4. FEB 2015
E-TAXI: win-win for airlines and airports?
Libor Kurzweil, Director of Safety and Quality, Prague Airport
IATA Aircraft Taxiing Systems Conference
Coral Gables, Miami, FL
February 2015
Czech Republic
country in the heart of Europe
2
The Czech Republic is a small country in the central
Europe, which has an appeal for visitors.
Thanks to its location at the crossroads of various
cultures, the Czech Republic has countless cultural
and historical points of interest. These destinations
attracts a high number of foreign tourists every year.
Prague Airport Václav Havel
Main Gateway to the Czech Republic
LKPR / PRG
11 km distance from the downtown
11 million PAX in 2014 (max. 12,63 mil. in 2008)
125k MVTS in 2014 (max. 179k in 2008)
46 MVTS per hour of declared capacity
RWY 06/24: 3715x45 m
RWY 12/30: 3250x45 m
Terminal 1: Schengen
Terminal 2: Non-Schengen
Terminal 3: General Aviation
Terminal 4: Military
2 cargo terminals
5 APRONs
90 aircraft parking stands
A380 ready
3
www.prg.aero/safety/
My journey to MIA
6
Taxi-out @ PRG with A320
Taxi-in @ CDG
4½ min., no queuing (CDM)
8½ min.
Taxi-out @ CDG with A380
Taxi-in @ JFK
9½ min. + 4 min. queuing
6 min. + tow to the Gate
Taxi-out @ JFK with M88
Taxi-in @ MIA
9½ min. + 20 min. queuing
3¼ min.
E-TAXI BENEFIT ANALYSIS
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 1
Landing & Taxi-in
E-taxi is possible when the engines cool down.
Mandatory cool-down time: 2 min. on idle
(RR engines 3 min.)
Recommended cool-down time: 3 min.
Taxi-in time @ PRG:
2 to 5 min., average 3,5 min.
8
E-TAXI benefit analysis 1
Landing on 24 & Taxi-in
Landing
T
Reverses clsd
Engines idle
No chance
for E-taxi
T+40 s
RWY vacated
E-taxi
T+2 min
Cooled down
Ready for E-taxi
RESULT
Depends on combination of the
RWY in use and aircraft stand,
E-TAXI can be used
0 to 3 min of Taxi-in time.
No significant benefit for PRG
9
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 2
Docking & Handling start
• E-taxi technology may accelerate the
initiation of the handling process by a few
seconds.
• There is no danger zone around the engines
Good benefit for airports, but
the ground staff must recognize that it is
an E-taxi movement,
otherwise they can‘t benefit.
10
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 3
Side loading
Speeding-up the turn-round is attractive for LC carriers,
in case the airport fees remains the same.
Here the Gates require 20 % more concrete,
the 2nd jetty for each stand = high investments
=> To be paid by airlines and passengers
11
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 4
Power back
1. Ground staff nor the surrounding traffic is not
affected by the Jetblast.
2. No waiting for disconnecting the tractor.
3. Taxiing can be initiated by an average of 2,5
minutes faster.
Good benefit for airports
For PRG evaluated in ARCPort simulation:
APRON throughput improved by +2,7%
12
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 5 Multiple ops on same Taxilane
Due to a Jetblast,
a Safety zone
of 100 m is required
between two
pushing aircraft.
With E-TAXI we could move at the same time
as many aircraft as we want! Good benefit.
13
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 6
Construction sites
E-taxi offers greater safety for construction activities
carried out in proximity to the aircraft.
Due to the fact that not 100% of Aircraft will have E-taxi,
this advantage is impossible to use. Safe distances
must still be determined in the same way as now,
with regard to aircraft with the main engines running.
Procedures remain unchanged.
No significant benefit for airports
14
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 7
Vehicles crossing TWYs
On the APRON there are crossings of TWYs and
Service roads for vehicles. Vehicle drivers are obliged
to stop, give way to Aircraft and wait until they get at
least 100 m distance from a Jetblast source.
In the case of E-taxi there is no danger of Jetblast
and vehicles could cross much earlier.
But, the pre-requisite is a recognition of E-taxi by the
driver. The technology is not visible on the plane
at first sight. It has to be visible, otherwise good
benefit for airports is lost.
15
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 8
Remote Deicing
During a de-icing the engines are usually running.
