JOURNAL ON PROCESSING AND ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE
ČASOPIS ZA PROCESNU TEHNIKU I ENERGETIKU U POLJOPRIVREDI
Editor in Chief / Glavni i odgovorni urednik
Prof. dr. Mirko Babić
Editors / Urednici
Prof. dr. Ljiljana Babić
Prof. dr. Anđelko Bajkin
For Publisher / Za izdavača
Dr. Velimir Lončarević
Technical secretary / Tehnički sekretar
Dr. Ivan Pavkov
Editorial Board
Dr. Mirko Babić, professor, Faculty of Agriculture,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Costas Akritidis, professor emeritus, Aristotle
University, Thessaloniki, Greece,
Dr. Ljiljana Babić, professor, Faculty of Agriculture,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Anđelko Bajkin, professor, Faculty of Agriculture,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Costas Biliaderis, Aristotle University,
Thessaloniki, Greece,
Dr. Miloš Tešić, professor, Faculty of Tehnical
Science, Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Janos Beke, professor, Szent István University,
Gödöllö, Hungary,
Dr. Marko Dalla Rosa, University of Bologna, Italy,
Dr. Mirjana Đurić, professor, Faculty of Technology,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Richard Gladon, Iowa State University, USA,
Dr. Zuzana Hlaváčová, Slovak University of
Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic,
Dr. Tajana Krička, professor, Faculty of Agronomy,
Zagreb, Croatia,
Dr. Filip Kulić, professor, Faculty of Tehnical
Science, Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Harris Lazarides, Aristotle University,
Thessaloniki, Greece,
Dr. Jovanka Lević, Institute for Food Technology,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Mirjana Milošević, professor, Institute of Field
and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Vangelče Mitrevski, University "St. Kliment
Ohridski", Bitola, FYR Macedonia,
Dr. Milica Radosavljević, Maize Research Institute,
Zemun Polje, Belgrade-Zemun,
Dr. Branislav Karadžić, Faculty of Agriculture,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Ivan Pavkov, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad,
Serbia.
JOURNAL ON PROCESSING AND ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE
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CIP – Katalogizacija u publikaciji Biblioteka Matice srpske, Novi Sad
631.55/56:620.92
JOURNAL on processing and energy in agriculture = Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi / editor in chief
Mirko Babić. – Vol. 14, no. 1 (2010) - .- Novi Sad : Nacionalno društvo za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi, 2010-. –
Ilustr. ; 30 cm
Tromesečno. – Nastavak publikacije: PTEP - Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi (1997-2009)
ISSN 1821-4487
COBISS.SR-ID 247980295
CONTENT / SADRŽAJ
Mariann MÓRÉ, Gerda DIÓSI, Zoltán GYŐRI, Péter SIPOS
INFLUENCE OF STORAGE TIME ON THE GLUTEN PROPERTIES OF WINTER WHEAT /
UTICAJ VREMENA SKLADIŠTENJA NA KARAKTERISTIKE GLUTENA U OZIMOJ PŠENICI ............................................................ 197
Ivan ZLATANOVIĆ, Dušan RADOJIČIĆ, Dušan RADIVOJEVIĆ, Miloš PAJIĆ
EFFICIENCY ANALISYS OF THE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FOR RAW MILK COOLING WITH PRECOOLER AND POSSIBILITY
FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY THROUGH SANITARY WATER HEATING / ANALIZA EFIKASNOSTI RADA SISTEMA
TOPLOTNE PUMPE ZA HLAĐENJE SVEŽEG MLEKA SA PREDHLAĐENJEM I MOGUĆNOŠĆU ISKORIŠĆENJA OTPADNE
TOPLOTE ZA DOGREVANJE POTROŠNE VODE ............................................................................................................................................ 200
Darko MICIĆ, Sanja OSTOJIĆ, Mladen SIMONOVIĆ, Branislav R. SIMONOVIĆ
THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF RASPBERRY AND BLACKBERRY SEEDS OILS FOLLOWED BY DSC/
TERMALNE OSOBINE ULJA IZ SEMENA MALINE I KUPINE PRAĆENE DSC METODOM ................................................................. 204
Dragan TERZIĆ, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ, Bora DINIĆ, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ,
Jordan MARKOVIĆ, Jasmina MILENKOVIĆ, Tanja VASIĆ
EFFECTS OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC ON GERMINATION ENERGY OF ALFALFA SEED
AND SHARE OF HARD SEEDS / UTICAJ FOLIJARNE PRIMENE CINKA NA
ENERGIJU KLIJANJA SEMENA LUCERKE I UDEO TVRDIH SEMENA .................................................................................................... 207
Snežana TOŠKOVIĆ, Lana ĐUKANOVIĆ, Vera RAŠKOVIĆ, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ, Danica ĐUKANOVIĆ
INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN RATE AND TIME USAGE ON THE QUALITY OF FODDER KALE /
UTICAJ KOLIČINE AZOTA I VREMENA KORIŠĆENJA NA KVALITET STOČNOG KELJA ................................................................. 210
Dobrivoj POŠTIĆ, Nebojša MOMIROVIĆ, Zoran JOVOVIĆ, Lana ĐUKANOVIĆ,
Ratibor ŠTRBANOVIĆ*, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ*, Jasmina KNEŽEVIĆ
EFFECT OF SEED TUBER SIZE AND PRETREATMENT ON THE TOTAL YIELD POTATO /
UTICAJ KRUPNOĆE SEMENSKE KRTOLE I PREDTRETMANA NA UKUPAN PRINOS KROMPIRA ................................................. 214
Ljubinko LEVIĆ, Jovanka LEVIĆ, Slavica SREDANOVIĆ, Violeta KNEŽEVIĆ
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MOLASSES MINERAL BLOCK AS FEED
COMPONENT IN ORGANIC ANIMAL FARMING / HEMIJSKE OSOBINE
MELASNO-MINERALNOG BLOKA KAO KOMPONENTE HRANE U ORGANSKOM UZGOJU ŽIVOTINJA .................................... 217
Nevena HROMIŠ, Vera LAZIĆ, Senka POPOVIĆ, Danijela ŠUPUT, Natalija DŽINIĆ
CHITOSAN FILM WITH ADDITION OF BEESWAX AND CARAWAY ESSENTIAL OIL /
HITOZANSKI BIOFILM SA DODATKOM PČELINJEG VOSKA I ETARSKOG ULJA KIMA................................................................... 220
Zlatica MILADINOV, Velimir RADIĆ, Igor BALALIĆ, Jovan CRNOBARAC,
Milan JOCKOVIĆ, Goran JOKIĆ, Vladimir MIKLIČ
EFFECT OF BIOSTIMULATORS ON ROOT LENGTH AND SHOOT LENGTH OF SEEDLINGS
OF SUNFLOWER PARENT LINES / UTICAJ BIOSTIMULATORA NA DUŽINU KORENA I
NADZEMNOG DELA PONIKA RODITELJSKIH LINIJA SUNCOKRETA .................................................................................................... 225
Ratibor ŠTRBANOVIĆ, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ, Lana ĐUKANOVIĆ, Dobrivoj POŠTIĆ,
Jordan MARKOVIĆ, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ, Nenad DOLOVAC
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT POLYETHYLEN GLYCOLE CONCENTRATIONS AND EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT
METHODS FOR GERMINATION OF ALFALFA / PRIMENA RAZLIČITIH KONCENTRACIJA POLYETHYLENE
GLYCOLA I OCENA RAZLIČITIH METODA NA
KLIJAVOST SEMENA LUCERKE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 229
Jasmina MILENKOVIĆ, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ, Snežana ANĐELKOVIĆ,
Dragan TERZIĆ, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ, Tanja VASIĆ, Dejan SOKOLOVIĆ
GRAIN QUALITY OF MAIZE INBRED LINES ORIGINATED FROM LOCAL POPULATIONS /
KVALITET ZRNA SAMOOPLODNIH LINIJA KUKURUZA DOBIJENIH OD LOKALNIH POPULACIJA ............................................ 232
INFORMACIJE .............................................................................................................................................................................................. D1 – D14
Guide for authors and list of permanent reviewers is on the internet address http://www.ptep.org.rs, as well as in the first issue (No 1) of each
respective year.
Uputstvo za pisanje radova i lista stalnih recenzenata nalazi se na internet adresi http://www.ptep.org.rs/casopis.html, kao i u svakom prvom broju
(No 1) časopisa odgovarajuće godine.
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 197-199
UDK: 664.236
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
INFLUENCE OF STORAGE TIME ON THE GLUTEN
PROPERTIES OF WINTER WHEAT
UTICAJ VREMENA SKLADIŠTENJA NA KARAKTERISTIKE
GLUTENA U OZIMOJ PŠENICI
*
Mariann MÓRÉ *, Gerda DIÓSI *, Zoltán GYŐRI **, Péter SIPOS*
University of Debrecen, Institute of Food Science, 138 Böszörményi street, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary,
**
Szent István University Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Institute of Regional Economics
and Rural Development Páter Károly street 1., H-2103 Gödöllő
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Wheat is one of the most important bread crops in Hungary. The quality of wheat grain is defined by gluten content, thus
maintaining its quality is necessary during storage. The changes in quality of the Hungarian winter wheat variety (GK Békés) were
evaluated during storage. Grains samples were produced at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen by applying
two different rates of NPK fertilizer. Samples were harvested in 2013 and were stored between July 2013 and January 2014. During
this we analyzed wet gluten content, gluten index and gluten spreading in flour at five time points and examined how gluten
properties change during the storage time. The results showed that gluten index increased significantly. The wet gluten content
increased during storage but significant differences were not found in this parameter of gluten quality. During storage period there
was a decreasing tendency in gluten spreading at the higher level of NPK fertilization.
Key words: wheat, storage, wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten spreading.
REZIME
Pšenica je jedna od najvažnijih hlebnih žitarica u Mađarskoj. Kvalitet zrna pšenice je definisan sadržajem glutena, stoga je
održavanje njegovog kvaliteta od izuzetne važnosti. U radu su ispitivane promene kvaliteta Mađarske ozime pšenice (GK Békés).
Uzorci pšenice su proizvedeni u Látókép naučnom institutu, Univerziteta u Debrecinu primenom dva različite nivoa NPK đubriva.
Žetva uzoraka je obavljena u 2013. i uzorci su skladišteni između jula 2013. i januara 2014. Tokom ispitivanja rađena je analiza
sadržaja vlažnog glutena, indeks glutena i širenja glutena u brašnu
.
, ali značajne razlike nisu nađene u ovom parametru kvaliteta glutena. Tokom perioda skladištenja došlo
je do smanjenja tendencija u širenju glutena, na višem nivou upotrebe NPK đubriva .
Key words: pšenica, skladištenje, sadržaj vlažnog glutena, indeks glutena, širenje glutena.
INTRODUCTION
Wheat is a widely grown crop, which is nutritious and it is
used for processing into various types of food in many countries.
Wheat flour has a unique property which means if the flour is
mixed with water it creates viscoelastic dough which is capable
to retain the produced gas during fermentation and in the
beginning of baking. Wheat gluten proteins play key roles in
baking quality. The rubbery mass that remains when wheat
dough is washed out to remove starch and water-soluble
constituents is gluten. (Wrigley and Bietz, 1988; Walker and
Hazelton, 1996; Khatkar, 2004; Ionescu et al., 2010; Véha et al.,
2012)
Gluten properties are influenced by different factors during
plant growth and grain processing (Shewry, 1999). Nitrogen
fertilization influences wheat protein content and composition.
The increase of grain protein content is followed by increase of
wet gluten content (Zečević et al., 2004).
The storage time has influence on the quality of wheat and
milled flour parameters but it also depends on the wheat variety,
environmental factors, the conditions of harvest and the milling
technology. All the mentioned factors are important for the use
of flour and the quality of the end-products (Hrušková and
Machová, 2002). Balla et al. (1993) found that gluten quality
increased at the end of the maturing period but no significant
change in wet gluten content was found in the grains of stored
wheat.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
The aim of our study was to determine how gluten properties
(wet gluten content, gluten index and gluten spreading) change
during storage period.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Winter wheat samples were collected from the Látókép
Research Institute of the University of Debrecen in 2013. The
long-term experiment was set up in 1983 and it had a split-splot
arrangement with three repetitions.
Table 1 shows the applied N/P2O5/K2O doses in this
experiment. We analysed the second and fourth NPK treatment
levels.
Table 1. The applied NPK doses of the winter wheat field
experiment (Látókép)
Treatments
N (kg/ha)
P2O5 (kg/ha)
K2O (kg/ha)
Control
0
0
0
1.
30
22.5
26.5
2.
60
45
53
3.
90
67.5
79.5
4.
120
90
106
5.
150
112,5
132,5
After harvesting and cleaning (MSZ 6367/2:2001) the wheat
samples were stored (MSZ 6383:1998) in the sample storage
room of the Institute of Food Science of the University of
Debrecen in polypropylene bags.
197
Móré, Mariann et al. / Influence of Storage Time on the Gluten Properties of Winter Wheat
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Wet gluten content
The effect of storage time on the wet gluten content of the
tested wheat cultivar is shown in Fig. 1. The wet gluten content
at the lower fertilization level (60/45/53 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O) was
37.37 % 1 week after the harvest (23/07/2013). There was a
slight increase until the fifth week after the harvest (39.43 %).
Then wet gluten content decreased and reached a value which
was lower than it was 1 week after the harvest.
43
48
47
46
Wet gluten content (%)
One winter wheat variety was the basis of our study (GK
Békés) and we examined the wheat samples at five time points
in three repetitions: 1 week after harvest (23/07/2013), 2 weeks
after harvest (31/07/2013), 5 weeks after harvest (21/08/2013), 9
weeks after harvest (18/09/2013), and 27 weeks after harvest
(23/ 01/2014).
