Proceedings 2012. (2013), Vol 4, ISSN 1986-8146
www.sportkon.com
POVEZANOST IZMEÐU BRZINE
I SKOČNOSTI U FUDBALU
CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SPEED
AND JUMPING ABILITY IN FOOTBALL
Sa{a Marković1, Željko Sekulić1, Milo{ Obradović2, and Srđan Bugarski2
Fakultet fizičkog vaspitanja i sporta, Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci, Bosna i Hercegovina
Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2
Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Srbija
Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, Univerzity of Belgrade, Serbia
1
SHORT SCIENTIFIC PAPER
SHORT SCIENTIFIC PAPER
KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
doi​: 10.5550/SP.4.2012.22
UDK: 796.332:796.012.1 KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
COBISS.BH-ID: 3960856 Summary
Sažetak
Analyzing the different types of the speed and the ability to
jump, various possibilities during the application of these
tests were noticed. Taking into account the application of
the tests that measure the speed and the ability to jump in
football, the subject of this research are the motor skills which
are specific for football, while the goal of the paper is to
determine, by the use of these tests, is there any connection
between these two motor skills.The research was taken
among the 26 first-team players from the ‘’Borac” Banja
Luka football club.The sample of variables are the following
tests: Sprint 5m, 10m, 30m, Squat Jump, Counter Movement
Jump and Multi Jump.The instruments used during this research were the photo - cells and field platform.By the use
of the “K-S” test, it was determined that the division of the
results is normal. Based on the descriptive parameters of the
arithmetic mean and standard deviation, the following results
were given: SJ (39.87±4.32), CMJ (40.31±4.15), MJ
(34.80±3.80), sprint 5m (1.56±.03), sprint 10m (2.31±.05),
sprint 30m (4.76±.11). By calculating the Paerson’s correlation coefficient, the biggest correlation appeared between
the “30m” and “SJ” test (r= .412, p=.037). When compared
to the total results, the correlation between the “30m” and
“CMJ” tests (r=.365, p=.067) appeared to be a bit higher,
and the smallest and also negative correlation appeared
between the “5m” and “MJ” (r=-.125, p=.542). We can
conclude that the correlations are mostly low and statistically insignificant. A huge impact on it had the reliability of
the measuring instrument, weak adaptation to the testing
conditions (in other words-to the measuring instruments),
and unexpectedly weak results of the ability to jump when
compared to the good results of the speed. After getting the
correlation results, the inversion of the results was made,
because in the tests which measure the speed, less time gives
a better result.
Cilj ovog istraživanja je bio da se primjenom motoričkih
testova skočnosti i brzine utvrdi da li postoji povezanost
između ove dvije motoričke sposobnosti. Istraživanje je
sprovedeno na uzorku 26 fudbalera seniora koji nastupaju
u Premijer ligi Bosne i Hercegovine. Uzorak varijabli su
sačinjavali sledeći testovi: sprint na 30 m sa prolazom na 5
i 10 metara, Squat Jump, Counter Movement Jump, Multi
Jump. Instrumenti koji su kori{ćeni prilkom ovog istraživanja
su foto – ćelije i terenska platforma za mjerenje visine skoka
(Globus Ergotester). Iz dobijenih rezultata izračunati su osnovni deskriptivni parametri (aritmerička sredina i standardna devijacija) za svaki test: Squat jump (39,87±4,32),
Caunter movement jump (40,31±4,15), Multi jump
(34,80±3,80), sprint 5m (1,56±0,03), sprint 10m (2,31±0,05),
sprint 30m (4,76±0,11). Za utvrđivanje povezanosti između
varijabli kori{ten je Pirsonov koeficijent korelacije. Najvi{a
korelacija je utvrđena između testova 30m i Squat jump (r=
0,412, p=0,037), zatim između testova 30m i Caunter
movement jump (r=0,365, p=0,067), a najmanja i negativna povezanost je između testova 5m i Multi jump
(r=- 0,125, p=0,542). Možemo zaključiti da su korelacije
pretežno niske i statistički nisu značajne na {ta su svakako
imali uticaj pouzdanost mjerenja, odnosno lo{a i nekonzistentna izvedba testova vertikalnog skoka {to je dovelo do
neočekivano slabih rezultata skočnosti u odnosu na dobre
rezultate brzine. Rezultati testova brzine su inverzno transformisani zbog jednostavnijeg računanja i interpretacije
koeficijenata korelacije.
