JOURNAL ON PROCESSING AND ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE
ČASOPIS ZA PROCESNU TEHNIKU I ENERGETIKU U POLJOPRIVREDI
Editor in Chief / Glavni i odgovorni urednik
Prof. dr. Mirko Babić
Editors / Urednici
Prof. dr. Ljiljana Babić
Prof. dr. Anđelko Bajkin
For Publisher / Za izdavača
Dr. Velimir Lončarević
Technical secretary / Tehnički sekretar
Dr. Ivan Pavkov
Editorial Board
Dr. Mirko Babić, professor, Faculty of Agriculture,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Costas Akritidis, professor emeritus, Aristotle
University, Thessaloniki, Greece,
Dr. Ljiljana Babić, professor, Faculty of Agriculture,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Anđelko Bajkin, professor, Faculty of Agriculture,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Costas Biliaderis, Aristotle University,
Thessaloniki, Greece,
Dr. Miloš Tešić, professor, Faculty of Tehnical
Science, Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Janos Beke, professor, Szent István University,
Gödöllö, Hungary,
Dr. Marko Dalla Rosa, University of Bologna, Italy,
Dr. Mirjana Đurić, professor, Faculty of Technology,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Richard Gladon, Iowa State University, USA,
Dr. Zuzana Hlaváčová, Slovak University of
Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic,
Dr. Tajana Krička, professor, Faculty of Agronomy,
Zagreb, Croatia,
Dr. Filip Kulić, professor, Faculty of Tehnical
Science, Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Harris Lazarides, Aristotle University,
Thessaloniki, Greece,
Dr. Jovanka Lević, Institute for Food Technology,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Mirjana Milošević, professor, Institute of Field
and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Vangelče Mitrevski, University "St. Kliment
Ohridski", Bitola, FYR Macedonia,
Dr. Milica Radosavljević, Maize Research Institute,
Zemun Polje, Belgrade-Zemun,
Dr. Branislav Karadžić, Faculty of Agriculture,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Ivan Pavkov, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad,
Serbia.
JOURNAL ON PROCESSING AND ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE
Izdavač: Nacionalno društvo za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi (bivše društvo YUPTEP), 21000 Novi
Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8. Suizdavač: Poljoprivredni fakultet, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8. tel :++381
(0)21 459 958; e-mail: [email protected]; Internet sajt: www.ptep.org.rs; Korektura: prof. dr Ljiljana Babić, prof. dr
Anđelko Bajkin; Dizajn časopisa: prof. dr Mirko Babić, Lektura: Aleksandar Jagrović; Prelom: Zoran Stamenković,
MSc i dr Ivan Pavkov, UDC brojevi: Slađana Beker; Štamparija: "Offsetprint", Novi Sad, Matice srpske 6. Tiraž:
250 primeraka; Godišnja pretplata: 1200 din (žiro račun: 340-4253-72, Erste banka, Novi Sad); Rešenjem
Ministarstva za informacije Republike Srbije, br. 651-105/97-03 od 6.2.1997, časopis je upisan u registar pod brojem
2307. Kategorija časopisa (2013): Vodeći časopis nacionalnog značaja – M51. Radovi iz časopisa nalaze se u
elektronskim bazama: SCIndeks i AGRIS (FAO).
CIP – Katalogizacija u publikaciji Biblioteka Matice srpske, Novi Sad
631.55/56:620.92
JOURNAL on processing and energy in agriculture = Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi / editor in chief
Mirko Babić. – Vol. 14, no. 1 (2010) - .- Novi Sad : Nacionalno društvo za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi, 2010-. –
Ilustr. ; 30 cm
Tromesečno. – Nastavak publikacije: PTEP - Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi (1997-2009)
ISSN 1821-4487
COBISS.SR-ID 247980295
CONTENT / SADRŽAJ
Ljiljana MOJOVIĆ, Aleksandra ĐUKIĆ-VUKOVIĆ,
Svetlana NIKOLIĆ, Jelena PEJIN, Sunčica KOCIĆ-TANACKOV
PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID AND MICROBIAL BIOMASS
ON DISTILLERY STILLAGE BY USING IMMOBILIZED
BACTERIA / ROIZVODNJA MLEČNE KISELINE I
BAKTERIJSKE BIOMASE NA DESTILERIJSKOJ DŽIBRI
POMOĆU IMOBILISANIH BAKTERIJA .............................. 141
Biljana LONČAR, Lato PEZO, Vladimir FILIPOVIĆ,
Milica NIĆETIN, Violeta KNEŽEVIĆ, Danijela ŠUPUT
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT EMPIRICAL AND DIFFUSIVE
MODELS TO WATER LOSS AND SOLID GAIN DURING
OSMOTIC TREATMENT OF FISH / PRIMENA RAZLIČITIH
EMPIRIJSKIH I DIFUZIONIH MODELA NA KINETIČKE
PARAMETRE OSMOTSKOG TRETMANA RIBE ................. 171
Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ,
Jasmina MILENKOVIĆ, Dragan TERZIĆ,
Dragoljub BEKOVIĆ, Ratibor ŠTRBANOVIĆ, Dobrivoj POŠTIĆ
INFLUENCE OF THE AIR DRYING TEMPERATURE ON
GERMINATION AND DORMANCY OF COCKSFOOT SEEDS
(Dactylis glomerata L.) / UTICAJ TEMPERATURE VAZDUHA
TOKOM SUŠENJA NA KLIJAVOST I DORMANTNOST
SEMENA JEŽEVICE (Dactylis glomerata L.) ......................... 147
Dejana DŽIGURSKI, Branka LJEVNAIĆ-MAŠIĆ,
Ljiljana NIKOLIĆ
THE DOMINANT WEED SPECIES IN ORGANICALLY
FARMED PEACH - PRUNUS PERSICA BATSCH.
(ROSACEAE A. L. DE JUSSIEU 1789, ROSALES) /
DOMINANTNI KOROVI PRI ORGANSKOJ PROIZVODNJI
BRESKVE - PRUNUS PERSICA BATSCH. (ROSACEAE A. L.
DE JUSSIEU 1789, ROSALES) ............................................. 175
Gerda DIÓSI, Mariann MÓRÉ, Péter SIPOS
REOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MIXTURE PRODUCT OF
APPLE POMACE AND WHEAT FLOUR /
REOLOŠKE OSOBINE MEŠAVINE JABUKOVOG KLJUKA I
PŠENIČNOG BRAŠNA. ....................................................... 151
Jelena KRULJ, Rada JEVTIĆ-MUČIBABIĆ,
Jasna GRBIĆ, Jovana BRKLJAČA, Ivan MILOVANOVIĆ,
Bojana FILIPČEV, Marija BODROŽA-SOLAROV
DETERMINATION OF BETAINE IN SUGAR BEET
MOLASSES/ODREĐIVANJE BETAINA U MELASI
ŠEĆERNE REPE .................................................................. 179
Danijela ŠUPUT, Vera LAZIĆ, Nevena HROMIŠ,
Senka POPOVIĆ, Lato PEZO, Biljana LONČAR, Milica NIĆETIN
EFFECT OF BLACK CUMIN OIL ON MECHANICAL AND
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STARCH BASED
EDIBLE FILMS / EFEKAR ULJA CRNOG KIMA NA
MEHANIČKE I STRUKTURNE OSOBINE JESTIVIH FILMOVA
NA BAZI SKROBA .............................................................. 154
Pravin KHOPE, Jayant MODAK, M. SINGH
DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN POWERED ENERGY UNIT FOR
FODDER CUTTING / RAZVOJ LJUDSKI POGONJENIH
SITNILICA ZA HRANU ....................................................... 158
Slobodan BUNDALEVSKI, Vangelce MITREVSKI,
Tale GERAMITCIOSKI, Vladimir MIJAKOVSKI
REVIEW OF JOURNALS WITH A PARTICULAR EMPHASIS
ON PAPERS ON APPLICATION OF INVERSE APPROACH IN
DRYING PROCESSES / PREGLED ČASOPISA SAPOSEBNIM
NAGLASKOM NA RADOVE O PRIMENI INVERZNOG
PRISTUPA U PROCESIMA .................................................. 161
Jasmina ŽIVKOVIĆ, Rada JEVTIĆ-MUČIBABIĆ,
Zvonko NJEŽIĆ, Jovana BRKLJAČA, Nataša VUKELIĆ,
Bojana FILIPČEV
EU FOOD MARKET- VALUE-ADDED FOOD, A NEW TREND
AND OPPORTUNITY FOR NATIONAL FOOD INDUSTRY /
TRŽIŠTE HRANE EU - HRANA SA DODATOM VREDNOŠĆU,
NOVI TREND I PRILIKA ZA DOMAĆU PREHRAMBENU
INDUSTRIJU ....................................................................... 168
Jelena PEJIN, Ljiljana MOJOVIĆ, Sunčica KOCIĆ-TANACKOV,
Miloš RADOSAVLJEVIĆ, Aleksandra ĐUKIĆ-VUKOVIĆ,
Svetlana NIKOLIĆ
LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION ON BREWERS’ SPENT GRAIN
HYDROLYSATE BY LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS AND
LACTOBACILLUS FERMENTUM / MLEČNO-KISELA
FERMENTACIJA HIDROLIZATA PIVSKOG TROPA
POMOĆU LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS I LACTOBACILLUS
FERMENTUM ...................................................................... 182
Vladimir TOMOVIĆ, Marija JOKANOVIĆ, Žarko KEVREŠAN,
Snežana ŠKALJAC, Branislav ŠOJIĆ, Tatjana TASIĆ,
Predrag IKONIĆ, Marija ŠKRINJAR, Vera LAZIĆ,
Mila TOMOVIĆ
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PROXIMATE AND
MINERAL COMPOSITION OF ADIPOSE TISSUE FROM
FREE-RANGE REARED SWALLOW-BELLY MANGULICA
PIGS FROM VOJVODINA / FIZIČKA SVOJSTVA, OSNOVNI
HEMIJSKI SASTAV I SADRŽAJ MINERALA U MASNIM
TKIVIMA SVINJA LASASTE MANGULICE UZGAJANE U
‚‚FREE RANGE’’ SISTEMU U VOJVODINI ......................... 187
Sandra CVEJIĆ, Siniša JOCIĆ, Dragana MILADINOVIĆ,
Milan JOCKOVIĆ, Ivana IMEROVSKI, Zvonimir SAKAČ,
Vladimir MIKLIČ
DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SUNFLOWER
GENOTYPES WITH ALTERED OIL QUALITY / STVARANJE I
KORIŠĆENJE GENOTIPOVA SUNCOKRETA SA
PROMENJENIM KVALITETOM ULJA ................................ 191
INFORMACIJE ............................................................ D1 – D4
Guide for authors and list of permanent reviewers is on the internet address http://www.ptep.org.rs, as well as in the first issue
(No 1) of each respective year.
Uputstvo za pisanje radova i lista stalnih recenzenata nalazi se na internet adresi http://www.ptep.org.rs/casopis.html, kao i u
svakom prvom broju (No 1) časopisa odgovarajuće godine.
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 141-146
UDK: 547.472.3
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID AND MICROBIAL BIOMASS ON
DISTILLERY STILLAGE BY USING IMMOBILIZED BACTERIA
PROIZVODNJA MLEČNE KISELINE I BAKTERIJSKE BIOMASE NA
DESTILERIJSKOJ DŽIBRI POMOĆU IMOBILISANIH BAKTERIJA
Ljiljana MOJOVIĆ Aleksandra ĐUKIĆ-VUKOVIĆ , Svetlana NIKOLIĆ , Jelena PEJIN , Sunčica KOCIĆ-TANACKOV **
*
*
*
*
**
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, 11000 Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Serbia,
**
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Lactic acid is versatile chemical with a wide range of applications in chemical, food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and polymer industries. Currently, lactic acid world consumption is continually increasing mostly due to expansion of the application range of polylactides. Utilization of industrial distillery stillage, waste water from bioethanol production as a cheap and abundant substrate for
integrated lactic acid and biomass production for animal feed could be a sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. In this
study, integrated lactic acid and biomass production by fermentation with immobilized lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus
ATCC 7469 on an industrial waste stillage obtained from the Serbian bioethanol production plant ″Reahem″ was studied. The immobilization was performed onto zeolite, a microporous aluminosilicate mineral. Optimal conditions for bacterial immobilization where
determined which allowed easy cell separation from the fermentation media and their reuse in repeated batch cycles. A number of
viable cells of over 1010 CFU g-1 of zeolite was achieved at the end of the fourth fermentation cycle. A maximal process productivity
of 1.69 g L-1, maximal lactic acid concentration of 42.19 g L-1 and an average yield coefficient of 0.96 g g-1 were achieved in repeated
batch fermentation with immobilized cells on the liquid stillage without mineral or nitrogen supplementation.
Key words: Lactic acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469, distillery stillage, zeolite.
REZIME
Mlečna kiselina predstavlja važan proizvod koji se koristi u prehrambenoj, hemijskoj i farmaceutskoj industriji. Poslednjih
godina svetska potražnja mlečne kiseline se konstantno povećava po prosečnoj godišnjoj stopi od 7% i to prvenstveno zbog veće
potražnje mlečne kiseline za proizvodnju biodegradabilnih polimera. Nove tehnologije za održivu fermentacionu proizvodnju mlečne
kiseline se baziraju na korišćenju sporednih i otpadnih proizvoda kao supstrata. U radu je ispitivana mogućnost korišćenja jeftinog
otpadnog materijala - tečne destilerijske džibre iz proizvodnje bioetanola iz industrijskog pogona ″Reahem″ iz Srbobrana za
integralnu proizvodnju mlečne kiseline i mikrobne biomase pomoću probiotski aktivne bakterije Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC
7469 imobilisane na mikroporozni aluminosilikatni mineral zeolit (13X, molekulska sita) adsorpcijom. Imobilizacijom ove bakterije
na zeolit ostvarena je prilično jaka veza koja se pripisuje jakim elektrostatičkim silama izmedju bakterija i nosača kao i sposobnošću
bakterija da stvaraju egzopolisaharide koji takođe utiču na jačanje veza. Na taj način je minimalizovana desorpcija i ispiranje
bakterije u toku fermentacije. Značajni parametri ostvareni u fermentaciji džibre sa bakterijom L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469
imobilisanom na zeolit su upoređeni sa parametrime ostvarenim u šaržnoj fermentaciji sa slobodnom bakterijom. Korišćenjem
imobilisanih bakterija bilo je moguće ostvariti jednostavnu separaciju ćelija nakon fermentacije kao i njihovo ponovno korišćenje u
više uzastopnih šaržnih ciklusa. Na taj način je nakon četiri ponovljena šaržna ciklusa fermentacije u laboratorijskim uslovima
ostvarena visoka produktivnost proizvodnje mlečne kiseline od 1,69 g/L·h što je bilo značajno više nego u fermentaciji sa slobodnim
ćelijama. Takodje je postignuta visoka koncentracija mlečne kiseline od 42,19 g/L, visok koeficijent prinosa na supstratu od 0,96 g/g,
kao i visoka koncentracija biomase ćelija od preko 1010 CFU/g zeolita. Značajno je i to što su ovi rezultati ostvareni na tečnoj džibri
bez dodatka minerala ili izvora azota.
Ključne reči: Mlečna kiselina, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469, destilerijska džibra, zeolit.
INTRODUCTION
In last two decades, the production of lactic acid as an important chemical has become an attractive research field. The research interest has been mainly driven by the expansion of application range of lactic acid and its derivatives. Lactic acid is
commonly used as a flavour and preservative in food, cosmetic
and pharmaceutical industries due to its antimicrobial characteristics. Also, it is used for production of poly-lactides, polymers
with convenient characteristics (biodegradability, thermo stability, elasticity, biocompatibility, favourable controlled release
profile, etc.) for pharmaceutical and plastic composite industries
(Gupta et al., 2007). It is predicted that global demand for lactic
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
acid will continue to grow with an average 7% per year rate in
the future (Malveda et al., 2009). Fermentation is a dominant
route for lactic acid production in industrial facilities (Vink et al.,
2003) and implementation of the processes on renewable and
cheap substrates is a base for cost-effective production. There
are a number of studies of lactic acid production on agroindustrial starch substrates (Anuradha et al., 1999; Rojan et al.,
2005), lignocellulosic substrates (Moldes et al., 2000) and byproducts of dairy industry (Büyükkileci and Harsa, 2004). Processes for lactic acid production which engage agro-industrial byproducts and wastes as substrates are a trend for profitable, ecofriendly and sustainable biotechnological production. The
stillage remaining after bioethanol production is an abundant
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Mojović, Ljiljana et al. / Production of Lactic Acid and Microbial Biomass on Distillery Stillage by Using Immobilized Bacteria
waste material which, due to high organic pollution, causes serious environmental problems if not treated adequately. Recently,
Mojović et al., (2010, 2011) and Đukić-Vuković et al.. (2011,
2012) studied possibilities of utilization of various types of
stillage as a substrate for lactic acid fermentation.
In order to enhance the productivity of lactic acid production
various production strategies could be utilized. Our previous research has shown that a fed-batch process is more productive
than a batch process (Đukić-Vuković et al., 2013). Immobilization of the lactic acid bacteria could enable easy cell separation
from the fermentation media and their reuse in repeated batch
cycles, and may possibly further increase the productivity of the
process. Also, an integrated production of lactic acid and biomass offers better substrate utilization since the biomass which
may posses a probiotic activity together with the stillage remaining after lactic acid fermentation could be used as a high quality
feed (Đukić-Vuković et al., 2013a).
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of
lactic acid and biomass production on a liquid stillage from bioethanol plant with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 strain
immobilized on powdered zeolite.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Liquid stillage preparation
The stillage remained after bioethanol production on wasted
bread was obtained from Reahem Ethanol Plant (Reahem, Srbobran, Serbia). After centrifugation (4500 rpm, 20 min, centrifuge: Sigma® model 2-16, Shropshire, UK) solid stillage was
separated from a liquid part and pH of the supernatant (liquid
stillage) was adjusted to 6.5 with 30% NaOH (Sigma-Aldrich,
USA). After adjustment, the liquid stillage was sterilized at 121
o
C for 20 minutes. The concentration of reducing sugars in the
sterile liquid stillage (originally 12 g L-1) was set at approximately 50 g L-1 with addition of a sterile 70% glucose solution
and used as a fermentation medium. The liquid stillage consisted
of proteins (43.75% of dry matter), reducing sugars (24.30%
dm), lipids (11.42% dm) and ash (14.49% dm).
Preparation of zeolite for the immobilization
of lactic acid bacteria
Zeolite molecular sieves (type 13X, beads, 8-12 mesh, 1
Na2O: 1 Al2O3 : 2.8 ± 0.2 SiO2 : xH2O) (Technical bulletin Sigma-Aldrich) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich, Darmstadt,
Germany. Before utilization it was powdered and washed twice
with demineralised water. Average particle size was 4-7 μm
(90%) with normal particle size distribution. Powdered zeolite
was dried at 105 oC for 3 hours and activated at 250 oC for 3 h. In
this way, prepared carrier was used for immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 as a lactic acid producing microorganism.
Immobilization of L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469
onto zeolite
L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, a homofermentative L (+) lactic
acid strain, was obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, USA). Stock cultures of LAB were
stored as lyophilized. The culture was propagated at 37 °C in
200 ml of Man Rogosa Sharpe broth (MRS) with inoculum concentration of 10% (v/v) under anaerobic static conditions using
Anaerocult ® C bags (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany). Af-
142
ter 16 h, the culture was centrifuged (10000 rpm, 5 min, centrifuge: Sigma® model 2-16, Shropshire, UK), twice washed with
sterile 0.8% (w/v) NaCl solution and the biomass was suspended
in 200 ml of fresh MRS broth with addition of 2% (w/v) powdered Na-zeolite. The culture prepared in this way was incubated
at 41°C, with shaking (90 rpm, KS 4000i control, IKA®, Werke
GmbH & Co. KG, Staufen, Germany). After 12 h, the culture
was centrifuged (1000 rpm, 5 min), supernatant with free cells
was thrown, and the sediment of L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells
adsorbed onto zeolite was twice washed with sterile 0.8% (w/v)
NaCl solution and used as an inoculum for fermentation. The
preparation of the free L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells for fermentation was similar, but without addition of the powdered
zeolite.
Lactic acid fermentation
All lactic acid fermentations were performed as batch cultures, with shaking (90 rpm, KS 4000i control, IKA®, Werke
GmbH & Co. KG, Staufen, Germany) at 41°C. The fermentations were preformed in 500 ml flasks with 200 ml of the liquid stillage under anaerobic conditions in the gas pack system.
After depletion of sugar below concentration of 10 g L-1, fermentation media was centrifuged (1000 rpm, 5 min), washed with
sterile physiological solution and residual immobilized biomass
was inoculated into the fresh fermentation media. In the samples
with free L. rhamnosus cells, initially 5% of inoculum was
added and one fermentation cycle was preformed until complete
utilization of sugars in media occurred. During the fermentation,
samples were aseptically withdrawn and pH, substrate consumption, lactic acid concentration and a number of living cells were
analyzed.
Experimental analysis
The concentration of reducing sugars, calculated as glucose,
was estimated by 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method using spectrophotometer (Miller, 1959). Calibration curve was set at 505
nm using standard glucose solutions. Lactic acid concentration
was determined by enzymatic method (L-/D-Lactic acid assay,
Megazyme®, Wicklow, Ireland) after deproteinization of the
sample. Number of viable L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells was
estimated using pour plate technique on MRS agar after detachment of cells from zeolite carrier by methodology reported by
Hrenović et al., (2009), with some modification. Principally, the
number of viable immobilized cells (I) was determined as a difference between the total number of viable cells (T) present in
fermentation media (immobilized and non immobilized cells)
and the number of non immobilized cells (N). Resulting number
(I) was expressed as CFU g-1 of carrier. In brief, 1 ml of fermentation media was aseptically transferred into 9 ml of sterile 0.8%
(w/v) NaCl solution and mixed for 10 minutes in a tube shaker
(at 50Hz) for cell detachment. This time was rather long because
of strong bonds of the cells with zeolite surface. After that, serial
dilutions from suspension were made and inoculated on MRS
agar plates, as previously described. The colonies were counted
and the remaining carrier has been dried and weighed. The total
number of viable cells (T) and the number of viable non immobilized cells (N) were expressed as CFU ml-1 of fermentation
media. The number of non immobilized cells (N) was determined by similar procedure. One ml of fermentation media was
aseptically withdrawn for determination of non immobilized
cells and transferred into 9 ml of sterile 0.8% (w/v) NaCl solution. The resulting solution was shortly mixed (10 seconds) and
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Mojović, Ljiljana et al. / Production of Lactic Acid and Microbial Biomass on Distillery Stillage by Using Immobilized Bacteria
serial dilutions from suspension were made and inoculated on
MRS agar plates. Finally, the number of viable immobilized
cells (I) was calculated by subtraction of the number of viable
non immobilized (N) cells from the total number of viable cells
(I=T-N).
Statistical analysis
The experiments were done in triplicates. All values are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Mean values of treatments were compared by the analysis of variance. Differences
were considered significant at p < 0.05.
RESULTS AND DISSCUSION
Immobilization of L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469
Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of zeolite without cells and with L. rhamnosus cells attached to the surface of
zeolite are presented in Figure 1.
In our study, L. rhamnosus cells were directly attached to the
zeolite surface and tightly fixed with cell surface to zeolite support. The strong bond of L. rhamnosus cells with zeolite surface
could be illustrated with the time required for desorption of cells
from the carrier. In the study of Hrenović et al., (2009) detachment of cells was complete after 3 min of a vigorous shaking at
40Hz. For the detachment of immobilized L. rhamnosus cells
from zeolite particles utilized in this study 10 minutes of shaking
was necessary. The strong bond between L. rhamnosus and zeolite surface could be a result of electrostatic interaction between
negatively charged cell surface of L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469
strain and positively charged zeolite surface. It is documented
that the cell surface of L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 is negatively
charged in the wide range of pH values and it acts as a Lewis
base (Pelletier et al., 1997). The zeolites are well known as
Lewis acids (Miura et al., 2009) which could enhance binding of
L. rhamnosus cells with zeolite surface. In addition, L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 strain produces exopolysaccharides (EPS)
which form dense, sticky layer on the surface of bacterial cells
and could also contribute to strong attachment of the cells to
zeolite carrier. It is previously shown that zeolite surface could
adsorb biopolymers like proteins and nucleic acids (Kubota et
al., 2008). Physiological role of bacterial EPS is still unknown,
although due to their variability in composition and physical
characteristics different functions were proposed. EPS could
have protective role against harsh environmental conditions, act
as adhesives for interactions with other surfaces or substrates, as
substances for bacterial aggregation and stabilizers in biofilm
formation (Badel et al., 2011).
It is important to point out that zeolite addition in feed premixes has positive effect on animal health as an absorber and
due to its ion exchange capacity it could provide high amount of
important ions for bacteria in animal intestine (Mg2+, Na+, K+)
(Galindo et al., 1986). In addition, due to its buffering ability it
can elevate low pH values attained in the lactic acid fermentation
and can improve bacterial survival during the passage through
the upper stomach. This is a significant issue when the immobilized biomass with remains after the lactic acid fermentation is
considered for animal feed.
From the aspect of lactic acid fermentation, immobilization
has several advantages such as higher cell density, better cell
stability and it enables easy separation and recirculation of bacterial biomass (Aljundi et al., 2005).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Fig. 1. First: surface of powdered zeolite molecular sieve (13X).
Second: surface of powdered zeolite molecular sieve (13X) with
immobilised L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells
Lactic acid production with free andim
mobilized L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 on
liquid stillage
The production of lactic acid and sugar consumption in the
single batch fermentation of liquid stillage from bioethanol production by free L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells are presented in
Figure 2, while Figure 3 presents repeated batch lactic acid fermentation with zeolite immobilized bacteria. In the single batch
process, a complete utilization of accessible sugars from the
fermentation media was achieved after 53 h of fermentation and
maximal lactic acid concentration of 34.69 g L-1 was achieved.
Four subsequent cycles were preformed with immobilized cells
until the productivity decreased to approximately 1 g L-1 h-1. Important parameters of the single batch fermentation with free
cells and the repeated batch fermentations with immobilized L.
rhamnosus cells are presented in Table 1. A time course of viable cell numbers for free and immobilized system is presented
in Figures 4 and 5.
143
Mojović, Ljiljana et al. / Production of Lactic Acid and Microbial Biomass on Distillery Stillage by Using Immobilized Bacteria
40
25
30
20
15
20
10
10
5
0
0
0
12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132
Time (h)
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
Lactic acid concetration (g L-1)
Sugar concentration (g L-1)
50
0
0
12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
9.4
9.2
9.0
8.8
8.6
8.4
8.2
8.0
Number of free viable cells
Number of viable immobilized cells
7.8
7.6
Fig. 2. Lactic acid production and sugar consumption in batch
fermentation of liquid stillage by free L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469
cells. Symbols: solid line- lactic acid concentration (g L-1), dot
-1
line – sugar concentration (g L )
0
9.6
Number of viable cells (log CFU ml-1)
30
Lactic acid concentration (g L-1)
35
40
Sugar concentration (g L-1)
It can be seen from Figure 3 that both the sugar consumption
and lactic acid production were faster in immobilized system
comparing to the batch fermentation by free bacteria.
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Time (h)
Fig. 4. Number of viable L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells in free
and immobilized system during the fermentation time
(expressed as log CFU ml-1 of fermentation media)
11.0
Number of viable cells (log CFU g-1)
50
10.5
10.0
9.5
9.0
108 120 132
Time (h)
Fig. 3. Lactic acid production and sugar consumption in repeated batch fermentation on liquid stillage by L. rhamnosus
ATCC 7469 cells immobilized onto zeolite. Symbols: solid linelactic acid concentration (g L-1),
dot line – sugar concentration (g L-1)
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Time (h)
Fig. 5. Number of viable L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells
immobilized onto zeolite
(expressed as log CFU g-1 of zeolite carrier)
The number of viable cells initially
present in immobilized system was significantly higher than in the free cell system.
However, after 24 h, the viable cell numLactic acid Lactic acid
Yield
Volumetric
ber in the free cell system overcame the
Fermentation mode
concentration
yield
coefficient productivity
number of immobilized cells, but lactic
(g L-1)
(g g-1)a
(g g-1) b
(g L-1 h-1)
acid concentration, yield, yield coefficient
Free L. rhamnosus
Maximal
34.69±1.29
0.69±0.03 0.81±0.03
0.66±0.02
ATCC 7469c
valuesc
and productivity were still significantly
1st cycle 38.80±2.48
0.78±0.04 0.93±0.05
1.62±0.10
higher in immobilized system (Figure 4,
0.82±0.01 0.98±0.03
1.43±0.06
L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 2nd cycle 39.36±1.59
Table 1). This implies increased productivimmobilized onto zeolite 3th cycle 42.19±2.48
0.84±0.01 0.99±0.04
1.22±0.07
ity of the cells immobilized onto zeolite,
4th cycle 41.37±2.31
0.80±0.01 0.93±0.05
1.01±0.05
even with lower total number of viable
a
Lactic acid yield was expressed as g of lactic acid produced per every g of sugar
cells at the end of the first cycle of represent in media
peated batch fermentation. The number of
b
Yield coefficient was expressed as g of lactic acid produced per g of sugar
viable cells per g of carrier increased with
consumed
each subsequent recirculation cycle which
c
Maximal values were achieved after 52 h of fermentation
suggested further colonization of the zeolite
surface
during
the
fermentation (Figure 5). The continuous
The productivity achieved in the first fermentation cycle with
-1 -1
colonization could be explained by previously mentioned elecimmobilized cells (1.62 g L h ) was almost threefold higher
-1 -1
trostatic interactions between bacterial cells and zeolite surface
than the productivity obtained in free cell system (0.66 g L h ).
Table 1. Parameters of lactic acid fermentation by free and immobilized
L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 on liquid distillery stillage
144
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Mojović, Ljiljana et al. / Production of Lactic Acid and Microbial Biomass on Distillery Stillage by Using Immobilized Bacteria
and a large surface area of zeolite which was available for adsorption of bacterial cells. The lowest pH value determined in
fermentation with immobilized system was 5.0 while in free cell
system the lowest pH value was 3.8. Because of the basic structure of X type zeolites, a drop in pH value during the fermentation in immobilized system was lower than in the free cell system. Consequently, smaller amounts of NaOH solution were
needed to maintain the constant pH value in immobilized system. Miura et al. (2009) reported that a number of protons are
loosely bounded to the surface of different clay minerals resulting in the pH of water suspensions of zeolite of approximately
6.5. In previous study of lactic acid production on liquid stillage,
a positive effect of pH control on viable cell number was noticed
(Đukić-Vuković et al., 2012).
The higher lactic acid productivity and better survival of bacterial cells in immobilized system is most probably a result of
combined effect of zeolite buffering capacity and increased productivity of the bacteria in a biofilm on zeolite particles. Because
of the advantages that could be achieved, a significant number of
papers are dealing with immobilization of LAB as a good strategy for improvement of the process productivity (Nguyen et al.,
2012; Panesar et al., 2007). Average productivity of the process
with immobilized cells was 1.32 g L-1 h-1 which is significantly
-1 -1
higher than the productivity of 0.66 g L h achieved in batch
fermentation with free cells (Table 1). Recently published study
of Nguyen et al. (2012) on lactic acid production from microalgae reported a process productivity of 1.06 g L-1 h-1 which was
also lower than the productivity obtained in this study.