We mixed 1 kg from each sample and after homogenization,
wheat conditioning was performed. Moisture content of wheat
varied around 14 % depending on variety, and these will
normally need to be conditioned to 16.5 % prior to milling
(25 °C, 24h). Winter wheat samples were milled in a LABOR
MIM FQC 109 (METEFÉM, Budapest, Hungary) laboratory
mill and a 250 μm sieve was used.
Flour samples were tested for: wet gluten content (MSZISO-5531:1993), gluten spreading (MSZ-ISO-5531:1993) and
gluten index (ICC method No. 155). Perten Instruments
Glutomatic 2200 gluten washer and Centrifuge 2015 (PERTEN
INSTRUMENTS AB, Huddinge, Sweden) were used to
determine the quality parameters.
The experimental results were analyzed by one-way Analysis
of Variance (Post Hoc test - Duncan test) by the SPSS for
Windows 13 statistical program package (SPSS Inc., USA).
44
42.47
43
42.98
42
41.22
42.53
41
40
39
38
37
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Weeks after harvest
Fig. 2. Influence of storage on the wet gluten content of GK
Békés (120/90/106 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O)
Wet gluten content decreased 9 weeks after harvest then it
reached the highest value (45.45 %) 27 weeks after harvest. Wet
gluten content increased during storage period in samples treated
with higher fertilization level but significant differences were not
found.
Gluten index
Changes in the strength of gluten expressed by the gluten
index were influenced by storage (Fig. 3). Gluten index slightly
decreased until the fourth measurement time (18 09 2013) then it
increased at the end of storage period. This value (68.7 %) was
higher than that registered at the beginning of storage (67.5 %).
80
42
41
41.00
40
75
39.43
39
70
38.48
37.32
37
37.37
36
35
34
33
68.7
67.5
65.8
38
Gluten index (%)
Wet gluten content (%)
45.45
45
65
60.8
60
55
53.8
50
32
31
45
30
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Weeks after harvest
Fig. 1. Influence of storage on the wet gluten content of GK
Békés (60/45/53 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O)
The highest wet gluten content (41.00 %) value was noticed
(23/01/2014) 27 weeks after harvest. Thus the wet gluten content
increased and was influenced by storage, but the changes were
not significant.
Figure 2. shows that the wet gluten content was higher
(42.53 %) at the first measurement point (23-/ 07/2013) at the
higher fertilization level (120/90/106 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O). A
slight increase was observed in wet gluten content until 5 weeks
after harvest (21/08/2013).
198
40
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Weeks after harvest
Fig. 3. Influence of storage on gluten index of GK Békés
(60/45/53 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O)
Storage time caused significant changes in gluten index of
GK Békés at the lower level of fertilization (60/45/53 kg/ha
N/P2O5/K2O). When the applied doses of fertilizer was
120/90/106 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O (Fig. 4) we observed similar
trends in gluten index changes as in the samples treated with the
lower fertilization dose. Gluten index was 66.2 % one week after
harvest then this value decreased to 45.2 % (9 weeks after
harvest).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Móré, Mariann et al. / Influence of Storage Time on the Gluten Properties of Winter Wheat
At the beginning and end of storage period, gluten spreading
showed almost the same value (5.7 mm/h and 5.5 mm/h). Gluten
spreading spreading was the highest 2 weeks after harvest so it
was sticky but, by the third measurement; the gluten spreading
decreased and reached the lowest value. The gluten spreading
increased slightly after the third measurement time. Significant
differences were found in gluten spreading extensibility during
the observed storage period. A slight decrease was observed in
gluten spreading (Fig. 6) which varied between 6,2 mm/h and
4.8mm/h on the higher fertilization level (120/90/106 kg/ha
N/P2O5/K2O). At the higher fertilization level no significant
differences existed during storage of gluten spreading.
80
75
Gluten index (%)
70
68.94
65.79
65
58.21
60
66.24
55
50
45.2
45
CONCLUSION
40
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Weeks after harvest
Fig. 4. Influence of storage on gluten index of GK Békés
(120/90/106 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O)
The better quality of the tested gluten was at the end of
storage time (68.9 %). This value is higher than it was in the first
time. Differences were statistically significant in gluten index
readings during storage.
Gluten spreading
The data presented in Fig. 5 show the changes in gluten
spreading during storage of wheat grain at the lower fertilization
level (60/45/53 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O).
8
Gluten spreading (mm/h)
7
REFERENCES
6.2
6
5.5
5.7
5
4.8
4
4.0
3
2
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Weeks after harvest
Fig. 5. Influence of storage on gluten spreading of GK Békés
(60/45/53 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O)
8
Gluten spreading (mm/h)
7
6.2
6
5.7
5
5.0
5.0
4.8
4
3
2
1
0
0
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the
storage of winter wheat variety of GK Békés affects gluten
properties (wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten spreading).
Wet gluten content tended to increase during storage in
wheat grain at two applied fertilization levels but differences
were not found significant. Gluten index had the same tendency
so the strength of wheat gluten was improved by storage.
Significant differences were noted at both fertilization levels..
The quality of the tested gluten improved as confirmed by
increasing gluten index. Significant difference was found in
gluten spreading GK Békés at the lower NPK treatment level. A
decreasing tendency was observed in this parameter for the
wheat at the higher level of NPK fertilization level during the
storage. In general, it could be concluded that there was a
positive influence of storage on gluten properties of winter
wheat variety of GK Békés because both the gluten quality and
quantity increased.
5
10
15
20
Weeks after harvest
25
Fig. 6. Influence of storage on gluten spreading of GK Békés
(120/90/106 kg/ha N/P2O5/K2O)
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
30
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properties during short term storage. Czech J. Food Sci., 20,
125–130.
Ionescu, V., Stoenescu, G., Vasilean, I., Aprodu, I., Banu, I.
(2010). Comparative evaluation of wet gluten quantity and
quality
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Technology, 34 (2), 44-48.
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Received: 10.03.2014.
Accepted: 20.05.2014.
199
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 200-203
UDK: 621.577
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
EFFICIENCY ANALISYS OF THE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FOR RAW MILK
COOLING WITH PRECOOLER AND POSSIBILITY FOR WASTE HEAT
RECOVERY THROUGH SANITARY WATER HEATING
ANALIZA EFIKASNOSTI RADA SISTEMA TOPLOTNE PUMPE ZA
HLAĐENJE SVEŽEG MLEKA SA PREDHLAĐENJEM I MOGUĆNOŠĆU
ISKORIŠĆENJA OTPADNE TOPLOTE ZA DOGREVANJE POTROŠNE VODE
Ivan ZLATANOVIĆ , Dušan RADOJIČIĆ , Dušan RADIVOJEVIĆ , Miloš PAJIĆ
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, 11080 Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
*
*
*
*
*
ABSTRACT
Contemporary livestock production implies production of highly valuable, biologically and chemically safe products. Dairy production has no exception too. On the contrary, the quality standards for raw milk are highly increased. The quality of raw milk is defined by its chemical composition and the total count of microorganisms in control volume. In this paper we discussed the performance of advanced system for heat recovery from raw milk and its application in the process of preheating and preparation of process
water. The energy and exergy efficiency of one of such systems were analyzed. It was determined that the implementation of the system for milk cooling with precooling and using the waste heat for preheating process water could achieve significant savings. The
system consists of "milk to water" heat pump, pre-cooler for milk cooling and storage tank for process water with heating possibility.
Values of exergy efficiency of each component of system and potential improving of components performances were determined. Also,
the exergy efficiency and potential improvement of complete system were determined.
Key words: Energy efficiency, heat pump, milk, cooling, exergy.
REZIME
Savremena stočarska proizvodnja podrazumeva proizvodnju visoko vrednih, biološki i hemijski bezbednih proizvoda. Proizvodnja
mleka nije izuzetak, naprotiv, norme kvaliteta sirovog mleka su sve strožije. Kvalitet sirovog mleka je određen njegovim hemijskim
sastavom i ukupnom brojnošću mikroorganizama u kontrolnoj zapremini. U ovom radu biće razmatran rad naprednog sistema za
rekuperaciju toplote iz svežeg mleka koja se potom koristi u procesu dogrevanja i pripreme potrošne vode. Primenom sistema za
hlađenje mleka sa predhlađenjem i korišćenjem dobijene toplote za zagrevanje potrošne vode mogu se postići značajne uštede. U
radu je analizirana energetska i eksergetska efikasnost rada jednog ovakvog sistema. Sistem se sastoji od toplotne pumpe „mlekovoda“, predhladnjaka za hlađenje svežeg mleka i skladišnika potrošne tople vode sa mogućnošću njenog dogrevanja. Ustanovljene su
veličine eksergetske efikasnosti komponenata sistema i potencijal poboljšanja svake od komponenata u sistemu. Takođe, ustanovljena
je eksergetska efikasnost celokupnog sistema i potencijal njegovog poboljšanja.
Ključne reči: Energerska efikasnost, toplotna pumpa, mleko, hlađenje, eksergija.
consumption. (Radivojević et al., 2012). A heat pump systems
INTRODUCTION
application has great potential and provides economical and ecological benefit in different branches of food industry (Chua et
Modern dairy production involves production of high worth
al.,
2010; Gong et al., 2008; Zlatanović et al., 2011). Use of
bacteriological safe food product. The overall quality of the raw
heat
recovery systems in milk cooling operation can contribute
milk is determined by its chemical composition and bacterioto
most
effective energy use. Application of heat recovery syslogical quality. By keeping the fresh milk at low temperatures,
tem
can
save 53% of energy compared with conventional elecbefore the thermal processing process is continued, the bacteriotric heater (Griswold et al., 1984). However, some studies
logical activity is reduced to its minimum. If the milk has a high
showed that the total energy use for hot water heating and milk
number of bacteria, its technological value is decreased, because
cooling on the farms was not correlated with the herd size. Only
the bacteria need to break down and use some of the milk commeasurements of energy use for water heating and milk cooling
ponents for their own metabolism. Major source of milk concan provide data for quality energy savings potential assessment
tamination during the milking process are inadequate preparation
(Kammel et al., 1993).
procedures and poor udder hygiene (Radivojević et al., 2011).
Energy efficiency in the diary industry is becoming an inDifferent temperatures of raw milk during the production proces
creasingly
important issue due to the rising costs of both electricalong with the milk fat content have great influence on
ity
and
fossil
fuel resources. Thoughtful implementation of enreologycal and thermal properties of milk (Hlaváč, 2011). To
ergy efficiency improvements in agricultural equipment will
maintain milk quality, milk must be cooled from about 39 °C
help reduce the cost of food production (Gellings, 2008). Process
(cow body temperature) to 3 °C for safe storage. Milk is norheat recovery (Zlatanović et al., 2011) or waste heat recovery
mally cooled by a refrigeration unit acting as a heat pump mov(Law et al., 2013) provide considerable savings in energy coning heat from the milk (heat source) to the air or water (heat
sumption. The advanced technologies within some form of heat
sink) using a carrier refrigerant. In the refrigeration unit evaporarecovery process are preferable in diary industry, like thermotor, located in the milk tank, the refrigerant absorbs heat from
solar technology (Quiera et al., 2013) or refrigeration (Stinson et
the milk and changes state from a liquid to a gas. This state
al.,
1987; Radivojević et al., 2012) technology (heat pump).
change has great impact on compressor performance and energy
Figure 1 shows typical distribution of on-farm electrical energy
200
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Zlatanović, Ivan et al./Effic. An. of The Heat Pump Sys. for Raw Milk Cool. With Pre. and Pos. for Waste Heat Rec.Throu. Sani. Water Heat.
consumption. Although, total energy use can vary widely with
the type of building, as well as with the relative age of facility
(Capareda et al., 2010). The heat recovery systems on larger
farms are likely to be more attractive financially, because the
increase in return is not matched by a similar increase in cost
(Stinson et al., 1987).
0 - Dead state
act - Actual
dest- Destroyed
in - Inlet
m - Milk
out - Outlet
s - Isentropic
w - Water
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Fig. 1. Dairy farm electric energy consumption (Peterson, 2008)
Some studies (Edens et al., 2003) also show that major energy consumers in dairy production are equipment for milking
and milk cooling, while outside temperature
plays lesser role. Same study notes that cow
number is not a factor related to energy use for
milk cooling or vacuum pump operation, creating suspicion about the validity of
kWh/cow/yr as an energy use indicator.
A new technique for heat recovery system
is analyzed in this paper. The proposed system
employs a combined milk-cooling and waterheating technique for heat recovery. This system provides not only heating or cooling, but
also hot water. Similar system was presented
and analyzed in Ref. (Gong et al., 2008). The
heat recovery system can increase equipment
utilization to avoid equipment idle in transition
time and decrease equipment investment cost.
Exergy is defined as the maximum useful
work that can be produced by a stream or system in a specified environment. Exergy is a
quantitative measure of the “quality” or “usefulness” of an amount of energy (Dincer et al., 2007). Many researchers and practicing engineers refer to exergy methods as
powerful tools for analyzing, assessing, designing, improving
and optimizing systems and processes (van Gool, 1997; Zlatanović et al., 2013). Efficiencies based on exergy, unlike those
based on energy, are always measures of the approach to true
ideality, and therefore provide more meaningful information
when assessing the performance of energy systems (Dincer et
al., 2007).
Nomenclature
 - Mass flow rate, kg/s
m
E - Energy rate, kW
E x - Exergy rate, kW
h - Specific enthalpy, kJ/kg
s - Specific entropy, kJ/kg K
T- Temperature, K
ψ - Exergy efficiency, dimensionless or %
IP- Improvement potential rate, kW
LMTD- Logarithmic mean temperature difference
Subscript
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
The experiment involved with this study (Fig. 2) was
peformed at small family farm (16 Cows). Data were collected
during the period of 24 hours. The capacity of milk tank is 500
st
nd
litres. After each milking period (1 period 18:00-20:00 h, 2
period 6:00-8:00 h the next day) the milking equipment (mobile
milking equipment) is washed and cleaned with hot water at
60 °C previously heated and storaged in the water thank. The
mass flow rate of the milk through the milk thank is averaged in
a one milk production period (127 minutes). Similar approach is
used to determine the mass flow rate of the water through the
water tank.
