficiency
 human capital management - ensures that the enterprise retains skilled and dedicated people and provides
development of the people abilities by learning itself
 knowledge management - the acquisition and use of individuals knowledge and teams to improve business
performance
 management rewards - increases motivation, evaluates and rewards for performance and capacity
 employee relations – the objective is to create good relationships and maintain productivity
 satisfying of different needs (entertainment) - policy creating based on respect of all parties.2
Engaging of modern methods in business strategy makes the work importance clear to business and their employees and
also contributes to the achievement of set targets. Balanced Scorecard is the most respected method to ensure the link
from the corporate vision, strategic objectives to operational planning and decision making.
Mission and strategy
Human resource management
Organizational structure
Fig. 1 Three elements of the effective business function
Source: J. Vodák a A. Kucharčíková.: Strategy of human potential development
The importance of strategic human resource management for business lies in the following elements:
 leads to a coherent approach in creating and managing of personnel systems and human resource strategies
 supports planning use
 supports activities monitoring and policy of human resource management with corporate strategy
 leads to people understanding as a strategic business resource for achieving competitive advantage.1
Proper policy and strategy affects on the relationship between employer and employee and gives a sence of reliability
whereby the labour conflicts reduces. For these reasons, according to J. Koubek, well-formulated, long-term stability
and for employees, understandable and accaptable personnel policy has a crucial importance for the success and longterm business existence.3 3
Human resource management strategy is then the practical ending of corporate personnel strategy. The strategy is
1
J. Vodák a A. Kucharčíková.: Efektívni zvdělávaní zaměstnanců, Grada Publishing, a.s., Praha 2007
Michael Armstrong.: Řízení lidských zdrojů, Najnovší trendy a postupy. Grada Publishing a.s., Praha
http://www.annwin.sk/page.php?49
2
Michael Armstrong.: Řízení lidských zdrojů, Najnovší trendy a postupy. Grada Publishing a.s., Praha
3
J Koubek.: Řízení lidských zdrojů.Management Press, Praha 1995
2
7
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a concrete activity, a concrete effort leading to achieve the objectives involved in the personnel strategy.3
The role of human resource management is to help the business being executive and his performance will continually
improve. It can be provided by improving the use of all disposable resources: material, financial and human. Human
resource management is centred on systematic improving the use and development of professional skills of human
resources.
To compare, the role of human resource management in developed countries is:
 effort to involve the right person in the right place
 convenient use of the workers
 forming of a team, effective style of leading people
 personal and social development of the business.3
Policy and strategy of human resources defined by M. Armstrong are stable rules of the approach to managing people
intended to applying. He defines the philosophy and the organization values related to the ways of dealing with people.
The policy also serves as a reference in creating of practical procedures for staff.2
As was already mentioned, human resource management has an impact on the business power, it means that there is a
close link between human resource management and business performance. On the 2nd picture is a model to see a link
between human resource management and performance created by the Guest and the team.
Effectivity HR
Results in the
field of HR
Business
strategy
Practices in the
field of HR
Strategy HR
Workers:
- abilities
- devotion flexibility
Products and
service quality
Financial
performance
Productivity
Fig. 2 Model of the link between human resource management and performance
Source: Michael Armstrong.: Human Resource Management, Latest trends and practices. Grada Publish., Prague 2007
If the enterprises identify with the fact that the essence of human resource management consists in view reflecting on
him as a creator of the competitive advantage, human resource management incorporates business systems of
operational forces creating a unique work style that will be reflected in product quality, their quantity or quality of
business service, another growth business is guaranteed.
However, it should not be forgotten that the concept of human resource management is supplemented and strengthened
with the concept of human capital management. Both concepts emphasize the importance of implementing an integrated
and strategic people approach. Human resource management and human capital management can be considered the
very important components in the process of managing people.
In Mayo´s opinion, there is a significant difference between the human capital management and human resource
management, accordingly the first approach understands people as a wealth, while the second as a costs.2
HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
Human capital management ensures retaining of skilled and dedicated people as well as ensuring of development of
people abilities by learning, although, for better use the enterprises have to understand what does it mean human capital
and its management.
Human capital is a combination of individual´s knowledge, skills and abilities that bring to society the necessary added
value able to measure, evaluate and appraise. Armstrong and Baron state that:
„People and their collective knowledge, skills and experience, together with their ability to use them in the interest of
employers' organization, are now regarded as something that contributes to the organization success and forms
a significant source of competitive advantage.”2 4
2
Michael Armstrong.: Řízení lidských zdrojů, Najnovší trendy a postupy. Grada Publishing a.s., Praha
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If you ask the question how enterprises work with human capital and how they can exploit and capitalize on its
opportunities from their holders in their favour, we find that there are notable reserves in the management of human
capital. In the human capital managing should be the focus in particular on:
 the acquisition of an appropriate workers
 the human capital knowledge in business
 risks identifying and preparing alternatives
 effective structure ensuring of the managing and executive organs
 continuity ensuring.8
Business managers need to realize that people are the most precious wealth of each enterprise therefore they have to
behave and deal with him. Nowadays, it is not enough just to invest and modernize equipment and technology. If we
say that people are the most valuable wealth of enterprises is essential to ensure the investment in that wealth for their
further progress and development. Enterprises that do not invest in education may use their knowledge and skills only
till after their supply exhausting. On the contrary, enterprises that invest money in human capital development, differ
from its competitors on the market, achieve better competitiveness and also have bigger chance to achieve even better
business results. 5The main reason is that human capital has a inborn and acquired skills, knowledge of each individual
utilized in the business for a certain time. Ensuring of the other investments in education, training of their people gives
to business a perspective of their longer use in favour of themselves. Among the most important employee benefits
belong those based on their knowledge.4
In some cases there are some gaps of human capital understanding like investment which consist in human resource
underestimating and their importance as well as human capital understatement.
However, investments in human capital represent investments in education. It is possible to compare a return of this
investment with an investment in property. It is necessary to remember that in comparison of investment in education
with investment in equipment and technologies, the value of equipment decreases while the value of a person increases.
The high performance achieving and business competitiveness requires not only make investments in equipment but
also investments in people.
Investments in human capital are different in three basic aspects:
 by forms representing the education, training in a workplace...etc.
 by effects on the income amount and consumption
 by amount of invested gross amounts, yield rates and intensity of link perception between investments and
yields.6
Kameníček defined investments in his human capital so that individuals improve their skills and knowledge, therefore
they improve their human resources and consequently their mental and cash incomes.5
In this case there are several factors that affect the efficiency of investment in education. It is important, in advance, to
determine the factors affecting the return on investment. There are some factors such as quality of education, learning
methods, evaluation of the effect, return on investment period and measuring of employees performance.
If an enterprise is not capable to measure the employees performance in their work correctly, it will not be able to
determine the impacts of their education on their performance. 6
Performance measurement is an essential part of the Balanced Scorecard system model. Without measurements is not
possible to manage and lead. Performance measurement affects people attitude and behaviour in business. BSC real
benefits will be reflected if the BSC is transformed from the measuring system in the manager system.
About the way how to measure human capital also says Bont (1999), who proposed three models of human capital
measurement based on the accounting.
 Cost measurement models take into consideration the costs assigned to acquisition and reproduction of human
capital including alternative costs.
 Models of the human resource values combine the behaviour that does not have the financial and economic
value.
 Cash models acquire expected estimates of a future earnings.1
4
A. J. Walker a kolektív.: Moderní personální management, Nejnovší trendy a technológie. Grada Publishing a.s., Praha 2003
J. Kameníček.: Lidský kapital – úvod do ekonomie chování. Praha, Karolinum, 2003
J. Vodák a A. Kucharčíková.: Stratégia rozvoja ľudského potenciálu. Žilina, 2005
8
http://www.jeneweingroup.com/novinky/trendPrezentaciaSulik.pdf
6
J. Vodák a A. Kucharčíková.: Efektívni zvdělávaní zaměstnanců, Grada Publishing, a.s., Praha 2007
5
6
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The essence of a right performance measurement of employees is to point out and evaluate the acquired results that help
to focus on the shortcomings and specifically work with them. The enterprises also need to acquire a confidence in this
approach to the future to set apart easier the necessary funds from budgets to ensure effective investment in human
capital.
CONCLUSION
If enterprises want to differentiate from their competitors and continue to progress and prosper, it is inevitable to start
joining human resource management strategy into their strategies. Firstly, the business itself has to answer questions,
how do I want to differentiate from competitors, what are our strengths and weaknesses, where we want to be in the
future, what business philosophy we want to create as well as what aims we want to achieve. Then the managers have to
ensure and enhance the management and work development of each individual, team or entire enterprise. The key is the
importance of implementing an integrated and strategic people approach. It is important to educate people based on
business strategy using Balanced Scorecard method.
The concept of human resource management is also supplemented and strengthened with the concept of human capital
management, while both of them are very important components in the process of managing people. If the enterprises
assume already mentioned management methods and acquire a confidence in these concepts it will be easier for them to
allocate the necessary funds from budgets to ensure effective investment in people. If they decide for time, energy and
resources´ investment into human resource management it will have crucial importance to their success and long-term
existence.
However, everything needs some time to see a required effect. Similarly, the investment in human capital needs
a certain time. Their efficiency and profitability is reflected in the business performance by maintaining of a right set of
strategies and policy. Therefore it is important to stay in determined strategy and policy management.
LITERATURE:
[1]
VODÁK, J.; KUCHARČÍKOVÁ, A. Efektívni zvdělávaní zaměstnanců. Praha : Grada Publishing, a.s., 2007.
[2]
ARMSTRONG, M. Řízení lidských zdrojů, Najnovší trendy a postupy. Praha : Grada Publishing a.s., 2007.
[3]
KOUBEK, J. Řízení lidských zdrojů. Základy moderní personalistik. Praha : Management Press, 1995.
[4]
WALKER, A. J. a kol. Moderní personální management, Nejnovší trendy a technológie. Praha : Grada
Publishing a.s., 2003.
[5]
KAMENÍČEK, J. Lidský kapital – úvod do ekonomie chování. Praha : Karolinum, 2003.
[6]
VODÁK, J.; KUCHARČÍKOVÁ, A. Stratégia rozvoja ľudského potenciálu. Žilina : 2005.
[7]
Riadenie ľudských zdrojov II - efektívna komunikácia. ANNWIN. 2007 – 2011 [online]. Dostupné z WWW:
http://www.annwin.sk/page.php?49.
[8]
ŠULÍK, I. Ľudský kapitál – dobre manažovaná investícia?
JENEWEIN & PARTNERS /
AMROP
HEVER
Slovakia
:
Bratislava.
2007.
[online].
Dostupné
z
WWW:
http://www.jeneweingroup.com/novinky/trendPrezentaciaSulik.pdf.
ADRESS:
Ladislav JARINA
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
Slovak Republic
E-mail: [email protected]
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BUSINESS STRATEGY AND BALANCED SCORECARD
Ladislav Jarina
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Abstract: Achieving the performance of enterprises is a pre-requisite of long-term success, especially in
times of globalization and a period of turbulence in the macro environment marked by global economic
crisis. Top managers and leaders are under pressure, has ever been used. It is inevitable to realize that the
existing types of managers with self-centered behavior and management strategies for planning and
organizing their teams with their self-expression as we know is unacceptable for the further business
develop into the future. Other necessity for further business success are leaders allowed to behave as those
who will bring and enforce the new management systems in business.
INTRODUCTION
There have already been written many articles and publications in the field of management, yet in our environment are
to issues of performance management (Performance Management, defined by M. Armstrong) payed little attention, and
therefore many enterprises´s approaches are often greatly simplified as the performance in the financial ambit, while
there is a lack of suitable system framework. In practice is often forgotten that the basis of performance management
creates human capital and target work with that capital. It is necessary to solve the issue what are the appropriate
approaches and methods to manage and develop human capital most efficiently, which system´s framework or model is
used for improving business performance through human capital. The current world´s economic and moral crisis
confirms the importance of correct decision and proper timing, accordingly the use of Performance Management brings
a significant competitive advantage at this time. One possible strategy system´s model ensuring the business
performance, that involves the performance measurement, is the method´s implementation of Balanced Scorecard
(BSC) into business strategy.
WHY BALANCED SCORECARD?
The managers at all administration´s levels must be able to evaluate business performance. This evaluation needs some
kind of a tool complex proper to judge various aspects arising from the enterprise operating and its economic
environment and watch how the enterprise proceeds towards the given objectives. This tool complex provides managers
right of the Balanced Scorecard. It carries the system of balanced indicators of business performance. Balanced
Scorecard measures business performance using four balanced perspectives:
 financial,
 customer,
 internal business processes,
 learning and growth. 1)
Operational measurement is an essential part of the model system. It is impossible manage without measurements.
Performance measurement affects people´s attitudes and behaviour in business.
1)
Kaplan, R.S., and Norton, D.P., (2007) The Balanced Scorecard. Translating Strategy Into Action. Harvard Business School Press, Boston,
Massachusetts
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Vision and strategy clarifying
 clarify a shared visio
 consensus
Communication and connection
Strategic feedback, learning
 Communication and shared
visions and strategies
 objectives´setting and evaluation
BSC
 shared vision´s formulating
 feedback finding
 strategy appraisal and learning
Planning and setting goals




setting goals
adaptation of strategic initiatives
resource allocation
setting milestones
Obr. 1: type of management system for strategic implementation 3)
Balanced Scorecard is one of the most reputable approaches in linking from corporate visions, strategic objectives to
operational planning and decision making.
BCS methodology contribution for enterprises lies primarily in:
 increases the competitiveness of business
 helps management to improve efficiency and achieve goals focusing on the essential issues, creating a synergy
in business
 helps to synchronize goals and activities from individuals over teams and departments throughout the
enterprise
 supports the processes´ improvement with crucial importance for creating value for concerned people
 helps to convert the business strategy and mission into a comprehensive set of objectives and indicators
cascaded throughout the company, provides a framework and language for their communication
 efficiency is measured using four balanced perspectives - financial, customer, internal processes, learning and
growth
 supports the growth of effectiveness and enterprise learning as a whole. 3)
BALANCED SCORECARD SYSTEM
Perhaps every business owner or top manager of the enterprise is aware of the importance of business administration.
However, the right strategy and vision working-out integrated to the enterprise, engaged in everyday activities of
employees, is not so obvious. Therefore, enterprises are often hampered by lack of integration among processes,
systems and people. Balanced Scorecard provides a system of balanced indicators which assesses the business from four
main perspectives: 2)
Financial perspective
involves planning and evaluation of financial indicators. It is used in economic consequences evaluating of actions
already realized. All goals and key indicators of other perspectives of Balanced Scorecard should be linked to the
achievement of one or more objectives of the financial perspective. Business long-term goal is the creation of economic
profit and all strategies, projects and initiatives should enable its achievement.
Customer perspective
the customer and market segments in which the enterprise wants to do business are identified here. These segments
2)
Kaplan, R.S., and Norton, D.P., (2007) The Balanced Scorecard. Translating Strategy Into Action. Harvard Business School Press, Boston,
Massachusetts
3)
http://www.mtc.sk/charbsc.html
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represent for business a source of turnover and profit, which is part of its financial goals. In the customer perspective
are set out key customer indicators such as satisfaction and customer loyalty, retention, acquiring new customers and
their profitability. There are identified values that customers appreciate and according to that are selected other
objectives and performance indicators allowing maintainance or increase the business capacity. These values for
customer represent product or service quality, customer relations, image and reputation.5)
The prospect of internal processes
Balanced Scorecard identifies the processes according to the criteria how to achieve the fulfillment of customer needs
and their financial goals. BSC defines the complete value chain that begins with an innovative process and ends with
customer satisfaction of their requirements. Innovation process progresses from identifying market segments assigned
for the satisfaction of its future products and services as well as designs and development of products and services that
these target segments actually satisfy.5)
The prospect of learning and growth
business success depends less on the past achievements as on the development of its potential. Potential is the main
source and assumption of successful future. This BSC perspective evaluates business ability to learn and grow. It´s in
particular allowed by three groups of resources: employees, information systems and business procedures. High
performance achieving requires significant investment in people, systems and processes that create business skills. Key
indicators in this field are- satisfaction and loyalty of employees, their productivity and retention, the level of
involvement, access to strategic information, linking of personal motivational factors motivating factors of employees
with the factors´organization.4)
In the most difficult times of the enterprise is particularly important to mobilize the ability of managers, motivate and
unify staff. A right manager should know how to get the best from employees and do not unnecessarily waste the most
precious thing such as human potential. Follow-saving measures and their impact may ultimately cost far more than it is
originally expected. 3
MEASUREMENT OF PERFORMANCE IN PERSPECTIVES
In evaluating of the business performance is not enough to check whether was the specified plan executed or not. In
fact, it is necessary to focus on procedures evaluating by what were given plans completed. The right measurement of
performance is necessary for business administration from a longer time perspective.
Properly configured BSC system has to talk about the overall business strategy. The system of indicators should
accurately reflect the relationship among given objectives in different perspectives. The enterprises using strategic
system must firstly create the BSC and then use it.
Perspective:
Financial
Customer
Internal
Learning and growth
Characteristics:
return on investment, value added (EVA)
satisfaction, loyalty, market and market share
quality, response time, costs, presentation of a new product on the market
satisfaction of employees and availability of information
systems, motivation
Financial perspective BSC enables the enterprise to define the method by which it will see not only the success or
failure of business from the long term perspective, but also what is necessary for establishing and monitoring of longterm goals. Financial goals are long-term business objectives that increase the return of invested capital. Importance of
strategic direction for the financial perspective:
 turnovers and mixes growth of products or services – an indicator of increase in turnover and services should be
the level of sales and market share
 costs´ reduce, or productivity increasing
 use of resources / investment strategy – output indicators are objectives such as ROCE, ROI and EVA
Customer perspective enables the enterprise to establish a set of its key customer indicators of the target customers and
market segments. The basic group of indicators include:
 market share,
 customer satisfaction and loyalty,
 conditions for its maintaining,
4)
http://www.gradient5.sk/balanced-scorecard.html
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 acquiring of new customers,
 customers´ profitability.5)
The enterprise has to find out what customers in targeted segments appreciate and choose a value advantage.
Consequently, the enterprise choose from three sets of characteristics such as:
 product and service features: functionality, quality and price,
 customer relationships: the buying experience and personal relationship,
 image and reputation.
The enterprise determines its follow direction towards the target customers and market segments by selecting of
concrete goals and indicators.
The prospect of internal processes – each business can have a proper custom group of processes for value creating and
achieving of financial results. This model includes three basic processes:
 innovative process - in which customer needs are explored and products or services are adjusted to their needs.
Each company has their own set of indicators adapted to their innovative process,
 operational process,
 customer service.
The prospect of learning and growth creates a structure enabling the achievement of objectives in the three previous
perspectives. Given objectives in this perspective are inevitable for achieving successful outcomes in the previous
prospects. BSC stresses the importance of investing in the future, not only in traditional fields such as equipment,
development and research of new products. These are obviously important. The enterprise has to invest in infrastructure
and people if it wants to achieve a long-term financial goals. The three basic areas of learning perspectives and growth
are:
 the employees´ ability,
 Information System ability,
 motivation, empowerment and involvement.5)
Human capital of organizations composed of people who work there and on which business depends. Bont et al. defined
human capital as:
"Human capital is the human factor in organization: it is a combination of intelligence, knowledge and experience,
which gives the organization its special character. Human components of the organization are those which are capable
of learning, change, innovation and creative effort, which, if are well-motivated, ensure long-term survival of the
organization." 2) 4)
Employee satisfaction – enterprises are often governed by the motto “customer satisfaction is paramount” or “our
customer is our master.” But how the displeased and frustrated employee has to satisfy a customer? Only a satisfied
employee is sufficiently able to satisfy its customer. Therefore, satisfied employees are an essential condition for
increasing business productivity.
Sustainability of employees – the goal of employee retention is mainly the prevention of undesirable fluctuations in key
staff and loss of intellectual capital. The starting point is a long-term investment.
Employee productivity – is the output indicator of increasing knowledge and employee moral, innovation, internal
processes and customer satisfaction. The aim is to determine the relationship between productivity and the number of
employees. The simplest indicator of productivity is profit per employee.
IMPLEMENTATION BSC STRATEGIES
Creation of Balanced Scorecard is a process that can be introduced by each enterprise.
Implementation of new management method based on the Balanced Scorecard is then just a matter of getting support
from top managers of organizations and proper understanding of this strategy.
There are needed two types of carriers´ changes for effective implement of new system. Firstly, business needs some
carriers´ change who will facilitate the creation of the BSC and help to introduce it as a new management system.
Secondly, management has to name a manager who will use the strategic management system.
With possible personnel changes in management and management positions, occurring mainly in organizations is a
5)
Michael Armstrong Řízení lidských zdrojů - Nejnovější tredy a postupy. Korgan Page Limited, London, UK 2006
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prerequisite for further progress and maintainance of strategic management system its correct understanding and
retention within the strategies and visions of new managers. If not it may lead to its complete failure and the whole
previous effort is meaningless. In practice, there were some cases where organizations trying to establish the Balanced
Scorecard management system for various reasons, simply failed. The main reasons for failure of implement BSC is for
example, that there is not a consensus of higher management in agreement on the vision and strategy realization into
concrete actions. Another reason for the failure is that the strategy is not interconnected with the objectives of lower
organizational units, mainly by the lack of communication and also the lack of feedback of method and functional
implementation of the strategy. Causes of failure are often errors in the structure, selection of indicators and errors in
the development and use of BSC. Failure does not result from mistakes but from the manner of concept implement
BSC.
CONCLUSION
On the market there are still many enterprises that do not use any of its management system for the measurement of
their performance. Management without a comprehensive performance measurement reduces the potential and
conditions for further successful progress. Balanced Scorecard is one of the most valuable approaches.
BSC can be used to:
 clarification and consensus in strategy formulation,
 communication strategy across the enterprise,
 aligns objectives among departments,
 link of strategic objectives with long-term objectives,
 identifying and aligning strategic initiatives,
 gain of strategic feedback for more precisely formulation of strategy.1)
Each company should try to implement new strategies with new methods or technologies and gaining new customers.
BSC is beneficial not only for owners and managers, but also for the employees, who is directly involved in the
business strategy, actively involved in the work processes.
Implementation of the basic project BSC takes about 16 weeks. After implementing of the BSC the enterprise can create
a fundamental building block of its management system.
LITERATURE:
[1]
KAPLAN, R.S.; NORTON, D.P. The Balanced Scorecard. Translating Strategy Into Action. Boston : Harvard
Business School Press, 2006.
[2]
ARMSTRONG, M. Řízení lidských zdrojů - Nejnovější tredy a postupy. London : Korgan Page Limited, 2006.
[3]
HORVÁTH & PARTNERS Balanced Scorecard v praxi. Praha : Profess Consulting, 2002.
[4]
VYSUŠIL, J. Metoda Balanced Scorecard v souvislostech. Praha : Profess Consulting, s.r.o., 2004.
[5]
Produkty - zvyšovanie efektívnosti. MT&C s.r.o. [online] Dostupné z WWW: http://www.mtc.sk/charbsc.html.
[6]
Balanced Scorecard (BSC). GRADIENT 5, s.r.o. [online] Dostupné z WWW: http://www.gradient5.sk/balancedscorecard.html.
ADRESS:
Ladislav JARINA
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26
Žilina
e-mail: [email protected]
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82
PROBABILITY MODEL OF THE ADVERTISEMENT PENETRATION AND OPTIMIZATION
OF THE ADVERTISEMENT COSTS
Aleš Kozubík
FRI ŽU v Žiline
Abstrac: In the present paper is analysed the penetration of the advertisement claim among the group of
population. Here is developed a simple model to state the percentage of the population, which meets the
advertisement and remember the advertisement claim. The optimising of the advertisement expenses from
the penetration point of view is then stated as the non-linear programming problem.
Keywords: advertisement,advertisement penetration, probability, Poisson distribution
1 INTRODUCTION
In the previous works [3] and [4] we have dealt with the problem of the penetration of the advertisement claim among
the population. We supposed the frequency of meeting the advertisement is governed by the Poisson distribution with
parameter λ, which is given by its probability function
p  x 
x
x!
e- , x  0,1, 2,
Taking in account the forgetting phenomenon it was shown, that for the probability of meeting the advertisement
n-times and forgetting its content holds the formula
 n  e-1  p nf
n!
,
where pf is the probability of forgetting the advertisement content. If we assign the penetration function depending on
the intensity and forgetting probability as f(,pf), in [3] it was shown, it can be written in the form

(  p f ) n
n 0
n!
f , p f   1  
e- .
The considerations in [3] and [4] were limited only on the case, when only one kind of the advertisement is applied. But
this situation is unrealistic because the advertising campaign is mostly realized by more than one advertisement media.
Therefore the results are generalized for the more dimensional case in this paper.
2 PROBABILITY OF MEETING THE ADVERTISEMENT IN THE CASE OF MORE MEDIA
At first, let us suppose, the advertisement campaign to be realized by two advertisement media. Further, let the
probability of meeting the advertisement with each of the media is governed by Poisson distribution again, but with
parameters λ1 and λ2 for media 1 and 2 respectively. That means, the probabilities of meeting the medias 1 or 2 are
p  x 
1x
x!
e- , x  0,1, 2, resp.
p  x 
2x
x!
e- , x  0,1, 2,
It is known from the probability theory (see for example [5]), that resulting process of meeting any kind of the
advertisement is governed by Poisson distribution
p  x 
x
x!
e- , x  0,1, 2, ,
where the parameter λ is given by sum λ=λ1+λ2.
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Similarly, for the general case of N different advertisement media, each of them being exploited with intensity
λ1,λ2,…,λN for media 1,2,…,N respectively, we get by induction the probability of meeting any advertisement in the form
p  x 
x
x!
e- , x  0,1, 2, ,
where λ=λ1+λ2+…+λN.
Now we will concern in the process of remembering or forgetting the advertisement claim. If we return to the case of
two advertisement media, for the probability of meeting no advertisement (and so no occasion to forget it) we have
p  0 
0
0!
e   e ( 1  2 ) .
For the probability of meeting the advertisement claim just once we have
p 1 
1
1!
e   (1  2 ) e ( 1  2 ) .
But if we want to express the probability of forgetting the advertisement claim, we must distinguish which of the
advertisement media the individual meets, because a different probability of forgetting pf1, pf2. Therefore we state it by
conditioning. If we assign as T1 and T2 the random variables representing number of meeting with the advertisement
media 1 and 2 respectively, for the conditional probabilities of forgetting we have:
P  F T1  1  p f 1
and
P  F T2  1  p f 2 .
For the probabilities of meeting the advertisement media 1 or 2 clearly holds (see [5]):
P T1  1 
1
1  2
resp. P T2  1 
2
.
1  2
For the total probability of forgetting the claim we have:
p f  P T1  1  p f 1  P T2  1  p f 2 
1
2
p 
p .
1  2 f 1 1  2 f 2
The probability of forgetting the advertisement claim when meeting the advertisement just once can be then rewritten in
the form
P  F X  1  p(1)  p f  (1 p f 1  2 p f 2 )e-(1 +2 ) .
Let us further assume the individual meets the advertisement just twice. In this case we must distinguish between the
cases of meeting the same advertisement media twice, when we have
2
2
 1 
 2 
P T1  2   
 , P T2  2   
 ,



 1
 1  2 
2 
or if he meets each kind of advertisement media just once, when we have
P T1  1  T2  1 
212
 1  2 
2
.
(The coefficient 2 in the numerator represents two different orders, how the individual can meet the advertisement
media.) The probability of forgetting the advertisement claim when meeting the advertisement just twice is then given
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by formula


12
212
22
2
2


e-  
p
p
p
p

1
1
2
2
f
f
f
f
2
2
2
2!
  1  2 

 1  2 
 1  2 
2
e- 
1 p f 1  2 p f 2  .

2!
P  F X  2 
2
Let us now consider the most general case of meeting the advertisement just n-times. Clearly, it holds
p  n 

n!
e- ,
and
n
 1 

 ,
 1  2 
P T1  n  T2  0 
 n   1 
P T1  n  1  T2  1    

 1   1  2 

n 1

2
1  2
 2 
 n  1
P T1  1  T2  n  1   


1



  1
2  1  2 
,
n 1
,
n
 2 

 .
 1  2 
P T1  0  T2  n 
For the probability of meeting the advertisement just n-times and forgetting the content of the advertisement claim we
get the expression:
n
n 1
2
 n -  1  n  n   1 
P  F X  n 
e 
 p nf 11 p f 2  
 pf1   
 
n!
1  2
 1  2 
 1   1  2 
n 1
n
 2 
 2  n 
 n  1
n 1
p
p
  





 pf 2 
f1 f 2

 1  1  2  1  2 
 1  2 
n
e-
1 p f 1  2 p f 2  .

n!
Now we can easily express the function f(λ,p) of the penetration of the advertisement claim among the population,
where λ=(λ1,λ2) is the vector of the intensities and p=(pf1,pf2) the vector of the forgetting probabilities. Applying the
Taylor expansion of the exponential function we obtain
 e-(1 +2 )
i
i
e-(1 +2 )
1 p f 1  2 p f 2   1  
 1 p f 1  2 p f 2 
i 0
i 0
i!
i! 
n
f  λ,p   1  
 1  e-(1 +2 )  e
(1 p f 1  2 p f 2 )
 ( p f 1 1)
 1 e 1
e
2 ( p f 2 1)
.
The same arguments can be applied to derive the penetration function in the general case of the N independent and
different advertisement media. The only difference is in applying the multinomial distribution instead of the binomial
distribution for meeting the advertisement just n-times. So we are searching for the general probabilities
P T1  n1 , T2  n2 , , TN  nN  , where Ti is the random variable representing the number of meetings with i-th media,
N
i=1,2,…,n. For their values it holds Ti {0,1,…,N} and  Ti  n. So the resulting probabilities are
i 0
n1
n2

 



N
1
2
n!

P T1  n1 , T2  n2 , , TN  nN  
 
   