Key Words: speed, football, jumping ability.
Introduction
Over the past years, football game has become faster, more
intense and more aggressive than was the case previously
(Reilly, 1996). Successful performance during football games
188
Ključne riječi: brzina, fudbal, skočnost.
Uvod
Tokom proteklih godina, fudbalska igra je postala brža, intenzivnija i agresivnija nego {to je to bio slučaj ranije (Reilly,
1996). Uspje{na izvedba tokom fudbalske igre značajno je
is significantly associated with the ability of players to perform
movements at high speeds (Adhikari, Kumar, & Das, 1993;
Arnason et al., 2004; Bangsbo, 2000). These movements
are the most important moments of the match and directly
affect the final result (Faina, Gallozzi, & Lupo, 1988; Luhtanen,
1994; Reilly, Bangsbo, & Franks, 2000). High-speed actions
only contribute to 11% of the total distance covered (Kollath
& Quade, 1993). Studies have shown that 96% of sprints
during the game is less than 30 m, while 49% is less than 10
m. During the game, sprint occurs every 90 s and the average duration of 2 to 4 s. It is reported that the average sprint
distance is 15 m (Bangsbo, Nørregaard, & Thorsøe, 1991;
O’Donoghue 2001; Reilly, 1996; Reilly et al., 2000). Professional players have better results on speed tests in comparison to players of lower ranking competitions, so it can
be concluded that the rapid and explosive movements are
characteristic of elite level players. Results on 10 m speed
test can provide better information than the 30 m test, because a namber of players can have a similar time at 30 m
but significantly different at 10 m (Reilly et al., 2000). Cometti, Maffiuletti, and Pousson (2001) found that french
professional and amateur players have a similar time at 30
m, but the professionals have significantly lower lap time
during the 10 m test. Sprinting time from 1.79 to 1.90 seconds over 10 m are reported in the literature (Reilly et al.,
2000; Stølen, Chamari, Castagna, & Wisløff, 2005). This
means that the fastest players are on average 1m ahead of
the slowest ones after only 10 m of sprint, which can be
crucial to the final result of the match. Some studies have
shown that professional players are faster over 10 or 15 m
than the amateurs (Brewer & Davis, 1992; Cometti et al.,
2001; Valquer, Barros, & Santanna, 1998).
In addition to maximum speed and agility, acceleration is a
category that encompasses a significant part of the high speed
actions during football games. Acceleration is a measure of
changes in velocity, which allows achieving maximum speed
in the shortest period of time. Improving acceleration of
football players can be achieved by applying various methods of training to develop explosive power (plyometric
training, maximum strength, short sprints with and without
load, etc.). Acceleration and sprinting requires athletes to
generate large amounts of force in a short period of time.
Based on these facts, the coaches implemented different
training methods for developing explosive power in their
programs in order to improve acceleration and running
speed. The relationship between power and running speed
is the focus of researchers and trainers for attempting to
uncover potential mechanisms that would enable improving
performance on the field. Several researchers have explored
the relationship between various measures in tests of muscle
force and power and performance on speed tests (Sleivert
& Taingahue, 2004; Tiryaki, Tuncel, & Yamaner, 1997;
Wilson, Lyttle, Ostrowski, & Murphy, 1995). Young, McLean,
and Ardagna (1995) examined the association between 27
measure of muscle force and power and results on speed
tests distances from 2.5 to 50 m in young track and field
athletes. They found that the initial phase of acceleration
(2.5 m) significantly correlated (-.86) with the values of the
forces in the concentric phase of the jump squat relative to
body mass. The reasons for this relation the authors found
in a similar angle in the knee joint, the time of production
forces and the dominant concentric contraction during execution of movement. In addition, the authors found that
the fastest time at 10 m was associated with power in the
concentric phase, which followed after the fast eccentric
phase (-.77) and the values of force and strength during
isometric contraction (.79). Sleivert and Taingahue (2004)
found that the maximum power generated during a jump
Zbornik radova 2012, 188–193
povezana sa sposobno{ću igrača da izvode kretnje velikim
brzinama (Adhikari, Kumar i Das, 1993; Arnason i saradnici, 2004; Bangsbo, 2000). Ove kretnje predstavljaju
najznačajnije momente utakmice i direktno utiču na
krajnji rezultat (Faina, Gallozzi i Lupo, 1988; Luhtanen,
1994; Reilly, Bangsbo i Franks, 2000). Kretnje koje se izvode
velikim brzinama učestvuju približno 11% u ukupno pređenoj
distanci (Kollath i Quade, 1993). Istraživanja su pokazala da
je 96% sprinteva tokom igre kraće od 30 m, dok je 49%
kraće od 10 m. U toku igre, sprint se događa svakih 90 s i
prosječnog je trajanja od 2 do 4 s. Prosječna distanca koju
igrači pretrče u sprintu iznosi oko 17 m (Bangsbo, Nørregaard
i Thorsøe, 1991; O’Donoghue 2001; Reilly, 1996; Reilly i
saradnici, 2000). Profesionalni igrači imaju bolje rezultate
na testovima brzine u poređenju sa igračima nižeg ranga
takmičenja, tako da se može zaključiti da su brze i eksplozivne
kretnje odlika fudbalera koji igraju na elitnom nivou. Vrijeme
na testu brzine na 10 m daje bolje informacije nego test na
30 m, jer određen broj igrača može imati slično vrijeme na
30 m ali značajno različito na 10 m (Reilly i saradnici, 2000).