Fig. 2. Experimental data for 24 h period
The heat recovery system (Fig.3) consists of three separate
circuits: (1) a heat pump circuit (with refrigerant R134a), (2) a
milk cooling circuit and (3) a water distribution circuit. The heat
pump circuit consists of a compressor, a condenser placed in
water tank, an expansion valve and an evaporator placed in milk
tank. Those components operate within simple refrigeration
cycle. The refrigerant leaved the evaporator superheated at –
+ 10 °C, and condenser sub cooled at – 1 °C. The condensing
temperature and compressor average discharge temperature were
measured + 42 °C and + 68 °C respectively. The evaporating
temperature was set to be Δt = 2 °C lower than outlet
temperature of milk. The milk and water circuits were
crossflowed through 0.4 kW capacity plate heat exchanger, with
milk inlet/outlet temperatures + 39 °C / + 21 °C, and water
inlet/outlet temperatures + 12 °C / + 35 °C. The calculated value
of the logarithmic mean temperature difference of plate heat
exchanger was LMTD = 6.17 °C. The heat exchange area was
0,222 m2.
The raw milk was precooled in plate heat exchanger
(precooler). In precooler, the heat was transfered to the cold
water. The refrigerant flowed through the evaporator and drew
the heat from the lukewarm milk over the large bottom tank
201
Zlatanović, Ivan et al./Effic. An. of The Heat Pump Sys. for Raw Milk Cool. With Pre. and Pos. for Waste Heat Rec.Throu. Sani. Water Heat.
surface area. Then, the heat was rejected from the condenser to
the water circulating through the water tank.
RAW
MILK
VII
1m
PLATE HEAT
EXCHANGER
2m
MILK
TANK
2w
I : Compressor
II : Condenser
III: Expansion valve
IV: Evaporator
V : Milk tank
VI: Water tank
VII: Plate heat exchanger
2m
3m
COLD
WATER
LUKEWARM
WATER
LUKEWARM
MILK
COLD
MILK
1w
V
2w
EVAPORATOR
WATER
TANK
IV
1
4
II
COMPRESSOR
3
CONDENSER
R134a
EXPANSION VALVE
VI
2
I
R134a
III
2
1
3
HOT
WATER
3w
Fig. 3. A milk/water heat pump system with pre-cooling
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Temperature pressure and mass flow rate data for the
refrigerant (R134a), milk and water are given in Table 1
according to the state numbers described on Fig. 2. The
calculated exergy rates are provided at Table 1. The references
state (dead state) was taken to be the state of the room where the
heat pump system is placed, with the ambient temperature of 20
°C and atmospheric pressure of approximately 100 kPa. The
thermal properties of water and refrigerant were found from the
water properties tables. The properties of milk were found in the
literature (Božikova, 2008; Чубик анд Maслов, 1965).
Table 2 presents exergy, energy and IP data for a
representative unit of the heat pump system. The exergy
efficiency on an outlet/inlet basis for the overall heat recovery
system is 31.36 %.
According to the results presented in Table 2, the greatest
irreversibility occurs in compressor and evaporator / milk tank,
and it was manifested through the highest values of exergy
destruction rate. The large degree of superheat achieved at the
end of the compression process causes the exergy destruction
through compressor.
Compressor power depends on the inlet and outlet pressures.
The heat exchanger improvements that reduce the temperature
difference will reduce compressor power by reducing the
temperature differences between condensing and evaporating
temperatures.
The heat recovery system components energy balance, the
exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiencies were determined
under the assumption of steady-state and
Table 1. Process data for flows in the heat pump system
steady-flow processes in the observed system
(Dincer and Rosen 2007). All calculations
Specific
Temp. Press.
were based on mass (Eq. 1) and energy (Eq. 2) State Description
enthalpy
Fluid
Phase
no.
conservation principles and system exergy
°C
kPa
kJ/kg
balance (Eq. 3).
0
Refrigerant Dead state 20
100
270
∑ m in = ∑ m out
E = E
(1)
E xdest = E xin − E xout
(3)
in
(2)
out
The exergy rate of refrigerant, milk or
water was determined by using Eq. 4.
E xin = m [(h − h0 ) − T0 (s − s0 )]
(4)
The exergy efficiency was calculated as the
ratio of total exergy output to total exergy
input (Eq. 5), and the improvement potential
on a rate basis was expressed with Eq. 6 (van
Gool, 1997).
E x
(5)
ψ =  out
Exin
(
IP = (1 −ψ ) E xin − E xout
)
(6)
The following assumptions were used in
energy and exergy analysis: (a) all processes
are steady-state and steady-flow with
negligible potential and kinetic energy effects
and no chemical reactions; (b) the properties of
milk are approximated with water during
entropy calculations; (c) heat transfer and
refrigerant pressure drops in the pipelines
connecting the components are negligible; (d)
the compressor motor electrical efficiency is
88 %.
0
0
Plate heat
1m
exchanger
inlet
Plate heat
exchanger
2m
outlet / Tank
inlet
Milk
Water
3m
Milk
1w
2w
3w
Plate heat
exchanger
inlet
Plate heat
exchanger
outlet / Tank
inlet
Tank outlet
Evaporator
outlet/
1
Compressor
inlet
Condenser
inlet/
2,s
Compressor
outlet
Condenser
inlet/
2,act
Compressor
outlet
Condenser
outlet/
3
Expansion
valve inlet
4
202
Tank outlet
Dead state
Dead state
20
20
Spec.
entropy
100
100
82.88
82.88
kJ/kgK
1.083
0.2928
0.2928
Mass
flow
rate
kg/s
-
Exergy
rate
kW
0
0
0
Milk
Compressed
34.1
liquid
100
142.3
0.4908 0.0191 0.02711
Milk
Compressed
28.81
liquid
100
120
0.4174 0.0191 0.01084
4
100
16.31
0.05927 0.0191 0.03521
15
500
61.93
0.2207 0.0154 0.002513
21.45
500
88.98
0.3135 0.0154 0.000269
Water
Water
Compressed
liquid
Compressed
liquid
Compressed
liquid
Water
Compressed
liquid
60
500
251.6
0.8323 0.0154
0.1579
Refrigerant
Superheated
vapor
12
314.6
257.7
0.951
0.0125
0.3285
Refrigerant
Superheated
55.07 1072
vapor
284.4
0.951
0.0125
0.6627
Refrigerant
Superheated
vapor
68
1072
298.9
0.9944 0.0125
0.6853
Refrigerant
Compressed
liquid
41
1072
107.7
0.3913 0.0125
0.5037
Mixture
2
314.6
107.7
0.4066 0.0125
0.4479
Expansion
valve outlet/
Refrigerant
Evaporator
inlet
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Zlatanović, Ivan et al./Effic. An. of The Heat Pump Sys. for Raw Milk Cool. With Pre. and Pos. for Waste Heat Rec.Throu. Sani. Water Heat.
One way for improving system effectiveness is replacing the
reciprocating compressor by a more efficient scroll compressor
unit. Also, the improvement of plate heat exchanger heat transfer
efficiency will be of great benefit, because it will reduce milk
tank inlet milk temperature and reduce evaporator heat load. The
second largest irreversibility is associated with the evaporator
(milk tank). The component irreversibility results of the overall
heat recovery system indicate that the greatest potential for
improvement is in the compressor and evaporator components.
Table 2. Data for devices of a representative unit in
heat recovery system
Device
number
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
I-VII
Device
Compressor
Condenser
Expansion
valve
Evaporator
Milk tank
Water tank
Plate heat
exchanger
Overall heat
recovery
system
Exergy
Utilized Exergy Exergy
Exergy
destruction
power
efficiency
in
out
rate
kW
kW
kW
kW
%
0.5158 0.8443 0.6853
0.159
81.17
2.39
0.6855 0.6615
0.024
96.5
-
0.5037 0.4479
0.05579
88.92
1.874
1.874
2.39
0.4587 0.3637
0.4587 0.3637
0.6855 0.6615
0.09503
0.09503
0.024
79.28
79.28
96.5
0.4
0.02962 0.01111
0.01852
37.49
-
0.6158 0.1931
0.4227
31.36
CONCLUSION
Comprehensive energy and exergy analyses are presented in
this paper in order to evaluate the performance of heat recovery
system and its components. Actual data are utilized in the
analysis. Exergy destructions in the overall heat recovery system
and its components are quantified.
The exergy efficiencies elucidate great potential for each
system component improvement. The largest irreversibility in
the heat pump unit is associated with the compressor (0.159
kW), followed by the evaporator (0.095 kW), the condenser
(0.024 kW), the expansion valve (0.056 kW) and the plate heat
exchanger (0.018 kW). The exergy analysis of the overall heat
recovery system, with exergy efficiency of 31.36 % indicates
that there is the greatest potential for improvement (0.29 kW).
It may be concluded that integration of heat recovery unit in
a complex diary process, in combination with other specific
devices, must be conducted carefully, in order to obtain its
maximum capacity and performance.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Authors are grateful to Ministry
of Education, Science and Technological development of the
Republic of Serbia for funding this research (in frame of project
TR 31051).
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Received: 13.03.2014.
Accepted: 02.06.2014.
203
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 204-206
UDK: 582.711.712
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF RASPBERRY AND BLACKBERRY
SEEDS OILS FOLLOWED BY DSC
TERMALNE OSOBINE ULJA IZ SEMENA MALINE I
KUPINE PRAĆENE DSC METODOM
Darko MICIĆ*, Sanja OSTOJIĆ*, Mladen SIMONOVIĆ*, Branislav R. SIMONOVIĆ*
*University of Belgrade, Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, 11000 Belgrade, Studentski trg 12, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Studies were conducted on thermal properties of oils extracted from raspberry and blackberry seed as well as flours obtained by
grinding of seed. Crystallization and melting points of oils were measured with a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), using TA
Instruments DSC Q1000, under N2 purge flow of 50 ml/min. DSC scans were conducted in temperature range of 40 °C to -90 °C. A
programmed cycle was followed in which the sample was cooled from 40 °C to -90 °C and heated back to 40 °C with rate of
2 °C/min. The raspberry and blackberry seeds oils presented a crystallization peak at -66 °C and -61 °C with enthalpy of 25.10 J/g
and 29.04 J/g, respectively. Polymorphism was detected in both oils during heating.
Key words: oil, seed, raspberry, blackberry, DSC.
REZIME
U ovom radu izučavana su termalna svojstva ulja dobijenih iz semena kupine i maline kao i brašna dobijena mlevenjem ovog
semena. Temperature kristalizacije i tačke topljenja određene su metodom diferencijalne skenirajuće kalorimetrije (DSC), pomoću
DSC kalorimetra TA Instruments, DSC Q1000, pri protoku N2 od 50 ml/min. DSC eksperimenti sprovedeni su u temperaturskom
opsegu od of 40°C do -90°C. Programirano je ciklično hlađenje uzorka od 40°C to -90°C i ponovno grejanje do 40°C brzinom od
2°C/min. Određena temperatura kristalizacije ulja iz semena maline i kupine je -66°C i -61°C, a entalpija kristalizacije 25,10 J/g i
29,04 J/g. Nađen je polimorfizam kod oba ulja.
Ključne reči: ulje, seme, malina, kupina, DSC.
(2005) found significant amounts of α-linolenic acid,
INTRODUCTION
tocopherols, polyphenols and carotenoids in marionberry,
boysenberry, red raspberry and blueberry seed oils.
Recently, more attention has been focused on the utilization
The present study was conducted to investigate the seed
of food processing byproducts and wastes, as well as underutilized agricultural products (Đević et al., 2008; Hodúr et al., flours and oils of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., sort Willamette)
2009). Obviously, such utilization would contribute to and blackberry (R. fruticosus L., sort Čačak Thornless) for their
maximizing available resources and result in the production of thermal characteristics by mean of Modulated Differential
various new foods (Radovanović et al., 2011). Simultaneously, a Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC), conventional Differential
major contribution to avoiding waste disposal problems could be Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis
made. The processing of berry fruit for juices and puree typically (TGA). Modulated DSC (MDSC) offers a solution to overcome
many of the analytical limitations of conventional DSC. MDSC
removes the seed as a byproduct. The development of a valuediffers from conventional DSC wherein the sample is subjected
added use of seeds could expand the market for berry products
and increase grower profit margins. For instance, red raspberry to a more complex heating program incorporating a sinusoidal
seed was reported to contain 12.2 % protein and 11-23 % oil temperature modulation accompanied by an underlying linear
(Bushman et al., 2004). Considerable amounts of tocopherols heating ramp. It provides the total heat flow, the non-reversible
(kinetic component) and the reversible (heat capacity
were found in the red raspberry oil, mainly of γ-tocopherol
component) heat flows (Cao, 1999).
(Oomah et al., 2000). Tocopherols are common lipophilic
antioxidants abundant in some oils and nuts, but their presence
in red raspberry seed could provide vitamin E activity and
antioxidant potential as well (Bramley et al., 2000). Ellagic acid
was reported to be more abundant in red raspberry and
blackberry than in other fruits and nuts (Daniel et al., 1989).
Occurring primarily in the seed, ellagic acid has shown
chemopreventative activity in animal models (Stoner and Morse,
1997, Xue et al., 2001). These characteristics of red raspberry
seed suggest possible roles in human nutritional products.
Additional research is required to investigate fruit seed flours for
their contents of health beneficial factors to promote their valueadded utilization as beneficial food ingredients.
High-value vegetable oils (like berry seed oils) are gaining
attention owing to their health benefits which are linked to their
high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. All
berry seed oils have a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids
in common, providing essential fatty acids (Hoed et al, 2009).
Recently, the properties of some berry seed oils have been
reported in the literature. Parry and Yu (2004), Parry et al.