The deicing time may vary from 5 to 40 min:
E-taxi may save a lot of fuel, CO2 and noise.
Deicing will be safer for personnel present
at the Deicing stand.
Good benefits for airports
16
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefit analysis 9
Taxi-out
E-taxi is possible until there is a need to warm-up
engines. Warm-up time:
2 min. mandatory
3 min. recommended
10 to 15 min. recommended after 6 hrs stay
Taxi-out time @ PRG:
2 to 5 min.
average 3,5 min.
Mo
17
Not much queing
thanks to CDM
E-TAXI benefit analysis 9
Taxi-out
T-1 min
Engines running
T-2 min
T-3 min
T-4 min
Starting 2. engine
T-5 min
Starting 1. engine
E-taxi
RESULT
With RWY 12 or 24 in use there
is no time for E-taxi.
With RWY 06 and 30 possible
use of E-taxi is 1 to 2 min.
Almost no benefit for PRG
18
HP 24
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI benefits for PRG airport in numbers
Total taxi time [s]
E-TAXI taxitime [s]
5%
2%
120-240 120-240 180-300 120-240
141
30
90
63%
30%
90-300 240-420
30
0
30
12
06
30%
24
06
63%
30
24
Usage of RWY direction
DEP
12
ARR
LKPR / PRG
5%
60-300 300-420
25
0
67%
Percentage of E-TAXI A/C
Average use E-taxi / 1 movement [s]
68,96
5,56
No ARR/DEP yearly
70 000
70 000
E-taxi engine-hours / year
1 340
108
Fuel savings [ton]
2 950,09
237,89
7 880,16
635,43
N2O Savings
CO2 Savings [ton]
Benefit for deicing
yes
Increased throughput of APRON
yes
Lost income: pushbacks
-2,38 mil. EUR
Lost income: towings
-467 200 EUR
Lost income total
19
2%
-2,847 mil. EUR yearly (71,1 mil. Kč)
40
www.prg.aero/safety/
MY FOUR RECOMMENDATIONS TO VENDORS
Make it visible. The staff must recognize E-taxi in use,
otherwise they can‘t benefit. Illumination, flashlight, …
Make it simple. Pilots are busy when taxiing, new workload
= less situational awareness & risk of an incident.
Consider automatic switching from/to E-taxi
Want to enhance Safety? Develop anti-collision system
with sensors and automatic braking
Want to help pilots even more? GNSS technology becomes
precise and reliable:
Ultimate vision: Automatic power-back and E-taxi?
20
SAFETY
www.prg.aero/safety/
E-TAXI Procedures
Possible airport operation of the future:
mixed traffic of Taxibots, WheelTugs, EGTSs, APTs
and conventionally taxiing aircraft
All must live side by side
SAFELY
22
www.prg.aero/safety/
SAFETY BENEFITS OF E-TAXI
•
•
•
•
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No Jetblast issues
No FOD intake
Safety of staff
Less APRON
vehicles
Target audience:
ramp personnel, pilots, drivers
Safety
3
Issued:
February 2013
briefs
……..
………
Cizí předměty FOD
FOD - Foreign Object Debris
Tři jednoduché zásady, které významně napomohou zmírnit riziko FOD.
Three simple rules that help to mitigate the risk of FOD.
1. Pracujte s očima otevřenýma. Spatříte-li cizí předmět na odbavovací
ploše, prioritně jej odstraňte bez ohledu na to, kdo nepořádek
zavinil.
1. Work with your eyes open. If you see a FOD on a movement area,
remove it with priority, regardless of who has caused the particular
debris.
2. Na odbavovacích plochách jsou instalovány žluté kontejnery,
speciálně určené pro drobné předměty FOD. Větší předměty
zajistěte a hlaste dispečinku Řízení provozu letiště, tel. 8000.
2. There are yellow bins installed on the APRONS, designated to small
sized FODs. Larger FODs are to be secured and reported to Airfield
OPS dispatcher, tel. +420 2 2011 8000.
3. Přemýšlejte, kde odstavujete své MMP. Nezapomeňte, že i toto
vozidlo, zanechané na odbavovacím stání, je FOD. Vozidlo
odstavené na odbavovacím stání je překážkou! Využívejte výhradně
přidělená parkovací místa.