In this study, growth of L. rhamnosus was intense during investigated four cycles indicating a good system stability (Figures
4 and 5) which is important for reuse of the immobilized biomass. During the fourth cycle of fermentation the sugar consumption rate as well as lactic acid production rate decreased
(Table 1). However, the colonization of zeolite was still increasing during this cycle. Therefore, it can be concluded that desorption of bacteria from the carrier was not the reason for the decline in process productivity. On the contrary, high number of
viable cells produced lactic acid faster at the beginning of the
third and fourth fermentation cycle. The reasons for the drop of
lactic acid productivity could be a product inhibition, culture aging, metabolic changes, alterations of the immobilized system,
etc.
A cell number per gram of carrier is an important parameter
for utilization of the remained biomass in animal nutrition. Viable cell number was more than 1010 CFU g-1 of zeolite and more
9
-1
than 10 CFU ml of fermentation media at the end of fourth
cycle of fermentation (Figure 5). According to European Regulation (European Union, 2008), a minimum content of viable bacterial cells (CFU kg-1) is an important criterion for evaluation of
the quality of animal feed enriched with probiotics. This number
should be about 109 CFU kg-1 in a complete feed (Anadón et al.,
2006). The capability of the zeolite to elevate pH value can improve the survival of L. rhamnosus during the passage through
the upper stomach. Our future research interest is to further
evaluate in detail the potential of L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 immobilized onto zeolite as an animal feed supplement.
CONCLUSION
Free and zeolite immobilized cells of L. rhamnosus ATCC
7469 were studied for lactic acid and biomass production on the
distillery stillage as a cheap waste substrate. It is shown that the
zeolite immobilized system is more effective since it enables cell
reuse and thus significantly higher productivity. A high number
of viable cells of over 1010 CFU g-1 of zeolite were achieved at
the end of fourth fermentation cycle. The results indicated that
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
the zeolite could be used as an efficient carrier for immobilization of L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 in the lactic acid fermentation
of liquid stillage.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Research presented in this paper
was funded by The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia, project number TR
31017.
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Received: 05.03.2014.
Accepted: 21.05.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 147-150
UDK: 66.047.5/6
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
INFLUENCE OF THE AIR DRYING TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION AND
DORMANCY OF COCKSFOOT SEEDS (Dactylis glomerata L.)
UTICAJ TEMPERATURE VAZDUHA TOKOM SUŠENJA NA KLIJAVOST I
DORMANTNOST SEMENA JEŽEVICE (Dactylis glomerata L.)
Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ*, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ**, Jasmina MILENKOVIĆ**,
Dragan TERZIĆ**, Dragoljub BEKOVIĆ***, Ratibor ŠTRBANOVIĆ*, Dobrivoj POŠTIĆ*
*Institiute for plant protection and environment Belgrade, Teodora Drajzera 9
** Institute for forage crops Kruševac. Globoder 37251
*** Faculty of agriculture Priština-Lešak
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Cocksfoot is one of the most important forage grasses, with specific reference to arid conditions. It is mainly used as a component
for the preparation of grass-legume forage mixtures. One of the major problems in the production of grass seed is seed dispersal and
loss of some yeld. However, harvesting can be done before the stage of technological maturity of seeds where the losses are reduced
but, the quality of the seed may be a problem in this case. On the other hand immediately after harvesting, as well as a period of time
after harvesting the seed, the grass is characterized by the presence of dormant seeds. Seed dormancy can be decreased with
optimum temperature and moisture during the air seed drying. The harvested seed had the moisture content from 20% to 35%. Then
the seeds are dried at temperatures of 9 0oC, 80 oC, 70 oC, 60 oC, 50 oC, 40 oC, 30 oC and at all temperatures the seeds exhibited 90,
60, 30 minutes. In laboratory conditions, seed germination (%), dormant seed are determined in six genotypes. Selection of the
optimal temperature and drying time can significantly effect on the increase in seed germination of both seed moisture. Genotypes
with high moisture according to the germination, showed low variability (moisture content was 20% and CV ranged from 2.0 to
4.1%; moisture content was 35% and CV ranged from 1.8 to 3.9%).
Key words: D. glomerata seed, the air drying temperature, dormancy, germination.
REZIME
Ježevica je jedna od najznačajnijih krmnih trava, sa posebnim značajem za aridne uslove. Uglavnom se koristi kao komponenta
za sastavljanje travno-leguminoznih krmnih smeša. Jedan od većih problema u proizvodnji semena trava je osipanje semena i
gubitak dela prinosa. Međutim žetvu je moguće obaviti i pre faze tehnološke zrelosti semena gde se gubici smanjuju ali može biti
problem sa kvalitetom semena. Na drugoj strani odmah nakon ubiranja žetve kao i neki vremenski period po žetvi semena, trave se
odlikuju prisutnošću dormantnog semena. Ućešće dormantnog semena se može smanjiti a povećati klijavost uticajem optimalne
temperature vazduha prilikom sušenja gde i vlažnost semena ima uticaja. Ispitivano je seme sa sadržajem vlage: 20% i 35%. Zatim je
seme sušeno na temperaturama vazduha: 90 oC, 80 oC, 70 oC, 60 oC, 50 oC, 40 oC, 30 oC i klasično. Seme je vremenski izlagano na
pomenutim temperaturama vazduha 90, 60 i 30 minuta. U laboratoriskim uslovima utvrđivana je klijavost ( % ) i dormantnost
semena ( % ) šest genotipova ježevice. Izborom optimalne temperature vazduha i vremenom sušenja moguće je značajno uticati na
povećanje klijavosti semena obe vlažnosti. Genotipovi sa visokom klijavošću su prema klijavosti ispoljili nisku varijabilnost (vlažnost
20% CV = 2,0-4,1%; vlažnost 35% CV = 1,8-3,9%).
Ključne reči: D. glomerata seme, temperature vazduha tokom sušenja, dormantnost, klijavost.
INTRODUCTION
At the high importance of grasslands indicates that of the
total agricultural area of Europe these plant communities
occupying 73% of Iceland, 63% of England, 33% of Romania
and Serbia, and 21% of Poland (Peeters, 2009; Stosic and
Lazarević, 2007). Cocksfoot is mainly grown in mixtures with
forage legumes and contributes to the high yield and in good
quality forage (Lazarević and Stosic, 2007, Samuil et al., 2012).
It is rarely grove in the individual sowing, but it is a very
common component of natural grasslands (Vuckovic, 2004).
Importance of cocksfoot was higher in arid conditions (Probert
et al., 1985, Ruzic et al., 2011). However, grass seed production
in Serbia is in deficit (Stanisavljević et al., 2012), a lack of seed
of most grass species is in Europe, too (Jensen, 2010). One of
the problems with this production is part of the dispersal and loss
of yield (Stanisavljević et al., 2010a). A possible solution to
prevent these losses is collecting seeds before technological
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
maturity when the seed had increased moisture content. After
harvesting the seed, next step is drying to humidity of 12% or
less. In practice, seed stretches to the thin layer and mixing,
mainly on the flat concrete foundation. Drying in this manner
requires laborious and relatively long time. Another possibility is
the artificial drying at various temperatures and various times.
On the other side, the grass immediately after harvesting possess
a certain percentage of dormant seeds (Simpson, 1990;
Stanisavljević et al., 2010b, 2013, 2014), which germinate after
sowing. That seed in the competition with the already developed
seedlings usually do not have contribution in establishing
grassland (Bretagnolle et al., 1995). Cocksfoot seed, harvested
in June, can be used for the autumn sowing (about three months
after harvest) or for planting in subsequent years (autumn or
spring sowing dates). The aim of this study was the investigate
germination of seed samples with moisture content from 20%
and 35%, and drying that seed at the air temperatures from 90 °C
to 30 °C; at a time of 90, 60 and 30 minutes.
147
Stanisavljević, Rade et al. / Influ. of the Air Dry. Temp. on Germinat. and Dormancy of Cocksfoot Seeds (Dactylis Glomerata L.)
On seed harvested from the 20% moisture using the optimum
treatment temperature, in addition to a more efficient and more
rapid drying is possible to increase the maximum germination of
17% (Table 2).
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Seed germination of six genotypes [Factor C (traits C 1 to C
6)] is determined when the moisture content of seed from 35% to
20% [Factor B (B1 and B2 traits)]. Seed in the
Table 2. Applied drying temperature on seed harvested with 20% moisture.
layer thickness of about 1.5 cm was placed on
drying at temperatures (T): 90 oC, 80 oC, 70 oC, Effect on seed germination G ( %) and dormancy D ( %) of cocksfoot genotypes
Genotype
Germination (%)
Dormancy (%)
CV %
Average
60 oC, 50 oC, 40 oC and 30 oC, in the duration of
Trait
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 G
D
G
D
and 90, 60 and 30 minutes for each temperature.
Control AØ 70 80 75 70 81 76 8 12 16 14 10 12 6.3 23.6 75d
12a
It is also applied classic foot dry; control [factor
o
g
T C 90′ - A1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0g
A (treatment AØ to A21)].
g
90
60′
A2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0g
After applied treatments, if the seed moisture
g
30′ - A3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0g
was above 12%, it was additionally dried (on the
o
g
T C 90′ - A4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0g
floor) to 12% of moisture.
f
80 60′ - A5 9 15 12 13 11 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 16.7 12
0g
Then the seeds put in the filter paper (four
e
30′ - A6 44 50 40 43 48 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.9
45
0g
replications per 100 seeds) and placed it in the
o
d
T
C
90′
A7
70
84
79
75
76
78
0
0
0
0
0
0
6.0
77
0g
germination chamber. Germination was read 21
cd
70 60′ - A8 85 75 82 78 77 83 2 3 1 2 1 3 4.8 44.7 80
2e
days in accordance with the rules (ISTA rules).
c
30′ - A9 84 80 79 85 82 82 2 1 2 3 2 2 3.1 31.6 82
2e
Germinated seed is the seed that gave the
o
ab
1f
seedling radicle and stem by 0.5 cm or more. On T C 90′ - A10 80 98 89 87 91 89 2 2 1 3 2 2 6.6 31.6 89
a
e
60
60′
A11
94
88
92
90
91
91
4
2
3
3
2
4
2.2
29.8
91
3
ingeminated seeds is done tetrazolium test for
a
30′ - A12 90 93 87 95 85 90 7 5 6 6 5 7 4.1 14.9 90
6c
identification the dormant from dead seeds
o
a
T C 90′ - A13 92 90 94 88 91 91 1 0 2 1 1 1 2.2 63.2 91
1f
(ISTA rules).
a
50 60′ - A14 90 94 92 92 95 89 5 5 4 3 3 4 2.5 22.4 92
4d
By applying the F test showed the mean
a
30′
A15
88
90
92
92
88
90
10
6
6
6
5
9
2.0
28.6
90
7c
effect of the three factors and their interactions
o
ab
T
C
90′
A16
93
85
89
88
90
89
5
6
7
8
4
4
2.9
28.8
89
6c
(ANOVA). To determine variability of
ab
40 60′ - A17 84 88 92 88 90 86 10 11 9 6 7 9 3.2 21.5 88
9b
genotypes, for seed germination and dormancy
b
30′ - A18 85 87 86 90 82 86 9 9 11 13 13 10 3.0 16.9 86
11a
of seeds, was calculated coefficient of variability
o
ab
(CV %). Data of germinating and dormancy T C 90′ - A19 90 86 88 88 84 92 8 8 6 7 10 9 3.2 17.7 88
8b
30 60′ - A20 80 85 88 87 88 88 9 11 9 13 13 11 3.7 16.3 85b
percentage were transformed to arcsin N/100
11a
prior to analysis. Significant differences among
b
30′ - A21 84 85 86 80 90 85 10 10 12 12 11 11 3.8 8.1 85
11a
treatments were determined by Duncan’s
multiple range test at P≤ 0.05. These analysis
procedures were performed using the
STATISTICA for windows software (Stat Soft
8.0).
Values followed by different letters within columns are significantly different
(p≤0.05) according Duncan’s multiple range test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. Significance according to F test for temperature
trait, seed moisture and genotype, main effects on seed
germination and seed dormancy
Source
df Seed germination (%) Seed dormancy (%)
Temperature A 21
***
***
Seed moist.
1
NS
NS
cont. B
Genotype C
5
NS
NS
Interactions
AxB
21
*
**
AxC
105
NS
NS
BxC
5
NS
NS
AxBxC
105
NS
NS
*Significant at the 0.05 probability level. **Significant at the
0.01 probability level.
*** Significant at the 0.001 probability level. †NS, not
significant
Temperature treatment showed significant effect (p ≤ 0.001)
on seed germination and dormancy. In interaction with moisture
seeds (B) influenced significantly on germination (p ≤ 0.05) and
on seed dormancy (p ≤ 0.01). This suggests the possibility of
choice drying temperature according to seed moisture at harvest.
Other factors and their interaction had no significant effect
(Table 1).
148
The time of exposure to the air drying temperature of 50 °C
(A12-A15) and 60 °C with time 60 and 30 minutes (A11 and
A12) resulted in a high germination (>90%). In these treatments,
the seed dormancy is maintained at 1% to 7%, indicating a
possible increase in germination when the seed dormancy
breaking down (Table 2). Genotypes on which the seed
treatments are applied (A11 to A15) which had a germination of
<90% were characterized for the germination of the low
variability (CV = 2.0 - 4.1%).
On the other side of the air drying temperature of 90 °C and
80 °C at all times is not affected by the absence of dormant seeds
and the total mortality to reduced seed germination percentage at
45% (A6) (Table 2).
It seems that the grass species-specific behavior to the
influence of the air drying temperature on the increase
germination. For example, on the type of Brachiaria brizantha,
temperature treatment application of 75 °C during 10 and 15
minutes seemed optimal to increase germination (Martins and
Silva, 2001). According to Stanisavljević (2012) even on grass
species from the same genus (Festuca) seeds are significantly
different in response to the optimal temperature to increase
germination.
On seed harvested from the 35% moisture is optimum
treatment was possible to increase germination of 2% less than
the optimum treatment applied to the seed of 20% moisture
content (table 2 and 3). On the seed with high moisture
treatments genotypes alfalfa showed low variability for
germination from 90 to 92% (CV=1.8% and CV = 3.9%).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Stanisavljević, Rade et al. / Influ. of the Air Dry. Temp. on Germinat. and Dormancy of Cocksfoot Seeds (Dactylis Glomerata L.)
Drying from 90 to 60 minutes on temperatures on 50 oC and
60 oC are affected in breaking ormancy and achieve medium to
high germination (80 to 91%) (Table 3). Results of favorable
lower the air temperature for drying seeds with moisture content
30-40% are consistent with the results obtained in the seeds of B.
brizantha (Fumagalli and Freire, 2007) and L. perenne seeds
(Nellist and Callaghan, 1971).
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influence of seed size variation on seed germination and
seedling vigour in diploid and tetraploid Dactylis glomerata
L. Annals of Botany, 76, 607–615.
Fumagalli, F., and Freire, J. T. (2007). Analysis of the drying
kinetics of brachiaria brizantha (Hochst.
Table 3. Applied the air drying temperature on seed harvested with 35%
Stapf) grass seeds at different drying modes.
moisture content. Effect on seed germination G ( %) and dormancy D ( %) of
Drying Technology, 25 (9), 1437-1444.
cocksfoot genotypes
ISTA (2013). International Rrules for Seed
Genotype
Germination (%
Dormancy (%)
CV % Average
Testing,
Internacional
Seed
Testing
Trait
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 G
D
G
D
Association, Switzerland.
Control AØ 78 76 85 70 78 77 12 10 8 10 12 8 6.2 17.9 77d 10a
Jensen, T. M. (2010). Seed production in
ToC 90′ - A1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0e
0d
Europe with special focus on Denmark.
90
60′ - A2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0e
0d
Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 26,
30′ - A3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0e
0d
149-158.
ToC 90′ - A4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0e
0d
Kostić, M., Tatić, M., Đorđević, V.,
80
60′ - A5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0e
0d
Radojčin, M., Lončarević, V., Popović, V., &
30′ - A6 20 25 25 30 27 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 13.6 25g 0d
Ilić, A. (2012). Mechanical properties of
ToC 90′ - A7 50 53 44 40 48 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 9.8
47f 0d
different soybean seed grades. Journal on
70
60′ - A8 50 60 55 56 54 55 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.9
55e 0d
Processing and Energy in Agriculture, 16 (2),
30′ - A9 80 70 75 75 74 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.3
75d 0d
82-84.
ToC 90′ - A10 82 83 75 79 80 81 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.5
80c 0d
Lazarević, D., Stošić, M., Dinić, B., Terzić,
60 60′ - A11 88 89 86 86 81 86 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.2
86b 0d
D. (2007). Iskorišćavanje travnjaka u brdsko30′ - A12 86 90 88 84 92 88 1 1 1 1 0 0 3.2 77.5 88ab 1d
planinskom i ravničarskom području Srbije.
ToC 90′ - A13 95 87 87 89 90 87 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.5
89ab 0d
Zbornik radova Institut za ratarstvo i
50 60′ - A14 89 93 91 93 87 90 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.9
91a 0d
povrtarstvo, 44, 301-309.
30′ - A15 90 96 88 90 90 91 3 4 2 2 4 4 3.0 31.0 90a 3c
Martins, L., and Silva, W. R. D. (2001).
ToC 90′ - A16 94 92 91 91 90 94 5 3 3 2 3 3 1.8 34.7 92a 3c
Comportamento da dormência em sementes
40 60′ - A17 88 91 95 93 89 90 6 5 5 6 4 5 2.9 14.6 91a 5bc
de braquiária submetidas a tratamentos
30′ - A18 90 88 92 91 89 90 9 9 6 6 6 7 1.8 20.5 90a 7b
térmicos e químicos. Pesquisa Agropecuária
Brasileira, 36 (7), 997-1003.
ToC 90′ - A19 95 90 85 91 89 90 6 8 6 7 5 5 3.6 19.0 90a 6b
Nellist, M. E., and O’Callaghan, J. R. (1971).
30 60′ - A20 86 90 88 88 93 83 9 6 9 6 6 6 3.9 22.1 88b 7b
The measurement of drying rates in thin30′ - A21 86 81 91 87 85 86 10 10 8 8 9 8 3.8 11.1 86b 9a
layers of ryegrass seed. Journal of
Agricultural Engineering Research, 16 (3),
192-212
Peeters, A. (2009). Importance, evolution,
environmental impact and future challenges of grasslands and
grassland‐based systems in Europe. Grassland science, 55 (3),
113-125.
Probert, R. J., Smith, R. D., Birch, P. (1985). Germination
responses to light and alternating temperatures in European
populations of Dactylis glomerata. I. Variability in relation to
origin. New Phytologist; 99: 305-316.
Ruzic-Muslic, D., Petrovic, M., Petrovic, M., Pantelic, V.,
Perisic, P., Bogdanovic, V. (2011). Traditional production and
characteristics of Sjenica cheese and Pirot kachkaval.
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17 (5) 664-672.
Samuil, C., Vintu, V., Sirbu, C., Surmei, G. M. (2012).
Behaviour of fodder mixtures with alfalfa in North-Eastern
Romania. Romanian Agricultural Research 29, 227-235.
Simpson, G. M. (1990). Seed Dormancy in Grasses. Cambridge
Uni-versity Press, New York.
Stanisavljević, R, Đokić, D, Milenković, J, Terzić, D, Stevović,
V. Tomić, D, Dodig, D. (2014) Drying of forage grass seed
harvested at different times and its utility value in sowing
periods. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 101(2), in press
Stanisavljević, R., Milenković, J., Djokić, D., Terzić, D.,
Petrović, M., Đukanović, L., and Dodig, D. (2013). Drying of
meadow fescue seeds of different moisture contents: Changes
in dormancy and germination. Plant Soil and Environment 59
(1), 37–43.
Values followed by different letters within columns are significantly different
(p≤0.05) according Duncan’s multiple range test.
As it has been expected, seed of different moisture content of
other plant species showed different conditions for temperature
and drying effects on germination (Tabaković et al 2013; Koštić
et al 2012). Which indicates that it is necessary to find a
technological development program in order to improve the
quality of seeds of each species.
CONCLUSION
In order to increase germination with 20% moisture content
should be dried at 60 °C in a short time (30 or 60 minutes); or
50 °C in 30 to 90 minutes. Seeds harvested from the 35%
moisture content achieved maximum germination if dried at 40
°C in a time of 30 to 90 minutes; or at 50 °C for 30 or 60
minutes. To treatments which achieved germination <90%
genotype effect showed a low germination variability for seed
with moisture content of 20% (CV = 2.0% and CV = 4.1%); and
with 35% (CV = 1.8% and CV = 3.9%). The air drying
temperature of 90 °C and 80 °C affected the total mortality of
seeds in a high percentage. The air drying temperature of 70 °C,
particular in the seeds with moisture content of 35% is also
affected by the loss of germination in a high percentage.
ACKNOWLWDGEMENT: This study is part of project TR
31057 and 31018, supported by Ministry of education Science
and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
149
Stanisavljević, Rade et al. / Influ. of the Air Dry. Temp. on Germinat. and Dormancy of Cocksfoot Seeds (Dactylis Glomerata L.)
Stanisavljević, R., Đokić, D., Milenković, J., Terzić, D.,
Đukanović, L. (2012). Development, status and possible
improvement of yield and seed quality of forage grasses in
Serbia. Proceedings, International Conference on BioScience:
Biotechnology and Biodiversity – Step in the Future –The
Forth Joint UNS – PSU Conference, 18-20, june, Novi Sad,
Serbia, 134-140.
Stanisavljević, R., Ðjokić, D., Milenković, J., Ðukanović,
L.,Stevović, V., Simić, A., Dodig, D. (2011). Seed germination
and seedling vigo Italian ryegrass cocksfoot and timothy
following harvest and storage. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia, 35,
1141-1148.
Stanisavljević, R., Đokić, D., Milenković, Jasmina, Terzić, D.,
Đukanović, Lana, Stevović, V., Dodig, D. (2010a).
Desiccation, postharvest maturity and seed aging of tall oatgrass. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 45, 1297-1302.
Stanisavljević, R., Dragičević, V., Milenković, J., Đukanović,
Lana, Đokić, D., Terzić, D., Dodig, D. (2010b). Effects of the
150
duration of after-ripening period on seed germinations and
seedling size in three fescue species. Spanish Journal of
Agricultural Research, 8, 454-459.
Stošić, M., and Lazarević, D. (2007). Results of grassland
research in Serbia. Zbornik radova Instituta za ratarstvo i
povrtarstvo, 44 (1), 333-346.
Tabaković, M., Sabovljević, R., Crevar, M., Mišović, M.,
Jovanović, S., Ćurčić, N., & Pavlov, M. (2013). Influence of
grain moisture content during harvest on the maize seed
germination. Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture,
17(2), 73-75.
Vučković, S. (2004). Travnjaci. Poljoprivredni fakultet Beograd,
Srbija
Received: 12.03.2014.
Accepted: 30.05.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 151-153
UDK: 532.135
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
REOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MIXTURE PRODUCT OF
APPLE POMACE AND WHEAT FLOUR
REOLOŠKE OSOBINE MEŠAVINE JABUKOVOG KLJUKA I
PŠENIČNOG BRAŠNA
Gerda DIÓSI, Mariann MÓRÉ, Péter SIPOS
University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and
Environmental Management Institute of Food Science
138 Böszörményi street, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Bread is an important part of our daily diet; one of the most often consumed products of the food industry. It is important that we
eat day by day not just means of subsistence, but it may also have health care functions too. It is essential not just in our energy intake, but in the fibre intake, too.
Apple pomace contains the skin, pulp, seeds and stems of the fruit which is a by-product. The modern juice production technology
made possible to produce pomace with the removal of materials unwanted for consumers.
In our experiment, the dried and milled apple pomace (contains only the fruit flesh) was mixed with BL55 flour and the rheological properties of its dough was investigated. Water absorption increased by higher apple pomace (10%, 15%, 20%) contents, the stability of the control had the highest value and it decreased with the increase of the amount of apple pomace. Significant differences
were disclosed in the cases of the three parameters.
Key words: apple pomace, wheat flour, reologic, quality of baked product.
REZIME
Hleb je važan deo naše svakodnevne ishrane; jedan je od najčešće konzumiranih proizvoda u industriji hrane. Važno je naglasiti
da jedemo hleb dan za danom ne samo kao sredstvo za preživljavanje, nego i zbog funkcije očuvanja zdravlja koju hleb pruža. Hleb
je veoma važan ne samo zbog unosa energije, nego i zbog unosa vlakana, takođe.
Usitnjena jabuka sadrži kožu, pulpu, semenke i stabljike voća što je deo ploda. Moderna proizvodnja soka od jabuke omogućava
proizvodnju soka od jabuke uz uklanjanje svih neželjenih primesa u soku.
U ovom eksperimentu, osušena i samlevena jabuka (samo meso jabuke) je pomešana sa BL55 brašnom i zatim su ispitivane reološke osobine ovog testa. Absorpcija vode se povećava sa povećanjem udela sadržaja jabuke (10%, 15%, 20%), kontrolna stabilnost
je imala najveću vrednost i smanjivala se sa povećanjem jabukove kljuke. Značajne razlike su otkrivene u slučajevima tri parametra.
Ključne reči: jabukoba kljuka, pšenično bračno, reologija, kvalitet pekarskog proizvoda.
The apple fiber has good water binding capacity, which is
INTRODUCTION
based on its sorption nature. The hydration of apple fibers before
mixing with wheat flour partially decrease the damaging effect
Bread is our basic and at the same time the most important
on the loaf volume (Chen, 1988). It assures the soluble and insofood. Nowadays we can make bread from cereal grains and other
luble fibers in due proportion. Furthermore mixing the apple finon-cereal ingredients which may increase its nutritive value.
ber with wheat flour can improve the water absorption capability
The claim against daily consumed products besides subsistence
of the flour slowing the decomposition of the bread (Karimi
is a health care effect.
et.al., 2006).
In nutrition physiology fibres have a significant role in the
During our research, we mixed apple pomace powder with
prevention of colon cancer, obesity and diabetes (Rodler, 2005).
BL55 flour and then we tested the rheological features of the
Fibre helps the reproduction of the bacterial flora, decrease the
dough made from the mixture. These are the characteristics
probability of colon and colorectal cancer (Malkki, 2004).
which are extremely important from the point of view of the
Alongside fruits, crops have high fibre levels. The most
classification and fundamentally determine the baking quality of
widely cultivated fruit is apple in Hungary which has high fibre
the product.
level and versatile uses (Ficzek, 2012). The pomace (apple skin,
apple flesh, seed, steam and apple stalk) is the leftover of the
fruit juice production which contains a significant amount of
valuable substances (for example: dietary fibers) (Kolodziejczyk
et al., 2007). The apple pomace is mostly used for feeding purpose in Hungary but thanks to its diversified consistence it has a
significant nutritional role. The apple pomace powder is used for
the purpose of seasoning (pipe tobacco and tea).
The solid material that remains after squeezing the juice
from the apple is the pomace. About 25 percent of the apple that
has been processed commercially comes out in the form of pomace. There have been experiments about using apple pomace in
some baked food products although the information about using
apple pomace in cakes is limited (Masoodi et al., 2002).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
MATERIAL AND METHOD
During the research we used BL55 flour, which was mixed
with apple pomace powder at the following doses 10%, 15% and
20% (table 1).
Table 1. Mixing rates and amounts of flour and apple pomace in the blends
Blend
BL55 flour
Apple pomace mixed
Control
100% (330g)
0% (0g)
1
90% (270g)
10% (30g)
2
85% (255g)
15% (45g)
3
80% (240g)
20% (60g)
151
Diósi, Gerda / Reological Properties of the Mixture Product of Apple Pomace and Wheat Flour
Further rated parameter is water absorption capacity which
describes the amount of water the given amount of flour can absorb. Dough stability time shows the time during which the
curve is at the maximum consistency level.
Baking value was calculated by MSZ 6383:2012.
We carry out the ratings with one way analysis of variance
performed by Microsoft Excel 2007. We performed the ratings at
p<0.05 significance level.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 1 shows that the baking value proportionally changed
with the increased dose of apple pomace powder in the dough.
The control had the highest baking value (100% BL55 flour). By
the increase of the apple pomace ration of the mixture it has baking increased. In the case of the 20% blending ratio the value
was the lowest, followed by the 15% blending sample. Among
the 10% and 15% blending ratios, there was no significant difference. In the case of baking value the grooving apple pomace
rate it showed statistically proved difference (p<0.05).
80
70
75,05
60
water absorption capacity (cm3)
Table 2. Baking characteristic of different flour groups
(Nádasi, 2005)
Baking
Baking
Characteristic
quality group
value
A1
100-84
outstanding quality, improving
flour
A2
84.9-70
B1
69.9-55
flour of average use, baking
flour
B2
54.9-45
C1
44.9-30
substandard flour, off-grade
flour, improvable with “A”
C2
29.9class flour
ratio water absorbing capability of the samples increased. The
statistical test confirmed the significant difference between the
samples (p<0. 05).
49,35
50
45,5
41,95
40
34,4
30
20
10
0
Control
10% apple
pomace
15% apple
pomace
20% apple
pomace
Fig. 2. Effect of the apple pomace powder addition
on water absorption capacity
(cm3 per 48 g of flour depent from the flour moisture content)
The control flour had outstanding stability time (Figure 3).
The water absorption capability of the blended flour scaled down
with the increasing proportion of apple pomace in the blends.
Minimal difference can be seen among the values obtained for
samples blended with pomace. The stability time value followed
the order: control >10% apple >15% apple >20% apple. The one
way analysis of variance proved the significant difference between the samples (p< 0.05).
3
2,5
2,5
Stability value (minute)
The tests were done at the University of Debrecen, Faculty
of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management Institute of Food Science.
We determined the water absorption capacity and rheological
characteristics of the flour mixtures with Farinograph. (MSZ
ISO 5530-1).
During the Farinograph test we are examining the change of
the dough consistency during mixing. According to the measured data we classify the flour mixtures into quality groups (table 2).
2
1,5
1,125
1
1
0,625
0,5
Baking value
60
57,8
50
59,35
40
0
47,55
30
10% apple
pomace
15% apple
pomace
20% apple
pomace
Fig. 3. Effect of the apple pomace powder addition
on stability values (min)
20
CONCLUSION
10
0
Control
10% apple
pomace
15% apple
pomace
20% apple
pomace
Fig. 1. Effect of the apple pomace powder addition
on baking values
Figure 2 shows the water absorption capacity tested with
farinograph. As a result of the test it can be said that the water
absorbing capability of the flour containing apple pomace powder increased compared to the control. With a higher blending
152
Control
The pomace which is a by-product of the fruit processing industry gives us a chance to increase the amount of fibre in the
bread when blending it with flour. The baking value in the case
of the flour pomace powder blending was worse than in the case
of the control. The magnitudes of baking value between the
10% and 15% blends were nearly the same. Water absorption
capacity of the flour blends changed inversely in contradiction to
the baking value. The higher the blending ratio was, the higher
the water absorption capacity of the blends became. In the case
of the control, the stability time was the highest and then the
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Diósi, Gerda / Reological Properties of the Mixture Product of Apple Pomace and Wheat Flour
values proportionally decreased with the increased proportion of
pomace in the blends with minimal difference within the pomace
containing samples.
Among all of the tested parameters there was significant difference due to apple pomace addition.
REFERENCES
Chen, H., Rubernthaler, G. L., Schanus, E. G. (1988). Effect of
apple fiber and cellulose on the physical properties of wheat
flour. J. Food Sci. 53-304.
Ficzek, G. (2012). Healthcare and usage value of Hungarian
bred apple and sour cherry varieties n the basis on fruit
analysis, Corvinus University of Budapest, 3.
Karimi, M., Azizi, M. H. ( 2006). Effect of the different levels of
sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate on the rheological properties of
dough and quality of Taftoon bread .Thesis Master of Food
Science and Technology Shahid Beheshti University of
Medical Sciences, Faculty of Food Sciences and Nutrition.