204
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Fruit seed flours and oils preparation
Fruit seeds were the solid residues from the cold-pressing
fruit pulp. Seeds were drayed at room temperature, to the
constant moisture of 6-7 % and grinded immediately before
thermal analysis. Examined oils were obtained by extraction
from milled raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., sort Willamette) and
blackberry (R. fruticosus L., sort Čačak Thornless) seeds using
hexane as described in literature (Oomah et al., 2000).
Thermal analysis
All measurements have been performed on TA Instruments
DSC Q1000, Differential Scanning Calorimeter and TA
Instruments TGA Q500, Thermogravimetric Analyzer with TA
Universal analysis 2000 software, under N2 purge flow of 50
ml/min and 60 ml/min, respectively. DSC was calibrated with a
high-purity indium standard.
Thermal analysis of blackberry and raspberry seed flours flour samples were placed in sealed aluminium pans and into the
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Micić, Darko et al. / Thermal Behavior of Raspberry and Blackberry Seeds Oils Followed By DSC
equipment’s sample chamber and their weight was (5.0 ± 0.5)
mg. An empty sealed aluminum pan was used as the reference.
MDSC scans were conducted in temperature range from -90 °C
to 300 °C, with heating rate of 5 °C/min with modulation of
±0.50 °C amplitude and 40 s period of modulation. TGA scans
were performed in temperature range of 25 °C to 700 °C with
heating rate of 5 °C/min. The initial mass of the flour samples
was been about 12 mg in TGA measurements. Thermal analysis
of blackberry and raspberry seed oils - oil samples were placed
in sealed aluminium pans and into the equipment’s sample
chamber and their weight was (3.0 ± 0.3) mg. An empty open
aluminum pan was used as an inert reference to balance the heat
capacity of the sample pan. DSC scans of blackberry and
raspberry seed oils were conducted in temperature range of
40 °C to -90 °C. A programmed cycle was followed in which the
sample was cooled from 40 °C to -90 °C with cooling rate of
2 °C/min, maintained at this low temperature for 5 min and
heated back to 40°C with same rate.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
On the Figures 1.a) and 1.b) are presented MDSC curves of
blackberry and raspberry seed flours. It is evident that the curves
quite similar for both seed flours. Total DSC curve (curve 1) is
characterized with overlapping effect in low-temperature region
caused by the freezing and unfreezing of large-amplitude motion
(Pyda and Wunderlich, 2005). It was shown that thermal
transitions, observed in the range of −80 °C to −10 °C were
independent on water content, and they were mainly attributed to
lipid melting transitions (Matiacevich et al., 2006) Broad
endothermic peak with Tm at about 93 °C corresponds to protein
denaturation (Matiacevich et al., 2006). Thermal decomposition
is happened above 200 °C. Using MDSC, the reversing (curve 3)
and nonreversing (curve 2), thermal events in the low
temperature region of seed flour have been approximately
separated (Pyda and Wunderlich, 2005). Reversing curve is
suggesting that there are two independent thermal processes.
Fig. 1. MDSC curves of: a) blackberry seed flour; and b)
raspberry seed flour. (1-total heat flow, 2-nonreversing heat
flow and 3-reversing heat flow)
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Fig. 2. TGA curves of blackberry (solid curve) and raspberry
(dashed curve) seed flour
On the Figure 2. TGA curves of blackberry and raspberry
seed flours are presented. And these curves are confirmed the
thermal degradation of seed flours at temperatures above 200 °C.
Results from TGA analysis are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Results obtained from TGA curves of blackberry
and raspberry seed flours
I weight loss II weight III weight Residue
seed flour
(moisture) (%) loss (%) loss (%) (ash) (%)
raspberry
6.09
60.92
31.70
1.29
blackberry
6.22
57.33
35.28
1.16
Results obtained from TGA and DSC curves indicated
similarity in thermal behavior of raspberry and blackberry seed
flours.
On the Figure 3. DSC curves of blackberry and raspberry
seed oils are presented. Oil curves are very similar to the curves
of flours. They have similar shape in the same temperature
range. It confirms that the overlapping effect in the low
temperature regions of flour DSC curves arise due to the
presence of oil.
Fig. 3. DSC profile of: a) blackberry seed oil; and
b) raspberry seed oil
205
Micić, Darko et al. / Thermal Behavior of Raspberry and Blackberry Seeds Oils Followed By DSC
The blackberry and raspberry seed oils presented a
crystallization peak at -61 °C and -66 °C with enthalpy of
29.04 J/g and 25.10 J/g, respectively. Polymorphism was
detected in both seed oils: after melting of the low temperature
form at -41 °C (for both oils), an additional form crystallized
with an exothermic peak at -37 °C (for both oils). At -19 °C and
-22 °C (for blackberry and raspberry seed oils, respectively) this
forms melted with an originally existing crystallite of the same
kind. Similar thermal behavior was observed for grape seed oil
by Kaisersberger (Kaisersberger, 1990). These polymorphic
changes can be hindered by addition of emulsifiers. According to
Garti et al. (1988), the first small endothermic peak at -41 °C
represents the melting of the unstable crystal form a followed by
the crystallization of the more stable form b which is
characterized by an exothermic peak. The melting enthalpy of
blackberry and raspberry seed oils were 72.44 J/g and 63.95 J/g,
respectively.
CONCLUSION
Using MDSC, thermal events in low temperature region of
seed flour have been approximately separated by reversing heat
flow, suggesting that there are two independent thermal
processes. It was shown that overlapping effect of flour DSC
curves arise due to the presence of oil. In both, blackberry and
raspberry seed oils, polymorphism was detected during heating
treatment.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This work was supported by the
Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia,
under the Projects No TR-31093 and TR-31055.
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(2000). Characteristics of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) seed oil.
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Parry, J., Yu, L. (2004). Fatty acid content and antioxidant
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Whittaker, P., Yo, L. (2005). Fatty acid composition and
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marionberry,
boysenberry, red raspberry and blueberry seed oils. J. Agric.
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Pyda, M., Wunderlich, B. (2005). Reversing and Nonreversing
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Region by TMDSC, Macromolecules, 38, 10472-10479.
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Received: 28.02.2014.
Accepted: 30.10.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 207-209
UDK: 633.31:564.47
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
EFFECTS OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC ON GERMINATION ENERGY
OF ALFALFA SEED AND SHARE OF HARD SEEDS
UTICAJ FOLIJARNE PRIMENE CINKA NA ENERGIJU KLIJANJA SEMENA
LUCERKE I UDEO TVRDIH SEMENA
Dragan TERZIĆ*, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ**, Bora DINIĆ*, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ*,
Jordan MARKOVIĆ*, Jasmina MILENKOVIĆ*, Tanja VASIĆ*
*Institute for forage crops Kruševac; 37251, Goboder, Kruševac, Serbia
**Institute for plant protection and environment, Teodora Drajzera 9, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
In three year study, the influence of foliar application of zinc on seed germination energy and share of hard alfalfa seeds was
examined. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops, Kruševac. The soil on which the
trial was conducted is of weakly acidic reaction and zinc content which is considered adequate. Zinc fertilization was performed by
foliar split application. In the investigation years, meteorological factors showed large variations. Treatment with zinc achieved on
average slightly higher germination energy, but differences were not statistically significant. Zinc fertilization had no effect on the
number of hard seeds. Climatic conditions had impact on the germination energy and the proportion of hard seeds.
Key words: Alfalfa, zinc, germination energy, hard seeds.
REZIME
Cink je jedan od mikroelementa koji se često nalazi u nedostatku kod gajenih biljaka. Cilj ovih istraživanja bio je ispitati uticaj
folijarne primene cinka na energiju klijanja semena lucerke i udeo tvrdih semena. U trogodišnjem periodu obavljena su ispitivanja
na oglednom polju Instituta za krmno bilje u Kruševcu. Zemljište na kome je izveden ogled je slabo kisele reakcije a sadržaj cinka u
zemljištu je za lucerku bio u adekvatnom rangu. Folijarna primena cinka (1% cink sulfata (ZnSO4 x 7H2O) je obavljena u podeljenoj
aplikaciji. Prosečna energija klijanja je iznosila 78.0% sa velikim variranjem po godinama od 68,5% do 84,8%. Velika ukupna
količina padavina u 2005. godini (808 mm), odnosno velika količina padavina u junu, julu i avgustu je dovela do poleganja useva još
na početku cvetanja i do kasnije loše oplodnje i prorastanja semenskog otkosa što je uticalo da energija klijanja u toj godini bude
znatno niža (68,7%) u odnosu na ostvarenu energiju klijanja u 2006. (84,5%) i 2007. godini (80,8%). Tretman sa cinkom je u proseku
ostvario nešto veću energiju klijanja (78,2%) u odnosu na kontrolu (77,7%), ali razlike nisu i statistički opravdane. Energija klijanja
je pokazala jaku negativnu korelacionu zavisnost sa ukupnom količinom padavina i količinom padavina u junu, julu i avgustu a
srednju negativnu korelaciju sa brojem kišnih dana. Najveći udeo tvrdih semena ustanovljen je u sušnoj i toploj godini (6,2%), a
najmanji u godini sa dosta padavina (5,1%). Đubrenje cinkom nije imalo uticaja na broj tvrdih zrna.
Ključne reči: lucerka, cink, energija klijanja, tvrda semena.
achieved. In a surveys conducted by Vučković (1994), Du et al.
INTRODUCTION
(2009) and Terzić (2014), zinc did not have a positive effect on
seed yield. Some researches (Zhang et al., 2005; quoted by Du et
In the production of alfalfa seed the main objective is to
al., 2009) have reported that a small concentration of Zn (80 mg
achieve high seed yields and produce high quality seed. Seed
l-1) increases the germination of alfalfa, but higher quantity (600
quality is monitored through the vigour/germination energy and
-1
mg l ) decreases it.
germination capacity of alfalfa seed (Bolanos-Aguilar et al.,
Germination
energy is high and positively correlated with
2002; Iannucci et al., 2002). In order to achieve the maximum
total
germination
(Beković 2005; Stanisavljević 2006). On the
seed yield, all nutrient elements must be available in sufficient
other
hand,
the
hard seeds are negatively correlated with
quantity (Marble, 1989; Hall et al., 2002).
germination.
They
are alive but with an impermeable seed
Zinc (Zn) is among those microelements which are most
coat
for
water,
gases,
etc., so they do not germinate. This seed
often deficient (Roy et al., 2006). Availability of Zn is largely
will
germinate
after
a period of seed storage or treatment
dependent on the soil pH value and it is higher in acid soils.
applied,
i.e.
when
the
seed coat is permeable. Therefore,
Contrary to this, in alkaline soils, its availability is very low.
seedlings from hard seed occurring later on already formed
Therefore, the Zn deficiency observed in soils with high pH (>
alfalfa crop, can not withstand the competition and do not
6.0). Viets (1966) has classified alfalfa as medium sensitive crop
contribute to establishing crops (Bass et al., 1988).
to zinc deficiency. Symptoms of its deficiency on alfalfa occur
The aim of this study was to examine the impact climatic
as reduced and twisted young leaves (Undersander et al., 2004).
condtions
of the year and foliar application of zinc on
Zinc accelerates the maturing of plants, increases the pollen
germination
energy and number of hard alfalfa seeds.
vitality and fertilization. Certain results (Grewal and Williams,
2000) suggest that the ability of alfalfa to cope with stress due to
the lack and excess moisture during the early vegetative stage is
increased by adequate zinc fertilization. The authors state that
also varieties exhibit different behaviour due to a lack of zinc in
stressful conditions.
Data of the impact of zinc on seed yield vary. In studies of
the zinc impact on seed yield (Stjepanović et al., 1986), an
average increase in seed yield of 12.9 to 21.2 % has been
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
MATERIAL AND METHOD
In the course of realization of the research goals, researches
were carried out at the experimental field of the Institute for
forage crops in Kruševac. Trial was established in 2002 with
alfalfa varieties K-28. The results obtained in years 2005, 2006
and 2007 are presented in this paper.
207
Terzić, Dragan et al. / Effects of Foliar Application of Zinc on Germination Energy of Alfalfa Seed and Share of Hard Seeds
Year
2005
2006
2007
Average
(1989-2008)
Total precipitation Number of
sum (mm)
Average t ºC
days with
Mean
(June, July and
June, precipitation annual
August)
Annual July and (June, July, temp. (ºC)
August)
August
808
274
29
10.9
20.3
651
167
24
11.4
21.1
745
136
15
12.7
21.3
614
175
20
11.6
Table 3. The correlation coefficients (r) between the studied
factors and characteristics
Trait
Hard seeds
0.54
21.3
Germination energy is important biological characteristic of
seed and also an important indicator of its quality. During the
year 2005 (Table 2) the lowest germination energy was
determined compared to other years. The minimum germination
energy (68.5 %) was obtained in the control treatment while the
slightly higher energy was observed in the treatment with zinc
(68.9 %), but the differences were not statistically significant.
Higher germination energy was obtained in 2007 (80.6 and 80.9
%). The highest germination energy was observed in 2006, in the
zinc treatment (84.8 %) and the control variant (84.1 %).
Considerable differences in germination energy are the result of
different climatic conditions in the study period (Table 1.).
Table 2. Influence of foliar application of zinc on
germination energy and percentage of hard seed
Year
2005
2006
2007
Aver.