3. Think twice where do you park a GSE. Don’t forget, that even this
GSE, parked on an aircraft stand, is a FOD. A GSE left on a stand
blocks a handling process! Use the dedicated parking stands only.
Pozitivní příklad
Ramp Agent p. Daniel
Vašut z Menzies Aviation
informoval 31.12.2012
Safety o nálezu FOD,
poškozeného držadla
víka kanálu v prostoru
odbavovacího stání.
FOD byl díky tomu
okamžitě odstraněn
a nezpůsobil zranění
či škodu
www.prg.aero/safety
Co patří mezi FOD?
•
odpadky, součástky, klíny, kužely,
•
zapomenuté nářadí,
•
pytle s odpadem po handlingu,
•
špatně zaparkovaná MMP a kontejnery,
•
poztrácená zavazadla,
•
obecně jakýkoliv předmět, který na plochu nepatří,
anebo není na svém místě
What is considered as a FOD?
garbage, parts, blocks, cones,
•
left tools,
•
trash from handling,
•
GSE or containers improperly parked,
•
left luggage,
Generally, any object not intended to be on a movement area
or not at its own place
•
•
Created 2013 by Prague Airport, Safety Management Department
Feel free to distribute. Email us if you want to be added to the distribution list or removed
Positive example
Ramp Agent Mr. Daniel
Vašut from Menzies
Aviation reported
31.12.2012 a FOD,
damaged handle
of a drainage cover,
found on an acft stand.
Thanks to the report
the FOD was removed
immediately and did not
cause injury or damage
[email protected]
Target audience:
Ramp personnel
Safety
……..
………
Odpojení letadla po vytlačení
Zaznamenali jsme již několik případů, kdy posádka letadla
zahájila pojíždění ještě před odpojením sluchátek interkomu
ramp agentem.
13
briefs
Issued:
March 2014
Disconnecting the A/C after pushback
We have recorded several incidents where flight crew
started taxiing before disconnection of the headset
by the Ramp agent.
POZOR!
WARNING!
• Posádka má z kokpitu letadla omezený výhled, proto se
snažte být mimo její zorné pole co nejkratší dobu.
• Sledujte motory letadla.
• Nesnažte se schovávat před nepříznivým počasím pod
letadlem se spuštěnými motory.
• Dodržujte komunikační pravidla a předepsané fráze včetně
potvrzování (readback). V případě sebemenších pochybností si
vyžádejte zopakování či potvrzení instrukce.
• Mějte na paměti, že letadlo se po odpojení tahače může
pohnout dopředu. Pokud dojde k pohybu letadla, ihned
upozorněte posádku!
• Vyjmutí steering pin proveďte až po spuštění všech motorů!
• Světelnou signalizaci parkovací brzdy (na některých typech např.Airbus) berte jen jako pomůcku - nenahrazuje
předepsanou komunikaci.
• The crew has a limited view from the aircraft, so minimise the
time you spend out of their field of vision as much as possible.
• Watch the aircraft engines.
• Do not attempt to hide from bad weather below the plane with
the engines running.
• Strictly follow the communication rules and use the correct
phrases including confirmation (readback) - in case of even the
slightest doubts, ask crew to repeat / confirm the instruction.
• Keep in mind that the aircraft can move forward after
disconnecting the tractor. Immediately notify the crew if the
aircraft moves!
• Do not remove the steering pin until all engines are not running!
• Use the parking brake indicator (on certain types - e.g. Airbus) as
an aid only - it doesn’t replace the proper communication.
www.prg.aero/safety
Created 2014 by Prague Airport, Safety Management Department
Feel free to distribute. Email us if you want to be added to the distribution list or removed
[email protected]
SAFETY RISKS OF E-TAXI
•
•
•
•
•
Multiple procedures for all
Safety of Power-back
Increased workload of pilots
Losing situational awareness
Engines not started and warmed
properly
– Less attention to the engine start
procedure
– Starting engines without assistance on
ground
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
26
Failures / malfunctions
Winter operations
New type of vehicles (TxBot)
Impact on CoG
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Contact
Ing. Libor Kurzweil, Ph.D.
Director of Quality, Safety
and Processes Management
Safety Manager
Prague Airport
K Letišti 6/1019
160 08 Praha 6
t
+420 220 112 645
m +420 724 550 576
[email protected]
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Libor Kurzweil