Kołodziejczyk, K., Markowski, J., Kosmala, M., Król, B.,
Płocharski, W. (2007). Apple pomace as a potential source of
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
nutraceutical products, Polish journal of food and nutrition
sciences, 57, 291-295.
Malkki, Y. (2004). Trends in dietary fibre research and
development, Acta Alimentaria. 33, 39-62.
Masoodi F. A, Sharma, B, Chauhan, G. S. (2002). Use of apple
pomace as a source of dietary fibre in cakes. Plant Foods for
Human Nutrition, 57, 1211-128.
MSZ 6383:2012 Wheat Hungarian Standard
MSZ ISO 5530-1 Wheat flour. Physical characteristics of
doughs. Part 1: Determination of water absorption and
rheological properties using a farinograph
Nádasi, M. (2005). Búza lisztvizsgálata, Budapesti Műszaki és
Gazdálkodástudományi
Egyetem,
Bioskémiai
és
Élelmsizertechnológiai tanszék, 2-5.
Rodler, I. (2005). Élelmezés- és táplálkozás-egészségtan.
Medicina Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 549.
Received: 01.03.2014.
Accepted: 02.04.2014.
153
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 154-157
UDK: 621.798: 665.5
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
EFFECT OF BLACK CUMIN OIL ON MECHANICAL AND STRUCTURAL
CHARACTERISTICS OF STARCH BASED EDIBLE FILMS
EFEKAR ULJA CRNOG KIMA NA MEHANIČKE I STRUKTURNE OSOBINE
JESTIVIH* FILMOVA
NA BAZI
SKROBA *
*
*
Danijela ŠUPUT , Vera LAZIĆ , Nevena HROMIŠ , Senka POPOVIĆ ,
Lato PEZO**, Biljana LONČAR*, Milica NIĆETIN*
*
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad, Serbia
**
University of Belgrade, Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Studentski Trg 12, Belgrade, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
The main goal in this work was to investigate the structure of starch based edible films with essential oil addition. Films were obtained from water solution containing starch, polyol, guar-xantan gum modified mixture and essential oil by casting it on a Petri
dish. Black cumin essential oil was added in three different concentrations. Starch based edible film without essential oil was used as
a control. Physical, mechanical and structural properties are determined: thickness, tensile strength, elongation at break and film
structure. FTIR results pointed to quantitative law dependency between amount of essential oil and spectra absorption values. Based
on dependency coefficient of correlation was calculated (R2=0.99483).
Key words: packaging, edible films, starch, essential oil.
REZIME
Glavni cilj rada je ispitivanje strukture jestivih filmova na bazi skroba kojima je dodato etarsko ulje. Filmovi su dobijeni iz vodenog rastvora, koji sadrži skrob, poliol, guar-ksantan modifikovanu smešu i etarsko ulje, razlivanjem na Petri ploči. Etarsko ulje
crnog kumina je dodato u tri različite koncentracije. Jestivi skrobni film kojem nije dodato esencijalno ulje je korišćen kao kontrola.
Fizičke, mehaničke i strukturne osobine su određene: debljina, zatezna jačina, izduženje pri kidanju i struktura filma. FTIR rezultati
su dokazali kvantitativnu zavisnost između dodate količine etarskog ulja i vrednosti apsorpcije spektara. Na osnovu ove zavisnosti
izračunat je koeficijent korelacije (R2=0,99483).
Ključne reči: ambalaža, jestivi filmovi, skrob, etarsko ulje.
dures for spectrum deconvolution provide opportunities for the
INTRODUCTION
study of starch structure. ATR-FTIR is a surface analytical
Recently, environmentally friendly materials based on natu- method that can acquire information on the outer region of a
sample.
ral and renewable resources have received much attention (Davis
Modified starches have been approved for food use, in which
and Song, 2006; Marsh and Bugusu, 2007; Ma and Yu, 2004;
Nakamura et al., 2005; Yu et al., 2006) for their eco-friendly they act as thickeners, gelling agents, as sizing agents in textiles
status in opposition to plastics (Lazić et al., 2013). Starch, as an and as adhesives for paper and paper products. The application
abundant raw material with low cost, has been applied in the of starch-based films in food packaging is promising because of
their environmental appeal, low cost, flexibility and transparency
field of degradable plastics, and blend films containing starch are
(Müller et al., 2009; Bilbao-Sáinz et al., 2010). Edible films
potential materials in the agriculture, medicine, and packaging
made from starch are tasteless, odorless and transparent, thus
industries (Lu et al., 2005). Starch is one of the most preferred
prevent a change of taste, flavor and appearance of food prodgreen packaging materials due to its rapid biodegradable nature,
ucts (Chiumareli and Hubinger, 2012). Main advantages of
having renewable source, availability in relatively low cost and
starch films are excellent barrier properties to O2 and CO2, on
production at low cost and on large scale (Parra et al., 2004; Liu
the other hand it has weaker barrier properties to the water due to
et al., 2011; Majdzadeh-Ardakani et al., 2010; Nejad et al.,
high hydrophilicity (Šuput et al., 2013).
2011; Qiao et al., 2010). Starch and modified starches are
Functional foods, enriched in biologically active compounds
widely used as food packaging materials (Avella et al., 2005),
are
becoming increasingly available in many countries and the
coatings (Fringant et al., 1998), and textile sizing agents (Mopotential
markets are enormous. The addition of essential oils
stafa & El-Sanabary, 1997).
In plants, starch is organised into structurally complex gran- and other components with antioxidant activity can improve
functional properties of edible films and increase their potential
ules. Despite variations in composition, size and shape, a general
use in the preservation of foods with a high fat content (Sanchezdescription of the starch granule organisation is commonly acGonzalez et al., 2011). The use of edible coatings to carry essencepted (Donald et al., 1997). Starch granules can be considered
tial oils could minimize the required doses by the encapsulation
as a combination of two components, amylose and amylopectin.
effect in the polymer matrix, which limits their volatilization and
They both consist of a (1–4) linked D-glucose units. Amylose is
controls the compound release.
essentially linear, whereas amylopectin is a highly branched
In this work, we investigated the effect of black cumin essenpolymer due to 5–6% of a(1–6) links (Buleon et al., 1998). The
tial
oil addition on mechanical and structural properties of starch
native structure of starch is made of helices that are more or less
based films.
radially organized forming a granule, which has to be described
at different length scales. The infrared spectroscopy, considering
interactions at a local range order, has already been used to describe the organization and structure of starch. The development
of sampling devices like attenuated total reflectance
(ATR)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) combined with proce-
154
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Reagents
Starch and guar-xantan modified mixture were kindly provided by Palco (Šabac, Serbia). Essential oils were obtained
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Šuput, Danijela et al. / Effect of Black Cumin Oil on Mechanical and Structural Characteristics of Starch Based Edible Films
from Probotanic (Belgrade, Serbia) and glycerol was obtained
from Laboratorija doo (Novi Sad, Serbia).
Film preparation
Starch films were prepared by casting aqueous starch solution. Aqueous solution of 2% (w/w) maize starch was prepared
and heated at 90 0C for 60 minutes in a water bath. A weight of
glycerol equal to 50% of the original starch was added and the
solution was kept hot with mechanical stirring for 10 more minutes. Finally, guar-xantan modified mixture was added in a portion of 0.3% to initial starch weight. Guar-xantan modified mixture had role to enable better film folding and handling. Black
cumin essential oil was added in three different concentrations:
0.5, 1 and 2% counted on mixture volume. Starch based edible
film without essential oil addition was used as a control. The
film-forming solution was homogenized using homogenizer at
10000 rpm for 1 min and then degassed under vacuum to remove
dissolved air and then cast into Petri dishes. Each Petri dish was
coated with film forming solution on a leveled surface and left to
dry at room temperature.
Mechanical properties
Film thickness was measured using a micrometer with sensitivity of 0.001 mm. Ten thickness measurements were carried
out on each film, from which an average was obtained.
Tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EB) of films
were measured on an Instron Universal Testing Instrument
(Model No 4301, Instron Engineering Corp., Canton, MA), according to ASTM standard method D882-01. A rectangular film
strip of 80 mm in length and 15 mm in width was used. The initial grip separation was set at 50 mm, and crosshead speed was
set at 50 mm/min. The TS and EB of the strips were measured in
a static mode. EB was calculated as the percent of change by dividing film elongation at the moment of rupture by initial gage
length of the specimen (50 mm) and multiplying by 100. TS and
EB measurements for each type of film were repeated 10 times,
from which an average was obtained.
Fourier transform spectroscopy
FTIR analysis of the film samples was carried out in the
wave number range 4000 to 400 cm-1, at a resolution of 4 cm-1,
using the IR spectrophotometer, Nicolet IS10, Thermo Scientific
(Massachusetts, USA) and attenuation total reflection (ATR) extension. Each sample was scanned 32 times, while background
shot was taken before the analysis of each sample. IR spectrophotometer is controlled via computer equipped with software
Omnic. Software Omnic 8.1. and TQ Analyst (Thermo Fisher
Scientific, MA, USA) were used to operate the FTIR spectrometer, collect and present all the data.
Statistical analysis
Descriptive statistical analyses for calculating the means and
the standard error were performed using MicroSoft Excel software (MicroSoft Office 2007). All obtained results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
According to visual examination obtained films were transparent, odourless, easy to handle. Films were not greasy or
sticky which means that amount of added plasticizer and guar
xsantan modified mixture was optimal. It was proved that casting was adequate and easy process to produce films on a laboratory scale. Solvent was evaporated from the solution in order to
form the film (Anker et al., 2001; Lazaridou and Biliaderis,
2002; Rindlav-Westling et al., 2002). Film thickness was in the
range 0.161 to 0.166 mm. Appropriate film formation contributed to uniform film thickness no matter the amount of added
essential oil (Table 1). Very small values of standard deviation
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
proved film uniformity, no matter it is biologically active material.
Table 1. Starch based edible films thickness with different
amount of added essential oil (mm) (mean ± SD): 0 – blank shot
film, A – 0.5% oil, B – 1% oil , C – 2% oil
Control
A
B
C
Thickness 0.161±0.004 0.166±0.009 0.165±0.006 0.162±0.005
Results related to mechanical properties are shown in Fig. 1a
and Fig. 1b. Tensile strength values of tested films were in the
range 0.051 to 0.0702 N/15mm, while TS value of blank shot
was 0.1828 N/15mm. Fig 1a. shows that black cumin essential
oil addition increased TS values which is in accordance of Souza
(2013) findings. Elongation at break values of tested films were
in the range 36,996 to 52,308%, while EB value of blank shot
was 7,67%. Fig 1b. shows that black cumin essential oil addition
increased EB values which is in accordance of Ghasemlou
(2014) findings.
Tensile strength (N/15mm)
0,2
0,18
0,16
0,14
0,12
0,1
0,08
0,06
0,04
0,02
0
0
A
B
C
Fig. 1a. Tensile strength of films with different oil
concentration (N/15mm): 0 – blank shot film, A – 0.5% oil,
B – 1% oil , C – 2% oil
Elongation at break (%)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
A
B
C
Fig. 1b. Elongation at break of films with different oil
concentration (%): 0 – blank shot film, A – 0.5% oil,
B – 1% oil, C – 2% oil
FTIR spectra may be used to define molecular interactions
and some chemical components (Ferreira et al., 2009). Figure 2
shows spectra obtained by using FTIR spectroscopy in the spectral range 4000 to 400 cm-1. It could be concluded that starch
structure dominates regarding molecular interaction presented in
Figure 2 since spectra with essential oil addition and blank shot
spectrum (with no added oil) are similar.
155
Šuput, Danijela et al. / Effect of Black Cumin Oil on Mechanical and Structural Characteristics of Starch Based Edible Films
CONCLUSION
Obtained starch based edible films with
essential oil addition films were transparent, odourless, strong and flexible. Film
thickness uniformity (0.161 to 0.166 mm)
proved that casting is adequate and easy
process to produce films. Essential oil addition affected film mechanical characteristics. Tensile strenth and elongation at break
values increased (0.051 N/15 mm to 0.0702
N/15 mm and 36.996% to 52.308%, respectively) as black cumin essential oil was
added. Regarding structural characteristics,
spectra were taken and apsorbance where
starch doesnt absorb was evaluated. Based
on IR spectral interpretation, molecular inFig. 2. FTIR spectra of samples with different oil concentration:
teractions
of aliphatic ester groups and oleA – 0.5% oil, B – 1% oil, C – 2% oil
fin functional groups were detected. FTIR
Since starch doesn’t absorb in spectral region 1800-1540
spectra were useful tool to make quantitative law dependency
cm-1 (Demiate et al., 2000) molecular interactions of added oil
between added amount of essential oils and spectra absorption
could be found in that region and they are aliphatic ester groups:
-1
-1
values. Coefficient of correlation (R2=0.99483) was calculated.
unsaturated groups at 1715 cm and alpha keto at 1745 cm ,
which are shown in Figure 3. Also samples with black cumin
ACKNOWLEDGME: This work is part of project „Osmotic
addition have olefin functional group detected as C-C and C-H
dehydration of food - energy and environmental aspects of susstretching vibrations.
tainable production“, project number TR31055 (2011-2014) financed by Ministry of
Education and Science Republic of Serbia.
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157
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 158-160
UDK: 631.317
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN POWERED ENERGY
UNIT FOR FODDER CUTTING
RAZVOJ LJUDSKI POGONJENIH SITNILICA ZA HRANU
*
Pravin KHOPE*, Jayant MODAK , M. SINGH*
*Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Hingna Road Nagpur- 440019, Maharashtra, INDIA.
e-mail:[email protected]
ABSTRACT
This investigation was mainly carried out to develop an efficient power unit for fodder cutting using human power as a source of
energy. In dairy the major problem is the fodder scarcity in dry season. The cost of fodder decides the economics of dairy business. It
means that available fodder should be used without any wastage. Fodder cutting machines available are electric motor driven and
hand driven. But today there is a huge scarcity of electricity almost everywhere in India. To overcome this, the proposed fodder
cutter driven by human powered flywheel motor unit can replace the electric power driven cutting units. This fodder cutter can be
operated without fatigue and smoothly for a longer period if hand operated fodder cutter replaced by pedal operated. Also it is true
that hand muscles are weaker than the leg muscle. This human powered flywheel motor unit was tested under three studied variables
namely gear ratio (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4), flywheel speed (300,400, 500 and 600 RPM) and number of blades (2 and 3).
Key words: Fodder cutting, human powered flywheel motor unit (HPFM), Process unit.
REZIME
Ova studija se bavi razvojem efikasnosti pogonske jedinice sitnilice za hranu koja koristi ljudsku snagu kao pogonsu snagu.
om sušne sezone. Troškovi hrane odlučuju ekonomiju mlečnih poslovanja. To
znači da se stočna hrana koja je na raspolaganju treba koristi bez gubitka. Dostupni uređaji za sitnjenje stočne hrane su pogonjeni
električnim motorima i ljudskom snagom. Ali danas postoji velika oskudica električne energije, skoro u celoj Indiji. Da bi se
prevazišao ovaj problem, predložen je uređaj za sitnjenje stočne hrane vođen ljudski pogonjenim zamajcem motorne jedinice, koji
može da zameni pogonske jedinice vođene električnom energijom. Ovom sitnilicom stočne hrane može da se upravlja bez umora i
glatko na duži period, ako se ručni pogon zameni pedalom. Isto tako poznato je da su mišići ruku slabiji od nožnih mišića. Ovaj
ljudski pogonjen motorni zamajac je testiran sa tri promenljive varijable, odnosno prenosnim odnosom (1:2, 1:3 i 1:4), brzinom
zamajca (300,400, 500 i 600 o/min) i brojem sečiva (2 i 3).
Ključne reči: Sitnilica stočne hrane, ljudski pogonjen zamajac motorne jedinice (HPFM), prerađivačka jedinica.
INTRODUCTION
In livestock production, proper feedstuff is a very important
aspect as it is a limiting factor in rearing of animals to meet the
increasing demand for milk and other dairy products. It is a
common practice, in India and other countries to allow the cattle
to graze freely in the pasture or fields, in most of the cases after
harvest. In some cases farmers collect the crop residues to home
and feed the cattle directly or after chopping it into 2-3 pieces
using axes or sharp knives. But this traditional method of
chopping is tedious, time consuming and quite dangerous to the
operator. In addition it has low output and lack of uniformity. If
the fodder and other grasses are properly collected and chopped
into fine and uniform pieces of 25- 35 mm long, it is easy for
consumption by the animals and will ensure optimum utilization.
Thus there will no wastage of fodder.
The fodder choppers available are electric powered and hand
operated. But due to scarcity of availability of electricity
particularly in rural and tribal area, it is necessary to adopt
sustainable alternative energy source for low cost mechanization
of chopper. It is well known that hand muscles are weaker than
leg muscles. The person may generate four times more power as
compared to hand cranking. Since the thigh or quadriceps is the
largest and powerful muscles of the human body. It makes sense
to make use of thigh or leg muscles for generating as much as
energy from human body.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
A person can generate four times more power (0,184 kW) by
pedaling than by hand-cranking. At the rate of 0,184 kW,
continuous pedaling can be done for only short periods, about 10
158
minutes. However, pedaling at half this power (0,092 kW) can
be sustained for around 60 minutes (Willson, 1986). Pedal
power enables a person to drive devices at the same rate as that
achieved by hand-cranking, but with far less effort and fatigue.
Over the centuries, the treadle has been the most common
method of using the legs to produce power. Treadles are still
common in the low-power range, especially for sewing
machines. Ordinarily, pedaling a stationary bicycle is a form of
exercise performed for pleasure or to keep fit. It is gratifying if
during such exercise the much needed power is also being
supplied for cutting.
Human Powered Flywheel Motor
The concept is whenever the horse power requirement of
processing is far in excess of the continuous capacity of a human
being; a flywheel can be used to store human energy (analogous
to a capacitor in an electric circuit). After enough energy is
stored in the flywheel, then it can be made available to the
process unit through an appropriate clutch and torque
amplification gears. Through this concept higher demand of
power for some processes can meet. It has one drawback; the
process unit shaft is always in transient state of operation (initial
sudden speed increase followed by a continuous decline in speed
until it becomes zero). It is obvious that the processes which are
intensive to machine speed variation as far as product quality is
concerned can adopt this concept e.g. fodder cutting, oil
expelling etc. The Human powered Flywheel motor comprises of
three sub systems namely (i) Energy supply unit (peddling
mechanism to supply power or to store energy in flywheel) (ii)
Appropriate clutch and transmission and (iii) a process unit.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Khope, Pravin et al. / Development of Human Powered Energy Unit For Fodder Cutting
The complete unit consists of a bicycle mechanism,
appropriate clutch and transmission system and a process unit
which could be any process device needing power up to 0,7363,68 kW. Referring Figure 1, the rider sits on the seat and
paddles the bicycle mechanism when the clutch is in disengaged
position. Thus the load on the legs of the rider is only the inertia
load of the flywheel. The Flywheel is accelerated to the speed of
800 rpm in minutes time by a young rider of the age group of 20
to 25 physically fit of height about 165 cm. The Flywheel size is
95 cm rim diameter, 10 cm rim width and 2 cm rim thickness.
Such a Flywheel when energized to the speed of 600 rpm, it
stores energy to the extent of 3200 kgf-m. After attaining desired
speed by flywheel, the peddling is stopped and clutch is
engaged. The stored energy in the flywheel is communicated to
the process unit through the clutch. Obviously the clutch is
subjected to sever shock on account of instantaneous momentum
transfer. This is so because as the clutches engaged, the
Flywheel is subjected to the process load and the process unit
consumes energy of the Flywheel. After the clutch engagement,
the energy stored in a Flywheel gets exhausted in 15 to 20
seconds for application tried so far (Khope and Modak, 2003).
The capacity of such a system is in the range of 0,736-3,68 kW.
The functional feasibility and economic viability of this system
has also been confirmed (Deshpande et al., 2009). Schematic
arrangement of the complete unit:
Fig. 1. Schematic of Human Powered Flywheel Motor
1-Chain Sprocket; 2-Pedal; 3-Chain; 4-Freewheel; 5, 6Bearings for bicycle side; 7-Gear-I; 8-Bearing; 9- Speed sensor
for flywheel shaft; 10-Pinion-I; 11-Bearing for flywheel shaft,
12-Flywheel; 13-Bearing for flywheel; 14-Double jaw spiral
clutch; 15 and 16-Bearing of intermediate shaft; 17-Pinion II;
18-Gear II; 19 and 20-Bearing for process unit shaft; 21Coupling; 22-Chaff Cutter blade; 23-Speed sensor for chaff
Cutter shaft
Experimental Design
The aim of this investigation is to design safe and easy to
operate human powered energy unit for fodder cutting. The
power unit and its operating parts, chopping unit and its parts
were fabricated and constructed at Priyadarshini College of
Engineering, Nagpur. The photograph is shown in figure 2.
Fig. 2. The photograph human powered fodder cutter
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
The fodder cutting operation energized by human powered
flywheel motor is complex phenomena. In this system, after the
clutch engagement there is an instantaneous momentum transfer
through clutch to the process unit, thereby suddenly imparting
severe acceleration to the process unit. Input shaft and process
unit is subjected to deceleration depending on process resistance.
A process resistance as regards the application type is some
exponential function of speed thereby subjecting flywheel,
clutch and process unit to severe condition of transient phases of
dynamics of the operation of this novel machine system.
Hence, it is highly improbable to formulate logic based
models simulating various phases of energy transfer such as: (i)
energy transfer phenomenon i.e. energy release from human
body to flywheel (needs 60 seconds) however energy releases
phenomena from the human body being highly nonlinear
(Willson, 1986). (ii) Upon clutch engagement instantaneous (010 ms) heavy momentum exchange through double jaw spiral
clutch to process unit operating on load, inducing severe random
vibrations in the clutch and (iii) energy transfer from flywheel
through clutch, torque amplification gear pair and process unit.
The gear ratio is maintained between flywheel shaft and process
unit shaft. The gear ratio tried in this experimentation was 1:2,
1:3 and 1:4. Each gear ratio would be considered as test point.
The number of blades varied was 2 and 3, the terminal speed of
flywheel is also varied from 300 rpm to 600 rpm with the step of
100 rpm. At gear ratio 1:2 the speed of the process unit is higher
as compared to 1:4 but the torque increases as the gear ratio
increases. It means that at 1:2 gear ratio torque is minimum
whereas at 1:4 gear ratio torque is maximum but the speed is
comparatively lower. The cutting blades are mounted cutter head
wheel and it is mounted on process unit shaft. Cutter head is
used for mounting two and three cutting blades respectively, for
each gear ratio two and three blades tried with varying the speed
of flywheel.
The flywheel is speeded by the bicycle mechanism. Then
the energy stored in the flywheel is used for fodder cutting. The
flywheel speed increases, there is increase in the energy store in
the flywheel. It is decided to vary the flywheel speed from 300
to 600 rpm.
The speed may be increased up to 700-800 rpm but there
would be excessive vibrations that may affect the sensors used
for measuring various parameters. The test sequence is from
minimum to maximum speed i.e. 300 to 600 rpm and gear ratio
2:1 to 4:1 whereas the number of blades 2 and 3.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of human powered cutter shows that dry sorghum
is chopped at the rate of 0.017 kg/s at 300 rpm of flywheel when
gear ratio is 1:2. The average length of chopped material was
found to be 20-25 mm. The cutting efficiency was worked out to
be 81%.The chopping rate is gradually increased with the
increase in flywheel speed. At 600 rpm of flywheel and gear
ratio of 1:2, the chopping rate was 0.032 kg/s.
The chopping rate at gear ratio 1:4 and flywheel speed 300
rpm was found to be 0.25 kg/s. At 600 rpm with the same gear
ratio the chopping rate was 0.045 kg/s. The constructed cutter
energized by human powered flywheel motor is found to be less
tedious, faster and safer as compared to the hand operated cutter.
The length of chops can be varied by varying the clearance
between blade and shear plate and by number of blade or speed
of flywheel.
After a one minute paddling, flywheel shaft is connected to
cutter shaft, the cutter speed drastically decline due to the
resistance offered by the material to be chopped and finally
cutter stops. For this reason it is necessary to develop
159
Khope, Pravin et al. / Development of Human Powered Energy Unit For Fodder Cutting
appropriate mechanical transmission system which can smooth
out the continuously varying speed of flywheel and will maintain
approximately constant cutter speed over an estimated range of
variation in flywheel shaft speed. Also the cutting rate (Cr) of
cutter can be increased if the constant speed of cutter shaft
would be maintained.
The three gear ratio i.e.1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 tried. The flywheel
shaft Pinion has 20 teeth and cutter shaft gear is varied 40, 60 80
teeth. Figure 3 shows Effect of gear ratio on developed torque.
i.e. at 400 rpm of flywheel when connected to cutter shaft
through torque amplification gear pair 1:2 the torque developed
is 13.44 Nm. As the gear ratio increased the torque increases, at
1:4 gear ratio the torque developed is 24.29 Nm.
Torque (Nm)
25
20
15
10
5
0
2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4
Gear Ratio
Fig. 3. Effect of gear ratio on developed torque
The flywheel is accelerated to 400 rpm then paddling is
stopped and cutter shaft connected to flywheel shaft at a gear
ratio 1:3 where as number of blades are two, the angular velocity
of cutter is gradually decreases as energy stored in flywheel
consumed for cutting fodder material thereby decreasing the
number of cuts. Figure 4 gives the effect of angular velocity on
number of cuts.
8
7
6
5
No.of cuts
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The full financial support of Rajiv
Gandhi Science and Technology Commission, Government of
Maharashtra (India) to the successful completion of this
research is hereby greatly acknowledged.
REFERENCES
30
4
3
2
1
3,93
3,81
3,65
3,43
3,29
2,81
2,71
2,51
2,41
2,21
2,11
2,02
1,73
1,42
1,04
0,64
0
Angular valocity of Cutter ω
Fig. 4. Effect of angular velocity on number of cuts
CONCLUSION
The lack of available electrical power is a significant issue
and it affects daily life of those people lives in remote parts of
India. The human powered energy unit is a reliable source of
energy could provide solutions to critical problems. The human
160
powered energy unit for fodder cutter is the most suitable for
marginal farmer. The performance is a remarkable improvement
over hand operated chopping since chopped size was more
uniform. Therefore human powered fodder cutter will find its
place of importance for dairy farmers particularly in remote rural
and tribal area where reliability of electric power is much low.
The parameters studied are gear ratio, number of cuts and
flywheel speed.
Wilson, D. G., 1986. VITA volunteer: Understanding the pedal
power. ISBN: 0-86619-268-9. 01-25
Dhale A. and Modak, J. P. 2010. Formulation of the approximate
generalized data based model for oilseed presser using human
powered flywheel motor as an energy source. International
Journal of Agricultural Engineering, International Journal of
Agricultural Engineering, 13, 2, 384-354
Deshpande, S. B., Modak, J. P., Tarnekar, S. B., 2009.
Confirming Application of human powered flywheel motor as
an energy source for rural generation of electrical energy for
rural applications, and computer aided analysis of battery
charging process. Human Power, USA International Human
Power Vehicle Association, 58, 10-16.
Schenk Jr. H., 1961. Test Sequence and Experimental Plans,
Theories of Engineering Experimentation, McGraw Hill Book
Co., New York.
Khope P. B and Modak, J. P., 2013. Establishing empirical
relationship to predict the chaff cutting phenomenon energized
by human powered flywheel motor. IOSR Journal of
Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS). 3, Issue 2
(May. - Jun. 2013), 35-39.
Khope, P. B and Modak, J. P, 2013. Development And
Performance Evaluation Of A Human Powered Flywheel
Motor Operated Forge Cutter. International Journal Of
Scientific and Technology Research, 2, 3, March 2013,
Modak J. P., 1985. Manufacturing of Lime- fly ash-sand bricks
Using Manually Driven Bricks Making Machine a project
sponsored by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development
Authority, (MAHDA), Mumbai, India.
Modak, J. P., Bapat, A. R. 1994. Formulation of Generalized
Experimental Model for a Manually Driven Flywheel Motor
and its Optimization, Applied Ergonomics, U.K., 25, 2, 119122.
Modak J. P. and Bapat A. R. 2003. Various efficiency of a
Human Power Flywheel motor Human Power, USA
International Human Power Vehicle Association 54, 21-23.
Modak, J. P. 2004. Design and development of manually
energized process machines having relevance to village /
agriculture and other productive operations Human Power,
USA International Human Power Vehicle Association, 58, 1622.
Modak, J. P., Katpatal A. A. 1994. Design of Manually
Energized Centrifugal Drum Type Algae Formation Unit
Proceedings International AMSE Conference on System,
Analysis, Control and Design, Layon (France), 3, 4-6 July
2004, 227-232.
Received: 25.12.2013.
Accepted: 28.04.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 161-167
UDK: 66.047.5/6
Preliminary report
Prethodno saopštenje
REVIEW OF JOURNALS WITH A PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON PAPERS ON
APPLICATION OF INVERSE APPROACH IN DRYING PROCESSES
PREGLED ČASOPISA SA POSEBNIM NAGLASKOM NA RADOVE
O PRIMENI INVERZNOG PRISTUPA U PROCESIMA SUŠENJA
Slobodan BUNDALEVSKI, Vangelce MITREVSKI, Tale GERAMITCIOSKI, Vladimir MIJAKOVSKI
Faculty of Technical Sciences, 7000 Bitola, Ivo Lolar Ribar, Macedonia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
The main idea of this paper is to review and present the scientific papers in which inverse approach was used. For this purpose,
the number of publications, references, etc., in ten relevant journals (Journal of Food Engineering, International Journal of Heat and
Mass Transfer, Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering, International Journal of Food Properties, Computers & Mathematics
with Applications, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Drying Technology:An International Journal, International Journal of
Food Science & Technology, Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, LWT - Food Science and Technology) were
studied. In order to obtain clear picture of what is realistic to expect from the scientific investigation in this field in the near future
and where future research should be focused, some statistical analysis were made. From the performed statistical analysis it was
concluded that more investigations are needed for determination of the thermopysical and engineering characteristics of food
materials.
Key words: review, survey, journals, inverse approach.
REZIME
Glavna ideja ovog rada je pregled i prikazivanje naučnih radova u kojima je primenjen inverzni pistup. U tu svrhu, istraživane su
brojne publikacije i reference u deset relevantnih žurnala (Journal of Food Engineering, International Journal of Heat and Mass
Transfer, Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering, International Journal of Food Properties, Computers & Mathematics with
Applications, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Drying Technology-An International Journal, International Journal of Food
Science & Technology, Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, LWT – Food Science and Technology). Da bi se dobila
jasna slika o tome šta se može realno očekivati iz naučnih istraživanja u ovom području u skoroj budućnosti i gde bi se buduća
istraživanja trebala fokusirati, urađene su statističkiče analize. Iz izvršenih statističkih analiza može se zaključiti da su potrebna veča
i sveobuhvatna istraživanja za određivanje termofizičkih i inženjerskih karakteristika prehrambenih materijala.
Ključne reči: pregled, žurnali, inverzni pristup.
INTRODUCTION
Inverse approach to parameter estimation in last few decades
has become widely used in various scientific disciplines.
Application of inverse approaches to estimation of
thermophysical properies of food materials and heat and mass
coefficients is very popular in last years (Kanevce et al., 2002;
2006; 2006a; 2007; 2007a; 2008; Mitrevski et al., 2006; 2009).
In order to find out papers (i.e. so-called reference papers) in
which inverse approach for determination of unknown parmeters
were applied, surveys in ten relevant journals were made:










Journal of Food Engineering-JFE
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer-IJHMT
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering-IPSE
International Journal of Food Properties-IJFP
Computers & Mathematics with Applications-CMA
International Journal of Thermal Sciences-IJTS
Drying Technology: An International Journal-DTIJ
International Journal of Food Science&TechnologyIJFST
Journal of Engineering Physics and ThermophysicsJEPT
LWT-Food Science and Technology-LWT FST.