F test
Treatment
Control
Zinc treatment
Average
Germination Hard
Germination Hard Germination Hard
seeds
energy (%) seeds (%) Energy (%) seeds (%) energy*
68.5
5.1
68.9
5.1
68.7b
5.1b
84.1
5.5
84.8
5.3
84.5ab
5.4ab
80.6
6.3
80.9
6.0
80.8 a
6.2a
77.7
5.6
78.2
5.5
78.0
5.6
Factor/trait
Germination
Hard seeds
Year
x
x
Zinc
ns
ns
Year x Zinc
ns
ns
*Values followed by different letters within columns are
significantly different (p≤0.05) according to the LSD test. ns not statistically significant
208
Mean
temperature Precipitation
ºC
No of Sum
days (mm)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Hard seeds
Table 1. Agro-ecological characteristics of the
examined years
Germination energy showed a strong negative correlation
(Table 3) with total annual rainfall (-0.92) and rainfall in June,
July and August (-0.91) and medium negative correlation with
the number of rainy days in June, July and August (-0.71). High
total precipitation (808 mm), and particularly large amount of
rainfall in June, July and August (274 mm) led to the lodging of
crops at the beginning of flowering and later to bad pollination
and regrowth of seed crop which all affect the germination
energy in year 2005, i.e. significantly lower than the energy of
germination in 2006 and 2007. The mean annual temperature
and mean temperature in June, July and August had positive
correlation with germination energy (0.54 and 0.42). In all three
experimental years, the average germination energy was 78.0 %
with a large variation in years from 68.7 % in the 2005 to 84.5 %
in 2006 (Table 2). The achieved results are within the values
obtained by (Erić, 1988; Vučković, 1994; Karagić, 2004;
Beković, 2005; Stanisavljević, 2006). The authors also
emphasize varying of germination energy under the influence of
environmental conditions during the year.
Growing conditions in some years have affected the share of
hard seeds. The highest average proportion of hard seeds was
established in 2007 (6.2 %) and the lowest in 2005 (5.1 %). The
share of hard seeds showed very strong positive correlation with
mean annual temperature and average temperature in June July
and August (0.99). The lowest share of hard seeds was recorded
in 2005. In the treatments with zinc, the average treatment
options realized lower share of hard seed but the differences
were not justified statistically.
Germination
energy
The experiment was conducted in three replications in
completely randomized block design and the plot size was 10.5
2
m . The soil on which the studies were carried out, in regard to
the chemical properties, belong to the category of low acidity
soils, and in regard to the content of zinc (1.6 ppm), under
criteria for alfalfa which cite Koenig et al. (1999) belong to
appropriate rank. Foliar zinc fertilization (1 % zinc sulphate
(ZnSO4 x 7H2O) was performed by foliar split application (the
first application was made in the phase of intensive growth and
the second application in the early stages of budding and
-1
flowering of crops) with 1000 litres of water ha .
After the harvest of seeds and completion of field tests,
germination energy and percentage of hard seed were
determined in the laboratory conditions. The seed was analysed
according to the provisions of the Rulebook on determining of
the seed quality (Official Gazette no. 74/87), which is in
accordance with international rules on the quality of seeds
(ISTA, 1987).
Statistical processing of the data was done using the analysis
of variance (ANOVA). Significance of differences was tested
using LSD test. The correlation coefficient (r) was determined
by the correlation analysis
Precipitation
Sum in No of
Mean
mm
days temperature
ºC Annual
Annual
June July Aug
(mm)
Annual -0.92 -0.15
June
July
Aug
Annual
-0.91 -0.85
0.66
-0.71 -0.99
0.24
0.89
0.54 0.99
-0.16
-0.85
-0.99
Average
0.42 0.99
(June July Aug)
-0.02
-0.83
-0.97
0.99
The lowest percentage of hard seeds was obtained in the year
with plenty of rainfall (2005), while the most of hard seeds was
recorded in a dry year (2007), which is consistent with the
statements of Mijatović (1960) who concluded that in the dryer
years, the presence of hard seeds is higher than in wet and rainy
years. Similar results are stated also by Vučković (1994), who
has determined the highest number of hard seeds in an
exceptionally dry year (7.99 %), while the percentage was below
in average dry year (3.3 %). Researches of Erić (1988) has
pointed out that in years when production was low, the share of
hard seeds was also lower. Similar results are stated also by
Beković (2005), who concluded that the share of hard seeds in
years with more rainfall is lower (5.15 %), and higher in the
arid/dry years (7.95 %). In addition, research by Fick et al.
(1988) stated that water stress increases the percentage of hard
seeds.
Fertilization with zinc had no effect on the number of hard
seeds which is in accordance with the results of Vučković (1994).
In the study of the supply of zinc in alfalfa in plant material
obtained in central and Southeast Serbia, no zinc deficiency has
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Terzić, Dragan et al. / Effects of Foliar Application of Zinc on Germination Energy of Alfalfa Seed and Share of Hard Seeds
been established (Terzić et al., 2013). Also, growing alfalfa on
slightly acid soil has likely contributed to absence of significant
impact of zinc fertilization on studied treatments.
CONCLUSION
Environmental conditions during the year affected the
germination energy and the lowest germination was recorded in
the rainy year with plenty of rain in June, July and August.
Germination energy showed a strong negative correlation
with total precipitation (-0.92) and rainfall in June, July and
August (-0.91) and medium negative correlation to the number
of rainy days in June, July and August.
The highest share of hard seeds was observed in dry and
warm years. The share of hard seeds showed a negative
correlation with rainfall in June, July and August, and positive
correlation with mean annual and average temperature in June,
July and August.
Foliar application of zinc had no effect on germination
energy and the number of hard seeds.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Research was financed by the
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development,
Republic of Serbia, project TR 31057 (2011-2014)
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EUCARPIA grupa Medicago sativa, Pleven, Bugarska.
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S., Đokić D., Vasić T. (2014). The effect of foliar application
of zinc on yield of alfalfa seed. V International Scientific
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(2013).
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istočne i južne Srbije. XVIII Savetovanje o biotehnologiji sa
međunarodnim učešćem, 18 (20), 153-159.
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Received: 12.03.2014.
Accepted: 04.11.2014.
209
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 210-213
UDK: 635.343:111.4
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN RATE AND TIME USAGE ON
THE QUALITY OF FODDER KALE
UTICAJ KOLIČINE AZOTA I VREMENA KORIŠĆENJA
NA KVALITET STOČNOG KELJA
Snežana TOŠKOVIĆ*, Lana ĐUKANOVIĆ**, Vera RAŠKOVIĆ*, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ**,
Danica ĐUKANOVIĆ***
*Higher Agricultural school of vocational studies, 15000 Šabac,Vojvode Putnika bb
** Institute for Plant Protection and Environment, 11040 Belgrade, Teodora Drajzera 9, Serbia
*** Faculty of Agriculture, 11080 Zemun, Nemanjina 6
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
A field study in central Srem (Serbia) evaluated during two seasons the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application (50, 100 and
150 kgha-1) and harvest time (from 70 to 110 days after the seeding) on fodder kale quality. Fodder kale was sown as a second crop
in the conditions of irrigation. The goal of study was to evaluate the most important parameters of fodder kale quality (raw proteins
and raw cellulose) depending on different nitrogen fertilization and harvest time. The average crude protein content increased
(20.78-22,85 %) and the crude cellulose content decreased (15.12-13,96 %) as the nitrogen rates increased, directly due to the
higher adoption of nitrogen and indirectly, by increasing the proportion of leaf dry matter in the total yield. The plants used in the
first time of harvest had the highest leaf proportion and the highest protein content. Such trends changed in the last harvest time (by
postponing the usage) when the crude cellulose content increased because of the leaf biomass reduction. The highest crude protein
content (23.10 %) and the lowest crude cellulose content (13.63 %) in the fodder kale dry matter were obtained in the first harvest
-1
time (70 days after the seeding) using the highest nitrogen rate (150 kgha ).
Key words: fodder kale, nitrogen, harvest time, quality.
REZIME
U radu su izneti dvogodišnji rezultati ispitivanja uticaja različitih količina azota (50, 100 i 150 kgha-1) kroz tri roka korišćenja
(od 70 do 110 dana nakon setve) na sadržaj sirovih proteina i sadržaj sirove celuloze u suvoj materiji stočnog kelja, gajenog kao
postrni usev u centralnom Sremu, u uslovima navodnjavanja. Cilj istraživanja bio je da se ispita način reagovanja stočnog kelja na
različite količine azota u različitim rokovima korišćenja, izraženog preko najvažnijih parametara kvaliteta. Parametri kvaliteta
značajno su se menjali u zavisnosti od ispitivanih faktora. Prosečan sadržaj sirovih proteina je rastao (20,78 – 22,85%), a sadržaj
sirove celuloze opadao (15,12 – 13,96%) primenom većih količina azotnog đubriva, zbog direktnog uticaja na veće usvajanje azota i
indirektno povećanjem udela lisne mase u ukupnom prinosu. Biljke korišćene u prvom roku imale su najveći udeo lišća i najveći
sadržaj proteina. Takva kretanja su izmenjena u poslednjim rokovima (odlaganjem korišćenja) kada dolazi do povećanja sadržaja
sirove celuloze, zbog smanjenja udela lisne mase. Najveći sadržaj sirovih proteina (24,10%) i najmanji sadržaj sirove celuloze
(13,63%) u suvoj materiji stočnog kelja, utvrđeni su u prvom roku korišćenja (70 dana od setve) na varijanti sa primenom najveće
-1
količine azota (150 kgha ).
Ključne reči: stočni kelj, azot, vreme korišćenja, kvalitet.
INTRODUCTION
Fodder kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala D.C) is a
forage brassicas, which is used in animal feed as fresh juicy
fodder on the food table – manger (Herbert and Hashemi, 2002).
Fodder kale is one of the forage crop used for the production of
forage most commonly used in the world, particularly in Europe.
In our country, it is less studied and little is used in animal feed,
but it deserves more attention, especially since it can be grown in
all production systems (as the mainpostsowing or postharvest
crop), with or without irrigation (Petrović – Tošković, 2001). Of
all the forage brassicas has the longest period of use which can
be further extended by the proper combination of planting in
several deadlines (Erić et al.., 1998, Erić et al., 2006).
Of all mineral nutrients, nitrogen largely increases the yield
and crude protein content. According to the results of Šoštarić –
Pisačić and Štafa (1975), Šoštarić – Pisačić et al. (1978),
Mijatović (1978, 1981), as well as other domestic and foreign
authors, the content of crude protein in the fodder kale dry
matter ranges from 13.3 % to 25.8 %. According to the same
authors, crude protein content depends on several factors,
210
including: variety, sowing dates and use, soil fertility, the
amount of input of nutrients and other (Zakonović, 1996;
Tošković, 1999). High fodder kale varieties (with a larger
proportion of trees and smaller leaves) contain less protein than
the low, leafy varieties (Štafa and Crnobrnja 1983). Ostojić
(1989) examining productivity and chemical composition of
main and post sowing fodder kale crop, found a higher content
of crude protein in the post sowing (17.03 %) than that of the
main crop (14.84 %). Tošković (1999) points out that the content
of crude protein in fodder kale, among other factors, depends on
the vegetation length. When plants are in later phase of
development, protein content is lower and cellulose content is
higher, because the proportion of trees increases in total yield.
The aim of this study was to determine the basic parameters
of fodder kale quality, with varying amounts of nitrogen in
various periods of use.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Test were conducted in the area of central Srem in Veliki
Radinci (DP “Mitrosrem”) during the 2011 and 2012 year. The
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Tošković, Snežana et al. / Influence of Nitrogen Rate and Time Usage on the Quality of Fodder Kale
experiment was set up as a two – factor block design with four
replications using split plot.
The following factors were examined:
Nitrogen amount (factor A): A1 – without fertilization;
A2 – N0P50K50; A3 – N50P50K50; A4 – N100P50K50; A5 – N150P50K50.
Time usage (factor B): B1 – 70 days from sowing; B2 – 90
days from sowing; B3 – 110 days from sowing.
Sowing of fodder kale, Novi Sad selection “NS Bikovo”,
was performed at the beginning of July using standard cultural
practices. During testing irrigation was performed only in July
and August.
During the tests following parameters of fodder kale quality
were followed: the content of crude protein and crude cellulose
in dry matter. The crude protein was determined based on the
amount of total nitrogen by Kjeldahl method and increased by a
factor of 6.25, and crude cellulose content was determined by a
modified Heneberg – Stohman’s method. Statistical analysis was
performed using analysis of variance and the evaluation of
significance of differences was determined by LSD test.
Data from the meteorological station in Sremska Mitrovica
(Table 1) shows that the average air temperature during the
growing season 2011 (18.9 ºC) and the 2012 (20.4 ºC) was more
than ten year average (18.0 ºC). In the second year of study
higher average air temperature was determined during the
growing season, in relation to the first year, especially the warm
months were July and August 2012.
Amount of precipitation in the growing season 2011 (143.6
mm) and 2012 (100.2 mm) was lower than ten year average
(223.9 mm). During the experiment monthly minimums were
recorded in August. Due to higher air temperatures and less
precipitation, both years were dry, particularly stood out year
2012.
Table 1. Mean monthly temperatures (C) and monthly
precipitation (mm) amount for growing season of fodder kale
in 2011 and 2012 (S.Mitrovica) and irrigation schedule
Year
2011.
2012.
20002009.
Sowing
Parameter
date
Air temp.
5.VII Amount
preci.
Air temp.
1.VII Amount
preci.
Air temp.
Amount
preci.
Month
Aver.
VII VIII IX X
22.2 22.5 20.2 10.5 18.9
93.4 6.1 17.6 26.5 143.6
24.5 23.7 19.5 13.7
110 (5)
20.4
39.6 0.4 13.2 47.0 100.2
22.0 21.9 16.2 12.0
Irrigation
(mm)
140 (6)
18.0
46.2 62.4 54.6 60.7 223.9
The experiments were conducted on the soil type chernozem,
it is slightly alkaline reaction. According to the humus content it
is poorly humic soil (2.56 to 2.65 %) and the total nitrogen
content is proportional to the share of humus. In the upper layers
the soil is carbonate, which is the main characteristic of typical
chernozem of Vojvodina. Soil is medium provided with
available phosphorus, and content of available potassium is high.
On the whole the soil on which experiment was conducted offer
favorable conditions for the cultivation of fodder kale (Table 2).