Cometti, Maffiuletti i Pousson (2001) su prona{li da francuski profesionalni i amaterski igrači imaju slično vrijeme na
30 m, ali da profesionalci imaju značajno niže vrijeme na
10 m. U literaturi se može pronaći vrijeme sprinta na 10 m
između 1,79 i 1,90 (Reilly i saradnici, 2000; Stølen, Chamari,
Castagna i Wisløff, 2005). Ovo znači da su brži igrači prosječno
1m ispred sporijh igrača poslije samo 10 m sprinta, {to može
biti presudno za krajnji rezultat utakmice. Jo{ neka istraživanja
su pokazala da su profesionalni igrači brži na distancama od
10-15 m u poređenju sa amaterima (Brewer i Davis, 1992;
Cometti i saradnici, 2001; Valquer, Barros i Santanna, 1998).
Pored maksimalne brzine i agilnosti, ubrzanje je kategorija
u koju se može svrstati većina kretnji koje se u igri izvode
velikom brzinom. Ubrzanje je mjera promjene brzine trčanja
koja omogućava postizanje maksimalne brzine u {to kraćem
periodu vremena. Pobolj{anje ubrzanja kod fudbalera se
postiže primjenom različitih metoda treninga za razvoj
eksplozivne snage (pliometrijski trening, trening maksimalne
snage, kratki sprintevi sa i bez opterećenja itd.). Ubrzanje i
sprint zahtijeva od sportista generisanje velike količine sile
u {to kraćem periodu vremena. Na osnovu ove činjenice,
treneri provode različite metode treninga za razvoj eksplozivne
snage u svojim programima s ciljem pobolj{anja ubrzanja i
brzine trčanja. Povezanost između eksplozivne snage i brzine
trčanja je u fokusu istraživača i trenera zbog poku{aja da se
otkriju potencijalni mehanizmi koji bi omogućili pobolj{anje
izvedbe na terenu. Nekoliko istraživača se bavilo utvrđivanjem
povezanosti između različitih mjera u testovima mi{ićne sile
i eksplozivne snage i rezultata na testovima sprinta (Sleivert
i Taingahue, 2004; Tiryaki, Tuncel i Yamaner, 1997; Wilson,
Lyttle, Ostrowski i Murphy, 1995). Young, McLean i Ardagna (1995) su ispitivali povezanost između 27 mjera
mi{ićne sile i snage i rezultata izvedbe na testovima sprinta
na distancama od 2,5 do 50 m kod mladih atletičara. Prona{li
su da je inicijalna faza ubrzanja (2,5 m) značajno povezana
(-0,86) sa vrijednosti sile u koncentričnoj fazi skoka iz čučnja
relativno u odnosu na tjelesnu masu. Razloge za ovu povezanost autori su prona{li u sličnom uglu u zglobu koljena,
vremenu produkcije sile i dominantnoj koncentričnoj kontrakciji kod izvođenja pokreta. Pored toga, autori su prona{li
da je najbrže vrijeme na 10 m bilo povezano sa silom u
koncentričnoj fazi koja je slijedila poslije brze ekscentrične
faze (-0,77) i vrijednostima sile i snage prilikom izometrijske
kontrakcije (0,79). Sleivert i Taingahue (2004) su prona{li
189
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Marković, S. i saradnici: POVEZANOST IZME\U BRZINE ...