n1 !n2 ! nN !  1  2    N   1  2    N 
 1  2    N 
For the probability of n meetings the advertisement without remembering its content we can derive
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85
nN
.
P  F X  n 
n
e- 
 1 p f 1  2 p f 2    N p fN  ,
n!
where λ=λ1+λ2+…+λN. If we assign the vector of intensities as λ=(λ1,λ2,…,λN) and the vector of the forgetting
probabilities as p=(pf1,pf2,…,pfN) we can write the penetration function in the form
N
f  λ, p   1   e
j 1
 j ( p fj 1)
.
3 THE FORGETTING PHENOMENON INFLUENCE
As it was shown in [3], the increasing the advertisement expenses leads to the increasing the frequency of meeting the
individuals with the advertisement claims. But it does not mean the penetration of the claim among population is as well
increased. The phenomenon of forgetting the claim plays crucial role in the penetration.
The success of the advertisement depends on more factors. Namely the frequency or intensity of the advertising claim is
important. Repeating of the advertising claims is in this context comparable with the learning process - more frequent
repeating of the smaller parts of the claim enlarges the chance of meeting the advertisement and chance of remembering
the advertising claim. The correct form of the advertising media is also important. The sensuous organs being irritated
by the media determine the consumption of the advertisement claim. As stated in [1], it is:
 78 % by sight,
 13 % by hearing,
 3 % by smell, taste and touch.
We also have to respect the fact of the presence the forgetting process and the limited ability of receiving the
information. People are able to receive in average 7 information and they are able to remember approx. 15\ % of the
advertisement they have seen. More precise values of the remembering the advertising, claim with respect to the
advertisement media were published in [1]. Here is presented the following percentage of remembering the advertising
claim:
 10 % by reading,
 20 % by hearing,
 30 % by watching,
 50 % by watching and hearing,
 70 % by self speaking,
 90 % by realization.
Probability of the remembering and forgetting of the reproduced information belongs into the interval from 0,1 to 0,9
and behind the form of the communication the interests of the target group influence it also. Let us consider the time
interval of t =100 days with intensity λ=1, that means the expected number of meeting the advertisement during the
period is 1. If we select the forgetting probability to be pf = 0,9, then the probability of remembering the claim is pr= 10,9 = 0,1. The probability distribution of meeting the advertisement without remembering the claim is then summarized
in the table 1.
0
0,37
1
0,333
2
0,1458
3
0,04374
4
0,006561
Table 1 Probability distribution of the number of meeting the advertisement and forgetting its content.
Let us now consider the situation, when two advertisement media are applied, with total intensity λ=1. The probability
distributions of meeting the advertisement and forgetting its content are for different partial intensities λ1 and λ2
summarised in the table 2.
λ1
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
Λ2
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
0
0,37
0,37
0,37
0,37
0,37
0,37
1
0,333
0,316
0,302
0,287
0,272
0,256
2
0,1458
0,1360
0,1237
0,1119
0,1007
0,0901
3
0,04374
0,0390
0,03381
0,0291
0,02485
0,02103
4
0,006561
0,0083
0,00693
0,005674
0,004596
0,00368
Table 2 Probability distribution of the number of meeting the advertisement and forgetting its content with different
partial intensities λ1 and λ2 for two advertisement media with forgetting probabilities pf1=0,9 and pf2=0,7.
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Comparing the rows in the table 2 we can observe, that in case of one advertisement media with forgetting probability
pf=0,9 we have: 1-[0,37+0,370,9+0,180,81+0,060,729+0,010,6561] = 0,1009,
what means approximately 10 % of the population meets during the 100 day period the advertisement and is affected by
its claim. If we apply two advertisement media with forgetting probabilities pf1=0,9 and pf2=0,7, the percentage of
affected population varies from
1-[0,37+0,316+0,1360+0,039+0,0083] = 0,1307,
to
1-[0,37+0,272+0,1007+0,02485+0,004596] = 0,227854,
that means approximately from 13 % to 22,78 %.
pf1
pf2
0
1
2
3
4
0,9
0,7
0,37
0,2943
0,11772
0,031392
0,006278
0,9
0,5
0,37
0,2575
0,09013
0,021030
0,003680
0,9
0,3
0,37
0,2207
0,06622
0,013244
0,001987
0,9
0,1
0,37
0,1839
0,04599
0,007664
0,000958
0,7
0,5
0,37
0,2207
0,06622
0,013244
0,001987
0,7
0,3
0,37
0,1839
0,04599
0,007664
0,000958
0,7
0,1
0,37
0,1472
0,02943
0,003924
0,000392
0,5
0,3
0,37
0,1472
0,02943
0,003924
0,000392
0,5
0,1
0,37
0,1104
0,01656
0,001655
0,000124
0,3
0,1
0,37
0,0736
0,00736
0,000491
0,000025
Table 3 Probability distribution of the number of meeting the advertisement and forgetting its claim with uniformly
distributed partial intensities λ1=λ2=0,5 for two advertisement media with varying forgetting probabilities pf1 and pf2.
In table 3 are presented the probabilities of meeting the advertisement and forgetting its claim for two advertisement
media with different probability of remembering the claim when the intensities are uniformly distributed between those
two medias. The percentage of the population affected by the claim then varies from approximately 18,25 % in the first
row to 55 % in the last row. In all cases, here still remains the probability p(0)=0,37 that any member of the population
does not meet the claim during the period, that means here is no chance to increase the penetration over 63 % of the
population only by increasing the intensity and consequently by increasing the advertisement expenses.
4 CONCLUSION
When comparing the results in the tables 2 and 3 it could seem, that advertisement claim penetration can be increased
by selection of the advertisement media whose forgetting probability is minimal. But we must keep in mind, that these
media are connected as well with higher expenses and in the case of limited budget it can lead to decline of the intensity
and consequently it can also cause decline of the claim penetration. The optimal penetration is therefore reached by
suitable advertisement media and can be solved as a problem of the non-linear programming
N
max f  λ , p   1   e
when budget constraint
and non-negativity conditions
 j ( p fj 1)
j 1
λ
,
  λ   0,
i  0, i  1, , N ,
are fulfilled. The budget function   λ  is usually linear function, depending on the intensities vector λ and prices of the
advertisement media.
Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by the grant VEGA 1/0992/11.
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LITERATURE:
[1]
FERNER, F. K. Marketing cestovného ruchu v praxi. Bratislava : SPN, 1993.
[2]
HORÁKOVÁ, G.; HUŤKA, V. Teória pravdepodobnosti. Bratislava : EKONÓM Bratislava, 2002.
[3]
HORÁKOVÁ, G.; KOZUBÍK, A. Simple Probability Model of the Advertisement Penetration, Journal of
Information, Control and Management Systems, Vol. 7 (2009), No.2, pp.141-150 .
[4]
HORÁKOVÁ, G.; KOZUBÍK, A. Pravdepodobnostné metódy pri optimalizácii nákladov na reklamu, (In
Slovak), Vysoká škola jako facilitátor rozvoje společnosti a regionu, Hodonín 2010, pp.45-50.
[5]
KLUGMAN, S. A.; PANJER, H. H.; WILLMOT, G. E. Loss Models From Data to Decisions, John Wiley &
sons,Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2004.
[6]
KOZUBÍKOVÁ, Z. Finančné rozhodovanie manažmentu podniku v podmienkach rizika. Krízový manažment, č.
1/2007, s. 63-67.
ADRESS:
RNDr. Aleš Kozubík
Department Of Mathematical Methods
FRI ŽU v Žiline
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
tel.:++421/41/513 42 80
e-mail: [email protected]
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European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
88
INNOVATION IN LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT AS KEY FACTORS REGIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
Viliam Lendel, Michal Varmus
University of Zilina
Abstract: In the current era of globalization, innovation, represent an essential prerequisite to gaining
competitive advantage. The paper deals with innovations in logistics and transport and their impact on
regional development. An extensive part of the paper is devoted to defining the role of education and
scientific research institutions in developing and applying innovations in logistics and transport.
Keywords: innovation, transport, logistics, innovation management, CEIDS, innovative strategy
1 INTRODUCTION
At present era the services have a dynamic and decisive role. Otherwise it is not in the areas of transport and logistics
sector, which may be an example of building and development of new essential services based on industry to meet the
logistical needs of customers. Not only transport and logistics businesses, as well as most manufacturing companies,
should realize the importance of service. They are essential to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the global
market. According to Chapman, Soosay et al. (2003) providing of poor quality services or aversion to innovations
leading to loss of customers.
During creating of innovation and continuous improvement of cooperation plays an important role in the company
supply relationships. Cooperation is a basic feature of human society. It is often clearly visible in a corporate sphere. If
it is intensive, based on positive experience and partnership, it provides an opportunity to gain a competitive advantage
for all parties concerned [19]. The result may be greater cost efficiency, increase purchasing power, shorter delivery
times and shorter product development. The customer enters into a relationship with the transport or logistics companies
with their wishes and requirements of service functions. This means that it is largely involved in the production process.
The aim of article is to show the importance of innovation in transport and logistics development in the region. It also
noted the impact of education and scientific research institutions to develop transport and logistics sector.
2 INNOVATIONS IN LOGISTICS
According to Chieh-Yu (2007), logistics is providing a service or product to the customer at the right time, in the right
quantity, right quality, at the right price and right place. Logistics is closely linked to the supply chain, which consists of
all interactions between suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and customers. According to Bowersox et al. (2002) the
basis for successful supply chain management is the efficient functioning of logistics within it.
Currently providers logistics services try improve their operational efficiency through the continuous introduction of
information and automation technologies. In this process, the innovation acting as the innovation process of changing
opportunities for new ideas and implement new procedures. According to Chieh-Yu (2008) can technological
innovation in the logistics field divided into four categories:
1) Data acquisition technologies,
2) Information technologies,
3) Warehousing technologies,
4) Transportation technologies.
Data acquisition technologies
The actual data collection and exchange of information plays a crucial role in information management. Good quality
data enables providers of logistics services more efficiently deliver goods to customers. To this end, the system can use
barcodes and radio frequency identification (RFID).
Information technologies
Their main contribution is the efficient provision of information flows within the organization and between
organizations themselves. In addition to electronic data interchange (EDI) over the Internet, value-added network
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(VAN), point of sale (POS), electronic ordering systems (EOS), logistics information system, Computer Telephony
Integration, portals and enterprise information systems [2].
Warehousing technologies
Their main aim is to ensure an effective system for warehouse management, ie to achieve fast and efficient way to
search and movement of products in stock. Among storage technologies used are mainly automatic storage and retrieval
system (AS/RS), automatic sorting systems, computer-aided picking system and thermostat warehouse.
Transportation technologies
Transport technologies are focused on moving product from point of origin to destination with minimal costs and
damages. In this process must be fully taken into account customer requirements on delivery of the item. Among the
technologies used in transport include transportation information system, global positioning system (GPS), geographical
information systems (GIS), radio-frequency communication system and transportation data recorder [2].
3 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
Innovation transport technologies are used primarily intelligent transport systems. New sensors, GPS, satellites and
other technological innovations help to effectively manage traffic in the town and the region.
According to Schlosser (2001), intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are systems that facilitate efficient use of road
and urban communication network using information, communication and control technologies. Enable effective
pooling of resources and objective. Provide information about the transportation process and integrate multiple modes
of transport into a single system.
Their field of application in terms of transport is quite broad. For example, to the safe management, electronic assistants
uniform speed, progressive navigation systems, onboard telematics and electronic toll systems.
Through intelligent transport systems, security is increased traffic-transport process, efficiency, quality of transport
infrastructure and transport (reduction of traffic congestion, prevent accidents, improve the flow of traffic ...), access to
transport information to individual administrators of infrastructure and transport operators. Their application also causes
productivity improvement activities of commercial entities using the transport infrastructure. Those areas will
contribute positively to reducing negative impacts on the environment, energy demands of transport, the cost of
building new transport infrastructure, developed economies of the transit time, ensure rational making decisions and
subsequently traffic management. All this contributions of intelligent transport systems was reflected in the satisfaction
of operators in the region and create a suitable environment for tourism, inward investment into the region, new
workforce, improve the quality of services provided, whether for transport, transport or trade.
4 INNOVATION STRATEGY OF TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS COMPANIES
The objective interest of transport companies cannot be only innovation. Conversely, transport companies should strive
for the so-called sustained innovation. According to Xiang Gang (2004), sustained innovation refers to the practice by
an innovator of launching and implementing innovation projects for products, techniques, markets, organizations,
management and systems.
Innovations are currently a prerequisite competitiveness of transport or logistics company. The economic crisis forced
most of the transport and logistics companies to savings in all business areas. On the other hand, we should realize that
the economic crisis for some time finish. The successful ones will just transport and logistics companies which will
have implemented an innovative strategy to invest in research and development and implement innovations. The basic
precondition for the creation and use of innovations in transport and logistics company is well worded and implemented
innovative strategy.
Innovation strategy is the innovative direction of transport (logistics) business on a selective basis, objectives, methods
and ways to fully utilize and develop the innovative potential of the business. This is a direction that its boundary,
which determines the potential of innovative strategies.
Innovative potential of the strategy can be defined as a measure of innovation strategy, which would be achieved by
optimal utilization of all sources of innovative strategies [10]. Its level depends on the level and quality of the individual
components of innovative resources strategy. Innovative sources of innovation strategy we understand the opportunities,
skills, knowledge, experience, inventions and innovations, especially in transport and logistics, which are available in
the enterprise, or is able to obtain in due time. Innovative resources strategy consists of four basic, interrelated modules,
namely: [10]
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 Data base
a. Bank of inventions,
b. Bank of innovative opportunities,
c. Bank of innovation,
 Knowledge base
Knowledge base obtained by concentrating knowledge. It provides space for the collection of all knowledge that can be
used in the innovation process [10]. The main purpose of the knowledge base is to provide space for an appropriate
combination of these skills into a successful innovation. During problem solving the knowledge base is looking for
information that the manager of transportation (logistics) needs to follow problem solving. The knowledge base must be
designed to allow efficient access to required knowledge and also allow storing the largest quantity of knowledge.
Data base contains all the unique information relating to innovation. It consists of Bank of inventions, Bank of
innovative opportunities and Bank of innovations [10]. Bank of inventions is a space for the search, creation, evaluation
and storage of inventions (suggestions, ideas, thoughts), which may be in the next phase in the shaping of innovation
strategy. Bank of innovative opportunities is a space to store and work with the identified innovation opportunities. It
also serves to store the innovative opportunities for transport and logistics company are not immediate importance. The
bank keeps all the innovation created by innovation and creating an environment for their effective management and
their conversion into a successful innovation strategy.
Innovation strategy is a summary of the strategic decisions on which are managed and carried out innovative activities
in the transport and logistics company. Based on the innovation strategy is further decision making relating to work
with information and knowledge to support innovation. The aim is to create a distinctive innovation strategy for the
transport and logistics company. Chrenková and Rostášová (2010) conducted a survey in 2010 with representatives of
the ten selected five leading companies and institutions operating in transport and logistics sector in the Žilina region.
The survey results showed that: (Chrenková, Rostášová, 2010)
 companies are increasingly aware of the need to innovate,
 the most common source of impulses for innovation are customers, competition, foreign firms and cooperation
with other institutions,
 in the innovation process, working with external institutions, 30 % of surveyed companies (most often a testing
ground for innovation),
 geographic location of the partner is not crucial for the company,
 40 % of surveyed companies have a stable and developed relationships with universities in the region,
 only 10 % of companies applying the results of research and development activities in the university practice.
5 THE ROLE OF EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS IN DEVELOPING AND
APPLYING INNOVATIONS IN TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS
Educational and scientific research institutions significantly affect the evolution and development of transport and
logistics sector. In the Žilina region, such institutions are University of Žilina and Transport Research Institute, Inc. In
2009, the University of Žilina in Žilina based Centre of Excellence for service systems and intelligent transport.
Centre of Excellence for systems and services of intelligent transport built on University of Žilina is the only of its kind
in the Slovak Republic, which deals with monitoring and evaluation of intelligent vehicles and transported objects,
assesses subsystems of intelligent infrastructure and participates in Traffic Control and monitoring of communications
traffic.
CEIDS aim is to create an excellent site for research and development systems and integrated transport services as a
precondition for the development of infrastructure companies with the use of knowledge technologies [9]. A center of
excellence, integration of the research and training teams from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of
Management and Informatics, Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, Civil
Engineering and the Faculty of Special Engineering University of Žilina.
Create of CEIDS also brought several multiplier effects. It is mainly about creating an environment for new
opportunities for cooperation, the introduction of new technologies, research in accordance with European and global
standards, implementation of new research methods, advanced instrumentation and laboratory equipment, improving
the feasibility of research tasks and to a considerable extent and increase the quality, effectiveness and attractiveness of
research for researchers and PhD of University of Žilina and in particular the possibility of progressive implementation
of results into practice.
The main areas of research of CEIDS are systems and intelligent transport services. CEIDS deals with the management
of crisis situations, for example through the use of OBUs and information systems to support the transport of dangerous
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goods. Airborne units are used to coordinate the transport of dangerous goods. The object of research of CEIDS is
further optimization problems in traffic networks by using communication and information infrastructure, addressing
security of transport processes, economic and non-economic effects intelligent transport systems, analysis of traffic and
transport processes for intelligent transportation, creation of computer model described structure of procedural and
functional architecture in the light of quality of services provided. CEIDS also pursues the objective of increasing
research and development and technological innovation potential of the University of Žilina, thereby ensuring greater
competitiveness and success in universities abroad.
CEIDS’s main benefits for the region are new knowledge and skills useful in the field of intelligent transport and
infrastructure [9]. Transport infrastructure is an important (key) element for the further development of the region,
attracting new investors, the movement of dangerous cargos and minimize the risks associated with environmental
pollution, that for the region had a negative impact, whether in tourism, public health or the additional costs associated
with the disposal of its consequences (short and long term).
Transport Research Institute, Inc. participates in drafting legislation in the field of transport. It is primarily aimed at
solving complex research and development problems associated with the formation of transport policy. (Chrenková,
Rostášová, 2010)
6 CONCLUSION
At present the transport and logistics companies try to ensure their competitiveness through innovation. To enable the
transport and logistics company carried out effective work with innovation is necessary to adopt and implement an
innovative strategy. Another important factor is cooperation. It is not only cooperation between the organizations
themselves, but also cooperation logistics and transport businesses with educational and scientific research institutions.
This cooperation is currently most common form of theses leadership and participation in state tests, student
professional practice, teaching material support, project collaboration, organization of joint conferences and the like.
(Chrenková, Rostášová, 2010). Level of development and transport infrastructure were among the key prerequisites for
economic development in the region. IDS through the application of advanced communications, information and
electronic technologies solve problems in the field of transport such as congestion, road safety and efficiency,
environmental protection.
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CHIEH-YU, L. Factors affecting innovation in logistics technologies for logistics service providers in China. In:
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WAGNER, S. M. Innovation Management in the German Transportation Industry. In: Journal of Business
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BABULAK, E. Next Generation of Transportation & Information Technologies. In: EATIS '09 Proceedings of
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LENDEL, V. Centrum excelentnosti pre systémy a služby inteligentnej dopravy a jeho prínos pre regionálny
rozvoj. In: Zborník medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie Vysoká škola jako facilitátor rozvoje společnosti a
regionu. 2010. Kunovice: Evropský polytechnický institut. str. 97 – 102. ISBN 978-80-7314-202-5.
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Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice - Series D Faculty of Economics and Administration 16 (2010).
Pardubice: Univerzita Pardubice. 2010. str. 178 – 191. ISSN 1211-555X. MK ČR E 19548.
[11] KUBINA, M.; SEGEČ, P. Mobilné podnikové systémy ako nová forma komunikácie v podnikoch. In: V.
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BOWERSOX, D. J.; CLOSS, D. J.; COOPEROOPER, M. B. Supply Chain Logistical Management. New York :
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CHAPMAN, R. L.; SOOSAY, C.; KANDAMPULLY, J. “Innovation in logistic services and the new business
model: a conceptual framework”, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol.
33 No. 7, pp. 630-50.
CHRENKOVÁ, A.; ROSTÁŠOVÁ, M. 2010. K problematike tvorby a rozvíjania poznatkov v dopravných
a logistických podnikoch v Žilinskom regióne. In: Vedecký monografický zborník Rozvoj manažmentu v teórii
a praxi. Žilina : EDIS – vydavateľstvo ŽU. ISBN 978-80-554-0294-9.
PONIŠT, S. Význam inteligentných dopravných systémov v doprave. In: Logistický monitor. Internetové noviny
pre rozvoj logistiky na Slovensku. ISSN 1336-5851. online [09-09-2010]. Dostupné na internete:
http://www.logistickymonitor.sk/en/images/prispevky/vyznam-inteligentnych-systemov.pdf.
MAJERČÁK, P. Prínosy a koncepcia Inteligentných dopravných systémov ako nástroja riadenia a regulovania
dopravy v rámci Slovenskej republiky. Júl. 2005. In: Logistický monitor. Internetové noviny pre rozvoj logistiky
na
Slovensku.
ISSN
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MATIAŠKO, K a kol. Inteligentný dopravný systém ako Integrovaný systém. In: Systémová integrácia 2005:
zborník prednášok na medzinárodnú konferenciu. Žilina: Žilinská univerzita, 2005. ISBN 80-8070-453-8.
DADO, M.; ZAHRADNÍK, J. a kol. 2007. Technológie a služby inteligentnej dopravy. 1. vyd. Žilina : Žilinská
univerzita, 2007. 378 s. ISBN 978-80-8070-691-3.
SOVIAR, J.; VODÁK, J. Klastrové kooperačné prístupy a ich základné prejavy v Slovenskej republike. In
Podnikání v podmínkách Evropské unie. Slezská univerzita v Opavě a Górnośląska Wyższa Szkoła Handowa
im. Wojciecha Korfantego. Katowice 2009. s. 370 - 379. ISBN 978-83-60953-24-2.
XIANG, G.; WANG, Y-L. Capabilities of the Enterprise's Sustainable Innovation: Key Factors and Evaluation
Model [J]. Chinese Journal of Management Science, 2004 (6): I37-I42.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
This publication is the result of the project implementation:
Centre of excellence for systems and services of intelligent transport, ITMS 26220120028 supported by the
Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.
"Podporujeme výskumné aktivity na Slovensku/Projekt je spolufinancovaný zo zdrojov EÚ"
ADRESS:
Ing. Viliam Lendel, Ph.D.
Department of Management Theories
Faculty of Management Science and Informatics
University of Zilina
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Zilina
e-mail: [email protected]
Ing. Michal Varmus
Department of Management Theories
Faculty of Management Science and Informatics
University of Zilina
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Zilina
e-mail: [email protected]
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TOWARDS JOB CHANGES – CASE STUDY TO ADDITIONAL PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES AT
THE EPI, LTD. KUNOVICE
Oldřich Kratochvíl, Antonín Malach
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd. Kunovice
Abstract: In contemporary social-economic conditions there occur frequent job changes caused by
appearing and disappearing of enterprises, their parts, needs of new services and other changes within the
market economy. The European Polytechnic institute, 1st private university in Moravia, the member of the
Association of Further Education Institutes goes towards social needs by providing several forms of
further education. We mention the Additional pedagogical studies1 which is a certain reflexion of needs of
an ingoing knowledge society. The aim of the studies is to make graduates acquire pedagogical capability
for a qualified and efficient performance of a demanding pedagogical practice in sequence to their
previous studies. Reasons of a change to a teaching occupation, structure of participants, content, methods
and forms of studies, cooperation with practice are analysed. The emphasis is put on the transition from
transmissive to constructivistic conception of education.
Key words: Additional pedagogical studies, key jurisdictions of a teacher, pre-concept, transmissive and
constructivistic conception of education.
1 REASONS OF A CHANGE TO TEACHING OCCUPATION
As we know, not all pedagogy faculty graduates go to work at schools they were prepared for. The main reason is the
fact that their initial salary is deep under the country average of jobs with university-education. On the contrary, it is the
staff from other jobs or those who have already started working at schools but do not have pedagogical education (pic.
1), who join the Additional pedagogical studies (thereinafter as APS). It is a difficult task for a person who used to work
in industry or services to become a professional teacher. A lot of effort is necessary from the pre-concept, i.e. yet built
one’s own imagination of an APS student about the teaching job which is based on life experience, secondary studies
knowledge, media knowledge or even talking of their own children about a contemporary school to completing the APS
study programs..
The way to a teaching profession is not as easy as it might seem. A role of a teacher is not based on communicating
something to pupils. Their multiple decision-making, judging and evaluation of pedagogical situations, keeping a
positive climate and discipline in a class, interaction of a teacher with pupils, colleagues, parents, superordinates
concerns the pedagogical, organisational as well as economical side or familiarising with pupils and creation of
individual strategies of their development.
A teacher’s reaction to pupils’ agressive behaviour and their sophisticated provocation e.g. in form of cyberbullying is
not simple at all. To be able to motivate pupils who clearly show their hatred of learning – it takes not just the
knowledge predominance, but also the organisational, methodical and psychical training so that a teacher can bear the
fire of criticism of teachers, schoolmates and get over difficult study barriers. No wonder that a well-known actor and
film director Zdenek Svěrák, originally a teacher, has announced that he would not dare succeeding in a contemporary
school.
PEDAGOGICÁL
FACULTY
part of graduates
PRIMARY
SECONDARY
SCHOOLS
PRACTICE
part of graduates
APS
Pic. 1 Sources of the Additional pedagogical studies participants.
Source: own
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The research organized by O. Kratochvíl in November 2010 within the group of sixty 12 and 13 APS participants who
study at the European polytechnic institute (thereinafter as EPI) shows that the reasons of transition nto a teaching
profession vary (see pic. 2). Most of the participants (41.4 %) are attracted by a long for a teaching job and almost the
same amount of students (39.7 %) admit that it is a way-out after losing a job. 8.6 % of them say that the reason is a
social reputation of this profession which is usually within the leading places of the Czech opinion polls. 10.3 % of the
study participants consider the teaching profession financially convenient in their situation.
My reason for accepting
a pedadogue
position was the
Otázka
č. 1
following:
a) Touha po tomto krásném povolání
b) Prestiž tohoto povolání
c) Finanční výhodnost tohoto
povolání
N= 60
39,7%
a)
b)
d) Východisko při ztrátě zaměstnání
c)
41,4%
10,3%
d)
8,6%
Pic. 2 Reasons leading the APS studies participants for a teaching profession.
Source: own
2 PARTICIPANTS OF THE ADDITIONAL PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES AT THE EPI
Total numbers of the API graduates (according to the Act No. 111/1998 Col. and the Act of pedagogical staff No.
563/2004 Col.) at the EPI since acquiring the accreditation of the Ministry of education, youth and sports of the Czech
Republic in 2007 are shown in the table No. 1.
Study programme
Secondary school teacher
Secondary school teacher – teacher of general-education subjects
Secondary school teacher – teacher of special subjects
Teacher of the primary school second grade
Special training master (in its original concept, now a teacher of practical lessons)
Secondary school teacher - teacher of practical lessons
Secondary school teacher - teacher of special training
Schoolmaster
TOTAL
Numbers
190
36 381
447
155
66
160
285
50
75
238
970
Tab.1 Structure of graduates of the Additional pedagogical studies. Source: own (according to the data of the EPI study
department of Kunovice, campus of Hodonín)
The table clearly shows that the number of students reaches up to a thousand people and that it relevantly influences the
educational structure and the level of pedagogical process in the regional education. More that one third is represented
by teachers of general-educational and special subjects at the secondary schools, a smaller part by teachers of the
second grade of primary school. A group of tea chers of practical education (previously special training masters) and
schoolmasters is numerously strong. We can notice that acquiring pedagogical knowledge and skills as well as
participants’ psyche and their will to overcome barriers are strehgthened during the studies.
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80
74
70
number of people
60
47
50
40
30
19
20
10
0
Věk
Doto30
30let
years old
Od30
30todo
50 50
letold
years
Nad
over50
50let
years old
Pic. 3: The age group of the APS participants at the EPI. Participants aged 50 and more are not an exception.
Source: own
The studies at the EPI are three semesters long. Some universities, e.g. the Economic university of Prague, providing
certificates of pedagogical eligibility for teaching economic subjects at the secondary and further education schools
already for many years, have started with a two-semester cycle with the total amount of 160 tutorial lessons.
Currently there are 140 participants, mostly women, studying at the APS at the EPI in the campus of Hodonín, mainly
between 30 and 50 years of age. A remarkable number of 29 participants is older than 50. It is understandable as people
of this age are often without university education and hadly can find a job. The studies broaden their gate to job market,
but also enriches their personal lives and personal expectations of participants.
60
52
52
number of people
50
40
30
20
10
2
2
0
Maturity
DIS
Second
University
degree
Third
University
degree
Pic. 4: Education of APS participants
Source: own
As we can see in pic. 4, half of the graduates with preliminary secondary education and half of them with university
M.A. education completed the studies in the last runs. A small percentage is represented by participants with higher
special education, Bachelors, EPI students and two PhD participants.
As Hodonín is on the border-line of the Czech and Slovak Republics, a considerable part of students, almost 30%, is
from Slovakia, which is a sign of long-lasting friendly relationships from the former Czecho-Slovak Federative
Republic.
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3 FOCUS OF STUDIES
The Additional pedagogical studies have a character of post-graduate studies and therefore it is being paid an
extraordinary attention from the point of view of personnel staffing, pedagogical level, material equipment,
organisational and other services.
3.1 CONTENT OF STUDIES
According to the accreditation of the Ministry of education, youth and sports from 2007 the content of studies are the
subjects of theoretical character such as Philosophy of education as well as of practical character such as Educator’s
workshop. Time grants of individual subjects are shown in the table No. 2. The effort was to compile balanced
proportions of theory, practice, individual study, seminar works, individual consultations and assessment forms.
Lesson grants
lecture
Output
seminar
1. Modul – Introduction to pedagogy and didactics
General pedagogy
10
4
Test
Introduction to didactics:
Didactics I. (general didactics)
14
2
Test
Didactics II. (special didactices)
18
2
Test
Theory of education
20
4
Test
Introduction to social pedagogy
16
2
Test
Philosophy od education
10
2
Test
Ethics for pedagogues
10
2
Test
Lessons in total
98
18
Partial exam per modul
2. Modul – Introduction to psychology
General psychology
8
4
Test
Psychology of a personality
16
4
Test
Pedagogical psychology
26
4
Test
Social interaction at schools
20
4
Test
Lessons in total
70
16
Partial exam per modul
Educator’s workshop (workshops to individual 4
16
Trainings with final
topics)
evaluation
Consultations to final theses
2
26
Oral exam and final thesis defense
Certificate of graduatíon
TOTAL
174
76
Tab. 2: Time range of education subjects in the APS at the EPI
We expect that the ongoing project, specifying descriptors for individual grades of university education coming out of
the European Q RAM within the National qualification frame (Q RAM) intentions, will bring particular stimuli for
improvement of the teachers’ education content.
3.2 TEACHERS
As stated before, the Additional pedagogical studies are a post-graduate type of studies. The significant part of
participants have already studied at another type of university. Therefore it requires quality university teachers.
Therefore half of the APS teachers are professors and associate professors, other hold the Ph.D., PhDr. and Ing. titles
and have long-year experience. The University Rector himself participates at the tutorial, an experienced educator from
various grades of schools and author of many significant pedagogical publicatioins. The teachers follow modern
pedagogical trends and they themselves publish in a magazine of their own university, make a speech at the school
conferences as well as at other institutes’ forums abroad and thus increase their qualification.
Current pedagogical science has been reaching the conclusion that teacher education should be knowledge-oriented. It
means it should open students the way towards teaching profession by putting them in pedagogical situations and
motivating them to experiment in these situations and search for themselves (self-reflexion) as well as relationships to
their pupils, subject matter and colleagues.1
The APS teachers keep expert discussions among themselves and these are transferred to students in a certain form. For
example in the disputes led about whether a school should bring up or not we incline to the opinion that a school should
positively contribute to improving life conditions in its whole difficulty. Stanislav Vrána, director of Zlín experimental
schools, states in an introduction to his book “Teaching methods” the following: Success and results of tutorial
significantly depend on a method. A method can have and should have influence on pupil’s character and quality of
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their mental work” (Vrána 1934, 43, s. 7). Within the educational process the attention is paid also to ethical education
from the methods of persuasion, example or solving of moral dilemmas, through the methods of authoritarianism, to
the methods of delegating with a task or function.
Teachers’ discussions concern the success rate of newly introduced methods, overcoming old ways of transferring the
subject matter regardless of student’s knowledge by understanding of constructivist notion of tutorial, diagnosing and
completing students’ preconcepts, optimising of final theses, strengthening of decisive preconditions of future teachers,
developing of school’s information system, but also actual events in our country such as the level of tests for the state
final exam, their use for university entrance exams etc..
3.3 COOPERATION WITH SCHOOL PRACTICE
Close cooperation of a university with practice is also important for the quality of the education process. In the White
book of tertiary education (Matějů a kol. 2009) and in the discussions accompanying preparation of a new Act on
tertiary education the emphasis is put on cooperation of a university with the application sphere.This requirement agrees
with the OECD international experts’ opinion in the fact that the weak part of the Czech university education is its too
big concentration on academic values, little involvement of experts from practice in all study levels. Just a little
attention is paid to a practical part of study programmes and insufficient preparedness of graduates for entering the job
market resulting from this (Veteška, Šebková 2010). How successful is the effort to ensure efficient cooperation which
is useful to both the school and enterprises?
The requirement of working out particular projects by students within the seminar, grade or graduate theses is at the EPI
supported by a long-term close cooperation of the school with the companies, offices, schools and other institutes. After
that the relations of mutual trust are created and enterprises or schools are willing to dedicate time of their staff to
efficiently focused project solution. On the other side talented students are able to work out their final thesis
appropriately to organisational, economic and technical problems of school development. After completing the course
the graduates are often employed at a given school or educational institute. A project “University as a facilitator of
development of the region and society” is another important mean of cooperation. Within its frames this year the EPI is
organising a conference of the same name for the seventh time. It pays attention to strengthening of mutual cooperation
with the application sphere (Rukovanský 2010). At the conference we can meet mayors, school directors,
representatives and staff of regional offices in both special and social, freer part of the programme, which has a special
character here in South Moravia. On the other hand the EPI teachers attend both regional (e.g. 3rd conference on the
cooperation of schools with practice in Uherský Brod) and country (University quality management in Brno, Adult
education AEDUCA in Olomouc, Pedagogical evaluation in Ostrava, Distance education in 2010 in Plzeň etc.)
conferences.
Let’s return again to a final thesis, a significant, time and intelligency-demanding part of a university study programme.
Except for the application of individual educational subjects a final thesis has a significant overlap from school to
practice. Frequent communication of a student with a thesis consultant, educator, staff of school or educational institute
usually creates closer, often long-lasting friendly relations. These arise already at the choice of the topic. There exists an
effort to connect a thesis topic with real possibilities and student’s focus, their interests, possibilities and perspectives.
The constructivist method can be applied at individual consultations to a final thesis rather than in common massive
tutorial. There are useful conditions for a detailed diagnostics of student’s preconcept. We can learn about their
cognitive, affective and ethical basis and together we can discover the way how to implement in their constructs the
elements by which we can reach fulfillment of presupposed aims.
A cood cooperation can last several years and has not just special, but also human dimension. It contributes to close
relations of a student to their Alma mater. At the same time the student can check their own strength in a new area of
the future pedagogical place of work, as is symbolically imprinted in the EPI emblem “Nosce te ipsum” (Know
yourself). Once we read through the final theses’ topics of the APS graduates from the past years, we get a piece of
history, development of both social and regional pedagogical effort resulting in a rich series of intended as well as
implemented projects of cooperation of the University with pedagogical practice.
3.4 ABOUT PEDAGOGICAL RESEARCH ACTIVITY
Most of the APS teachers share the special, publication and pedagogical research work. The European polytechnic
institute developes the research activity in several areas. Let’s mention the European social fund project which is being
implemented under the name “Course of human resources management for the primary and secondary school
management staff”, No. CZ.1.07/1.3.09/01.0004 within the Operations programme of Education for competitiveness.
The support provider is the Zlín region. Project implementation was initiated in 2009 and the presupposed date of
project termination is toward the end of 2011.
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The aim of the project is to develop professional managerial competences of the primary and secondary school
management staff in the area of communication, school information systems, modern pedagogical methods, project
management, school economy management, school crisis situations management and the ability to involve themselves
as well as their school in the regional community life. There are 24 study texts worked out for individual topics in total.
Within the pilot project there are 30 primary and secondary school management staff members involved in the studies.
By means of themselves the presupposes for development of innovations and reengineering of the main processes in
their ows schools are created. In these days a common conference of the course solvers and participants together with
the regional school section staff is being prepared, where significant pedagogical problems are going to be solved.
3.5 METHODS OF STUDIES
One of the skills of a future teacher is a skillful use of teaching, educational and training methods. During the historical
development a rich amount of such methods for human learning management have been created and these are available
to both a teacher and a pupil. The choice of adequate and efficient teaching, educational and training methods
significantly influences study results, progress in education as well as pupils’ interest in schools. We remind the
participants of a necessity of progressiveness and balancing of procedures, e.g. the fact that the orientation and
motivation methods should not be missing in the introduction, followed by practice (fixing) methods and finally at the
end of a given subject matter section neither application nor control ones in the adequate proportions.
We keep discussions with audience also about creating a positive climate at schools. The learning success supports
above all raise of interest and motivation for learning, active involvement of pupils in the process and also the use of
suitable teaching aids and didactic technology. The studies are implemented by the combination of tutorials and
individual work. The lecture consists of the introduction to the topic, formulation of requirements to students, building
teams, setting the seminar works. They induce basic focus of the tutorial and its organisation which is expressed in the
schedule (harmonogram) for each subject. It contains topics, study literature, data, lessons and rooms where individual
meetings run.
Output requirements are also clearly defined, e.g. working out seminar works, doing autodiagnostic and sharp tests,
number of obligatory lessons of attendance at the tutorial and the form of evaluation, i.e. by a credit, exam etc. From the
participants’ skills development point of view the project methods, case studies or problem methods, where adequate
problems are to be solved, are preferred. Continuous understanding of subject matter is checked by feedback
information with the use of modern e-Learning technology.
For each module subject the study text has been worked out and it is available in their full versions in a highly
developed school information system. In the text there are aims, questions to think about and particular tasks to be
solved formulated. Based on studied material and selected recommended literature the seminars are organized and led in
the form of panel, interactive discussions focused on the main topics of the school subjects. The audience even share the
mutual evaluation according to the criteria worked out. Thus the reflexion and critical evaluation of partial teaching
decisions, performances and other activities are strengthened and they constitute teaching mastership. The studies have
an external (distance) character with the use of information and communication technologies.
The teachers use training methods, workshops and e-learning elements with the emphasis on acquiring the skills and
eligibility of the audience for teaching activity. With some parts of the modules acquiring of skills by their practical
training and feedback is preferred. The cooperative teaching going on in small groups, where the participants cooperate
on problem solving, is productive.
The level of the studies is insured by several ways. The forms of parallel study control within the study subject is in the
form of written tests, essays in seminars etc. Each module subject is completed by a test. The EPI, s.r.o. has fully built
up a communication evidence and electronic testing system for the external studies. There the teacher follows the way
the individual audience have managed given tests and the system will evaluate the whole study group as well.
3.6 ORGANISATIONAL FORMS OF STUDIES
Organisational forms of teaching are closely connected to teaching methods. They mainly concern a place, teaching
environment, time, number of pupils, where the tutorial takes place. From the organisation and time point of view the
studies are divided into three semesters at weekends. As the synoptic table shows, the tutorial is divided in two
modules. The first one called Principles of pedagogy and didactics includes the subjects of general pedagogy, theory of
education, principles of social pedagogy and principles of didactics of general and special subjects, ethics for
pedagogues, philosophy of education.
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The secon module called Principles of psychology for pedagogues includes the subjects of general psychology,
psychology of a personality, pedagogical psychology, social interaction at school and pedagogue’s workshop. Direct
tutorial of both modules and students’ individual work amout to the total of 250 lessons. Individual modules are
completed by a partial exam.
The whole studies are then completed by a final exam with the level of a bachelor exam, where a professor is
a chairperson and associated professors are examiners. The final thesis has the same requirements as the bachelor one.
This concerns all the phases of creation from the choice of topic, its approval, appointing the head and opponent and
their paralell activities and documents worked out, plagiarism checking and depositing at the study department.
The contentual focus of the final thesis is directed on the link to a future function of a student and on a close
cooperation with a particular school and its problematics. The aims of the thesis in the first theoretical part follow the
evaluation of the knowledge situation in a given area. In the second practical part the student acquires the knowledge
from the project creation of a selected part of pedagogical problematics. During this student’s real contribution
consisting in individual processing of a part of the educational programme, in a detailed preparation of a teaching entity,
in the analysis of an educational problem including a variant proposal for a solution, in organisation of a more difficult
pedagogical task etc. is being followed.
The tutorial is carried out in renovated rooms in Hodonín equipped with dataprojectors, electronic interactive boards,
overhead projectors which students use for their presentations. In the area of education the methods of information and
communication technology (ICT) are being broadened. E-learning helps as one of the means at the increase of
qualification. Its application enables to save time and make it possible to study within the home environment. So far
multiple-choice tests are typical. Their improvement is based on the increase of teaching tasks in the development of
thinking.
Let us shortly mention Pedagogue’s workshop. It is a new initiative of the European polytechnic institute being checked
in this education programme and it is carried out in a form of workshops with a special regard to practicing of
pedagogical skills. It is about the practical application of the so-called “coaching of coaches” for the topics such as
pedagogue’s preparation for the lessons, communication in teaching, the art of persuasion, making of teaching aids,
facing the stress etc.
A part of the studies is external. It is the given phases of theoretical subjects, preparation of seminar works, processing
of a final theses according to the instructions of the head and according to tutor’s predispositions in the specialised
subject of Final thesis. One of the advantages of the external studies is one’s own organising of familiarisation with
necessary knowledge which enables to adjust time and place of studies with a job. It also saves costs for
accommodation, transport and lost wage. One of the disadvantages is a high drop-out of students, although they devoted
a certain effort, time and means to their studies as well as the lack of social contacts which is compensated e.g. by
e-mail communication.
Some skills can hardly be mastered by the external studies. In the teaching profession it is above all skills of quick
decision making, setting of individual tasks, evaluation of pupils’ performances, reactions to inappropriate behaviour,
timely praise, facilitating and motivating intervention, creating of understanding by an appropriate opinion exchange,
generating of ideas etc. External students must have a strong will, endurance and ability to individually organize the
studies and harmonize it with their job duties.
The fact that the APS students will acquire their own knowledge from this way of studying is an asset. Decrease of
population cause the rise of significant unused school capacities. A part of their capacity can change in the life study
centres1. The APS is carried out within the life study education. Its principal is shown in the picture No. 5.
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LIFE EDUCATION
Basic
Initial education
Further education
Middle
Tertiary
Hobby
General
Professional
Managed
Self-controlled
Formal /acquired in
an institution)
Reaching a degree of
education
Informal (on a
workplace)
Obtaining
a certificate
Informal. In course of
lifetime. Random and
planned (e.g. while
travelling)
Pic. 5 Further education in the life education system
Source: own
CONCLUSION
Actual social and economic system is typical with changes in the virtual market mechanism. These changes evoke also
job changes which are solved within the life education system. A lot of staff members add their pedagogical education
in the Additional pedagogical studies at the European polytechnic institute Hodonín campus. Thus the first private
university in Moravia is open to social needs which strengthen region’s educational profile. The interest in the abovementioned studies at the European polytechnic institute at the Hodonín campus is considerable. Due to the limited
capacity in this area not all the applicants can be satisfied by the University.
At the European polytechnic institute in the past years a system of productive teachers’ education has been created,
progressive models of university tutorial for the support of optimal teaching of students for creation of key teacher
competences have been developed. Therefore diferentiation of tutorial and application of interactive and team methods
are being strengthened, e-Learning elements are being broadened and the school information system is being optimised.
Expressed in broader conjunctions – due to notions of educational society teachers would deserve a higher care of the
society. In connection with recent pre-electional period this requirement could be strongly heard. A ratio of prevention –
repression and relation of teachers’ and policemen’s salaries here and world-wide was reminded. A character of
democratic or police country was deduced out of this relation, too.
In the past years the teaching profession has been made difficult not just by social requirements for the education level,
but also by increased demands of parents and the behaviour of pupils whom it is not easy to motivate in the school
environment under today’s amount of information. To acquire supremacy, admiration of pupils, to be able to solve
problems swarmed in children and youth’s heads requires managing modern teaching and educational methods focused
on interactive approaches.
Deflection from transmissive methods (accepting of ready-made knowledge) to development of thinking and
strengthening of pupils’ character by applicating of constructivist methods is a demanding task for teachers’ team.
Teaching in small groups, where interested and intensive reflection and self-reflection of students goes on, is efficient
but also economically demanding for the study time, number of teachers and teaching rooms. The European polytechnic
institute has an efficient long-term cooperation with the schools in the region. At the EPI a pedagogical project is being
solved towards the increase of the primary and secondary school management staff level in the Zlín region, which
supports teachers’ qualification. No highly-considered studies can provide knowledge and skills for all possible
eventualities of teaching profession. However, it prepares them by managing the key competencies and skills for this
significant and demanding profession, training of psychical resistence, suitable facilitative and motivation intervences
during the course.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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ADDRESS
H. prof. Ing. Oldřich Kratochvíl, Ph.D., Dr.h.c., MBA
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
Czech Republic
Doc. Ing. Antonín Malach, CSc.
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
Czech Republic
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RESEARCH OF INTERNATIONAL AND RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE IN MODELLING THE
CONSUMER MARKET
Meškov A. A., Musatov B. V., Sejfullaeva M. E.
РЭA им. Г.В. Плеханова
Abstract: The authors analyse the different theoretical approaches to modelling the social events. Grutman
and Leontiev MEC model, Howard and Sheta, Engel, Kollata and Blacwell, Markov models are thoroughly
analysed. The results are recommended for the forecasting of employment in the future.
Key words: Consumer market, modelling of consumer market, experience in modelling abroad and in
Russian Federation, analysis of chosen models, usage of model results, prognosis for the future
В маркетинге накоплен значительный опыт построения моделей поведения потребителей. Принципиальные
положения, апробированные в этих моделях, могут быть использованы для прогнозирования потребностей
в трудовых ресурсах и ожидаемого поведения граждан в отношении выбора занятости.
Выбор профессии и конкретного места ее применения (страна, регион, город, отрасль, предприятие)
справедливо рассматривать как особый вид поведения индивидуума на конкурентном рынке. Рынок труда
следует отнести к рынку типа C2B. Продавцами на таких рынках выступают отдельные граждане,
а покупателями – предприятия и организации.
Содержание существующих моделей поведения основано на анализе поведения субъектов рыночных
отношений как процесса принятия решения, состоящего из ряда отдельных, но взаимосвязанных стадий. Сюда
можно отнести модели, предлагаемые Котлером (Kotler F.), Никосиа (Nicosia F.), Ховардом (Howard J.A.)
и Шетом (Sheth Y.), Вебстером и Виндом (Webster F.E.и Wind Y.) и рядом других.
Обычно выделяют несколько этапов принятия решения:
 осознание потребностей (узнавание проблемы);
 формулирование ожидаемой пользы;
 сбор информации;
 оценка альтернативных вариантов решений;
 принятие решения;
 поведение после решения (выбора вида занятости).
Моделирование поведения людей на рынке труда направлено на выявление основных факторов, оказывающих
влияние на принятие решений о выборе профессии.
В большинстве подходов к построению поведенческих моделей принято выделять несколько групп факторов,
влияющих на выбор решения индивидуумов:
 мотивы принятия решений,
 совокупность внешних условий, воздействующих на формирование ценностей и норм человека, его
требований к параметрам и условиям будущей деятельности),
 процессы поиска и переработки информации, обучения, формирования отношения,
 процедуры выбора решений и оценки их последствий.
В условиях конкуренции большинство людей, выбирая профессию или принимая решение об ее изменении,
должны учитывать следующие факторы:
 требования рынка (спрос на отдельные специальности, требуемый уровень квалификации,
востребованные навыки и умения);
 условия и оплата труда на разных сегментах рынка;
 денежные и другие затраты по приобретению и совершенствованию профессиональной квалификации;
 собственные возможности человека (имеющиеся навыки и умения, потенциал их развития, финансовые
и другие возможности).
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Особую значимость в последнее время приобрели мотивационные модели поведения. Их основное достоинство
состоит в том, что они позволяют выявить важнейшие факторы внешней и внутренней среды, оказывающие
воздействие на выбор индивидуумом (или агентом) определенного вида занятости. Выделение таких факторов
позволит осуществлять целенаправленное воздействие на мотивацию различных групп населения в целях
достижения общей и структурной сбалансированности на рынке труда страны, отраслей и отдельных субъектов
Российской Федерации, и решения важнейших задач социально-экономического развития.
Ключевое значение ценностей в мотивации обосновал М. Рокич. Он определяет ценность как устойчивое
убеждение в том, что какая-либо форма поведения или конечного состояния существования является для
индивидуума предпочтительнее с личной или социальной точки зрения, чем противоположная форма
поведения или конечного состояния. Человеческие ценности характеризуются следующими основными
признаками:
 общее число ценностей, являющихся достоянием человека, сравнительно невелико;
 все люди обладают одними и теми же ценностями, хотя и в разной степени;
 ценности организованы в системы;
 истоки человеческих ценностей прослеживаются в культуре, обществе и его институтах и личности;
 влияние ценностей прослеживается практически во всех социальных феноменах, заслуживающих
изучения.
Рокич различает два класса ценностей: терминальные и инструментальные. Терминальные ценности он
определяет как убеждения в том, что какая-то конечная цель индивидуального существования заслуживает
(с личной и общественной точек зрения) того, чтобы к ней стремиться.
Инструментальные ценности – как убеждения в том, что определенный образ действий (например, честность,
рационализм) -с личной и общественной точек зрения - является предпочтительным в любых ситуациях.
Рокич доказал, что ценности являются мощной силой, движущей поведением людей во всех сферах жизни. По
нашему мнению, ключевую роль в формировании мотивации личности играют нормы и ценности личности
и той субкультуры, к которой она принадлежит. Наличие непосредственной взаимосвязи между мотивацией
и поведением субъектов рынка обуславливает возможность целенаправленного воздействия на поведение через
выявление ценностей индивидуума и построение на их основе соответствующих мероприятий. Одним из
подходов, позволяющих выявить ценности индивидуума, является модель МЕС, которая позволяет точно
определить ключевые направления такого воздействия.
МЕС - means-end chain - можно перевести на русский язык как цепь способов перехода к конечным состояниям.
Основная идея подхода заключается в том, что продукт является способом (means), с помощью которого
индивид достигает желаемого конечного состояния (end). Связь между продуктом и личностью
устанавливается посредством комплекса ассоциаций (chain), соединяющих между собой атрибуты продукта,
выгоды от его использования и желаемые конечные состояния.
В основе модели поведения лежит стремление индивида достичь конечного состояния, определяемого системой
ценностей. Роль ценностей в мотивации является общепризнанной. Самые известные методы
психографической сегментации основываются на определении ценностных ориентаций индивидуума: VALS,
LOV и т.д. Ценности задают направление всей жизнедеятельности человека, прослеживаются во всех
социальных феноменах, задают конечную цель существования индивидуума.
На основе подходов Гутмана и Леонтьева можно предложить модель влияния ценностей на модель поведение
(рис. 1).
Жизненный опыт и знания определенным образом связаны с ценностными представлениями. Когнитивная
психология утверждает, что знания не хранятся в памяти в виде разрозненных воспоминаний, но
сгруппированы определенным образом в зависимости от ценностных представлений, приобретенного опыта,
убеждений и т.д. Подобная организация памяти позволяет индивиду классифицировать новые, незнакомые
объекты (например, сферы деятельности), перегруппировывать уже известные объекты в зависимости от
поступающей извне информации, а также определять, в какой степени данный объект или образ действия
соответствуют системе ценностей и убеждений.
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Рис. 1. Влияние ценностей на модель поведения.
Подход МЕС рассматривает процесс выбора на четырех иерархических уровнях. В случае выбора
специальности на первом уровне находятся атрибуты или характеристики будущей профессии. Атрибуты
интересны индивидууму не сами по себе, а в силу следствий, к которым они ведут.
Следствие – это воздействие, которое оказывает на индивида наличие данного атрибута или комплекса
атрибутов. Функциональное следствие можно охарактеризовать как физический, переживаемый человеком
опыт во время работы по избранной специальности. Психологическое следствие определяется как
эмоциональное переживание, вызванное выбранной деятельностью. Оно может выражаться в чувстве
удовольствия или неудовольствия, социального порицания или поощрения. Например, если рабочее место
работника плохо организовано (атрибут), то у него может сложиться ощущение, что он «безразличен для
компании» (психологическое следствие). Таким образом, следствия, как можно понять из приведенных выше
примеров, могут иметь как положительную, так и отрицательную валентность.
Получая некий опыт и переживая соответствующее ему эмоциональное состояние, индивидуум соотносит его
со своей системой ценностей. Этот уровень обуславливает глубинную мотивацию человека и определяет его
субъективную оценку: хочет ли он и дальше испытывать эти ощущения и эмоции, или нет.
Использование модели МЕС дает несколько преимуществ. Во-первых, данная модель позволяет провести
анализ предложения работодателя и удовлетворенности сотрудников в целом с точки зрения их соответствия
системе ценностей, как наиболее стабильной мотивационной конструкцией, которая позволяет с высокой
точностью объяснять и прогнозировать поведение работников.
Во-вторых, подход МЕС позволяет глубже понять потребности и предпочтения работников: это не только
позволяет правильно выстроить коммуникации с ним, но и снижает вероятность ухода ценных сотрудников
в результате низкой степени их удовлетворенности.
И, в-третьих, зная систему ценностей работника, компания может лучше понять, какие атрибуты лежат
в основе формирования положительного отношения работника к условиям и оплате труда.
Таким образом, ценности играют ключевую роль при формировании мотивации. Прямая взаимосвязь между
мотивацией и поведением обуславливает возможность для компании повысить эффективность системы
управления человеческими ресурсами. Можно заключить, что поведение индивидуума при выборе вида
деятельности определяется внутренней и внешней мотивацией.
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МОДЕЛЬ ХОВАРДА - ШЕФА (HOWARD - SHETH)
Модель Ховарда — Шефа представляет собой серьезную попытку обобщения ранее предпринимавшихся
систематических усилий в области разработки теорий процесса принятия решений индивидуумом.
К наиболее важным отличительным признакам модели относится четкое выделение трех уровней или стадий
в процессе принятия решения:
1) решение сложной проблемы;
2) решение незначительной проблемы;
3) установившееся (стереотипное) поведение
Упрощенная схема модели Ховарда — Шефа представлена на рисунке 2. Модель включает в себя четыре
основные группы переменных, а именно:
 -исходные факторы;
 -механизмы восприятия и обучения;
 -результаты и
 -экзогенные (т.е. внешние) переменные.
Исходные факторы включают в себя три различные группы стимулов или источников информации, которые
находятся во внешней среде. Объективные инструментальные характеристики специальностей, видов
деятельности, а также их вербальные и визуальные отличительные особенности (символические стимулы)
представляются организациями и предприятиями, предлагающими образовательные услуги и рабочие места.
Стимулы третьей группы определяются социальной средой, в которой действует человек (семья, референтные
группы, социальный класс). Все три вида стимулов являются исходными данными, которые характеризуют
определенный вид деятельности в глазах потенциального работника.
Механизмы восприятия и обучения. Центральным компонентом модели Ховарда — Шефа является группа
психологических переменных, которые вступают в действие в процессе принятия решения индивидуумом.
Ставя подобные механизмы в основу рассматриваемой модели, Ховард и Шеф трактуют их в качестве
абстрактных понятий, которые не имеют четкого определения и не поддаются непосредственному измерению.
Некоторые из переменных относятся к механизмам восприятия и описывают способы получения и обработки
информации, которую индивидуум получает за счет исходных стимулов и остальных частей модели. Например,
состояние неопределенности стимулов характеризуется неуверенностью человека в отношении точного
значения получаемой им информации. Ситуация искажения восприятия возникает в том случае, если
индивидуум трактует получаемые им данные таким образом, чтобы она соответствовала имеющимся у него
запросам и опыту.
К данной группе относятся также механизмы обучения или познания, которые характеризуются имеющимися у
каждой личности целями, данными о входящих в его воображаемый набор специальностей, видов
деятельности, критериями оценки альтернативных вариантов, предпочтениями и намерениями. Установление
определенного характера взаимосвязи (взаимодействия) между различными механизмами восприятия и обучения и переменными других компонентов модели, является отличительной чертой модели Ховарда - Шефа.
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Рис. 2. Модифицированная модель Ховарда – Шефа.
Модель описывает ряд результирующих факторов, которые связаны с некоторыми соответствующими им
переменными механизмов восприятия и обучения (внимание, осведомленность, отношения и взгляды,
намерения) и возникают в процессе принятия решения.
Экзогенные переменные - подобные внешние факторы должны рассматриваться компанией при анализе рынка
труда. К числу наиболее значимых экзогенных переменных относятся: личностные характеристики человека,
время, имеющееся в его распоряжении, финансовое положение.
Стремясь объяснить лежащие в основе указанных переменных взаимосвязи, Ховард и Шеф провели испытание
разработанной ими модели на выборке фактических данных о принятии решений. Результаты исследования
показали, что индивидуумы отличаются систематическим характером использования информации
и формирования отношения к той или иной торговой марке.
В разработанной модели выбора Ховард и Шеф сосредоточились на анализе процесса реакции человека на
различные стимулы. Модель явно демонстрирует роль формирования отношений личности к объектам выбора
как ключевого этапа в процессе принятия решения.
Установленная учеными взаимосвязь между отношениями и действием лежит в основе большинства
проводимых исследований восприятий на образовательных услуг. Так, учебные заведения разрабатывают
рекламные сообщения в надежде на то, что они вызовут желаемое изменение отношения потенциальных
абитуриентов, которое является необходимым фактором для получения определенной поведенческой реакции.
Отношение представляет собой определенную манеру суждения о каком-либо объекте или идее, которая
сформировалась посредством познавательной оценки информации, на основе эмоциональных реакций
и прошлого опыта. Отношение может иметь положительный или отрицательный характер, быть преходящим
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или долговременным, а также вести к положительной или отрицательной реакции.
Можно выделить три основных составляющих отношения:
Познавательный компонент. Представляет собой мыслительный элемент осведомленности, знания
и понимания. Он может рассматриваться в качестве «самоубеждения».
Эмоциональный компонент. Представляет собой оценку, принятие или неприятие, которые составляют
чувственную основу отношения. За счет этого рекламное обращение может воздействовать на эмоции целевой
аудитории.
Поведенческий компонент. Тенденции к совершению определенных действий, которые возникают на основе
отношений или взглядов. Они могут быть выражены в том или ином измерении намерения в области выбора
специальности и вида деятельности.
МОДЕЛЬ ЭНГЕЛЯ - КОЛЛАТА - БЛЕКВЕЛЛА (ENGEL - KOLLAT - BLACKWELL)
Модель поведения потребителя Энгеля — Коллата — Блеквелла первоначально разрабатывалась с целью
использования в качестве способа систематизации быстро накапливаемых знаний в области реакций
потребителей. Как и модель Ховарда — Шефа, она претерпела ряд модификаций, направленных на повышение
ее описательной способности и прояснение характера основных взаимосвязей, существующих между ее
составными частями. На рисунке 3 представлена последняя версия данной обобщенной модели, которая
включает в себя четыре основных элемента:
 центральное контролирующее звено;
 механизм обработки информации;
 процесс принятия решений и
 воздействия внешней среды.
Центральное контролирующее звено выступает в качестве своеобразного «мозгового центра», деятельность
которого основана на использовании четырех психологических факторов в качестве фильтров, через которые
осуществляется отбор стимулов, влияющих на процесс принятия решения индивидуумом.
Центральное контролирующее звено состоит из следующих четырех элементов: 1) хранимая информация
и прошлый опыт, которые служат в качестве внутренних источников информации в процессе рассмотрения
данного продукта и альтернативных вариантов; 2) критерии оценки характеристик объектов выбора, которые
используются конкретной личностью при рассмотрении возможных альтернатив; 3) общие
и частные взгляды человека, которые оказывают влияние на выбор и 4) основные или долговременные
личностные характеристики, которые определяют способ реакции индивидуума на различные альтернативные
варианты.
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Рис. 9.6 Модель Энгеля — Коллата — Блеквелла
Механизм обработки информации включает в себя процесс выборочного восприятия индивидуумом
направленной на него информации, возникновение внимания, понимания и сохранение данных
о специальностях и видах деятельности (т.е. стимулов), которые поступают от компаний, действующих на
рынке труда, и других источников. В соответствии с положениями модели, для того, чтобы сообщения прошли
через систему фильтров и достигли центрального контролирующего звена, индивидуум должен получить
информацию, привлекающую его внимание, понять ее и запомнить. Таким образом, указанные четыре
направления восприятия обеспечивают информацию, которая фильтруется или выборочно обрабатывается
центральным контролирующим звеном.
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Процесс принятия решений в модели охватывает пять основных этапов:
 распознавание проблемы,
 внутренний поиск данных и оценка,
 внешний поиск данных и оценка,
 принятие окончательного решения,
 оценка результатов принятия решения.
Количество этапов, фактически присутствующих при принятии решения конкретным человеком, зависит от
степени сложности решаемой проблемы. Например, при рассмотрении сложных проблем индивидуум проходит
каждый из пяти указанных этапов; при решении привычных проблем он переходит от внутреннего поиска
данных непосредственно к совершению покупки.
Четвертый — и последний — элемент модели охватывает воздействия факторов внешней среды, которые
могут повлиять на поведение личности на различных стадиях процесса принятия решения. К числу
рассматриваемых внешних факторов принадлежат: уровень доходов, культура, семья, социальное положение
и физические характеристики человека. Предполагается, что каждый из этих факторов способен заблокировать
или
изменить
процесс
принятия
решения.
Таким
образом,
эти
переменные
выступают
в качестве помех.
Для прогнозирования предложения трудовых ресурсов могут быть также использованы идеи стохастических
моделей поведения, основанные на использовании цепей Маркова.
Наиболее распространенной моделью для анализа поведения работников в краткосрочной перспективе является
модель Маркова первого порядка 1. В рамках данной модели предполагается, что результат последнего решения
оказывает
влияние
на
вероятность
выбора,
например,
определенной
специальности
в последующий период, но что прочие предыдущие выборы не имеют такого значения. Например,
последовательности АБ и ББ должны вести к одинаковому прогнозу вероятности вида занятости А при третьем
выборе, так как в обеих последовательностях на последнем месте стоит выбор Б. Для анализа эффекта каждой
последовательности необходимо использовать модель Маркова второго порядка, в которой учитывается
информация о двух последних выборах.
Модель Маркова первого порядка может быть проиллюстрирована на примере рынка с тремя видами занятости.
Допустим, что процесс выбора определенной специальности группой индивидов описывается приведенной
ниже перекрестной матрицей вероятностей, полученной в результате социологического опроса.
Место
работы
(специальность)
в
момент времени 1
А
Б
В
Место работы (специальность) в момент времени 2
А
Б
0,8
0,1
0,3
0,6
0,4
0,3
Рис. 4. Матрица перекрестных вероятностей.
В
0,1
0,1
0,3
Данные матрицы говорят о том, что выбор желаемой специальности А в период времени 1, оказывает
значительное влияние на вероятность того, что сделанный выбор останется неизменным в момент времени 2.
С другой стороны, выбор С лишь в малой степени увеличивает вероятность того, что С будет отдано
предпочтение во втором периоде. Это же относится и к специальности В.
На основе приведенной информации можно сделать вывод, что В и С достаточно схожи, в то время как
А занимает обособленное положение. Более того, наблюдаемая группа индивидов отдает явное предпочтение
А, а В и С рассматриваются ими в качестве равноценных заменителей в случае отсутствия возможностей А.
Приведенная в таблице информация может быть использована для прогнозирования будущей занятости. Пусть,
например, в момент времени t=1 количество желающих освоить специальности А, Б и В соответственно равны
N(1)А = N(1)Б= N(1)В=100.
Используя представленную выше информацию матрицы перекрестных вероятностей, рассчитаем прогнозные
значения выбора специальностей в период t=2:
1
Ревюз Д. Цепи Маркова. М.: РФФИ, 1997
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N(2)А = N(1)А *0,8 + N(1)Б *0,3 + N(1)В*0,4 = 80 + 30 + 40 = 150
N(2)Б = N(1)А *0,1 + N(1)Б *0,6 + N(1)В*0,3 = 10 + 60 + 30 = 100
N(2)В = N(1)А *0,1 + N(1)Б *0,1 + N(1)В*0,3 = 10 + 10 + 30 = 50
Кроме того, перекрестные вероятности моделей Маркова могут служить в качестве одного из способов оценки
способности данной специальности или вида занятости «удерживать» работников, а также возможность
«вступать в союз» с другими видами занятости. Рассмотренная выше в примере простая модель Маркова может
быть усовершенствована несколькими способами. Модель можно усложнить таким образом, чтобы в ней
учитывалась неоднородность анализируемых групп трудовых ресурсов. В этом случае необходимо составить
отдельные матрицы вероятностей для каждой из выделяемых групп.
Получаемые на основе простых моделей Маркова результаты до сих пор не имели самостоятельной ценности с
точки зрения прогнозирования, а служили лишь для учета ценности места работы или специальности со
стороны населения.
Еще одним видом моделей, который широко применяется для анализа проблем переключения индивидов,
является линейная модель обучения. Лежащие в ее основе гипотезы сходны с положениями моделей Маркова.
В рамках данной модели предполагается, что вероятность определенного выбора изменяется на определенную
величину в зависимости от результата рассматриваемой ситуации выбора.
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THE ANALYTICAL PHASE IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS TOWARDS WORKING
TIME ARRANGEMENT
Lucia Murínová
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Abstract: This paper presents the importance of the analytical phase in decision making process towards
working time arrangements. The main aim of this phase is based on the determination of the set of work
time arrangements which are feasible according to external and internal conditions of the enterprise. The
paper deals with aspects, which should be considered in this phase and introduces methods, which can be
used for an achievement of its main aim.
Key words: Working Time Arrangement, Job Analysis, Decision Making Process, Analytical Phase,
Flexibility, Flexible Working Time
INTRODUCTION
The working time arrangement defines when, where and how work gets done. It has always been subject to change, but
the pace of change is now more rapid than ever. Many factors are driving current developments. These include
demographic, structural, social, international and technological changes, among other things.
Although changes in working time arrangements differ by country, certain trends can be identified. The concept of
standard hours is being replaced by flexible hours, compressed working weeks, diverse shift arrangements etc.
Technological developments reduce the need for employees to be collocated in a permanent place of work and, along
with globalization, encourage mobility of workers/corporations who may work/live/spend across international borders.
The management of each enterprise has to deal with question how to manage a labour relation with particular employee
and how to organize his or her work time. Many of them solve this question as routine or they rely on habits. However
the choice of the working time arrangement is a serious decision problem and it should be solved by methods, which are
appointed and designated for this type of tasks. Only then an effectiveness of a transformation process of the enterprise
can be enhanced.
DECIOSION MAKING TOWARDS WORKING TIME ARRANGEMENT
The management of enterprises has to deal with different situations and solve different decision problems. Decision
making is a process in which an individual decision maker contemplates a choice of certain action and evaluates
possible solutions. When a decision maker has to choose an action among several alternative actions, he usually wants
to select the "best" one according to certain criterion.
The decision making process comprises four phases – the diagnostic and recognitive phase, the analytical and
systematic phase, the optimizing and solving phase and the phase of realization and verification. [1]
From the next point of view the decision making process cyclic character and it can be divided into eight stages – the
problem recognition, the problem analysis, the determination of evaluation criteria, the determination of the set of
feasible solutions, the evaluation of the utility value for all feasible solutions, the choice of solution, the realization of
the chosen solution and the verification of the realized decision. [2]
We are able to see an analogy between these ideas and we can say that decision making towards working time
arrangement is decision making process, which comprises four phases according to previous ideas – the diagnostic
phase, the analytical phase, the optimizing phase and the phase of realization. The diagnostic phase consists of the
detailed analysis of the decision problem, its specification and the determination of evaluation criteria. The analytical
phase consists of the determination of the set of feasible solutions. The optimizing phase consists of the evaluation of
the utility value for all feasible solutions and the choice of solution. The phase of realization consists not only of the
realization of the chosen solution, but also of the verification of the realized decision (figure 3).
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Figure 1: Phases of decsion making process [1, 2]
The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the analytical phase of this process. The primary set of possible
solutions in each decision problem regarding working time arrangement is determined by the legal framework of
a particular state. The main goal of the analytical phase is the reduction of the possible solutions according to external
and internal conditions of the particular enterprise. Then we get a set of feasible solutions.
The set of possible solutions in decision making towards working time arrangement
The primary set of possible solutions determined by the Slovak legal framework has to be known before its reduction.
According to the Slovak Labour Code the labour relation between employer and employee can be characterized by
several characteristics. These characteristics determine a difference between individual work time arrangements and
represent individual employer decisions towards certain labour law relation:
 The form of a labour law relation
 The duration of a labour law relation
 The work time per week
 The distribution of work time
 The basic work time per day
 The time account balancing period
 The overtime work
 The alternation of employees at the same workplace
 The workplace
The labour law relations may be based not only on employment contract, but also on agreements on work performed
outside an employment relationship. The Labour Code distinguishes work performance agreement, agreement on work
activities and agreement on temporary work for students. The form of a labour law relation has then these values the labour law relation based on employment contract, the labour law relation based on work performance agreement,
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the labour law relation based on agreement on work activities and the labour law relation based on agreement on
temporary work for students.
The duration of employment relationship may be defined explicitly in the employment contract, but doesn’t have to.
If it is agreed in writing, it is called fixed term employment relationship. The duration of a labour law relation has then
two values – The definite period and The indefinite period.
The labour code sets maximum weekly working time of an employee 40 hours. It also allows contract concluded for
a period shorter than the weekly working time. Weekly working time can then have infinite number of values. However
for management decision making is necessary to distinguish only between following values – The full time employment
and The part-time employment.
The employer may distribute work time evenly. However if the character of the work or operating conditions does not
permit work time to be distributed evenly in individual weeks, the employer may distribute working time unevenly. The
distribution of work time has then two values – Even and Uneven.
The basic work time per day expresses a time segment, when the employee shall be obliged to be present at the
workplace during work day. This characteristic is sometimes called as core hours. Work time may not exceed 12 hours
within 24 hours therefore this characteristic can have infinite number of values too. However for management decision
making is necessary to distinguish only, if basic work time takes whole work shift, part of it or if there is no basic work
time. The basic work time per day has then three values - The whole work shift, The part of the work shift and No basic
work time.
The time account balancing period expresses time period, during which employee shall achieve the determined work
time. It has these values – Day, Week and Month.
The overtime work expresses if on particular working position is realized overtime work or not. This characteristic has
two values – Yes and No.
The alternation of employees at the same workplace expresses if employees alternate at the same workplace
according to a certain schedule. This type of organizing work time is called shift work and also job sharing. Although
shift work is defined only for employment relationship, alternation of employees at the same workplace according to a
certain schedule is possible also when their work is performed outside an employment relationship. This characteristic
has two values – Yes and No.
The workplace expresses a place from which work is performed. It has two values - The employer's premises and The
another agreed place outside the employer's premises.
These characteristic can be modeled by variables with finite sets of values. Each work time arrangement can be then
defined as:
a  (a1 , a 2 , a3 ... a9 )
(1)
Variable ai models i-th characteristic of given work time arrangement and ai  Ai. Ai can be defined as set of all possible
values for i-th characteristic. The primary set of possible solutions of our decision problem can be then defined as
cartesian product of sets of characteristic values:
A1  A2  A3  ...  A9
(2)
[3, 4, 5]
THE ANALYTICAL PHASE IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS TOWARD WORKING TIME
ARRANGEMENT
The realization of the analytical phase requires decision problem recognition and its understanding. We will consider
two different decision problems. The aim of both cases is to design or to change a working time arrangement and to
enhance an effectiveness of the enterprise transformation process. However a first case doesn’t take the change of
a work load into account and a second case concentrate just on this change. The analysis in both cases should relate to
a particular working position and it should be done for each working activity, which is performed on this position.
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The analytical phase in first decision problem should give answers on following questions:
 Is it possible to change a workplace? / Is a workplace transmittable?
 Does a particular time segment exist, during which an employee has to be present at the workplace?
 Can an employee adjust a working time schedule? / Is a working activity transmittable in time?
According to answers on these questions management of the enterprise will gain following information:
 The feasibility of working place outside the employer's premises.
 The feasibility of all possible time account periods.
 The length of a required basic working time.
 If an alternation of employees on a workplace is needed.
If we would like to know, if it is possible to change a workplace, we have to know all tools and equipments, which are
using at this workplace. We have to also know a way of cooperation considered employee with other staff and
customers. We have to know working conditions of all alternative workplaces. We have to know, it an employee is able
to work independently. The feasibility of working place outside the employer's premises should be determined after
deeply consideration of previous factors.
If we would like to know, if an employee is able to adjust a working time schedule, we have to know deadlines for all
his/ her working activities. We have to know, if these working activities have to be performed as soon as they appear or
their performance can be delayed. The time of possible delay should be known too.
The length of basic working time depends on the number of working time activities, which have to be performed
immediately after their appearance. If their appearance isn’t able to predict, an employee has to be present at the
workplace and prepared to perform work too.
When the needed basic working time is longer than the maximum weekly working time, it is called continuous
operation. In this case an alternation of employees on a workplace is needed.
The analytical phase in second decision problem should give answers on following questions:
 Does the considered change represent an increase or decrease of a workload?
 It is known a duration of this change?
 How large is a considered change of a workload?
 Has it appear ever before? How often is it appearing?
 Is needed special qualification for its performance?
According to answers on these questions management of the enterprise will gain following information:
 If a current weekly working time is satisfactory or not.
 If a considered change of a workload is finite or not.
 If a considered change of workload is shorter then maximum weekly working time.
 If it is able to make a schedule or predict changes of workload.
 If it is able to perform a considered change of workload by newcomer or it has to be carry out by current
employees.
When appear a change of a work load, we have to know if the need of work force have increased or decreased at first.
Then we have to know, how long it will last. In the case of decreased need of work force, by part-time employment for
finite or definite period. In the case of increased need of work force, the effectiveness of each possible solution has to be
evaluated.
When it is able to predict changes of workload, the management of the enterprise is able to set a working schedule with
uneven distribution of working time.
In other case have to be calculated a cost of an adapting process of the newcomer and a cost of the overtime work.
The determination of mentioned information can be realized by the workplace analysis, by the psychological analysis of
an employee, by the identification of management abilities, by the cost calculation, and by the analysis of an external
environment.
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CONCLUSION
This paper presents the importance of the analytical phase in decision making process towards working time
arrangements. We can see that this phase of decision making process can significantly contribute to the reduction of the
possible solutions according to external and internal conditions of the particular enterprise, what is leading to the
decrease of the decision problem complexity. However mentioned analysis can contribute also to consideration of
solutions, which could be forgotten or ignored.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This work has been supported by the grant VEGA 1/0457/112
LITERATURE
[1]
ČESTNĚJŠÍ, A. Manažérske rozhodovanie. Vydavateľstvo UK. Bratislava, 2004. ISBN 80-223-1490-0.
[2]
FOTR, J.; DĚDINA, J.; HRŮZOVÁ, H. Manažerské rozhodování. Praha : Ekopress, 2003.
ISBN 80-86119-69-6.
[3]
Zákon č. 311/2001 Z. z. Zákonník práce v znení neskorších predpisov.
[4]
TULEJOVÁ, L.; KUCHARČÍKOVÁ, A. Working Time Arrangement Options in The Slovak Republic.
In: Journal of Competitiveness. Univerzita Tomáše Bati ve Zlíně Fakulta managementu a ekonomiky. Zlín 2010.
ISSN 1804-1728.
[5]
KUČINA, P. Flexibilní formy práce a jejich právní úprava. Praha : Výzkumný ústav bezpečnosti práce. 2007.
ISBN 978-80-86973-54-8.
ADRESA
Ing. Lucia Murínová
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Fakulta riadenia a informatiky
Katedra makro a mikroekonomiky
Univerzitná 8215/1
01026 Žilina
tel.: 0910 515036
e-mail: [email protected]
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PRODUCT POSITIONING – CREATION OF APPROPRIATE COMPETITIVE PORTFOLIO IN
SERVICE COMPANY
Margaréta Nadányiová1, Jozef Strišš2
1
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Evropský polytechnický institute, s.r.o. Kunovice
2
Abstract: This paper deals with the problematic of product´s positioning and position maps creation in the
order to satisfy customer´s needs - to create attractive product portfolio. There in the paper is described
perception map creation and its significance considering searching of appropriate market position.
Key words: market position, target market, perception map, competitive advantage, product positioning,
product portfolio, marketing management, market segmentation
After delimitation of target market – every company defines market position of their products/services. Decision is to
choose an appropriate position in given segment. Every market portfolio needs an individual identity. There is
necessary to choose strategic market position – different from competitors. Market position is a psychological
phenomenon – complex of perceptions, feelings and visions made by the consumer about the product in the comparison
with another. Company´s task is to define the best and strongest market position of its services in the consumer´s
consciousness. “Positioning is not what you make with the product - but what you make with the potential consumer´s
mind. Essential is the position of the product of yours in the mind of potential consumer.” Market position definition
represents portfolio orientation project in order to obtain significant valuable place in the consumer´s mind on the target
market. It is one of the long-lasting market success critical moments. [2]
Managers have to know how the consumers perceive their services, with which services they compare them, which
services finds them different and in which ways. They have to know which service´s attributes are important for the
consumer and how consumer´s perceive the service regarding their properties. In the case of services there is necessary
to know about potential substitution of theirs with a material product. Successful company must know how the
customers perceive an ideal service. Therefore they have to research the competitors from the consumer´s view.
Perceiving of service and its market position affects service´s attributes (parameters, time, place of providing,
qualitative issues etc.), situation´s attributes (surroundings, environment) and consumer´s personal aspects
(e.g. personality, motives, experience etc.)
Searching and setting of market position refer to market segment definition. After market segment definition and
selection the company must decide which position in given segment will be covered. Following this decision there will
be marketing mix for chosen target groups created.
Market position searching and defining depends from the perceiving of the service by the consumer. Company´s role in
this process is to convince the consumer about market position of offered service. Searching and definition of service
position is oriented on market but is performed mainly in the consumer´s mind. Process of market position definition
could be integrated into product policy - however its significant toll is manly promotion. Successful process of market
position definition is determined also by other marketing mix tools as distribution, price, or in the sphere of services
also personnel. By homogeneous services is the definition of clear or different position very important (but quite
difficult). Because of this reason is the main goal of the whole process to affect customer´s perception of the service by
precise definition of market position. Market position is not about service´s attributes but about perception of
consumers. Basic terms of effective searching of market position are: [1]