Table 2. Chemical Properties of the Soil
Depth Humus
(cm)
(%)
0 – 20 2.56
20 – 40 2.65
Total N
(%)
0.13
0.13
Ph
AL mg/100g
in H2O in KCl
8.25
8.30
7.25
7.30
P2O5
K2O
CaCO3
(%)
12.2
11.9
37.3
33.8
19.6
20.9
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The crude protein content. The two – year study found a
significant effect of nitrogen amount and time usage and the
impact of their interaction on the content of crude protein in the
dry matter of fodder kale. The study results (Tables 3 and 4)
show that nitrogen fertilizer has very significant impact on the
increase in the crude protein content compared to the variant
without fertilization (A1) and variant (A2). The average crude
protein content is increased by application of large amounts of
nitrogen from 20.67 to 22.74 % in the first year and 20.88 to
22.96 % in the second year of study. The variants A4 and A5
were fertilized with larger quantities of nitrogen (100 to 150
kgha-1) had a faster and greater production of the leaves (Table
5), which have achieved a very substantial increase in the protein
content compared to the plants of A3 variant with least amount
of nitrogen applied (50 kgha-1). The amount of 150 kgha-1 of
nitrogen was not significantly affected by the increase in the
protein content, compared to a dose of 100 kgha-1 of nitrogen, as
determined in both years.
During the period of use from 70 to 110 days after sowing
(Tables 3 and 4), the average crude protein content decreased in
all versions going from B1 to B3 term. With delay of time usage
and extending the growing season, there was a decrease in the
share of leaf mass in total yield (Table 5), which resulted in
protein content. Highly significant differences in the average
protein content were found between all the terms of use. On
variants with the application of nitrogen average crude protein
content decreased from 23.13 to 20.20 % in the first and from
23.55 to 20.88 % in the second year of study.
Interaction between the amount of nitrogen and time usage
was very significant. Starting from B1 variants fertilized with
nitrogen stood out (A3, A4 and A5) of which the plants due to a
larger share of the leaf mass (Table 5) during the whole period of
use had a higher protein content, compared to the control plants
and PK variants which was more pronounced in treatments with
the application of higher doses of nitrogen (A4 and A5). In the
B3 period, in all variants it has been found a very significant
reduction in the protein content. Nevertheless, plants fertilized
with nitrogen used in B3 term, although older, had a higher
protein content than the control plants (A1) and variant (A2) at
the beginning of the period of use, the B1 term. Larger amounts
of nitrogen (100 and 150 kgha-1) was influenced by the plants in
variants A4 and A5, in B3 term (although 20 days older) show a
similar protein content as well as plants of A3 variant, with the
application of a minimum dose of nitrogen (50 kgha-1), used in
the B2 term. The highest protein content was found in the B1
term, the A5 variant with the application of the highest dose of
nitrogen (150 kgha-1) and is 24.15 % in the first year and 24.05
% in the second year of study. A very significant and important
differences in the protein content (Table 3 and 4) are determined
in the variants with the application of nitrogen in relation to the
A1 and A2 variant in all three periods of use, as well as the
variants A4 and A5 in relation to A3 in B2 term.
According to research of Šoštarić – Pisačić et al. (1978),
crude protein content in fodder kale increases with increasing
amounts of nitrogen up to a maximum dose of 300 kgha-1 and
found free of high nitrate levels. Štafa and Crnobrnja (1983)
found that the content of crude protein, depending on the variety,
range from 17.74 to 22.40 %. For variety NS Bikovo they
determined the content of 20.53 % protein, which agrees with
ours results. Mijatović and Pavešić – Popović (1985) obtained
slightly higher protein content results. Growing fodder kale
variety NS Bikovo as postharvest crop and fertilizing with
N150P100K100 determined protein content of 25.7 %.
211
Tošković, Snežana et al. / Influence of Nitrogen Rate and Time Usage on the Quality of Fodder Kale
Zakonović (1991) by examining different ways of production at
their interaction had a significant impact on the content of crude
different levels of nutrition, found an increase in the crude
cellulose in the fodder kale dry matter (Tables 3 and 4). The
protein content using a large amount of fertilizer, in both modes
average content of crude cellulose is decreased by the use of
of production of fodder kale.
large amounts of nitrogen. In the first year it ranged from 15.15
Tošković, (1999) in the period of usage of fodder kale from
to 13.94 %, in the second year from 15.09 to 13.98 %. The
110 to 200 days after sowing, found that the protein content is
highest content of crude cellulose was found in the variant
constantly decreasing from 110 day, as opposed to the yield
without fertilization (A1). Larger amounts of nitrogen resulted in
proteins, in which the downward trend established from 140 day
the increase in the proportion of leaf mass (Table 5), so that the
after sowing. Pejić and Jovanović (1980) examining intensity
smallest content of cellulose was in variant A5 with the
and increase of the nutritional value of postharvest crop to older
application of the highest amounts of nitrogen (150 kgha-1).
kale, over the period from 110 to 160 days after sowing, found a
During the period of use from 70 to 110 days after sowing
reduction of the protein content from 22.60 to 19.82 %.
(Tables 3 and 4), the average content of crude cellulose
However, the same authors found that the yield of crude protein
increased with the extension of time usage and the growing
increases significantly during the entire period of use, thanks to
season, going from 14.68 to 15.54 % in the first year and from
high levels of dry matter. The highest yield of crude protein was
14.46 to 15.31 % in the second year of study. Plants used in the
given at the end of the test period, the amount of 3.15 tha-1. In
B5 term were oldest and with largest share of the trees, which
have made the greatest cellulose content (average 16.5 %).
our studies, in the period of use from 70 to 110 days after the
In the interaction of both factors, it has been found the
sowing, it was also found a reduction of content of crude protein,
following: cellulose content was the highest in all treatments at
from 21.62 to 18.67 % in average for two years. Plants used in
the end of the period of use, however, the plant variants A4 and
the beginning of the period, the B1 term, were the youngest and
A5, with the application of large amounts of nitrogen, even
with largest share of the leaves, which have achieved the highest
though they were older, had lower cellulose content than control
average protein content. During the examination, between all
plants and PK variants with the use of minimum amount of
times of use were found highly significant differences in protein
nitrogen.
content.
So, with the application of large amounts of nitrogen, fodder
Therefore, with use of large amounts of nitrogen, fodder kale
kale can be used for a longer period of time, content of crude
can be used for a longer period of time, and that the content of
cellulose does not significantly increases without losing quality
crude protein as an important factor in the quality and in addition
of the crop.
to extend the growing season and reducing the share of the
leaves of green forage, remain at a satisfactory level.
During the research it was found that the studied factors and
Table 3. Crude proteins content and crude cellulose content (% in dry matter) in 2011 year
Variant fertiliz.
(A)
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
Average B
(A3,A4,A5)
Average B
A
B
AB
Usage time (B)
Average A
B1
B2
B3
Crudeprotein. Crude cellulose Crude protein. Crude cellulose Crude protein. Crude cellulose Crudeprotein. Crude cellulose
18.85
15.25
17.88
15.79
15.03
16.75
17.25
15.93
19.01
15.21
17.80
15.81
15.50
16.45
17.44
15.82
22.54
14.78
20.24
15.15
19.24
15.51
20.67
15.15
22.69
14.50
22.40
14.36
20.30
14.66
21.80
14.51
24.15
13.61
23.00
13.90
21.07
14.32
22.74
13.94
23.13
14.30
21.88
14.47
20.20
14.83
21.74
14.53
21.45
14.68
Crude proteins content
LSD 5%
LSD 1%
0.95
1.09
0.63
0.84
1.41
1.88
20.26
15.00
18.28
15.54
20.00
Crude cellulose content
LSD 5%
LSD 1%
0.58
0.76
0.44
0.59
0.99
1.32
15.07
Table 4. Crude proteins content and crude cellulose content (% in dry matter) in 2012 year
Variant fertiliz.
(A)
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
Average B
(A3. A4.A5)
Average B
A
B
AB
212
B1
Usage time (B)
B2
Average A
B3
Crude protein. Crude cellulose Crude protein. Crude cellulose Crude protein. Crude cellulose Crude protein. Crude cellulose
19.14
15.15
18.11
15.62
16.10
16.25
17.78
15.67
19.10
15.18
17.85
15.75
16.58
16.12
17.84
15.68
23.04
14.51
20.10
15.32
19.50
15.45
20.88
15.09
23.55
13.83
22.90
14.07
21.10
14.45
22.52
14.12
24.05
13.65
22.83
14.00
22.01
14.28
22.96
13.98
23.55
14.00
21.94
14.46
20.88
14.73
22.12
14.40
21.78
14.46
Crude proteins content
LSD 5%
LSD 1%
0.97
1.10
0.87
1.05
1.95
2.21
20.36
14.95
19.06
15.31
Crude cellulose content
LSD 5%
LSD 1%
0.81
1.09
0.63
0.84
1.41
1.88
20.40
14.91
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Tošković, Snežana et al. / Influence of Nitrogen Rate and Time Usage on the Quality of Fodder Kale
Table 5. Leaf Proportion (%) in Total Forage Yield in 2011 and 2012 years
Variant
fertiliz.
(A)
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
Average B
(A3, A4,A5)
Average B
A
B
AB
Usage time (B)
B2
B1
2011.
68.13
69.80
71.47
74.06
75.02
73.51
2012.
69.60
70.00
72.35
74.14
74.98
73.82
2011.
67.90
69.05
70.10
71.55
72.03
71.23
71.70
72.21
70.13
Leaf proportion in total yield
in 2011
LSD 5%
LSD 1%
1.18
1.57
1.18
1.57
2.64
3.50
2012.
68.03
68.90
69.20
70.86
71.50
70.52
69.70
Average A
B3
2011.
61.24
62.09
65.80
67.15
67.95
66.97
2012.
62.05
63.28
65.40
68.01
68.15
67.19
2011.
65.75
66.98
69.12
70.92
71.67
70.57
64.85
65.38
68.89
Leaf proportion in total yield in
2012
LSD 5%
LSD 1%
1.12
1.48
1.12
1.48
2.49
3.31
In the literature, there is little data on the content of crude
cellulose in fodder kale. They are often found in studies that
examine the effect of different sowing dates and methods of
production, productivity and quality of fodder kale. Šoštarić –
Pisačić et al. (1978) examined the effects of terms of sowing and
grow sowing on yield and quality of fodder kale, where they
found that the crude cellulose content is lower in the later
sowing which agrees with ours results. Ostojić (1989) found a
higher content of crude cellulose in the main crop fodder kale
(21.51 %) than in the post sowing (16.36 %). In our studies
lower cellulose content was obtained, which may be explained
with post sowing period. Pejić and Jovanović (1980) received
results similar to those in our study. In postharvest fodder kale,
over the period from 110 to 160 days after planting, they found
an increase in the content of crude cellulose, from 14.57 to
15.42 % in average for both years.
CONCLUSION
Fodder kale as post sowing crop can be successfully grown
in the central part of Srem, in irrigation, and in the period from
mid – September to late October it is possible to provide a
continuous income of high – quality green fodder in this area.
Quality parameters were significantly changed depending on
the studied factors: crude protein content from 20.78 to 22.85 %
for different amounts of nitrogen and 23.34 to 20.54 % in
different periods of use, a crude cellulose content from15.12 to
13.96 % and 14.15 to 14.78 % in average for two years. The
crude protein content is increased and the content of crude
cellulose decreased by using larger amounts of nitrogen
fertilizer, both because of the direct impact on greater adoption
of nutrient elements and indirectly by increasing the share of leaf
mass to total yield. These trends have changed in the last period
of use due to reduced share of leaf mass.
With use of large amounts of nitrogen, fodder kale can be
used for a longer period of time, and content of crude protein, as
an important factor in quality and in addition to extend the
growing season and reducing the share of the leaves of green
fodder yield, remain at a satisfactory level.
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hrane – zelene mase i silaže korišćenjem novih vrsta i sorti
krmnih biljaka i savremena agrotehnika. Poljoprivreda,
Beograd, 274-275.
Mijatović, M., Pavešić-Popović Jasna (1985). Proizvodna
vrednost uljane repice, perka i stočnog kelja kao postrnih i
ozimih krmnih kultura. V Jugoslovenskog simpozijuma o
krmnom bilju, Banja Luka.
Ostojić, S. (1989). Prinosi i hemijski sastav stočnog kelja kao
glavnog i naknadnog useva. Savremena poljoprivreda 1-2,
Novi Sad.
Pejić, N., Jovanović, R. (1980). Intenzitet porasta i hranljiva
vrednost stočnog kelja u uslovima suvog ratarenja. Savremena
poljoprivreda 9-10, Novi Sad, Petrović-Tošković, Snežana i
Stošić, M. (2001). Uticaj količine azota i vremena korišćenja
na prinos stočnog kelja gajenog u postrnoj setvi. Zbornik
naučnih radova IX Jugoslovenskog simpozijuma o krmnom
bilju sa međunarodnim učešćem, Poljoprivredni fakultet
Beograd, Arhiv za poljoprivredne nauke, 62, (220), 205-212.
Šoštarić-Pisačić, K., Štafa, Z. (1975). Stočni kelj nova,
intenzivna krmna kultura. Agroinovacije, Zagreb, 8, 56, 1-30.
Šoštarić-Pisačić, K., Štafa, Z., Tkalec, Ž. (1978). Utjecaj rokova
sjetve i presađivanja na visinu i kvalitet stočnog kelja. III
Jugoslovenski sompozijum o krmnom bilju, Bled.
Štafa, Z., Crnobrnja, L. (1983). Osobine, kvaliteta i
produktivnost raznih genotipova Brassica sp. u postrnoj sjetvi.
Zbornik naučnih radova IV Jugoslovenskog simpozijuma o
krmnom bilju. Novi Sad, 455-468.