Marković, S. et al.: CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SPEED ...
from a squat and jump from a split squat significantly correlated with running speed at 5 m (r=-.64 and r=-.68).
Wilson et al. (1995) found a significant correlation between
the value of the developed force at 30 m in the concentric
phase of the squat jump and sprint times at 30 m. Cronin
and Hansen (2005) investigated the relationship between
the parameters of force and power, and the acceleration at
5 and 10 m and a maximum speed of 30 m. It was tested
the maximum strength (3RM), explosive strength (30 kg jump
from squat, countermovement jump and drop jump) and
isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength. In addition,
the running speed was tested at 5, 10 and 30 m. Researchers found no significant correlation between 3RM, depth
jump and isokinetic strength with measures of speed. The
study showed that there is a significant correlation between
the jump squat and countermovement jump with acceleration and top speed runs. Researchers have suggested that
plyometric training (e.g. countermovement jump) and squat
jump with the load can help to improve acceleration and
running speed in elite athletes.
The object of this research was the explosive power of sprint
and jumps of the professional players, and the problem was
to determine the level of their connection.
The goal of this research was to determine whether there is
a correlation between the two types of explosive power by
using the motor tests that measure the jumping ability and
the speed of sprint.
Methods
Sample of participants
The sample of examinees consisted of 26 professional football players (seniors) who have played in the Premier League
of Bosnia and Herzegovina (17-33 years old).
Sample of variables
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The sample of variables included the following tests that
estimate the speed of sprint and vertical jump height:
• 30 m sprint that included pass on 5 and 10 m
• jump from a squatting position (Squat jump- SJ)
• jump from a crouch with preparation (Counter movement jump- CMJ)
• several repeated jumps (the Multi jump test- MJ).
Measuring techniques
The electric system of photo-cells for measuring the speed
at 5, 10 and 30 m and field platform for measuring the
explosive power (like the jumping ability is) were used during this testing process (Globe Ergotester).
The players were familiar with the measuring process through
the demonstration and explanation. Measuring of the motor
variables was performed by the system of cells. Measuring
of the vertical jump height was performed at the first stop
while measuring of the speed of sprint was performed at
the second stop.
Statistical analysis
In this study, it was calculated basic central and dispersion
parameters of all variables. To determine the normal distribution of the results Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. The
relationship between variables was presented by Pearson
correlation coefficient.
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Proceedings 2012, 188–193
da je maksimalna snaga generisana prilikom skoka iz čučnja
i skoka iz split čučnja značajno povezana sa brzinom trčanja
na 5m (r=-0,64 i r=-0,68). Wilson i saradnici (1995) su
utvrdili značajnu povezanost između vrijednosti ostvarene
sile pri 30 ms u koncentričnoj fazi skoka iz čučnja i vremena sprinta na 30 m. Cronin i Hansen (2005) su istraživali
vezu između parametara sile i snage sa jedne strane, i ubrzanja na 5 i 10 m i maksimalne brzine na 30 m sa druge
strane. Istraživači su testirali maksimalnu silu (3RM), eksplozivnu
snagu (skok iz čučnja sa 30 kg, countermovement jump i
drop jump) i izokinetičku snagu hamstringa i kvadricepsa.
Pored toga, testirana je brzina trčanja na 5,10 i 30 m. Nisu
pronađene značajne korelacije između 3RM, skoka u dubinu i izokinetičke snage sa mjerama brzine trčanja. Studija
je pokazala da postoji značajna povezanost između skoka
iz čučnja i vertikalnog skoka sa pripremom sa ubrzanjem i
maksimalnom brzinom trčanja. Istraživači su sugerisali da
pliometrijski trening (npr. countermovement jump) i skokovi iz čučnja sa opterećenjem mogu pomoći u pobolj{anju
ubrzanja i brzine trčanja kod elitnih sportista.
Predmet ovog istraživanja je bila eksplozivna snaga tipa
sprinta i skoka kod prefesionalnih fudbalera, a problem je
bio utvrđivanje stepena njihove povezanosti.