uniqueness – which enable the service to differ from the competitors;

importance – should ensure that given aspect of the service will be significant for the consumer;

credibility – should be ensured by objective information and facts about the portfolio.
By the definition of market position the company study how is their service perceive in order of important attributes,
how it is perceive in comparison with competitors and if is necessary to hold or change the given position. By the
entrance of new service on the market first thing which must be finding out is – which attributes are significant for the
consumers. Development and market presentation of new service must focus on these – preferred attributes. Next thing
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which must be discovered is the service´s similarity and difference to competitors. Technique of perception maps
creation (sometimes called position map) makes possible to define market position of given company´s portfolio and
also portfolio of competitors services or the company´s general market position. The map enables to define similarity or
difference of examined services. It shows main aspects of the service, which will ensure successful entrance on the
market. It shows the market niches, which could be a market opportunities for the service. [5]
After assembling the position map follows the creation of alternative strategies for service´s market position definition.
Market position selected by company must correspond to the consumer´s perception. Portfolio couldn’t be presented in
non-real view. To define a different value is not enough. It is necessary to present it in different way in order to the
consumer´s expectation. Difference (differentiation) must be also a competitive advantage. Portfolio differentiation
could add to the raise of new market segments (e.g. segment of consumers oriented on express services or on services
during the holydays). Success is made by the differenced portfolio with higher value for the customer in comparison
with the competitors. Market position is not stable. Defined or in praxis achieved market position is change during the
time. This change is evoked by the influence of company´s actions or as result of change on the side of competitors.
Frequent change of market position could be potential dangerous. The question is when and why should company
change the market position of its portfolio? There are some reasons. Basic reasons for market position change are:[6]

reaction to the position of competitors;

aspiration for entrance new market – new market segment;

reaction to the change of consumer trends;

change of offered utility value (adding/reduction some parts the service);

reaction to the wrong created market position;

setting of competitor´s product to the company´s service (trademark), which have negative influence on market
share;

discovering of new consumers segments;

change of existing consumers preferences;

interest about the service from the undesirable group of consumers;

influence of new technologies and processes on given service;

change of utility value´s portfolio etc.
Perception map offers an overview about consumer´s perception of the service or by the company itself. Perception map
is generally created by two main parameters (attributes) of the service. In the case of two parameters - service position
is designated in some of the map´s quadrants. There in the quadrants, in two-dimensional space, according to the scale
on the axis, according to the chosen parameters, according to the position – will be placed the company´s portfolio.
There will be also consumer´s perception of the service and comparison with the competitors. More space between
services represents lesser similarity of these services. There is a possibility to define service position more precisely by
designing of more perception maps by using more criteria or by combination of these criteria. Every combination of
criteria could assume another position of evaluated services. For general specification of market position should be one
or two criteria marked as dominant.
Perception map value enable to the company discover: [4]

which service attributes are perceived by the consumers as significant by the purchase decision making, which
services are characterized as similar or different;

which attributes describe best the brand – service;

how consumer perceive competitor´s services;

how to change service market position;

what kind of competitors groups are on the market, which brads compete at most;

which services or products are perceived by consumers as substitutes;

which segments exists on the market and which are an opportunity for the company;

opportunity – market niche for the service innovation (service extension) or for development of new service –
which could make conditions for a new kind of satisfying existing consumers etc.
In order of specific parameters of services could be given service perceived much worse as it is. Brand market position
presentation in the field if services it is necessary to create and affecting by various marketing communication tools.
Using perception map the company is able to test also the marketing communication efficiency in indirect way – which
presents service to the target groups.[6]
Bellow in the paper there is a model perception map for Slovak Post (SP) and other providers of postal services (DHL,
UPS) for product group “letters”. The map is a living document, which depends on market situation. Model perception
map is based on results from the research of customer´s satisfaction and direct interviews during the research. For more
precise position of single products it is necessary to perform detailed research of customer´s perception in single market
segments.
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Perceived price
+
DHL
10
Segment 1
9
UPS
SP
EMS
8
7
Segment 2
SP
D+1
6
Segment 3
Perceived quality
Perceived quality
4
6
4
7
8
9
10
+
SP
D+2
Segment 4
3
Perceived price
-
Fig. 1 Model perception map for product group “letters”
BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1]
KOTLER, P.; KELLER, K. L. Marketing management. Praha : Grada, 2007.
[2]
KOTLER, P.; KELLER, K. L. Marketing management. Praha : Grada, 2007.
[3]
KOTLER, P. Marketing od A do Z. Praha : Management Presss, 2003.
[4]
KOTLER, P. Marketing v otázkách a odpovědích. Brno : CP Books, 2005.
[5]
SCHULZ, D. E. Moderní reklama – umění zajmout. Praha : GRADA, 1995.
[6]
STRIŠŠ, J.; VODÁK, J.; KUBINA, M.; JANKAL, R.; SOVIAR, J. Marketingové riadenie. Žilina : EDIS, 2009.
Adress:
Margaréta Nadányiová
Žilinská univerzita
Fakulta prevádzky a ekonomiky dopravy a spojov
Univerzitná 1
010 26 Žilina
e-mail: [email protected]
Doc. Ing. Jozef Strišš, CSc.
Evropský polytechnický institute, s.r.o. Kunovice
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
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WHERE IS GOING SMALL AND MEDIUM – SIZED ENTERPRISES AND SELF
CONFIDENCE IN THE BUSINESS
Jan Prachař
The European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Kunovice
Abstract: In contrast to large enterprises, small companies are characterized by a lack of training and
research and poorer position in the labour market. Banking sector qualifies small and medium-sized
enterprises as risk groups, which makes their access to capital to implement business plans worse. Selfconfidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet realistic views of themselves and
their situations. Self-confident people trust their own abilities, have a general sense of control in their
lives, and believe that, within reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect. Having selfconfidence does not mean that individuals will be able to do everything. Self-confident people have
expectations that are realistic. Even when some of their expectations are not met, they continue to be
positive and to accept themselves.
WHERE IS GOING SMALL AND MEDIUM – SIZED ENTERPRISES
1 CURRENTSTATE OF SMALL AND MIDDLE ENTERPRISES
Currently, in time of intense concentration of companies in all sectors and increasing globalization it would appear that
the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises is declining. The opposite is true. The European Union spends
substantial funds just to support the development of these companies. There is 18 million small and medium-sized
businesses in the EU. They employ 66 % of the workforce and contribute with 55 % on the total national turnover.
According to statistics of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic, these companies employ 58 % of
the workforce and participate in the performance of the domestic economy with 53 %. Small and medium-sized
enterprises are able to absorb part of the labour force released from large enterprises and represent a stabilizing element
of the economic system. In contrast to large enterprises, small companies are characterized by a lack of training and
research and poorer position in the labour market. Banking sector qualifies small and medium-sized enterprises as risk
groups, which makes their access to capital to implement business plans worse. In the Czech Republic a systematic
comprehensive and long-term government support is based on the Act No. 299/1992 Coll. - State support of small and
medium-sized businesses.
 87 % of small and medium-sized companies will survive only one year of its activities
 68 % will survive at least 3 years
 55 % will survive to the end of a five-year period.
For more analysis of the causes of failure of small and medium businesses is one of the main reasons for termination is
a management failure. Therefore, development programs of SMF should be focused on the development of management
skills.
2 MANAGEMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM – SIZED ENTERPRISES
I hesitate to even use the name 'SME': Use a shortcut for a set of firms that are small and medium size, implies that this
is something special, a defined component of the society that deserves special treatment.
Use of such abbreviations implies the development of (pseudo) theories about their special role and special significance.
I am convinced that this is not a special group. There are companies that are medium and small size, either because it's
natural for them the nature of their business, or because they (yet) failed to grow in a size, which we could label as
"great". It is a natural phenomenon, which requires neither a special theory nor a special treatment.
Glorification of "small" and "medium-sized companies" in itself implies a false assumption that "big" companies are
undesirable, unnecessary, or "less desirable" and "less necessary".
Let us not look for any special role of small and medium-sized companies. Their role is to make a profit for their
owners and the side effect of their efforts is employing people and the growth of wealth of society as a whole. That is
no difference from large companies. The state is not here to divide small and large one.
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I admit the only reason why it makes sense to deal with a set of "small" and "midsize" companies: The reason is the
existence of the state favouring of large firms. The existence of favouring large companies (e.g. in the form of
investment incentives), however does not imply the need to start "giving advantage" also to "small" and "medium".
Rather, we should talk about the need to avoid favouring large firms. This will create a level playing field and no
special treatment of "small" and "medium-sized" firms will be needed. What "small" and "midsize" companies for their
development need is FREEDOM and equal conditions – e.g. not deformed by state. Let us not create new distortions to
offset already existing ones. Just let’s remove only all harmful interference of the state. That only way can be actually
created equal business environment.
In this sense, should be offered to "little" and "midsize" companies following promotion. Removal of investment
incentives favour large firms and disadvantage small ones. So as to have approximately 100 selected major investors in
the Czech Republic tax holidays, thousands of "small" and "medium-sized companies' are liable to tax rate on corporate
income of 19 %. Other hundreds of thousands of tradesmen are subject to high and progressive tax payment.
The taxation of profits reduces the possibility of business investment and development of their businesses. When the
government hail the system of investment incentives, highlights the volume of foreign investment, they do not say
already, that thousands of "small" and "medium" companies can not invest 19 % of their profits because they must pay
it as the tax.
Abolition the system of investment incentives will remove the additional burden imposed on small and medium-sized
businesses and everyone, regardless of size will be taxed at the same rate of 15 %. Cancellation of CzechInvest and
agenda linked with the granting of selective incentives save taxpayers others tens of millions crowns.
Investment incentives are a peculiar policy that is by attracting ones forcing out some others. Reducing taxes for
business and for firms must be in equilibrium, otherwise there will be special-purpose creation of corporations by small
firms too, just because of taxes. Low taxes are a recipe to improve business conditions for the "big" as well as for
"small" and "medium".
Cutting red tape is another impetus to help "small" and "midsize" companies.
It would be the best to cancel all the "Operational Programs" for small and medium-sized businesses, soft loans and
grants. Repeal of these agendas would reduce bureaucracy and also could reduce taxes. Unfortunately, today's system
helps to success to entrepreneur who writes a "good project" e.g. a request for assistance from other taxpayers and not
the entrepreneur who succeeds in a fair competition at his customers. These programs are often European and their
cancellation is not possible. As long as the EU have such programs, or until the EU will exist, there will be negative and
market distortions, which always help to selected entrepreneurs at the expense of the vast majority of others. So we
should at least reduce the subsidy programs that are genuinely Czech. We have to reduce bureaucracy, where despite
the EU rules, we can do. E.g. in a flat tax system entrepreneurs will already not complete three business tax returns – for
tax authorities, health insurance and social security administration, but only one - will pay a flat tax, which will already
contain all three elements.
Another important impetus to improve the conditions for "small" and "medium" enterprises is improving the availability
of credits.
Not bureaucratic measures, but the state’s retreat off a credit market.
Becoming leveraged and thus the state push out private investors from the credit market. Banks prefer buying
government bonds instead to deal the laboured and risky banking business, e.g. provision of commercial loans.
Emissions of more and more bonds - amassing of hundreds-milliard deficits – the state is partly pushing interest rates
up so is draining resources of the banks that otherwise might banks use as loans to entrepreneurs. A priority can be seen
in an effort to progressively eliminate budget deficits. This will help to entrepreneurs vastly more than a selective soft
loans and grants. They are always only a weak patch on the oppressive taxation and high interest rates caused by the
state.
3 CONCLUSION

Therefore I do not want any special programs and benefits, no export promotion, no preferential loans, no tax
breaks, no subsidy programs.

I want to cancel the existing benefits whether they relate to small, medium or large companies. I want to give
companies the freedom to trade and thus issue them to fair competition.

Business support means to me only the one - let the companies take their place – without a bed or well-intended
interference of the state.
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4. WATCH YOUR COMPETITION
Voting
Competitive threat
International companies
73 %
SME in the Western EU countries
34 %
Competition from outside of Europe
31 %
Existing local SME
29 %
Large local companies
29 %
SME in the other Central European countries of the EU
25 %
Budding local SME
16 %
SME in the Eastern European non-EU countries
8%
SME
Table 1: The most serious competitive threats to SME for the next five years
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Let’s realize that development of people is not a priority for businesses with fewer employees. But why big companies
pay so much attention to this issue? Is it possible to apply same personnel principles of large companies for those small
ones? Certainly not entirely. Small companies usually prefer informal working relationships and management styles,
which are built on one or more dominant figures of owners. These companies do not have a person who deals only with
personnel work, and often there is not any extensive program of continuing education and development of staff.
Workers must be more flexible in terms of their type of work than in large companies, and the final decision making is
often in the hands of few individuals-owners who do not have sufficient funding for comprehensive development of its
people. On the other hand, these companies also need the best employees, not to lose track in modern technologies and
must prove to succeed in a global world.
SELF – CONFIDENCE IN THE BUSINESS
People who are not self-confident depend excessively on the approval of others in order to feel good about themselves.
They tend to avoid taking risks because they fear failure. They generally do not expect to be successful. They often put
themselves down and tend to discount or ignore compliments paid to them. By contrast, self-confident people are
willing to risk the disapproval of others because they generally trust their own abilities. They tend to accept themselves;
they don't feel they have to conform in order to be accepted. Self-confidence is not necessarily a general characteristic
which pervades all aspects of a person's life. Typically, individuals will have some areas of their lives where they feel
quite confident, e.g. academics, athletes, while at the same time they do not feel at all confident in other areas, e.g.,
personal appearance, social relationships.
HOW IS SELF-CONFIDENCE INITIALLY DEVELOPED?
Many factors affect the development of self-confidence. Parents' attitudes are crucial to children's feelings about
themselves, particularly in children's early years. When parents provide acceptance, children receive a solid foundation
for good feelings about themselves. If one or both parents are excessively critical or demanding, or if they are
overprotective and discourage moves toward independence, children may come to believe they are incapable,
inadequate, or inferior. However, if parents encourage children's moves toward self-reliance and accept and love their
children when they make mistakes, children will learn to accept themselves and will be on their way to developing selfconfidence. Surprisingly, lack of self-confidence is not necessarily related to lack of ability. Instead it is often the result
of focusing too much on the unrealistic expectations or standards of others, especially parents and society. Friends'
influences can be as powerful or more powerful than those of parents and society in shaping feelings about one's self.
Students in their college years re-examine values and develop their own identities and thus are particularly vulnerable to
the influence of friends.
ASSUMPTIONS THAT CONTINUE TO INFLUENCE SELF-CONFIDENCE
In response to external influences, people develop assumptions; some of these are constructive and some are harmful.
Several assumptions that can interfere with self-confidence and alternative ways of thinking are:

ASSUMPTION: “I must always have love or approval from every significant person in my life."

ALTERNATIVE: This is a perfectionistic, unattainable goal. It is more realistic and desirable to develop personal
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


standards and values that are not completely dependent on the approval of others. “I must be thoroughly
competent, adequate, and achieving in all important areas of my life."
ALTERNATIVE: This again is a perfectionistic, unattainable goal and suggests that personal worth is determined
by achievement. Achievement can be satisfying but does not make you more worthy. Instead, worth is an inherent
quality and all people possess it.
ASSUMPTION: “My past remains all important and control my feelings and behaviors in the present."
ALTERNATIVE: While it is true that your confidence was especially vulnerable to external influences during
your childhood, as you grow older you can gain awareness and perspective on what those influences have been. In
doing so, you can choose which influences you will continue to allow to have an effect on your life. You don't
have to be helpless in the face of past events.
SELF –DEFEATING THOUGHT PATTERNS
Subscribing to these harmful assumptions leaves you vulnerable to the following self-defeating thought patterns:

All or nothing thinking. “I am a total failure when my performance is not perfect."

Seeing only dark clouds. Disaster lurks around every corner and comes to be expected. For example, a single
negative detail, piece of criticism, or passing comment darkens all reality. “I got a C on one chem test, now I'll
never get into medical school."

Magnification of negative/minimization of positive. Good things don't count nearly as much as bad ones. “I
know I won five chess games in a row, but losing this one makes me feel terrible about myself."

Uncritical acceptance of emotions as truth. “I feel ugly so it must be true."

Overemphasis on statements. “I Should" statements are often perfectionistic and reflective of others'
expectations rather than expressive of your own wants and desires. “Everyone should have a career plan when they
come to college. I don't so there must be something wrong with me."

Labeling. Labeling is a simplistic process and often conveys a sense of blame. “I am a loser and it's my fault."

Difficulty accepting compliments. “You like this outfit? I think it makes me look fat."
The following strategies may help overcome such self-defeating thought patterns.
STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING CONFIDENCE

Emphasize strengths. Give yourself credit for everything you try. By focusing on what you can do, you applaud
yourself for efforts rather than emphasizing end products. Starting from a base of what you should do helps you
live within the bounds of your inevitable limitations.

Take risks. Approach new experiences as opportunities to learn rather than occasions to win or lose. Doing so
opens you up to new possibilities and can increase your sense of self-acceptance. Not doing so turns every
possibility into an opportunity for failure, and inhibits personal growth.

Use self-talk. Use self-talk as an opportunity to counter harmful assumptions. Then, tell yourself to " substitute
more reasonable assumptions. For example, when you catch yourself expecting perfection, remind yourself that
you can't do everything perfectly, that it's only possible to try to do things and to try to do them well. This allows
you to accept yourself while still striving to improve.

Self-evaluate. Learn to evaluate yourself independently. Doing so allows you to avoid the constant sense of
turmoil that comes from relying exclusively on the opinions of others. Focusing internally on how you feel about
your own behavior, work, etc. will give you a stronger sense of self and will prevent you from giving your
personal power away to others.
TOP 10 QUALITIES OF A MANAGER
What qualities are most important for a manager to be effective? Below are the top 10 in rank order according to
frequency listed:
Inspires a shared vision. An effective manager is often described as having a vision of where to go and the ability to
articulate it.
1) Good communicator
The ability to communicate with people at all levels is almost always named as the second most important skill by
project managers and team members. Leadership calls for clear communication about goals, responsibility,
performance, expectations and feedback.
2) Integrity
One of the most important things a project leader must remember is that his or her actions, and not words, set the
modus operandi for the team. Good leadership demands commitment to, and demonstration of, ethical practices.
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3) Enthusiasm
We tend to follow people with a can-do attitude, not those who give us 200 reasons why something can't be done.
Enthusiasm is contagious and effective leaders know it.
4) Empathy
Empathy - when a leader acknowledges that we all have a life outside of work.
5) Competence
Simply put, we must believe that that person knows what he or she is doing.
6) Ability to delegate tasks
Trust is an essential element in the relationship of a project leader and his or her team. You demonstrate your trust
in others through your actions - how much you check and control their work, how much you delegate and how
much you allow people to participate. Individuals who are unable to trust other people often fail as leaders , or end
up doing all of the work themselves.
7) Cool under pressure
In a perfect world, projects attitude would be delivered on time, under budget and with no major problems or
obstacles to overcome. But we don't live in a perfect world - projects have problems. A leader with a hardy will
take these problems in stride.
8) Team-building skills
A team builder can best be defined as a strong person who holds the team together
9) Problem solving skills
Although an effective leader is said to share problem-solving responsibilities with the team, we expect our project
leaders to have excellent problem-solving skills themselves.
REFERENCES
[1]
DRUCKER, P. Řízení v době velkých změn. Praha : Management Press, 2010.
[2]
Operační program Průmysl a podnikání (OPPP). Ministerstvo průmyslu a obchodu. [online] Available from:
http://www.mpo.cz/cz/podpora-podnikani/oppp/.
ADDRESS:
Ing. Jan Prachař, Ph.D.
The Polytechnic Institute, Ltd.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
tel.: +420 572 548 035
e-mail: [email protected]
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ФИНАНСОВОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ИННОВАЦИОННОГО РАЗВИТИЯ
ВЫСШЕЙ ШКОЛЫ РОССИИ
Татьяна. Н. Роденкова
РЭА им. Г. В. Плеханова
Анализ мировых тенденций трансформации постиндустриального общества в инновационное показывает, что
важнейшим фактором формирования и развития современного общества, повышения его международного
престижа, является построение экономики знаний – экономики, настроенной на постоянное генерирование
инноваций, интенсивное самообновление.
Исследователи инновационных теорий отмечают, что важнейшим условием результативности инноваций
является объем инвестиций как в сферу научной и научно-технической деятельности, так и в процесс
преобразования новшеств в нововведения. Объем и направления потоков инвестиционных ресурсов
определяется, как правило, государственной инвестиционной политикой. Если государственный аппарат
консервативен и не поддерживает инновации, то страна обречена на инновационный кризис, отставание от
общего ритма преобразований.
Накопление знаний, развитие науки, создание новых технологий и наукоемких производств неизбежно
повышают требования к профессиональной квалификации и мобильности каждого работника, а, значит, и
требования к системе профессионального образования в целом и к высшей школе, в частности.
Прямая зависимость темпов развития экономики от финансирования образования очевидна для руководства
всех развитых стран мира. Так, например, в начале 60-х годов ХХ века в наиболее развитых странах мира
темпы роста финансового обеспечения образования опережали темпы роста финансовой поддержки реального
сектора экономики. В 80-х годах государственные инвестиции в образование увеличились в Англии и США в 3
раза, в ФРГ и Японии – в 4 раза, во Франции – в 5 раз. К началу 90-х годов расходы на образование в развитых
странах составляли не менее 10 % от национального дохода. Однако к 2000 году затраты на образование в этих
странах снизились до 6-7 % и в 2009 году продолжают сохранять примерно такую же долю в структуре
государственных бюджетов.
В России основной инновационный потенциал высшей школы сосредоточен в государственном секторе, а
основным источником финансовых ресурсов развития высшей школы являются ассигнования средств
бюджетов различных уровней, а также целевые государственные фонды.
В отличие от мировых тенденций в сфере государственного финансирования образования России можно
наблюдать следующие изменения. Если в 50-е годы ХХ века Россия имела самую высокую в мире долю
расходов на образование в национальном доходе (около 10 %) по сравнению с другими странами (США – 4 %,
Европейские страны – 3 %), то к началу 80-х годов эти расходы снизились до 6 %, а к началу 90-х – до 5 %. В
период с 2000 по 2003 годы данный показатель снизился до 3,5 %.
Результаты проведенного исследования показали, что в период с 2000 по 2005 годы государство фактически
отстранилось от реальной поддержки инновационного развития России. В эти годы осуществлялась программа
кратко- и среднесрочных реформ. Реализация направлений социально-экономического развития страны на
основе долгосрочных инвестиционных проектов практически не проводилась. Именно в этот период были
прекращены действие бюджета развития, конкурсы инвестиционных проектов, отменены льготы по
инвестициям и инновациям. И только в 2005 году в Послании Федеральному Собранию РФ Президентом в
качестве приоритетной была определена задача ускоренной модернизации, цель которой – переход к
постиндустриальному обществу
В течение последнего десятилетия реформирования российского образования доля государственных расходов
на него оставалась практически неизменной, колеблясь в пределах 11 - 13 % консолидированного бюджета или
3 - 4,8 % ВВП. Не смотря на рост абсолютных величин расходов на образование в последние два года,
относительная доля этих расходов в бюджете не увеличивалась.
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В течение 2004 - 2006 годов наметилась тенденция увеличения доли расходов на финансирование
профессионального образования в структуре расходной части федерального бюджета России. Такая же
тенденция была заложена в федеральной целевой программе развития образования до 2010 года, которая
предусматривала увеличение доли Федерального бюджета на финансирование высшей школы России примерно
в два раза.
Однако сегодня официально признано, что фактическое покрытие текущих расходов на высшее образование за
счет бюджета составляет лишь 40 - 60 %. Очевидно, что недостаточное финансирование отрицательно влияет
на развитие инновационного потенциала системы высшего образования России.
Исследования показывают, что решить эту проблему возможно за счет диверсификации источников
финансирования и, прежде всего, за счет роста частных инвестиций в образовательные новации вузов. При
этом следует иметь в виду, что объем частных инвестиций напрямую зависит как от спроса на образовательные
услуги университетов в целом, так и от инвестиционной привлекательности инновационных образовательных
программ.
Как известно, на величину спроса на образовательные услуги вузов влияет прежде всего динамика численности
выпускников школ, то есть потенциальных абитуриентов российских университетов.
Она достаточно красноречива: в 2000 году количество выпускников 11 классов сравнялось с количеством
принятых в вузы, а уже в 2009 году количество выпускников 11 классов было почти вдвое меньше, чем
количество принятых в вузы. Начиная с 2007 года, прием в вузы неуклонно снижается. Естественно, такая
ситуация приводит к уменьшению количества потребителей образовательных услуг университетов.
С другой стороны затраты федерального бюджета в расчете на 1 обучающегося вузов неуклонно растут. К 2010
году они достигли 175 тыс. руб. Динамика отрадна, но средств бюджета недостаточно для развития
инновационного потенциала университетов.
В этом плане на фоне развитых стран мира Россия смотрится не лучшим образом. Бюджетные расходы в
расчете на 1 обучающегося вузов в среднем в 2005 - 2009 годах в России составляли около 4 тыс. долларов
США, что в 6 раз меньше, чем в США, в 3,5 раза меньше, чем в странах Большой семерки.
Таким образом, если ставить себе задачу модернизации высшей школы и рост инвестиций в ее инновационное
развитие, то мы должны понимать какой объем финансовых ресурсов может позволить этого добиться. Для
этого необходимо проанализировать динамику стоимости обучения в вузах России.
Как видно из диаграммы в 2010 году стоимость обучения по вузам России составляла 48 тыс. руб. в семестр. В
год это 96 тыс. руб.
Подведем итоги. В условиях уменьшения количества потребителей образовательных услуг и значительного
недофинансирования бюджетом расходов на высшее профессиональное образование для развития
инновационного развития российских университетов надо искать внутренние ресурсы, в том числе и
инновационного характера.
Для кардинального изменения ситуации необходимо признать, что новым подходам к содержанию
образовательных программ нужны не только новые формы управления образовательной деятельностью, но и
новая методология ресурсного обеспечения инновационной траектории развития высшей школы, новая
парадигма ее финансирования. Она заключается в изменении роли государства в сфере финансового
обеспечения высшей школы и изменении механизма государственного финансирования образовательных
новаций. Возможными направлениями такого изменения являются:

новые модели государственных ассигнований на реализацию стандартов третьего поколения и
уровневую подготовку в высшей школе;

увеличение расходов на образование в бюджетах субъектов РФ путем выделения и целевого
использования средств на образовательные нововведения в рамках трансфертов регионам;

конкурсные, конкурентные механизмы распределения госзаказов между вузами, генерирующими и
реализующими образовательные новации;

дополнение источников финансирования образовательных новаций вузов средствами, полученными от
доходного использования его основных фондов, находящихся в государственной собственности или
собственности муниципалитета;

новые механизмы финансовой поддержки студентов-исследователей и преподавателей-новаторов;

налоговые льготы, стимулирующие инвестиции в образовательные нововведения;
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
льготные кредиты и страхование.
В целом по результатам проведенного исследования можно сделать вывод, что привлечение инвестиций в
высшее профессиональное образование является ключевым направлением развития общества в целом, а
привлечение финансовых вложений в образовательные новации - ключевое направление развития
образовательной деятельности любого университета. Это объясняется тем, что инвестиционные процессы в
высшем профессиональном образовании позволяют создать и поддерживать цепную реакцию инновационного
развития во всех секторах национальной экономики и являются одним из важнейших факторов ускорения
социально-экономического развития всего общества.
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
[1]
Полонский В.М. Инновации в образовании – методологический анализ // Инновации в образовании. –
2007. – №2.
[2]
Прогноз развития высшего образования в России: 2009-2011 гг. /под ред. Т.Л. Клячко. –М.: МАКС
Пресс, 2009.
[3]
Российское образование: тенденции и вызовы: сб. ст. и аналитических докладов. –М.: Изд-во «Дело»
АНХ, 2009.
[4]
Роденкова Т.Н., Слепов В.А. Эффективность финансирования образовательных новаций и ее экспертная
оценка в высшей школе.-М.: ИНФРА-М, 2009.
[5]
COOKSON, C. Universities drive biotech advancement. The Financial Times, 6 May 2007.
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NEW METHODS OF HIGHER EDUCATION TO SUPPORT THE SPECIFIC NEEDS OF THE
REGION
Miloslav Rosenberg1, Miroslav Mečár2
1
Ekonomická univerzita Bratislava
Evropsky polytechnicky institut, s.r.o Kunovice
2
Abstract: Lisbon Strategy as the strategy of Europe 2020 stressed the need to link theory with practice,
linking the educational process and research businesses, accelerated use of science and research results in
products with higher added value. Training of human resources should be in accordance with the
requirements for increasing the competitiveness of regions, cities and businesses. The contribution is
focused on the preparation of the educational process in the transnational companies to potential
participants in the educational process, and deepens the needs of active involvement in the process of
applying the results into practice.
Keywords: Transnational economy and society, science, research, education
INTRODUCTION
In terms of the transition of the world economy on the global transnational economy, there is a new epochal change in
the development of capitalism, characterized by the emergence of real capital and the transnational global integrated
production system and financial system. The "deep integration occurs in transnacionalization of goods and services" [1].
Major qualitative changes are also in the fact that the globalization of production has come to the fragmentation and
decentralization of complex production chains, to their dispersal to different parts of the world economy. At the same
time, there is in the process of global decentralization and fragmentation of the production, a process to a centralized
command and control within the scope of the transnational capital. [2] In the process of competitive struggle occurs
markets shift from national to global, which means in pragmatic position and movement of capital accumulation to
global markets, the emergence of and strengthening the global organization of business and global relations between
capital and labor.
Global business organization requires the creation of global reserves deregulated by randomization of the workforce,
because successful capital depends on distribution of the workforce. Expansion of foreign direct investment is the
creation of strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions, and outsourcing suppliers. It requires prepared quality
workforce. On the other hand the national economic complexes of states complies with their socio - economic programs
to ensure economic growth, favorable conditions for business development and business environment, employment
growth, provision of social services, support for science, research, innovation and education. They must create
investment incentives to attract FDI and simultaneously prepare the process of training a skilled workforce, not only for
national small and medium enterprises but also for global reserve randomization and deregulated labor for foreign
investors, and practical skills.
THE ROLE OF EDUCATION FOR THE DEVLOPMENT NEEDS OF NATIONAL ECONOMIES AND
REGIONS
In generating the transnational economy and transnational companies there are entirely new relationships and
interactions created, causing significant contrasts in opportunities, particularly in economic, scientific, research,
innovation and education field. These relations constitute risk factors in the transformation process of political economic and political - cultural systems, estuary into global, regional, local and global spheres. Informing and global
communication logistics significantly speeds up the process of creating transnational companies, compared to national
development projects, socio - economic integration within the national economic complex. Global interaction is based
on inequality, addiction peripherals to the core, less developed economies and transnational economies to developed
economies. [3] Globalization has three types of social space, namely: national, international and transnational. In the
process of globalization there is a summary of the processes that create a world as a whole. [4] and between the parties
there is a deepening interdependence and interdependency. In the transnational company there is a consolidation of
transnational structures of political, economic, cultural relations crossing national borders in favor of strengthening
trans-national units, intensification of transnational co-ordination at the expense of weakening the position of national
economies. The decisive actors in the transnational economy and transnational companies are: economic complexes,
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global firms, and non-governmental and civil associations. National economic complexes in relation to the transnational
economic actors are getting into ambivalent state. On the one hand, the government must respect the global standards in
effect; accept the decision of the EU and international organizations, the IMF, World Bank, WTO, and UN and in the
liberalization process subject to pressure from transnational business interests in the acquisition and preparation of FDI
investment incentives. On the other hand, it must create conditions for economic growth in the economy, employment,
appropriate business environment, support for small and medium enterprises, and the competitiveness of national
economies, regions, cities and companies. Decision-making by national governments in the processes of liberalization
and deregulation of power is "subject to interest of global player, while decreasing the possibility of citizens to control
government, where the market reigns, corruption is becoming a queen. [5]
Unable to bound complex role of economic / national as well as integration / flexibility in providing information, an
important determinant in creating competitive firms, regions and national economy, creating high added value. The
outstanding role of specialization is leading to innovative programs, advanced technology, communication and
informatization of society. Public policy must be flexible in the information intended to support basic and applied
research, science and information systems education. Education is done through lifelong learning to achieve the
development of qualified human potential, in conjunction with the socio - economic and technological strategy of the
national economy on the one hand and the strategy of integration groupings on the other hand. Training highly skilled
human resources for foreign investors and developing domestic firms producing goods with higher and high added
value is the key. Skilled workforce must have not only theoretical knowledge but also the skills that can be achieved by
linking theoretical learning with practice. Knowledge with skills is not only a production factor, but also a determinant
of successful firms, regions, individuals in the competitiveness of success in the market production of competitive
products, or the labor market.
The transnational company is a subject to major changes in the Community field, which can not be registered in the
areas of quality human resources training, a skilled workforce for businesses operating in the internal economy,
integration. Community deregulated the global workforce and decompositioned society and solidarity relations between
people, to replace the traditional links of solidarity and moral responsibility to others. Community succeeds in clearly
the relationship of individuality. Transnational elite enforcement agency global accumulation of capital in national
economic complexes breaks are very effectively disposed of all areas of non-market activities, which determine the
constraints of the conditions for capital accumulation and government. These are receding in the area of its greatest
powers and in the economic and social sphere and it recedes from its position market. Enforcement power over national
economies documents the transnational elite in Washington compromise. Transnational elite promotes consumerist
lifestyle based on individualism, hard rivalry, strengthening the philosophy of the transition masses longing
to individual needs, desires. Transnational philosophy consists of working with the system of collective repression
of social behavior, collective bargaining, and promotes activities benefiting people on individual consumption of power
in the consolidation of favoritism and "spirit of individualism".
PROSPECTIVE PARTICIPANTS IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
An important part of society that participates actively in the learning process is the addition to the elite and middle
class, which in the second half 2Oth century expanded substantially both due to the retreat of skilled manual labor,
higher numbers of women in employment, the proliferation of intellectual professions. In the upper middle class elite,
operates auxiliary elite - "service class". Class service is to include more executives preparing strategies for
international companies, professionals. At the bottom of the middle class there are people assigned by their
qualifications, position in the hierarchy: programmers, doctors, vets, head nurse, primary and secondary schools,
librarians, financial institutions, social workers, owners of travel agencies, medium managerial chain stores and other
professions. [6]
Middle-class workers are the most significant strategists with individualism, its ideas, goals, and interests seeking to be
promoted. Overestimating the degree of autonomy of culture from the sphere of economics and politics and its cultural
special ness is confused, or absent-mindedness as a clear social independence. [7] The paradox of the middle class is
that it uses an individualized strategy for consumption as a method that allows it to maintain a decent position on the
scale of inequality. [8] Individualism frees a man from the group and gives him the ability to solve problems. The
middle layer, in particular the lower portion is the subject to social risks. Members of the middle class, when trying to
push the market positions of employees, however, extend their freedom manifested and determined in interests and
objectives of their employers. The most common social risks include situations where the reward for the work does not
cover housing costs without providing social benefits. One cannot get a job corresponding to his qualifications and must
perform less skilled jobs and low wages. Unemployment also affects university-educated people. The lower middle part
is punished by unemployment as a result of greater flexibility in employment contracts under the increasing fiat
employment contracts as a result of the transition of large firms to network configuration.
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APPROACHES TO TRAINING
Development of education in global development and emerging global transnational companies is affected
by the reform concepts and approaches that are evaluated differently by their effect on improving the educational
process and quality of knowledge acquired. Authors Touraine. A. Bell. D. Keller. Tvrdý.L., Liessmann critically
evaluate that period emphasizing the importance of knowledge in European universities. They have adopted the concept
of increasing the number of students, while decreasing the possibility of application of university-educated people.
Being unable to apply the non - critical view of the distribution of study for bachelor's and master's study, which
substantially burden on universities, did not produce the expected effect. Bachelor study was widely criticized in
Germany. Expressed the hypothesis that the concept of increasing the number of students should also aim to benefit
from the provided student financial loans to study banks, financial institutions. "Imperative of lifelong learning does not
mean anything other than an obligation to young people from middle and lower layers into debt immediately at the
beginning of the study. That is something that is a result of obsolescence of knowledge and will soon lose value. [9]
The philosophy of pragmatism aims to link science and philosophical beliefs, humanities and natural sciences and
humanities in order to enrich themselves and did not stand against. Three American philosophers presented pragmatism:
Charles Sanderson, Pierce, Willamom, James and John Dewey. John Dewey tried to reconstruct the policy, democracy,
institutions, liberalism, individualism, education, and education. Rejects any dualism, which do not arises in our
experience, engender artificial problems. Pragmatism is about balance and individual environment. "Pragmatists
interested in the evolutionary view that man is naturally imperfect, incomplete, but capable of development: in the
bosom of nature, and even that was all its properties, including mental or symbolic - as mind (soul and consciousness),
language, goals, symbols, meanings are also developed here. Been entered into our gods, or aliens. But we ourselves are
the creators.[10] Dewey emphasized that the knowledge we create ourselves, to live in an unstable world in which we
live. Knowing and thinking we need to develop, so we were able to adapt their lives to constantly changing conditions,
for which he must necessarily always respond. John Dewey is the author of five-step review:
1) awareness of the feeling of confusion, dissatisfaction, which comes from the immediate experience.
2) localization and definition of the problem.
3) design hypotheses and variants addressing the problem.
4) reasoning and planning implications of the various solutions (thought experiments) a choice of one of the solutions.
5) testing selected solutions in action (verification). [11] a man to understand the philosophy of pragmatism as
knowledge, but primarily as acting practically and aesthetically sentient being. Pragmatism does not explain to us
what is true, but only how we come to it.
John Dewezy in the field of social philosophy aimed at solving social problems, based on consideration of the social
consequences of individual behavior, the consequences of his acts on others. Equality understood as equal before and
under the law, not equality of capabilities. In the field of democracy he did not consider the traditional ingredients of
democracy, such as: government majority, the right to vote, representative government for adequate guarantees the
preservation of democracy and therefore recommended the following to protect democratic ideals: 1 each government
serves the whole society. 2. at the election of governments participating in society as a whole. 3. the whole company is
involved in policy making. 4. other methods include the strengthening of democracy: consultation, discussion,
communication, and participation. Method of persuasion, voluntaries and the right can be in all perspectives. [12]
The philosophy of pragmatism in the development of American democracy and based on examining how
an individual is able to respond to changes in development, while drivers of development, relations between individual
and general. Pragmatism is based on an individual level of intelligence, strength and quality of his thinking, which
stands out and forms the matches in living beings on their security functions. One of the main tasks of education
of intellectual education is shaping the mind of an individual in order to:
1) education to an individual grew from the needs and possibilities of activities that students engaged
2) to accumulate information only and is not used for storage, or pushing knowledge, memorization students, but to
make full use of the development activities of students in education
3) that education was based on a pragmatic concept in order to be capable of forming human and sympathetic
to the practical application of theory to application praxi. [13]
Pragmatism aims to address the objectives to be achieved by community interest. Approach is to the way life is
characterized by linking individual interest - realism with individualism, which motivate an individual desire to seek
new ways to change amount in the new relations and activities address new challenges and achieving new benefits
under the social life and culture. The results are evaluated according to achieve a specific benefit level but in particular
the possibility of practical application of science, research, innovation in concrete products with higher added value
to increase competitiveness.
John Dewey pointed out the importance of education, which he found for the laboratory of life, proposed
as a form of consciousness widest community, societal interests which should have acquired all individuals and groups
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as a condition for the realization of their partial interests because all partial interests should be assessed in terms
of desirability nationwide.
Proposes to create planning not planned society. In the process of educational activities, as understood by the
development of human life and what is specific in it, that means, symbolic behavior, communication, meanings and
meaningfulness - the wealth of experience John Dewey pointed out that in the learning process:
School transfer is not only tradition, but rather its role is to prepare for the future:
1) company has set up a democratic form of education so as to maintain and develop through the transfer
of certain habits, traditions, knowledge, beliefs, practices, and values to future generations
2) educational process can not consist only of speech, but must include the full spectrum of activities which must be
adapted to the school environment
3) process of teaching and learning must be organized so that the creative and enjoyable, because if it is also effective
4) school should be prepared not only effective for life, but also the process of education must be derived its form and
content, means and ends of life, which is part and should not be anything artificial
5) technical and vocational education should not be narrowly focused to cope with the necessary mechanical skills,
but to provide them with the wider scientific insight, and scientific understanding of their department and look at
technology and
6) Education does not reproduce chaotic society, but to be experimental and creative community, whose role is to act
as a transformational force society to society and not only copied
7) process in a pragmatic approach to achieve interactivity student relationship, student and teacher with an emphasis
on their social experience
8) School is to teach / science / think and explore, exploit experimentation, imagination and not memorization
9) learning activities, learning by doing: we learn things so that they perform in practice, we learn on their own
experience and experimentation. [14]
The European Commission adopted in April 2009 document aimed at cooperation with companies and universities and
identified the following priorities: the modernization of European universities, promote innovation, creativity and
entrepreneurship, more effective education and training. The program ERASMUS promotes student mobility. The
partnership between universities and businesses creates the possibility of deepening the theoretical knowledge with
practical experience while studying, in the form of professional practice, internships, solving specific problems through
bachelor's and master's theses, addressing topics within the student's scientific professional activity. At the same time,
creating space for staffing graduates corridors in the business entity to work.
Priorities 2020 Europe was established to invest in knowledge and innovation in the national program of reforms and
investment in human resources with a focus on promoting science, research, innovation, and investment in acquiring
better skills. The five main objectives of the program is the second major initiative of the Youth on the Move. This is
an initiative aimed at improving the quality of the attractiveness of European higher education system. A sixth major
initiative Program for new skills and new jobs is an activity aimed at creating conditions for the modernization of
labor markets to increase employment.
Unable to highlight vital role of universities in meeting the development programs of regions, cities to increase their
competitiveness and European cities are filled with the Declaration on Climate Change. The commitment 13o European
cities aimed at developing innovative partnerships in research and higher education, building an 'eco - Strt, development
of new forms of transport, research and production of renewable energy sources, reduction of emissions at the local
level and other initiatives. Not less important is the competition of cities on the most competitive city aimed at assessing
criteria such as the achievement of GDP, GDP per capita, GDP per square kilometer, labor productivity, number of
multinational companies based in the city, the rate of economic growth, industrial structure, industry clusters,
technology incubators, quality human resources, the proportion of workers in the company on developing innovation
and technology, the proportion of highly skilled workers in the total number of company employees or firms have
global connectivity, the town towards the creation of the national GDP of the region economy.
Lifelong learning system was given the objective of increasing investment in education and skills. Current low level of
skills is one cause of poor productivity and economic growth. For increasing skills there were set challenging goals up
to 2020:
1) increase the number of adults with a university diploma from 29 % to 40 %
2) more than 90 % of adults should have GCSE secondary education / school-leaving certificate / or equivalent and
intermediate skill
3) 95 % of adults of working age should have basic skills with a progressive increase of 75 % in the year 2005.
Universities, colleges, in cooperation with regional governments, major cities, as well as national governments, have
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important and challenging task of preparing human resources for a career change, extinction and the emergence of new
professions in the changes in the process of global labor market. Strategic report on the renewed Lisbon Strategy for
Growth and Employment highlighted the need to consolidate the learning and skills in demand in the EU labor
market. CEDOFOP in February 2008 presented a comprehensive medium-term forecast of employment and skill needs
in Europe. Medium-term forecast is focused on the development of employment by economic sector, employment and
skills by the year 2015. For all Member States in the year 2020. The sectoral structure of employment from 2006 to
2020 will move to the following: the primary sector and utilities will reduce the headcount from 11.9 million to 8.8
million, in the industrial sector fell from 34.8 million to 34.1.mil. for construction employment will increase from 15.1
million to 15.6 million., distribution and transportation employment increased from 54.2 million to 58.8 million., trade
and other services to increase employment of 45.6 million to 59.8 million and non-market services employment
increased from 48.8 million to 53.7 million workers.
The strategy employed by class assumes that the period 2006 to 2020 to be implemented following development:
legislators, senior officials and managers to increase employment from 18.4 million to 22.7 million Scientific,
professional, mental health workers to increase employment of 27.3 million to 33.3 million, technical, medical,
educational staff and related fields to increase employment of 33.9 million to 41.5 million. Operating occupations in
services and trade employment increased from 29.4 million to 32.7 million. operating machinery and equipment
increased by 17.3 million jobs to 18.2 million., laborers and unskilled workers will increase from 22.9 million jobs., to
28.5 million., skilled workers in agriculture and forestry and related fields will reduce employment by 7.8 million to 5.5
million. In the majority of jobs will arise number of employees with higher skills for reasons of demand for skill
requirements. The employment strategy by qualification for the period 2006 to 2020 the following assumptions: the
number of highly qualified staff will grow from 53.2 ml. to 72.8 million qualification for secondary growth of 102.3
million to 115.4 million., low qualification rate declined from 55.1 million to 42.7 million. Labor market increases
demand for continuous training of employees by employers. At the same time increasing the qualification requirements
for laborers and unskilled workers
CONCLUSION
In terms of development of the transnational economy and society, following the transfer of fragmentation and
decentralization of production sites to regions and cities throughout the transnational economy increases the demand has
cities and regions qualification of readiness of human resources. In order to become competitive, at the same time they
must build industrial parks, technology incubators and cluster initiatives. In cooperation with colleges, universities,
research institutes the combination of theoretical knowledge with practice, education students, and entrepreneurs to
commercialize research results, innovation in products and services with high added value. Businesses are critical to
build the current human resources training but on the other hand are not able to process requirements for social order is
currently preparing a skilled workforce.
The industrial parks are not always operating businesses innovative character, which many experts know and what
specializations they need. Social order does not give the vast majority of representatives of regions or because of their
lack of socio-economic strategy of the region for a longer period and where the entry of FDI mainly need a
apprenticeship trained workers. Successful cooperation between cities, regions and businesses with colleges,
universities, and research institutions is an important determinant of increasing competitiveness of all involved.
LITERATURE
[1]
DECKER, P. Global Schift. 3 vydanie. New York : Galford, 1998.
[2]
ROBINSON, W. I. Teorie globalního kapitalizmu.Transnacionální ekonomika a společnost v krizi. Bratislava :
Filosofia, 2010.
[3]
WALTERSTEIN, I. Culture as Ideological Battleground of the Modern World System. In: SUŠA, R.
Globalizace v sociálních souvislostech současnosti. Diagnoza a analyza. Bratislava : Filosofia, 2010.
[4]
ROBERTSON, R. Globalisation. London : London Sage, 1992.
[5]
KORTEN, D. When Corporations Rule the World cd 95. In: SUŠA, R. Globalizace v socialních souvislostech
současnosti.Diagnoza a analyza. Bratislava : Filosofia, 2010.
[6]
KELLER, J. Tři sociální světy. Socialní struktura postidustriální společnosti. Praha : SLON, 2010. ISBN 978807419-031-5.
[7]
KELLER, J. Tři sociální světy. Socialní struktura postidustriální společnosti. Praha : SLON, 2010. ISBN 978807419-031-5.
[8]
KELLER, J. Tři sociální světy. Socialní struktura postidustriální společnosti. Praha : SLON, 2010. ISBN 978807419-031-5.
[9]
KELLER, J. Tři sociální světy. Socialní struktura postidustriální společnosti. Praha : SLON, 2010. ISBN 978807419-031-5.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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139
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
VIŠŇOVSKÝ, E.; MIHINA, F. Pragmatizmus. Bratislava : IRIS, 1998. ISSN 1336-6556.
VIŠŇOVSKÝ, MIHINA. Pragmatizmus. Bratislava : IRIS, 1998. ISSN 1336-6556.
VIŠŇOVSKÝ, MIHINA. Pragmatizmus. Bratislava : IRIS, 1998. ISSN 1336-6556.
VIŠŇOVSKÝ, MIHINA. Pragmatizmus. Bratislava : IRIS, 1998. ISSN 1336-6556.
VIŠŇOVSKÝ, MIHINA. Pragmatizmus. Bratislava : IRIS, 1998. ISSN 1336-6556.
ROSENBERG, M. Spolupráca firem, samospráv a univerzít v regionálnej politike EÚ. Aktuálne výzvy teórie
a praxe pre obchod, marketing, služby cestovný ruch a medzinárodné podnikanie. Bratislava : Ekonóm, 2010.
ISBN 978-80-225-3032-3.
ROSENBERG, M.; MEČÁR, M. Vývoj technologických inkubátorov vo vyspelých ekonomikách (USA
a Spolková republika Nemecko). In: Sborník mezinárodní vědecká konference Česká republika a Slovensko
v mezinárodním obchodě a podnikání. Praha : Oeconomica, 2008. ISBN 978-80-245--1372-0.
ROSENBERG, M. Rozvoj regiónov Ruskej federácie Medzinárodné vzťahy 2008. Aktuálne otázky svetovej
ekonomiky a politiky. Bratislava : Ekonóm, 2009. ISBN 978-80-225-2823-8.
ROSENBERG, M.; FODOROVÁ, A. Úloha verejnej správy regiónov a miest v realizácii európskych iniciatív
v období rokov 2007 – 2013. In: Zborník z medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie: Česká republika a Slovensko
v medzinárodnom obchode a podnikaní. Vplyv finančnej krízy na medzinárodné podnikanie. Praha :
Oeconomica, 2010. ISBN 978-80-245-1583-0.
CURSIN. K.; MEČÁR, M. Vnešneekonomičeskaja dejaleľnosť organizacije. Tula, 2009. VUK 659168.
ADRESA:
Dr. Miloslav Rosenberg, PhD
Katedra medzinárodného obchodu
Obchodná fakulta
Ekonomická univerzita Bratislava
Tel.: 00421/908570944
e-mail: [email protected]
Doc. Ing. Miroslav Mečár CSc
Evropský polytechnicky institut, s.r.o
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
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140
REGIONAL PROJECTS
Radim Roudný1, Ivana Urešová2
1
Univerzita Pardubice, Fakulta ekonomicko – správní, Pardubice
2
Chrudimská nemocnice, a.s.
Abstract: The terms and project process and how they were implemented are mentioned in the
introduction. The question of economic management in the region and right regional project
implementation is discussed here. Discourse provides the basic relations for the evaluation of projects and
the choice of project implementers optimizing. The conditions of transparency as tools for the limiation of
the misuse corruption of regional corruption projects are mentioned in the conclusion.
Key words: region, project, process, management, evaluation, optimization, transparency and corruption.
INTRODUCTION
The economy and life of any system exist in space. We are speaking about the region concerning the economy, the set
of all regions creates the global space. The region can be defined in various ways, for example like a municipality,
county, state or otherwise. Any activity in the region must be designed, implemented and subsequently used. The
activity in this sense is understood as the construction of the building or the system design. Activity design called as
a project is implemented in some cases, own utilisation of this project is a process. Is no doubt that the benefit of this
activity is decisively influenced by the project, tentatively is stated that 80 % success rate is affected by the project. The
quality of life in the region is given by the behavior of subjects and implemented activities. The subjects influencing the
quality are:
 citizen,
 business subjects,
 public institutions, it means the legislative power, executive power (public administration) and judicial
power.
In terms of regions situated within the state, major players are citizens, business entities and public administration.
Legislative and judicial power are important for regions. They are influenced and set at the state level in a market
sector. There is the concept of customer in a market sector. If we are looking for an analogy in the public sector, then as
customers, which meets the needs of this sector, we consider:
 physical persons,
 business entities,
 future generations.
We include the so-called customers the business entities because they provide the economy of physical persons. We
must have regard to future generations of the ecological and economic (to left stolen, bad economy) terms.
In the regional decision-making concerning projects it is important:
 interested in the projects who are interested in the projects;
 who placed projects,
 who isthe project implementer,
 who projects, processes utilises.
Even far from the mentioned categories the complexity of the categorization decisions concerning regional projects is
apparent. In practice we we are witnesses of many wrong decisions that harm the community of the region. Mistakes
can be caused both accidentally but sometimes deliberately in order to gain personal benefits which fall into the
category of corruption. Further text contains comments to certain circumstances, decisions on projects made in the
regions.
1 PROPOSAL FOR REGIONAL PROJECTS
Projects are implemented in regions, predominantly by private subjects and these projects are called market projects.
Moreover,projects are solid by the public administration including public administration institutions hned by public
administration; these projects are called regional or public. Both types of projects should contribute to the quality of the
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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141
region, ie to the quality of life and the environment. Let us recall that the quality of the region may not always means
development, because there are cases where extensive development of the region is undesirable. The first question is
which projects are soolved by the private sector and which ones by the public sector. The answer is simple: everything
what is fully controled fully by the market must be subjecttfo market projects. Public sector deals with problems that
can not be regulated by the market. This includes the following situations:
 the existence of the monopoly (territorial or commodity)
 not existing or limited market information,
 interaction with a separated material and financial flow, for example externalities, multiple years objects,
 unfair activities, illegal or illegitimate,
 care for future generations.
The situation, which the market is able to regulate can be included in this situation.Spatial problems of economics,
dealing with distribution of the production of land owners. The problem lies in a different profit meaning for businesses
subjects and the importance for the region. This problem has so far been poorly described in theory, although i tis
important and as one of the U.S. economic crisis reasons. Regional projects should include those issues that can not
solved by the market. In principle, the situation is altogether clear, but there are many uncertainties in the practice
arising from both the substance of things and the effort to maximize profit of the individual and not of the community
interest. The Culture and Sport, where there are problematic boundaries between activities cultivating social and
commercial activities between the entertainment could be mentioned as an example .
It follows the mentioned ideas that themes for projects in the region i tis neceséry to divide according the possible
regulation of follow-up processes from the bearer of the project and the subsequent process utilization.. What can fully
regulated by the market it will transmit to the business area. Public Administration is rersponsible for the
implementation and control activities in areas that the market can not be regulated, or could be regulated only partially.
2 PROJECT EVALUATION
Project evaluation includes the assessment of benefits and costs of produced goods. The bendit is inherently a subjective
category,the quantification is possible to make by a variety of assessment methods that can be found in the current
literature, eg [7]. However,the determination of benefits is possible to discuss always in view of the subjective nature
and the choice of methods.
Costs must be evaluated for the entire life of the pertinent assets from its design, implementation; the utilization and the
liquidation .It is neceséry to include indirect costs as well as for cost of funds providing. We must reckon with the
uncertainty of benefits and costs in the future. therefore we must carry out the analysis in time of dependence. There
can be mentioned a lot of examples of uncertainty . The cost we have to alter the rates, taxes, etc. For example, in the
sphere of costa it must be taken into account the change of courses for benefits; there may be situations in which the
future benefit will be zero. Projects evaluation is performed separately for the benefits and thein cost ratio, which
express the quality. Grade J, value of goods is given by
(3-1)
or
(3-2)
where U… is utility, N… is cost.
If we have enough financial funds, we tend to when evaluating the benefit as a lack, we tend to cost. Rational
assessment of the quality that is governed by relation (3-1), which is a maximization, or to (3-2), which is the
minimization. The basic rule of troubleshooting is more design options and therefore the comparison and evaluation of
multiple variants. This is a general principle of benchmarking and the use of a broader look at the problem.
3 PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION
After answering the first question, ie the selection of the project promoters i tis neceséry to decide who wilol be the
implementátor of individual phases. Options are listed in Table 4-1. Private projects are payed in all cases by the
private sector as it also extracts profit as the fundamental incentive of the market behavior. There are possible
combinations of different investigators for public sector projects (see table). However, in all cases, public sector
projects costs are settled by taxpayers.
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142
Project
owner
Phase
Private
Sector
Project
Implementation of
Project
Process- utilization
Project
X
Implementation of X
Project
Process- - utilization X
Tab. 4-1
Public
Sector
Implementer
Private
Public
Sector
Administration
X
0
X
X
X
If the public project implementer is the private sector, it is understable that it makes the implementation of an
acceptable profit, say 20 to 50 %. If the project is implemented by the public sector,then the total financial benefit of
the public sector is zero. When examining individual projects we can assume zero profit (the opposite situation can
occur only in mixed assets, and it is exceptional). Selection of implementer is given by its profit, productivity, reliability
and access to public finances. We assume in further considerations We assume that the result of the decision concerning
the achieving of the concrete assets. Economic implementer choice is based on the asset cost of creation and operation.
For the private sector (indexed p) is true
(4-1)
where N … cost; … Sector productivity; … Reliability coefficient.
Similarly, for implementation in the public sector (indexed v) valid
(4-2)
Price realization in the private sector
(4-3)
where z… is a relative profit.
Price realization in the public sector
(4-4)
where r… is the relative price of the purchase money (in case of loan, if funds are available, then r = 0).
It is possible to derive from these relations the relationship in the case when the solution is suitable the private sector.
The condition is
(4-5)
Take a simple example of the solutions to parking in the town operator. The first question is whether a city parking site
should be realized by the town or by the private organizations. It is obvious that the productivity of labour (the fee
collection) is the same in the case of private and public performance; similarly it is the same what concerns the system
reliability. The town does not put into the decision (r = 0). Then the option of private parking site operation is quite
disadvantageous. The decision conerning the maintenance and repair of parking meters provided in case that the town
technician would be utilized for 40 % is another. Then it is obviously suitable to cede maintenance ensurement to
a private company.
4 TRANSPARENCY
As for the transparency of public projects it is limited by the possibility of corruption associated with it unwanted
private misuse of public funds. It is estimated that at least 20 % of funds for public projects is abused by the corruption.
Transparency in the full extention comprises two aspects:
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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

the creation of necessary information,
the information to the public advancement.
If we declare the information related to public funds as a secret, then we clearly supports corruption.
What is the necessary information characterizing the transparency? This should include informatik concerning:
 the charakter of projects, simplified according to relations (3-1) and (4-5),
 the method ofdecision-making,
 stakeholders, ie those who decidde and who are affected by the decision(eg, to participate in the
implementating firms).
Do not let us have any illusions that we achieve immediately the full transparency. The pressure to ensure that public
projects were not transparent is very strong. As an example it is possible to remind the refusal of the Act prohibiting
joint stock companies with registered shares (opaque ownership) their participation in public procurement by the Czech
Parliament House of Commons. The effort to achieve the absolutr transparency is not real. is the real effort The
acceptable level of transparency is the real effort.
5. CONCLUSION
A the regional projects are considered the public projects, which are decided by us and which are implemented in
certain areas with certain populations. The optimization of public projects should be directed to the well-being of
citizens, the preservation of natural and cultural values as well as bequathing a good legacy to future generations. This
essay could not obviously describe the issues discussed in its entirety, but it is an indication of some fundamental
problems.The publication of the elementary relation (4-5) concerning the decision about the projects implementation it
is possible toconsider to be significant.Moreover also the transparency of projects was newly defined. The authors
would welcome comments and discussion to this issue which is of considerable social importance.
REFERENCES
[1]
AMMOS, D. N. Municipal Benchmarks: Assessing Local Performance and Establishing Community Standards.
London : Sage Publications, 1996. ISBN 0-8039-7253-9.
[2]
HALÁSKOVÁ, M.; HALÁSKOVÁ, R. Cohesion regions in the Czech republic and EU funds utilization
options. IN:AARMS, Budapešť: The Miklós Zrínyi National. Defence University, Hungary, 2005. volume 4,
str.17-29. ISSN 1588-8789.
[3]
HYESOVÁ, N. Základy sociální psychologie. Praha : Portál, 2007. ISBN 978-80-7367-283-6.
[4]
MÁČE, M. Finanční analýza investičních projektů. Praha : GRADA,2006. ISBN 80-247-1557-0.
[5]
OSTŘÍŽEK, J. a kol. Public Private Partnership. Praha : C. H. Beck, 2007. ISBN 978-80-7179-744-9.
[6]
PROVAZNÍKOVÁ, R. Místní finance 2.díl. Pardubice : Univerzita Pardubice, Fakulta ekonomicko-správní,
2006. ISBN 80-7194-873-X.
[7]
ROUDNÝ, R.; VÍŠEK, O. Základy manažerského rozhodování. Pardubice : Univerzita Pardubice, 2009. ISBN
978-80-7395-164-1.
ADRESA
doc. Ing. Radim Roudný, CSc.
Univerzita Pardubice
Fakulta ekonomicko – správní
Studentská 95
532 10 Pardubice
tel. 466036234
E-mail [email protected]
Ing. Ivana Urešová, MBA
Chrudimská nemocnice, a.s.,
Václavská 570
537 27 Chrudim
tel.469653129
E-mail [email protected]
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144
MANAGEMENT STRATEGY AND STRATEGY MAPS
Veronika Šramová
Univerzita Žilina, Fakulta riadenia a informatiky, Žilina
Abstract: It is very important to have well developed and realizable strategy. Companies should not
perform well without it. Companies which are not long-term successful and have a problem with an
implementation of their strategy decided to use strategy maps and system of Balanced Scorecard. Many
companies have become successful and they can succeed in the fight with competition. This article is about
strategy from the view of Balanced Scorecard system, strategy map and it is usable for companies of all
kinds.
Key words: strategy map, strategy, system, strategic themes, planning.
INTRODUCTION
Many authors deal with the theory and strategy formation. Studies show that problem of companies is not wrong
formulation of strategy, but her bad execution. Authors Kaplan and Norton solve problems with this execution. They
use system Balanced Scorecard and strategy maps. This instruments help companies make clear strategy and describe it.
However this all need firm system. Authors Kaplan and Norton developed effective system of management strategies.
They wrote the book about this problematic: The execution premium - Linking strategy to operations for competitive
advantage. The following chapters are about this system and strategy maps in this system.
1 SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
The architecture of integrated management system is shown in Figure 1. This system links strategy formulation and
planning with operational execution. System is continuous. It has six main steps: [1, p. 22]
1) Develop the strategy: In this step is developed mission, values and vision of a company. Here are created the
strategic analysis (the external and internal environmental analysis, competitive analysis). The last step is strategy
formulation. Managers should know the answers to questions about next existence of a company.
2) Plan the strategy: Strategy map and system BSC is created and there are selected measures, targets and gaps.
3) Align the organization: It is necessary to align all business units, support units and employees. It is a basis for
company success. The leadership is very important here.
4) Plan operations: In each strategic theme it is very important to improve key processes. Unit’s leaders must plan
sales, resource capacity and budget. The sales plans are related to the sale forecast.
5) Monitor and learn: Here are very important company meetings, because they are one way of data sharing. It has a
sense for strategy management review.
6) Test and adapt: Managers order special meeting for research strategy. They have new and fresh data and
information. Here they can change strategy or repair some parts of it.
A lot of companies started-up new unit: office of strategy management (OSM). OSM cares about the process of
implementation of the strategy. It integrates and coordinates all processes which are related with strategy execution
system. The execution team orders meeting in three different times. Data from the first meeting are used by the
following meeting. It is necessary to connect these meetings to each other.
OSM has three roles in the company: [1, p. 32]
1) Process architect: is responsible for the structure of processes, new processes and integration of process of
planning, executing and feedback.
2) Process owner: is responsible for all processes related to strategy.
3) Integrator: is responsible for align many key processes with the strategy.
Each company should have executive management. Head of the company should be a visionarist, he should believe in
the strategy and participate fully in its implementation, monitor and participate in any changes. He should communicate
a strategy to top managers and to execution team.
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145
Plan the strategy
2
Develop the strategy
- Strategy maps / themes
- Measures / targets
- Initiative portfolios
- Funding / STRATEX
1
- Mission, values, vision
- Strategic analysis
- Strategy formulation
Performance
measures
3
Align the organization
- Business units
- Support units
- Employees
Strategic plan
- Strategy map
- Balanced Scorecard
- STRATEX
6
Test and adapt
- Profitability analysis
- Strategy correlation
- Emerging strategies
Results
4
5
Operating plan
Plan operations
- Key
process improvement
- Sales planning
- Resource capacity plan
- Budgeting
- Dashboards
- Sales forecast
- Resource requirements
- Budgets
Results
Monitor and learn
- Strategy reviews
- Operating reviews
Performance
measures
Execution
Process
Initiative
Figure 1: The management system: Linking strategy to operations
Source: Kaplan R. a Norton D.: Efektivní systém řízení strategie, 2010, p. 22
2 STRATEGY MAP
The first step of management strategy was to develop strategy. Next step is to plan strategy. This process transfers the
strategy statement to the objectives, measures, targets, initiatives and budgets. Very important is to identify strategic
themes for companies. Strategic themes can be vertical combination of objectives in four perspective Balanced
Scorecard. It is possible to link many objectives to several strategic themes. It facilitates the work of managers with
plenty of strategy. The creation of the strategy map is the first step in Balanced Scorecard.
Main strategy map is a framework that integrates visually many strategies. Strategy map describes how the companies
create a value. The top management and every other unit in the company has own strategy map. Leaders of each unit
meet to integrate their strategic maps. Main strategic map is a picture of all this maps, but instead of all objectives, it
contains five or six common strategic themes. This main map is transmitted vertically and horizontally in all units. Each
unit adapts strategic themes of customer value and put into map its own objectives, measures, targets and initiatives.
The map helps managers to manage the short, medium and long-term processes simultaneously. In Figure 2 there is the
general strategy map. It represents how companies create a value. It is based on several principles: [2, p. 10-11]
1) Strategy balances contradictory forces: Companies need improvements in short time, but they need sustained
growth in shareholder value- it is long-term thing. Result is that objectives must be balanced.
2) Strategy is based on a differentiated customer value proposition: Companies need to have satisfied customers. They
are resource of sustainable value creation. So, good and sustainable customer value proposition is very important.
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3) Value is created through internal business processes: This is logic of methodology of Balanced Scorecard. If
companies improve their internal processes and achieve their goals in customer, internal and learning and growth
perspective than they will achieve goals in financial perspective. Than it will grow a value for shareholders.
Productivity
Improve cost structure
Growth
Long-term
shareholders value
Financial
perspective
Expand revenue
opportunities
Increase asset utilization
Enhance
customer value
Customer value proposition
Customer
perspective
Price
Quality
Availability
Selection
Functionality
Product / Service attributes
Operations management
processes
Internal
perspective
- Supply
- Production
- Distribution
- Risk management
Partnershi
Service
Relationship
Customer management
processes
Innovation
processes
- Selection
- Acquisition
- Retention
- Growth
- Opportunity ID
- R&D portfolio
- Design/Develop
- Launch
Bran
Image
Regulatory and social
processes
- Environment
- Safety and health
- Employment
- Community
Human capital
Learning and
growth
perspective
Information capital
Organization capital
Culture
Alignment
Leadership
Teamwork
Figure 2: A strategy map
Source: Kaplan R. a Norton D.: Strategy maps, 2004, p. 11
CONCLUSION
This article is about the framework of system management strategy and general framework of strategy map. They are
basic frameworks for the excellent work with strategy. It is important to realize that the company’s work is not only
about many frameworks, structures, work procedures and precise steps. They offer us a strong system to work with and
they make work easier and clearer. These frameworks must be completed by processes which are implemented. Without
the implementation of all processes the strategy can not be realized. And unrealizable strategy can not and will not be
successful. The work with strategy and processes is work of employees. Their knowledge and information are very
important and helpful. Therefore it is necessary that all employees were informed about the strategy. They must
understand it and must be engaged to all processes concerning the strategy. They must know what their role in company
is. It is important that companies invest in these intangible resources. Employees cultivate their skills, abilities and
knowledge. New information and acquired knowledge are very important for all company’s processes and they are one
of the ways of long-term value creation in addition to continuous processes improvement. By application of mentioned
frameworks and continual processes improvement in all fields of company’s actions, company can achieve success.
REFERENCES
[1]
KAPLAN, S.; NORTON, P. Efektivní systém řízení strategie. Praha : Management press, 2010.
[2]
KAPLAN, S.; NORTON, P. Strategy maps. Boston : Harward business school Publishing Corporation, 2004.
[3]
KAPLAN, S.; NORTON, P. Balanced Scorecard. Boston : Harvard business school Publishing Corporation,
1996.
[4]
KAPLAN, R. S.; NORTON, D. P. The execution premium: linking strategy to operations for competitive
advantage. Boston : Harvard business school Publishing Corporation. [online] Available from:
http://books.google.com/books?id=SJCbjFDGFSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=kaplan+norton+execution+premi
um&hl=sk&ei=qQUwTZzMJyK4gaxk6TXCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=f
alse
[5]
Strategy map. Wikipedia.org. [online] Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategy_map
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ADDRESS:
Ing. Veronika Šramová
Katedra manažérskych teórií
Fakulta riadenia a informatiky
Žilinská univerzita
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
e-mail: [email protected]
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MARKETING MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES ON GLOBAL MARKETS
Jozef Strišš, Michal Culek
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o. Kunovice
Abstract: In this article we discuss marketing perspectives and orientation in next years with the emphasis
on global markets. In individual items we try to characterize basic changes in which we must adapt our
marketing activities if our firms won’t be successful in more and more complicated conditions on global
markets.
Key words: global markets, marketing management, marketing orientation, globalization, customer
orientation
Functioning of marketing-oriented organization stands out from identified needs and from real consumption evaluation
of assortment and product quality, while the organization accepts necessity to modify the production and sales
according to these needs and evaluations (assuming that adaptation should be better and more effective than particular
reaction of competition). [1]
Marketing as philosophy of operation and business orientation practiced in market-managed economy is more and more
considered as the key to success of every business unit. On actual, dynamically developing market, an extreme
emphasis is laid on marketing as the organization driver and perspective. To define marketing strategy for 21st century
and enforce its realization is basic condition of success and effectiveness of concern at buyer's market in future. If the
concern is successful, have real odds to achieve in competitive environment, at alien case there will be ability
successfully weather minimal. Marketing conception is business philosophy where the keystone of achieving business
objectives is defining the desires and needs of definite customers and satisfying them on higher level than competition.
[2]
The aim of marketing conception for business is to succeed on the market, it means to define customer’s needs and
requirements and find the best way of their satisfaction. Marketing conception is focused on 4 fundamental
standpoints:[6]