The research conducted within the papers published in these
journals should give an answer to the following questions:

What is realistic to expect from the scientific
investigation in this fields in the near future and where
future research in this field should be focused?
What kind of inverse problems have been used in
reference papers?

Some historical data
Easy access to electronic database on editions of each journal
makes it possible nowadays to find data on history of papers in
which inverse approach was applied. Each journal has begun
with electronic issue from a different year. The electronic issue
from 1966 in the International Journal of Food Science and
Technology is the oldest, while the issue from 1998 for the
International Journal of Food Properties is with the latest date.
The surveys in each journal were made for period when journal
started with own edition, until the first half of 2013. On Figure 1,
the results of the surveys in ten relevant journals are shown.
20000
17204
15000
10000
10917
6567
13
5000
187
0
JFE
IJHMT
11994
133
3
740
1030
IPSE
Total number of papers

Which trends can be deduced from the advances in
published papers and references publications in recent
years?
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
References papers
IJFP
43
46 401310 5357
2729
5
CMA
IJTS
DTIJ
IJFST
166 3821
1
JEPT
LWT FST
Fig. 1. Publications in ten relevant journals
161
Bundalevski, Slobodan et al. / Rev. of Jour.With a Particular Emphasis on Papers on Applica. of Inverse Appro. in Drying Proc.
In the International Journal of Food Properties from 1998 to
2013, total of 1030 papers were published but only 3 of them i.e.
0.29% refer to applied inverse approach (Figure 5).
15
10
5
20
300
200
10
100
0
1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
0
Year
Fig. 3. Evolution of papers and reference papers published
in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
Out of the total number of published papers (10917) in
journal Computers&Mathematics with Applications, 43 papers
i.e. 0.39% are referent. From Figure 6 it can be noticed that from
1975 to 1987 there is no any reference paper. First reference
paper was published in 1988 and in onwards editions,
insignificant number of papers were published (maximum of 4
papers were published in years 1996 and 2010).
Total number of papers
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Reference papers
30
20
15
10
Reference papers
25
5
2013
2011
2009
2007
2005
2003
2001
1999
1997
1995
1993
1991
1989
1987
1985
1983
0
1981
30
400
2005
2004
1998
0
1979
600
500
Reference papaers
20
1977
40
Reference papers
Total number of papers
25
1975
50
800
700
30
Year
Total number of papers
Reference papers
Reference papers
Fig. 5. Evolution of papers and reference papers published
in International Journal of Food Properties
Year
162
Total number of papers
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
Total number of papers
Reference papers
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Total number of papers
Year
Fig. 4. Evolution of papers and reference papers published
in Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering
10
Fig. 2. Evolution of papers and reference papers
published in the Journal of Food Engineering
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer is focused on analytical
and experimental research, with an emphasis on contributions
which increase the basic understanding of transfer processes and
their application to engineering problems. From 1960 up to
2013, 17204 papers were published in this journal, out of which
187 papers, i.e. 1.09% are reference papers. From Figure 3 it is
obvious that insignificant number of reference papers were
published from 1960 to 1994.
Then, from 1995 to 2013 there is an increase in number of
publications, excluding 2005 when only 2 papers were
published.
900
0
2003
20
10
2002
30
20
2001
40
30
2000
50
50
40
1999
Reference papers
Reference papers
Total number of papers
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Total number of papers
Total number of papers
Reference papers
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Journal Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering hosts
the highest number of reference papers, 133, while the total
number of published papers is 740. From 1995 until 2013 there
is a stable trend with picks in years 2004 and 2008 (Figure 4).
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Total number of papers
It may be noted that the number of papers in which inverse
method was applied is quite different and low in comparison
with the total number of published papers. Exception is the
journal Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering which
hosts 133 references papers i.e. 17.97% out of total number of
published papers - 740. Otherss journal host from 1.69% of
reference papers (International Journal of Thermal Sciences),
while the least part - 0.03% reference papers in the journal
LWT-Food Science and Technology. The reasons are probably
of different nature. It depends on the character of the journals,
topics, aim, scope, year when edition started, etc. Besides the
application of inverse problems, papers published in these
journals deal with others topics like introduction of new
technologies, examinations, new methods of measuring,
comparison to others technologies, etc.
From Figure 2 to Figure 12 chronologically are shown the
total numbers of published papers and reference papers for each
journal separately. Out of the total number of published papers
(6567) in Journal of Food Engineering, only 13 papers i.e. 0.2%
refer to application of the inverse approach. From Figure 2, it
can be noticed that from 1982 to 2003 there is no any reference
paper. First reference paper was published in 2004, but from
2005 to 2013 the number of reference papers is also
insignificant.
Year
Fig. 6. Evolution of papers and refrerence papers published
in Computers & Mathematics with Applications
International Journal of Thermal Science has electronic
edition from 1996 and since then the total number of published
papers is 2729, out of which 46 papers, i.e. 1.69% are reference
papers. From Figure 7 it can be observed that small number of
reference papers were published during entire edited period
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Bundalevski, Slobodan et al. / Rev. of Jour.With a Particular Emphasis on Papers on Applica. of Inverse Appro. in Drying Proc.
30
20
10
150
20
100
10
0
0
2013
20
15
10
5
20
200
15
10
100
5
2013
2011
2009
2007
2005
2003
2001
1999
1997
1995
1993
1991
1989
1987
1985
1983
30
25
0
0
Year
Fig. 11. Evolution of papers and reference papers published
in LW -Food Science and Technology
Year
25
20
15
10
Reference papers
30
5
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
0
Year
Fig. 9. Evolution of papers and inverse method papers in
International Journal of Food Science & Technology
The Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics is a
translation
of the
peer-reviewed Russian
language
journal Inzhenerno-fizicheskii Zhurnal, a publication of the
Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Out of the total number of
published papers (11994), only 166 papers, i.e. 1.38%, are
referent. From Figure 10, small number of references papers
published during the edited period can be noticed. Sporadic
increase can be noticed in years 1975, 1977, 1983, 1985, 1987
and 1989 when 12, 11, 20, 16, 14 and 18 papers were published,
respectively.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
It can be said that from 1960 to 1973 the number of reference
papers is very small and till 1983 reaches insignificant number
with only three peaks in years 1975, 1977 and 1983 when 12, 11
and 22 papers were published. From 1984 until now, constant
increase with sporadic peaks in 1985, 1987, 1989 2001, 2004,
2008 and 2010 is obvious, when 17, 16, 22, 24, 31, 36 and 40
papers were published, (Figure 12). Researches were undertaken
until the first half of 2013, so year 2013 is pending.
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
From 1966 until 2013 only 5 reference papers i.e. 0.09%
were published in International Journal of Food
Science&Technology, while the total number of published
papers is 5357. Figure 9 presents the weak trend of reference
papers over years.
Number of papers
Fig. 8. Evolution of papers and reference papers published
in Drying Technology: An International Journal
Reference papers
Reference papers
300
0
Total number of papers
Total number of papers
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
25
Reference papers
30
400
Total number of papers
Reference papers
Total number of papers
There is only one referent paper i.e. 0.03% among all
published papers (3821) in LWT-Food Science and Technology
(Figure 11).
Reference papers
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
Year
In Drying Technology: An International Journal, from 1983
to 2013 only 10 papers i.e. 0.25% are reference, while the total
number of published papers is 4013 (Figure 8).
Total number of papers
30
200
50
Year
Total number of papers
40
250
Fig. 10. Evolution of papers and reference papers published
in Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics
Fig. 7. Evolution of papers and reference papers published
in International Journal of Thermal Science
390
360
330
300
270
240
210
180
150
120
90
60
30
0
50
300
0
300
270
240
210
180
150
120
90
60
30
0
60
1965
1967
1969
1971
1973
1975
1977
1979
1981
1983
1985
1987
1989
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
40
350
Reference papers
50
Reference papers
Total number of papers
400
Total number of papers
Reference papers
Reference papers
Total number of papers
300
270
240
210
180
150
120
90
60
30
0
1996
Total number of papers
(maximum of 7 papers were published in years 2010 and 2012
respectively).
Year
Fig.12. Evolution of total number of reference papers
It should be concluded that three journals host over 80% of
all references papers, (Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering and Journal of
Engineering Physics). Others journals are less ‘friendly’ to
accept the papers in which inverse approach was used.
Some statistical information
In order to obtain clear picture what is realistic to expect
from the scientific investigation in the field of application of
inverse problems in the near future and where future research in
this field should be focused, some statistical information is
163
Bundalevski, Slobodan et al. / Rev. of Jour.With a Particular Emphasis on Papers on Applica. of Inverse Appro. in Drying Proc.
required. For this reason, the papers were divided in two main
groups. In the first group are papers in which were applied
inverse methods in drying processes of food materials, while in
the second group are papers concerning non-food materials. The
papers of first group have been classified into eight categories:
I. Papers in which inverse approach was applied for
determination of Diffusivity; II. Thermal conductivity, III.
Thermodiffusion, IV. Specific heat, V. Density, VI. Equilibrium
moisture content, VII. Drying constant, VIII. Coefficients of heat
and mass transfer. The papers of the second group have been
classified also into eight categories: I. Papers in which inverse
approach was applied for determination of Diffusivity, II.
Thermal conductivity, III. Thermodiffusion, IV. Specific heat,
V. Temperature, VI. Heat flux, VII. Parameters, VIII. Others.
For statistical analysis it is also interesting what kind of
inverse problem is studied. For this purpose, the papers were
clasiffield in third group. The papers of this group have been
classified into seven categories: I. Papers in which Inverse Heat
Conduction Problem (IHCP) is applied, II. Inverse Radiation
Problem (IRP), III. Inverse Convective Problem (ICP), IV.
Inverse Geometry Problem (IGP), V. Inverse Diffusion Problem
(IDP),
VI. Inverse Heat Transfer Problem (IHTP), VII.
Otherss.
It must be pointed out that some papers are simultaneously
classified in more than one group because cover two categories.
The results of papers classification published in Journal of
Food Engineering are shown on Figure 13. All 13 papers are
classified in the first group and cover four categories. It is
obvious that the category of papers ‘Thermal conductivity’ is the
most frequent, 29%, while the categories ‘Diffusivity’,
‘Thermodiffusion’ and ‘Specific heat’contain, 24%, 24% and
23% of papers. In this journal there are no papers from the
second group, while there is not enough data to classify the
papers in the third group.
Diffusivity
24%
Thermodiffusion
24 %
IGP 7%
IHCP 58%
ICP 8%
IRP 9%
Fig. 15. Categories of the papers in third groupJournal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Reference papers published in Journal of Inverse Problems in
Science and Engineering are classified in all three groups. The
three papers cover three categories in the first group such as
‘Thermal conductivity’, ‘Thermodiffusion’ and ‘Coefficients of
heat and mass transfer’. From Figure 16 it can be seen that
papers of the second group cover all eight categories. The
category ‘Heat flux’ is the most frequent with 26% and the
category ‘Parameters’ is the least frequent with 5%.
Thermal conductivity11%
Parameters 5%
Others
11%
Heat flux
26%
Specific
heat 6%
Thermodiffusion
13%
Temperature
18%
Diffusivity
10%
Fig. 16. Categories of the papers of second groupInverse Problems in Science and Engineering
Specific heat
23 %
In the Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, published
reference papers are classified in second group and the results
are shown on Figure 14.
Others 7%
Others
18%
Thermamal conductivity
29 %
Fig. 13. Categories of the papers of first group
- Journal of Food Engineering
Parametrs
10%
The most frequent category, 34%, is ‘Heat flux’ while
‘Diffusivity’ is the least frequent with 2%. In the third group,
papers cover five categories and the most frequent category,
58%, is ‘Inverse Heat Conduction Problem’ while the otherss are
a lot less frequent, (Figure 15).
Thermal conductivity
14%
Specific heat
6%
The papers of the third group cover five categories, where
category ‘Inverse Heat Conduction Problem’ is the most
frequent with 61% and the category ‘Inverse Geometry Problem’
is the least frequent with 2% (Figure 17).
Others 26%
IGP 2%
IHCP 61%
IRP 7%
ICP 4%
Thermodiffusion 8%
Heat flux
34%
Temperature
19%
Fig. 17. Categories of the papers of third groupInverse Problems in Science and Engineering
Diffusivity
(2%)
Fig. 14. Categories of the papers of second groupJournal of Heat and Mass Transfer
164
In International Journal of Food Properties, reference papers
are classified into first and third group. Three papers of the first
group
covers
categories:
‘Thermal
conductivity’,
‘Thermodiffusion’ and ‘Coefficients of heat and mass transfer’.
While in the third group two papers cover category ‘Inverse Heat
Conduction Problem’ and one paper covers category ‘Otherss’
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Bundalevski, Slobodan et al. / Rev. of Jour.With a Particular Emphasis on Papers on Applica. of Inverse Appro. in Drying Proc.
In the journal Computers&Mathematics with Applications
papers covers second and third group. Figure 18 provides some
statistical information for the categories of papers of second
group. The most frequent, 29% is category ‘Diffusivity’, while
the categorie ‘Parameters’ is the least frequent with 9% of the
total.
Parameters 9%
Thermodiffusion 12%
Heat flux
24%
Diffusivity
29%
Temperature 26%
Fig. 18. Categories of the papers of second groupComputers&Mathematics with Applications
From Figure 19 it is obvious that the category ‘Inverse Heat
Conduction Problem’ is the most frequent with 65% and
category ‘Inverse Diffusion Problem’ is the least frequent with
8%.
IHCP 41%
IGP 7%
IDP 6%
IRP 9%
IHTP 15%
Fig. 21. Categories of the papers of third groupJournal of Thermal Sciences
Reference papers in Drying Technology: An International
Journal are classified in all three groups. On Figure 22 it is
obvious that papers cover three categories in first group, where
the most frequent categorie is ‘Diffusivity’ with 67% and the
remaining papers are less frequent. In the second group, the most
frequent category is ‘Diffusivity’ with 67% followed by
‘Coefficients’ and ‘Thermal conductivity’ with 17% and 16%.
While the category ‘Inverse Diffusion Problem’ is the most
frequent in third group with 70%, and the category ‘Inverse Heat
Transfer Problem’ is the least frequent with 30%.
Coeffiicients
17%
Others
27%
IDP 8%
Others 22%
Thermal conductivity
16%
IHCP 65%
Diffusivity 67%
Fig. 19. Categories of the papers of third groupComputers & Mathematics with Applications
Fig. 22. Categories of the papers of first groupDrying Technology: An International Journal
In Journal of Thermal Sciences, reference papers are
classified in second and third group. From Figure 20 can be seen
that all eight categories of second group are covered. The most
frequent category, 28%, is ‘Heat flux’, while category
‘Diffusivity’ is the least frequent, with 4%.
On Figure 23, the categories of papers in first group
published in International Journal of Food Science&Technology
are shown. Two papers cover each of categories ‘Diffusivity’
and ‘Thermodiffusion’ while one paper covers category
‘Thermal conductivity’.
Thermal conductivity 8% Specific heat
Others
6%
12%
Thermodiffusion
Parameters
6%
18%
Temperature Diffusivity
4%
Heat flux
18%
28%
Fig. 20. Categories of the papers of second groupJournal of Thermal Sciences
In the third group, papers cover six categories and the most
frequent category is ‘Inverse Heat Conduction Problem’ with
41%, while the least frequent is ‘Inverse Diffusion Problem’,
with 6% of the total (Figure 21).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Thermodiffusion 40%
Thermal conduvtivity 20%
Diffusivity 20%
Fig. 23. Categories of the papers of first groupInternational Journal of Food Science & Technology
In the third group, three papers cover category ‘Inverse Heat
Transfer Problem’ and two papers cover category ‘Inverse
Diffusion Problem’ (Figure 24).
165
Bundalevski, Slobodan et al. / Rev. of Jour.With a Particular Emphasis on Papers on Applica. of Inverse Appro. in Drying Proc.
LWT - Food Science and Technology
IDP 40%
IHTP
60%
Fig. 24. Categories of the papers of third groupInternational Journal of Food Science & Technology
In the Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics,
reference papers are classified mostly in the second, non-food
materials group, and in the third group.
Others
13%
Thermal conductivity 21%
Parameters 22%
Thermodiffusion 21%
Heat flux
13%
Temperature
Diffusivity 3%
Fig. 25.%Categories of the papers of second groupJournal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics
Only one paper deals with food materials and can be
classified in first group, but due to insufficient information it can
not host any category. From Figure 25 it can be seen that seven
categories of second group are covered. The most frequent
category with 22%, is ‘Parameters’ while the category
‘Diffusivity’ is the least frequent with 3%.
In the third group, papers cover five categories and the most
frequent category (70%) is ‘Inverse Heat Conduction Problem’
and the least frequent is ‘Inverse Radiation Problem’, with 2%,
(Figure 26).
IHCP 70%
IRP 2%
Fig. 26. Categories of the papers of third groupJournal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics
In LWT-Food Science and Technology only one paper was
published and it is classified in the first and third group. This
paper covers category ‘Thermodiffusion’ and category ‘Inverse
Heat Transfer Problem’.
Statistically speaking, Figure 27 provides quantity review
into development of reference papers of first group in general.
The total number of papers in which application of inverse
approach in drying processes was considered is 32.
166
5
6
International Journal of Thermal Sciences
0
Computers & Mathematics with Applications
0
International Journal of Food Properties
3
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering
3
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 0
13
Journal of Food Engineering
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Fig. 27. Review of published papers of first group
On Figure 28 number of papers which were classified in first
group-food materials, summary of all ten journals, are presented.
It can be seen that the category of papers ‘Diffusivity’ is the
most frequent with 10 papers i.e. 28.57%, while the category of
papers ‘Thermodiffusion’ and ‘Thermal conductivity’ with 9
papers i.e. 25.71% each, is significant in the total number of
reference papers.
The category of papers ‘Specific heat’ with 4 papers i.e.
11.43% and the category ‘Coefficient of heat and mass transfer’
with 3 papers i.e. 8.57% is still very low. The categories of
papers ‘Drying constant’, ‘Density’ and ‘Equilibrium moisture
content’ cover zero papers.
Drying constant
0
Equilibrium moisture content
0
Density
0
Coefficient of heat and mass transfer
3 (8.57%)
Diffusivity
10 (28.57%)
Thermodiffusion
9 (25.71%)
Specific heat
4 (11.43%)
Thermoconductivity
9 (25.71%)
2
4
6
8
10
12
Fig. 28. Number of papers classified by categories
in tne first group for the ten relevant journals
IP 20%
IHTP 5%
1
Drying Technology An International Journal
0
Others 3%
1
Journal of Engineering Physics and
Thermophysics
International Journal of Food Science &
Technology
From performed statistical analysis, it can be concluded that
in near future scientific investigation in the field of
determination in categories ‘Diffusivity’, ‘Thermodiffusion’ and
‘Thermal conductivity’ still remains the most attractive for food
materials. But, the determination of ‘Specific heat’ and
‘Coefficients of heat and mass transfer’ does not represent less
attractive field of research in near future. The categories ‘Drying
constant’, ‘Density’ and ‘Equilibrium moisture content’ are not
attractive for researchers, but, future research should be focused
on determination of these engineering characteristics of food
materials.
From the performed statistical analysis for second group of
papers it can be said that the category ‘Heat flux’ covers the
most reference papers, 105 i.e. 27.49% of the total, and still the
categories ‘Thermal conductivity’, (13.35%), ‘Thermodiffusion’
(11.78%), ‘Temperature’ (13.09%) and ‘Parameters’ (12.83%)
keep up with the previous category. The others categories:
‘Specific heat’ (4.45%), ‘Diffusivity’ (7.85%) and ‘Others’
(9.16%) are not negligible and more investigations are required
for them.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Bundalevski, Slobodan et al. / Rev. of Jour.With a Particular Emphasis on Papers on Applica. of Inverse Appro. in Drying Proc.
Concerning the categories of the third group, the most
dominant category ‘IHCP’ covers 408 papers i.e. 60.36%. The
category ‘Otherss’ follows with 22.19%. The others categories:
‘IRP’, ICP’, IGP’, IDP’, ‘IHTP’ with 5.18%, 2.96%, 2.81%,
3.25%, and 3.25% contain insignificant number of papers
compared to the previous two categories.
CONCLUSION
Considering the fact that the inverse approach is a relatively
new method, the general impression is that papers in which were
applied inverse approach participated in a small number of all
journals and here are briefly enumerated the most outstanding
conclusions of this paper:
 Inverse method is a kind of technique that is used for
determination of various thermophysical properties,
coefficients of heat and mass transfer, temperature, heat flux,
etc. which is very important to estimate and predict heat and
mass transfer process.
 Papers in which inverse approach is used are published in a
wide variety of journals.
 Different kinds of inverse problems are used in journals, but
still, Inverse Heat Conduction Problem is the most used.
 Different coefficients and parameters are determined by using
various methodologies in inverse approach.
 Three Journals host over 80% of all references papers, (Journal
of Heat and Mass Transfer, Inverse Problems in Science and
Engineering and Journal of Engineering Physics and
Thermophysics).
With reference to papers of the first category, it could be
underlined that:
 Some categories traditionally are more attractive from the
otherss, thus, there is a different level of interest in the study.
 Although categories of papers ‘Diffusivity’, ‘Thermodiffusion’
and ‘Thermal conductivity’ are 80% of the applications, there
is still a space for determination of application of inverse
approach in these categories.
 More investigations are needed for categories ‘Specific heat’,
‘Coefficients of heat and mass transfer’, ‘Drying constant’,
‘Density’ and ‘Equilibrium moisture content’.
According to the performed analysis for second and third
groups, the following can be concluded:
 Category ‘Heat flux’ is the most frequent category, followed
by the categories ‘Thermal conductivity’, ‘Thermodiffusion’,
‘Temperature’ and ‘Parameters’, and for categories ‘Specific
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
heat’, ‘Diffusivity’ and ‘Others’ more investigations are
required.
 Category ‘IHCP’ is the most useful and with the highest
percentage in the third group and the remaining categories are
with insignificant number of papers.
REFERENCES
Kanevce, Lj., Kanevce, G., Dulikravich, G. (2002). Estimation
of Drying Food Thermophysical Properties by using
Temperature Measurements, Proceedings of the 4th
International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Kanevce, G., Kanevce, Lj., Mitrevski, V., Dulikravich, G.,
Orlande, H.R.B. (2006). Inverse Approaches to Drying with
and without Shrinkage, Proceedings of the 15th International
Drying Symposium (IDS 2006a), Budapest, Hungary, 576-583.
Kanevce, G., Kanevce, Lj., Mitrevski, V., Dulikravich, G.,
Orlande, H.R.B. (2007). Inverse Approaches to Drying of Thin
Bodies with Significant Shrinkage Effects, Journal of Heat
Transfer,129 (3), 379-386.
Kanevce, G., Kanevce, Ljiljana, Mitrevski, V., Dulikravich, G.
(2007a). Inverse Approaches to Drying of Sliced Foods,
Inverse Problems, Design and Optimization Symposium,
Miami, Florida U.S.A., 509-516.
Kanevce, G., Kanevce, Lj., Mitrevski, V., Dulikravich, G.
(2008). Inverse Estimation of Moisture Diffusivity by Utilizing
Temperature Response of a Drying Body, International
Conference on Computational&Experimental Engineering and
Sciences, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
Mitrevski, V., Kanevce, G., Kanevce, Lj., Voronjec, D. (2006).
Application of inverse approach to calculate convective drying
of apples. Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture PTEP, 10 (1 and 2), 19-23.
Mitrevski, V., Kanevce, G, Kanevce, Lj., Voronjec, D. (2009).
Estimation of moisture diffusivity of banana. Journal on
Processing and Energy in Agriculture - PTEP, 13 (2),102-106.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02608774/20
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00179310/52
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gipe20?close=21#vol_21
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ljfp20?close=16&repitition=
0#vol_16
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08981221/65
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/12900729/68
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ldrt20#.Uc_6Bthkmos
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%2913
65-2621/issues
http://link.springer.com/journal/volumesAndIssues/10891
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00236438/53
Received: 12.03.2014.
Accepted: 25.06.2014.
167
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 168-170
UDK: 338.516.2
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
EU FOOD MARKET- VALUE-ADDED FOOD, A NEW TREND AND
OPPORTUNITY FOR NATIONAL FOOD INDUSTRY
TRŽIŠTE HRANE EU – HRANA SA DODATOM VREDNOŠĆU,
NOVI TREND I PRILIKA ZA DOMAĆU PREHRAMBENU INDUSTRIJU
Jasmina ŽIVKOVIĆ*, Rada JEVTIĆ-MUČIBABIĆ*, Zvonko NJEŽIĆ*, Jovana BRKLJAČA*,
Nataša VUKELIĆ**, Bojana FILIPČEV*
*
University of Novi Sad, Institute of food technology, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
**
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 8, 21000
Novi Sad, Serbia
e-mail:[email protected]
ABSTRACT
The food industry is one of the largest and most important manufacturing sectors in the EU. In the last year, the food sector
represented 917 billion euros of turnover dealing with approximately 310 000 companies and around 4.8 million employers.
Novel food products are generally a consequence of progress in food technology. Developments in food industry, medicine,
nutritional sciences etc. have led to increased popularity of food products with added value which may offer a wide range of specific
health benefits. Increased consumption of value-added products and their promotion as vehicles to improve the pursuit of consumers'
wellness can substantially contribute to the economy of villages by increasing incomes and thus helping to reverse the trend of rural
depopulation.
Key words: food, added value, market.
REZIME
Učešće ukupnog agrarnog budžeta u ukupnom nacionalnom budžetu Republike Srbije u proteklih deset godina iznosilo je u
proseku 4,21%, što predstavlja nizak nivo izdvajanja ako se uzme u obzir doprinos poljoprivrede stvaranju bruto domaćeg proizvoda
Republike Srbije. Naime, učešće bruto dodate vrednosti u poljoprivredi u ukupnom bruto domaćem proizvodu Republike Srbije u
prethodnoj dekadi iznosilo je 11,3%, dok agrobiznis u celini učestvuje u stvaranju bruto domaćeg proizvoda sa preko 20%. Pored
toga, poljoprivreda sa prehrambenom industrijom predstavlja jedinu granu srpske privrede koja ostvaruje pozitivan bilans u
spoljnotrgovinskoj razmeni.
Sektor industrije hrane u Evropskoj Uniji je jedan od najvećih i najznačajnijih ekonomskih sektora. Prehrambena industrija u EU
je u prošloj godini ostvarila 917 milijardi evra prihoda, posluje oko 310.000 preduzeća sa oko 4,8 miliona zaposlenih. Prehrambena
industrija se, u proteklih godina, snažno menjala, u skladu sa promenama životnog stila, demografskim i promenama u
prehrambenim navikama. Promene se ogledaju i u očekivanjima i zahtevima potrošača, al ii trendu skraćivanja veka proizvoda što
dodatno usložava problematiku održivosti proizvoda na tržištu.
Novi proizvodi prehrambene industrije u velikoj meri su posledica prehrambeno-tehnološkog napretka. Nove investicije se mogu
ostvariti spojem poljoprivredne tradicije Srbije sa neophodnom ekspertizom u oblasti prerade hrane. Razvoj prehrambene industrije,
medicine i drugih nauka doveo je do popularizacije namirnica sa dodatom vrednošću koje imaju pozitivan uticaj na ljudsko zdravlje.
Potrošnja tih proizvoda se znatno proširila i nije vezana samo za osobe sa posebnom životnom filozofijom ili zdravstvenim
problemima. Pored niza aspekata (istraživačko-razvojni, proizvodni, tehnološki...), uvođenje strategije za stimulaciju kupovine tj.
potrošnje takvih proizvoda i uvođenje u životni stil je od izuzetne važnosti jer može znatno doprineti ekonomiji sela, poboljšanjem
prihoda i zadržavanjem seoskog stanovništva u tim oblastima.
Ključne reči: hrana, dodata vrednost, tržište.
the other hand, food industry increasingly focuses to the
INTRODUCTION
development of value-added products. Changes in consumers’
Agriculture with food industry presents the only branch of preferences and the tendency to shorten product shelf-life
the Serbian national economy which realizes positive balance of additionally complicates the problem of product viability on the
trade continuously since 2005 with a steady rising trend. market (Vuković, 2007). A decade ago, a development cycle for
a novel product lasted over 2 years in average whereas today, it
Agriculture with food industry accounts for 20.9% (average over
is abridged to only around 6 months. Novel food products are
period 2005-2011) of total export of the Republic of Serbia,
generally a consequence of progress in food technology. Food
however, the structure of export is not favourable especially
when taken into account that primary agricultural commodities industry, similarly to many other industrial branches, follows the
trends related to the development of consumers’ needs and
with low added value dominate the structure.
attempts to answer to ever increasing consumers’ demands.
The past few decades brought strong modifications to food
Under the conditions of merciless competition, increasingly
industry sector induced by changes in life style, demography and
complex and precise consumers’ demands, product specifics
eating habits. Consumers have been increasingly interested in
gain importance. Development in food industry, medicine,
health effects of food or their components (Košutić,2013).
nutritional sciences etc. have led to increased popularity of food
Raising the awareness of consumers and change its structure
products with added value which may offer a wide range of
there was a need for better food (Živković,2013). On one hand,
the modifications are related to product commercialization and specific health benefits (Košutić, 2012). Since numerous
civilization diseases and ailments have been related to dietary
creation of competitive advantage by product price whereas on
168
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Živković, Jasmina et al. / EU Food Market - Value-Added Food, a New Trend and Opportunity For National Food Industry
patterns and food quality, food is now being perceived as a
crucial factor affecting human health (Živković et al., 2010).
Promotion of products characterized with some specifics
could substantially contribute to economy of villages, especially
those at remote distances, by increasing incomes and reducing
depopulation of agrarian communities. Products with specifics
are considered novel to consumers although they satisfy the
basic human need –need for food. Motives of most consumers
for buying these products lie in the fact that beside satisfying the
basic need for food, they satisfy another human need and that is
the need for better, higher quality living (Rippin,1997).
Economically developed countries of western Europe, USA,
Canada, Japan and Australia have more health-conscious
consumers with high demands for value-added products. USA is
a country with the highest demands and consumption of organic
agricultural products. Sale substantially expanded in recent years
( Patermann, 2007). In 1990, selling was around billion dollars
to reach, by 2009, a figure of 24.8 billion dollars. In comparison
to 2008, the sale increased by 5.1% in 2009. The US
Government plans to increase this trend in the forthcoming
years. The most frequent agricultural products marketed in the
sector of organic food are: milk and dairy products (38%), fruits
and vegetables (20%), wheat, bread and flour (15%) and meat
(9%). Almost all supermarkets have their own organic or
biofood trade name(s) (Vlahović et al., 2010).
Concerning the above mentioned, the current research work,
which is basically exploratory in nature, can be divided into two
parts. In the first part, consumers‘ attitudes are screened and
results overviewed whereas in the second part, SWOT analysis
of value-added products is presented with a consequent analysis
of their importance in the strategic commitment to rural and
overall economic development of our country.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The method of interviewing was found to be the most
appropriate method for testing. Questionnaires were presented to
500 randomly chosen subjects. This is the most widely used
method in data collection from primary data sources.
For the analysis of responses, multivariate methods of
analysis MANOVA and discriminant analysis were used. From
univariate methods, Roy’s test, Pearson’s coefficient of
contingency (χ), and multiple coefficient of correlation (R) were
used. Data were classified depending on the frequency and to
each class a real number was given. Data scaling did not exclude
the application of non-parametric tests. Scaled data were further
analysed by the aforementioned methods to deliver coefficients
of discrimination which helped in the selection of properties
defining the specificity of subsamples and those to exclude from
analyses.