Cilj ovog istraživanje je bio da se putem motoričkih testova
skočnosti i brzine sprinta utvrdi da li postoji povezanosti
između dva tipa eksplozivne snage.
Metode
Uzorak ispitanika
Uzorak ispitanika je sačinjavalo 26 profesionalnih fudbalera
seniora koji su nastupali u Premijer ligi Bosne i Hercegovine.
Starost ispitanika je bila između 17 i 33 godine.
Uzorak varujabli
Uzorak varijabli su sačinjavali sljedeći testovi za procjenu
brzine sprinta i visine vertikalnog skoka:
• sprint na 30 m sa prolazom na 5 i 10 m
• skok iz čučnja (Squat Jump – SJ)
• skok iz čučnja sa pripremom (Counter Movement
Jump – CMJ )
• vi{e uzastopnih skokova (multi jump test - MJ).
Tehnike mjerenja
Prilikom ovog testiranja kori{ten je elektronski sistem fotoćelija za mjerenje brzine na 5,10 i 30 m i terenska platforma
za mjerenje eksplozivne snage tipa skočnosti (Globus Ergotester). Igrači su bili upoznati sa načinom mjerenja putem
demonstracije i obja{njenja. Mjerenje motoričkih varijabli
obavljeno je po sistemu stanica. Na prvoj stanici vr{eno
mjerenje visine vertikalnog skoka, a na drugoj mjerenje
brzine sprinta.
Statistička analiza
U ovom istraživanju su izračunati osnovni centralni i disperzivni parametri svih varijabli. Za utvrđivanje normalnosti
distribucije rezultata kori{ten je Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
Povezanost između varijabli je predstavljena pomoću Pirsonovog koeficijenta korelacije.
Marković, S. i saradnici: POVEZANOST IZME\U BRZINE ...
Zbornik radova 2012, 188–193
Results and Discussion
Rezultati sa diskusijom
For the entire sample, the parameters that define the measures of the central tendency (such as the arithmetic mean,
media, mode and extent of variability, standard deviation,
rand and coefficient of variation (Table1).
Na cijelom uzorku izračunati su parametri koji defini{u mjere
centralne tendencije, kao {to su aritmetičke sredina, medijana, modus, mjere varijabilnosti, standardna devijacija,
raspon i koeficijent varijacije (Tabela 1 ).
Tabela 1: Reprezentativni deskriptivni parametri izračunati na osnovu
rezultata mjerenja motoričkih sposobnosti brzine i skočnosti.
Table 1: The representative descriptive parameters calculated from
the results of the measurement of the motor skills, speed and jumping ability.
Variable
M
Mdn
Mo
squad jump
39.28
40.45
33.00
counter move jump
40.31
39.70
34.00
multi jump
34.80
34.65
sprin 5 m
1.56
sprint 10 m
sprint 30 m
SD
Min
Max
Cv
4.32
32.33
47.90
10.80
4.15
33.80
48.00
10.20
34.60
3.80
28.70
45.70
10.90
1.55
1.53
.03
1.52
1.64
1.92
2.31
2.31
2.33
.05
2.24
2.45
2.16
4.76
4.76
4.76
.11
4.56
4.99
2.31
Basing on the results from the Table 1, a bigger variability
of the jumping ability tests can be noticed. The reason for
these results may be the motivation of players when it is a
matter of testing and the acquisition techniques for performing the vertical jump tests. The variability of results in the
tests that measure the speed of sprint is much lower when
it is compared to the tests of the vertical jump. There is a
consequence of a simpler structure of the sprint tests. The
results on the Counter movement jump tests were not
higher than those on the Squat jump test, although that was
expected due to the use of the elastic energy which should
lead to the higher results, approximately to 10%. While
choosing some statistical procedures, it is necessary to be
familiar with division of the measuring results during the
research. The data on the normality of division was determined by using the Kolgomorov-Smirnov or K-S test (Table
2).
Basing on the results shown in the Table 2, it can be noticed
that distribution of the results for all variables does not significantly deviate from the normal distribution.
In order to determine strength of the relationship between
the variables, what is also the goal of the research, a Pearson’s
correlation coefficient was used (Table 3).
By observing the results in the table3 and relation of the
tests that measure sprint at 5, 10, and 30 m and those tests
that measure jumping ability (SJ, CMJ and MJ), we can conclude that very weak correlations and weak connection
appeared between the mentioned variables.