orientation on target markets (definite customer), where formulation of marketing programs is necessary,

orientation on customer, that assumes company will define customer needs from his point of view, not the
company one,

co-ordination of all marketing functions (propagation, prices, sales, etc.) and marketing activities with other
company activities,

achievement of company goals, especially optimal economical results, while the profit is attained by customer
needs satisfaction.
Considerable changes that occurred on markets of modern countries in later years definitely point to the fact of
customer function highlighting, increasing of respect to his requirements and continuous conversion from massive
marketing approach to individualization of customer requirements. The marketing from the end of our century and the
beginning of coming millennium is defined with new drifts and reinforces already existing tendencies.
Main tendencies are bearing about: [2]

the orientation at demand - aspiration to orient the supply on client problem solving, to achieve better relations
to customer and actively assist when creating the buyer's market;

the orientation at competition - to analyze competition advantages, detect, what is attractive for customer on
competition products (price, quality);

society orientation – focus the organization strategy on the changes in preferences, orientate the organization
management on the market.
Marketing is developing gradually and to predict its concrete development is extremely difficult. Nevertheless, basal
management movement can be predicted from the actual development. New trends in marketing at break through
millennium are characteristics by following tendencies:
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GLOBALIZATION
Global marketing is one of the latest clear and most discussed concept in contemporary marketing world. According to
some authors, it contains all that is connected with international activities of the company, from the single business with
outland, through foreign branches till formation uniform world marketing strategy. Globalization means development of
international business and accommodations and the orientation at new market places. Development of transport and
communication systems, information technologies and international commerce leads the business to orientate towards
areas that were out of their operation. Global marketing does not mean only entering new markets and uniform product
sales; it also means the ability to understand individual markets, enlarge them in term of social, cultural, economical and
national specifics. At general practice it means to provide the product with special setting, design and quality that will
take into account the requirements of concrete market.
TARGET CUSTOMER SPECIFICATION
Fundamental marketing activity is the selection of target markets –target customers. The sentence of Peter Drucker [3]
is fully actual: “The main task of business is to create customer and retain his permanent content.” Every enterprise has
something special to offer and differ from the competition. It only needs trying to identify and understand its customers.
Target market selection is the activity to which enterprise should pay special attention. It is not sufficient to find the
target group, it is necessary to focus the strategy on customer acquirement, commerce atmosphere creation (ability of
product sales), orientating the advertisement towards target customer group and sales areas, continuous customer
evaluating (observation), bringing up the customer for the use of new products and stick to the slogan: “Customer, you
will receive the product you want.”[3]
ORIENTATION TO CUSTOMER
Requirements of customers are the main compass for producers in the sense of cachet "every customer his own
product". The activity of all units in the organization, each process must be oriented at customer. It is not only related to
marketing, commercial units, but complexly the whole organization from management till workers at lowest levels. Its
activity of organization needs to be judged and evaluated from the customer’s point of view and organization results
have to focus on client comfort.
The organization objective should be lasting relationship with customers, attachment to organization. It is important to
estimate the customer value for the organization, i.e. turnover or profit that is achieved by long-term (5-10 years)
contact. According to that, organization determines the appropriation of contact and facilities invested to the customer
(e.g. new product development, distribution channels development). Existential basis of every business unit is customer
needs. It is necessary to realize that the customer is not looking for the product itself, he is looking for the solution of
the problem. Product is only the means of satisfaction. Valid citation of David Clutterbuck "The orientation at the
customer means, that customer achieve after closed of deal feeling, that just Your concern is that, with which he wants
co-operate also in the future".[4]
NEW PRODUCTS
For succeeding on the market, it is necessary for the enterprise to focus on continual innovation and product adaptation.
It means, according to demand dynamics, to insure small innovations (using know-how from competitive products and
improving certain product and services) as well as big innovations. Enterprise should not forget the customer desires in
innovation process, it is necessary to develop and produce products according to individual customer needs. Enterprise
should focus on high product quality; it means complete functional perfection based on latest information and adapted
to customer requirements. Enterprise can achieve extraordinary results when its products outpace the customer
requirements, when they have such attributes that surprise the customer and enchain him in the way he did not expect.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SERVICES MARKET
In later years, the dynamics of services market is increasing extremely. The share of services as segregate products is
increasing as well as the services that are components of the main product. Similar to product, basic principles that
service marketing needs to respect are innovation and quality. Innovation can consist in better service organization,
eventually in complementary services providing that competition does not supply. It is appropriate to use organization
traditions within the new services providing. Service marketing has to lay the emphasis on quality of services providing.
High standards, quality control and strong employee’s motivation oriented on quantitative objectives have to be the
necessity.
Special meaning for marketing in the future will have the marketing that is characterized the best by slogan "with
selling of products or services the attitude to customer is not ending, but begins".
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DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
Within the requirements laid on modern marketing are perfectly functional distribution networks. Classical sale
channels do not suffice the actual customer needs; it begins to enforce direct marketing and direct sales in the
companies. The significance of franchising increases especially in the field of services. Network marketing, where the
main link of advertisement and sale mediation are sale-persons using personal contact with customers, is obtaining good
position in the world.
NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
Fast reaction on every impulse in internal and external enterprise environment is the fundamental factor of business
success. Time becomes the main factor of success. Enterprise has to immediately react on all changes, concerning the
changes of demand, revenues, collision market situations and other problems. Building quality marketing information
system has to be directed on information about enterprise environment. Marketing information systems providing data
about market movements, scientific-technical development, competition programs etc., are absenting in number of
enterprises. [4]
New information technologies enables us to create information and logistic network, creation of such inter-company
relations leading to optimization of production, distribution, communication and sales activities and finally to cost
reduction. New, modern information technologies also gives us possibilities to build up brand marketing information
system that gives relevant data about the market, competition, scientific and technological development that leads to
definitive effect on cost reduction. Modern methods of communications are asking for dialog communication. Latest
information technologies (Internet, E-mail) make possible such a dialog that they can be used not only for informing the
customer, but also for ordering products on-line.
POST SELLING MARKETING
Characteristic of post selling marketing is represented in well-known slogan: “With the sale of product, the relation to
customer does not end, but begins.”[5] Process of post selling marketing includes wide complex of activities that can be
summarize in following areas:
 Processing of information files about customers
 Design of method and form of establishing and retaining the dialog with customers
 Design of arrangements for sustaining and increasing the customer satisfaction
 Design of arrangements for repeated lost-customer acquirement
UNIT IDENTITY OF THE ORGANIZATION
Unit identity of the organization (corporate identity) is generally the philosophy of functioning and surviving in certain
market area, creation of uniform organization image, conjunctive denominator for all organization activities.
Organization identity is mix of organization culture (organization behavior to co-operators, customers, stakeholders,
public), organization design (external company image – logo, symbols, colors, forms) and organization communication
(advertisement, working with public, announcements ...).In the competition environment exactly the organization
identity – form of organization communication, statement, tradition of trade-mark and name, behavior to the public –
often proves to convince and acquire the customer.
Marketing, as well as every activity, is continuously developing and to predict its development in next millennium is
extremely hard. Even though, it is possible from the actual development to predict basal marketing movement.
Organization that operatively adapts to new market requirements and will apply new marketing principles, have much
bigger chances to enforce in new conditions.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1]
KOTLER, P.; KELLER, K. L. Marketing management. Praha : Grada, 2007.
[2]
KOTLER, P. Marketing od A do Z. Praha : Management Presss, 2003.
[3]
KOTLER, P. Marketing v otázkách a odpovědích. Brno : CP Books, 2005.
[4]
SCHULZ, D. E. Moderní reklama – umění zajmout. Praha : GRADA, 1995.
[5]
SOVIAR, J.; STRIŠŠ, J. Business Ethics – Frame Recommendations for the Slovak environment. In Journal of
Information, control and management systems. Volume 8, No. 1. Žilina : EDIS, 2010.
[6]
STRIŠŠ, J.; VODÁK, J.; KUBINA, M.; JANKAL, R.; SOVIAR, J. Marketingové riadenie. Žilina : EDIS, 2009.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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151
ADDRESS:
doc. Ing. Jozef Strišš, CSc.
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o. Kunovice
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected],
Ing. Michal Culek
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o. Kunovice
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
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NEW VIEWS ON MARKETING MIX
Jozef Strišš1, Anna Závodská2
1
2
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o. Kunovice
Žilinská univerzita, Fakulta riadenia a informatiky
Abstract: This article is focused on today’s evaluation of classic marketing mix (4 Ps) and new views of
marketing experts on editing marketing mix (4 Cs or 4 Rs). In this article there are confronted particular
opinions of experts. The aim is to find appropriate way for expressing marketing tools.
Key words: Marketing mix, customer orientation, marketing communication.
Nowadays from marketing point of view we need to look at company activities more complex. Hence the previous
model of marketing mix 4Ps is still extending, sometimes up to 12Ps. New components of marketing mix are for
example:
 Process (production and work procedures),
 People (human resources + customers),
 Physical evidence (appearance – building, uniforms),
 Position (market stance, competition),
 Partners (business partners),
 Physical environment.
These tools should help to realize company’s objectives. All components of marketing mix must customer see as
a homogenous unit. Most of the marketing experts asserted, that original conception of marketing mix 4Ps is not enough
oriented on customers. Although it was still extending, most experts saw a restriction in respecting terminology
beginning with the letter P. Regarding previous critiques there was created new conception where all essential and
needed changes of marketing strategy were included. It is so-called 4Cs 1:
 Consumer,
 Cost,
 Competition,
 Channels.
Rich Shermann 6, one of the reputable world experts in e-Business, logistics, marketing and other similar fields,
identified 4Cs as following:
 Company ,
 Customer,
 Channel,
 Competitors.
Another possible interpretation of 4Cs is 7:
 Company,
 Context,
 Customers,
 Competitors,
or 8:
 Customer,
 Cost,
 Competition,
 Capability.
They all have in common that they try to have customer in the centre of their focus. There exists a lot of other way of
understanding 4Cs. Probably most common and best known is 2, 3, 4:
 Customer,
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


Cost,
Convenience,
Communication.
Nowadays the most used is Kotler’s concept 4Ps from 1980 1. By substitution product for customer value, prices for
cost, place for convenience and promotion for communication, there can be developed more useful marketing mix
reflecting state and needs of 21st century. Customer orientation reflects in terminology of 4Ps a 4Cs. More company
oriented product, price, place and promotion compared to customer, cost, convenience and communication which are
perceived more from customer point of view. Following table shows these differences.
Product
Price
Place
Promotion
Customer
It starts with a question what our customers need, not what kind of
products company offers.
Cost
Company has to think about customer expenses from time, social
and impact-on-environment point of view as well as financial
expenses.
Convenience
Better to focus on ideas you want to transfer to your customer,
what he needs and where he want it rather than your traditional
distribution places.
Communication
Productively communicate with customers for best defining their
needs, not just propagate them company’s products.
Table.1.Transformation from 4Ps to 4Cs.
CUSTOMER
Situation in present requires focus on customers’ needs and interests. They change with time (product lifecycle and age
of customer), opportunities, benefits and fashion. This perceiving reflects fact that customer do not buy simple product
but his perception of product and evaluation. He can evaluate a brand the same way.
COST
Cost does not need to mean just financial value, but it has to reflect product value.
Cost also means that we have to respect all forms of expenses which must our customer spend to buy a product (time,
energy, etc.).
CONVENIENCE
It is important to assure that customer will get product he wants as simple as possible. What company can consider as
good way does not need to be positive accepted by customer. People are generally lazy and comfort will sell products
better than anything else. We have to think again from customer point of view.
COMMUNICATION
There are addressed hundreds of advertising communicational messages to the customer every day. Therefore we need
to communicate with customer in understandable way to him. We need to deliver this message to him besides to all
other information. Company has to focus on benefits, not technical parameters. And first of all we need to communicate
specifically (do not offer diapers to couple without kids, meat to vegetarians and so on). According to new approach to
„marketing communication“ it has to be mutual, integrated and interactive.The term communication is preferred
considered to the term promotion because communication expresses mutual process and allow customers to feed back.
Every interaction with customer even if it is face to face, telephonic or written, it is still communication and the way
how it is managed can propagate product and send signals about company that customer communicate with. Walter E.
Vieira 5 in his book „Marketing is business“ is going further. Besides that the development of marketing goes from
4Ps to 4Cs, he predicts his development to 4Rs:
 Relevance,
 Returns,
 Relationships,
 Response.
1
Concept 4Ps is assigned to Kotler because it was him who the most endeavor to popularized it. But he is not its first author. First ho mentioned about
concept of 4Ps and marketing mix was Neil H. Borden at the end of forties (published in article The Concept of the Marketing Mix in Harvard
Business Review)
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He is not the only person who is going this way. But as at the beginning of every theory, especially in not exact
sciences, there is a variety of ideas and opinions although there is some connection between them. He is presenting
other perception on his website SINOTRUST Marketing Research & Consulting Ltd. 9:
 Relationship,
 Retrenchment,
 Relevancy,
 Returns.
In the newest theory of 4Rs according to SINOTRUST [9] there is a relationship in the first place and its name is
derived from marketing communication element PR (Public Relations) from theory of 4Ps. There is a relationship
between companies and consumers supporting prolonging and sustaining relationship with customers. In the second
place there is a reducing of expenses which does not include just comfort by getting a product and saving customer
time, energy and opinions but it is focused on simplicity of using, etc. In the third place there is a relevancy which
means offering professional, unique and according-to-needs products to customers. In the last place there are profits.
Companies must to respect view of customers and shareholders on product’s value as a sense of their marketing
activities.
We often meet with partial understanding of marketing when people understand marketing as an aggressive sale
politics. Fundamental difference between sale and marketing conception is that if company uses sale conception, first it
creates product and then it tries to adapt it to customer requirements. Vice versa the goal of marketing oriented
company is not to sell what company produces, but to produce what company can sell. The key to achieve this goal is to
know customer needs and satisfy them. In this case company’s supply is derived from demand on the market.
Marketing helps entrepreneur find right conception of entrepreneurship that means to have right product in the right
place and the right price at the right time and based on this company should achieve appropriate profit.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1]
SCHULTZ, D. E. Moderní reklama – umění zajmout. Praha : GRADA, 1995.
[2]
Kurz
LSPR.
London
School
of
Public
Relations.
[online]
Available
from:
http://www.lspr.cz/cz/index.php?show_page=text&section=7.3
[3]
London School of Public Relations. [online] Available from: http://www.pr-school-london.com/relationofpr.htm
[4]
What is marketing. [online] Available from: http://www.palgrave.com/pdfs/0333948971.pdf
[5]
MURALI, D. Marketing's bigger role. The Hind Bussiness Line Internet Edition. [online] Available from:
http://www.blonnet.com/catalyst/2003/10/16/stories/2003101600090200.htm
[6]
SHERMAN, R. 8 Steps To Info Systems Happiness. Inbound Logistics. [online] Available from:
http://www.inboundlogistics.com/articles/features/0102_feature07.shtml
[7]
http://alumni.ebsmba.com/alumni/pdf/Pullout %20IYB %20May %2001.pdf
[8]
http://google.com  4Ps 4Cs 4Rs or 4P's 4C's 4R's
[9]
http://www.sinotrustmr.com.cn/chinese_ver/book/no3/mail_e.htm
ADDRESS:
doc. Ing. Jozef Strišš, CSc.
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o. Kunovice
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
Ing. Anna Závodská,
Žilinská univerzita,
Fakulta riadenia a informatiky 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
e-mail: [email protected]
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TO THE METHODOLOGICAL QUESTION OF SOCIOSYNERGETIC CLASSIFIKATION OF
WORLD AND SCIENCE
Dušan Turan
TnU AD Trenčín
Abstrakt: There is a typical and common situation that one concrete scientific discipline is interchanged
with the science during the defining of methodology. The whole or integral science is only one! The
scientific discipline, with its content and structure, forms only particular space of whole or integral science
as a systemic integrity.
Key words: sociosynergistic gnoseological, sociosynergistic methodological, synergetics, biosynergetics,
sociosynergetics, psychosynergetics and social connections
Methodology as a thought process seems to be a necessary requirement for successful scientific investigation. It was
written about the methodology a lot and it was often understood as a file of scientific methods which were used within
the frame of concrete scientific discipline.
Methodology of science cannot be understood only as any file of scientific procedures and methods, which are utilized
in some concrete scientific discipline. The scientific investigation methods seem to be only some methods of
investigation and they reflect only some sub-system of methodology. There is the fact that some investigation methods
are utilized by many scientific disciplines and any other are utilized only by some sciences but this fact doesn’t say us
anything about the methodology of science.
Theoretical conceptions of concrete scientific discipline are closely connected with the investigation method, for
example: the conception of inclusion measurement in physic, quantum theory of field, or the principle of similarity and
analysis of measures, which was one of some bases of hypothesis which is connected with auto-modelling /selfmodelling/ in physic of high energies.
There is a typical and common situation that one concrete scientific discipline is interchanged with the science during
the defining of methodology. The whole or integral science is only one! The scientific discipline, with its content and
structure, forms only particular space of whole or integral science as a systemic integrity.
According to this fact, methodology and methods for concrete scientific discipline must converge into the whole
methodological system of science.
If this condition is not kept, the question will appear whether our idea of concrete scientific discipline isn’t connected
only with undefined burst of experiences and knowledge without gnoseological and methodological construction. The
methodology of whole or integral science should be understood as one side of coin, because another side of this coin
reflects the gnoseology. Therefore, according to us, it is better to talk about the gnoseological and methodological
conception of whole or integral science.
We could say that the existing scientific disciplines were really devious and chaotic till now, because they mainly drew
from world-view and value partiality relating to their gnoseological development of content and structure.
Developing sociosynergetic gnoseological and methodological conception concerning with view of world doesn’t
respect value and world-view partiality formed in past and this conception offers systemic and integral perception of
system man /human being/ and system of world which is around this human being.
From the methodological point of view, we classify this perception of world in reason and dialect of terms on the level
of several sub-systems – methodology of synergetics, biosynergetics, sociosynergetics, psychosynergetics and social
connections.
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1 METHODOLOGY CHART OF SYNERGETIC SCIENCES
Methodology of synergetic sciences, or more precisely said, synergetics is based on the whole or integral
sociosynergetic world-view and value principles of cognition and it is not subject to partial, world-view and value
perception of world as well as it respects the integrity of intersection relating to mechanical, physical and chemical
connection in the concrete synergic system.
In this connection, we wouldn’t like to interfere with scientists who are interested in scientific sphere connected with
synergy and their definition for conceptual and categorical as well as methodological dimension, but we must say that
genesis of synergetic methodology starts in that time when the idea about synergic unity of four world forming powers
had become – these for powers are the gravitation, electro-magnetism, strong and weak nuclear interaction.
This thought was said by Albert Einstein [1]for the first time and if it is true, according to us, A. Einstein should
cogitate in intentions relating to methodology of whole or integral synergetic science – synergetics.
Extremely difficult and for information extensive, system of atom for concrete element is the initial gnoseological and
methodological space in sphere of synergetic sciences.
Nowadays, mainly empiric cognition in particular scientific disciplines /physic, mechanics, chemistry/ has pierced into
essence of atom for concrete element which is understood as an initial system for which is typical its “synergic” DNA
and strict patterns of its own self-identification and self-reproduction.
The way of partial scientific disciplines connected with achievement of the present results has really been complicated
and has taken the chiliads and this achievement of present results has been based on the prism of quantitative growth
relating to empirical knowledge as the basis for formation of concrete exact or more precisely said, scientific
conclusions which were formulated with mathematical and statistical help with help.
The industry of science, technological background and the scientific equipment, devices will really have to get into
touch with the nano and pico space of matter so that it would be possible to start the projection process of similar
intersection relating to cognition into the atom of some concrete element as we can also see it in connection with reveals
of genome for concrete biosynergic form. Without any perfect hi-tech scientific equipment and scientific investigation,
there wouldn’t have been revealed the new observation about which has been talked by scientists from Wilfried Wurth’s
team in Hamburg University in Germany. This observation is connected with the fact that the electron flashover
between sulphur atom and ruthenium atom takes 320 atoseconds /millionths of billions of second/. And according to
this fact, or more precisely, this extremely tiny space-time reveals us the answer to question about synergic essence of
nucleus for concrete element, by which the “auto” is identified and which also varies it qualitatively from any other
elements of synergic dimension.
Our civilisation took a step forward markedly in the contentual, structural as well as time identification of synergic
elements, where the science has reached the limits of atoseconds [2] and it aims for investigations of processes within
the nucleus of atom on the level of zetoseconds / trilliardth of second – it is unit which contains 20 zeros/. Despite of
significant development in knowledge and cognition, population is still not able to answer the question relating to
essence of atomic self-identification, self-preservation, self-reproduction and these all are connected with concrete
element as a whole integral system in unimaginable diapason of changing outer conditions.
Present investigations which are connected with the analysis of processes for particles collision under the high energies
probably give us the most immediate information about the inner composition of elementary particles and atomic
nuclei.
The science has been progressing in the definitions of basic laws for micro-world and it has also been confirming
important role of space and time as well as inner symmetries, from which are created fundamental laws of micro-world
relating to preservation in micro-world.
There is intensively developed the idea of quarks[3] as an elementary particles – sets, theory of mesons and barions
as /nowadays/ the least identified particles in micro-world and these particles have disposed with new spin
quantum number – “colour”, which has been unknown until resent time. All this plays very important role for the
way relating to creation of whole integral theory of elementary particles. Partial scientific disciplines lead up to some
super symmetric theory – synergetics in connection with the sphere relating to cognition of systems characteristic for
synergic dimension.
Sociosynergetic scientific conception also distinguishes three levels of methodology for scientific branches:
methodology for synergetic scientific branch, biosynergetic scientific branch and socioscientific branch. The
science will have to be interested in absolutely new systemic integral methods of investigation relating to nano and pico
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space of synergic elements, but this activity will be possible only if there are the whole integration of such three initial
scientific disciplines as – quantum physics, quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry. Opportunities which are based
on previous empirical and experiential methods in connection with the investigation of synergic space and synergic
systems seem to be historically overcome, although, on the other hand, they are not historically exhausted. It is also
important to say that there are some new historical opportunities for empirical and experiential methods including
scientific investigation and it is because of pressure which is based on the hi-tech scientific technologies, modern
scientific equipment, industry of science, software background as well as forwardness which is typical for nowadays
particular scientific teams.
Capacity of information which is included in atomic nucleus of concrete element reflects the unit with the minimal
number of five zeros, but it could be said that present science had still revealed only the minimal part. The time relating
to synergetic methodology of science could immediate start to move on as late as the science will be able to read the
essence of “synergic” DNA[4], to determine structure and content of some synergo-genome for concrete synergic
element.
Methodology of particular synergetic scientific branches, or more precisely said, methodology of whole integral
synergetic science – synergetics reflects some generally true construction of scientific promotion for relatively
particular and autonomous system relating to special scientific disciplines the investigation subject of which is
dimension of classically perceived three-dimensional space of mechanical, physical and chemical connection of
cognized world.
The problem relating to synergetics is connected with its relation to classically understood dialectics “evolution –
revolution” and it is one of the most fundamental problems of the methodology for whole integral synergetic science –
synergetics.
In author’s monographic study “Úvod do Sociosynergetiky” were introduced problems with the intent that essence of
existence relating to the systems of synergic dimension is closely connected with the principle of some set of segments
which could be understood as “synergic Lego”[5].
According to us the scientific investigation of intraatomic communication for two and more elements, and by defining
of elementary particles with help of parameter triads “plus” – “minus” – “neutral” will be necessarily completed, during
the next few years or decades, with research of “synergic” DNA for concrete element that has already been mentioned
hereinbefore.
The whole gnoseological and methodological synergetic point of view of atom is not connected with the ambitions to
defend or refuse the philosophy relating to planetary model of atom. We don’t cast doubts on actual opinion that
elements are different because of the number of various charged particles /for example: the nucleus of hydrogen
contains one proton and one electron but on the other hand uranium contains 92 protons as well as electrons/; we don’t
also cast doubts on difference between elements and their different number of any other elementary particles /categories
of quarks, leptons, mesons, barions, groups of photons, pions, kaons, nucleons, hyperons/,but according to us, this all
doesn’t reveal us “synergo-genome” for concrete synergic element.
Said in the other way, present modern science /quantum physics, quantum chemistry and quantum mechanics/ doesn’t
still answer the question about concrete element /hydrogen, carbon, ferrum, plumbum, etc…/ which in its inner
structure and contain self-reproduces as the same systemic integrity.
Compounds of elements don’t reflect intersection relating to systems of atoms for one element with the atom for any
other element but they are only some assignment of systems of atoms for particular elements to each other. In this case,
it is absolutely not clear if this assignment externally acts in the form of gas, liquid, solid substance.
According to actual scientific knowledge, evolution and revolution on the level of synergic dimension of systems would
be only quantitative clustering and wandering of various elementary particles in the atom for concrete element and
within the framework of intersection of connections and assignment of particular systems for synergic dimension of
close and far universe. But is it really true?
Methodology of synergetics, of course, respects previous and actual perception of evolution as a sequential change of
quantity to new quality, but “new” quality cannot be understood as a quality which wasn’t existed in space of global
super space till now. This quality is “new” only in local space of synergic dimension, but this quality had already been
established reality in any other space of this dimension before we started to operate with it.
If we start to talk about synergetic methodology, we could say that there are integrated and synchronized scientific
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knowledge and experience which were obtained during the development of particular scientific disciplines in the sphere
mechanical, physical and chemical connection to systemic integrity of synergetic quality.
This systemic integrity doesn’t present just simple summary of these knowledge and experiences, but absolutely new
quality. It could be said that this new quality is like the answer of crossword puzzle where the particular filled check
boxes show us the concrete scientific knowledge relating to synergetic sciences. In feed-back, this imaginary answer of
crossword puzzle determines the formation of new scientific knowledge and experience in various partial synergetic
sciences.
2 ABOUT THE BIOSYNERGETIC METHODOLOGY
Biosynergetic methodology objectively accepts synergetic methodology in space of its own scientific process, but this
methodology is not sufficient for biosynergetics, because there is not included life as a forth dimension and biologic
connection which is closely connected with it. There is not any other possibility and therefore biosynergetic
methodology must accept in subject of its own investigation the integrity and indivisibility of four-dimensional
intersection of connections [6].
In this time, biosynergetics respects the theory of cell /prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell/ as the initial system in cognition.
But some intracellular parasites /viruses, viroids present special case, because they don’t have cellular structure as well
as some properties which are specific for cells and it is one of many unknown rebuses of life as the forth dimension on
our planet. In our opinion also these forms of biodiversity must be understood as systems. From the point of view of
biosynergetic methodology, it is possible to understand viruses and viroids as some bridge which is between synergic
dimension of systems and biosynergic dimension of systems. [6]
Form the methodological point of view, the prokaryotic cell is still actual subject of study, because it is also biosynergic
system in spite of the fact that its nucleus is not the same as the nucleus of eukaryotic cell. There is also not solved the
conception of genesis of eukaryotic cell, where is the most emphasized the theory of metabolic endo-symbiotic process
for which is typical that some number of lines for primary prokaryotes were connected together into one whole, which
allowed genesis of all present eukaryotic organisms.
On the base of prism of biosynergetic methodology, it is necessary to understand all these micro-levels of life as
relatively autonomous biosynergic systems. Also it is necessary to investigate the base of their relative interactions,
mutations, combinations, and variations internal systemic and mid-systemic linkage because they could create the
genesis of higher forms of life, as the multi-formed units. The results are still unknown now and we believe that they
will be revealed by the latest scientific researches in the short time.
Deeper investigation of conditions for existence of these systems as well as their reproduction and destruction by prism
of still compressed information flow, will definitely bring some results, but we will have to operate with more and more
extreme conditions to save these systems.
Especially these extreme conditions of their existence are the most interesting space for scientific investigation. Among
these extreme conditions of life existence is included coherent peak of seabed where the seabed is permanently formed
with help of volcanic activity and there, in these conditions, was found the life which is not depended on sunshine
energy. For example: in localities of Pacific Ocean, R. John’s team from Cardiff university in Great Britain found out
unbelievable active, plentiful, various prokaryotic microbial life in sediments which are about one hundred meters under
the oceanic bed. [7]
Methodological problem is perceived according to fact that the intersection of synergic systems is not created on the
level of biosynergy, because there is only realized their reciprocal binding. [8] Biosynergic systems, i.e. particular forms
of life are also relatively stable and integral systems, but in the contrast to synergic systems, they are extremely weak in
diapason of external conditions and therefore can be quickly broken.
From the methodological point of view it is also generally held that saving of initial system excludes intersection of
systems /it’s not intersection of connections/, because original systems are broken by intersection biosynergic systems
and during that time there can be, but needn’t be created new biosynergic system. It is not intersection of biosynergic
systems, but it is only their common existence in present most complex system of intersections of connections. This
existence can evoke harmony, latent tolerance or immensurable confrontation of systems. Biosynergetic methodology
contains fundamentals of scientific process in investigation of biosynergic dimension as a systemic whole and therefore
it is with its own inner organization on qualitatively more complex level than synergetic methodology.
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Despite of fact that synergetic methodology must accept the intersection of connections in concrete system, it is
relatively independent to intersection of connections and binding of these systems in research of essence of systems for
synergic dimension. On the other hand, biosynergetic methodology must absolutely accept not only intersection of
connections, but also the binding of systems, which present concrete form of life as an integrity. [9] The most important
is not only perfect knowledge of content and structure of particular sub-systems /synergic and biosynergic/ for concrete
form of life, but quite important is the knowledge of systemic function of intersection of connections for these systems
and their binding as an integrity. Especially important role in research of this four-dimensional intersection, i.e.
intersection of mechanical, physical, chemical and biological connection is based on molecular biology. Without any
exaggeration, we could say that nucleus of biosynergetic, gnoseological and methodological conception for saving of
integrity relating to space of four-dimensional world in logic and dialectics of terms is hidden in molecular biology.
Dynamic progress of scientific research in the sphere molecular biology will also reveal lots of connections, which were
unknown till now and it will be one of important parts of sociosynergetic philosophy. It could be said that there is not
any other scientific discipline except for dynamically progressing molecular biology which could so widely spectrally
negate world-view and value partiality of man’s ideas and acts till now. Any other results of molecular biology are not
only negations of theory of vitalism [10], but they are also negations of all theoretical structures with effort to make
clear biosynergy only from level of synergy, i.e. from level of chemistry, physic, mechanics, mathematics and so on.
The complex of “scientific methods”, which were applied in whole spectrum of “natural” [11] sciences until now, is not
enough for biosynergetic methodology.
During the research of all forms of life, it must start minimally with chromosomal identification, with defining of order
for bases in chains of DNA, which are creators of genetic information for concrete form of life as well as with the whole
charting of genome for concrete form of life. Biosynergetic methodology has had its roots in whole development of
cognition till now, however in connection with this methodology, the real history has been written since the beginning
of 21st century and the most important word in its assembling will be concerned with the scientists who will absolutely
accept the integrity of four-dimensional intersection of its subject of research.
We could say that also the main dogma of molecular biology revealing the essence of connections or functional
dependences between DNA, RNA and protein and defining the processes of replication, transcription and translation
would be viable only if it is developed on the basis of indivisibility and four-dimensional intersection. It is necessary to
understand that lit is not possible to explain life only according to level relating to chemistry, physic, mechanics etc.
And therefore it is important to understand the methodological essence of whole biosynergetic science – biosynergetics
as well as its philosophic fundamentals.
Almost absolute charting of human Genome (cca 98 %) in 2000 has been connected with the beginning of history of
biosynergetic gnoseological and methodological structure in relation to human existence. It is the genetic information
which controls the preservation of human genus and which, in its hyper-compacted form, “realizes” genesis
/conception/ of every man.
Preservation of genetic information for species cardinally excludes evolution, but man’s life “From Genesis to
individual End of time” has been still in evolution because of huge pressure of changing inner and outer conditions.
According to this, man’s existence is concerned with permanent antagonistic relation: “non evolution - evolution“. The
serious merit of genetic information is connected with the moment of man’s “Genesis” and its task is step by step
completed in a period from “Genesis to Nativity”, but after nativity, it seems to be the latent effect of genetic
information and this latent effect is absolutely overlapped by autopilot, psychopilot, and later by sociopilot. The merit
of genetic information in absolute understanding seems not to be changed, but its merit relating to existence of concrete
man has relatively been reduced in comparison with the operation capacity, which has been, step by step, sorted by
hardware and software of grey and white matter relating to brain and spinal cord.
Despite of fact, that genetic information has been still deformed in existence of milliards persons by pressure of outer
and inner conditions, human genus has been progressing in original copying and in unchanged quality for millions
years. It means that the genetic information which is connected with sociosynergic preservation – man must be resistant
to any change because of population surviving.
If there is any invasion of genetic information relating to any persons of our species and some ability for sequentiality is
typical for them, we could say that this sequentiality is generally reproduced with its genetic information which seems
to be violated. In consequence of such development it may be connected with extinction of human genera, ethnic
population and even it may be connected with civilisation extinction on continents. Undoubtedly this situation had been
happened in reproduction of human genus for many times on planet Earth.
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Despite of this fact, the original genetic information of sociosynergy man hasn’t been harmed in biodiversity of planet
as well as it is connected with ability for reproduction of current 6.5 milliards of persons. Nowadays we need new
quality of man’s materialized past work in the sphere of information flow and its technological security for charting of
causes and cases. From the methodological point of view it is important to say that if the man with own cognition is
able to harmonize dynamically the acting as a subject with own self-organizing sociosynergic essence, it will open us
the unbelievable opportunities, as for example: slow-down of obsolesce or genetic reparation of damaged body
apparatus. But the question is whether we should urge for it at all.
According to facts written hereinbefore, it should be clear that biosynergetics operates in the sphere of scientific
cognition and knowledge with huge density, capacity, intensity, frequency and quality of social information and it is
absolutely not possible to treat only by man’s brain. For treatment of such information it is necessary to use high-power
operating electronic brain centre of biosynergic information. Philosophy development of whole biosynergetic science –
biosynergetics following the systemic application of biosynergetic methodology will bring such achievements per year
which were brought during centuries or chiliads in the past. In the next few years, biosynergetics and its gnoseological
and methodological conception will afford human opportunity for genesis of biosynergetic reproduction management of
biosynergic systems. Especially it is management of biotechnologies which are oriented on food processing, but also on
management of biotechnologies which operate in space of landscape management (creation and protection of
landscape) as well as biotechnologies in the sphere of medicine. In addition to this, there is also developed the
methodology of particular sciences relating to society as well as methodology of whole integral sociosynergetic science.
3 TO THE METHODOLOGY OFINTEGRAL SOCIOSYNERGETIC SCIENCE
Methodology of sciences about sociosynergy, of sciences about man’s psychosynergy and sciences about social
movement objectively accepts biosynergetic method in the space of its own scientific research, but this methodology is
not adequate for following-up sciences because of not full-value insight into the sociosynergic man’s uniqueness, into
the sphere of man’s psychoperception, abstract thinking, conscious and practical perform, conceptual and categorical
communication as well as into space of social connections which in connection with sociosynergic dimension of world
express the man as a systemic integrity.
System of information flow of synergetic sciences, biosynergetic sciences, sociosynergetic sciences, psychosynergetic
sciences and sciences concerning with society profile sociosynergetic science in the broadest understanding as an
integral systemic science about a man who is only one known form reflecting the sociosynergy.
The development of science will be full-value only in that time if everything happening in the sphere of science is
connected with man’s benefit and it not stands opposite to integrity of functioning for man’s system as sociosynergy. It
is normal and logic that scientific methodology and its gnoseological tendency will be in harmony with this integrity
and it will not stand opposite to it.
Understanding and full-value revealing of essence for imaginary 1.44 % of sociosynergic human being’s difference
from the pyramid top of biosynergy which is represented by primates are concerned with the question answer of which
should be found by the population because only by this way our population might be able to leave existing chaos of
socio world.
Human research will be imperfect if we start to develop it only from the point of view of biosynergy. And it will be the
same, if we start to research human being only from point of view of proprietor for social connections. In conditions of
planet Earth, there is something unique and unrepeatable between biosynergic human essence and human social world
and it is human being’s sociosynergetic essence. Man’s sociosynergic essence is not the same as biosynergic quality as
well as social quality or integral sociosynergetic quality of system man.
Human being has been born as a form representing sociosynergy but it doesn’t mean that social qualities and social
skills are inborn. Sociosynergic essence and social essence of human being must be understood as two absolutely
different phenomena from the qualitative point of view.
As we said hereinbefore, sociosynergetic human essence is coded in genetic information from genesis to nativity. Social
human essence / abstract thinking, conscious and practical perform conceptual and categorical communication / is
determined from nativity to individual end of time by social existence which is connected with the nativity as well as
man’s unique life.
There is also some acting of human psychosynergic and psychoperception phenomenon that can be found somewhere
between sociosynergetic human essence and own human social essence.
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Methodology of whole sociosynergetics should be understood as integral intersection relating to methodology of
sociosynergic connections, psychosynergic connections and social connections for whole system man. According to
said facts, we understand sociosynergetic methodology in the strict sense of the word as a basis for all the partial
scientific disciplines sinking into physiology of given 1.44 % relating to human being’s difference /unlikeness/ from the
most developed primates. This is the space which is studied by psychiatric physiology as well as the space of the partial
scientific disciplines which sink into the essence of psychoperception, abstract thinking, conscious and practical
perform, conceptual and categorical communication as well as into space of human socio connections of world.
In the broadest sense of word sociosynergetic methodology is integral structure of human being research as a biopsycho-socio phenomenon, as a form representing sociosynergy in synergic, biosynergic, sociosynergic and socio
conditions of planet Earth. Genesis and development relating to sociosynergetic gnoseology and its methodological
structure seems to be some prototype of events, the running of which will be allowed actually by management for
blockade of expanded reproduction of Chaos in socio world and by this way there will be bounded this chaos on the
level of simple reproduction and there will be step by step managed “Exodus from this Chaos” by its lower reproduction
within the frame of particular nations of civilisation as well as civilisation as a whole.
LITERATÚRE:
[1]
KAKU, M. Einsteinov vesmír. Praha : Argo, 2005.
[2]
Wilfried Wurth´s team from University in z Hamburg found out, that electron flashover between sulphur atom
and ruthenium atom takes 320 atoseconds /SME 21.7.2005, page26/
[3]
The atom of some element was understood as the least system in the sphere of synergic dimension of systems till
now. The science seems to support quark as the least system.
[4]
Maybe the definition of bond „synergic“ DNA will, from the first point of view, evoke or even provoke the
scientists in the sphere of biosynergy to refuse it because DNA is immanent term relating only to four dimension
– life. Own inner “life“ is also typical for systems on the level of synergic dimension, that is the level of so
called lifeless world of physical, chemical, mechanical connection. Then the expression which was used
hereinbefore is connected with cognitive and methodological meaning and exactly it is not connected with direct
scientific statement value.
[5]
See more closely: Úvod do sociosynergetiky. Bratislava : IRIS, 2004.
[6]
We must emphasize, that it is connected with the intersection of connections, not of systems.
[7]
FERENČÍK, M.; ŠKÁRKA, B. Biochémia. Bratislava : SAP s.r.o., 2000.
[8]
Resource: SME- týždeň vo vede 21.7.2005, page 26
[9]
For example: there is more than one kilogram of various micro-systems of life in gastrointestinal tract.
[10] Vitalism reflects biological direction revealing processes of development for four dimension – life by strange
“life energy” which seems to be connected with sociosynergic life essence absolutely in nothing.
[11] From the methodological point of view of synergetics, it is not good to use actual division of sciences into
sciences and humanities or arts.
ADDRESS:
Ing. Dušan Turan, CSc.
TnU AD
0905468460
Trenčín
e-mail: [email protected]
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SOME TOOLS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Josef Vodák1, Ivana Tesarovičová2
1
University in Žilina
University in Opava, Business faculty Karviná
2
Abstract: In this article the authors discuss achieving success of a company through Performance
Management, in particular by increasing company performance through human capital. From a wide
variety of performance management tools we have chosen talent management, coaching and mentoring.
This article focuses on mentoring as a valuable method which is less known than coaching but also widely
used. This article has discussed reasons for using mentoring in a company, benefits for a mentee, company
and mentors. In addition, it shows which aspects play a key role in good implementation of this method
and compares mentoring and coaching.
Key words: performance management, human potential, talent management, coaching, mentoring
INTRODUCTION
In today´s hard economic conditions it is important for companies to be successful and competitive on the market.
Performance Management represents a strategically oriented and integrated process enabling a company to be
permanently successful and competitive both as a result of permanent improvement of work performance of the
organization´s employees and as a result of permanent extending and deepening of skills of individuals and team in the
organization. The article points out an underestimated tool of performance management which mentoring is. According
to different international studies performed recently a system of management of performance is directly affected by the
areas such as: financial results, productivity, quality of products/services, satisfaction of customers as well as
satisfaction of employees.
1 MANAGEMENT OF PERFORMANCE
Competitiveness of organizations in the third millennium is based on efficient utilization of intangible assets –
particularly of human resources, on employees´ creativity and on their ability to apply their skills and knowledge on
their day-to-day work to bring as big efficiency and satisfaction of a customer as possible. Financial and tangible assets
are of course still necessary but that are often creativity, human inventiveness and long-term development of human
potential which differentiates an organization and from the long-term point of view brings a competitive advantage.
That means in practice to carry on development of human capital of a company emphasizing the talented and
perspective employees.
The importance of intangible assets – particularly of human resources in a competition fight - explains why every
organization and every manager needs a system, a process, to be able to utilize human resources in the organization as
efficiently as possible. If the organization utilizes principles of performance management at human relation
management, it brings different advantages such as the following:

Shareholders register better recovery of their deposits because people in the organization try to achieve the key
objectives of the organization (synergy),

Managers are much more successful than before because their colleagues and subordinates do right things in
a right way,

Employees´ experience and work confidence grow, bigger possibilities to develop carrier, higher motivation and
perfect employees´ performance occur.
The system of management of work performance can be specified as a main process which allows to transform basic
strategic priorities, values and particularly objectives of the company into performance or into particular objectives of
every employee. It is based on the principle of interconnection of company performance management which defines key
measures of performance into the highest level of management up to the level of particular objects of management
(organizational units, work positions) and an individual system of performance management which defines both
particular work objectives and required work conduct on the level of particular work positions (employees). Effective
performance management is a permanent and flexible process. It is based on situational leadership, principle of
agreement, it does not rely on directive commands and control. It makes partners from managers and employees with an
agreement between them which says that the employees will do their best to achieve common goals with support of
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management. Performance management should be focused on planning of the future performance, not only an
evaluation of the past period. Particularly the gradual development in time is concerned. That´s essential for regular and
frequent dialogues between a manager and a managed one, either an individual or a team is concerned. Feedback,
recognition of contribution for the organization and identification of further opportunities are more important than
financial remuneration. Development aspects of a personality are more important than financial remuneration although
salary depending on performance is one of the tools of the performance management 1.
Performance management should have a form of a flexible process which adjusts to changing and internal conditions.
Most of successful organizations are based on a procedural organization which requires an ability of big flexibility.
Therefore also performance management must be flexible and it should develop and adjust to circumstances.
On a strategic, corporate level performance management represents utilisation of ideas of Balanced Scorecard
methodology which is able to increase effectiveness of internal communication by providing a necessary frame to it in
a significant way. It is also significant because it has shown the importance of human capital regarding to achieving the
highest corporate objectives to managers.
The importance of intangible assets – particularly of human resources in competition fight explains why every
organization and every manager needs a system, a process, to utilize human resources in the organization as effectively
as possible. If an organization uses principles of the performance management at management of human resources,
different advantages arise from that for it, for example that the managers are much more successful than before, since
their colleagues and subordinates do the things right. The other aspect is that the employees´ experience, their work
confidence rise, bigger possibilities for carrier growth, higher motivation and excellent performance of employees are
achieved.
2 PERFORMANCE MANGEMENT TOOLS
If we follow the ideas of M. Armstrong then efficient interpersonal communication, feedback (e.g. 360 º), coaching,
mentoring, counselling are the main tools of the performance management. Also competencies which an employee
should dispose of to deal with the tasks which result from their job title play an important role.
The tools to improve the work performance of an employee the performance of who does not meet the expectations
which have been imposed at them or who is talented and has higher potential are an important part of the performance
management which also contains creating of work tasks adjusted to a particular employee. To improve work
performance of a unit or an organization in general the employees the work performance of who meets the agreed
expectations are decisive. The main task of the performance management is to search for the reserves in performance
and to search for the ways how to make good performance even better.
2.1TALENT MANAGEMENT
Talent management is a more and more discussed topic today. In many organizations it is not an extra activity anymore
but a fight for talented people is becoming a necessity. While in the past the talent management was focused on getting
the best ones and keeping them, today the growing emphasize on the talent management in many organizations means
that a lot of organizations reformulate the performance management and try to adjust it to a need to identify, educate
and keep the talents in the organization. The programs of development of employees reflect the need of successful plans
and search for support to develop leading skills of the talents in the organization. However, too strong emphasize on the
talent management may be harmful for the general development of the organization because every effort to develop
should ensure the development of the performance of the organization as a whole and not only of a part of it.
Today’s employees expect equal partnership relationship between them and the organization and they expect some
adaptability from the side of the employer towards their life style. The price of talents in form of salaries and benefits
has also increased. Today´s talent management does not choose the best of good ones but looks for hidden potential
which they complete actively in accordance with the definition of a particular company talent.
Bigger pressure on sophisticated skills than on their wider level can be noticed as well. Much more work positions
require a high level of knowledge and skills based on integrating of a big amount of complex data because we are living
in a more complicated world. It wasn´t so significant ten years ago and managers were confronted with technology and
saving and simple software products. The situation is much more demanding today. The demands of their competencies
are growing up very quickly. Pressure to gain variety of knowledge results from different requirements and needs of
1
VODÁK, J., TESAROVIČOVÁ I. Economic Crisis, Performance Management and Human Capital, CAG University Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi,
Journal of Social Science, 6(1), Haziran 2009
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both an organization and its surrounding.
The talent management is a process by which an organization preliminarily identifies, manages and develops their
people for the future. It deals with the strategy development to specify what the organization needs to satisfy the current
and future requirements of the shareholders, identify the ways to get and keep those ones who are decisive for achieving
success and for measuring an impact of strategies of the talent management in order to enable the organization to
improve continuously and to bring high performance now and in the future. Basic idea of the talent management is an
assumption that there is some potential in every man and any approach should be used to reveal it. Moreover, there are
some key abilities which an organization requires for sustainable competitive advantage and their goal is to identify,
keep and build them.
It should be realized that talented people need the organization less than the organization needs them, it is much easier
for them to find a place in other (often competing) organization or in their own business. This fact imposes big demands
on work of human resources managers. We can describe the framework for the implementation of talent management
briefly in the following points:

Responsibility for the talent management implementation should come from the top management of the company
and the human resource department should play an important role in the process of implementation. However,
each manager is responsible for identification and building of the talents within their scope. It is known that Jack
Welch has made a main priority for the whole organization from the talent development in General Electrics.