RESULTS AND DISCUSION
The first part of the paper presents an overview of the results
gathered from a survey of 500 consumers, who were randomly
recruited at the territory of Novi Sad city. The consumers were
administered with anonymous self-report questionnaire. The
survey participants were divided into four groups by education
level: participants with primary school only, those with highschool education, college education and university degree. The
questionnaire was designed to analyse the attitude of consumers
regarding their willingness to buy value-added products through
questions addressing their ability to identify value-added
products, willingness to try the products, frequency of buying,
and sources of information about value-added food. The
obtained results showed that participants with low education
demonstrated certain difficulties with the identification of value-
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
added food. Respondents with higher education level showed
much better identification of the products; 41-51% of them
identify value-added products on the base of a brand or a mark.
The majority of consumers read food labels but with different
frequency: always, frequently and occasionally. Educational
level influenced the frequency of label reading; the higher the
education, the higher the reading frequency. Thus, out of all
respondents, those who always read labels mainly come from the
group of respondents with university degree whereas the most
frequent answer of high-school educated respondents was that
they only occasionally read the labels.
When the respondents were asked whether they buy valueadded products, the most frequent answer with all respondents of
below-academic education was ’’occasionally’’ (in 52.6-57.3%
cases). At approximately similar percent, participants with
university degree responded about frequent buying of such
products. This identifies that higher level of education
(academic) increases the willingness for buying value-added
products. The result demonstrated that consumers with the
lowest education level (primary school only) rarely buy these
products with many of them not answering the question which
imply to the lack of information about these products within this
segment of consumers. It is, however, encouraging that
willingness to buy value-added products gradually grows with
higher education level. Forty percents of consumers with
university degree buy these products at regular basis.
The value of ‘’conclusion risk’’ obtained by multivariate and
discriminative analysis showed that there was significant
education level difference within the tested subjects in relation to
information sources about value-added products as well as in
relation to information routes.
This study non-ambiguously pointed out that lack of
consumer knowledge as well as producer knowledge is the key
problem which impedes the development of value-added
products and their success on a market.
In the second part of the article, the SWOT analysis of valueadded products at Serbian market is presented.
Table 1. SWOT analysis of value-added products at Serbian
market
STRENGTHS
Physical-climatic factors
WEAKNESSES
Physical-climatic factors
Favourable climatic conditions;
Favourable edaphic conditions
(good quality soil, higher than
average ratio of cultivated soil per
capita);
Geographic diversity;
Abundance of water supplies;
Good potentials for development of
high quality products (organic,
traditional, etc.);
High amounts of biomass in
agriculture;
Relatively low contamination of
soil and water due to low use of
mineral fertilizers and pesticides.
Elderly population in rural
regions and quick rural
depopulation;
Unsolved proprietary/juridical
relationships in rural households.
Commercial factors
Strategic geographic position;
Production of good quality raw
materials and sufficient
manufacturing capacities;
Traditional export of food products
in the region (good commercial
conjunction with adjacent
countries);
High potential for export of
agricultural commodities.
Commercial factors
Weak connections with
consumers;
Poor organization of agricultural
producers and trading
associations of agricultural
producers (co-operative
societies);
Insufficient resources of
agricultural loans;
Lack of standards in the control
of food safety;
Insufficient capacities of
surveyors service and control
inspectors;
Obsolete technology of
manufacturing capacities.
169
Živković, Jasmina et al. / EU Food Market - Value-Added Food, a New Trend and Opportunity For National Food Industry
Table 1. SWOT analysis of value-added products at Serbian
market (continue)
OPPORTUNITIES
THREATS
Production/supply
Production/supply
Development of the production of
fruits, vegetables and grapes;
Development of production of beef,
baby beef and pork meat especially
for traditional foreign markets;
Development of high-quality
products (organic, etc.)
Climatic changes and frequent
occurrence of climatic extremes
(severe draft, flood, hail, etc.)
Commercial factors
Increased demands after food
product is expected worldwide;
Improved productivity with the use
of new technologies;
Increased offer of continuous good
and uniform quality products;
Increased demand of organic
products;
Increased demand of products with
special quality names – Protected
Designation of Origin (PDO) and
Protected Geographical Indication
(PGI).
Structural/Social attitude
More opportunities for employment
outside agricultural household/farm
to complement incomes;
Development of non-agricultural
activities in villages.
Regulatory/political factors
Commercial factors
Monopoly position of large
market chains as buyers of
agricultural products;
Large oscillations in the extent of
production, quality and prices of
agricultural products;
Increasing dependence raw
materials from import;
Increasing competition and
diversification of production in
the region;
Liberalization of international
market for some agricultural
sectors.
Structural/Social attitude
Lack of specialized knowledge
and low productivity of primary
agricultural producers;
Low level of incomes which lead
to rural depopulation.
Regulatory/political factors
Delay regarding receiving EU
membership status.
Stable political environment by
receiving a status of potential
candidate for EU membership;
New initiatives and associations in
rural development;
Development of rural infrastructure
supported from government funding
and EU;
Liberalization of international
market for some agricultural
sectors.
CONCLUSION
Agriculture is a branch of economy which is capable of
producing much more affluence than it currently does and has a
remarkable capacity to contribute to economic development of
country. The creation of a bond between the Serbian agricultural
tradition and indispensable expertise in food processing could
contribute to newer investments. Increase in competitiveness can
be accomplished through divertification of economical activities
by focusing on high quality and safe products with added values
which are in accordance to consumers' demands. By generating
170
added value through their products, associations may increase
their incomes and build sustainable and efficient agricultural and
food sectors, competitive at global market, contributing to an
increase in earnings at national level. Apart from a range of
aspects such as research and development, manufacturing,
technological, etc., consumation of food with added value and its
adoption to lifestyle is of utmost significance as this could
strongly enhance the rural economy, balancing the prospects of
rural regions which could contribute to increase in income,
similarly to urban areas.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The authors acknowledge the
financial support from the Ministry of Education, Science and
Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia within
projects No. 046012 III and 46005 (2011-2014).
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Agriculture, 17(3), 138-140.
Received: 03.03.2014.
Accepted: 07.05.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 171-174
UDK: 519.87
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT EMPIRICAL AND DIFFUSIVE MODELS TO
WATER LOSS AND SOLID GAIN DURING OSMOTIC TREATMENT OF FISH
PRIMENA RAZLIČITIH EMPIRIJSKIH I DIFUZIONIH MODELA NA
KINETIČKE PARAMETRE OSMOTSKOG TRETMANA RIBE
Biljana LONČAR , Lato PEZO , Vladimir FILIPOVIĆ ,
*
*
*
Milica NIĆETIN , Violeta KNEŽEVIĆ , Danijela ŠUPUT
*
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia,
**
University of Beograd, Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, 1100, Beograd, Serbia
e-mail:[email protected]
*
**
*
ABSTRACT
The main objective of this article was to investigate the use of the diffusive model, Zugarramurdi and Lupin’s model, Peleg’s
model, second order polynomial model and Weibull-type model for the prediction of water loss and solid gain, during osmotic treatment of fish (Carassius gibelio) in sugar beet molasses solution. The accepted experimental design allowed to assess the effect of solution concentration (60-80% w/w), temperature (10, 20, 35 and 50 oC) and immersion time (1-5h), and to quantify water and solid
mass transfer coefficients. The considered empirical models were able to represent satisfactorily the transfers of water and solids
during all osmotic treatments.
Key words: Osmotic treatment, Fish, Sugar beet molasses, Mathematical model.
REZIME
Cilj ovog rada je ispitivanje primene difuzionih modela, Zugarramurdi i Lupin-ovog modela, Peleg-ovog modela, modela polinoma drugog reda i Weibull-tip modela za predviđanje gubitka vode i priraštaja suve materije, tokom osmotskog tretmana ribe
(Carassius gibelio) u rastvorima melase šećerne repe. Usvojena postavka eksperimenta pruža uvid u uticaj koncentracije rastvora
(60-80% w/w), temperature (10, 20, 35 i 50 oC), vremena imerzije (1-5h), i vrednosti koeficijenata prenosa mase. Razmatrani empirijski modeli su na zadovoljavajući način predstavili prenos vode i suve materije tokom svih osmotskih tretmana.
Ključne reči: Osmotski tretman, Riba, Melasa šećerne repe, Matematički model.
INTRODUCTION
Osmotic treatment (OT) involving immersion in concentrated salt, sugar and water solution is an advantageous alternative to dry-salting method for fish preservation (Martı´nezAlvarez et al., 2005; Tsironi and Taoukis, 2014). Sugar beet molasses is an uncommon osmotic medium, but yet highly efficient
due to high dry matter content, specific nutrient composition,
low cost and energy requirements (Koprivica et al., 2010;
Mišljenović et al., 2010). Sugar beet molasses is an excellent
medium for osmotic treatment, primarily due to the high dry
matter (more than 80%) and specific nutrient content. According
to Sauvant et al., (2004) and Grbeša (2004), cations concentration in sugar beet molasses are as follows: 3920 mg K/100 g,
680-1300 mg Na/100 g, 100 mg Ca/100 g, 50-320 mg Mg/100 g
and 11.7 mg Fe/100 g. The specific chemical composition (approximately 51% sucrose, 1% raffinose, 0.25% glucose and
fructose, 5% proteins, 6% betaine, 1.5% nucleosides, purine and
pyramidine bases, organic acids and bases) and high content of
solids (around 80%) provide high osmotic pressure in the solution, there for molasses appears to be an excellent osmotic medium.
Due to high viscosity of molasses at low temperatures better
results concerning technological parameters and reduction of
microorganisms are obtained at higher processing temperatures
(Filipović et al., 2012). During osmotic dehydration of fish two
major mass transfer flows occur: water flow from fish tissue and
uptake of solids from the hypertonic solution into the fish tissue
(Tortoe, 2010). To have an overview of the osmotic treatment
and to design optimum-drying conditions, it is very important to
investigate the mass transfer changes (solid gain and water loss),
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
as well to describe and predict these changes using mathematical
modeling (Mujaffar and Sankat, 2005). Diffusion equations have
analytical solutions only for classical geometries, while for nonclassical geometries, numerical methods are necessary. In this
way, the use of other empirical models is of interest. Peleg
(1988) used a two parameters model to represent the water adsorption by milk powder and whole rice grains. Empirical models based on a Weibull-type equation, with exponential shape,
have been used to represent drying rates and osmotic dehydration rates of foods (Machado et al., 1999). However, there are a
few works in the literature about the application of such empirical models for describing hydration processes on meat cubes
(Pezo et al., 2013). The objective of this work was to investigate
the applicability of the Zugarramurdi and Lupin’s model, second
order polynomial model, diffusive model, Peleg’s model and exponential model (Weibull-type) on the prediction of water
gain/loss and solid gain of fish (Carassius gibelio) meat samples
immersed in sugar beet molasses solutions of different concentrations and temperatures.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Fish (Carassius gibelio) was purchased from a local market
in Novi Sad, Serbia, shortly prior to the experiment with initial
moisture content of 75.34%. Sugar beet molasses (dry matter
content of 85.04% w/w) were obtained from the sugar factory
Pećinci, Serbia, and they were diluted to concentrations of 60,
70 and 80% w/w.
The osmotic treatment was carried out in laboratory jars under atmospheric pressure in heat chamber at solution temperatures of 10 °C, 20 °C, 35 °C and 50 °C. Preparation of fish samples and osmotic dehydration treatment was performed as it was
171
Lončar, Biljana et al. / Applic. of Differ. Empiri. and Diffus. Models to Water Loss and Solid Gain During Osmotic Treat. of Fish
described by Ćurčić et al., (2012). Dry matter content of the
fresh and treated samples was determined by drying at 105 °C
for 24 hours in a heat chamber (Instrumentaria Zagreb, Croatia).
All analytical measurements were carried out in accordance to
AOAC (2000). All experiments were done in triplicate, and the
obtained results are presented in Figure 1. These data were used
in the calculation of all mathematical models.
Temperature [oC]
50
WL[g/g i.s.]
40
0.50
0.45
30
0.40
20
10
0.35
0.30
1
2
Conc.=70%
3
Time [h]
4
5
Temperature [oC]
50
0.12
SG [g/g i.s.]
40
0.10
0.08
30
0.06
20 0.04
10
1
2
Concentration [%]
72
68
12
Conc.=70%
3
Time [h]
4
5
WL[g/g i.s.]
0.50
0.40 0.45
0.35
0.30
Temp.=30oC
64
60
1
2
3
Time [h]
4
5
Concentration [%]
82
78
74
70
66
62
58
1
o
4
5
Fig. 1. Experimentally obtained values for WL and SG
As predicted, the process leads to an increase in dry matter
content of all samples regardless of used conditions. The huge
difference in osmotic pressure between hypertonic solution and
the tissue causes the vast initial loss of the water at the beginning
of the dehydration process, and the water loss increased with
immersion time. The maximum value of water loss was
achieved, after 5 hours, at maximum concentrations recorded in
Fig. 1: 0.53 g/g i.s. (molasses, concentrated to 80% w/w). Solid
gain (SG) value indicates the degree of penetration of solids
172
where, DY is effective diffusivities of water and solute, respectively; L is the sample length (m) and t is the time (s). The
value of Y∞ can be estimated from experimental data and Peleg’s
model or Azuara’s model (Azuara et al., 1992). In this work, the
former model was used for Y∞ estimations.
Zugarramurdi and Lupin's model. The following mathematical model, with an exponential approach to the equilibrium value
of moisture and solutes contents, was proposed by Zugarramurdi
and Lupin (1980):
dX i (t )
=
ki ⋅ ( X i* (t ) − X i (t ) ) ,
dt
X i (t ) =X i* + e − ki ⋅t ⋅ X i0 − X i*
(
)
(3)
Exponential model. An exponential model with three parameters has been used for describing WG and SG during OT.
This model is a Weibull-type model and is given by Eqn. (4)
(Cunha et al., 2001).
Temp.=30 C
3
Time [h]
(2)
where, i – index of moisture, or mineral content, Xi *is mass
of i-th component at equilibrium, , ki is specific rate constant for
the i-th component.
0.12
SG [g/g i.s.] 0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
2
where k1Y and k2Y are Peleg constants for WL or SG.
The reciprocal value of k2 allows determining the water con∞
tent or solid concentration at "equilibrium" conditions (Y ), that
depends on the temperature and solid solution concentration, i.e.
when t→∞ (Eqn. (1)).
Diffusive model. The kineticks of solid or water in meat
samples submitted to OT could be represented by Eqn. (2),
which takes into account the contributions of diffusion (first
term on the right side) and bulk flow (second term on the right
side of equation):
Y
 D ⋅t 
=8 ⋅  Y 
Yπ∞ L  ⋅ 2 
80
76
from hypertonic solution into the sample. Fig. 1 shows that SG
increases with immersion time. The aim of osmotic treatment is
the achievement of minimal solid uptake, and the most acceptable results were achieved by using sugar beet molasses concentrated to 80% w/w (0.12 g/g i.s.w.), after 3 hours of osmotic
process.
Peleg's model. In this paper, Peleg’s equation is expressed in
term of WL or SG. In the next equations, Y represents WL or
SG. Peleg (1988) proposed an equation to describe the kinetics
of moisture sorption that approaches equilibrium asymptotically.
The adaptation of this model for the present work is given by
Eqn. (2).
t
(1)
Y= Y
k1 + k Y2 ⋅ t
  t α 
Y
=1 − exp  −   
*
 β  
Y


(4)
Y -WL or SG at equilibrium α, β-parameters.
Second order polynomial model. The following second order
polynomial (SOP) model was fitted to the data:
*
Y=a+b ⋅ t+c ⋅ t 2
(5)
Data analysis. Non-linear least square regression analysis
was performed using Levenberg-Marquardt procedure in Statistica 10 computer program. The correlation coefficient (r2) was
the primary criteria for selecting the best equation to define a
suitable model.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Lončar, Biljana et al. / Applic. of Differ. Empiri. and Diffus. Models to Water Loss and Solid Gain During Osmotic Treat. of Fish
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Several mathematical models were performed in order to describe osmotic treatment of fish meat in sugar beet molasses. All
models were statistically analyzed, to find the best fitting function.
Peleg’s model. Experimental data of WL and SG were used
to evaluate the adequacy of the Peleg’s equation (Eqn. (1)). The
evaluated k1 and k2 values for different solution concentrations
and temperatures are shown in Table 1. The capacity constants,
k2, are related to equilibrium WL and SG, i.e. the lower the k2
higher equilibrium WL or SG. The k 2WL decreases with increasincreases with concentration, while both
ing concentration, k SG
2
WL
SG
k 2 and k 2 decrease with increasing temperature. Diffusion
coefficients are also presented in Table 1.
2
The coefficient of determination values, r , varied from
2
0.985 – 1.000 for both WL and SG. Such high values of r indicate a good fit to the experimental data and suggest that the Peleg’s equation describes adequately the mass transfer kinetics
terms during the osmotic treatment of fish meat in sugar beet
molasses.
Diffusive model. The fits of the exponential model (Eqn. (2))
are presented in Table 1. The diffusive model depends on the
estimation or experimental determination of fish sample moisture at ‘equilibrium’ Y∞. The estimation of this value can be performed with the Peleg’s model, but its experimental determination needs long immersion times that can lead to fish tissue
changes (Offer and Trinick, 1983; Schmidt et al., 2008). The performance of Peleg’s model (Table 1) was found more accurate
compared to diffusive model. This should be attributed to the
fact that equilibrium constants WL∞ and SG∞, used for diffusive
model were calculated using Peleg’s model introduce Peleg’s
model computational error in the final result of diffusive model.
Table 1. Peleg rate (k1) and capacity (k2) constants of Peleg’s mode and diffusion coefficients for WL and SG, under different conditions of molasses concentration and temperature
No. Temp Conc
1
2
3
4
5
6
10
80
10
70
10
60
20
80
20
70
20
7
35
8
9
10
12
80
35
70
35
60
50
11
60
80
50
70
50
60
k1WL
6.22±
0.39*
7.50±
0.21*
7.72±
0.13*
6.00±
0.64*
6.10±
0.30*
6.63±
0.10*
5.73±
0.17*
4.64±
0.33*
5.21±
0.27*
2.87±
0.31*
3.11±
0.08*
3.16±
0.32*
k 2WL WL∞ DWL·10-10
1.63±
0.10*
1.70±
0.21*
1.98±
0.11*
1.58±
0.06*
1.66±
0.03*
1.88±
0.01*
1.54±
0.02*
1.62±
0.04*
1.77±
0.03*
1.63±
0.04*
1.77±
0.01
1.72±
0.04*
0.61
0.63
0.51
0.63
0.60
0.53
0.65
0.62
0.57
0.61
0.57
0.58
2.52
2.19
1.59
3.13
2.49
2.29
3.76
3.59
3.12
4.63
4.08
3.94
k1SG
k SG
2
42.21±
5.01*
34.57±
3.51*
60.00±
7.27*
34.05±
6.95*
29.66±
6.15*
45.88±
8.29*
20.59±
3.90*
24.78±
4.17*
21.35±
6.00*
15.43±
4.55*
22.08±
5.77*
15.04±
3.24*
7.59±
0.32*
7.68±
0.89*
8.09±
0.27*
7.34±
0.66*
7.46±
0.61*
7.82±
0.74*
7.12±
0.43*
7.29±
0.43*
7.55±
0.66*
6.27±
0.52*
6.63±
0.60*
6.59±
0.38*
SG∞ DSG·10-10
0.13
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.13
0.13
1.31
*
of sample moisture at ‘equilibrium’ Xi is needed for this model
calculation. In this article, the estimation of Xi* was performed
with the Peleg’s model (Eqn. (1)). The statistical analysis indicated that the WL and SG values estimated by this model are
more reliable than the Peleg’s model, which can be explained,
due to involvement of two more parameters (α and β).
Table 2. Zugarramurdi and Lupin's and Weibull-type model
parameters for WL and SG
Zugarramurdi and Lupin's model
WL
No. Temp. Conc.
1
10
80
2
10
70
3
10
60
4
20
80
5
20
70
6
20
60
7
35
80
8
35
70
9
35
60
10
50
80
11
50
70
12
50
60
*
0.14
0.13
0.16
No.
2
1.61
3
1.41
4
0.15
0.15
3.04
6
2.73
7
2.65
8
4.23
9
10
3.98
3.24
*
Significant at p<0.05 level
Zugarramurdi and Lupin's model. The Zugarramurdi and
Lupin's model (Eqn. (3)) fitting to experimental data are presented in Table 2. The estimation or experimental determination
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
β
α
0.69±
0.03
0.66±
0.04
0.65±
0.04
0.61±
0.04
0.63±
0.06
0.65±
0.04
0.56±
0.05
0.57±
0.03
0.57±
0.08
0.53±
0.08
0.58±
0.07
0.53±
0.06
3.19±
0.10
1.92±
0.10
3.99±
0.0 1
2.54±
0.12
1.83±
0.12
3.08±
0.11
1.42±
0.09
1.73±
0.07
1.31±
0.15
1.21±
0.16
1.64±
0.15
1.05±
0.10
0.33±
0.09
0.43±
0.02
0.47±
0.05
0.50±
0.08
0.51±
0.08
0.53±
0.09
0.70±
0.05
0.62±
0.11
0.60±
0.11
1.01±
0.19
0.96±
0.19
0.96±
0.18
0.21±
0.09
0.49±
0.06
0.19±
0.02
0.39±
0.06
0.51±
0.08
0.33±
0.04
0.62±
0.12
0.50±
0.09
0.67±
0.13
0.70±
0.15
0.55±
0.10
0.80±
0.16
All values are significant at p<0.05 level
Peleg’s
model
5
0.14
α
2.19±
0.07
2.03±
0.01
1.95±
0.02
1.89±
0.03
1.83±
0.08
1.76±
0.06
1.37±
0.05
1.45±
0.09
1.50±
0.01
0.78±
0.04
0.82±
0.05
0.83±
0.03
SG
k1
2
1
2.31
β
0.63±
0.10
0.62±
0.01
0.62±
0.01
0.61±
0.02
0.61±
0.04
0.60±
0.03
0.60±
0.01
0.56±
0.05
0.56±
0.00
0.50±
0.02
0.48±
0.03
0.50±
0.02
WL
k1
Table 3. Coefficients of determination (r ) for different empirical models used for the prediction of WL and SG, during osmotic treatment of fish
0.83
0.71
SG
Weibull-type
model
11
12
WL
SG
Diffusive
model
WL
SG
Weibull-type
model
WL
SG
SOP
model
WL
SG
Zugarramurdi
and Lupin’s
model
WL
SG
0.967 0.981 0.989 0.996 0.997 0.999 0.996 0.942 0.997
0.944
0.962 0.992 0.995 0.987 0.995 0.997 0.975 0.953 0.987
0.963
0.965 0.989 0.975 0.990 0.994 0.991 0.959 0.943 0.988
0.968
0.987 0.992 0.973 0.970 0.997 0.991 0.987 0.968 0.987
0.914
0.987 0.994 0.930 0.997 0.987 0.987 0.969 0.966 0.987
0.950
0.987 0.987 0.950 0.987 1.000 0.998 0.938 0.929 0.989
0.932
0.993 0.987 0.939 0.992 0.995 0.985 0.965 0.949 0.994
0.954
0.987 0.987 0.942 0.990 0.998 0.987 0.962 0.931 0.987
0.934
0.946 0.987 0.938 0.992 0.997 0.987 0.931 0.929 0.987
0.917
0.966 0.982 0.987 0.987 0.999 0.996 0.980 0.948 0.987
0.948
0.947 0.988 0.987 0.987 0.993 0.990 0.964 0.932 0.987
0.931
0.938 0.993 0.987 0.987 0.987 0.985 0.938 0.924 0.947
0.914
Weibull type model. The exponential models (Eqn. (4)) fitting to experimental data are presented in Table 4. The estimation or experimental determination of meat sample moisture at
173
Lončar, Biljana et al. / Applic. of Differ. Empiri. and Diffus. Models to Water Loss and Solid Gain During Osmotic Treat. of Fish
‘equilibrium’ Y∞ is needed for this model calculation. In this article, the estimation of Y∞ was performed with the Peleg’s model
(Eqn. (1)).
Second order polynomial model. The fitting of the second
order polynomial model (Eqn. (5)) was compared to Weibull's
model (Table 2), and it was found that Weibull's model showed
slightly higher coefficients of determination, compared to second
order polynomial model.
Presented analysis shows that, for most of the investigated
cases, that smaller differences between predicted and experimental data were observed for the Weibull's model. All the considered models were able to satisfactorily represent the kinetics of
water loss and solid gain in all samples. High coefficient of determination (r2 between 0.985 – 1.000), for Weibull’s model
confirm model accuracy, Table 3. The parameters estimated for
the diffusive model, Peleg’s model and the exponential model
from experimental data of SG for different temperatures and molasses concentration are given in Tables 1 and 2, while the comparison of coefficients of determination gained with different
empirical models are shown in Table 3. The diffusion coeffi-10
-10
cients for water and solids ranged from 2.29·10 to 4.63·10
2
-10
-10
2
m /s and from 1.41·10 to 4.23·10 m /s. Fish meat is not isotropic, and these values depend on the mass transfer direction
and consequently on samples geometry and dimensions.
CONCLUSION
The efficiency of osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses
solutions depends on various factors that have great influence on
complex mass transfer mechanisms. Layered structure of fish
tissue hampers the evaluation of its transport properties however
empirical models can be successfully applied to represent mass
transfer phenomena of osmotic treatment.
The Peleg’s model and the exponential model described well
the water loss and solid gain during the dehydration process. Using an estimated value of salt concentration at ‘equilibrium’ the
diffusive model was able to represent well water loss and solid
gain during the process. Results in this paper prove that diffusion
equation is a very helpful mathematical model when it comes to
problems concerning pseudo-diffusion in fish meat.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: These results are part of project supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic
of Serbia, TR-31055,2011-2014.
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Received: 28.02.2014.
Accepted: 05.06.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 175-178
UDK: 634.25: 582.923.6
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
THE DOMINANT WEED SPECIES IN ORGANICALLY FARMED PEACH PRUNUS PERSICA BATSCH. (ROSACEAE A. L. DE JUSSIEU 1789, ROSALES)
DOMINANTNI KOROVI PRI ORGANSKOJ PROIZVODNJI BRESKVE PRUNUS PERSICA BATSCH. (ROSACEAE A. L. DE JUSSIEU 1789, ROSALES)
Dejana DŽIGURSKI, Branka LJEVNAIĆ-MAŠIĆ, Ljiljana NIKOLIĆ
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositej Obradovića 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Floristic study of weed vegetation in a peach orchard in Bajmok, certified for organic production, revealed the following predominant species: Erigeron canadensis, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Polygonum lapathifolium,
Sorghum halepense, Solanum nigrum, Sinapis arvensis, Setaria viridis, Rubus caesius, Sonchus arvensis, Artemisia vulgaris and
Capsella bursa-pastoris. Based on the taxonomic analysis findings, the weed families Asteraceae (4 species), Poaceae (2 species) and
Brassicaceae (2 species) comprise the greatest number plant species. Among the analyzed weed species, most of which bloom from
June to September, 84.62% are weed-ruderal, and the remaining 15.38% are classified as ruderal. The weed flora life-form spectrum
reveals therophyte dominance (53.85%): T4 (38.46%), T1 (7.69%) and T3 (7.69%). Geophytes contribute by 30.77%, or 4 taxa,
namely G3 (23.08%) and G1 (7.69%). Finally, hemicryptophytes are present with 15.38%: H3 (7.69%) and H5 (7.69%). Based on the
ecological weed flora analyses, the habitat is meso-eutrophic (N – 3.77), unsalinated (S- - 84.62%), and favorably aerated (D – 3.85),
and is characterized by moderate humidity (F – 2.54), neutral reaction (R – 3.15), and moderate humus content (H – 3.00), as well as
favorable light (L – 3.77) and thermal (T – 3.92) regimen. Phytogeographical analysis of the weed flora in the aforementioned peach
orchard indicates the dominance of widely distributed taxa (92.3%)—a characteristic of weed vegetation.
Key words: Prunus persica, organic production, weeds, ecological analysis.
REZIME
Korovi u voćnjacima nanose voćarskoj proizvodnji ogromne štete. Njihova prisutnost iznad praga štetnosti značajno smanjuje
rod i narušava kvalitet plodova. U organskoj proizvodnji voća cilj nije, kao u konvencionalnoj, uništiti korove, već ih treba dovesti u
ravnotežu sa voćarskom kulturom. Florističkim istraživanjem korovske vegetacije u zasadu breskve u Bajmoku, na gazdinstvu registrovanom za organsku proizvodnju, veće vrednosti brojnosti i pokrovnosti imaju vrste: Erigeron canadensis, Cirsium arvense,
Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sorghum halepense, Solanum nigrum, Sinapis arvensis, Setaria viridis, Rubus caesius, Sonchus arvensis, Artemisia vulgaris i Capsella bursa-pastoris. Taksonomska analiza ukazuje da su
biljnim vrstama najbrojnije familije Asteraceae, Poaceae i Brassicaceae. Od analiziranih taksona zastupljene su korovsko-ruderalne
(84,62%) i ruderalne (15,38%) biljke. Spektar životnih formi flore ukazuje na dominaciju terofita (53,85%). Među njima najbrojnije
su T4 (38,46%) terofite, a znatno manje zastupljene su T1 (7,69%) i T3 (7,69%) terofite. Geofite su prisutne sa 30,77% i to G3
(23,08%) i G1 (7,69%). Hemikriptofite su zastupljene sa 15,38% i to H3 i H5 sa po 7,69%. Ekološka analiza korovske flore ukazuje da
je stanište umerene vlažnosti (F – 2,54), neutralne reakcije (R - 3,15), mezo-eutrofno (N - 3,77), srednjeg sadržaja humusa (H - 3,00)
i povoljne aerisanosti (D - 3,85), nezaslanjeno, povoljnog svetlosnog (L - 3,77) i termičkog (T - 3,92) režima. Rezultati analize flore
korova: ekološka, taksonomska, biljnogeografska, analiza vremena cvetanja i kategorizacija prema staništu, doprinose sagledavanju
raznovrsnih odnosa u istraživanom agroekosistemu radi uspostavljanja samoregulatornih procesa i podsticanju biodiverziteta.
Ključne reči: Prunus persica, organska proizvodnja, korovi, ekološka analiza.
INTRODUCTION
In contrast to conventional systems, organic fruit production
is based on the use of natural resources (organic and natural fertilizers and plant protection measures), capitalizing on the genetic potential of varieties and continuous production control
(Mratinić, 2005). Thus, when making a transition from the conventional to organic production, the conversion period must be
respected — typically 36 months before fruit harvesting.
Worldwide, organic production of continental fruit varieties is
currently conducted on 250,000 ha, with Italy, USA, France,
Spain, Poland and Germany as the most important producers
(Granatstein et al., 2013). In Serbia, in 2012, 5,145.19 ha was
dedicated to organic fruit production, of which 4,054 ha already
had organic status and 1,091.19 ha was in the conversion period.
Currently, orchards occupy 46.7% of the total land area under
organic production (Organska poljoprivreda u Srbiji 2013).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Unfortunately, in 2013, organic fruit production was conducted on only 1,884 ha, of which 1,527 ha had organic status,
and 357 ha was in the conversion period (Organska poljoprivreda u Srbiji 2014).