The reasons for such a poor correlation may be found in
several general factors, such as the lack of familiarity of examinees with the way of performing the tests, and also the
motivation of examinees.
Analyzing the correlation between the 5 m sprint and vertical jump tests, very low and insignificant correlations can be
noticed. Taking into account that in the tests of the jumping
ability and 5 m sprint test the motor ability and explosive
power are dominant, these results are unexpected. There
are several factors that might influence such a weak connec-
Na osnovu rezultata iz Tabele 1 može se konstatovati veća
varijabilnost testova skočnosti. Razlog takvim rezultatima
može biti motivisanost igrača za testiranje i usvojenost
tehnika izvođenja testova vertikalnog skoka. Varjabilnost
rezultata u testovima brzine sprinta je dosta manja u odnosu na testove vertikalnog skoka. To je posljedica jednostavnije strukture testova sprinta. Rezultati na testu countermovement jump nisu bili vi{i nego na testu squat jump, iako je to
očekivano zbog kori{tenja elastične energije, {to je trebalo
dovesti do vi{ih rezultata za približno 10%.
Prilikom izbora statističkih procedura, potrebno je poznavati raspodjelu rezultata mjerenja tokom istraživanja. Podatak
o normalnosti raspodjele utvrđen je kori{ćenjem Kolmogorov
- Smirnov ili K-S-testa (Tabela 2).
Na osnovu rezultata prikazanih u Tabeli 2 vidljivo je da
raspodjela rezultata za sve varijable značajno ne odstupa od
normalne raspodjele.
Da bi se utvrdila jačina veze između promjenljivih, {to je i
cilj istraživanja, kori{ten je Pirsonov koeficijent korelacije
(Tabela 3).
Posmatrajući razultate u Tabeli 3 i odnos testova sprinta na
5, 10 i 30 m i testova skočnosti (SJ ,CMJ i MJ), možemo
konstatovati da su se pojavile niske korelacije, odnosno
slaba povezanost između navedenih varijabli. Razlog ovako
slabe povezanosti možemo tražiti u nekoliko op{tih faktora
kao {to su nedovoljna upoznatost ispitanika o načinu i
izvođenju testova, kao i motivacija ispitanika.
Analizirajući povezanost rezultata sprinta na 5 m sa testovima vertikalnog skoka, mogu se primijetiti niske i
beznačajne korelacije. Sa obzirom da je u testovima skočnosti
i u testu sprinta na 5 m dominantna motorička sposobnost
eksplozivna snaga, ovakvi rezultati su neočekivani. Postoji
nekoliko faktora koji su mogli uticati da dođe do ovako slabe
povezanosti, a jedan od osnovnih je sigurno niska pouzdan-
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Legend/Legenda: M - Mean (Aritmetička sredina); Mdn - Medina (Medijana); Mo - Modus (Mod);
SD - Standard deviation (Standardna devijacija); Min - Minumum (Minumum); Max Maximum (Maksimum); Cv - Cpefficent of variation (Koeficijent varijacije); Squad jumps
- Skok iz čučnja; Counter move jump - Skok iz čučnja sa pripremom; Multiple jump - Vi{e
uzastopnih skokova.
Marković, S. et al.: CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SPEED ...
Proceedings 2012, 188–193
Tabela 2: Raspodjela rezultata dobijenih na osnovu rezultata mjerenja testova skočnosti i brzine.
Table 2: Distribution of the results obtained from the results of the tests that measure jumping ability and speed.
K-S
p
squat jump
.64
.81
counter move jump
.48
.97
multiple jump
.57
.90
1.01
.26
sprint 5m
Legend/Legenda: K-S - Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test); p - Probability (Vjerovatnoća); Squad jumps - Skok iz čučnja; Counter move jump - Skok iz čučnja sa pripremom; Multiple jump - Vi{e uzastopnih skokova.
Tabela 3: Koeficijenti korelacije između testova vertikalnog skoka i brzine sprinta.
Table 3: Correlation coefficient between the tests of the vertical jump and speed of sprint.