To distinguish key abilities and needed talent necessary for sustainable development in the future can help to
focus on the key and necessary aspects of business. During the existence of wider development activities which
should help to develop potential of all employees should be focused on areas which can eventually limit general
development of the organization.

Intensive development processes for performance and human potential assessment form an inevitable basis. It is
required to reveal hidden talents within the organization because they are not used much. Further plans and
development activities in the future should follow the information obtained from this process.

To determine the processes which will be used to get, develop and keep the talents may help to create clearer
qualitative criteria to measure their effectiveness in the future.

It is also suitable to include the cycle of planning, examining and deciding on talents into a regular managerial
control process – it will help to keep the required long-term goals focus.

To focus on the areas with the highest return in proportion with the used effort will probably lead to the lower
initial investment.
After all the talent management and planning of succeeding relates to open communication, passing the information and
encouraging of conversation on people, their approaches and results. The talent management in an organization should
be less focused on tools, systems or limitations of competence frameworks. The way of thinking, attitudes and approach
to learning should be concerned instead.
2.2 COACHING
An individual way of helping to an employee to improve their work performance and develop their abilities and skills –
coaching is an important tool of the talent management. Coaching is applied at different occasions, e.g. when
delegating a power to the employee or when conferring a new task upon the employee, but mainly it is related to
providing feedback to the employee. Coaching is nothing new in essence, it is only designation of a process which good
managers have already been applying for a few years. Thus it is a very common part of a usual managerial work. The
manager leads the employee to realize how they perform their work. The manager tries to direct the employee to think
about their work and to think of how it can be improved. He should also ensure that the manager does not only know
what is expected from him but also to understands what he needs to know to perform his work. The manager
encourages the employee to think of the problems and to look for their solution. However, the employees should also
understand that if they are to take more demanding tasks and to develop their career, they have to improve their
abilities, knowledge, skills and conduct permanently.
Coaching is an interactive process through which managers try to eliminate faults in employees´ performance through
which they teach him the skills, they forward them the knowledge and instil them the values and required work conduct.
It is an important method which consolidates human capital of the organization. Good managers always look for
possibilities of coaching. Coaching helps to increase motivation and helps managers with a lot of important aspects of
performance for themselves as well as for their employees. Particularly the following things are concerned:
 Elimination of faults in performance
 Getting of new skills and abilities
 Increase in motivation
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
Preparation for new responsibilities
More efficient managing of employees
Good coaching results in better performance, satisfaction with work and higher motivation. It also helps to improve
work relationships of a manager with his subordinates and facilitates the manager´s work. The trainings of skills are
another way to eliminate faults in performance and to increase abilities and qualification of employees. As we have
already mentioned above the development of skills and abilities of employees of the organization has big and
irreplaceable importance in performance management because without effective education and investment in people no
organization which wants to increase their performance and which wants to be successful can do. Successful managers
realize what value the qualified employees which can cooperate purposefully, share the information and develop
knowledge necessary for efficient work of the organization in today´s globalizing and permanently changing world have
for them.
Development and education of employees should be the main direction which most of organizations should follow to
increase their performance. However, it requires understanding of processes and techniques of the company, team and
individual education. When assessed for employee´s performance the employees should be encouraged to think of how
and what ways they want to develop further. This can lead to draw a personal plan of employee´s development where
the activities serving to their future personal development are specified.
2.3 MENTORING
You will probably agree if I say that coaching is a more discussed topic than mentoring. Coaching is at a much higher
place in awareness of managers than mentoring and that is one of the reasons why we have discussed it in more details
in our papers. To a certain extent the chaos in the fact that when and how to use coaching and when to use mentoring is
understandable. The used methods are in essence the same with slight differences and moreover either in coaching or in
mentoring there are more alternative approaches.
To be able to solve this dilemma let´s say more about mentoring as a tool of development of talented employees in
a company and growth of a company as a whole. What is the mentoring in fact? If we want to use some usable
definition, we could say that: “Mentoring is about two people who have got to each other to help to each other to go
forward in the work process to perform their work more easily and to organize their life.” However, when talking about
mentoring, it should be added that:

it is creation of a relationship which is focused on facilitating of growth (improvement) of the mentee at work, in
career or life in general,

a mentor can utilize a wide scale of suitable approaches and styles (depending on the particular situation), in order
to support growth of the mentee as well as possible,

appropriately motivated mentor is able to bring significant benefits for the company, particularly if mentoring is
a part of wider development programs in the company.
If we want to take a think of the purpose of mentoring, we will find out that it is:

Finding a pattern or example - from another person, who shows the prime behaviour to the person which is being
mentored

Providing feedback – that means somebody who the mentee can discuss their ideas, opinions and problems with
without any worries

Providing the source of information – advice from somebody who has already experienced the same situations
thus who has real experience with the situation the mentee is meeting

Enabling growth and development regarding to the situation, that means develop work experience and knowledge
of the mentee directly or indirectly

Getting an advocate – somebody who can help, represent of defend the mentee if necessary

Providing opportunities – if achieving and preparing the opportunities for the mentee are concerned

Providing personal development – help to the mentee with self-management and development of relationships to
achieve personal and career goals
In practice mentoring is not limited only into the above possibilities but it is adapted to limitations and expectations of
the situation and character of cooperation at which the mentor and mentee agree in order to have it suitable for both.
Cooperation of the mentor and the mentee (that means approach one-to-one) is a typical and classical model of
mentoring. Usually the mentor is in the following work position:

A person with the widest experience,

A person at the highest position in the organization,

A person who is not directly superior towards the mentee,
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

Somebody who has been trained in mentoring skills,
Somebody who is motivated to help to the most junior person in the company or industry (a person from the parent
company...)
Other model is represented by group mentoring which is used where there is lack of experienced and trained mentors.
They are for example the situations when two mentors lead a group of people who discuss different problems which the
mentees have regarding to the topic of the meeting. This approach enables a bigger group of mentees to achieve
advantages of mentoring and to utilize different knowledge and experience of several mentors.
A variant of this approach is a situation when the people who are on the same level play the mentors and they share
their experience in a specific area. That is for instance the situation when experienced managers of the same big
organization from different organization units are in a role of mentors. Sharing the information, looking for new ideas
and inspiring suggestions from businessmen between the companies of a particular size (experienced owners of a group
of mid-sized businesses mentor other colleagues from the companies with different activity) may be concerned as well.
Of course the same principle can be used also between two people in a company who are at the same level when one
helps to another one – for example to a new colleague to adapt to a new position. Other case can be in help to a
proposed candidate to a new position. This enables inter alia learning from each other, sharing the challenges of the
work environment and eliminates feelings of insulation. In today´s era of wide-spread information-communication
technologies it is possible to utilize them to intensify and shorten the process of mentoring and more efficient achieving
of required goals. It depends on the type of a problem and situation. A variant of utilization of informationcommunication technologies can be a case intended to have an unknown mentor who helps to the mentee in this
position.
2.3.1 STYLES AND USED TECHNIQUES OF MENTORING
As there are many different mentors, there are also many different styles of mentoring. It should always follow higher
level of suitability and thus also of acceptance of different approaches, adopting upon the situation, personality
prerequisites of the mentor and the mentee.
In fact it is a choice of a suitable, more or less directive approach. A less directive approach is built particularly on
active listening, reflecting back, summarizing, paraphrasing and asking questions to improve mutual understanding.
More directive approach is typical with orientating on suggesting solutions, providing feedback, open leading and
giving instructions step by step. It is also important to what extent the mentor is able to stimulate mentee´s learning
using different challenges and support in harder situations which represent learning under load and sometimes can be
quite stressful. It is not only a question of attitudes and personality of the mentor. It is usually very profitable if the
mentored person is able to realize their behaviour in a stress situation and to take an important lesson from it. That is
possible only at less directive approach. If we use a more directive style which leads the monitored step by step and
there is some extent of freedom missing there, we cannot speak about an effect of learning at own behaviour or faults.
Of course there are the situations where the more directive style is more appropriate. Particularly they are the situations
when it is necessary to find the solution of a problem very quickly or to negotiate on the problem and to direct the
player in a right direction. In such cases asking the clarifying questions when using a non-directive style would be
frustrating for the mentee. There are the situations when the mentee must face the situation which is a challenge for
them and other time they need support and conformation that they have taken the right way. What contributions can be
thus expected from high-quality mentoring?
Particularly a skill of efficient interpersonal communication emphasizing active listening with all its attributes belong to
basic techniques used at mentoring. It is particularly encouraging, paraphrasing, summarizing, and postponing the
evaluation and physical attention. Also the art of asking which requires knowledge of question types and knowledge of
when to use which one and to use them in the right time form a part of active listening. Properly asked question in the
right time is one of the strongest tools in mentor´s hands. Besides the technique it requires also impersonal view,
elements of a system and strategic approach from him. A specific issue is the ability to provide feedback. It should be
honest but not harming, it should be impersonal, balanced regarding to positives and negatives, specific when looking at
the problem and constructive – that means focused on solution and future. Regarding to common techniques of problem
solution particularly brainstorming, cause-and-effect diagram (fishbone), mind maps, power analysis, De Bon´s roles of
team problem solving etc. are concerned.
2.3.2 CONTRIBUTIONS IN MENTORING
Regarding to the mentored employee e.g. the following can be concerned:

Increasing of self-confidence and realization of own value (to esteem yourself)
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












Increasing of the ability to analyze and solve problems
Opportunity to think of different situations which he has not been to yet (or to see them from a different point of
view)
Increasing of confidence, motivation and desire for results which he will present to the mentor
Extending of the horizons of knowledge and growth of aspirations
Increasing of utilisation within the company
Faster learning using advice and leading of the mentor
Opportunity to build new career
Better orientation in the topic thanks to the mentor´s experience
Better understanding of the higher management´s thinking
Connection to a person (mentor) who is respected in the company
Getting an example who has been successful in the company, who has been proven (therefore he is a mentor)
Better dealing with work situations which contributes to better satisfaction with work and life
Decreasing of stress load and making the achieved results of higher quality
If mentoring is meant as a targeted program of development which is systematically used in the company, the benefits
are significant for the whole company. Some possible gains which result from performance of the programs of
mentoring of employees for the company:

Faster and larger transfer of knowledge of individuals and groups in the company

Higher level of employees´ competencies

Higher potential to increase productivity

Better comprehension for the needs to learn and making the gaps in skills smaller

Higher level of understanding of the questions of responsibility for development

Better keeping of current knowledge in the company

Improvement regarding to atmosphere, trust and respect

Better understanding and interconnection between particular levels of management

Better understanding of the company and higher rate of internal commitment towards the company

Lower rate of fluctuation

Better goodwill
If he wants, also the mentor is able to achieve gains from his mentoring, for example:

Satisfaction from providing help to other employees

Satisfaction from the fact that he can see growth and further development at the mentee

Development of his communication skills
Opportunity to introduce more demanding skills and knowledge


Improvement of his skills in development of other people

Better understanding of other parts of the company and their mutual connections

Realizing his contribution to individual´s and company´s development

Realizing the importance of mentoring for the company development
2.3.3 PREREQUISITES TO UTILIZE MENTORING IN A COMPANY
In order to make mentoring useful for the company, some level of culture, relationships and approaches to employees´
development is necessary. Without such a level of this base mentoring cannot grow and cannot bring the desired effects
to the company. For successful application of mentoring it is suitable if:

The company supports all employees that way that they are interested in their development within their position
towards higher performance themselves

The corporate culture is sufficiently open and able to accept faults as a price for development and looking for new
approaches

Open and mostly informal relationships between the employees work

Employees are proud of the company and aware of the sense of investments to personnel for success of the
company as a whole

Mentoring is supported by company management downwards as a part of learning and development strategy
One of the remaining challenges is a question how to implement mentoring in a company in a best and non-violent way
and when to use it in the best way. To be able to do that it is good to ask the following questions and to answer them
responsibly:

What is our goal which we want to implement mentoring in our company for and to what extent it will be
consistent with our strategy in learning and development?
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







Who should mentoring be addressed to? Is it for everybody or only for a specific group of employees?
What way are we going to use mentoring in (models) and what technologies are we going to use at it?
When and where are the meetings going to be held (during working hours, beyond, at what place)?
What is the required minimum frequency of the meetings?
On what ethical principles and rules is the program of mentoring going to be based?
How are we going to implement the role of a mentor to his current work role?
What training and other support are we going to provide the mentors with?
What way and how often are we going to assess our successfulness?
4 MENTORING, COACHING, COUNSELLING
These terms are often confusing or overlapping. That is due to the lack of knowledge of their real mission and purpose.
Therefore we consider suitable to distinguish them from each other using the below stated basic characteristics. Each of
them has its specific purpose at which it brings the best results both for individuals and for the company. Popularity of
mentoring has been growing despite the fact that no few resources are necessary for it and thus the matter of ensuring
the necessary gains has become more important. Brief comparison has been shown in the table below.
COACHING
Orientation on problems
related to work, tasks and
performance
relationship A coach is often a line
manager,
trainer
or
external coach
context
expertise
approach
meetings
frequency
A coach can and does not
have to be experienced in
the area where he is
coaching.
A
coach
supports
achieving of new goals,
he wants the coached one
to find his own solutions
According to the agreed
schedule
content
, Focus on agreed goals
nature
of and
achieved
meetings
advancement
MENTORING
COUNSELLING
Issues related to work, Usually very personal
career and personality
issues, sometimes going
back in years
Usually a service-senior Usually
Professional
experienced
colleague relationship in which
from the close work counsellor is paid to
group
provide a service
Mentor has usually more Some counsellors are
knowledge
and subject specialist.
experience on the issue
than the mentee
Bigger acceptance of the Different
styles
of
mentor leads to bigger counselling with tendency
directiveness, role of a toward
non
directive
counsellor and enables approach
the mentee to share and
learn from the mentor´s
experience
More
oriented
to Regular planed meetings
immediate needs of the
mentee
Informal
discussion
regarding
to
work, Often intense exploration
personal and career issues of experience
arrangement Mostly
unless
the Can represent a long-term
required
goals
are issue (especially in case Duration depends on need
achieved
of career counselling)
Tab. No. 1 Comparison of selected aspects of mentoring, coaching and counselling 2, (modified)
CONCLUSION
Demanding situations in business or in life can be deemed as a hit of fate or as a challenge. Crises and recessions will
pass away and the company which will be more prepared for situations which will follow will be successful. The
intellectual capital and the most important part of it – human capital – will become a key factor of success in the future
more and more. Only skilful, able and motivated employees can develop a company. Wise managers develop them also
in time of discomfort and therefore their companies are more successful. The papers have tried to point out the basic
features of one of the performance management methods which is unfairly not as popular as the other ones. The
intention was to state the most important features and principles and thus to contribute to spreading of mentoring in
practice and to support success of our companies by the approach of performance management.
2
BEEVERS K. & REA A.D.: Learning and Development Practice, CIPD 2010
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These papers have been one of the lectures at VEGA 1/0149/09 & VEGA 1/0992/11.
JEL Classification – M12 Personnel Management
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%A1cia&btnG=H
%C4
%BEada
%C5
%A5&hl=sk&source=hp&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=
(17.12.2010)
ADDRESS:
doc. Ing.Josef Vodák, PhD.
FRI, Žilina
University in Žilina
Univerzitná 8215/1
e-mail: [email protected]
Ing. Ivana Tesarovičová
Part time post-graduate Salesian University in Opava
Business faculty Karviná
e-mail: [email protected]
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Section no. 2.
New Models of University Supporting
the specific Needs in the region
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MODERN FORMS OF EDUCATION, ITS QUALITY AND OVERALL STATUS OF HIGH
SCHOOLS
Milan Březina1, Kamil Třos2
1
Městský úřad Veselí nad Moravou
Sdružení zdravotně postižených občanů a jejich přátel
2
Abstract: The issue devoted to modern forms of education evokes the consideration of both expressions,
these are - modern and education. What do they mean for managers in today's business world as a matter
of fact? The term „modern“ can have the meaning of innovative or progressive, that is to be directed to
new processes or technologies, or in more contemporary meaning to indicate actual trends. Nowadays
challenging and dynamic entrepreneurial environment requires of management education has become its
practicality and effectiveness. We can see here an obvisous advance from obtaining knowledge to the
development of specific skills and abilities of their application in management and business practices, ie to
develop character, often with strong elements of the overall personality development. The managers´
development there are clearly seen the following trends - focus on the outcome. Focusing on the
development of such managerial competence to enable the implementation of the strategic objectives of the
organization. Comprehensive training - consulting solutions. Addressing specific business challenges is
almost always a ”multidimensional“ and includes a number of factors.
Key words: modern, fashion, education, forms, high schoolls, quality, professor, teacher, manager,
economics, entrepreneurship, principles, development, dynamics, facts, professional model.
MODERN FORMS OF EDUCATION
The trend of lifelong education of citizens has been slowly but surely becoming a reality. This means that the process of
education will no longer be used in the future of young people, but it will run throughout the life of all employees and
citizens. It also means that funding for education will be constantly higher and higher. Who will then provide the
necessary funds for these various forms of lifelong learning? Themselves, students, businesses, institutions, offices,
government? This will mean a long term deal. Discussions on this topic taking place not only here but throughout the
developed world, including Europe and the USA. The following are major problems with the quality of teaching at
universities in the Czech Republic. Again, it is not just our job, Western Europe and America have got the same
problems, too.
CONCEPT AND STATUS OF EDUCATION
It is important that dynamics and development of work skills are to be always in advance with a dynamism and
development of technology used or usable in the organization so that employees are able to reskond flexibly to the
needs and potential market opportunities for continuous improvement and organizational management. Nowadays,
however, it is not enough due to the nature of work in organizations and the latest approaches to managing the
organization that employees are adequately prepared in the field of research but also to have desirable personality traits,
and desired behavior. Therefore, traditional methods are no longer enough for a sufficient staff training, such as
training, additional training or retraining, but more on development activities aimed at forming a broader index of
knowledge and skills than those are presently required for an advocated job, and last but not least, the formation of the
workers, shaping their value orientation, adapting their culture to culture of the organization. That´s why these
development activities form the adaptability of workers and their readiness to change.
QUALITY OF EDUCATION
Various statistics show a number of quantitative indicators of our university education, but just few iof them predicate
about the level of quality. How much quantity expresses the quality of education and education of our population,
especially university graduates, it is a question which is difficult to answer. The studies of Center for Research
Universities (CHE - Centrum für Hochschulentwiklung, Germany), and the work due to the ”Bologna process“,
confirms that the study of the quality of university education, both internal (within the country) and ”external“
(comparison between the States) is extremely complicated. The term complex is not alibi, but the expression of a
reality. However, a comparison of quantitative indicators of many countries shows that our country ranks in these
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indicators to almost last place. CHE information about the examination of so-called UNI-Ranking (comparing the
quality of university education) includes a set of questions addressed to the individual schools.
The answers of the respondents - students, professors, entrepreneurs and workers in the field of HR and other
respondents - enable a focus on quality of university education. The last major work of the ”European Association for
Quality Assurance in Higher Education (Helsinki, 2005) examines the standards and directives referred to “internal”
and “external” comparison. There is a whole collection of many recommendations and suggestions for further
discussions on the topic. It is seen that the quality of university education is a hot topic not only in the country. Results
comparing universities of Switzerland, Austria and Germany, as well as discussions on the recommendation to leave the
only university undergraduate studies and Master of ..., show that “something wrong”! What “happens”, also applies to
the management and organization of universities, a process known as “evaluation”.
QUESTION MARKS OFQUALITY
Every comparison of the quality of management education assumes necessarily time-consuming option of many options
which are offered by different schools nowdays. ”Limits“ of such decisions have been often concentrated on the
financial resources, acquisition, allocation and spending. Does it really depend on the quality of education and the
outcome of this process - education, particularly on financial resources? Otherwise there is a major role of persistence,
reluctance to make changes and assess the level of educators, ie university teachers? As it is to be known, the quality of
university textbooks, or even lectures are very different. As the level of contributions to many teachers nowadays,
organized international conferences on management. Especially, entrepreneurs and managers evaluate it differently, and
often significantly negative.
As the number of poorly armed soldiers do not win the battles, neither the number of bachelors, masters, PhD´s,
MBA´s, etc.., still doesn´t mean moving our country to a higher rung of ladder of education in Europe. For example,
expenses on education per student, share of education expenses in GDP, a part of public resources high school, the
proportion of the population on the type of education, the expected duration of tertiary education, etc.
HOW HIGH SCHOOLS OF ECONOMICS HAS GONE OUT
American High School of Economics - universities are too focused on ”scientific“ research. They hire professors with
limited experience of practitioners and graduates of such schools, then they are not well-equipped for practical life,
especially for management positions in companies. They claim that the authors of the following article - teachers of
management, who have managerial prestigious Harvard Business Review spares no criticism of the MBA degree.
Economic institutions have been on the wrong way for many years.
Study MBA programs use to have high prestige in the business environment. There were recruited only the best
graduates for studying and salaries of graduates have been staggering. Today, however, i tis about to tolerate criticism
of MBA programs for that they are not able learn the necessary skills, and Theky are unable to raise
a leader, or to instill norms of ethical behavior. This criticism comes not only from students and employers, but also
from the media, and even some of the deans of America's most prestigious business schools.l
ACADEMIC MODEL DOES NOT WORK
Over the past few decades, many leading business schools quietly adopted an inappropriate model of academic
concepts. Instead these schools evaluate their own performance based on the results of their graduates, assess their own
performance based solely on the results of their scientific research.
Most economical high school committed to the dual mission - to educate people to practice and generate knowledge
through research. Historically, the business school's first emphasized at the expense of another. In fact, the business
school related business schools. Most professors have been stamping and practical to the academic environment,
manifested skepticism.
WHAT HAS BEEN LEARNING AND WHO IS HERE TO LEARN IT
What professors study, and the way how they study, this directly affects the education of MBA candidates. Researchoriented professors dominate to the faculties and therefore also make a decision on the content of study. Not
surprisingly, they tend to teach what they know. In practice it often turns out as an excellent teaching methodology and
science-oriented research.
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People from the sphere of business begin to feel that professors do not know the profession, which they should teach.
Employers notice that MBA graduates in some cases, lack the skills that is needed by their organization. Employers find
out that people who have taught their new employees, have spent little time in manager job in organizations. Professors
know more about issues than academic publications on issues in the workplace.
HOW TO GET BACK COMPETENCIES
The strongest potential power that could act in the direction of chase is the business community, but unfortunately, most
corporate employers are not rigorous. They complain that graduates are not potential leaders, but they have been hiring
graduates with a close specialization. In addition, managing directors support these schools financially and such a
support can be interpreted as a willingness to be a focus. The authors argue that it is not required that the business
schools has to learn ”numbers“ and objective facts. That must be taught at the business school. But the point is to reestablish a balance.
A VIEW AHEAD
High school of Economics have been traditionally suffering a little offering in the humanities. This is a serious lack. As
management teachers, the authors doubt that the issue can be properly understood without a solid basis in the
humanities.
The authors mean that the problem is not the fact that business schools have adopted high focus on science, but that
they have lost other forms of knowledge. There´s no way how to apply the approach ”either or“. Not every professor
must necessarily have a long work experience. Schools of Economics, however, miss a diverse faculty and professors
with different skills and knowledge, covering areas as wide and as deep as the business itself. Bennis, WG, # 234 # O
Toole, J.: How Business Schools Lost Their Way. Harvard Business Review, 5 / 2005, p. 96-104; lift.
EDUCATION - MODERN OR FASHION?
Nowadays there is an obvious subject - Human Resources Development. Unfortunately, there is an often confusion of
terms. HR development process is a modern and efficient, however it is just effective and fashion. The efficiency,
quality and excellence are modern in today´s world. If we observe the following principles and procedures and then we
will receive the following attributes.
The first principle is a modern method. In all forms of education there it is necessary to leave the conservative
academism, providing people with only a large amount of information, but not the ability to turn them into skills,
bringing the desired effects. Experiential learning liberalism is an opportunity to find ways of efficiency. Let´s leave the
old methods of lectures, seminars, case studies. Let´s require training methods leading to the training, group and team
work, action learning and coping with specific roles or situations.
The second principle is a modern and efficient form. The procedures are verified again, simply rigorously. Effectiveness
of development processes would be reached, if it was filled with four aspects.
The third principle is a modern content. This is not a problem to obtain actual information, but it is more important is to
make to their search. People need to know how to occur that. In the modern system of education there students don´t
extract ready information, ideas and knowledge from wise teachers. They are not essential. It is important to get people
to new ideas and conclusions reached by themselves.
The fourth principle there the continuous measurement of effectiveness is required. Without some level of evaluation
systems is not possible to achieve the desired changes. Evaluation is necessary to address both the teachers and the
methodology and results. Major emphasis is placed on the change in skill levels. It is necessary to carry out in three
phases. Before the introduction of educational processes and immediately after their graduation. Equally important is
the third stage on the ability to use skills in current business activities.
It is striking how little time devoted to education authorities the measurement of the level of education. The training
companies don´t demand post-development plans or the application procedures. The process of skill using should be
managed and coordinated. This increases the efficiency of development processes which hs been required. Do you
consider that these ideas are innovative or new? Probably not! Indeed, based on the principles of 400 years old. Even
the teacher of nations Jan Amos Comenius considered activity, creativity, personal experience and experience of their
own work targeted for the most effective form of learning. New may be a systematic and consistent adherence to these
principles of education.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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LITERATURE:
[1]
KOUBEK, J. Řízení lidských zdrojů. Praha : 2007.
[2]
KOUBEK, J. Analýza vývoje českého školství. Ministrestva školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy. Praha : 2006.
[3]
HAVLÍK, R.; KOŤA. J. Sociologie výchovy a školy. Portál : Praha.
[4]
GEIST, B. PhDr Sociologický slovník. VICTORIA PUBLISHING : Praha.
[5]
Informace o odborném časopise ANDRAGOGIKA. Andragogika. [online] Available
http://www.andragogika.net/info/.
[6]
Centrum andragogiky. [online] Available from: http://www.vzdelavani-uredniku.cz/.
[7]
Moderní formy vzdělávání. Moderní řízení – iHned.cz [2005] [online] Available
http://modernirizeni.ihned.cz/c1-22674835.
[8]
Univerzita = výuka + výzkum. Moderní řízení – iHned.cz [2005] [online] Available
http://modernirizeni.ihned.cz/c3-22674815-600000_d-univerzita-vyuka-vyzkum.
[9]
Jde o kvalitu vzdělávání. Moderní řízení – iHned.cz [2005] [online] Available
http://modernirizeni.ihned.cz/c3-22674855-600000_d-jde-o-kvalitu-vzdelavani.
[10] Jak ekonomické školy z cesty sešly. Moderní řízení – iHned.cz [2005] [online] Available
http://modernirizeni.ihned.cz/c3-22673555-600000_d-jak-ekonomicke-skoly-z-cesty-sesly
[11] Vzdělávání: moderní nebo módní? Moderní řízení – iHned.cz [2005] [online] Available
http://modernirizeni.ihned.cz/c3-22674935-600000_d-vzdelavani-moderni-nebo-modni
[12] Jde o praktičnost a účinnost. Moderní řízení – iHned.cz [2005] [online] Available
http://modernirizeni.ihned.cz/c3-22674885-600000_d-jde-o-prakticnost-a-ucinnost
ADDRESSES:
Ing. Bc. Milan Březina
Městský úřad Veselí nad Moravou
Třída Masarykova 119
698 13 Veselí nad Moravou
Mobil: 00 420 603 363 876
Tel.: 00 420 518 670 181
[email protected]
www.veseli-nad-moravou.cz
Ing. Bc. Kamil Třos
Sdružení zdravotně postižených
Občanů a jejich přátel
Cholevova 27
700 30 Ostrava 30
Mobil: 00 420 732 860 782
Tel.: 00 420 732 860 782
[email protected]
http://www.braillnet.cz/szpoajp
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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from:
from:
from:
from:
from:
from:
from:
CONDITIONS FOR SYSTEM CHANGES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION
Jozef Habánik, Jaroslav Kavka
European Polytechnic Institute. Ltd.
Abstract: In accordance with the challenges and priorities of the Bologna process regarding the
improvement of the quality of the higher education, creation of the mutual educational and research area
in the EU framework, internationalization of universities, mobility of academics and students, recognition
of the achieved education and qualification, throughput between formal and informal education of adults,
it seems that it is unavoidable to realize the basic system changes in the area in the European, national
and regional context. In this sense all of the education providers without the difference of founders,
institutions, way of financing, are, in the name of enhancement of their own competitiveness, accountable
for the development of internal system for quality insurance in all their activities and the key institutions of
the public administration or the private system are to develop external evaluation on conditions that there
are unbiased criteria for evaluation. The new element must be the possibility for the professional employer
associations and organizations to enter this process, to take part in creation of techniques and criteria and
be a part of the evaluation process so that the feedback between the entrepreneurial sphere and
universities is active.
Key words: Higher Education Institute. University, Education, Quality, Internationalization, Bologna
process, Accreditation, Evaluation.
INTRODUCTION
Universities, besides their basic mission in the area of education and creation of notion, are incubators, future of the
society, the dynamic developer of the country and region growth, and important employer and place for intellectual elite
of the nation. Universities are the place of searching new forms and content of education, scientific experiment and
information exchange. From this reasons the society expects that our universities and institutions of higher education
will satisfy growing demand of economical and social environment for the quality of the delivered education in the
European universities environment and they will be ready for being competitive with others. In the time of global
economical and financial turbulence there is no time for hazard with education and devaluate its value. Globalization of
the society goes together with the process of regionalization and the process of integration together with
decentralization process. The solution is cooperation and ability to accommodate in European educational and research
area with the effort to get nearer to the international educational standards.
1. LEGISLATION CONDITIONS FOR THE SYSTEM CHANGES
In September 2009 the Committee of EU published the document called “Report about the development of quality in
the area of the university education” with the aim to form a mutual European educational and research area. It is the
beginning of the way of building up the compatible university area on the level which is higher than national one. The
changes will influence the accreditation processes of universities and their study programmes. Such internationalization
of institutions offering the higher education means the equality of the domestic and European accreditation in the law
about universities, to prepare the Accreditation committee for certification, adjust the legislation, introduce the free
choice in the frame of accreditation committees list with the European certificate ( in real life it means that the
university will be allowed to choose a committee with the valid certificate according to its profile and direction) to
prepare the universities for the international competition in the mutual area. The evaluation conclusions of the
university which will pass the European accreditation will automatically be valid for the whole EU which results in
higher value of graduate certificates and may attract more foreign students. The most of current valid regulation and to
them connected decree, standards, instructions and criteria will have to be changed. The solution is the broad society
discussion about the content of the tertiary education reform in the separate levels for the sake of the international
competitiveness, placement of graduates, mobility of students and academics, increasing the possibilities of life long
learning, accessibility of the higher education even for so called adults students or students who have got the university
education and due to their position in the labour market they need higher or additional competency, knowledge or
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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qualification etc. I think that the most important is to intensify the development of the whole university system which
should be flexible to the environment stimulus. In the opposite case our universities will be limited in the development
and get weaker in performance of the education, innovation, and internationalisation, regional and international
engagement due to inability or lobby interests.
In order to meet the requirements there is the need to prepare a new law about the universities, new system of complex
accreditation, new system of evaluation of the level and outcomes of universities, prepare new study programmes for
professional oriented bachelor and master education, new programmes focused on scientific carrier and internationalize
the university education in accordance to the Bologna process. Internationalization of the higher education is
understood the continuous effort and fight for adequate reaction to the economy and region requirements and those
coming out of labour market and international integration. Internationalization means the sole performance of:
1. autonomy and accountability in the same time
2. efficient financing
3. support of structured partnership with industrial sphere
4. get visible and attractive the research and development potential
5. application of mutual international programmes and accreditation
6. change of the traditional academic environment and new mobility dimension
Due to development of information technology university “enters” each household. In order to catch the trend the
university itself must open outside and inside and define the new organizational structure, competency and
responsibility. The challenge is to transfer the research results into industry and services, enforcement of infrastructure
for modern basic research and interaction among research institutions, universities and small and medium sized
companies with stress to support of entrepreneurial environment.
There are stimulus for the expert discussion and the preparation for the new legislation can come out of the following
themes the aims of which is to force forming of mutual educational, research and innovative potential of our
universities and higher education institutions. The following areas should go through the basic adjustment and changes:
 management and financing with the aim to force the competency of the university board in case of public
university
 accreditation in the way that in its process the main role is in representation of employers and foreign
evaluators in the framework of the registrar of accreditation committee with European certificate.
 Guarantee for the study programmes with the aim to enforce mutual responsibility of the department where the
study programme takes place. Introduction of the guarantee of the study programme or study field is a separate
chapter as very often they have not got the real influence on the development and quality of the programme or
the study field which is formally guaranteed and introduction of guarantees only pretends the solution, saying
nothing about the possibilities for misuse of personal data
 Internationalization of universities and enforcement of conditions for creating the mutual study programmes
with foreign universities and new study programmes so that at least 20% of student could study abroad
 system motivating measurements for students so that they will prefer the requirements of entrepreneurs and
expectation of the society while choosing their study programmes
 financing which will be based on the methodological change for allocation of subsidiary of universities for
delivering the accredited study programme, which will not be connected to the number of students but on the
real outcomes of the university in the area of science, research and publication activity and students application
in the labour market
There is the need to solve the whole chain of relations and interdependence starting with education through the
graduate’s quality and finishing by employer’s requirements. Each par of the chain is ripe for detailed analysis and
experts discussion about the causes and results. The quality of education mainly depends on: lecturer’s qualification,
research activities of the university, accreditation process and criteria focused on indicators of outcomes, demography,
form of management and the European educational area.
In the future the functional system of universities can require a merge or division of universities by a law but always the
decision should be based on the principle of voluntary decision of the management body in the institution. Empty and
content less polemic about the number of universities is not a remedy for the quality of the university education and
science. In the time of the global, economy and finance crisis there is no time for hazard with education and devaluate
its value. We have been searching the ability to orient ourselves in the European educational and research area, look at
the mirror with respect to all with the effort to approach the international educational standards. The problems of the
universities quality, expectation of the society and economy, regarding to the shortage in law, can be solved only
through the preparation of a new law about the universities which will create the conditions for higher quality and
activities of universities in the European educational area.
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2. QUALITATIVE CONDITIONS FOR THE SYSTEM CHANGES
The key and main responsibility for insurance the quality of the university education is carried by the universities
themselves but government, regions, entrepreneurial, research and development sphere which are the customers for the
“final product” are partly responsible for the quality conditions. Global character of the university education and
challenges which the European area of the university education face, requires thorough restructure and modernization.1
The purpose is to initiate universities and higher education institutes and the accountable ministries to introduce and
develop internal and external systems for quality insurance and the accreditation committees and agencies to apply the
European standards and direction to the quality insurance.2 The external evaluation of quality can consist of:
 audit of the university activity and its study programmes,
 currently awarded accreditation and the way of authorizing them,
 comparison with other institutions which offer education and perform a creative activity in the similar field
European standards and directions for insurance of the quality consists of the rules for own internal system for
insurance of the quality in the institutions of higher education, of standard for external evaluation of the institutions of
higher education and their programmes, of standards related to the insurance of the regulations for quality given by the
accreditation committees and agencies.
The member state of EU should ensure the material, technical and finance internationalization of institutions for higher
education by supporting the growth of the quality of the education through independent and open-minded evaluation.
The universities and institutions for higher education have to have conditions and rules for application for accreditation
and certification their activities including study programmes at accreditation committees and agencies in EU so that
they can cooperate with the aim to create respect and reliability and the public should have the access to the evaluation
result. The research of European association for quality insurance in the university education (ENQA)1 shows that in
some countries there are different parts of university sector with different agencies e.g. in Germany the real market with
“competitive” agencies has been created under the accreditation board. Most of the agencies are in the stage of changes
evoked by Bologna process and international context for evaluation of the quality level. Further important element of
the development is the increasing engagement of involved parties in the area of quality insurance. In the
recommendation of the Board1 from 2006 the member states are called to enable the institutions for higher education to
apply for accreditation of their study programme by registered and certified accreditation committees and agencies with
international activities. This is possible to realize if some legislation and technical conditions are met:
 the higher education institution have got a reasonable autonomy,
 the accreditation committee perform internationally in the mutual European education and research
environment,
 government and domestic accreditation committee or agency accept the resolution, evaluation and awarded
rights.
There is a need to prepare, qualify and define the variables for evaluation of quality of the delivered education and
scientific and publishing outcomes at the national level in the area of educational process, the level of the creative,
developing and scientific research activities and graduates´ success in the labour market all of that should be on the base
of building up and evaluation of gained competency, knowledge and notion. Importance is to evaluate the achieved
quality level in the scale from the graduates point of view and to support the gained knowledge and qualification for
graduates professional growth and their career development.
LITERATURE:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
Zákon č. 131/2002 Z. z. o vysokých školách a o zmene doplnení niektorých zákonov.
Idea reformy terciálneho vzdelávania, materiál ČKR. 2010.
Uznesenie Rady o modernizácii univerzít pre konkurencieschopnosť Európy v globálnej znalostnej ekonomike,
15007/07, 2007.
SPRÁVA
KOMISE,
EURÓPSKEMU
PARLAMENTU,
EURÓPSKEMU
HOSPODÁRSKEMU
A SOCIÁLNEMU VÝBORU A VÝBORU REGIÓNOV- Správa o pokroku pri zabezpečovaní kvality v oblasti
vysokoškolského vzdelávania, KOM 487, 13682/09, 2009.
Projekt Technickej podpory rozvoja ľudského kapitálu – HUMAN CAPITAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
2009. MŠ SR 2009.
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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ADRESS:
Ing. Jozef Habánik, Ph.D.
Európsky polytechnický inštitút, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
mail: [email protected]
Ing. Jaroslav Kavka
Európsky polytechnický inštitút, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
mail: [email protected]
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
182
NUMERACY OR THE NEED OF BEING EDUCATED IN MATHEMATICS
Daniela Hricišáková, Jitka Jablonická, Martin Sentl
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o., Kunovice
Abstract: Numeracy is an ability of individuals to recognize and understand the importance of
mathematics in the world, to make just evaluations, to use mathematics, and to use it in way which
correspond with life needs of a constructive, concerned and thinking person. [1].
Key words: mathematics, numeracy, questionnaire
Why do we teach mathematics? The difference is in the types of school. At higher level of primary schools and at
secondary schools is knowledge part of literacy, part of a system of general education. Mathematics has a key role in
the education system. Our education system, especially the education in mathematics is experiencing a revolutionary
development. On the one hand requirements for teaching mathematics are growing, on the other hand it is considered
what to omit or consolidate from the content of mathematics, at various levels and types of schools. Students at primary
schools, secondary schools and universities are having more and more problems with the basic mathematical operations
and numerical sets. It is necessary to consider what is needed for numeracy development, which plays an important role
in problem-solving and in interpretation of various areas of social life.
Problems in learning mathematics were solved for a long time ago and it is difficult to bring a new idea. Lack of
orientation in basic mathematical operations, which students of the technical and economic faculties have and lack of
experience with mathematical problem-solving, make more difficult presentation of some analytical method used in
technical and economic courses.
At universities with technical, economical, or science faculties, students should solve tasks with use of knowledge
obtained during the secondary education. When you choose from courses of listed faculties it is necessary to have these
mathematical basics:
 basic concepts of propositional logic and set theory
 numeric set N, Z, Q, R, a set of complex numbers
 function of one real variable and investigation of its properties, the course of functions
 differential calculus
 integral calculus and applications
 differential equations
 linear algebra (vector, vector space, matrix, determinant, linear system of equations and its solution).
It is more and more difficult to teach mathematics at technical, economical and other faculties. The outcomes i.e. the
knowledge is on lower level than it was in the past. This is despite of longstanding efforts to improve teaching, and
elimination of redundant and non-essential topics. Changes thus do not bring any long time evident effect, not only at
the universities (which is only a consequence) but also at primary and secondary schools.
We have researched 90 students in the study field of economy with the questionnaire. They were asked 5 questions:
 I used mathematic textbook during my studies.
 Did you take the school leaving exam in mathematics?
 How much is mathematics popular with students?
 At secondary schools, how many lessons of mathematics are sufficient for
covering all the mathematic
topics?
 Do you use mathematics in other subjects?
1. During my secondary school studies the textbook…:
a)
I did not have at all..................................................................................................21 %
b)
I did not use the textbook, or it was not appropriate according to our teacher.......48 %
c)
I used only as a source for exercises ....................................................................29 %
d)
I used as a supplement to teacher’s interpretation....................................................2 %
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd., Hodonín, Czech Republic, 21st January, 2011.
183
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
nemali
smehave
učebnicu
I did not
at all
učebnicu
som
I did not use
the
textbook, lebo
or it was
nepoužíval,
podľa
not appropriate
vyučujúceho
nebola
according to our
vhodná
teacher
používal
ju aako
I used som
only as
source
for exercises
zbierku
úloh
používal
I usedsom
as aju na
supplement
to
doplnenie
výkladu
teacher’s
interpretation
2. Did you take the school leaving exam in mathematics?
a) yes 16 %
b) no
84 %
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
no
nie
áno
yes
3. How much is mathematics popular with students?
a) it is popular...................9 %
b) it is less popular…........38 %
c) it is not popular.............53 %
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
itjeismenej
less popular
obľúbeným
it jeisobľúbeným
popular
neobľúbeným
it isjenot
popular
4. At secondary schools, how many lessons of mathematics are sufficient for covering all the mathematic topics?
a) 1 lesson.
.. 7 %
b) 2 lessons.
26 %
c) 3 lessons.
22 %
d) 4 lessons.
28 %
e) 5 lessons.
17 %
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
11lesson
hod.
22lesson
hod.
33lesson
hod.
44lesson
hod.
55lesson
hod.
5. Do you use mathematics in other subjects?
a) yes...............48 %
b) partially......43 %
c) no..................9 %
„UNIVERSITY AS THE FACILITATOR FOR SOCIETY AND REGION DEVELOPMENT“, 7th International Conference 2011
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60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
yes
áno
partialy
čiastočne
no
nie
From the given questions is visible that changes in teaching which have been in progress for many years are not
efficient. That is why what?, why?, and how to teach mathematics? still remain as a question.
USED LITERATURE:
[1]
HRICIŠÁKOVÁ, D. Matematická vzdelanosť a jej význam pri výučbe ekonomických predmetov. In:
IV. Medzinárodná konferencia 2008, Kunovice : EPI, 2008. ISBN 978-80-7314-145-5.
[2]
KUŘINA, F. Problémy matematického vzdelávania. Praha : Grada, 2007. ISBN 978-80-7378-029-6.
[3]
HRICIŠÁKOVÁ D.; OŽVOLDOVÁ M. Transformácia výučby matematiky a fyziky na technických univerzitác.
In: INFOTECH 2007, Olomouc, 2007.
[4]
HRICIŠÁKOVÁ, D.; LIPTÁK, P. Prístupy k modernizovaniu systému a metód riadenia učebného procesu
v podmienkach súkromnej vysokej škol. In: Vysoká škola jako facilitátor rozvoje společnosti a regionu.
Kunovice: Evropský polytechnický institut, 2008. ISBN 978-80-7314-133-2.
ADRESS:
Doc. RNDr. Daniela Hricišáková CSc.
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 669
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
RNDr. Jitka Jablonická
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 669
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
Mgr. Martin Sentl
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 669
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
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HIGH SCHOOL AS ONE OF POSSIBLE ELEMENTS FOR INNOVATION AND
DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION
Robert Jurča
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd.
Abstract: Some authors characterize the innovation process as a chaotic process, the second part of the
authors has rather the view that this process should be driven. Whether it is any view, the innovation
process is an essential element in promoting changes in society and the individual regions. Innovative
efforts in most cases is associated only with the achievement of significant growth in all areas. The
following article deals in particular that the involvement of high school as an innovative facilitator
operating in a regional environment and the possibility of central bank offers and demands of the tasks of
the possible solutions.
Keywords: Innovation, high school, innovation process, competition, competitiveness, increase
competitiveness, cooperation, the bank of offers and requests, company, region
The high school has an invaluable potential. This potential can be seen in
students who have a personality yet unloaded by the environment, have strong
creative nature. Their views on solving problems in some cases of "unusual" to
excel. And this potential can be used with proper management. It is especially
urgent in today's turbulent times, when profits are falling. It is interesting that
some of today's corporate executives often assess the current situation as a time of
innovation and envious of their effort to take "something" what worked
somewhere else. In order to create an active innovation policy would, in my
opinion, should create links between industry, high scholls and regions. Create
a model that would ensure a constant flow of innovations, whatever the situation
any. So I think that one suited the pillar of future cooperation would be the
establishment of a bank of offers and demands of providing a constant source of
ideas for solutions. So how did it first appears, and an important prerequisite for high schools to offer solutions to
problems, and vice versa again offer the potential of universities to firms with which the company could then work. The
following figure shows a proposal for such a model of cooperation.
ADMINISTRATOR
THE BANK OF OFFERS AND REQUESTS
HIGH SCHOOL
COMPANY
1
1
HIGH SCHOOL
2
HIGH SCHOOL
n
Nascent
relationship
1
COMPANY
2
2
COMPANY
n
3
Picture 1: the bank of offers and requests
Who should the bank offers and demands leadership and in what form yet, leave aside. However, it is eminently clear
that this relationship is the beginning of a market environment in this area, although still partially modified. This
modification arises Unfortunately, today's state of economic environment. Companies do not have sufficient funds to
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finance research and innovation projects and universities are reluctant to perform this service for free. This would result
in a situation while meeting the demand and supply, but no financial effect. Although this seems like a bad situation,
you can not always separate the future of higher education from the corporate or regional life. In my view, the question
of financial relations firm - College unfounded. The financial issue is the fact that the first thing is to establish
a relationship between partners (business - high school) and says it is wrong. If a company in any effort or innovative
research projects in future benefits is then able to re-reimburse the cost of college. It becomes an additional source of
funding for future high school. On the contrary, high school should start from its own work on getting as many business
challenges with which they could help. Participate would have to initially and completely free or at minimal cost
reimbursement from the company.
As shown in picture 1, it can be three possible states arising between the university and the sponsor (firm, region):
1) Offer to solving the problem of the company will meet with a solution of the College
2) College offers its potential, however, confronted with the problem to solve
3) Problem offered by the company meets with the solvability of the university
So if you disregard the problem of financing, but do not unimportant, it must first focus on creating a working model of
cooperation between universities, companies or regions. This model assumes a particular change in attitudes and
thinking of how universities and industry representatives. It can not be underestimated or advance manifest distrust of
the future results of acquired research and other activities reported by high school and then forward it to expect failure.
On the other hand, not by the university partners in the industry regarded as untrustworthy. Such an approach is
consequently not bound to the relationship and hence no cooperation. An example of good cooperation between
universities and industry is created through the high school set up directly by the company. It's one of the options as you
prepare to educate future workers. Ask yourself: is this form but sufficient? This question should be viewed from two
perspectives:
 from the view of company
 from the society view
If we view the company as stated above, the company strives to educate the future professionals to work in-house. This
view may seem from a social point of view as inadequate. But I must say that it is not. A successful company is then
able, in the form of tax deductions to contribute to the state budget a considerable part of the funds. These funds are
then redistributed to the state budget and thus bring benefits to other components of the system state. And such that the
expected number of graduates is higher than the projected number of future employees. They are then able to occupy
positions in an Industry. Their knowledge is being multiplied by the possibility of collaborative links with industry
during their studies. However, there is a disadvantage. These schools are specifically targeted to a specific segment of
industrial production and the fact that the company establishes its own high school, then no longer offer such space to
other colleges.
The course of insertion of challenges facing the newly established bank offers and requests can be from different
entities working the following type illustrate the decision tree (picture 2) or (picture 3).
Formulation of the
problem
Solving the problem
Formulating a new
problem
Picture 2: The gross type of decision process
Aspects:
Statistical Database
Methods:
Strategic Objectives
Preferences
Informations
Situation scenario
Kritéria
Informations
Roads, options
Consequences
Decision-making
methods
Picture 3: Scheme decision-making process
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The actual process of managing the bank offers and requests must conform to basic standards of management of small,
medium or large teams. The management of banks should be commensurate with the manager and his staff.
Management of such banks must be in an environment of teamwork, the general rule that applies the theory of three
circles.
CONCLUSION
Without creative people and engaging with creative people are not just any innovation. These innovations also in the
name of the college environment arise if no cooperation will be created and will be the potential of high school. As
I mentioned in the previous section, the College is able to contribute to the development or corporate development in
the region, especially in general, which is able to formulate principles and theoretical basis for the design of industrial
policy, but also in concrete terms, which is able to handle methodological materials. All components (firms, regions,
etc.) must actively promote their competitiveness.
In one of the few competitive advantages in the Czech environment considered human capital. High school is
a facilitator of regional development can be a partner in the region for those who appreciate exceptional service
offering.
REFERENCES:
[1]
Kolektiv autorů. Vysoká škola jako facilitátor rozvoje společnosti a regionu. Kunovice : Evropský polytechnický
institut, s.r.o., 2005. ISBN 80-7314-052-7.
[2]
NĚMEC, V. Projektový management. Praha : Grada Publishing, 2002. 182 s. ISBN 80-247-03292-0.
[3]
LACINA, K. Vývoj evropských systémů veřejné správy II. Kunovice : Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.,
2005. ISBN 80-7314-077-2.
[4]
JAKUBÍKOVÁ, D. Náměty a doporučení pro podnikovou praxi v oblasti podnikové kultury a etiky. In: Sborník
příspěvků z mezinárodní vědecké konference Fakulty podnikového managementu EU v Bratislavě při příležitosti
50. výročí jejího založení., Bratislava, 6.11. – 7.11.2003, s. 44-47. ISBN 80-225-1759-3.
[5]
Kolektiv autorů. IV.Národní fórum o produktivitě. Průmyslové inženýrství – nástroj restrukturalizace podniku.
Zlín : Fakulta managementu a ekonomiky, 1999. ISBN 80-214-1430-8.
[6]
JEŽEK, J. Marketing obcí a měst v teorii a praxi. Případová studie ze západních Čech. Mezinárodní odborný
seminář Marketing a média a regionální marketing. Smolenický zámek 22.10.2003, Trnava : Univerzita Trnava,
2003, s. 208-215. ISBN 80-89034-49-7.
[7]
PELANTOVÁ, V. – FUCHS. P. Řízení jakosti - skriptum. Liberec : Technická univerzita v Liberci, 2006,
ISBN 80-7178-149-5.
ADDRESS:
Ing. Robert Jurča
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
tel. 572 549 018
fax 572 548 788
e-mail [email protected]
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CALCULUS EDUCATION ADDED BY THE OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE
Aleš Kozubík
Žilinská univerzita v Žiline
Abstract: This paper present a few simple ideas for computer added education of calculus. It is based on
the Open Source software systems distributed under the GPL license. MAXIMA computer algebra system is
chosen as the supporting tool together with its graphical interface wxmaxima.
Keywords: Calculus, Open Source software, wxmaxima
1 INTRODUCTION, SELECTION OF THE SOFTWARE TOOLS
Calculus represents one of the main parts of the elementary course of mathematics on all grades of university study.
With the advent of computer technology and also the option to choose the appropriate software tools it becomes
necessary to teach this subject in more easily accessible manner. As well as in teaching other areas of mathematics for
engineers, aims to use computers in our view, gave to formulate something like stated in [2]:
 relieve students from strenuous, nothing new and creative bringing routine drudgery, which they may give
false complacency, because they do something,
 saved time devote to activities concerned in better understanding of basic concepts and experimenting with
them,
 develop a general culture of informatics students using the build mathematical thinking in the selection, use
and creation of software
Nevertheless it should be borne in mind not to reach the opposite effect, namely that students will mindlessly rely on
computer and get on the ground to the left to reduce their cognitive activities. Having good own experience in using
Open Source software, we have chosen as a tool to support the teaching of computer algebra system MAXIMA (see [1])
and its graphical interface wxmaxima. In addition to MAXIMA, we also used systems Pylab (described in the textbook
[Ka1]) or Sage.
The main advantages of the wxmaxima computer algebra system can be summarized as:
 Allowing both numeric and symbolic computations.
 Easy accessibility. This program is distributed under the GNU Public License and belongs to the Open Source
software.
 Platform independence MAXIMA can be compiled on different operating systems, especially so under
Windows, Mac OS and Linux. On the http://wxmaxima.sourceforge.net site OS can be freely downloaded
precompiled installation packages of this system.
 MAXIMA is able to solve all tasks of the elementary course of mathematical analysis. This is namely
differentiation, integration, computing Taylor polynomials, Laplace transform, solution of ordinary differential
equations. It can also be used for the purposes of algebra, the system can solve the equation, even in the
complex domain, it is able to work with polynomials, vectors, matrices and tensors. Many additional
specialized packages are provided.
 The visualization of graphs of functions works with graphical tools as Gnuplot or OpenMath, which are
similarly as MAXIMA the Open Source tools.
We will illustrate the MAXIMA strength and graphical possibilities on a few selected problems solved in the scope of
the first course in mathematical analysis.
2 AREA BETWEEN CURVES
In this section we will follow one of the typical applications of the integral calculus: Determining the area of the region
bounded by the two curves. Suppose the concrete example, we have to find the area bounded by graphs of the functions:
f  x 
1
1  x2
and
g  x 
x2
.
2
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The first step (mostly too difficult for the students) is drawing the graphs of the functions creating the considered
region. This is enormously simplified by using the MAXIMA. At first we have to define both function (note that
Shift+Enter is necessary for entering the command):
( %i1) f(x):=1/(x^2+1);
with output
( %o1) f(x):= 1 2
1 x
or we can suppress the answer using the $ sign in command
( %i2) g(x):=x^2/2$
The region can be plotted by
( %i3) wxplot2d([f(x),g(x)],[x,-3,3],[y,-1,3]);
and the result we see in figure 1.
Figure 1: Plot of the region bounded by functions f ( x) 
1
x2
.
and g ( x) 
2
2
1 x
In order to get a nice graphics we load the draw package by command
( %i4) load(draw);
Then, the we draw the graphs using the explicit command
( %i5) wxdraw2d(xrange = [-3,3], yrange = [-1,3],
xaxis = true, yaxis = true,
color = blue, line_width=2, key ="f(x)", explicit(f(x),x,-2,2),
color = red, key="g(x)", explicit(g(x),x,-2,2) )$
The result is on the figure 2. From the graph we see, it is necessary to determine the intersection point of these two
curves. It can be done by solving the equation with command
( %i6) solve(f(x)=g(x),x);
which gives the following answer:
( %o6) [x=  2 %i,x= 2 %i,x=-1,x=1];
As only two roots are real (note that %i is MAXIMA sign for the complex unit, similarly other important constants are
implemented with the % symbol, %e, %pi). Now, we can plot the region with shaded area between curves by command
( %i7) wxdraw2d(xrange = [-3,3], yrange = [-1,3],
xaxis = true, yaxis = true,
fill_color = grey,
filled_func = 1/(1+x^2),
explicit(x^2/2,x,-1,1),
filled_func = false,
color = blue,line_width=2, key ="f(x)", explicit(f(x),x,-2,2),
color = red, key ="g(x)", explicit(g(x),x,-2,2) )$
The result is visible on the figure 3.
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Since 1/1+x^2 is the ceiling function and x-1 is the floor function, and their intersections are at x=+-1, we need to
integrate their difference over the interval [-1,1] to get the area.
( %i8) integrate(f(x)-g(x), x, -1, 1);
gives the result
( %o8) 36 2
Figure 2: Nice plot of the function graphs, received as the output of the command %i5.
Figure 3: Shadowed area of the bounded region, received as the output of the command %i7.
3 ANIMATE DERIVATIVE OF THE FUNCTION
Let us now study the relationship between a simple function,
f  x 
x3
 x,
2
df  x  
3x 2
 1,
2
its derivative
and its tangent line,
y = df(a)(x-a)+f(a),
at various points x=a. We do this graphically using the fact that the derivative is the slope of the tangent line.
We start with loading the drawing package
( %i1) load(draw);
and defining the function and its derivative:
( %i2) f(x):= x^3/2 -x$
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( %i3) df(x):= 3*x^2/2-1$
Now we can prepare the scene located to any point a
( %i4) scene(a):= gr2d(title=concat("a = ",a), xrange = [-5,5], yrange = [-5,5],
xaxis = true, yaxis = true,
color = blue, explicit(f(x),x,-5,5),
label(["slope = ",-1,-3]), label([df(a), 2,-3]),
point_size = 1, point_type=filled_circle,
color=red, points([[a,f(a)]]),
explicit(df(a)*(x-a)+f(a),x,-5,5),
color = green, explicit(df(x),x,-5,5),
points([[a,df(a)]]))$
and we are ready to plot the graph of the function, its derivative and tangent line at point -2:
( %i5) wxdraw(scene(-2))$
Figure 4: The graphs of the function f  x  
x3
2
 x, , its derivative df  x  
3 x2
2
 1, and tangent line at point –2.
The result is presented in the figure 4. If we put the drawing command into the cycle, we can observe changing the
tangent line and its slope, as the tangent point moves.
( %i5) for i:-2 thru 2 step 2 do wxdraw(scene(i))$
gives sequence of three graphs presented in the figure 5. We can make as well an animation of these scenes using the
with_slider_draw function. In order to view the animation you need to click inside the graph window and then operate
the slider control on the top tool bar or move with the mouse wheel.
( %i6) with_slider_draw(a, makelist(-2+0.2*i,i,0,20),
xrange = [-5,5], yrange = [-5,5],
xaxis = true, yaxis = true,
color = blue, explicit(f(x),x,-5,5),
label(["slope = ",-1,-3]), label([df(a), 2,-3]),
point_size = 1, point_type=filled_circle,
color=red, points([[a,f(a)]]),
explicit(df(a)*(x-a)+f(a),x,-5,5),
color = green, explicit(df(x),x,-5,5),
points([[a,df(a)]]))$
The animation can be saved by right mouse button clicking as the animated gif format. It is useful for purposes of
publishing on the web pages for example.
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Figure 5: Sequence of graphs obtained by the cycle ( %i5).
Figure 6: Graph of the function f(x)=sin x2 and its Taylor expansion of the 10-th order.
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4 TAYLOR EXPANSION
Finding of the Taylor expansion of the given function is one of the extremely toilsome exercises, as it requires large
number of the derivative computations. Therefore it provides good space for applying the computer algebra systems.
Let us determine and illustrate the Taylor expansion of the function sin x2.
At first let us define the function
( %i1) f(x):=sin(x^2);
For computing the Taylor expansion of the n-th order we can use the function taylor(x,n). So we get very quickly the
Taylor polynomial of the 10-th order
( %i2) taylor(f(x), x, 0, 10);
which gives
6
10
x