Peach (Prunus persica Batsch., syn. Persica) is a member of
subfamily: Amygdaloideae, family: Rosaceae; order: Rosales;
superorder: Rosanae; subclass: Rosidae; class: Magnoliopsida
(Takhtajan, 2009). It has been grown for 4,000 years. At the beginning of the new era, it arrived from Persia to Greece, and subsequently spread across many other regions. Peach thrives in
warmer climate, and is thus most abundant in the temperate zone
of the northern and southern hemispheres. In Serbia, it is grown
on light and fertile soil with pH 6.5-7.5. While peach can sustain
only brief periods of colder temperatures (up to -30 °C), its development and growth is unaffected by excessive heath (Gvozdenović et al., 1997).
In orchards, weed can cause significant damage to fruit production. Presence of weeds in orchards above the damage
175
Džigurski, Dejana et al. / The Domin. Weed Species in Organi. Farmed Peach – PPB (Rosaceae A. L. De Jussieu 1789, Rosales)
Artemisia vulgaris L. and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.
threshold significantly reduces the yield and impairs fruit qual(Tab. 1).
ity. Moreover, as weeds utilize large quantities of water, they
Weed flora analysis—comprising ecological, taxonomic, and
dehydrate the soil. In addition, through intense transpiration, the
phytogeographical analysis, as well as determination of bloomweeds increase humidity and create favorable conditions for the
ing time and categorization by habitat—included only the
development of plant diseases. They are both transient hosts and
aforementioned species, as this approach, in the evaluation of
vectors of plant pathogens and pests (Šeremešić and Milošev,
ecological relationships in the studied weed flora, favored plants
2008; Štefanić, 2010). In organic fruit production, weed eliminawith higher cover-abundance scores relative to those that only
tion is not the aim, as is the case in the conventional systems;
appear sporadically.
rather, an equilibrium between these species and fruit cultures
must be obtained. This can be
Table 1. Dominant weed flora in organic peach orchard: (with familia, life form, time of
achieved by encouraging biodiflowering,
characterization according to the site, floral elements and ecological indices)
versity and establishing diverse
Plant
species
Familia
Life
Time of Category Floral
Ecological index
and self-regulating relationships
form flowering according element
between flora and fauna, rather
to the site
F R N H D S L T K
than through application of individual treatments against weeds,
Artemisia vulgaris
Asteraceae
H5
VII-IX R,LK,ŠK Cirk.
3 3 4 3 4 - 4 4 3
diseases and pests (Keserović et
Capsella
Brassicaceae
T1
IV-XI
KR
Kosm. 2 3 4 3 4 - 4 4 3
bursa-pastoris
al., 2008). Selection of appropriCirsium arvense
Asteraceae
G3
VI-VIII
KR
Subevr. 3 3 4 3 4 + 3 4 3
ate resistant varieties and species;
VI-IX
KR
Kosm. 2 3 4 3 4 - 4 3 3
careful planning of crop rotation; Chenopodium album Chenopodiaceae T4
Convolvulus arvensis Convolvulaceae G3
VI-IX
KR
Kosm. 2 4 3 3 4 - 4 4 3
measures aimed at mechanical
Erigeron canadensis
Asteraceae
T4
VI-X
R
Adv.
2 3 3 3 4 - 4 4 3
cultivation, protection and support
Polygonum
Polygonaceae
T4
VI-IX
KR
Subcirk. 3 3 4 3 3 - 5 3 3
of the natural enemies of paralapathifolium
sites; protection and promotion of
Rubus caesius
Rosaceae
H3
V
KR
Subj.sib 4w 3 4 3 4 - 2 4 3
beneficial organisms; and thermal
Setaria viridis
Poaceae
T4
VI
KR
Subevr. 2 3 4 2 4 - 4 4 3
Sorghum halepense
Poaceae
G1
VI-VII
KR
Kosm. 1 2 3 3 3 - 4 5 3
weed control methods are exSinapis
Brassicaceae
T3
V-IX
KR
Subevr. 3 4 4 3 4 - 4 4 3
tremely important in the prevenarvensis L.
tion of weed proliferation, as well
Solanum
Solanaceae
T4
VI-X
KR
Kosm. 3 4 4 3 4 - 4 4 3
as emergence of diseases and
nigrum L.
pests
in
organic
orchards
Sonchus arvensis
Asteraceae
G3
VII-IX
KR.LK
Evr.
3w 3 4 4 4 + 3 4 3
(Službeni glasnik RS, No. 48/11).
Legend: T- therophyte; G – geophyte, H – hemicriptophyte; KR weed - ruderal; R – ruderal;
The aim of this study was to ana- LK – meadow weed; ŠK – forest weed; Adv. – Adventive; Evr.- Eurasian, Kosm. – Cosmopolilyze the dominant weed species in tian; Cirk.- Cirkumpolare; Subevr. – Subeurasian; Subcirk. – Subcirkumpolar; Subj.sib. – Subpeach orchards grown in accor- southsiberian
dance with the principles of orTaxonomic analysis of the identified weed species revealed
ganic agriculture.
that families Asteraceae (4 species), Poaceae (2 species) and
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Brassicaceae (2 species) were represented by the greatest number of plant varieties. On the other hand, families ChenopodiThe study of weed flora in the peach orchards on an organic
aceae, Convolvulaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae and Solanaceae
farm in Bajmok was carried out in the 2011 vegetation period,
were represented by only one taxon (Tab. 2).
on an area of 3.7 ha.
Further analysis indicated that 11 weed species were weedWeed species were determined according to Josifović (1970ruderal (84.62%) and only 2 were ruderal (15.38%). Presence of
1977), Jávorka and Csapody (1975) and Tutin et al. (1964,
meadow weed Sonchus arvensis among the weed-ruderal plants
1968-1980). The analyses were performed on the weed species
was detected, whereas ruderal weeds contained Artemisia vulthat were, according to the Braun-Blanquet (1964) combined
garis, which is meadow and forest weed (Tab. 1).
cover-abundance scale, rated as: 3 (irrespective of the number of
Majority of the analyzed weed species bloomed from June to
specimens, the species covers 25-50% area), 4 (irrespective of
September,
as only Capsella-bursa-pastoris bloomed in April,
the number of specimens, the species covers 50-75% area) and 5
and
Sinapis
arvensis and Rubus caesius in May. The longest
(irrespective of the number of specimens, the species covers 75vegetative
period
was registered for Capsella-bursa-pastoris,
100% area).
which flowers until November (Tab. 1).
In Table 1, for the identified weed species, the following data
Weed flora life form spectrum reveals presence of therois given: family affiliation (Takhtajan, 2009), life form
phytes
(7 taxa, 53.85%), Fig. 1. Among these, most abundant are
(Ujvárosi, 1973), blooming month and categorization by habitat
T
,
which
germinate in Spring, with the seeds maturing at the
4
(Čanak et al., 1978), floral elements (Gajić, 1980) and ecologiend
of
Summer
(5 taxa, 38.46%). Therophytes T1 (1 taxon,
cal indices (Landolt, 1977).
7.69%) and T3 (1 taxon, 7.69%) are far less abundant. Geophytes contribute by 30.77% (4 taxa), and comprise G3 (3 taxa,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
23.08%) and G1 (1 taxon, 7.69%). Hemicryptophytes participate
Floristic study of weed species present in the peach orchard in
with 15.38% (2 taxa), namely H3 and H5 (each with 1 taxon,
Bajmok on a farm certified for organic production, 13 taxa with
7.69%). Such a versatile biological floristic spectrum of peachhigher cover-abundance scores were identified: Erigeron canaweed is a direct consequence of mechanical weed control (hoedensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L.,
ing) that favors therophyte survival—a characteristic of the ecoChenopodium album L., Polygonum lapathifolium L., Sorghum
systems under strong anthropogenic influence (Nikolić et al.,
halepense (L.) Pers., Solanum nigrum L., Sinapis arvensis L.,
2011; Džigurski et al., 2012; Ljevnaić-Mašić et al., 2013).
Setaria viridis (L.) P. B., Rubus caesius L., Sonchus arvensis L.,
176
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Džigurski, Dejana et al. / The Domin. Weed Species in Organi. Farmed Peach – PPB (Rosaceae A. L. De Jussieu 1789, Rosales)
Table 2. Floristic spectrum of weed flora in organic
orchards in Bajmok
Familia
Asteraceae
Poaceae
Brassicaceae
Chenopodiaceae
Convolvulaceae
Polygonaceae
Rosaceae
Solanaceae
Number
species
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
%
30.77
15.38
15.38
7.69
7.69
7.69
7.69
7.69
indicator of high insolation – L5 (7.69%, 1 taxon). Favorable
light regimen in this habitat is further confirmed by the mean
value of this index, L – 3.77.
Ecological index of temperature analysis reveals dominance
of warm habitat indicators – T4 (76.92%, 10 taxa), Fig. 2. Moderately warm habitat indicators T3 (15.38%, 2 taxa) and very
warm habitat indicators – T5 (7.69%, 1 taxon) are significantly
less represented. The combined contribution of the indicators of
warm (T4) and very hot (T5) habitat of 84.61% and the mean
value of this ecological index of T – 3.92 confirm that the thermal regimen of this agroecosystem is favorable.
Presence of only the indicators of moderate continental habitat conditions – K3 (100%, 13 taxa) is in accordance with the
moderately continental climate prevalent in the studied area (Fig.
2).
Phytogeographical analysis of the weed flora identified in the
studied peach orchard indicates dominance of widely distributed
taxa, which is characteristic for weed vegetation. Cosmopolitan
floral element predominates with 38.46% (5 taxa), and is followed by Sub-Eurasian 23.08% (3 taxa), and Eurasian, Adventive, Circumpolar and Sub-Circumpolar, with one taxon (7.69%)
each. Participation of the taxa characterized by narrower distribution is limited to the presence of one taxon—Sub-South Siberian floral element (Tab. 1).
Ecological index of humidity analysis indicates equal presence of mesophytes, adapted to temperate habitats – F3 (46.15%,
6 taxa) and subxerophytes, adapted to moderately arid habitats –
F2 (38.46%, 5 taxa), Fig. 2. Only Sorghum halepense favors arid
habitats – F1 (7.69%), while a hygrophyte Rubus caesius is
adapted to habitats characterized by variable humidity F4w
(7.69%). The mean value of the ecological index of humidity (F
– 2.54) further attests to the temperate nature of this habitat.
Ecological analysis of the habitat chemical reaction index revealed dominance of neutrophilic plants – R3 (69.23%, 9 taxa),
Fig. 2. These are followed by indicators of neutral to mildly alT1; 7.69
kaline habitat – R4 (23.08%, 3 taxa), and one taxon adapted to
H5; 7.69
acidic conditions – R2 (7.69%). The mean value of the ecological
H3; 7.69
T3; 7.69
index for habitat chemical reaction (R – 3.15) further confirms
that the habitat is neutral.
Analysis of the ecological index of nitrogen and nitrogen
compound content indicates presence of eutrophic indicators –
G3; 23.08
N4 (76.92%, 10 taxa) and habitats moderately abundant in these
compounds – N3 (23.08%, 3 taxa), Fig. 2. The percentage parT4; 38.46
ticipation of eutrophic (N4) and mesotrophic (N3) habitat indicators, as well as the mean index value (N – 3.77), point toward
meso-eutrophic conditions in the studied agroecosystem.
Indicators of organomineral compounds reveal medium humus content – H3 (84.62%, 11 taxa), Fig. 2. Sonchus arvensis is
G1; 7.69
an indicator of humus-rich soil – H4 (7.69%), while Setaria viridis is an indicator of soil with low humus content – H2 (7.69%).
Fig. 1. Biological spectrum of weed flora of
Moderate humus content is further confirmed by the mean value
Prunus persica in Bajmok
of this index for the studied
agroecosystem (H – 3.00).
100
Ecological soil dispersion (aeration) index analysis indicated sig90
nificant presence of indicators of
well aerated soils – D4 (84.62%, 11
80
taxa), Fig. 2. Indicators of highly
aerated soils are far less abundant –
70
D3 (15.38%, 2 taxa). The mean
value of this index (D – 3.85) fur60
ther confirms that the soil in this
agroecosystem is well aerated.
% 50
Ecological salinity index analysis points to the dominance of un40
salinated habitat indicators – S(84.62%, 11 taxa), Fig. 2. Only two
30
taxa are adapted to higher Na+ ion
concentrations—Sonchus arvensis
20
and Cirsium arvense – S+ (15.38%).
Favorable light regimen is con10
firmed by the presence of well insolated habitat indicators – L4
(69.23%, 9 taxa), Fig. 2. These are
0
followed by semi-shade indicators –
F1 F2 F3 F4
R2 R3 R4
N3 N4 H2 H3 H4 D3 D4
S+ SL2 L3 L4 L5
T3 T4 T5
K3
L3 (15.38%, 2 taxa), shade indicaFig. 2. Percentage values of ecological indices of weed flora of Prunus persica in Bajmok
tors – L2 (7.69%, 1 taxon) and one
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
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Džigurski, Dejana et al. / The Domin. Weed Species in Organi. Farmed Peach – PPB (Rosaceae A. L. De Jussieu 1789, Rosales)
CONCLUSION
Floristic study of weed vegetation in a peach orchard in Bajmok, certified for organic production, revealed the following
predominant species (13 species): Erigeron canadensis, Cirsium
arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sorghum halepense, Solanum nigrum,
Sinapis arvensis, Setaria viridis, Rubus caesius, Sonchus arvensis, Artemisia vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris.
Based on the taxonomic analysis findings, the weed families
Asteraceae (4 species), Poaceae (2 species) and Brassicaceae (2
species) comprise the greatest number plant species.
Among the analyzed weed species, most of which bloom
from June to September, 84.62% are weed-ruderal, and the remaining 15.38% are classified as ruderal. The weed flora lifeform spectrum reveals therophyte dominance (53.85%): T4
(38.46%), T1 (7.69%) and T3 (7.69%). Geophytes contribute by
30.77%, or 4 taxa, namely G3 (23.08%) and G1 (7.69%). Finally,
hemicryptophytes are present with 15.38%: H3 (7.69%) and H5
(7.69%).
Based on the ecological weed flora analyses, the habitat is
meso-eutrophic (N – 3.77), unsalinated (S- - 84.62%), and favorably aerated (D – 3.85), and is characterized by moderate
humidity (F – 2.54), neutral reaction (R – 3.15), and moderate
humus content (H – 3.00), as well as favorable light (L – 3.77)
and thermal (T – 3.92) regimen.
Phytogeographical analysis of the weed flora in the aforementioned peach orchard indicates the dominance of widely distributed taxa (92.3%)—a characteristic of weed vegetation.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is part of the project
TR31027 titled »Organic agriculture: Improvement of production by use of fertilizers, biopreparates and biological measures” subsidized by the Ministry for Education and Science of
the Republic of Serbia.
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Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H.,
Walters, S. M., Webb, D. A. eds. (1964). Flora Europaea I.
Cambridge University press, Cambridge.
Ujvárosi, M. (1973). Gymnövények. Mezőgazdasági Kiado,
Budapest, 1-833.
Received: 25.02.2014.
Accepted: 26.05.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 179-181
UDK: 664.151.3
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
DETERMINATION OF BETAINE IN SUGAR BEET MOLASSES
ODREĐIVANJE BETAINA U MELASI ŠEĆERNE REPE
Jelena KRULJ*, Rada JEVTIĆ-MUČIBABIĆ*, Jasna GRBIĆ*, Jovana BRKLJAČA*,
Ivan MILOVANOVIĆ*, Bojana FILIPČEV*, Marija BODROŽA-SOLAROV*
*University of Novi Sad, Institut of Food Technology, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Sugar beet molasses, a concentrate of mineral elements and a number of bioactive compounds, can be useful to supplement a
range of components in the production of enriched food products. The quality of molasses as a raw material in the food industry was
investigated in this paper. The basic chemical composition, as well as betaine content in the molasses produced in the domestic sugar
factories, were analyzed. Betaine constitutes one of the principal non-sugar organic matter in molasses. Betaine content, which has a
significant role in the functioning of human organism, was determined by HPLC method.
Key words: betaine, sugar beet molasses, HPLC.
REZIME
Melasa šećerne repe, kao koncentrat biogenih elemenata (kalijum, kalcijum, magnezijum, natrijum) i niza bioaktivnih jedinjenja
(proteini, betain, glutaminska kiselina, purinske i pirimidinske baze, organske kiseline, melanoidini) svrstava se u sirovinu koja može
da upotpuni asortiman korisnih sastojaka u proizvodnji obogaćenih prehrambenih proizvoda. Hemijski sastav melase zavisi od
kvaliteta šećerne repe i primenjene tehnologije prerade. Kvalitet repe je uslovljen faktorima kao što su sorta repe, tehnička zrelost
repe, primenjena agrotehnika, lokalitet uzgoja, kao i promene do kojih dolazi tokom skladištenja šećerne repe. Glavni sastavni deo
melase čine ugljeni hidrati, i to prvenstveno saharoza, ali su u znatnom procentu prisutni i nešećeri čiji je kvalitativni i kvantitativni
sastav od osnovne važnosti za ocenu pogodnosti melase kao sirovine u prerađivačkim, fermentativnim i prehrambenim industrijama.
Ukoliko su faktori od kojih zavisi sastav melase u opsegu uobičajenih vrednosti dobija se melasa standardnog kvaliteta pogodna za
industrijsko korišćenje, kao i za duže skladištenje bez primetnih gubitaka u komercijalnoj vrednosti. Oko jedne trećine azotnih
materija melase čini betain, a ostalo amino-kiseline, amidi, belančevine, melanoidini i u maloj količini soli amonijaka. U radu je
ispitan kvalitet melase sa aspekta njene primene kao sirovine u prehrambenoj industriji. U tom cilju analizaran je osnovni hemijski
sastav, kao i sadržaj betaina u melasi proizvedenoj u šest domaćih fabrika šećera (A, B, C, D, E i F). Betain ima značajnu ulogu u
funkcionisanju ljudskog organizma, učvršćuje krvne sudove, reguliše krvni pritisak i smanjuje holesterol u krvi, podstiče razmenu
materija i funkciju jetre. Sadržaj betaina je određen primenom tečne hromatografije visokih performansi (HPLC) u razblaženjima
rastvora melase u voda-metanol sistemu. Najveći sadržaj betaina pronađen je u uzorcima B i E u opsegu 3,37-4,28%, dok se manji
sadržaj betaina u uzorcima A, C, D i F kreće u opsegu 2,42-3,32%. U tehnološkom procesu proizvodnje šećera, betain prolazi
nepromenjen kroz faze procesa i gotovo kvantitativno prelazi u melasu. Rezultati pokazuju da postoji značajna razlika u sadržaju
betaina u melasama iz različitih fabrika, što je posledica različitog kvaliteta šećerne repe.
Ključne reči: betain, melasa šećerne repe, HPLC.
INTRODUCTION
Molasses, which is a by-product of the sugar industry, is a
relatively inexpensive and readily available raw material. It
represents liquid mixture of sugar, nonsucrose compounds and
water from which, sucrose in form of relatively pure crystals,
can not be obtained so that its production would be economically
justified. Sugar beet molasses generally contains high amount of
sucrose (ca. 50%), and is rich in mineral elements (potassium,
calcium, magnesium, sodium) and bioactive compounds
(proteins, betaine, glutamic acid, purine and pyrimidine bases,
vitamins, organic acids, melanoidins) (Ergun and Mutlu, 2000;
Jevtić-Mučibabić et al., 2013; Özgür et al., 2010).
The quality of molasses is related to the quality of sugarbeet,
the processing aids and the applied processing technology (Grbić
et al., 2011). A significant part of the molasses produced is used
for the production of industrially value-added and enriched food
products. Molasses is applied in many food or non-food
processes because of high content of nitrogenous compounds,
carbohydrates and its sweet taste. It is among the most important
raw materials for industrial cultivations especially for the
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
production of baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, organic acids,
amino acids, antibiotics, and enzymes (Yilmaztekin et al., 2008).
It has also been known that beet is the main source of
betaine, and commercially available betaine is obtained as a
natural by-product of the sugar beet industry. Being soluble in
water, betaine is extracted from sugar beets, along with sugar
and other compounds, in the process of producing sugar from
beets. It has a significant role in the functioning of human
organism as a tissue osmolyte and as a source of methyl groups,
and the supply of betaine clearly affects lipid metabolism (Lever
and Slow, 2010). Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) can be used
in the cosmetic, animal feedstock, pharmaceutical and health
industries (Escudero and Ruiz, 2011). It is the anhydride of
(carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide and exists with
either an open or an internally linked structure. Owing to the
presence of the trimethylamino group, it has the characteristics
of a nitrogenous base (Vialle et al., 1981).
The objective of this study was to: 1) investigate the
chemical composition of molasses produced in the domestic
sugar factories; 2) test and adopt reliable betaine extraction and
quantification procedures; 3) determine quantity of betaine in
selected sugar beet molasses.
179
Krulj, Jelena et al. / Determination of Betaine in Sugar Beet Molasses
MATERIAL AND METHOD
In this paper, investigations were performed on samples of
sugar beet molasses which were taken directly from the
production lines of six Serbian sugar factories (A, B, C, D, E and
F).
Basic quality parameters for molasses were determined
according to methods described in handbooks for the laboratory
control of sugar processing (Milić et al., 1992). The methods are
harmonized with the regulations guided by the International
Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis (ICUMSA,
2003).
Betaine content was determined by using a modified method
which is in accordance with the regulations guided by the
International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar
Analysis (ICUMSA, 2003). Each sample was homogenised and
further treated in the following manner. Approximatly 0.4 g of
molasses sample (accurately weighed) was dissolved in 20 ml of
solvent (water:methanol=1:1) to give a solution containing 0.05
g molasses per ml. This solution was stirred on Vortex for 2 min,
then which the mixture was centrifuged at 2000 rotations/min for
5 min. After this, clear supernatant was filtered through a 0.2 μm
membrane filter prior to injection.
HPLC system consisted of the Agilent liquid
chromatography 1200 Series (Agilent Technologies, Santa
Clara, CA, USA), a binary pumped system equipped with light
scattering detection was used. The analytical column was Rezex
RCM-Monosaccharide Ca+2 (300x7.8 mm) kept at a constant
temperature of 75 °C. The injection volume was 20 μl.
Deionized water mobile phase was used in the isocratic gradient
−1
program at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min . The acquisition of
chromatograms lasted 45 min.
Statistical analysis. The data was processed statistically using
STATISTICA 12 Software (Statsoft Inc., 2012, Tulsa,
Oklahoma). The significance of the difference between the mean
values was estimated by one-way analysis of variance
(ANOVA), and these were compared by the Fisher's Least
Significant Difference (LSD) Test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Quality of the molasses from sugar factories, average values
of studied parameters and statistical analysis are shown in the
Table 1.
Results show that the composition of the tested
molasses is typical and usual for the sugar beet
processing in local factories. Variations of this group
of indicators are influenced by sugar beet
technological quality and characteristics of the
processing conditions, used in the sugar factory
(Jevtić-Mučibabić et al., 2011). Molasses with this
composition is a suitable raw material for both
fermentative, food technology and food quality
improvement.
Table 1. Basic quality parameters of the olasses
Parameter
Stand. Coef. of
Min. Max. Aver.
%
dev.
var.
Dry matter 78.25 86.13 82.31 2.736 3.324
Polarization 46.34 48.41 47.04 0.746 1.586
Purity
54.65 60.29 57.20 2.189 3.828
quotient
pH value 6.82 7.93 7.51 0.479 6.371
Ash
9.43 11.07 10.15 0.626 6.171
Total
1.39 1.86 1.59 0.188 11.849
nitrogen
180
The results are given in Table 2 show that the betaine content
in sugar beet molasses is in the range of 2.42 to 4.28%. Our
study is in accordance with Van der Poel et al. (1998) who
considered that beet molasses usually contains about 3% to 4%
of betaine. Heikkila et al., (1992) found betaine content in beet
molasses between 3% and 8% of betaine calculated on a dry
solids basis.
Table 2. Betaine content obtained by HPLC in groups of six
samples of sugar beet molasses
Samples
The concentration of betaine (%)
A1
2.62±0.09 ijk
A3
2.86±0.12ghi
A5
2.96±0.07g
B1
3.99±0.08b
B3
4.28±0.03a
B5
3.85±0.05bc
C1
2.90±0.04gh
C3
2.56±0.06jk
C5
2.70±0.20hij
D1
2.69±0.04hij
D3
2.70±0.06hij
D5
2.42±0.01k
E1
3.42±0.05de
E3
3.61±0.09cd
E5
3.37±0.03fg
F1
3.03±0.02fg
F3
3.32±0.04e
F5
3.24±0.04ef
*Data are the average values of concentrations. Within
column mean values followed by different superscript letters
differ significantly at P < 0.01 (LSD- test).
Betaine content presented a maximum value in sample B,
and it was in the range 3.85-4.28%, while the lowest content was
detected in sample D, 2.42-2.70% (Fig. 1). The differences
between samples from different factories were statistically
significant.
It could be influenced by different sugar beet quality which
depends on the varieties of beet, beet technical maturity, climate,
locations of growing, meteorological conditions during the
growing season and other agronomic impacts (Šušić et al.,
1995).
Fig. 1. Betaine content in samples of sugar beet molasses
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Krulj, Jelena et al. / Determination of Betaine in Sugar Beet Molasses
Grbić Jasna, Jevtić-Mučibabić Rada, Radivojević S., Kuljanin
Tatjana, Koprivica Gordana, Mišljenović N. (2011). The effect
of nonsucrose compound on sucrose solubility and rheological
properties of molasses. Journal on Processing and Energy in
Agriculture - PTEP, 15 (4), 227-229.
Heikkikila H., Hyoky G., Kuisma J. (1992). Method for the
recovery of betaine from molasses. United States Patent, Patent
Number: US 5127957 A
ICUMSA (2003). Methods Book, Dr Albert Bartens
KG, Berlin.
Jevtić-Mučibabić Rada, Grbić Jasna, Mišljenović
Nevena, Koprivica Gordana, Kuljanin Tatjana,
Radivojević S. (2011). Nitrogen compounds in the
molasses. Journal on Processing and Energy in
Agriculture - PTEP, 15 (3), 169-172.
Jevtić-Mučibabić Rada, Grbić Jasna, Filipčev Bojana,
Kuljanin Tatjana, Šimurina Olivera, Milovanović I.,
Brkljača Jovana (2013). The effect of nonsucrose
compound on sugar beet molasses saturation and
desugarization. Journal on Processing and Energy in
Agriculture - PTEP, 17 (4), 166-168.
Lever M., Slow S. (2010). The clinical significance
of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl
group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry, 43, 732744.
Fig. 2. Chromatograms of betaine in samples B3 and D5
Milić M., Karadžić V., Obradović S. (1992). Metode
za laboratorijsku kontrolu procesa proizvodnje
CONCLUSION
fabrika šećera, Tehnološki fakultet, Zavod za tehnologiju
šećera, Novi Sad.
Apart from the high sucrose content, the compound
Özgür E., Marsb E. A., Pekselc B., Louwerseb A., Yücelc M.,
betaine is of economic interest in the molasses desugarization
Gündüzc U., Claassenb P. A. M., Eroğlua İ. (2010).
process. Betaine has been increasingly used as an ingredient in
Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark
food industry due to its very interesting nutritional, functional,
and photofermentation. International Journal of Hydrogen
health-promoting and technological properties. The obtained
Energy, 35 (2), 511-517.
results show that the differences in betaine content between
Šušić S., Petrov S., Kukić G., Sinobad G., Perunović P.,
samples from different factories were statistically significant.
Koronsovac B., Bašić Đ. (1995). Osnovi tehnologije šećera.
The effect of processing conditions on betaine content in
Univerzitet u Beogradu. Srbija.
molasses was not significant which confirms the fact that it is a
Van der Poel P., Schiweck H., Schwartz T. (1998). Sugar
function of sugar beet quality.
Technology, Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens, Berlin, pp. 978.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The research in this paper was
Vialle J., Kolosky M., Rocca J. L. (1981). Determination of
funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological
betaine in sugar and wine by liquid chromatography. Journal of
Development of Republic of Serbia, 2011-2014. (III 46005).
Chromatography, 204, 429-435.
Yilmaztekin M., Erten H., Cabaroglu T. (2008). Production of
REFERENCES
Isoamyl Acetate from Sugar Beet Molasses by Williopsis
saturnus
var. Saturnus. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 114
Ergun M., Mutlu S. F. (2000). Application of a statistical
(1),
34-38.
technique to the production of ethanol from sugar beet
molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioresource
Technology, 73 (3), 251-255.
Escudero I., Ruiz M. O. (2011). Extraction of betaine from beet
Received: 03.03.2014.
Accepted: 16.05.2014.
molasses using membrane contactors. Journal of Membrane
Science, 372, 258-268.
The content of nitrogen compounds in molasses depends on
their content in sugar beet. Average total nitrogen content in
tested molasses samples is 1.59%. It was found that, from the
total nitrogen content, 0.37% is betaine nitrogen.
The comparison of the obtained chromatograms revealed that
the distribution profile of peaks did not change significantly. On
the other hand, the peak area varied greatly between the lowest
found in sample D5 and highest in sample B3 (Fig. 2).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
181
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 182-186
UDK: 547.472.3
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION ON BREWERS’ SPENT GRAIN HYDROLYSATE
BY LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS AND LACTOBACILLUS FERMENTUM
MLEČNO-KISELA FERMENTACIJA HIDROLIZATA PIVSKOG TROPA
POMOĆU LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS I LACTOBACILLUS FERMENTUM
Jelena PEJIN*, Ljiljana MOJOVIĆ**, Sunčica KOCIĆ-TANACKOV*, Miloš RADOSAVLJEVIĆ*,
Aleksandra ĐUKIĆ-VUKOVIĆ**, Svetlana NIKOLIĆ**
* University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, 21 000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia
** University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, 11 000 Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Serbia
ABSTRACT
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the brewing industry, representing around 85% of the total by-products
generated. Per 100 L of beer produced 20 kg of brewer’s spent grain are obtained. BSG is a lignocellulosic material and due to its
high content of protein and fibre, it can also serve as a raw material in biotechnology i.e. in lactic acid production. In this study
brewer’s spent grain hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic acid fermentation by
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The effects of CaCO3 addition (2%) and different yeast extract content in hydrolysate on lactic acid yield were investigated. In fermentations with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 high
lactic acid yields were obtained (>95%) while in fermentations with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 lactic acid yields were low
(<50%).
Key words: Lactic acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1, brewers’ spent grain hydrolysate.
REZIME
Pivski trop čini najveći deo sporednih proizvoda proizvodnje piva; približno 85% od ukupnih sporednih proizvoda. Na 100 l proizvedenog piva, dobija se oko 20 kg tropa. Trop nastaje u velikim količinama tokom cele godine, jeftin je ili besplatan. Pivski trop je
lignocelulozni materijal, bogat proteinima i vlaknima (koji čine oko 20%, odnosno 70% suve materije pivskog tropa) i zbog toga se
može primenjivati kao sirovina u biotehnologiji tj. u proizvodnji mlečne kiseline. Mlečna kiselina se tradicionalno proizvodi fermentacijom skrobnih i šećernih supstrata pomoću bakterija mlečne kiseline. Upotreba sporednih proizvoda kao sirovine za proizvodnju mlečne kiseline može značajno unaprediti ekonomičnost i održivost procesa proizvodnje piva. Za proizvodnju mlečne kiseline
pivski trop se mora hidrolizovati. U ovom radu hidorlizat pivskog tropa je proizveden pod optimalnim uslovima. Hidrolizat pivskog
tropa je korišćen u mlečno-kiseloj fermentaciji pomoću Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 i Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. U
radu je takođe ispitan uticaj dodatka CaCO3 (2%) i različitih sadržaja ekstrakta kvasca u hidrolizatu na prinos mlečne kiseline. U
fermentacijama u kojima je kao proizvodni mikroorganizam korišćen Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 ostvareni su visoki prinosi mlečne kiseline tj. preko 95% dok su prinosi mlečne kiseline ostvareni u fermentacijama sa Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 bili
ispod 50%.