Variables
SJ
SJ
MJ
S5m
S10m
S30m
1.000
CMJ
.799 1.000
p
MJ
.000
.511
p
S5m
p
S10m
p
S30m
p
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CMJ
.644 1.000
.008
.000
.144
.206
.484
.312
.542
-.308
-.195
-011
-.125 1.000
.129 1.000
.126
.339
.958
.529
.412
.365
.223
-.575
.037
.067
.274
.002
.262 1.000
.191
Legend/Legenda: SJ - Squad jumps (Skok iz čučnja); CMJ - Counter move jump (Skok iz čučnja
sa pripremom); MJ - Multiple jump (Vi{e uzastopnih skokova); S5m - Sprint 5 meters
(Sprint 5 metara); S10m - Sprint 10 meters (Sprint 10 metara); S30m - Sprint 30 meters
(Sprine 30 metara); p - Probability (Vjerovatnoća).
tion, and one of the main factors is definitely a low reliability of the vertical jump height.
Therefore, in this research there was no any significant correlation on the 5 m sprint test and results of all the tests for
the assesment of the knee extensors explosive force.
Low correlations were determined between the 10 m sprint
test and vertical jump tests with a slightly higher correlation
found between the 10m sprint and Squat jump (SJ) (-.308).
As we can see, the correlation is negative, which means that
the results which decline one variable follow the growth of
the results of the other. Among these variables that were
brought into a correlation, a statistically significant correlation
does not exist.
Among the results on the 30 m sprint and variables that
estimate the explosive strength of the legs, correlations which
are higher than the other variables were obtained.The highest correlation was determined between the variables - 30m
sprint and Squat jump (SJ). Its value is .412. A huge impact
on the result and a relatively high correlation had the fact
that the Squat jump (SJ) is technically the easiest test for
performance and that the acquisition of the jumping technique did not affect much the result of the test. The reaction
rate at the start of sprint did not affect the result because of
the length of the test and because the worse reaction at the
start can be compensated by the later sprint performance.
192
ost mjerenja visine vertikalnog skoka. Dakle, u ovom istraživanju
nije utvrđena značajna povezanost rezultata na testu sprinta
5 m i rezultata na svim testovima za procjenu eksplozivne
snage opružača koljena.
Niske korelacije su utvrđene između testa sprinta na 10 m
i testova vertikalnog skoka, s tim da je ne{to vi{a korelacija
pronađena između sprint na 10 m i Squat Jump (SJ) (-0,308).
Kao {to vidimo, povezanost je negativna {to znači da
opadanje rezultata u jednoj varijabli prati porast rezultata u
drugoj. Između navedenih varijabli koje su dovedene u
korelaciju ne postoji statistički značajna povezanost.
Između rezultata na testu sprinta na 30 m i varijabli za
procjenu eksplozivne snage nogu dobijene su ne{to vi{e
korelacije u odnosu na ostale varijable. Najvi{a korelacija je
utvrđena izmedju varijabli sprint 30 m i varijable Squat Jump
(SJ) i iznosi 0,412. Na ovakav rezultat, odnosno relativno
visoko korelaciju, svakako je uticalo to {to je test Squat Jump
(SJ) tehnički najlak{i za izvodjenje i usvojenost tehnike skoka
nije uticala puno na rezultat u ovom testu. Brzina reakcije
na početku sprinta nije uticala na rezultat zbog dužine trajanja testa, jer se lo{ija reakcija na startu može nadoknaditi
kasnijom izvedbom sprinta.
Zbornik radova 2012, 188–193
Conclusion
Zaključak
Taking into account some previous similar studies, the conclusions that can be drawn from this research are quite
unexpected. However, if we take into account all the disturbing factors that influenced the test performance, the
results are not surprising.
While conducting the testing, it is necessary to pay more
attention to the protocol preparation, to get familiar the
examinees with the techniques that are used in the process
of performing the vertical jump tests in order to make the
results useful for the further analysis.
S obzirom na dosada{nja slična istraživanja, zaključci koji se
mogu izvesti iz ovog istraživanja su dosta neočekivani.
Međutim, ako se uzmu svi ometajući faktori koji su uticali
na samo izvođenje testova, onda rezultati nisu iznenađujući.
Potrebno je prilikom provođenja testiranja vi{e obratiti pažnju
na samu pripremu protokola, odnosno bolje upoznati ispitanike sa tehnikama izvođenja testova vertikalnog skoka kako
bi dobijeni rezultati bili korisni za dalje analize.
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Korespodencija/Correspondence to:
Sa{a Marković
Phone: 00387 93 32 46
E-mail: sasadif18ªgmail.com
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