( %o2) x 2  x6  120
Figure 7: Plot sequence of the graphs of the function f(x)=sin x2 and its Taylor expansions with the order increasing
from 2 to 10 with step 2. We can observe improving the approximation quality.
We can plot the graphs of the original function and the result, both in the same graph to see the quality of the
approximation:
( %i3) wxplot2d([f(x),taylor(f(x), x, 0, 10)], [x,-3, 3],[y,-2,2]);
This plot is on the figure 6.
For better illustration increasing quality of the approximation with increasing order of the Taylor expansion we can
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observe from the multiplot
( %i3) for i:1 thru 11 step 2 do wxplot2d([f(x),taylor(f(x), x, 0, i)], [x,-3, 3],[y,-3,3]);
which provides six plots summarized in the figure 7.
For the purposes of web publishing or presentation we can create the animation again by sequence of commands
( %i4) tay(n, x) := block(
[ts : taylor(f(x__), x__, 0, n)],
subst(x__=x, ts))$
( %i5) with_slider(
/* first two arguments are the parameter and parameter values */
n, 2*makelist(i, i, 1, 15)-1,
/* the rest of arguments are for plot2d command */
[f(x), '(tay(n, x))],
[x, -5, 5],[y, -2, 2])$
5 CONCLUSION
We presented only a few of the reach scale of applications of the MAXIMA system for more objective education of the
calculus. We are convinced of its abilities as well for other mathematical disciplines as algebra, probability theory,
complex analysis, numerical methods, differential equations but also for physics or econo-mathematical calculations.
Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by the grant KEGA 056ŽU-4/2011 "Laboratórium experimentálnej
matematiky".
LITERATURE:
[1]
BUŠA, J. Open Source systém počítačovej algebry. Košice : FEI TU, 2006.
KAUKIČ, M. Funkcie komplexnej premennej s podporou Open Source softvéru. 5. Konference o matematice
[2]
a fyzice na vysokých školách technických,. Brno 2007, pp.158-163.
KAUKIČ, M. Základy programovania v Pylabe. Košice : FEI TU, 2006.
[3]
ADRESS:
RNDr. Aleš Kozubík
Department Of Mathematical Methods
FRI ŽU v Žiline
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
tel.:++421/41/513 42 80
e-mail: [email protected]
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UNIVERSITIES CONTRIBUTION TO MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS DEVELOPMENT
Karel Lacina, Milan Vinklárik
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o., Kunovice
Abstract: Processes of the decentralisation and the deconcentration of public administration activities
resulting - among others - in municipalities and regions powers enrichment are considered generally in the
European continent as important decisive results of administration reforms implemented in our continent
since the second half of the 1970s. The mentioned reforms orientation represents one of crucial
preconditions for the achievement of the higher economy, efficiency and effectiveness of the local and
regional local government as well the whole state administration execution.In such a way a new situation
was created not only for the public administration authorities and offices but also for the universities and
other educational institutions situated and developing their activities in regions. Elected representatives as
well as public administration staff are objectivelly pressed to increase their knowledge and skills.Their
academic education and trainings could be offered to them by the universities..Such a cooperation
contributes to the creation and the strenghtening of networks among them.
Key Words: public administration, good governance, decentralisation, deconcentation,econonmy,
efficiency, effectiveness
Processes of the decentralisation and the deconcentration of public administration activities resulting - among others - in
municipalities and regions powers enrichment are considered generally in the European continent as important decisive
results of administration reforms implemented in our continent since the second half of the 1970s. The mentioned
reforms orientation represents one of crucial preconditions for the achievement of the higher economy, efficiency and
effectiveness of the local and regional local government as well the whole state administration execution. Thanks to the
transfer of competences from the state administration to the local government (on the decentralisation principle
implementation) as well as the transfer of competences from the central state administration to the regional state
administration (on the basis of deconcentration principle implementation) municipalities and regions are now able to
take part more actively in the solution of different problems which require higher level of knowledge and skills of their
elected representatives and officials. Taking this fact into account a growing number of theoreticians stress the fact that
the solution of the following problems plays the decisive role in the public administration execution: the necessary to
improve the management knowledge and skills in the whole public administration;
 the implementation of some key transformations in the public sector;
 the intensification of the information technologies utilization in the authorities and offices
predominantly in the form of e - government.
I personally share the opinion that the implementation of those tasks represents one of challenges not only for the public
administration authorities and offices but also for the universities and other educational institutions developing their
activities in the regions. 1
The indicated long- term orientation represents the decisive part of the so called
“good governance” conception which key principles are:
 transparency;
 accountability;
 respect to human and citizens right;
 openness of the public administration implementation;
 the general need to demonstrate greater transparency in the use of public resources and to document
performance;
 a growing demand for the quality of public services providing.
The “good governance“ concept was developed step by step through discussions of theoreticians in the 1980s and
during the 1990s. Still in the half of the 1990s. In this context David Farnham and Sylvia Horton, two famous
theoreticians of the public administration, were underlining the fact that there are “dynamic organizational
1
Farnham D., Horton,S.: “New Public Management in Europe : Public Servants in Transition”, London. Macmillan Press Ltd. 1996 , p. 47.
Gaster L.: “ Quality in Public Services: Managers´Choice”, Open University Press Buckingham- Philadelphia 1995, p.1
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contingencies facing public officials since the 1980s. These contingencies have resulted, inter alia, in:
 higher emphasis laid down on the citizens understanding as “customer“ , “clients” and “ consumers“ of public
services;
 contracting and market testing opening - up;
 shifting from an administrative to a managerial approaches .focused on target - setting, performance
management systems and performance indicator “. 2
Mentioned approaches represent the most typical features of the so called New Public Management concept playing the
decisive role in the European public administration in the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s.. Lucy Gaster, another
theoretician, explains reasons of N.P.M. principles popularity by stressing the dissatisfaction of a growing number of
public services consumers predominantly due to the low quality of public services providing in the1960s and 1970s.
She underlines: “Low quality services, generating and perpetuating low expectations , have too often been the
experience – of both users and producers of these services. Dissatisfaction, frustration, but not much action was the
result “ 3. She - similarly like some other British and U.S. authors - pointed out the necessity to improve system of
elected representatives and officials education based on the “awareness, assessment or diagnosis, planning and
preparation, implementation including.
Lucy Gaster supplemented her assessment by some other necessary approaches significant mainly from the point of
view of the required staff behavior improvement..She recommended the training of different officers categories
predominantly in:
“Listening, giving time, empathizing , thinking through, giving enough information for options to be clear, not “fobbing
off”, sensitivity to individual needs, fairness, honest , treating people equally, being polite , friendly and ensuring
a speedy response (Neighbourhood Office staff).”
 Being open with people, providing full information, looking at alternative possibilities , minimum waiting,
sensitive, trustworthy, responsive staff - and speedy response (Housing staff).
 Understanding, being knowledgeable, flexibility, equal treatment and “do as You would be done by“,
minimum waiting, offering real choice, consumer involvement (Social Services staff)”3.
The growing importance of the so called non - technical quality (like the knowledge and skills) of elected
representatives and officers is discussed very often by the theoreticians of the public administration. Therefore, it is not
surprising that answer to a question how to improve the quality of public administration execution is closely connected
with the mentioned categories of the public administration actors professional training improvement. In 1988 the British
authors Heald and Stodel xplained the goals of the trainings as the achievement of following characteristics:
1) Helpful staff.
2) Knowledgeable staff.
3) Not to be overhead (privacy).
4) Staff have time for You.
5) You can ask questions 4.
Lucy Gaster supplements, for example, the mentioned goals by the following ones:







Better information to the public.
Empowering the public.
Extension of individual consumer rights.
Improving consistency, speed and overall quality of services.
Winning awards.
Circumventing established employee rights (terms and conditions of service).
Providing information to potential competitors.” 5
2
Gaster L., p. 75
Gaster L., p. 15
4
Heald G.,Stodel E.: “ Supplementary Benefit Claimants : expectations and experience of the service provided by DHSS´s local offices”, London:
HMSO, 1988
5
Gaster L: p. 99 - necessary explanation of some European public administration contemporary specific features development representing the
essence of the governance concept. Those are predominantly:
Gaster L: p. 99 - TQM integrates fundamental management techniques,, existing improvement efforts and technical tools under a disciplined approach
focused on continuous improvement„.
U.S. Department of Defence, (1990 “ Total Quality Management Guide „,Vol.l-2, Government Printing Office ,Washington D.C. ,p. 11, part (§33)
3
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Some theoreticians are also stressing the fact that the public administration execution in the European continent raise
the significant question which could be defined like: „Why there is such a great focus on quality”? A required answer
to the mentioned question is inevitably connected, in my view, especially with the:
 a shift from rules to responsiveness; hierarchy to partnership;
 audit to evaluation.
The theoreticians indicated that the answer to the mentioned question is possible to find in the vital necessity to increase
the role of quality of the public administration execution including the insufficient level of officials education and
training.
Discussing the questions connected with the required improvement of the European public administration execution in
the theoretical level we are able to come to the partial conclusion that there is a general concensus in the contemporary
European public administration concerning the needs to develop more responsible and better quality of its execution for
the benefit of all citizens in general. Coming from the real need to increase ways of services for citizens providing (in
time when the significance of management approaches is growing in the local government) a great attention is
concentrated to the explanation of the Total Quality Management principles possible implementation in the
contemporary education and training of elected representatives and officers. Here it would be necessary to mention that
there are many explanations of the TQM essence. A very significant comprehensive one was made by the U.S.
Department of Defence underlining that:
„TQM is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving
organization.
 TQM is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve materials and services
supplied to an organization, to improve all the processes within the organization, and to improve the degree to
which the needs of the customer are met, now and in the future.
Taking this fact into account the aim of the elected representatives and officers training in the T.Q.M should be the
explanation of the:
 achieving of maximum customer expectations and satisfaction necessity;
 the orientation to continuous improvement of management instruments significance;
 the role of client and competitor orientation;
 the importance of quality self – assessment.
All these typical features of the contemporary public administration execution require the radical improvement of
professional knowledge and skills of elected representatives and officers working in the Central European countries
public administration authorities and offices. Simultaneously - as I have it stressed before - it could be considered to be
the challenge for local and regional educational centres, first of all for the universities developing their activities in the
local and regional levels. They are able and ready to offer different forms of assistance to the public administratiobn
authorities and offices.
The Czech Republic Act No. 312/2002 Coll., on municipality officers represents the legal base predminantly for the
preparation of courses for elected representatives and for officers in our country by the universities. Such courses are
and should be offered, first of all, to executive officers who are carrying out the function of the secretary of the
municipal office.Under the Act No.312/2002 Coll. (§17) the secretaries qualification may be improved by:
a) any corporate body or individual authorised to execute the education activity according to the specific regulation;
b) any allowance organization established by the Ministry of Internal Affairs;
c) municipalities with the granted accredit.
The Act determines that the education institutions must provide different trainings on the basis concrete education
programmes accredited for the appropriate type of the qualification improvement. According to the law the municipality
is obliged to work out the concrete officers education plan that is approved by the accreditation institution. Except of
officers who are BCs or Masters (respectively are involved in these educational programmes) or those who were
granted the certificate recogniting of the education equality or its the training of officers is the compulsary task for the
whole municipality office staff. Therefore the municipal offices should work out such plans in the period of three
following years (containing eighteen working days trainings and seminars).
The officer is obliged to improve his (her) qualification by participation in the:
a) preliminary education;
b) continuous education
c) the preparation and attestation of the professional qualification
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The preliminary education comprises:
a) elementary knowledge concerning the public administration execution (especially knowledge of general principles
of its management, principals of public law, public finance, European administrative law and ethic rights,
responsibilities and rules of the officer);
b) elementary knowledge of the computer technologies;
c) elementary knowledge and skills in communication and organization.
As it was already stressed a special attention is concentrated in the contemporary European public administration to the
training of executives and secretaries. The municipal secretary is obliged to finish the whole educational project until
two years since the day when he (she) started to execute the function.
Their training is divided into the general and the specific part. The general one comprises knowledge and skills from the
field of management. The specific part is represented by the improvement of knowledge and skills from the legislation.
The significant component part of the elected representatives and officers in the management education is represented
by the trainings in the quality standards, predominantly in ISO 9 000 family (ISO 9000+). They are:
 ISO 9001:2000 ,Quality management systems - Requirements,
 ISO 9004:2000 Quality management systems - Guidelines for performance improvements,
 ISO 19011 lines on Quality and / or Environmental Management Systems Auditing.
These ISO 9000 standards knowledge is very important for such their activities like contracting - out or competitive
tendering.
The universities teachers could be involved into the implementation of all these trainings types. Moreover, when the
preliminary education plan is successfully fulfilled by the officer it could be supplemented by other types of education
focused to the improvement of knowledge and skills concerning the municipality administration management as well as
the improvement of the language knowledge.This so called continuous education is recommended to be implemented in
the form of individual courses that would be taught by regional universities. The officer participation in these types of
trainings is and should be confirmed by the certificate issued either by the university or together by the university and
the regional office.
ADRESA:
prof. PhDr. Karel Lacina, DrSc.
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
Doc. PhDr. Milan Vinklárik, CSc.
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
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BUSINESS EDUCATION AND ITS ROLE IN HUMAN RESOURCE PROCEEDINGS
Miroslava Lovichová, Ondřej Šabata
Evropský polytechnický institut , s.r.o. Kunovice
Abstract: Bringing entrepreneurship education into the community support infrastructure poses one of the
more important economic development issue for the 1990s. Apart of the new strategy for job creation,
entrepreneurship education holds promise as an integral component in a community's venture support
system along with incubators, innovation centers, technology transfer offices, science parks, and venture
capital operations. Since new venture success is foremost a function of entrepreneurial knowledge and
know-how, entrepreneurship education may be the most promising of these economic development
mechanisms. Unfortunately, it may be the most difficult to implement. Generally the extent and nature of
education required by modern aspiring entrepreneurs is not well understood. Many would see
entrepreneurship education as strictly an add-on to current education in management or engineering. Such
is the option of minimal use. The real promise or entrepreneurship education will be realized when it is
strategically organized for economic development and job creation.
Key words: Educational policies, Academic fields, Program evaluation, Academic programs, Colleges
and universities, Entrepreneurship education, Curriculum design.
1 ENTERPRISE (ENTREPRENEURSHIP, BUSINESS) EDUCATION
The educational process is organized by a firm. It includes both corporate training, education and training outside the
enterprise or workplace. It is a systematic process of change in work behavior, knowledge and skills, including
motivation of staff organization, which reduces the difference between their characteristics - the subjective skills of
workers and demands placed on them - the objective qualifications, e.g.: level of competency work. The aim of
business education is not only the transfer of knowledge, but also to create conditions for self fulfillment as the most
effective motivational tool. In business education is the unification of personal and business goals.
BUSINESS EDUCATION INCLUDES:
 education in the adaptation process and prepare staff to work;
 update skills;
 skills development;
 retraining;
 managers education.
Business education is one of the most important personal activity. It is related to human resources planning, recruitment
and personnel selection. Business education is clearly an essential investment in human resources. Experience shows
that competitiveness can only be those businesses in which the learning rate is greater than the speed of change in their
surroundings. For corporate learning theory is used to the concept of business education. Next, it is very important to
answer the following questions to reach the goals: [1]
 Why is entrepreneurship education important?
 How should it be distinguished from related programs?
 How will success be measured?
 Who will be the students?
 How will the subject be taught?
 What will be the curriculum?
 Who will be the teachers?
Business education is a term that encompasses a number of methods used to teach students the fundamentals of business
practices. These methods range from formal educational degree programs, such as the Master of Business
Administration (MBA), to school-to-work opportunity systems or cooperative education. Business education programs
are designed to instill in students the basic theories of management and production. The main goals of business
education programs are to teach the processes of decision making; the philosophy, theory, and psychology of
management; practical applications; and business start-up and operational procedures.
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TYPES OF BUSINESS EDUCATION PROGRAMS
Traditional academic business education programs include college courses that teach students the fundamentals of
management, marketing, ethics, accounting, and other relevant topics. These have been supplemented in recent years
with extensive course offerings in computer skills, e-commerce management, and other elements of the "new
economy." Students can earn degrees ranging from an Associate to a Ph.D (Doctor of Philosophy) in business
administration. Some programs may consist of classwork only, while others - such as tech-prep and cooperative
education programs, internships, and school-to work opportunities—combine academics with on-the-job training.
A tech-prep program is a four-year planned sequence of study for a technical field which students begin in their junior
year of high school. The program extends through either two years of college in occupational education, or a minimum
two-year apprenticeship. Students who complete the program earn either certificates or Associate degrees. Cooperative
education (co-op) is a program which offers students a combination of college courses and work experience related to
their majors. Co-op programs are available in a wide range of business disciplines, e.g., information systems,
accounting, and sales. Participants enroll in a postsecondary educational program while employed in a related job. Most
co-op participants are paid by their employers. The co-op program provides students with the work experience they
need to obtain full-time employment after graduation. More than 1,000 postsecondary educational institutions and
50,000 employers participate in co-op programs throughout the United States. [4]
Internships are related closely to co-op programs. The main difference, however, is that those who participate in
internship programs are not paid, as internships are designed specifically to provide participants with work experience.
Often, interns will complete the program separately from their academic setting, rather than combining the two.
School-to-work opportunity programs focus on career awareness for students. They provide participants with work
mastery certificates and furnish them with links to technical colleges. In these programs, all participants have jobs,
apprenticeships, or further schooling after finishing high school.
Career academies are occupationally focused high schools that contain "schools within schools." Primarily, they train
high school juniors and seniors in such areas as environmental technology, applied electrical science, horticulture, and
engineering. In addition to these schools, there are also privately operated business schools that grant certificates to
students who complete their programs.
All of these types of business education programs provide participants with career paths for high-skill technical and
professional occupations by formally linking secondary and postsecondary education, and by integrating academic and
occupational learning. Students who complete such programs gain an advantage over people who concentrate solely on
the academic part of business education. Whichever route students use to acquire a basic knowledge of business skills
and principles, there exist ample opportunities to prepare them for business careers.
ENTREPRENEURS AND THE MBA
In the past, many entrepreneurs viewed the Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree as unnecessary to small
business success, and some believed that it stifled the creativity that allowed small businesses to develop and grow.
Most entrepreneurs counted on their energy, work experience, industry knowledge, and business connections rather than
on their formal business education. But in recent years, increasing numbers of entrepreneurs have chosen to pursue an
MBA degree. Jay Finegan, writing in Inc., suggested two reasons for this change. First, today's business world often
requires small companies to compete for the same customers as much larger, professionally managed corporations.
Second, entrepreneurs are finding that even their smaller competitors are likely to be run by MBAs, as more downsized
executives decide to start their own companies. [2]
When they face the fact that their competitors' business training might offer them an advantage, many entrepreneurs
choose to pursue an MBA in order to even the playing field. The MBA degree offers entrepreneurs a set of sophisticated
management tools that can be brought to bear on the challenges lenges of running a small business, including economic
analysis, marketing knowledge, strategic planning, and negotiating skills. In addition, a business education can help
many small business owners to broaden their viewpoints and recognize trends within their business or industry.
Yet another reason for the increase in entrepreneurs pursuing MBA degrees is that most such programs have become
more practical in recent years. In addition to teaching theory, MBA programs are increasingly emphasizing teamwork,
hands-on experience, and cross-disciplinary thinking. This approach makes the MBA much more applicable to the
entrepreneur's interests and experience.
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ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION
Analysis and identification of training needs the first step. We have to find it in the project plan and our educational
goals.It is the most critical and important phase of designing educational activities.
Graph 1: Decision about training needs [4].
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS
There are many training needs in analysis techniques as there many different classifications of these techniques. Ideally,
of course, is to combine the use of multiple techniques [3]. Methods and techniques can be sorted according to the
various criteria.
For example:
 focusing on the reactive or proactive approach,
 accordingly, the range of what needs to focus,
 identifying organizational issues,
 find problem areas and causes,
 identifying performance problems of an individual (group),
 identifying the needs of management development,
 separation of educational needs from other needs;
 knowledge,
 skills,
 attitudes,
 managerial actions and behavior;
 the external environment,
 organizations,
 groups,
 individuals
STRONG AND WEAK POINTS OF TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS
We have already reported that an analysis of training needs among the most critical points of the design of educational
activities. Some authors [e.g. Mitchell, 2000, p. 28] writes that strong points can be defined as follows:
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Strong points:
 The analysis should be made well in considerable detail to estimate the extent of the needs of organizations or
institutions of further education.
 You can define the target group, which relates to the need for education. They can be designed more specifically
the content and form of further education.
 It is possible to estimate the effectiveness of time spent on education.
Weak points:
 An unwillingness to acknowledge in particular the top management training needs of this group.
General reluctance to further education, mainly resulting from a wicked experience in this regard.
Certain conservativeness and unwillingness to accept something new.
 Any little experience or inexperience of analytical personnel can lead to incorrect or superficial conclusions and
recommendations.
 If there is no sufficient evidence, it is not possible to estimate the real educational needs of the organization.
LITERATURE
[1]
CASHILL, J. Capitalizing on Business Education. Ingram's. July 2000.
FINEGAN, J. Too Cool for School: For Generations, Entrepreneurs Have Loathed Everything about the MBA.
[2]
So Why Are So Many Now Going Back to Get One? Inc. October 1996.
MITCHELL, M. A Difference of Degree. CIO. September 2000.
[3]
Analýza a identifikace vzdělávacích potřeb [online]. 2010 [cit. 2010-12_20]. Dostupný
[4]
z WWW:http://www.businessinfo.cz/cz/clanek/management-msp/analyza-identifikace-vzdelavacichpotreb/1001663/57434/?page=4#b3.
ADRESS:
Ing. Miroslava Lovichová
Evropský polytechnický institute, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
Ing. Ondřej Šabata
Evropský polytechnický institute, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
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PERSONAL FINANCE – THE FUTURE OF HIGH SCHOOLS WITH FINANCIAL STUDY
PROGRAMS
Miloš Majerník
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o. Kunovice
Abstract: The aim of this paper is point out at personal finance as the summarizing financial subject for
the financial study program students. Personal finance is area of study that focuses on individual and
household financial decisions, such as budgeting, saving, spending, insurance and investments. Personal
financial statements summarize my financial information in a way that makes it easy to see where I stand
and to plan for where I want to be in the future. Personal financial analysis provides another important
tool for evaluating my financial condition. There are four main approaches how to earn money during our
working age: employee, self-employed person, entrepreneur and investor.
Key words:Personal Finance. Financial Statements. Employee. Self-employed Person. Entrepreneur.
Investor.
INTRODUCTION
There is a lot of a high school and universities in Slovak and Czech Republic with financial study programs, but at no
one of them the Personal finance is taught as the autonomous subject. Personal finance briefly represents the
management of our purses. There are lot of financial subjects taught at universities such as: International Finance,
Corporate Finance, Public Finance, Bank System and Financial Market, Finance and Currency, Financial Analyses and
several others, but without Personal Finance.
The graduates of financial study programs are prepared to be a good company analysts, accountants or company
financial managers, but they do not study anything about their own finance. They have lot of knowledge how to manage
accounting department or financial department, or how to solve various very complicated financial problems in the
company, but they are no able to manage their personal finance – their purse.
The aim of this paper is point out at the possibility of Personal Finance to improve the ability of European Polytechnic
Institute graduates on the labor market in the near future. Personal Finance is summarizing financial subject mainly
focused on how to utilize high school study in my everyday life. So this article supply you the contents of prepared
subject, called the Personal Finance.
PERSONAL FINANCE – DEFINITION AND CONTENTS
Personal finance is area of study that focuses on individual and household financial decisions, such as budgeting,
saving, spending, insurance and investments. Understanding these topics will help us in many ways. We will make
better decisions when we buy a car, pay for a home mortgage, choose a professional career and save for retirement. We
may also be able to pay less in taxes and interest.
PERSONAL FINANCIAL PLANNING
Personal financial planning is the first and very important part of personal finance and is a process of developing and
implementing an integrated, comprehensive plan designed to meet financial goals, to improve financial well being and
standard of living and to prepare for financial emergencies. Personal financial planning process is a life-long activity.
My financial plan will not ever be a finished product – I will need to reevaluate and revise it continually as my life
circumstances change.
The personal financial planning process consists of five steps:
1) Analyze my current financial position
2) Develop short-term and long-term financial goals
3) Identify and evaluate alternative strategies for achieving my goals
4) Implement a plan for achieving my goals
5) Regularly reevaluate and revise my plan as necessary
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There are several very important factors that influence personal financial planning:
1) Changing needs over the life cycle.
As I build my financial plan, I must consider many factors that influence my spending and saving behavior. Some
are unique (e.g. the phase of my life cycle, other (e.g. macroeconomic factors affect everyone to some extent. Both
types of factors can be expected to change over time, so my financial plan will need to continually adapt to new
circumstances.
2) Values and attitudes
Values are fundamental beliefs about what is important in life. Attitudes are opinions and psychological differences
between people that affect their decisions. Our values and attitudes are affected by risk that is uncertainty with
regard to potential loss or probability of not achieving my financial goals.
3) Life situation represents by my sex, age, education, level of income, marital status, risk-acceptance, health,
religion,etc.
4) General macroeconomic condition is presented by inflation, interest rates, employment conditions, political unrest
and global issues.
The most people recognize the need to manage their finances, but most of them admit that they do not do an adequate
job of it. The others do not manage their finances completely. Only few people make effective decisions based on
reasonable assumptions, applying marginal reasoning and consideration of opportunity costs during the financial
planning process.
PERSONAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 Personal financial statements summarize my financial information in a way that makes it easy to see where I
stand and to plan for where I want to be in the future. Just as companies make regular reports on their financial
status to their shareholders, I make a financial report to myself.
 Personal balance sheet is a financial statement that details the value of everything I own and subtracts what I owe
to others to arrive at my net worth. The things I own are assets (e.g. liquid assets, real and personal property,
investments) and amount I owe are debts (unpaid bills, credit card balances, car loans, student loans and mortgages)
or liabilities. In personal finance is not valid the basic equation typical for company finance: Total assets = Total
debts.
 Net worth defined as: Total assets – total debts, represents the amount of wealth I would have left after paying all
my outstanding debts. To state net worth is very important to assess my assets and debts by market value. Market
value is the price that something can be sold for today. There is no the best number representing the ideal amount
of net worth, since this depends on an individual’s life cycle stage and personal goals. In general, the larger your
net worth is, the better off you are.
Personal cash flow statement
My net worth is highly related to my spending and saving behavior. If I consistently spend more than I earn, I will end
up financing this extra consumption through borrowing. A personal cash flow statement is second financial statement
used to evaluate the relationship between your income and expenditures. The cash flow statement is prepared on a cash
basis, which means that cash flows are recorded when they are received or paid.
Whereas my personal balance sheet is like a snapshot of my finances at a certain point of time, my personal cash flow
statement shows inflows and outflows of cash over a period of time, often one month or one year. In this financial
report I carefully itemize the amounts of money that come into my household from various sources as well all money
that goes out over the same period of time.
For the purpose of creating a personal cash flow statement, it would be better to divide expenses into main groups: fixed
expenses that are a constant amount each period and variable expenses that vary in amount from period to period.
Whereas income is generally easy to identify and calculate, expenditures are more difficult to track accurately. I can
probably easily determine the big fixed expenses – items that are the same from month to month, such as rent and
mortgage payments. There is much more difficult to determine variable expenses, because of many factors affect my
consumption behavior in the near future. We represent the cash-flow statement example at the end of this article.
Personal Finance Analysis
Personal financial analysis provides another important tool for evaluating my financial condition. I can calculate my
financial ratios from the information I have collected on my personal financial statements, compare my ratios to
recommended targets, and track my ratios over time as a measure of my progress toward achieving financial goals.
There are three main aspects of personal finance: liquidity, debt management and adequacy of savings.
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1) Liquidity
In the situation when I am unemployed and without having the regular income, the liquidity ratio tells me how
many months (years) I could pay my monthly expenses from my liquid assets. Liquidity ratio is calculated as
follows: Liquidity ratio = Liquid assets / Monthly expenses
2) Debt usage
Financial institutions such as banks use several debt ratios when they evaluate clients for mortgage or car loan. The
debt ratio measures the percent of my total assets that I have financed with debt. It is calculated as:
Debt ratio = Total debt / Total assets
The second very important indicator is the debt payment ratio that estimates the percentage of my after-tax income
that goes to paying required monthly minimum debt payments of all types and is defined as:
Debt payment ratio = Total monthly debt payments / After-tax monthly income
3) Savings
Financial ratio that measures the percentage of after-tax income going to savings is called the savings ratio and is
defined:
Savings ratio = Monthly savings / After-tax monthly income
This indicator is also well-known as average propensity to save. There is a relationship between savings and
consumption defined by next quotation: Average propensity to save + Average propensity to consume = Total after
tax income in the long run. People can consume only so many goods and services that equal to their after-tax
income. When people consume less goods and services than their income, they are able to make savings. In this
case it states the relationship: consumption + savings = after tax income.
POSSIBILITIES OF EARNING MONEY DURING THE WORKING AGE
There are four main approaches how to earn money during our working age, defined by Kiyosaki, R. – Lechterová, S.
(2007) called cash-flow quadrant: employee, self-employed person, entrepreneur and investor.
1) Employee
Is the most commonly used form how to earn money during our working age. The most employees will never be
entrepreneurs because of their fear from failure and fear to live without a regular income. This is particularly influenced
by our schools which teach the students to be a good and reliable employee but not to be a successful entrepreneur.
Employee is motivated to work by control of his money, prefers a hierarchical structure with many levels in the
employment, and is oriented at advance in employment hierarchical structure, and seeks a certainty. Most employees
like their job till to get money for work. Employee use to earn money only his head or hands and his time, which
represents his resources and abilities. Simply put, employees are specialists they have lot of knowledge in some
proficiency. Employee is an asset works for the entrepreneur.
2) Self-employed person.
Self-employed person wants to be a boss himself and purely independent. He is often a specialist in some field. He does
not want his salary will depend on somebody else. Self-employed person works very hard and he expects he will earn a
relevant wage foe his work. He is confident nobody will do it better than me. Self-employed person is an individual, so
he must still firstly to earn money, secondly to pay taxes and than to live. He can earn e.g. 50 € or 100 € per hour, but he
can not earn 2000 € per hour which is possible for the entrepreneur or the investor. The most important difference
between self-employed person and entrepreneur is how successful their businesses will be after half year of their
absence in the enterprise. The self-employed person’s business will not be probably exist and the economic
performance of entrepreneur’s business will be depend on his staff -their motivation structure, human resources
management, corporate culture, applied management styles etc. It is more presumable the entrepreneur’s business
survives this half year absence of his owner in better economic condition than the self-employed person’s business.
3) Entrepreneur.
To be an entrepreneur is a mission or lifestyle. Business approach is defined as: using an opportunities aside from our
disposable resources which we have at this moment. Entrepreneur is mainly motivated his options to earn money,
prefers a flat hierarchical structure with one or two management levels, and is oriented on values and attitudes, and
seeks a team working. Most entrepreneurs engage in work although they do not earn money. Entrepreneurs try to use
resources of other people to work for them. Entrepreneur has to have general knowledge; he has less knowledge but
from much more proficiencies than the employee. The real entrepreneurs know that there is lot of knowledge to study
for them but they do not know theirs because they can’t afford the specialization. Entrepreneur welcomes the changes,
because life is change and is the opportunity, but employee is afraid of changes because changes interfere with his job
certainty.
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4) Investor.
To be a successful entrepreneur is necessary assumption to be an investor in the future. But how to define a successful
entrepreneur? There are a lot of definitions how to define a successful company by some indicators of profitability,
liquidity, indebtedness or market value, but we can’t use these indicators to define a successful entrepreneur. Successful
company is not the same as the successful entrepreneur. The entrepreneur’s exhaustion is one of the most important
purposes of small businesses bankruptcies. It is very difficult to earn money for entrepreneur when he has to do a lot of
duties which do not bring any effect or profit. The entrepreneur can become an investor in the situation when after his
half year leave of absence his business or company will be in better economic performance than before his holiday. In
this case the entrepreneur’s company success is not depending on the owner’s inherence in the company. It means the
entrepreneur can be on holiday for the whole year and each year. His business is independent on the owner’s abilities.
This is one of the most important conditions for the entrepreneur to be retired young and rich. The investors and
entrepreneurs have the other advance in comparison to employees or self-employed persons. They can do their business
on behalf of their company which is a legal entity. In this case the entrepreneur or investor can firstly to earn money,
secondly to live and than to pay taxes. This is very important difference between employee and self-employed person
on one hand and entrepreneur and investor on the other hand. There is a well-known clause: if you do not know what to
do with your money, be sure that this plan has the government. To save money before taxes is much easier for you in
the case when you do your business by a legal entity. The legal entity owner risk less than self-employed person
because the self-employed person stand for his outstanding debts by the whole his equity but the owner of company
only till to his amount of capital due. For the entrepreneurs and investors is important to own equity but to have the
business processes the under the control. The right structure and legal entity form enhance our chances to be a
successful entrepreneur.
The entrepreneur is cheerful to try out a new method or something else in the business in spite of the others opinions
that it is impossible. The real entrepreneur’s target is to build up a business from nothing. The assumption to be the
entrepreneur is internal turbulence which presses upon him to change status quo. Employee is paid for have a lot of
work but entrepreneur is paid for the results of his work. The result of entrepreneur’s work can be a profit or a loss.
Employees, in spite of entrepreneurs, are not responsible for a company profit. It is very difficult to earn a lot of money
and to serve a lot of people just by we will work very hard. The successful entrepreneur must be able to solve a problem
or to meet a client’s need.
The person has three types of income:
1) Work income – this is typical for employees, it is very stable and it represents my abilities to do what the
entrepreneur wants.
2) Portfolio income – this is typical for entrepreneurs, it is unstable and represents by capital gain and dividend
income from securities and companies profits.
3) Passive income – this is typical for the investors and it represents by net cash-flow from all assets owned by the
investor.
Our school system does not prepare the students to be a successful entrepreneur but to be a reliable and efficient
employee. I did not like to learn a lot of knowledge by heart and to be afraid that I do a mistake. The teachers want the
students do only right things and right decisions and the students are afraid of real life. There are a lot of people who
know what to do but they are not able to do what they know. The non-success is the necessary assumption of the future
success for the entrepreneur.
THE SUCCESSFUL ENTREPRENEUR
The success or non-success is depending on work ethic and intention in the business. To be a successful entrepreneur
we must learn how to sell because sale is income, to make a motivated team of co-workers, and teach the others how to
sell, how to be a good team co-worker and how to be successful. This ability insures the company’s profit, growth and
economic survival in the long run.
There is also several ways how to do our business bigger:
1) To make a new business when the last one is in acceptable economic condition.
2) To buy a franchising license.
3) To place your company on the stock exchange.
4) By selling concessions or joint ventures with the other partner.
Be sure, tactic is what we do, but the plan is how we do it. The entrepreneur is also responsible for the mistakes of his
employees. The entrepreneur must know to recruit employees and reduce staff. The people are very variable and
entrepreneur must be able to work with different types of people. The entrepreneur also needs foreign resources to
finance his businesses and companies. There are bad debts and good debts on the financial market. Good debts help the
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entrepreneur to realize their business activities with minimum private resources and so to minimize a business risk. The
difference between good debt and bad debt is not in interest rate or the other debt’s cost, but on person who pays off a
debt. The entrepreneur uses a good debt only in the situation when somebody else pays off a debt before the
entrepreneur. The entrepreneur’s view on assets is slightly different than the accounting view. The assets do not
represent all forms of property. From entrepreneur’s point of view the tangible and intangible assets are only those parts
of entrepreneur’s property which generate a passive income. It means the entrepreneur earn money without any own
work and he has a positive cash inflow rewards of asset ownership. The entrepreneur wants to be very similar to the
commercial bank by his activities. He wants to use the other people time and money to do his business. So he wants to
be as a bank, not as a banker. Finally, the real entrepreneur’s goal of business is a financial freedom.
CONCLUSION
Personal finance is the future of high schools with financial study programs. It consists of personal financial planning,
personal financial statements: personal balance sheet and personal cash flow statement, and personal financial analysis
which is specialized on: liquidity, debt management and adequacy of savings. From personal finance point of view is
very important how we earn money. We described four approaches how to earn money during our working age:
employee, self-employed person, entrepreneur and investor. We identified three types of personal income: work
income, portfolio income and passive income and define a successful entrepreneur. We pointed out at differences in
thinking between entrepreneur and investor on the one hand and employee and self-employed person on the other hand.
LITERATURE
[1]
KIYOSAKI, R.T.; LECHTEROVÁ. S. L. Cashflow kvadrant. Bratislava : Svornosť. 2005.
ISBN 80-89199-15-1.
BAJTELSMIT, V. Personal Finance. Colorado : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2006. ISBN 0-471-47151-8.
[2]
[3]
MAJERNÍK, M. Možnosti vstupu jednotlivca na kapitálový trh. In: Recenzovaný sborník příspěvků
z mezinárodní Baťovy doktorandské konference [CD-ROM]. Zlín : Univerzita Tomáše Bati ve Zlíně. ISBN 97880-7318-529-9.
[4]
KIYOSAKI, R.T.; LECHTEROVÁ. S. L. Ako úspešne podnikať. Bratislava : Svornosť, 2007. ISBN 978-8089199-52-5.
Appendix 1: Brief monthly cash-flow statement
Month
Total income
Gross work incomes
Gifts
Passive financial
incomes
Other passive
incomes
Income from the
government
Other and extra
incomes
SAVINGS
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
Total expenditures
Normal consumption
Clothes and shoes
Accommodation
Traffic
Long-term
consumption
Communication
Drugs and healthcare
Eating out, holidays,
trips
Gifts
Financial
expenditures
Education and
culture
Taxes
Services
Children
Other and extra
expenditures
Source: Author
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December
ADRESS
Ing. Miloš Majerník, PhD.
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
e-mail: [email protected]
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THE COOPERATION OF THE TOWN OF KUNOVICE AND EPI, LTD. WITHIN THE
BUSINESS INCUBATOR KUNOVICE – PANSKÝ DVŮR
Ivana Majíčková
Town of Kunovice
SUMMARY
The goal of the address is to summarize the long-term cooperation of the town of Kunovice and the European
Polytechnic Institute, which has significantly contributed to the development of the region and resulted in the execution
of the Business Incubator Kunovice - Panský dvůr project, which will significantly contribute to the development of
business and innovation in Kunovice as well as the whole region.
Motto:
"Wisdom must not only be obtained, but also used"
Cicero
Dear Rector, dear Ladies and Gentlemen,
I am honored to be at this conference as a representative of a town in which the first private university in Moravia was
founded and is now flourishing. In this address, I would like to focus mainly on the contribution of the college to the
development of Kunovice. I would like to show how a college can assist the social growth, the improvement of
enterprise and the development of corporate culture in a town.
In the early years of its existence, the European Polytechnic Institute extensively renovated its premises. Run-down
buildings were repaired and our streets filled with fresh student life.
And it was not only our streets! Student's interest in private accommodation initiated the utilization of vacancies in
citizens' houses, which helped their financial and occupational situation. Some entrepreneurs built guest houses.
Restaurants experienced an increase in the number of visitors and adjusted the menus to the students' needs. Companies
in Kunovice make use of the students' potential in temporary employment and students gain work experience in local
companies.
I deeply appreciate that the college management pays great attention to the students' manners and self-presentation.
I have had the opportunity to meet the young college students in their free time as well as in practical activities such as
job interviews in local companies. I can say they were self-confident, courageous young people, ready for independent,
competitive business life, capable of critical judgment, prepared to face the pitfalls of life, which is extremely important
in today's world. They do not wait passively until they get an offer, they want to show their skills, capabilities and
qualities. They are the models for other young people. I believe that a lot of EPI students already have their own
companies and appropriate positions.
I dare say that the existence of EPI in our town has also contributed to the development of tourism here. Students from
all over the country come here, get to know the region, discover its charm and bring back their friends and families.
I hope they will enjoy coming back to this town and region.
The town is also doing its best to create better conditions for the development of the college. We strive to create
suitable, modern premises for holding conferences such as this one in the historic cultural monument Panský dvůr in the
center of Kunovice. In cooperation with the European Polytechnic Institute, the town of Kunovice creates employment
opportunities for the college students in our region. Accordingly, the town of Kunovice has cooperated with the
management of EPI, Ltd. on the preparation of the Business Incubator Kunovice - Panský dvůr project. As a result,
a contract of cooperation on the project has been signed and the Ministry of Industry and Commerce subsidy has been
approved. It is the biggest investment project in the history of Kunovice - CZK 165 million in total. Besides 47 offices
for starting, innovative small and medium businesses, there will be modern, representative rooms for conferences,
matriculations, lectures and trainings that we are going to hold in cooperation with the European Polytechnic Institute.
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I believe that EPI will adjust the curriculum, so that its business, economic and IT graduates are encouraged to develop
independent businesses with the aid of the Business Incubator as early as during their studies by means of the
prospectuses of their Bachelor's theses. The existence of this synergy between the Business Incubator Kunovice Panský dvůr and the European Polytechnic Institute will create great conditions for long-term sustainability of the
project and the development of the town, the region and the whole society.
Thank you.
ADRESS
Mgr. Ivana Majíčková
the mayor of Kunovice
nám. Svobody 361
686 04 Kunovice
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THE POSITION OF TEACHERS EARLIER AND TODAY
Ladislav Obdržálek, Vladimíra Hlaváčková
European Polytechnic Institute, Ltd. Kunovice
Abstract: Comparing the position of teachers in the past and nowadays shows a clear difference due to a
few reasons. In any case we have to admit that the time when a teacher´ s authority was taken for grand
has irretrievably passed. We should realize that it is not easy to perform this job currently when very often
bringing up students at families lag behind. This paper deals with the difference of the teacher’s position in
the past and nowadays.
Key words: A teacher, a student, bringing up, education, a job, features, a family.
INTRODUCTION
Teacher career used to be very valued and respected. Teachers were thought to be educated and honoured persons. We
have to add that the position of teachers in the past was not very good because of their income. For many of them there
was the need to take extra job as clerks or musicians. As early as at the beginning of 18th century the maximum
remuneration of the teacher’s service was stated many teachers did not get it. Their position improved substantially in
the second half of the 19th century when the fixed salary was introduced and it was based on the length of the teaching
service and also the right for the retirement benefit was appointed. Teacher’s income is the problem in these days as
well when the graduates of the pedagogical faculties prefer other employment to qualification they completed by
studies.
Picture no. 1: Teacher in the classroom.
Resource: [3]
TEACHER´S POSITION
We have also to mention that at the very beginning the teacher’s position was a privilege for men. The possibilities for
women teachers began when the compulsory school attendance was introduced and the separate girl schools were
established. The women were limited by lots of conditions comparing to men teachers. An example can be the fact that
till 1819 celibate was valid for women teachers which meant that only unmarried women or widows could teach.
Regarding the education of future teachers they could get their qualification in courses at the Prague normal school after
1775. Similar “prep schools” were established at the lower types of schools as well. The time for preparation was quite
short – at first three months, later a year. Since 1869 the future teachers were taught in teachers institutions due to the
school reform. Graduates of these schools took position at basic schools as so called under-teachers and after two years
in this position they were qualified to pass an exam which authorised them for independent performance.
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Picture no. 2: The Example of school certificate issued in Prague in 1878.
Resource: [4]
The teacher’s job is to be taken as an important activity. Vašutová (1998) writes that the teacher’s profession was
always taken as a mission. The society expects that the teachers will influence positively its development. The teachers
realize that they stabilize the society and they accept the responsibility for the bringing up and education of youth. This
is the reason why the role of a teacher in the educational process is very important as it is one of its basic variables.
According to Čápa (2001, p.265) the teacher can substitute father or mother.
If we compare the position of a teacher in the past and today we have to say that we can find a lot of differences. Sure
we will agree that a teacher would always be a respected person in the past and his/her word was honoured. We can
meet the situation nowadays in which the teacher is not respected by students and he/she has not got the natural
authority. We think that the authority should be natural not forced as the latter is not ideal for the relation between a
student and a teacher. We can see the examples how teachers are not respected in mass media today. Just remember the
examples when teachers are recorded by mobiles, photographed and in this way they become the objects of students´
enjoyment. Unfortunately we can see even more rude situations when the students put a litter bin on teacher´ s head or
they enjoy other “funny games”. We wonder how students can behave in this way. The question is who is to be blamed.
We should consider if there is a failure like a malfunctioning of teachers or only the rude behaviour of the students. We
have to admit that in more cases the students´ behaviour is the reason. What the students perform today they would
never do a few decades earlier. Talking about students´ behaviour we have to mention that parents are carrying the
responsibility and they are the first to be responsible for bringing up their children.
Unfortunately, it is truth that the time when the teacher’s authority was matter of fact has passed. What should a teacher
be like then? This is the correct question as the teacher personality substantially influences the educational process.
Leaving the theoretical knowledge which should be the self-evidence the teacher should be helpful and tolerant
character. Very important feature is that the teacher likes children and he/she can build up a relation which is based on
mutual confidence.
Relation of men and women teachers at schools favours to women nowadays. The situation has been created by a few
reasons the most important of them is the payment. The man is supposed to support the family. That is why he looks for
a job which meets this expectation; unfortunately educational sector is not the right area so far.
CONCLUSION
Currently the position of teachers is not as we would like it to be. It is the time to think it over and try to improve the
teacher’s position and promote the teachers role to the place it belongs. We like to remember time spent at school. If
you ask the adults about time at school and what they remember the answer is that they do not remember so much the
theoretical knowledge as schoolmates and teachers engraved into their memories.
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LITERATURE
[1]
VAŠUTOVÁ, J. a kol. Kapitoly ze sociální pedagogiky. Brno : Paido, 1998. 191 s. ISBN 80-85931-58-3.
ČÁP, J.; MAREŠ, J. Psychologie pro učitele. 1. vyd. Praha : Portál, 2001. 655 s. ISBN 80-7178-463-X.
[2]
Postavení učitelů [online]. 2010 [cit. 2010-10-30]. Available fom: http://programy.mb-net.cz/mb-pravek[3]
novovek/JT1003003.htm.
Učitelské přípravky [online]. 2010 [cit. 2010-10-30]. Available from: http://programy.mb-net.cz/mb-pravek[4]
novovek/JT1003002.htm.
ADDRESSE:
Ing. Ladislav Obdržálek
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
tel.: 572 549 018
fax: 572 548 788
e-mail: [email protected]
Ing. Vladimíra Hlaváčková
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
tel.: 572 549 018
fax: 572 548 788
e-mail: [email protected]
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LEGAL LANGUAGE AS A FACILITATOR OF LEGAL KNOWLEDGE
Radomíra Veselá, Martin Sentl
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o., Kunovice
Abstract: Legal language is part of standard Czech. It is a special language. It is the language of legal
enactments, legal decisions, the legal literature, and the professional language of lawyers, and students of
law. Its formulations should be explicit, comprehensible, united in terminology, and linguistically and
stylistically perfect. Legal language creates the communicational background for the matter of an
exchange of legal information, and in this form it is one of co-creators of legal knowledge.
Key words:Legal language, legal knowledge, communication, explicitness, comprehensibility, vocabulary
The expert literature defines language as a system of audio and secondarily written currencies of codified character,
which is able to express the knowledge and images of a human being about world and his/her inner experiences. The
importance of a language grows hand in hand with phenomena such as integration, globalisation, and unification of
Europe en masse, because these are the phenomena that are increasing international communication.
Globalisation phenomena appear also in the field of law, which means that the study of legal language becomes more
attractive, and basically is the platform on which the law is built, and applied. It is estimated that, in the context
integrative and inter-nationalistic changes in Europe, more than 70 % of all Czech legal regulations have changed. Such
a high number of amendments to legislation not only increases the number of laws in general, but also makes it difficult
to distinguish bearing, and sets greater demands on its interpretation. The complexity of the laws causes diverse results,
and, thus, legal authority is weakened and legal knowledge is decreased for its addressees.
Legal language is part of standard Czech. It is tool of expression in law and, therefore, it is special language. Certainly
important is that in addition to theological language, legal language is the oldest special language.
From the functional point of view, it is the means of communication in the field of law as a nominal system. From the
systematic point of view it is part of each literary language. From the content point of view legal language is a codified
system, where one code is an individual word (legal terms), phrases (accustomed collocations – language templates) or
whole sentences. Legal language is not a means of communication in the true sense, but a particular realisation of legal
language, in the use of legal speech. This legal speech is any spoken or written manifestation, which can transfer legal
information. 1
Like any other language which is connected with a certain social area, the terminology of legal language is different
from ordinary speech, and often incomprehensible for the laymen. The aim of a scientific text is the most exact transfer
of information, hence it is necessary to form legal texts explicitly, technologically united language and stylistically
perfect. 2 During its formation it is important who is the addressee, a businessman or a layman. That is why it is
important for legal text to be thus comprehensible, in order for the addressees to understand them.
Laymen think, that a legal text should be understandable by everyone and that there should not be any doubts about its
content. A special legal text usually needs a special vocabulary in order to be explicit, which means that the text
becomes incomprehensible for the layman. In such cases the layman has to hire a qualified specialist such as a lawyer or
a solicitor especially.
The expert literature 3 describes these three levels of a legal language:
 Language of legal regulations
 Language of legal decisions (language of law application)
 Language of legal literature (commentaries, special statements, law school-books, etc.)
 Professional language of lawyers or law students
1
TOMÁŠEK, M.: Překlad v právní praxi. Vyd. 1. Praha: Linde, 1998, str. 22.
HLADIŠ, F.: „Právní jazyk“ z hlediska současných diskusí o spisovné češtině. ACTA UNIVERSITATIS PALACKIANAE OLOMUCENSIS, 1999,
čís. 1.
3
viz KNAPP, V.: Vědecká propedeutika pro právníky. Eurolex Bohemia, Praha 2003, str. 189-190.
2
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The language of legal regulations is source of primal information about law, whereas the following levels of legal
language are sources of secondary legal information. For the lucidity and better orientation in them their composition is
described here. The laws are divided into introductory and particular parts, whereas the headings and endings are
formalized. In the text there are titles and subtitles in particular parts, headings, and volumes. Their graphical
modification indicates not only this horizontal division, but the vertical division of the text as well. Graphical lucidity is
supported by graphic textual orientators for the text division i.e.: section signs, letters, numbers, and signs. Individual
sections are then monothematic.
In order to prevent legal certainties of the legal addressees about transferred it is necessary to follow consistent use of
special legal phrases and to compile language formations briefly and apposite. On the other side the legal language
remains part of the natural language and it can not easily do without significance and indefinableness, which are typical
for vocabulary of every natural language and remains significant and indefinite, limited by the natural language.
Explicitness, precision of legal language, and thus increasing the degree of exactness, leads to incomprehension,
decrease of the information value of the law, and vice versa. This means that a paradox of the legal language is formed:
Increasing of exactness, precision leads to incomprehension, and vice versa, increasing of comprehension leads to
decrease of the precision. Decreasing of entropy of precision leads to increase of the incomprehension. 4
Legal language is indefinite language, but thanks to this it is alive and flexible. Indefinableness causes the whole system
of law indefinite, i.e. opened, and the forming and transformations possible by means of the interpretation of the law
Interpretation of law norms is a cognitive process which aim is to find out the sense of the legal norms. In the process of
interpretation the meaning of the legal norm is being discovered, and so is its place in the system of legal regulation.
The right interpretation of legal norm has its meaning for each addressee of a legal norm. The legal subject namely
cannot use braking of law as an apology in such way, that the legal norm was misinterpreted or misunderstood.
The used vocabulary draws from the literary language, nevertheless its significance is certain abstemiousness, which
comes from the legal norms characteristics:
 Legal terms (not only legal terminology, but also terminology of other fields) and
 Language templates (formed lexical and syntactic formulations).
In legal language, on the contrary to the general basics of the literary language, however, we can find neither
interjections, nor expressive words.
Legal language and its previous study can be perceived neither as a marginal issue of legal science, nor as an exclusive
linguistic issue. Legal language borders between two fields – linguistics and law. During the formation of and
interpreting of legal text each author of the text should have not only the sources of law or legal literature, but also:
 Rules of Czech orthography (spelling),
 Dictionary of the Czech literary language,
 Czech grammar rules book, and
 Dictionary of foreign words.
In the case of legal language it is about the basic medium of legal communication in society, which effects status of
legal knowledge in the society by its level, for its basic function is to deliver legal information and to be an information
channel between two communicating subjects in the legal society.
Legal language creates a communicative background in the field of legal information and being like this, it is one of the
co-formers of the legal knowledge.
LITERATURE
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
4
HLADIŠ, F. „Právní jazyk“ z hlediska současných diskusí o spisovné češtině. ACTA UNIVERSITATIS
PALACKIANAE OLOMUCENSIS, 1999, čís. 1.
HOLLANDER, P. Filosofie práva. Plzeň : Aleš Čeněk, s.r.o., 2006. ISBN 80-86898-96-23.
KNAPP, V. Vědecká propedeutika pro právníky. vyd. 1. Praha : Eurolex Bohemia, 2003. ISBN 8086432548.
TOMÁŠEK, M. Překlad v právní praxi. vyd. 1. Praha : Linde, 1998. ISBN 8072011251.
HOLLANDER, P.: Filosofie práva. Plzeň: Aleš Čeněk, s.r.o. 2006, str. 216.
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ADDRESS:
JUDr. Radomíra Veselá
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
tel.: 572 549 018, fax: 572 548 788
e-mail: [email protected]
Mgr. Martin Sentl
Evropský polytechnický institut, s.r.o.
Osvobození 699
686 04 Kunovice
tel.: 572 549 018, fax: 572 548 788
e-mail: [email protected]
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KNOWLEDGE CREATION IN MARKETING MANAGEMENT CASE OF: ESAI CO., LTD
Anna Závodská, Jakub Soviar
Žilinská univerzita, Žilina
Abstract: This paper deals with the case study of Japan’s pharmaceutical company Esai Co., Ltd. It shows
their main aspects of market success regarding creation of knowledge, effective innovation and customer
orientation. In the second part there are main aspects focused on use in marketing management which are
resulting from the given case study. In the conclusions there is brief summarization of main strategic
elements regarding the case study.
Key words: knowledge creation, knowledge management, marketing management, Esai Co., Ltd, case
study, strategic management, customer orientation, innovation strategy.
CASE STUDY OF ESAI CO., LTD [9]
Esai Co., Ltd is mid-sized pharmaceutical company with sales revenues in the fiscal year 2007 of 5,7 billion US dollars.
Esai is only about half the size of Japan’s largest pharmaceutical company, but it is innovative and globally competitive.
They developed drugs as ARICEPT, now in global circulation in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, and PARIET or
ACIPHEX, used in the treatment of gastric-acid related disorders. They try to keep their focus on research and
development. What enables Esai to develop and market new products globally and profitably is unique style of
management based on a clear corporate philosophy and human-centered, knowledge-based management.
THE ESAI PHILOSOPHY AND VISION
The company was drastically reorganized under the leadership of Haruo Naito. He issued a mission statement called
“Commitment to Innovation” in 1989. Main goal was to create and run a program to change mindset of employees. The
pharmaceutical industry was undergoing drastic change, with increasing R&D expenditure, new entrants from other
industries, intensified global competition, decreasing government spending on health care, and changes in patients
needs. Esai cope with this change by altering its way of business. Naito says: We are clearly aware that patients and
their families are the most important “participants” in the health-care process. In our business it is very important that
we know and share the feelings of patients, their joys, anger, sadness, and happiness. Thus, the important question at
Esai shifted from “What should we do to make high-quality products at low cost?” to become “For what purpose are we
making medicinal products?” This led to the clarification of Esai’s purpose or reason for existence, which is to ensure
that all of the company’s products and activities contribute to the benefit of patients and their families and care givers.
Naito emphasized that profits are achieved as a result of providing benefits to patients not the purpose itself.
The operative slogan for the new mission was “human health care”, shortened to hhc. This forced employees to think
about patients as individual human beings whose quality of life Esai could help improve. “We demonstrate our
obligation to society by identifying with health care recipients, developing a response to their needs, verifying the social
benefits of this response, and finally, making this response available to the world before anyone else. This is what Esai
aims to realize in the slogan hhc.” Medicine and medical supplies are generally prescribed and dispensed by doctors and
pharmacists according to each country’s health regulations. This is the reason why pharmaceutical companies focused
on the needs of doctors and pharmacists as „customers“, rather than on the needs of patients as „end users“. „Every
aspect of our organization, from our employees and corporate culture to our style of doing business, must be in
continual renewal. This is the meaning of Esai Innovation. Esai wants to be a place for self-realization of each
employee. We want to be a company where each one of us finds work meaningful by doing something that is significant
for our patients, cooperating with each other by doing our own job, and developing excellent skills in business.“ Naito
was good head of R&D division because he developed good relationships with the research scientists based on the
belief that he can understand scientists as human beings. Through deep discussions with researchers, he found out that
their biggest frustration was insufficient recognition of their work by company, so he convinced them that the success of
Esai depended on their efforts. Naito created a motivation system that would cultivate the interest of employees and
nourish their sense of achievement. He introduced measures to evaluate the outcome of research by setting milestones
in the R&D process, and he created a commendation system to reward achievement of the milestones. As a result of
these efforts, scientists generated a number of significant new treatments. One researcher had lost his mother to
dementia. While he was nursing her, he had decided to devote his life to developing a drug treatment for this disease.
When Naito observed this force of human commitment and the sense of purpose that drives knowledge creation, he
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reconsidered the purpose of the company and decided that the new objective will be to “provide the benefit to patients
and their families”. This became a corporate vision. He believed that once every employee understood this higher goal,
they would be driven to achieve it.
ACTIVITIES WHICH LEAD TO CHANGE OF MINDSETS
They were designed to foster the sharing and internalization of the hhc philosophy. First, selected managers were
trained as “innovation leaders”. They should change the mindset and practice of Esai employees.
The key was practical experience of working in a hospital ward. Employees visited hospitals and took care of patients to
get a sense of their needs and medicinal requirements. By experiencing the situation of patients for themselves and
observing how they were using medicines, employees could start to understand patients’ point of view, their needs, and
their feelings. After training, employees started to think about the key point of drugs for elderly (right form of dosage,
greater efficacy, fewer side effects even if the drug is less effective). This gave them a new viewpoint that drug
treatments should be tailored to the individual patient. Esai employees started working in teams to discuss what they
could really do to increase the benefit of their work to patients and their families.
Developing the new drug Aricept 5 as a social event.
Dementia is regarded as a “social disease” because once the symptoms occur, every relationship is affected. This has
a major effect on the quality of life of the patient and the people around them.
They start variety of activities in preparation for the launch of Aricept. They observe the experiences and feelings of
patients taking the drug; families and caregivers keep a diary of daily events and their feelings, which could be
analyzed. Through the diaries, the R&D team was able to share experiences and measure this effect. To trigger the
creation of a supportive society, sales managers educate society about dementia. At that time, many people were still
unaware of the disease. The team held town meetings and other similar forums to improve awareness, with dedicated
sessions for doctors aimed at improving their skills of diagnosis. To sustain this support mechanism, the team helped to
build hospital networks in the community and established clinics specializing in dementia.
The training manual for caregivers: “Caring to help others.”
To help people to extend longevity and ensure quality of life Esai and nine other health organizations published Caring
to help others, a training manual with detailed information on care giving and resources. It is distributed free and
available on Esai’s website. The creators of the manual wanted to develop a program that would improve the quality of
care for seniors. They knew that this would not necessarily boost sales of Esai products but they knew there was
a strong need for manual.
Changing the size and structure of medicines
Seniors have difficulty swallowing medicine tablets because saliva secretion is reduced with age. Some patients had
medical restrictions on their liquid intake, making it even harder to swallow pill. Shape and size of the pill was other
problem because they could not distinguish one pill from the other. They came up with idea “barrier-free medicine” and
developed new products, such as tablets that dissolve in about ten seconds even with just small amount of water.
Medicine that had a bitter taste was modified to cover bitterness. An adhesive patch for heart patients was reduced in
size and made more comfortable for patients to wear. They also developed such a medicine for children. They started to
produce lower priced generic alternative and identify new business opportunities and potential for expanding.
Transferable labels for injections
Since liquid medicines are often colorless and difficult to distinguish, nurses must repeatedly check the labels before
drawing the correct dosage into a syringe. Once they have finished extracting the medicine, they label the syringe to
avoid misuse, usually writing the information directly on the syringe using the marker. Even with such precautions,
error can occur. Esai viewed this as a problem to solve. They create a label that could be peeled off the vial and
transferred directly onto an injection syringe.
New format for user instructions
Esai decided that information about side effects and contradictions, which had previously been buried at the end of user
instruction pamphlets, should be on the cover and front pages. There was a problem with sales people who believed that
putting negative information up front would make selling more difficult. But what is more important for patients? No
matter how good a drug might be, a patient’s health could be damaged by side effects from inappropriate use of it.
5
Aricept is a prescription medicine to treat mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease.
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Customer hotline center
It was a product information center. It is a toll-free phone-in service answering questions from users about Esai
products. The queries and requests that come in to the customer hotline center are feedback into company operations to
develop better products.
Centralizing medical information for quick response
Under the old system, medicinal information was managed by a specialized division in each regional office, which
provided that information to the Medical Representative (MR) to pass onto doctors and pharmacists. Under the new
system, all information on medicinal products was centralized in a computer database, giving the MR easier access to it.
The data could be quickly printed and faxed to doctors and pharmacists. This improved the speed of response to
inquiries. The activities of MR also changed. The main task of the MR had been to provide information to doctors and
pharmacists, and the job was evaluated according to an individual quota system, which was only concerned with the
quantity of medicine sold. Then the MR was evaluated qualitatively as well as quantitatively according to so-called
“lives activities” designed to improve the lives of patients by delivering medicinal products as quickly as possible. The
MR would plan monthly activities along these lines and report on results, which were shared on the company intranet.
A superior report was selected in each region. A superior MR was not only good at making quotas, but good at “lives
activities”.
Understanding the feelings of patients
The simulations include the use of ear plugs to experience senior hearing loss, and the wearing of special glasses that
simulate vision impairment due to cataracts and restricted field of vision. Participants also don hand and wrist weights
and other devices that replicate a decline muscle strength. This allows them to directly experience the physical and
psychological feelings of old age. Through such experience, participants learn to see things from elderly people’s
perspectives and understand and appreciate their feelings at a deeper level.
MAIN OUTCOMES FOR MARKETING MANAGEMENT
As we can see in the case study – one of the main points of successful marketing management strategy are customers
(patients in the case study). There is no business without profit and continuous profit depends on customer´s
satisfaction. But companies have to realize that customer satisfaction has to be their main objective and profits are
achieving as a result of providing such a satisfaction. The business structures and processes have to be optimized
towards the customer’s needs [10]. This whole concept is not new but is absolutely relevant. Satisfaction of customers
is never-ending process which depends on various factors. Management must define these factors precisely. The main
ones are:
 Relevant information about customers which must lead to appropriate segmentation. Segmentation must be
dynamic - this means that the input information must be also actual and relevant. “Know your customer!” – this has
to be one of the most important mottos in the company’s vision.
 Quick and appropriate reaction on customers´ needs opinions and demands. All this must be recorded and
processed by the management information system. To satisfy your customers means that they come back; they will
be loyal and spread the loyalty to their social networks.
 Effective use of company´s resources in terms of customer’s satisfaction. In business there must be always profit.
Price of the products must be acceptable for the customers and also profitable for the company.
Role of employees is crucial. They are in contact with customers. Their behavior affects whole company´s image. Their
skills and knowledge is serving company´s goals. They have an important notion about processes which they work
with. There in the case study we saw that employee’s problems could be transformed into valuable information
concerning effective and innovative solutions. There are always a lot of possibilities how to motivate employees to be
more innovative and effective. In terms of marketing management we can assume that:
 Employees in direct contact with customers must know that “customers’ satisfaction is making their paycheck”.
They must know the customers, products and processes with which they work with. Their knowledge and behavior
must be representative.
 Employees should understand the main company´s goals, visions and marketing objectives. This enables to spread
corporation´s whole image and deepen the understanding.
 Employees on every position must have at least basic information about company, about transformation processes,
about products, about using these products by the customers and about company´s market stance.
 Work positions should be specialized – specialists in research, in marketing, in customers service, in management
etc. This means that on every management position there should be manager with appropriate notion of given
technical knowledge. On the other hand on non-management places there should by only experts or specialists. For
example head of research and development division is not professional chemist or scientist but manager who can
develop good relationships with the research scientists. However all of his personnel are professionals and experts.
 Employees should attend trainings which should be specialized and employees should have a choice to pick any of
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






them according to their interests. Trainings should be charged. Employees should take full responsibility for their
progress by applying for and buying into the program to cultivate a sense of ownership. The fee requirement gave
employees a greater sense of independence, responsibility, and commitment for their own education. They should
get a chance for exchange with other departments. This provides stimulus and can widen their interests.
Employees are a valuable source of ideas. These ideas could be stimulated by appropriate motivation system. As
we can observe in the case study - innovation system effectiveness could be based on employees.
Employee’s effectiveness is related to their feelings. We are humans – we are driven by emotions. It is necessary to
know your employees – their attitudes, their problems etc. All that what is a potential threat of their performance on
one hand and all that what is a potential motivation regarding their performance on the other hand.
Because we are humans – we must expect failures and problems. Motivation system must work also with penalties
not only with benefits. Behavior or performance which is unacceptable must be sanctioned in negative way and
vice versa.
Exemplary behavior of superiors - their example - has the strongest influence on ethic conduct in the organization.
Superiors´ behavior is a comparative criterion to own behavior for other employees. Ethic standards can be
disseminated among employees to the whole company, to corporate culture. [6]
Motivation systems can also include awarding best employees. They should have prizes for excellent inventions
and discoveries outstanding original work in the production division. Employees should have announcement once a
year to get prizes for their excellent work. It is also place for lively exchange of knowledge, best practices and
information.
Dialogue communication in a working group is a management tool that has been improving the relationships
between employees and management and has contributed to higher efficiency of work since the times of Baťa´s
innovations. The employees should be relatively independent in decision making and to be able to work in a team
at the same time. It is important here that their suggestions, comments, dissatisfaction etc. are always consulted
with their superiors. The management should develop potential of employees supporting their satisfaction with
work. Dialogue communication means also a bilateral exchange of opinions, their critical judgment and effort to
reach agreement and joint solution. [6]
Upbringing is a process that does not finish in a childhood but it goes all life long. Every organization makes
specific culture. Company sphere should guide all their employees to accept and internalize 6 key company values
actively. These follow from the ethic code; in general: politeness, responsibility at performing the working duties,
loyalty towards the company and employees etc. It is necessary to socialize the employees towards the company
values, its culture. [6] Philosophy has to be tacitly understood by all employees.
CONCLUSIONS
As conclusions we created a frame strategic process regarding the main factors. These factors are generalized for the
strategic purposes of marketing management. Company´s vision must be the first and main accelerator of all processes.
Nowadays, companies changed their vision 7 because they realized that the most important, what can bring them profits,
is common good or customer satisfaction. Profits were always the main objective because every company is successful
if it is profitable. But we have to realize that profits come later if you can satisfy your customer. Regarding the vision
there are the main company´s goals defined. To achieve these goals there are three main elements: employees,
customers and processes. Effective management of these elements could lead to creation of innovation environment.
Main outputs of this environment are knowledge in the form of real improvements. It is important to externalize
knowledge. If employees are well motivated, they produce knowledge but this knowledge is often just gathered but not
articulated. This leads to widening their own knowledge but they do not help to each other. Managers should assure
externalization of employees’ knowledge. There is also feedback in this design which is formed regarding the whole
process and finally affects the main vision. You can see it in image below.
6
7
Internalization is an adoption of norm or idea. [3]
Profitability was usually the vision of most of the companies.
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Vision
Feedback
Main goals
Main elements
employees
processes
customers
Effective management
Innovation environment
Knowledge creation
Sketched process above is necessary in various ways. One of them represents the idea of Japanese management
approach (e.g. TPS etc.). This idea consists of one simple rule: try to make more effective everything concerning the
main transformation process and dismantle everything holding it back. However application of this rule is quite
difficult. It could be crucial part of the whole process (e.g. employees skills, technical limitation etc.) or just an
inconspicuous issue (e.g. stationary place where you can find cleaning devices etc.). The vision is crucial. It tells us the
way of thinking – the way how to do things better and more effective.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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nakladateľstvo, 1979.
KOTLER, P.; KELLER, K. L. Marketing management. Praha : Grada, 2007.
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KUMAR, N. Marketing jako strategie vedoucí k úspěchu. Praha : Grada, 2008.
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ROBBINS, P, S.; COULTER, M. Management. Praha : Grada, 2004.
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SOVIAR, J.; STRIŠŠ, J. Business Ethics – Frame Recommendations for the Slovak environment. In Journal of
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Information, control and management systems. Volume 8, No. 1. Žilina : EDIS, 2010. ISSN 1336-1716.
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Under the science project: VEGA 1/0992/11 2011-2013
ADDRESS:
Ing. Anna Závodská
Žilinská univerzita
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
[email protected]
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Mgr. Jakub Soviar, PhD.
Žilinská univerzita
Univerzitná 8215/1
010 26 Žilina
[email protected]
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AUTHOR INDEX
MALACH, A. .............................................95
MEČÁR, M...............................................135
MEŠKOV, A. A........................................105
MICHÁLEK, P. ..........................................51
MUSATOV, B. V. ....................................105
MURÍNOVÁ, L. .......................................115
B
BARAN, D..................................................13
BODOROVÁ, Z. ........................................17
BŘEZINA, M............................................175
C
CULEK, M................................................149
N
NADÁNYIOVÁ, M..................................121
D
DLUGOŠ, I. ................................................23
DLUGOŠOVÁ, I. .......................................29
DUBOVEC, J..............................................47
O
OBDRŽÁLEK, L......................................215
P
POLTARYKHIN, A. ..................................61
PRACHAŘ, J. ...........................................125
F
FERIANC, A...............................................35
H
HABÁNIK, J.............................................179
HAVRANOVÁ, A. .....................................41
HLAČINA, T. .......................................47, 51
HLAVÁČKOVÁ, V. ................................215
HRICIŠÁKOVÁ, D. .................................183
R
RODENKOVA, T. N................................131
ROSENBERG, M. ....................................135
ROUDNÝ, R.............................................141
S
SEJFULLAEVA, M. E. ............................105
SENTL, M. .......................................183, 219
SOVIAR, J. ...............................................223
STRIŠŠ, J..................................121, 149, 153
CH
CHERMYANINA, V..................................61
I
IVANOVA, S..............................................65
Š
ŠABATA, O..............................................203
ŠRAMOVÁ, V..........................................145
J
JABLONICKÁ, J. .....................................183
JARINA, L. ...........................................71, 77
JURČA, R. ................................................187
T
TESAROVIČOVÁ, I. ...............................165
TŘOS, K. ..................................................175
TURAN, D................................................157
K
KAVKA, J...........................................47, 179
KOZUBÍK, A......................................83, 191
KRÁLIK, J. .................................................51
KRATOCHVÍL, O......................................95
U
UREŠOVÁ, I. ...........................................141
L
LACINA, K...............................................199
LENDEL, V. ...............................................89
LOVICHOVÁ, M. ....................................203
V
VARMUS, M..............................................89
VESELÁ, R. .............................................219
VINKLÁRIK, M.......................................199
VODÁK, J. ...............................................165
M
MAJERNÍK, M.........................................207
MAJÍČKOVÁ, I........................................213
Z
ZÁVODSKÁ, A................................153, 223
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EPI, s.r.o., Hodonín, Česká republika, 23. leden, 2009.
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Title:
„University as the Facilitator for Society and Region Development“
7th International Conference 2011
Author:
Team of Authors
Publisher, Copy rights, produced by:
European Polytechnic Institute Ltd.
Osvobození 699, 686 04 Kunovice, Czech Republic
Cost: 200 pc
Number of pages: 230
Edition: First
Year of Publication: 2011
ISBN 978-80-7314-220-9
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university as the facilitator for society and region development