Tošković, Snežana (1999). Ispitivanje uticaja količine azota i
vremena korišćenja na prinos i kvalitet stočnog kelja gajenog u
postrnoj setvi. Magistarska teza, Poljoprivredni fakultet
Univerziteta u Beogradu.
Zakonović, M. (1991). Produktivnost stočnog kelja (Brassica
oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) kao glavnog usjeva
proizvedenog direktnom sjetvom semena i preko rasada.
Magistarska teza. Poljoprivredni fakultet Univerziteta u
Beogradu.
Zakonović, M., Negovanović, D., Kandić, B., ĐorđevićMilošević, Suzana, Vučković, S. (1996). Stočni kelj kao
glavni i naknadni usev u ishrani preživara. Zbornik naučnih
radova VIII Jugoslovenskog simpozijuma o krmnom bilju,
Novi Sad.
Received: 09.05.2014.
Accepted: 01.12.2014.
213
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 214-216
UDK: 582.926.2
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
EFFECT OF SEED TUBER SIZE AND
PRETREATMENT ON THE TOTAL YIELD POTATO
UTICAJ KRUPNOĆE SEMENSKE KRTOLE I
PREDTRETMANA NA UKUPAN PRINOS KROMPIRA
Dobrivoj POŠTIĆ*, Nebojša MOMIROVIĆ**, Zoran JOVOVIĆ***, Lana ĐUKANOVIĆ*,
Ratibor ŠTRBANOVIĆ*, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ*, Jasmina KNEŽEVIĆ****
*Institute for Plant Protection and Environment, Belgrade, Serbia
**Faculty of Biotechnology, Belgrade, Serbia
***Biotehnički fakultet, Podgorica, Montenegro
**** Faculty of Agriculture, Priština-Lešak, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Investigation of the influence seed tuber size and seed tuber pre-treatment on the total yield of early potato varieties Cleopatra
conducted in Badovinci (western Serbia) during the 2007 and 2008 year. Examination were carried out by planting tuber weight 40 ±
5g, 60 ± 5 g i 80 ± 5 g.
The research results indicate that the seed tuber size and preatretment very significantly affected on all investigated
characteristics potatoes. In both years the highest yield of tubers was established in the variant with the application of pretreatment
and planting of the largest seed size fraction mass (80 g).
Higher yields of potato tubers in moist conditions in western Serbia (Macva) of early varieties Cleopatra were achieved by
planting larger mass of tubers (80 g) and removing the apical sprouts on tubers.
Key words: potatoes, tuber, seed size, total yield.
REZIME
Istraživanja uticaja krupnoće semenske krtole i predtretmana na ukupan prinos krompira rane sorte Cleopatra obavljena su u
Badovincima (zapadna Srbija) tokom 2007. i 2008. godine. Ispitivanja su izvedena sadnjom krtola mase 40 ± 5 g, 60 ± 5 g i 80 ± 5 g.
Krupnoća semenske krtole je važna osobina i merljiva komponenta kvaliteta, koja utiče na biološku sposobnost krtola, broj klica po
krtoli, razvoj useva u polju i broj primarnih izdanaka (PNI) po biljci. Predtretman naklijavanja zauzima veoma značajno mesto u
tehnologiji gajenja ranih sorti, ali i u proizvodnji kasnijih sorti. Naklijavanjem se doprinosi skraćenju vegetacionog perioda, bržem
nicanju i porastu, obrazovanju većeg broja PNI po biljci, veće lisne površine i ukupne organske produkcije, većeg broja i krupnoće
krtola, te visine i kvaliteta prinosa. Predtretman je podrazumevao uklanjanje vršne klice nakon klijanja krtola, čime se postiže
formiranje većeg broja klica iz bočnih okaca. Rezultati istraživanja ukazuju da su krupnoća semenske krtole i predtretman značajno
uticali na sve ispitivane osobine krompira. Najveći prinos ustanovljen je na varijanti sa primenom predtretmana i sadnjom
najkrupnije frakcija mase (80 g). Primena zalamanja apikalne klice direktno je uticala na razvoj većeg broja klica po krtoli, većeg
broja PNI i većeg broja krtola po biljci i većeg ukupnog prinosa. Najjači uticaj zalamanja apikalne klice na ispitivane osobine
utvrđen je kod najkrupnije semenske frakcije, odnosno da uticaj predtretmana slabi sa smanjenjem krupnoće semenske krtole. U
uslovima semiaridne klime u zapadnoj Srbiji (Mačvi) za postizanje većih prinosa sorte Cleopatra preporučuje se zalamanje apikalne
klice i sadnja krtola mase 80 g.
Ključne reči: krompir, krtola, krupnoća semena, ukupan prinos.
INTRODUCTION
The total food production in Serbia, potato occupies an
important place. The great economic importance of potato due to
the fact that this crop is grown in 78,000 ha, with an average
yield (in the period 2003-2009), which is at the level 11.5 t ha ¹
(Statistical Yearbook Serbia, 2010). The mentioned average
yield significantly inferior to yields of potatoes in Europe and in
the world of 37.0 to 55.0 t ha ¹ (FAO, 2010). Commercial
production of potato is carried out in the 50.000-60.000 ha with
an average yield of about 15-25 t ha ¹, it is still not nearly meet
the standards of modern agricultural production.
Size of seed tubers is an important characteristic and
measurable component of quality seed potatoes, which
significantly affects the biological ability of tubers, from which
depends directly on the degree of development of sprouts,
number sprouts per tuber and viability (Poštić et al., 2011b;
Poštić et al., 2012a; Poštić et al., 2013b), development of crops
in the field and the number of primary stems per plant (Khan et
al., 2004, Poštić et al., 2012a). Number of primary stems per
214
plant significantly affects the development of aboveground mass
and assimilation surface, the number of set of tubers per plant,
and the total tuber yield (Khan et al., 2004; Struik, 2007a;
Momirović et al., 2010; Poštić et al., 2012a).
Pretreatment germination and preparing tubers for planting
plays a very important role, especially in the technology of
growing early varieties of potato, but more and more in
production and other later varieties (Momirović et al., 2000a;
Bus & Wustman, 2007). Performing the cultural practices
contributes significantly shortening the growing season, rapid
germination and growth, forming a larger number of primary
stems per plant, forming a larger leaf area and total organic
production, greater tolerance to pests and diseases, more number
and of set sized tubers, and height and quality yield (Momirović
et al., 2000; Poštić et al., 2011b; Poštić et al., 2012ab).
Pretreatment included the removal of apical sprouts after
germination of tubers, in this way promotes the development of
a larger number of sprouts from lateral buds on the tuber.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of
pretreatment and to determine the optimal of seed tubers size
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Poštić, Dobrivoj et al. / Effect of Seed Tuber Size and Pretreatment on the Total Yield Potato
which are achieved the highest yields of potatoes in the
ecological conditions of the natural water regime in western
Serbia.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Research the impact of the different sized seed tubers and
pretreatment to yield the most common early varieties of
potatoes Cleopatra performed during 2007 and 2008 years at the
the locality western Serbia (Badovinci, Bogatić), the soil of
recent alluvial sediments (Tab. 1).
Table 1. Properties of soil at the experimental plot
pH
Humus N mg/100g soil
Depth Type of CaCO3
(cm)
soil
%
%
% P2O5 K2O
H2O nKCl
Recent
0-30
0.00
6.85 6.53 2.97 0.19 19.84 15.00
alluvium
Planting material of the variety Cleopatra categories original
seed size fraction 35-55 mm, calibrated and in working sample
was allocated to 80 the different sized tubers (mass 40 ± 5 g, 60
± 5 g and 80 ± 5g ). The samples were placed on the sprouting,
seven days later with 40 of each fraction of the tubers was
removed apical sprouts (B1), while the remaining 40 tubers
apical sprouts is not removed (B0). After five weeks of
germination was determined by morphological characteristics of
the number sprouts tuber. Planting tubers was carried out in the
first week of April. Applied standard agricultural practices in
potato production. During the growing season were determined
by the following characteristics number of primary stems per
plant, in a full physiological tuber maturity is determined by the
number of tubers per plant and total yield of tubers.
The obtained experimental data were processed by a
mathematical statistical procedure using the statistical package
STATISTICA for windows software (Stat Soft 8.0). The
differences between the treatments were determined by analysis
of the variance (ANOVA) and the least significant difference
test (LSD) was used for the individual comparisons.
Meteorological data during the vegetation season shown in
Tab. 2.
Table 2. Meteorological conditions during the potato
growing season (2007. and 2008. year) and longtherm data
(1975-2006) for the area western Serbia
Month
Year
April May
Jun
July Aug. Sep. Average
Air temperature (°C)
2007
13.0 18.5 22.0 22.6 22.3
14.3
18.8
2008
12.9 18.3 21.7 21.7 21.5
15.4
18.6
197511.1 16.7 19.9 20.9 20.7
16.3
17.6
2006
Amount precipitation (mm)
Total
2007
0
79.0 85.2 38.7 62.5
93.4
358.8
2008
52.4 42.4 58.1 61.0 22.7
76.7
313.3
197548.5 53.4 81.9 63.3 46.8
56.2
350.1
2006
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Analysis of the number of sprouts per tuber, number of
primary stems per plant, number of tubers per plant and total
yield of tubers (Tab. 3) showed highly significant differences
influenced seed tuber size (factor A), and pretreatment (factor
B). Impact year - the growing season (factor C) of the
investigated features of potato was not statistically significant.
Very significant interactions investigated factors with respect to
all the studied traits potatoes were obtained only in the mutual
influence of factors A x B (Tab. 3).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Table 3. F-values for observed factors (for the 20072008 period)
Number sprouts
Number
Number tubers Total
per tuber
primary ground
per plant
yield
stems per plant
Seed tuber
**
**
**
**
size (A)
Pretreatment
**
**
**
**
(B)
Year (C)
ns
ns
ns
ns
AxB
**
**
**
**
AxC
ns
ns
ns
ns
BxC
ns
ns
ns
ns
AxBxC
ns
ns
ns
ns
** - significant at 0.01; * - significant at 0.05; ns - not significant
The highest average value of determined properties potatoes
in early varieties Cleopatra were found in larger mass of seed
tubers (weight 80 g), while the lowest values determined by the
smallest seed fraction (weight 40 g).
Table 4. Effect of tuber size and pretreatment on average
number sprout per tuberin 2007 and 2008 years
Pretreatment (B)
Seed tuber size (A)
B1
B0
80 g
8.42
5.69
60 g
6.35
5.17
40 g
5.78
4.61
LSD 0.05 0.46
0.01
0.80
Statistical analysis of the average number of sprouts per
tuber in the variant (B1) showed a significant difference (p =
0.01) between the largest seed fraction (weight 80 g) and smaller
fractions of seed tubers (weight 60 g and 40 g). A significantly a
smaller number of sprouts per tuber was found (p = 0.05) in the
smallest fractions of seed (40 g weight), compared to seed
fraction (weight 60 g) Tab. 4.
The analysis of the average number of sprouts per tuber in
the variant (B0) were found highly significant difference (p =
0.01) between the most massive seed fraction (weight 80 g) and
the smallest seed fraction (weight 40 g). A significantly a
smaller number of sprouts per tuber (p = 0.05) were found in the
seed fraction (weight 60 g), with respect to the fraction (weight
80 g). Significantly greater number of sprouts per tuber (p =
0.05) was established at fractions (weight 60 g), relative to seed
(weight 40 g) of a fraction (Tab. 4).
Table 5. Effect of tuber size and pretreatment on average
number of primary ground stems per plant in 2007 and 2008
years
Seed tuber size (A)
LSD 0.05
0.01
80 g
60 g
40 g
0.56
0.96
Pretreatment (B)
B1
5.13
3.28
2.79
B0
4.05
2.53
2.47
The highest number of sprouts per tuber as a rule, were
found in the largest seed fraction (weight 80 g). Number of
sprouts per tuber decreases with the reduction of seed tubers
size, and similar results had Sturz et al., 2000; Poštić et al.,
2010; Poštić et al., 2011; Poštić et al., 2012a.
Larger seed tubers are usually higher physiological age
(Pavlista, 2004; Poštić et al., 2011) which resulted to the
formation of a significantly larger number of sprouts per tuber. It
is considered that 30-45% of the total number of sprouts on the
seed tuber formed primary stems (Poštić, 2013a).
215
Poštić, Dobrivoj et al. / Effect of Seed Tuber Size and Pretreatment on the Total Yield Potato
Statistical analysis of the average number of primary stems
per plant in the variant (B1) showed a significant difference (p =
0.01) between the largest seed fraction (weight 80 g) and smaller
fractions of seed tubers (weight 60 g and 40 g). A significantly
smaller number of stems per plant was determined (p = 0.05) in
the smallest fractions of seed (weight 40 g), compared to seed
fraction (weight 60 g) Tab. 5. Analysis of the average number of
primary stems per plant in the variant (B0) showed a significant
difference (p = 0.01) between the largest seed fraction (weight
80 g) and smaller fractions of seed tubers (weight 60 g and 40 g).
Between seed mass fractions (weight 60 and 40 g) showed no
significant differences (p = 0.05) in the number of established
primary stems per plant (Tab. 5). Number of primary stems per
plant for the most part depends of seed tubers size used for
planting (Khan et al., 2004; Struik, 2007a; Momirović et al.,
2010; Poštić et al., 2012a).
Table 6. Effect of tuber size and pretreatment on average
number of tubers per plant in 2007 and 2008 years
Pretreatment (B)
Seed tuber size (A)
B1
B0
80 g
10.69
8.17
60 g
6.42
6.17
40 g
5.28
4.18
LSD 0.05 0.32
0.01 0.55
The statistical analysis of the average number of tubers per plant
in both variants (B1 and B0) showed a significant difference (p =
0.01) between the largest seed fraction (weight 80 g) and smaller
fraction of seed tubers (weight 60 g and 40 g). Very significantly
smaller number of tubers per plant was determined (p = 0.01) in the
smallest fractions of seed (weight 40 g), compared to seed fraction
(weight 60 g) Tab. 6. These results are in agreement with results
Gulluoglu & Arioglu (2009), Poštić et al., (2012cd). Analysis of the
total yield of tubers in the variant (B1) showed a significant
difference (p = 0.01) between the largest seed fraction (weight 80 g)
and smaller fractions of seed tubers (weight 60 to 40 g), which
coincides with the results Poštić et al., (2012bcd). Between seed
fractions (weight 60 and 40 g), no significant differences (p = 0.05)
in the total yield of tubers (Tab. 7).