Ključne reči: Mlečna kiselina, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1, hidrolizat pivskog tropa.
INTRODUCTION
Lactic acid has a wide range of applicatioins in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and polymer industries (DjukićVuković et al., 2012a). Currently, there is an increased demand
for lactic acid as a raw material for the production of biopolymer
poly-lactic acid (PLA) which is a promising biodegradable, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly alternative to plastics
derived from petrochemicals (Abdel-Rahman et al., 2011). Food
and food-related applications account for approximately 85% of
the demand for lactic acid, whereas the nonfood industrial applications account for only 15% of the demand (John et al., 2009).
There are two optical isomers of lactic acid, L-(+)-lactic acid and
D-(-)-lactic acid (Lu et al., 2010). Lactic acid can be manufactured either by chemical synthesis or by microbial fermentations
(Reddy et al., 2008). Chemical synthesis of lactic acid is mainly
based on the hydrolysis of lactonitrile by strong acids, which
provide only the racemic mixture of D-(-)- and L-(+)-lactic acid
(John et al., 2007). In contrast, a desired isomer of lactic acid
can be produced via fermentation using selected lactic acidproducing strains (Cui et al., 2011). Besides this, microbial lactic
acid fermentation offers an advantage in terms of the utilization
of renewable carbohydrate biomass, low production temperature,
and low energy consumption. Presently, almost all lactic acid
182
produced worldwide comes from the fermentative production
route (Abdel-Rahman et al., 2011). The demand for lactic acid
has been estimated to grow yearly at 5–8% (Yadav et al., 2011).
The annual world market for lactic acid production was expected
to reach 367,300 metric tons by the year 2017 (Abdel-Rahman et
al., 2013).
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the
brewing industry, representing around 85% of the total byproducts generated (Xiros and Christakopoulos, 2012). Per 100
L of beer produced 20 kg of brewer’s spent grain are obtained
(Mussatto et al., 2006). The use of brewer’s spent grain is still
limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding
alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal
feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw
material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In
biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate
for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive or yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and
pullulan (Pejin et al., 2013). The chemical composition of brewers’ spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvest time,
malting and mashing conditions, and the quality and type of ad-
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Pejin, Jelena et al. / Lac. Acid Produc. on Brewers’ Spent Grain Hydrolys. by Lactobac. Rhamno. and Lactobacillus Fermentum
juncts added in the brewing process but in general, brewers’
spent grain is considered as a lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for around 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively (Santos et al., 2003; Mussatto et al., 2006).
The production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic materials can
be performed by sequential steps of chemical and/or mechanical
processing (in order to make the cellulose more accessible to the
enzymes), enzymatic saccharification (for obtaining solutions
containing glucose as main sugar) and finally, the hydrolysate
fermentation by microorganisms, especially Lactobacillus species (Mussatto et al., 2008).
In this study brewer’s spent grain hydrolysate was produced
using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic acid
fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The effects of CaCO3 addition (2%)
and different yeast extract content in hydrolysate on lactic acid
yield were investigated.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Brewers’ spent grain hydrolysate preparation
Brewers’ spent grain obtained in a lager beer production was
dried at 40 ºC for 12 hours. Dried brewers’ spent grain was
finely ground in a laboratory DLFU mill from Bühler-Miag
(Braunschwieg, Germany). For hydrolysate production 50 g of
dry brewers’ spent grain were mixed with 300 mL of distilled
water and pH value of the obtained mash was adjusted to 5.0
with the addition of 10% H3PO4, prior to the hydrolysis.
Brewer’s spent grain hydrolysis was carried out using automated
mashing water bath (Glasbläserei, Institut für Gärungs Gewerbe,
Berlin) using the following enzymes: Termamyl SC (1 hour at
90 °C), SAN Super 240 L (1 hour at 60 °C), and Celluclast 1.5 L
(10 hours at 45°C) at 180 rpm. All commercial enzymes used in
brewers’ spent grain hydrolysis (Termamyl SC, SAN Super 240
L, and Celluclast 1.5 L) were kindly provided by Novozymes
(Denmark). After enzymatic hydrolysis obtained brewers’ spent
grain hydrolysate was cooled to 20 °C and centrifuged (4000
rpm, 20 min, centrifuge: BOECO model C-28A, Hamburg,
Germany). Liquid hydrolysate was separated from solid hydrolysate. Liquid hydrolysate was used in lactic acid fermentations.
Its pH was adjusted to 6.5 with the addition of 1M NaOH. Yeast
extract content in hydrolysate was set to 1.0%, 3.0% and, 5.0%
with the addition of corresponding amounts of yeast extract
(HiMedia Laboratories, India). After this, liquid hydrolysate was
sterilized at 121 °C for 15 min and used as a fermentation medium. In experiments with the addition of CaCO3 (Merck, Germany), it was added after sterilization at a concentration of 2%
(w/v), prior to the inoculation with Lactobacillus strains.
Microorganisms
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469, a homofermentative
L-(+)-lactic acid strain, was obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, USA). Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1, a heterofermentative lactic acid strain, was isolated
from cheese and obtained from Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade. Stock cultures of Lactobacillus
rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 were
stored at 20 °C in 3 mL vials containing de Man Rogosa Sharpe
medium (MRS) (Fluka, USA) and 50% (v/v) glycerol as a cryoprotective agent. The cultures were propagated under microaerophilic conditions at 37 °C for Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC
7469 and at 30 °C for Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 in four
consecutive steps for 48 hours each in MRS medium before inoculation to fermentation brewers’ spent grain hydrolysate.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Lactic acid fermentation
All lactic acid fermentations were performed as batch cultures with shaking (150 rpm, Biosan model ES-20, Biosan Ltd.,
Lithuania). The fermentations were performed in 100 mL
Еrlenmаyer flasks with 60 mL of brewers’ spent grain hydrolysate for 72 h. The fermentation was initiated by the addition of
inoculum (5% v/v). In experiments with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 fermentation were conducted at 37 °C, while
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 fermentations were carried out at
30 °C. Lactic acid fermentations without the addition of calcium-carbonate were conducted under aerobic conditions obtained by constant shaking. Lactic acid fermentations with the
addition of calcium-carbonate were conducted under microaerophilic conditions. Although these samples were shaken, microaerophilic conditions were achieved since carbon-dioxide was
formed from calcium-carbonate. During fermentations, pH
value, reducing sugars content, L-(+)- and D(-)-lactic acid content and number of viable cells were analyzed every 24 h.
Analytical methods
The concentration of reducing sugars, calculated as glucose,
was determined by 3.5-dinitrosalicylic acid method using spectrophotometer (Miller, 1959). A calibration curve was set at 570
nm using standard glucose solutions. Lactic acid concentration
was determined by enzymatic method (L-/D-Lactic acid assay,
Megazyme, Wicklow, Ireland). Prior to the lactic acid determination, proteins were removed from samples (Methods of Enzymatic BioAnalysis and Food Analysis, 1997). The number of viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and Lactobacillus
fermentum PL-1 cells was determined using the agar plate dilution method under microaerophilic conditions during 72 hours.
Firstly, stock solution (1.0 mL of samples homogenized in 9.0
mL of sterile buffered peptone water) and series of decimal di-9
lutions (up to 10 ) were prepared. One milliliter of the prepared
dilution was transferred into a Petri plate (θ 9cm), in which
MRS medium was poured and samples were incubated for 72
hours at 37 °C for Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and at
30 °C for Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. Total viable cells
number was expressed as log CFU/g. Microaerophilic conditions
were maintained during incubation in Petri plates using double
MRS medium layer. All chemicals used in experiments were of
analytical and microbiological grade.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In Figures 1-6 are given L- and D-lactic acid content, total
lactic acid content, reducing sugars content, lactic acid bacteria
cells viability and pH value in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate
fermentations by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 without and
with CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%) and yeast extract
(1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition.
Calcium-carbonate addition (2%) increased lactic acid bacteria viability and pH value during fermentation. Calciumcarbonate reacts with lactic acid during fermentation forming
calcium-lactate which reduces lactic acid content and its negative effect on lactic acid bacteria cells. This could be a cause of
higher lactic acid bacteria cells viability in fermentation with
calcium-carbonate addition. Lactic acid bacteria growth optimum is at pH 5.5-6.5 (Reddy et al., 2008). With calciumcarbonate addition in hydrolysate, pH value closer to the optimal
for lactic acid bacteria cells metabolism was achieved.
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 produced similar contents of
L-(+)- and D-(-)-lactic acid in all fermentations. Viability of
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 cells was significantly higher in
183
Pejin, Jelena et al. / Lac. Acid Produc. on Brewers’ Spent Grain Hydrolys. by Lactobac. Rhamno. and Lactobacillus Fermentum
L- and D-lactic acid content (g/L)
0,50
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
0,45
0,40
30
Reducing sugars content (g/L)
fermentation with yeast extract addition than in fermentations
without yeast extract addition. Higher Lactobacillus fermentum
PL-1 cells viability could be explained by yeast extract addition
i.e. yeast extract contains vitamins, minerals, proteins, amino
acids and other nutritive compounds necessary for metabolism of
lactic acid bacteria cells.
0,35
10
5
0
0,20
0,15
L-lactic acid, without CaCO₃
D-lactic acid, without CaCO₃
L-lactic acid, with CaCO₃
D-lactic acid, with CaCO₃
0,10
0,05
0,00
24
48
12
72
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
72
Viability (log CFU/mL)
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
4,0
10
8
6
4
3,5
2
3,0
0
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast extract
3% of yeast extract
5% of yeast extract
0
2,5
2,0
L-lactic acid, 1% of yeast extract
D-lactic acid, 1% of yeast extract
L-lactic acid, 3% of yeast extract
D-lactic acid, 3% of yeast extract
L-lactic acid, 5% of yeast extract
D-lactic acid, 5% of yeast extract
1,0
0,5
0,0
24
Time (hours)
48
24
Time (hours)
48
72
Fig. 5. Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 cells viability in brewers'
spent grain hydrolysate fermentations without and with CaCO3
addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%) and yeast extract
(1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
7
72
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
6
Fig. 2. L- and D-lactic acid content in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate fermentations by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 with
CaCO3 (2.0%) and yeast extract (1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
5
pH value
1,5
9
48
Fig. 4. Reducing sugars content in brewers' spent grain
hydrolysate fermentations by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
without and with CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%) and
yeast extract (1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
Time (hours)
0
24
Time (hours)
0,25
Fig. 1. L- and D-lactic acid content in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate fermentations by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 without and with CaCO3 addition
L- and D-lactic acid content (g/L)
15
0
0
Total lactic acid content (g/L)
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast extract
3% of yeast extract
5% of yeast extract
20
0,30
4,5
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
25
4
3
8
2
7
1
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast extract
3% of yeast extract
5% of yeast extract
6
0
5
0
24
48
72
Time (hours)
4
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast extract
3% of yeast extract
5% of yeast extract
3
2
1
Fig. 6. pH value in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate
fermentations by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 without and
with CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%), and yeast extract
(1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
0
0
24
48
72
Time (hours)
Fig. 3. Total lactic acid content in brewers' spent grain
hydrolysate fermentations by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
without and with CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%) and
yeast extract (1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
184
In Figures 7-12 are given L- and D-lactic acid content, total
lactic acid content, reducing sugars content, lactic acid bacteria
cells viability and pH value in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate
fermentations by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 without
and with CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%) and yeast extract (1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition.
During fermentation without calcium-carbonate addition
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells viability decreased
by 37.13% while in fermentation with calcium-carbonate
addition Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells viability
increased by 25.43%. L-(+)-lactic acid content increased approximately 13 times with calcium-carbonate addition. Lactoba-
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Pejin, Jelena et al. / Lac. Acid Produc. on Brewers’ Spent Grain Hydrolys. by Lactobac. Rhamno. and Lactobacillus Fermentum
L- and D-lactic acid content (g/L)
12
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
10
8
6
35
Reducing sugars content (g/L)
cillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells viability was significantly
higher in fermentations with yeast extract addition than in
fermentation without yeast extract addition. L-(+)-lactic acid
content increased with yeast extract addition.
25
20
15
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast extract
3% of yeast extract
5% of yeast extract
10
5
0
4
L-lactic acid, without CaCO₃
D-lactic acid, without CaCO₃
L-lactic acid, with CaCO₃
D-lactic acid, with CaCO₃
2
0
0
24
48
72
Time (hours)
0
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
16
14
12
10
12
10
8
6
4
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast extract
3% of yeast extract
5% of yeast extract
2
L-lactic acid, 1% of yeast extract
D-lactic acid, 1% of yeast extract
L-lactic acid, 3% of yeast extract
D-lactic acid, 3% of yeast extract
L-lactic acid, 5% of yeast extract
D-lactic acid, 5% of yeast extract
4
2
0
0
24
48
72
72
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
8
6
48
Fig. 10. Reducing sugars content in brewers' spent grain
hydrolysate fermentations by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC
7469 without and with CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%)
and yeast extract (1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
Viability (log CFU/mL)
18
24
Time (hours)
Fig. 7. L- and D-lactic acid content in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate fermentations by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
without and with CaCO3 addition
L- and D-lactic acid content (g/L)
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
30
0
0
24
Time (hours)
48
72
Fig. 11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells viability in
brewers' spent grain hydrolysate fermentations without and with
CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%) and yeast extract
Time (hours)
(1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
Fig. 8. L- and D-lactic acid content in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate fermentations by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
with CaCO3 (2.0%) and yeast extract
(1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
7
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
6
5
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
pH value
Total lactic acid content (g/L)
18
16
14
12
4
3
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast extract
3% of yeast extract
5% of yeast extract
2
10
1
8
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast extract
3% of yeast extract
5% of yeast extract
6
4
2
0
0
24
48
72
Time (hours)
Fig. 9. Total lactic acid content in brewers' spent grain
hydrolysate fermentations by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC
7469 without and with CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%)
and yeast extract (1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
0
0
24
Time (hours)
48
72
Fig. 12. pH value in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate
fermentations by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 without
and with CaCO3 addition, and with CaCO3 (2.0%) and yeast extract (1.0, 3.0, or 5.0%) addition
In Figure 13 is presented lactic acid yield in Lactobacillus
fermentum PL-1 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
fermentations.
Calcium-carbonate addition increased lactic acid yield by
3.38% in Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 fermentation and by
16.19% in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 fermentation.
185
Pejin, Jelena et al. / Lac. Acid Produc. on Brewers’ Spent Grain Hydrolys. by Lactobac. Rhamno. and Lactobacillus Fermentum
acid bacteria: Overview and limits. Journal of
Biotechnology, 156, 286-301.
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Abdel-Rahman, M., Tashiro, Y., Sonomoto, K. (2013).
Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial
80
fermentation processes. Biotechnology Advances, 31, 87770
902.
60
Cui, F., Li, Y., Wan, C. (2011). Lactic acid production from
50
corn stover using mixed cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus
40
and Lactobacillus brevis. Bioresoruce Technology, 102,
30
1831-1836.
20
Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra, Mojović, L., Vukašinović10
Sekulić, M., Rakin, M., Nikolić, Svetlana, Pejin, Jelena,
Bulatović, M. (2012a). Effect of different fermentation
0
Without CaCO₃
With CaCO₃
1% of yeast
3% of yeast
5% of yeast
parameters on L-lactic acid production from liquid distillery
extract
extract
extract
stillage. Food Chemistry, 134, 1038-1043.
Lactic acid fermentation
Fig. 13. Lactic acid yield in Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 and Lac- Đukić-Vuković, A., Mojović, L., Vukašinović-Sekulić, M.,
Rakin, M., Nikolić, S., Pejin, J., Hao, J. (2012b).Utilization
tobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 fermentations
of the stillage from bioethanol production on waste bread for
lactic
acid and biomass production, Journal on Processing and
In Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 fermentations the highest
Energy in Agriculture, 16, 14-18.
lactic acid yield (42.35%) was achieved when 5.0% of yeast exĐukić-Vuković, Aleksandra, Mojović, L., Vukašinović-Sekulić,
tract was added while in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
M., Nikolić, Svetlana, Pejin, Jelena (2013). Integrated
fermentations the highest lactic acid yield (97.54%) was
production of lactic acid and biomass on distillery stillage.
achieved when 1.0% of yeast extract was added. Yeast extract
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 36, 1157-1164.
addition increased lactic acid yield by 12.28% in Lactobacillus
John, R., Madhavan Nampoothiri, K., Pandey, A. (2007).
fermentum PL-1 fermentation and by 13.78% in Lactobacillus
Fermentative production of lactic acid from biomass: an
rhamnosus ATCC 7469 fermentation. Đukić-Vuković et al.
overview on process developments and future perspectives.
(2012a, 2012b, 2013) also achieved very high L-(+)-lactic acid
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 74, 524-534.
yields (above 90%) in fermentations on distillery stillage by LacJohn,
R., Anisha, G., Madhavan Nampoothiri, K., Pandey, A.,
tobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469.
(2009). Direct lactic acid fermentation: Focus on simultaneous
saccharification and lactic acid production. Biotechnology
CONCLUSION
Advances, 27, 145-152.
Calcium-carbonate addition (2%) increased Lactobacillus
Lu, Z., He, F., Shi, Y., Lu, M., Yu, L. (2010). Fermentative
fermentum PL-1 cells viability and pH value during fermentaproduction of L-(+)-lactic acid using hydrolyzed acorn starch,
tion. L-(+)- and D-(-)-lactic acid content as well as total lactic
persimmon juice and wheat bran hydrolysate as nutrients.
acid content increased 10 times with yeast extract addition. LacBioresource Technology, 101, 3642–3648.
tobacillus fermentum PL-1 produced similar contents of L-(+)Methods of Enzymatic BioAnalysis and Food Analysis (1997).
and D-(-)-lactic acid in all fermentations. Viability of LactobaD-glucose, UV method, Boehringer Mannheim GmbH
cillus fermentum PL-1 cells was significantly higher in fermentaBiochemicals, Mannheim, 49.
tions with yeast extract addition than in fermentations without
Miller, G. (1959). Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for
yeast extract addition. During fermentation without calciumdetermination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 31,
carbonate addition Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
426–428.
viability decreased by 37.13% while in fermentation with
Mussatto, S., Dragone, G., Roberto, I. (2006). Brewer’s spent
calcium-carbonate addition Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC
grain: generation, characteristics and potential applications,
7469 cells viability increased by 25.43%. Lactobacillus
Journal of Cereal Science, 4, 1–14.
rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cells viability was significantly higher
Mussatto, S., Fernandes, M., Mancilha, Roberto, I. (2008).
in fermentations with yeast extract addition than in fermentation
Effects of medium supplementation and pH control on lactic
without yeast extract addition. Calcium-carbonate addition inacid production from brewer’s spent grain. Biochemical
creased lactic acid yield by 3.38% in fermentation with LactobaEngineering Journal. 40, 437–444.
cillus fermentum PL-1 and 16.19% in fermentation with LactoPejin, Jelena, Radosavljević, M., Grujić, O., Mojović, L., Kocićbacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. In Lactobacillus fermentum
Tanackov, Sunčica, Nikolić, Svetlana, Djukić-Vuković,
PL-1 fermentations the highest lactic acid yield (42.35%) was
Aleksandra (2012). Mogućnosti primene pivskog tropa u
achieved when 5.0% of yeast extract was added while in Lactobiotehnologiji. Hemijska industrija, 67, 277-291.
bacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 fermentations the highest lactic
Reddy, G., Altaf, Md., Naveena, B., Venkateshwar, M., Vijay
acid yield (97.54%) was achieved when 1.0% of yeast extract
Kumar, E. (2008). Amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentation
was added. Yeast extract addition increased lactic acid yield by
— A review. Biotechnology Advances, 26, 22–34.
12.28% in fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 and
Santos, M., Jimenez, J., Bartolomé, B., Gomez-Cordoves, C.,
13.78% in fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC
Del Nozal, J. (2003). Variability of brewer’s spent grain within
7469.
a brewery. Food Chemistry, 80, 17-21.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This work was funded by the
Xiros, C., Christakopoulos P. (2012). Biotechnological potential
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development
of brewers spent grain and its recent applications. Waste and
of Republic of Serbia (TR-31017). The authors would like to
Biomass Valorization, 3, 213-232.
thank Novozymes (A/S Bagsvaerd, Denmark) for the free enYadav, A., Chaudhari A., Kothari R. (2011). Bioconversion of
renewable resources into lactic acid: an industrial view. Critical
zymes supply.
Reviews in Biotechnology, 31, 1-19.
Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469
Total lactic acid yeald (%)
100
REFERENCES
Abdel-Rahman, M. A., Tashiro, Y., Sonomoto, K. (2011). Lactic
acid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars using lactic
186
Received: 10.03.2014.
Accepted: 28.05.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 187-190
UDK: 599.731.1: 574.915
Expert Paper
Stručni rad
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PROXIMATE AND MINERAL
COMPOSITION OF ADIPOSE TISSUE FROM FREE-RANGE REARED
SWALLOW-BELLY MANGULICA PIGS FROM VOJVODINA
FIZIČKA SVOJSTVA, OSNOVNI HEMIJSKI SASTAV I SADRŽAJ MINERALA
U MASNIM TKIVIMA SVINJA LASASTE MANGULICE UZGAJANE U ‚‚FREE
RANGE’’ SISTEMU U VOJVODINI
Vladimir TOMOVIĆ , Marija JOKANOVIĆ , Žarko KEVREŠAN , Snežana ŠKALJAC , Branislav ŠOJIĆ , Tatjana TASIĆ ,
**
*
*
***
Predrag IKONIĆ , Marija ŠKRINJAR , Vera LAZIĆ , Mila TOMOVIĆ
*
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, 21000 Novi Sad,Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia
**
University of Novi Sad, Institute for Food Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia
***
Technical school "PavleSavić", 21000 Novi Sad, Šajkaška 34, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
*
*
**
*
*
**
ABSTRACT
This study was carried out on 15 castrated male purebred Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs. The Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs
were free-range reared on the territory of natural protected area "Zasavica", SremskaMitrovica. After chilling, back fat (lard) and
leaf fat were excised from the right side of each carcass.Physical properties of adipose tissue were examined by determining the pH
and colour (CIEL*a*b* values), while composition was examined by determination of the moisture, protein, total fat, total ash and
mineral (phosphorous, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese) contents. There was no significant
difference (P>0.05) between back fat and leaf fat for any examined property, except for lightness (CIEL* value, P<0.001). Many
significant relationships between examined quality properties were found.
Key words: pigs, Swallow-belly Mangulica, adipose tissue, physical characteristics, proximate composition, mineral composition.
REZIME
U ovom radu su obaljena ispitivanjana 15 kastriranih muških grla svinja Lasaste Mangulice. Svinje su odgajane u
tradicionalnom slobodnom ispustu u specijalnom rezervatu prirode "Zasavica", Sremska Mitrovica. Uzorci leđnog potkožnog masnog
tkiva i sala su izdvojeni sa svih desnih polutki, nakon hlađenja. Fizička svojstva (vrednost pH i boja– CIEL*a*b*), osnovni hemijski
sastav (sadržaj vlage, proteina, ukupne masti i ukupnog pepela) i sadržaj minerala (fosfor, kalijum, natrijum, kalcijum, magnezijum,
gvožđe, cink, bakar, mangan) su određeni standardnim metodama. Između potkožnog masnog tkiva i sala nije utvrđena značajna
razlika (P>0,05) ni za jedno ispitano svojstvo, osim za svetloću (CIEL*). Prosečne vrednosti pH24h u potkožnom masnom tkivu i salu
iznosile su 6,50 i 6,62, respektivno. Boja, odnosno svetloća (CIEL*), potkožnog masnog tkiva bila je značajno (P<0,001) tamnija
(74,44) u poređenju sa bojom sala (79,55). Prosečni udeli crvene (CIEa*) i žute (CIEb*) boje iznosili su 3,27 i 3,05 za potkožno
masno tkivo, odnosno 2,56 i 2,86 za salo, respektivno. Za oba ispitana tkiva, sadržaj vlage je bio u intervalu od 4,34 do 7,09 g/100 g,
sadržaj proteina je bio u intervalu od 0,59 do 2,04 g/100 g, sadržaj ukupne masti je bio u intervalu od 91,37 do 95,08 g/100 g, dok je
sadržaj ukupnog pepela bio u intervalu od 0,05 do 0,09 g/100 g. Redosled prosečnih sadržaja minerala u mg/100g za oba ispitana
tkiva je bio sledeći: P (17,38) > K (15,89) > Na (8,74) > Ca (3,33) > Mg (1,15) > Fe (0,47) > Zn (0,35) > Cu (0,06) > Mn (0,008).
Između ispitanih svojstava utvrđene su brojne značajne zavisnosti.
Ključnereči: svinje, Lasasta Mangulica, masno tkivo, fizička svojstva, osnovni hemijski sastav, sadržaj minerala.
INTRODUCTION
In Serbia, three indigenous pig breeds – Mangulica, Moravka
and Resavka – are reared, but actually Mangulica – its three
varieties, White (Blond), Swallow-belly and Red Mangulica – is
most commonly reared. Today, the Mangulica pig is a
representative example of the success of preserving endangered
breeds, as it is one of the last autochthonous pig breeds in
Europe. It is known for maturing late and for its soundness,
vitality, resistance and longevity (Scherf, 2000). It is one of the
fattiest pigs in the world. Generally 65–70% of the carcass is fat.
The lean meat is only 30–35% compared to more than 50% in
modern breeds (Egerszegi et al., 2003). According to Egerszegi
et al. (2003) Mangulica meat quality, taste and consistence are
unexcelled. It has the necessary amount of fat and the taste
satisfy any expectation. Traditionally, meat from Mangulica pigs
has been transformed into unique highly priced dry-cured meat
products: dry-hams, loins and sausages. Most of these products
still rely primarily on local, traditional manufacturing processes.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Technological (pH value, colour, water-holding capacity,
tenderness, protein content and its status, fat content and its
status, connective tissue content) and nutritional (proteins and
their composition, fats and their composition, minerals, vitamins,
digestibility) animal tissue quality characteristics may be
influenced by multiple interacting factors before and after
slaughter. These include breed, genotype, feeding, pre-slaughter
handling, stunning, slaughter method, chilling and storage
conditions (Hofmann, 1990; Honikel, 1999; Rosenvold and
Andersen, 2003; Olsson and Pickova, 2005; Tomović et al.,
2010).
Fat, total fat, crude fat and total lipids are all terms covering
more or less the same components (Leth, 2004). There are four
sources of lipid in meat animals: the muscle fibres; subcutaneous
adipose tissue; intramuscular adipose tissue; and abdominal
adipose tissue (Smith et al., 2004). In many countries, fat is an
unpopular constituent of meat animals for consumers, being
considered unhealthy. Yet fat and fatty acids, whether in adipose
tissue or muscle, contribute importantly to various aspects of
187
Tomović, Vladimir et al. / Phy. Charac. and Proxi. and Mineral Compos. of Adipose Tiss. From Free-Range Reared Swal.-Belly Mang
animal tissue quality and are central to the nutritional value of
animal tissue. The number of studies examined the factors
controlling fat deposition and fatty acid composition in adipose
tissue and muscle of animals (Wood et al., 2008). However,
there is lack of information about quality characteristics of
adipose tissue from indigenous pig breeds (Swallow-belly
Mangulica pigs), especially for mineral composition. Thus, the
aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics
and proximate and mineral composition of back fat (lard) and
leaf fat from free-range reared Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs
from Vojvodina.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
colour coordinates (CIE, 1976) were determined using
MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka,
Japan) using D65 illuminant, a 2° standard observer angle and a
8-mm aperture in the measuring head.
Proximate and mineral composition.Moisture (ISO 1442,
1997), protein (nitrogen x 6.25; ISO 937, 1978), total fat (ISO
1443, 1973) and total ash (ISO 936, 1998) contents of both fat
tissues were determined according to methods recommended by
International Organization for Standardization. All analyses
were performed in duplicate. The total phosphorous (P) content
of the both fat tissues was determined according to ISO method
(ISO 13730, 1996). The metal [potassium (K), sodium (Na),
calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper
(Cu) and manganese (Mn)] contents of the both fat tissues were
determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry after
mineralisation by dry ashing, as described in detail by Tomović
et al. (2011). All analyses were performed in duplicate.
Statistical analysis. All data are presented as mean, standard
deviation (SD) and range. Independent t-test were used to test
the hypothesis about differences between two mean values.
Correlation coefficients among tissues characteristics were also
calculated. The software package STATISTICA 12.0 was used
(StatSoft, 2012) for analysis.
Animals, diet, sampling and preparing. This study was
carried out on 15 castrated male pure-bred Swallow-belly
Mangulica pigs randomly selected over a 2-year period. The
Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs were free-range reared on the
territory of natural protected area ‚‚Zasavica’’ (FAO DAD-IS,
2003), SremskaMitrovica, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
(northern Serbia). The growth and development of Swallowbelly Mangulica pig included different periods. During the first
period (lactation and weaning), the piglets were nursed by the
sow from birth to weaning, which lasted 50 days (7–8 kg). In the
period of 10–50 days of age, the piglets also had ad libitum
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
access to mixed diet containing maize (80%) and wheat, oat and
barley (20%). From weaning to 90 days of age (13–15 kg), the
Physical characteristics of back fat (lard) and leaf fat of
piglets were fattened on the same mixed diet. The free-range
Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs are presented in Table 1. The
pigs were then allowed toroam in pasture and oak groves, to feed
difference between mean ultimate pH24h values determined in
naturally on grass, herbs, acorns and roots, until the slaughtering
back fat (6.50) and leaf fat (6.62) was not significant (P=0.165).
time approached.
The back fat had significantly (P<0.001) lower mean CIEL*
The pigs were slaughtered at the weight of 150 kg
value (74.44), indicating darker colour, than leaf fat (79.55). The
(147.0±5.4 kg), which is considered as an optimum slaughtering
type of adipose tissue did not significantly affect redness –
weight for Swallow-belly Mangulica pork quality, at the age of
CIEa* (P = 0.459) and yellowness – CIEb* values (P = 0.878).
about 20 months (604±14 days), in a commercial slaughterhouse
The CIEa* values ranged from 1.22 to 5.97, and the CIEb*
according to the routine procedure. After the evisceration which
values ranged from 0.60 to 7.11. As expected, CIEa* value was
was finished about 30 min post-mortem, the carcasses were
significantly positively (r=0.92, P<0.001) correlated with CIEb*
divided into two sides. All carcasses were inspected and passed
value (Table 4).
the government’s official control. Mean
Table 1. Physical characteristics of back fat (lard) and leaf fat of Swallow-belly
back fat thickness, measured by ruler on
the carcass split line over the M. gluteus Mangulica pigs
medius, was 52.2 mm. Carcasses were
Colour
Adipose
pH24h
tissue
divided
into
two
sides,
and
CIEL*
CIEa*
CIEb*
conventionally chilled overnight in a
Mean ± SD 6.50 ± 0.14
74.44 ± 1.41
3.27 ± 0.62
3.05 ± 0.95
Back fat
chiller at 2–4 °C. The following two fat
Range
(6.37–6.73)
(72.54–75.72)
(2.43–4.16)
(2.39–4.69)
tissues were excised from the right side
Mean ± SD 6.62 ± 0.11
79.55 ± 0.82
2.56 ± 1.94
2.86 ± 2.57
Leaf fat
of each carcass: back fat (lard) and leaf
Range
(6.45–6.76)
(78.60–80.79)
(1.22–5.97)
(0.60–7.11)
fat.Physical
characteristics
were
P value
0.165
< 0.001
0.459
0.878
measured on fresh fat tissue. After
Mean ± SD 6.56 ± 0.14
76.99 ± 2.91
2.92 ± 1.41
2.96 ± 1.83
determination of physical characteristics Both tissues
Range
(6.37–6.76)
(72.54–80.79)
(1.22–5.97)
(0.60–7.11)
each fat tissue was homogenized,
vacuum packaged in polyethylene bags and stored at –40 °C
Proximate composition of back fat (lard) and leaf fat of
until determination of proximate and mineral composition.
Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs are presented in Table 2. The
Physical measurements.pH value was measured at 24 h
differences in the proximate composition between the back fat
(pH24h) post-mortem using the portable pH meter (Consort T651,
and leaf fat were not significant (P>0.05). Moisture content in
both tissues varied between 4.34 and 7.09 g/100 g, while protein
Turnhout, Belgium) equipped with an insertion glass
content was between 0.59 and 2.04 g/100 g. Total fat content in
combination electrode (Mettler Toledo Greifensee, Switzerland).
both tissues varied between 91.37 and 95.08 g/100 g, while total
The pH meter was calibrated before and during the readings
ash content was between 0.05 and 0.09 g/100 g. Results obtained
using standard phosphate buffers (pH value of calibration buffers
for proximate composition of adipose tissue are in agreement
was 7.00 and 4.01 at 25 °C) and adjusted to the expected
with results reported in literature (Table 5). As expected,
temperature of measured muscles (ISO 2917, 1999).
moisture content was significantly negatively (r = –0.93,
Measurements were performed in triplicate.Eight replicate
P<0.001) correlated with total fat content (Table 4).
surface colour measurements were performed on each sample.
The CIEL* (lightness), CIEa* (redness) and CIEb* (yellowness)
188
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Tomović, Vladimir et al. / Phy. Charac. and Proxi. and Mineral Compos. of Adipose Tiss. From Free-Range Reared Swal.-Belly Mang.
Moisture content was significantly positively
correlated with Na (r=0.73, P<0.05) and Mg
(r=0.65, P<0.05) content, while protein content
was significantly positively correlated with Ca
(r=0.70, P<0.05), and significantly negatively
correlated with Zn (r=–0.79, P<0.01) content.
Total fat content was significantly negatively
correlated with Na (r=–0.66, P<0.05) and Ca
(r=–0.71, P<0.05), and significantly positively
correlated with Zn (r=0.63, P<0.05) content.
Additionally, significantly positive correlation
was determined between P and Na (r=0.86,
P<0.01) content, K and Mn (r=0.68, P<0.05) content, Mg with
Fe (r=0.69, P<0.05) and Mn (r=0.77, P<0.01) content, and Fe
and Mn (r=0.81, P<0.01).
Table 2. Proximate composition (g/100 g) of back fat (lard) and leaf fat of
Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs
Adipose
Moisture
Protein
Total fat
Total ash
tissue
Mean ± SD 5.21 ± 0.56 1.33 ± 0.45 93.46 ± 0.85
0.06 ± 0.01
Back fat
Range
(4.62–5.93) (0.90–2.04) (92.46–94.72) (0.05–0.08)
Mean ± SD 5.78 ± 1.25 0.95 ± 0.32 93.13 ± 1.67
0.07 ± 0.01
Leaf fat
Range
(4.34–7.09) (0.59–1.40) (91.37–95.08) (0.06–0.09)
P value
0.379
0.164
0.710
0.260
Mean ± SD 5.50 ± 0.96 1.14 ± 0.42 93.29 ± 1.26
0.07 ± 0.01
Both tissues
Range
4.34–7.09
0.59–2.04 91.37–95.08
0.05–0.09
Mineral composition of back fat (lard) and leaf fat of
Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs are presented in Table 3.
The type of adipose tissue had no significant (P>0.05) effect
on the mineral contents. The order of the minerals in the adipose
tissue and their content ranges in mg/100 g was: P (13.18–23.61,
mean 17.38) > K (13.96–18.17, mean 15.89) > Na (6.08–13.00,
mean 8.74) >Ca (2.47–4.31, mean 3.33) > Mg (0.99–1.64, mean
1.15) > Fe (0.34–0.67, mean 0.47) > Zn (0.25–0.50, mean 0.35)
> Cu (0.03–0.09, mean 0.06) >Mn (0.006–0.011, mean 0.008).
Results obtained for mineral composition of adipose tissue are
similar or higher compering with results reported in literature
(Table 5). Further (Table 4), CIEa* and CIEb* values were
significantly positively correlated with P (r=0.75, P<0.05;
r=0.81, P<0.01), Na (r=0.64, P<0.05; r=0.84, P<0.01), Ca
(r=0.63, P<0.05; r=0.68, P<0.05) and Mg (r=0.64, P<0.05;
r=0.70, P<0.05) content.
CONCLUSION
The results of the present study obtained for physical
characteristics and proximate and mineral composition shown
that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between back
fat and leaf fat for any examined property, except for lightness
(CIEL* value, P<0.001). Many significant relationships between
examined quality properties were found.Nevertheless, more
studies are necessary to provide a better knowledge about
adipose tissue characteristics from free-range reared Swallowbelly Mangulica pigs especiallyabout fatty acid composition.
Table 3. Mineral composition (mg/100 g) of back fat (lard) and leaf fat of Swallow-belly Mangulica pigs
Adipose tissue
P
Mean ± SD 17.74 ± 3.60
Back fat
Range (13.18–23.12)
Mean ± SD 17.02 ± 4.24
Leaf fat
Range (13.32–23.61)
P value
0.780
Mean ± SD 17.38 ± 3.73
Both tissues
Range (13.18–23.61)
K
Na
Ca
15.58 ± 0.75 8.83 ± 2.75 3.36 ± 0.45
(14.76–16.48) (6.08–11.77) (2.90–4.11)
16.20 ± 1.91 8.65 ± 2.66 3.29 ± 0.89
(13.96–18.17) (6.35–13.00) (2.47–4.31)
0.516
0.917
0.889
15.89 ± 1.40 8.74 ± 2.55 3.33 ± 0.66
(13.96–18.17) (6.08–13.00) (2.47–4.31)
Mg
1.08 ± 0.05
(1.01–1.14)
1.23 ± 0.25
(0.99–1.64)
0.222
1.15 ± 0.19
(0.99–1.64)
Fe
0.42 ± 0.06
(0.34–0.48)
0.53 ± 0.13
(0.40–0.67)
0.112
0.47 ± 0.11
(0.34–0.67)
Zn
0.32 ± 0.06
(0.25–0.37)
0.39 ± 0.08
(0.31–0.50)
0.149
0.35 ± 0.08
(0.25–0.50)
Cu
0.06 ± 0.03
(0.03–0.09)
0.05 ± 0.02
(0.03–0.07)
0.494
0.06 ± 0.02
(0.03–0.09)
Mn
0.007 ± 0.001
(0.006–0.008)
0.009 ± 0.002
(0.006–0.011)
0.079
0.008 ± 0.002
(0.006–0.011)
Table 4. Overall correlation (r) between physical characteristics and proximate and mineral composition
Characteristics
pH24h
CIEL*
CIEa*
CIEb*
Moisture
Protein
Total fat
Total ash
P
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Fe
Zn
Cu
CIEL* CIEa* CIEb* Moisture Protein Total fat Total
ash
0.40 –0.69* –0.42 0.12
0.00
–0.12 0.36
–0.27 –0.15 0.11 –0.46
0.02
0.31
0.92*** 0.41
0.28
–0.43 0.09
0.61
0.29
–0.59 0.20
0.22 –0.93*** 0.59
–0.54 –0.14
–0.45
P
K
Na
Ca
Mg
–0.43
–0.33
0.75*
0.81**
0.59
0.04
–0.48
0.19
–0.46
0.22
0.32
0.24
0.34
–0.19
–0.27
–0.19
0.24
–0.13
–0.27
0.64*
0.84**
0.73*
0.19
–0.66*
0.23
0.86**
0.20
–0.11
–0.08
0.63*
0.68*
0.53
0.70*
–0.71*
0.24
0.46
–0.07
0.43
Fe
Zn
–0.20 0.08 –0.06
0.44 0.56 0.53
0.64* 0.10 –0.16
0.70* 0.20 –0.12
0.65* 0.45 –0.40
0.06 –0.41 –0.79**
–0.62 –0.25 0.63*
0.31 0.35 –0.19
0.39 0.01 –0.04
0.62 0.59 0.04
0.50 0.25 –0.19
0.49 –0.23 –0.43
0.69* –0.02
0.18
Cu
Mn
–0.25
–0.43
0.10
0.10
0.21
–0.12
–0.12
–0.12
0.59
0.05
0.36
0.03
–0.25
–0.31
0.02
–0.12
0.61
0.29
0.37
0.31
–0.48
–0.15
0.06
0.23
0.68*
0.33
–0.07
0.77**
0.81**
0.48
–0.13
Cu
0.009
Mn
0.001
*P< 0.05; **P< 0.01; ***P< 0.001.
Table 5. Proximate and mineral composition (mg/100 g) of pig’s adipose tissue according to literature
Source
Samples
Moisture Protein Fat
The US Department of
Leaf fat
4.09
1.76 94.16
Agriculture’s
Lard
100
Hopkins and Murphy (1962) Fat - pork leg
Honikel (2011)
Lard
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Ash
0.10
P
19
K
31
0.02
3
1
Na
5
0.01
18.0
2
Ca
1
0.07
2.2
1
Mg
1
0.02
1
Fe
0.09
0.3
0.05
Zn
0.18
0.11
0.1
0.02
0.02
189
Tomović, Vladimir et al. / Phy. Charac. and Proxi. and Mineral Compos. of Adipose Tiss. From Free-Range Reared Swal.-Belly Mang
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: Research was financially supported
by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development,
Republic of Serbia, project TR31032. These results are also part
of the project No 114-451-3464/2013 (Improvement of meat
quality from indigenous and modern pig breeds produced in
Vojvodina for the production of traditional dry fermented
sausages and dry cured meat products), which is financially
supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and
Technological Development, Autonomous Province of
Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia.
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190
Accepted: 09.06.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 4; p 191-195
UDK: 633.85: 574.915
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SUNFLOWER
GENOTYPES WITH ALTERED OIL QUALITY
STVARANJE I KORIŠĆENJE GENOTIPOVA SUNCOKRETA SA
PROMENJENIM KVALITETOM ULJA
Sandra CVEJIĆ, Siniša JOCIĆ, Dragana MILADINOVIĆ, Milan JOCKOVIĆ, Ivana IMEROVSKI,
Zvonimir SAKAČ, Vladimir MIKLIČ
Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Makisma Gorkog 30, Novi Sad, Serbia
e-mail:[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated
fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg
with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-foodindustries sunflower
breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hybrids (more than 80% of
oleic acid in sunflower oil) has excellent nutritional properties,as well as oxidative stability, and is a suitable raw material for many
derivatives of the chemical industry and for the production of high quality biodiesel. In addition to creating high-oleic sunflower
hybridis also possible to direct selection towards increasing or decreasing other fatty acids content (linoleic, palmitic and stearic).
Achievements in sunflower breeding have allowed changes in the type and content of tocopherols in the oil.
Key words: sunflower, oil quality, oleic acid.
REZIME
Suncokretovo ulje spada među najkvalitetnija ulja biljnog porekla.Ulje standardnog suncokreta u proseku ima 10% zasićenih
masnih kiselina, 20% oleinske kiseline i oko 60-70% linolne kiseline. Ukupan sadržaj tokoferola u ulju standardnog suncokreta je
700-1000 mg/kg, a preovladava alfa-tokoferol (vitamina E). Prateći zahteve prehrambene i drugih industrija oplemenjivači
suncokreta uspeli su da bitnije izmene sastav masnih kiselina ulja. Ulje visokooleinskih hibrida suncokreta ima odlične nutritivne
karakteristike, pogodna je sirovina za proizvodnju mnogih derivata hemijske industrije i za proizvodnju kvalitetnog biodizela. Pored
stvaranja visokooleinskih hibrida suncokreta moguće je selekciju usmeriti i na povećanje ili smanjenje sadržaja drugih masnih
kiselina (linolne, palmitinske i stearinske). Dostignuća u oplemenjivanju suncokreta omogućila su promenu tipa i sadržaja tokoferola
u ulju.
Ključne reči: suncokret, kvalitet ulja,oleinska kiselina.
In contrast to other vegetable oils, approximately 90% of the
INTRODUCTION
entire sunflower oil production is used for food, and only 10%
for the production of biodiesel and for industrial
The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the world's
purposes.Recently, the issue of oil quality has become one of the
four most important oilseed crops, after soybean,rapeseed and
main challenges put before science by the market. The optimal
palm seed. Sunflower is cultivated on 23 million hectares, with
quality of sunflower oil depends on the purpose of its use in food
an annual production rate of about 30 million tons of seed, with
or non-food industry. In food industry, sunflower oil is used as
a slight tendency to increase both in terms of area of growing
salad oil, for frying, or for producing margarine and other
and in terms of the total amount of seed due to an increase in
products. In non-food industry, sunflower oil is used for
seed yield per area unit (Kaya et al., 2012). It is the main oilseed
production of biodiesel, different lubricants and in cosmetic
crop in Serbia, accounting for over 80% of the total amount of
industry. The desirable characteristics of sunflower oil for one
edible oil produced from plant origin. According to data from
purpose are frequently not desirable for some other purposes;
the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
therefore, breeding for oil quality improvement in sunflower has
(www.webrzs.staserb.sr.gov.rs), over the last decade, cultivable
divergent paths. Creating various types of oil plays a significant
sunflower land comprised approximately 170.000 hectares, with
role in future development of sunflower as an agricultural crop
the gross production of 380 000 tonnes of grain per year (Babić
(Cvejić et al., 2014).
et al. 2012). Sunflower hybrids are used in the commercial
production and the main directions in the creation of hybrids in
the world and in Serbia are increasedproductivity (seed and oil
yield per unit area) and resistance to diseases and stressful
conditions (Cvejić, 2011). Great attention is paid to increasing
the adaptability, stability of hybrids and attractiveness to
pollinators (Balalić et al., 2012). In addition to basic directions
in breeding, work is on-goingon the creation of highly
productive hybrids for special purposes; hybrids with different
oil quality, hybrids tolerant to certain herbicides and
confectioneryhybrids (Škorić et al., 2006).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Genetic material described in the paper was developedat the
Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Serbia. In
developing high-oleic sunflower inbred lines we used line which
is donor of Oland tphgenes and crossed with the commercial
lines to obtain new B-lines.By series of back-crossing,
cytoplasm mail sterile lines (CMS) were created. New restorer
(Rf) lines were developed by crossing commercial restorer lines
with line serving as donor of desirable gene. The creation of
hybrids was achieved by crossing CMS lines with Rf lines.
191
Cvejić, Sandra et al. / Development and Utilization of Sunflower Genotypes With Altered Oil Quality
These hybrids were tested for their general and specific
combining abilities (GCA and SCA) for seed and oil yield (Jocić
et al., 2000; Škorić et al., 2008).
Moreower, we applied mutation breeding in aim to improve
the quality of seed oil in sunflower. Seeds of 15 inbred lines
were treated with the follow mutagens: gamma (γ) rays, fast
neutrons (Nf) and ethyl methane sulfonate (ems) at different
treatment doses (Cvejić et al., 2011a). Mutant lines were
selected based on changes in fatty acid composition in
comparation to untreated lines. Selected mutants (in M6
generation) and untreated lines (original lines) were planted in
comparative trail in order to test their productivity and stability,
as well as morphological and biological characteristics.
The oil content was determined by nuclear magnetic
resonance (NMR) analyser and the content of fatty acids was
determined by gas chromatography(AOCS Official Method Ce 162, 1993). Quantitative and qualitative analysis of tocopherols
was determined by HPLC- high performance liquid
chromatography (AOCS Official Method Ce 8-89, 1993).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Sunflower oil composition and development
of altered oils
Sunflower oil is among the highest nutritive quality oils of
plant origin, with high oil content in seeds, and is considered a
species susceptible to genetically changing oil quality (Cvejić et
al., 2012). Standardhigh-oil hybrids contain 40-60% of oil in the
seed. Sunflower oil belongs to the group semi-dry oils (Karlović
and Andrić, 1996). Standard sunflower oil mostly contains
unsaturated fatty acids that are liquid at room temperature. It has
the highest content of polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C 18:2),
about 70%. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid which
cannotbe synthesized by the human body, and must be taken
through food. The next is the monounsaturated oleic acid (C
18:1) with 20%. Although, the amount of these two higher fatty
acids can vary under the influence of environmental factors,
sunflower oil typically contains about 90% of these two fatty
acids. In addition, a percentage of other saturated fatty acids is
also detected, such as palmitic acid (C 16:0) with 4-9%, and
stearic acid (C 18:0) with 1-7%. Sunflower oil also contains
traces of other fatty acids, such as myristic (C 14:0), myristoleic
(C 14:1), palmitoleic (C 16:1), arachidic (C 20:0) and behenic (C
22:0). All these fatty acids account for about 10% of the total
fatty acid content in oil. Total amount of tocopherol in standard
sunflower oil is about 700-1000 mg/kg. Natural tocopherols are
present in four isomers: α (5,7,8-trimethyltocol), β (5,8dimethyltocol), γ (7,8-dimethyltocol) and δ (8-methyltocol).
Standard sunflower oil mostly contains α-tocopherol (95%), βtocopherol (3%) γ-tocopherol (2%) (Škorić et al., 2008).
The quality of oil is linked to its nutritional and functional
value. There is no optimal oil quality, as this depends on its final
use. The main parameters for defining oil quality are the
composition of higher fatty acids, the distribution of higher fatty
acids in triacylglycerol molecule and the total content and profile
of a several polyisoprenoid lipids present in oil, mostly
tocopherols and sterols (Fernandez-Martinez et al., 2004). From
a nutritional perspective, saturated fatty acids are considered
undesirable in the human diet and have a deleterious effect
because they increasethe content of total cholesterol level and
LDL (low density lipoprotein) in comparison with the mono-and
poly-unsaturated fatty acids (Mensink et al., 1994). From a
technological perspective, the main aspects of fats with saturated
192
fatty acidsare plasticity (hardness) and oxidation resistance,
especially at high temperatures. Standard linoleic type sunflower
oil contains predominantly unsaturated fatty acids, which are
liquid at room temperature. In order for the oil to be used in the
food industry (margarines)it needs to be previously
hydrogenatedin order to become solid or semi-solid. However,
hydrogenating induces cis-trans isomerization of fatty acids
(Tatum and Chow, 1992), resulting in the production of transfatty acids, which are associated with the causes of heart disease
(Willett and Ascherio, 1994).
The existence of genetic variability is an essential
prerequisite for changing oil quality. Increasing genetic
variability is achieved by use of mutations (spontaneous or
induced) or the recombination of genes. Induced mutations are
frequently used in breeding programmes in order to change the
quality of sunflower seed oil (Table 1).
Table 1. Oil quality mutations in sunflower
Authors
Mutagens
Changes in traits
Borodulina and
Different
Increased content
Kharchenko, 1976
chemicalmutagency
of oil in seed
Chandrappa, 1982
Gamma-rays, ems,
Increased oil
des
content in seed and
seed yield
Kharchenko and
Different
Increased oleic
Soldatov, 1976
chemicalmutagency acid content in oil
Soldatov and Surokivin,
nmu, neu, dms
Oil content, early
1975
maturity
Soldatov, 1976
dms
Increased oleic
acid content in oil
(PERVENEC)
Surokivin, 1973 and
nmu, neu, dms, ei
Increased content
1977
of oil in seed, early
maturity and plant
height changes
Ivanov et al., 1988
Gamma-rays
Increased content
of palmitic acid
Mancha et al., 1994
X-rays
Increased content
of palmitic acid
Osorio et al., 1995
ems
Increased content
of saturated fatty
acids
Demurin, 1993
Spontaneous
Changed form and
content of
tocopherols
Cvejić, 2009
Gamma-rays,fast
Altered fatty acid
neutrons, ems
content
*Chemical tags, as well as international abbreviations
(according to IAEA 1977): ei = ethylene-imine, ems = ethyl
methane-sulphate, des = di-ethyl sulphate, dms = di-methylsulphate, neu = N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, nmu = N-nitroso-Nmethylurea
The high-oleic sunflower genotypes
Following the trends of the food industry and non-food
industries, sunflower breeders succeeded in significantly
changing the quality of oil in sunflower seeds, especially the
composition of fatty acids and tocopherols (Demurin et al.,
1996). The most significant contribution is increasing the
content of oleic acid(more than 80%) and decreasing the content
of linoleic acid (less than 20%) in the oil, with which high-oleic
and medium oleic (mid-oleic) genotypes were created. High- and
mid-oleic hybrids have become prevalent in the regions of
sunflower production in France and the U.S., while in Spain,
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Cvejić, Sandra et al. / Development and Utilization of Sunflower Genotypes With Altered Oil Quality
Italy and Argentina they are increasing significantly (Alonso,
2014). This increase of high-oleic sunflower is a result of
transition to Mediterranean nutrition (which uses oils rich in
oleic acid), and the needs of industry producing biodiesel, as
sunflower oil with high oleic acid content is favourable for the
production of biodiesel from standard sunflower oil.
The most significant induced mutation that led to a change in
sunflower oil composition, and the first source of high-oleic acid
content, was made by Soldatov (1976), who treated the seed of
the VNIMK 8931 variety with 0.5% DMS solution. In the M3
generation, Soldatov selected single plants containing over 70%
oleic acid, developing the Pervenec variety with 80-90% oleic
acid in oil. High-oleic acid content in this variety proved to be
stable during processing at different temperatures and the trait
can easily be transferred to another genotype using conventional
breeding methods. Pervenec has been used worldwide as a higholeic source (Ol-gene) in breeding programmes (Jocić et al.,
2000; Škorić et al., 2006). In the U.S., larger numbers of midoleic sunflower hybrids were developed under the generic name
“NuSun” containing the Ol-gene from the Pervenec variety.
Inbred lines and hybrids with high-oleic content, obtained by
classical breeding methods have also been created through the
breeding programme of the Novi Sad Institute of Field and
Vegetable Crops (Jocić et al., 2000). Finding the source for
high-oleic acid in the Pervenec variety opened up possibilities
for creating new high-oleic hybrids.The Institute of Field and
Vegetable Crops from Novi Sad was among the first in Europe
to create hybrids with high oleic acid content in sunflower oil.
These are the hybrids Olivko and Oliva in Serbia,
hybridsGoleadorandOlinca registered in Italy and Saša in Russia
(Škorić et al., 2006).Recently new high-oleic hybrids were
developed which can compete with standard oleic sunflower
hybrids on the basis of productivity and agronomic
characteristics (Cvejić et al., 2014a). The new high oleic hybrids
have also high oil content and high seed yield. According to seed
and oil yield, these new hybrids are better than the standard
high-oleic hybrids and even standard oil hybrids. These hybrids
are under the official variety testing process and are expected to
soon enter mass production.
High-oleic sunflower oil has found wide applications in the
food industry, in the preservation of vegetables and fish, storing
various types of margarine, mayonnaise and confectionary and
baked goods, as well as in direct human consumption and
cooking (frying). It is also used as a salad oil for seasoning fresh
salad.High-oleic sunflower seed oil has excellent nutritional
properties and a particularly favourable effect on the cholesterol
metabolism. Oleic acid decreasesthe total cholesterol level and
LDL (low density lipoprotein) and triglycerides in the blood,
thereby reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (Mensink et
al., 1994).As such, this kind of oil is often used in the diet.
The special properties of oleic acid make high-oleic
sunflower oil a choice ingredient for cosmetic formulations.
Research has indicated that the oil is not skin-irritating or
sensitising. It may be used in sun-tanning products and
cosmetics with a high content of natural lipids, such as bath oils,
massaging oils, skin-care products, lipstick and cosmetic cream
bases (Grompone, 2005).
Sunflower oil, either regular or high-oleic, is a very good raw
material for the production of high quality biodiesel (Vanozzi,
2006). The constant rise of petrol prices on the world market has
led to an increase of alternative energy sources such as biofuels.
It is expected that in the next 10-15 years the share of biodiesel
in total transportation fuels will reach as much as 20%.Analysing
the possibilities of biodiesel production in Serbia, the results of
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 4
Tešić et al. (2009) point out that with the average sunflower
yield of 1.79 t/ha and oil content of 40%, from 1 ha, sunflower
provides 716 kg of oil, or 816 l of biodiesel.There is only a
theoretical potential of biodiesel production in Serbia, while the
reality depends on a number of agro-technical, economic and
even political factors. Respecting the rules of crop rotation and
the required area under oilseeds for human consumption, the
needs of livestock and seed production for reproduction, the area
available for the production of raw materials for biodiesel in
Serbia is 350.000 ha and the largest part (about 90%) of this
potential area is located in Central Serbia.
Increased content of saturated fatty acids
In addition to creating high-oleic hybrids, the selection can
be directed to the increase of other fatty acids (Cvejić et al.,
2014). Compared to standard sunflower oil, sunflower oil with
high saturated fatty acids content is more used due to its higher
oxidative stability. This type of sunflower oil has a semi-solid
state at room temperature and can be used directly in margarine
production without prior hydrogenation (Fernandez-Moya et al.,
2002). Hydrogenation of vegetable oils creates trans fatty acids,
closely connected to coronary diseases (Willet and Acherio,
1994). Higher stearic acid content (>25%) was achieved by
using ems and sodium azide (NaN3), and increased palmitic acid
content by the use of physical mutagens (X-rays and γ-rays). On
the other hand, a decreased content of fatty acids have been
induced by the use of chemical mutagens ems and nmu. A
review of induced sunflower mutants with changed saturated
fatty acid content and the used mutagens is given in Table 25.1.
Table 2. Fatty acid composition of the principal induced
mutants of sunflower in comparison with the standard types
Mutant Oil type
Fatty acid composition
Mutagenic
line
(%)
treatment
16:0 16:1 18:0 18:1 18:2
Standard
5.7
5.8 20.7 64.5
Low content in saturated fatty acids
LS-1
Low 18:0 5.6
4.1 20.2 67.4 NMU (4-8 gkg-1)
LS-2
Low 18:0 8.6
2.0 10.8 75.0 NMU (4-8 gkg-1)
LP-1
Low 16:0 4.7
5.4 23.8 63.7 EMS (4-8 gkg-1)
High content in palmitic acid
275HP High 16:0 25.1 6.9 1.7 10.5 55.8 γ-rays (1550 R)
CAS-5 High 16:0 25.2 3.7 3.5 11.4 55.1 X-rays (150Gy)
CAS-12 High 16:0 30.7 7.6 2.1 56.0 3.1 X-rays (150Gy)
CAS-37
High
29.5 12.3 1.4 5.4 38.7 X-rays (150Gy)
16:0-16:1
NP-40 High 16:0 23.9 3.4 2.0 20.4 50.7 EMS (70 mM)
High content in stearic acid
CAS-3 High 18:0 5.1
26.0 13.8 55.1 EMS (70 mM)
CAS-4 Medium 5.4
11.3 34.6 48.0 NaN3 (2-4 mM)
18:0
CAS-8 Medium 5.8
9.9 20.4 63.8 NaN3 (2-4 mM)
18:0
CAS-14 Very high 8.4
37.3 12.4 38.0 NaN3 (2-4 mM)
18:0
16:0=palmitic acid; 16:1=palmitoleic acid; 18:0=stearic acid;
18:1=oleic acid; 18:2=linoleic acid.
Mutations with higher palmitic (Ivanov et al., 1988; Osorio
et al., 1995) and stearic acid concentration (Osorio et al., 1995),
as well as mutant lines with lower palmitic acid concentration,
were developed using physical and chemical mutagens. In the
breeding programme of the Institute of Field and Vegetable
Crops in Novi Sad, genotypes with a high content of saturated
193
Cvejić, Sandra et al. / Development and Utilization of Sunflower Genotypes With Altered Oil Quality
fatty acids were developed (Cvejić, 2009), which is a valuable
material for the creation of special purposehybrids. The
agronomic and production characteristics are the same as the
original phenotype, with a change of only one trait (level of
saturated fatty acids), table 3.
(cm) (days)
(g)
(%)
Control 165.02 62.00 40.03 45.81
MU-4 164.47 62.50 39.63 46.46
Linoleic acid
Oleic acid
Stearic acid
Palmitic acid
Oil content
1000 Seed Mass
Earliness
Plant Height
Genotype
Table 3. Comparison of agronomic traits and oil quality
between the original line (control) and new lines (MU-4 and
MU-6)
(g/100 g ulja)
6.31 4.84 24.96 62.84
6.20 7.24** 27.30 58.06
Control 160.47 57.00 55.10 51.84 5.16 5.43 24.48 62.94
MU-6 162.24 57.10 55.37 51.27 6.88** 7.53** 30.39 51.75
*t-test at the level of significance P=0.05; **t-test at the level
of significance P=0.01
Changed form and content of tocopherols
Achievements in sunflower breeding allowed a change to the
form and content of tocopherols (vitamin E) in the oil.
Tocopherols are considered as natural antioxidants, showing
different in vivo and in vitro antioxidative activities. Alphatocopherol shows maximum in vivo activity, so-called vitamin E
activity. Contrary to that, γ- and δ-tocopherol, and to a lesser
extent β-tocopherol, are very powerful antioxidants, but with a
low amount of vitamin E bioactivity (Packer and ObermullerJevic, 2002). Sunflower is thought to be one of the most
promising plant species for genetic modifications of oil quality,
being the crop with high oil content in seed (Škorić, 1989).
Following the trends of food and other industries, sunflower
breeders have managed to modify the oil quality to suit different
uses (Demurin et al., 1996). Mutants with high, intermediate and
low levels of saturated fatty acids, mid and high levels of oleic
acid, as well as high levels of β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol have been
developed, providing more variability for fatty acid and
tocopherol profiles in sunflower oil than in any other oilseed
crop (Fernandez-Martinez et al., 2009). A significant
contribution in sunflower breeding for oil quality was made by
Demirin (1993), who discovered a spontaneous mutation that
changes the form and level of tocopherols. Changing forms of
tocopherols is achieved by substitution of the alpha-tocopherol,
which is dominantly present in the sunflower oil, with the beta-,
gamma-and delta-tocopherols, which have a greater value and
oxidative stability. Studies have shown that much of the same
genotype is possessed by genes for high oleic acid and a high
beta and gamma tocopherol content. These genes come to a
certain synergy that ensures that this kind of oil has 15-16 times
higher oxidative stability than standard sunflower oil (Demurin,
2012). The following combinations have been made: high-oleic
type with alpha and beta tocopherols; high-oleic type with alpha
and gamma tocopherols and high-oleic type with alpha, beta,
gamma and delta tocopherols.
CONCLUSION
A significant contribution to altering seed oil quality, used
for various purposes, has been made in sunflower breeding
194
programmes. New high-oleic sunflower hybrids have been
developed that present a range of possibilities for both food and
non-food uses of this oil crop. The new types of sunflower oil
could also be used for medicinal purposes, as prevention against
cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the combination of several
quality traits in a single phenotype will enable tailoring
speciality oils providing essentially “new oilseed crops” for
specific uses in the food and non-food industry, thus
guaranteeing a promising future for the sunflower on the global
market. To define the parameters of future innovative sunflower
oils, geneticists, breeders, physiologists, but also sunflower oil
producers and consumers, should make a joint multidisciplinary
effort with doctors, nutritionists and specialists from other fields
in order to find the answers for future uses of sunflower oil.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This work is a part of the project
TR31025, which is supported by the Ministry of Education,
Science and Technological Development of the Republic of
Serbia.
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