Table 7. Effect of tuber size and pretreatment on average total
yield tubers (t ha ¹) in 2007 and 2008 years
Pretreatment (B)
Seed tuber size (A)
B1
B0
80 g
42.73
31.00
60 g
37.75
31.55
40 g
37.30
30.30
LSD 0.05 0.56
0.01 0.68
Statistical analysis of the total yield of the variants (B0)
between seed fractions (weight 80, 60 and 40 g) showed no
significant differences (p = 0.05) in the total yield of tubers
(Tab. 7).
CONCLUSION
Based on the results of two years of research can be carried
out the following conclusions: The use of pretreatment removal
of apical sprouts on potato tuber directly affects the development
of a large number of sprouts per tuber, a large number of
primary stems per plant, increasing the number of tubers per
plant and increasing the total yield of tubers.
Most powerful effect of pretreatment removal of apical
sprouts on investigated characteristics were found in the largest
seed fraction, the influence of pretreatment weakens with the
reduction sized seed tubers respectively. In the semi-arid climate
216
conditions in western Serbia (Macva) to achieve higher yields of
early varieties Cleopatra recommended removal of apical sprouts
on potato tuber and planting tuber weight 80 g.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The work was realized within the
projects TR 31018 and III 46007, Ministry of Education, Science
and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia.
REFERENCES
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Khan, I. A., Deadman, M. L., Al-Nabhani, H. S., Al-Habsi, K.
A. (2004). Interactions between Temperature and yield
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tehnologija gajenja krompira za različite namene., Arhiv za
poljop. nauke 61, (215), 45-72.
Pavlista, A.D. (2004). Physiological aging seed tubers. Potato
eyes, University of Nebraska. NPE 16 (1), 1-3.
Poštić, D., Momirović, N., Broćić, Z., Dolijanović, Ž., Aleksić,
G. (2012a). The evaluation biological viability of potato seed
tubers grown at different altitudes. African J.of Agricultural
Research, 7 (20), 3073-3080.
Poštić, D., Momirović, N., Koković, N., Oljača, Jasmina,
Jovović, Z. (2012b). Prinos krompira (Solanum tuberosum L.)
u zavisnosti od uslova proizvodnje i mase matične krtole.
Zbornik Naučnih radova XXVI Savet. agronoma, veterinara i
tehn., 18, (1-2), 99-107.
Poštić, D., Momirović, N., Dolijanović, Ž., Broćić, Z., Jošić,
Dragana., Popović, Tatjana, Starović, Mira, (2012c). Uticaj
porekla sadnog materijala i mase matične krtole na prinos
krompira sorte Desiree. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, 49, 236-242.
Poštić, D., Momirović, N., Dolijanović, Ž., Broćić, Z., Aleksić,
G., Popović Tatjana, Đukanović Lana, (2012d). Ispitivanje
produktivnosti krompira u zavisnosti od porekla sadnog
materijala i veličine semenske krtole. Zaštita bilja, Vol 63 (4)
No 282, 212-223.
Poštić, D., (2013a). Uticaj porekla sadnog materijala i veličine
semenske krtole na morfološke i produktivne osobine
krompira. Doktorska disertacija. Poljoprivredni fakultet,
Beograd, Srbija 1- 167.
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Received: 06.03.2014.
Accepted: 04.12.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 217-219
UDK: 572.023.591.531.3
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MOLASSES MINERAL BLOCK
AS FEED COMPONENT IN ORGANIC ANIMAL FARMING
HEMIJSKE OSOBINE MELASNO-MINERALNOG BLOKA KAO
KOMPONENTE HRANE U ORGANSKOM UZGOJU ŽIVOTINJA
Ljubinko LEVIĆ*, Jovanka LEVIĆ**, Slavica SREDANOVIĆ**, Violeta KNEŽEVIĆ*
*University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia,
** University of Novi Sad, Institute for Food Technology, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
e-mail:[email protected]
ABSTRACT
In animal nutrition macro- and micronutrients such as Na, Cl, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Co, Se etc. are very important, and
their deficiency leads to disorders in body constitution and in certain biochemical processes. . Feed of plant origin, primarily in
ruminant nutrition, does not contain enough macro- and micro-elements, and they are usually added in the form of rock salt for
licking or different mineral blocks.
Molasses-mineral block is a mixture of animal salt, different mineral substances and sugar beet molasses. The addition of
molasses provides an increase in nutritional value and palatability of the product, increase of mineral content, vitamins and
antioxidants in the product, as well as the mechanical strength of the blocks. Application of molasses-mineral blocks in animal
nutrititon significantly improves productivity and safety. .
This paper presents a method of manufacturing and chemical characteristics of molasses-mineral block as a component of
organic feed for animals.
Key words: molasses-mineral block, animal nutrition, macro- and microelements.
REZIME
U ishrani životinja veoma su značajni makro- i mikroelementi: Na, Cl, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Co, Se i drugi, a njihov
nedostatak dovodi do poremećaja u konstituciji i određenih biohemijskih procesa u organizmu. Biljna hrana, prvenstveno kod
ishrane preživara, ne sadrži dovoljno ovih makro- i mikro elemenata, pa se oni najčešće dodaju u formi kamene soli za lizanje,
odnosno, različitih mineralnih blokova.
Melasno-mineralni blok predstavlja smešu stočne soli, različitih mineralnih materija i melase šećerne repe. Dodatkom melase
šećerne repe obezbeđuje se povećanje hranljive vrednosti i ukusnosti proizvoda, povećanje sadržaja mineralnih materija, vitamina i
antioksidanata u proizvodu, kao i mehaničke otpornosti samog bloka. Primenom melasno-mineralnog bloka značajno se unapređuje
produktivnost i sigurnost uzgoja životinja.
U radu je prikazan način proizvodnje i fizičko-hemijske karakteristike melasno-mineralnog bloka kao komponente organske
hrane za ishranu životinja. Pored stočne soli kao osnovne komponente, melasno-mineralni blok sadrži i makro- i mikroelemente: Ca,
P, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Co i Se i to u obliku jedinjenja koja su dozvoljena u organskoj ishrani životinja.
Sve komponente su izmešane u protivstrujnoj horizontalnoj mešalici, a radi boljeg umešavanja, zagrevane su na oko 50oC. Od
tako pripremljene smeše na hidrouličkoj presi formirani su blokovi mase od 2 do 4 kg.
Ključne reči: melasno-mineralni blok, ishrana životinja, makro- i mikroelement.
INTRODUCTION
Methods of organic livestock production, besides the choice
of species and breeds of animals, cultivation methods, treatment
of animals during breeding, pay special attention to nutrition and
animal health. Serbian regulation
on organic production
(”Zakon o organskoj proizvodnji, 2010”) defines the basic
methods for organic crops and livestock production, as well as
various ingredients and substances which may be used in
organic farming of animals.
Feed of plant origin, primarily in ruminant nutrition, , does
not contain sufficient amount of necessary mineral substances
and they must be added in the form of the corresponding
compounds, usually oxides and sulfates. These micro- and
macroelements include Na, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Co, Se
(Grubić and Adamović, 2003, Đorđević et al., 2006, Ćupić et al.,
2006, Lević et al., 2006). The amount of an element in the feed,
does not have such importance as its biological availability to
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
animals, which shows how well some element is being absorbed
by the animal.
There are also differences in needs for mineral matter
between species and between categories within same species
(Đorđević et al., 2006a, Đorđević et al., 2009, Đorđević and
Dinić, 2011).
The deficiency of minerals in feed is usually compensated by
adding briquetted animal salt enriched by variety of macro-and
microelements, which animals consume by licking (Đorđević et
al., 2010). Our product, molasses-mineral block, falls into that
group of supplements. Molasses increases nutritional value and
sensor quality (odour, taste and texture) of the final product.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
To produce molasses-mineral blocks, molasses from sugar
factory Crvenka, as well as salt, limestone, monocalcium
phosphate, magnesium oxide, sodium selenite and sulfates of
manganese, zinc, iron, copper and cobalt, were used. The
required amounts of certain substances were weighed and
217
Lević, Ljubinko et al. / Chemical Composition of Molasses Mineral Block as Feed Component in Organic Animal Farming
involved in counterflow horizontal mixer which is equipped
with a duplicator for maintaining the temperature mixture of
50 °C. The order of mixing of individual components is
important and it was as follows: salt, , other ingredients of the
formulation and at the end sugar beet molasses. Prepared
mixture was pressed on a hydraulic press with a pressure of 15
bars. Molasses-mineral blocks were obtained in cylinder-shape
with a diameter of 20 cm with a hole in the middle of 2 cm in
diameter. Mass of produced molasses-mineral block was 2 to 4
kg.
Molasses-mineral blocks for dairy cows, sheep, horses, goats
and cattle were formulated and manufactured.
For the analysis of chemical composition of raw materials
and final products AOAC (2000) methods were applied.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chemical properties of the individual components used to
produce molasses mineral blocks are shown in Tables 1 and 2:
Table 1. Characteristics of used sugar beet molasses
Parameter
Content
Dry matter (%)
83.5
Saccharides (%)
52.5
Proteins (%)
5.0
Vitamins of the B group
3.8
(mg/100 g)
K (%)
4.060
Na (%)
0.590
Ca (%)
0.185
Mg(%)
0.085
Fe (%)
0.003
C (%)
0.845
Cl (%)
0.150
S (%)
0.020
P (%)
0.002
Table 2. Chemical characteristics of the components used to
produce molasses-mineral blocks
COMPONENT
COMPOSITION
1,5 % moisture ; 41 % Na;
Salt
0,12 % Ca; 0,0042 % KI;
Limestone
1,6 % moisture; 40 % Ca;
0,8 % Mg;
Calcium phosphate
23 % P;25% Ca
Magnesium oxide
55 % Mg
Monocalcium phosphate
22 % P; 18% Ca;
MnSO4
34 % Mn
ZnSO4
38 % Zn
FeSO4
35 % Fe
CoSO4
36 % Co
CuSO4
38 % Cu
Na2SeO3
31 % Na; 29% Se
All the components used are allowed by Serbian regulation
(“Zakon o organskoj proizvodnji, 2010”) for use in organic
farming of the animals. As it could be seen from the tables
above, content of mineral substance in individual components is
within the prescribed limits for this type of product.
The content of individual components in molasses-mineral
blocks for certain categories of animals is shown in Table 3.
218
Table 3. The content of individual components in molassesmineral blocks for different categories of animals
Dairy
Sheep Horses Goats Cattle
Component(%)
cows
Salt
60.5
62.9
42.0
63.8
59.5
Limestone
9.0
11.4
18.4
9.0
10.0
Monocalcium
11.0
11.0
20.0
11.0
11.0
phosphate
Magnesium oxide
6.0
3.0
0.6
4.0
6.0
Starch
2.5
2.5
2.5
1.5
2.5
Molasses
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
MnSO4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
ZnSO4
1.4
0.0
1.4
1.4
1.5
FeSO4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
CuSO4
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.3
CoSO4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Na2SeO3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
For all categories of animals salt is the most common
component. Sodium participates in many metabolic processes:
maintains the water balance in the body, regulates the osmotic
pressure and plays an important role in maintaining acid-base
balance. It is curucial to supply the cell with glucose, active
transport of the amino acids and has a very important role in
controlling neural impulses.
Chlorine from NaCl, also plays an important role in the
regulation of acid-base balance and the balance of fluids in the
organism.
Calcium is also very important element which is present in
molasses-mineral blocks in significant amounts. The highest
amount of Ca is in the bones and teeth, but it is also important
for the proper functioning and development of the muscles and
nerves in animals.
In general, the needs for mineral substances, even though a
lot facts about them is known, have not yet been fully studied.
The formulations of our molasses-mineral blocks are the result
of different theoretical and empirical experiences that were
frequently proven in practice.
Table 4 shows macro and microelement contents of
molasses-mineral blocks for certain categories of animals.
Table 4. Macro- and microelement contents of some
molasses-mineral blocks
Dairy cows Sheep Horses Goats
Cattle
Na, %
22.38
25.90
15.50
23.60
22.01
Ca, %
5.16
6.04
10.12
5.16
5.73
P, %
2.50
2.50
4.54
2.50
2.50
Mg, %
3.00
1.50
3.00
2.00
3.00
Mn, mg/kg
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
Zn, mg/kg
5100
0
5000
5000
5000
Fe, mg/kg
1250
1250
1250
1250
1250
Cu, mg/kg
750
0
750
0
750
Co, mg/kg
50
50
50
50
50
Se, mg/kg
25
25
25
25
25
Molasses-mineral blocks are, products with high resistance
to breakage and unfavorable external environment (humidity and
other atmospheric conditions).
Preliminary research about application of molasses-mineral
blocks, was conducted at a dairy farm. Palatability of the product
proved to be very good, cows were happy to consume it, while
the mechanical properties and resistance to moisture and other
external factors were satisfactory.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Lević, Ljubinko et al. / Chemical Composition of Molasses Mineral Block as Feed Component in Organic Animal Farming
CONCLUSION
Lacking amounts of mineral substances in animal nutrition
has been successfully compensated with molasses-mineral
blocks that animals use by licking. Molasses-mineral blocks are
pressed mixture of mineral components and sugar beet molasses.
All components are allowed for use in organic animal farming.
Application of molasses-mineral block significantly improves
the productivity and safety of animal breeding.
The addition of molasses provides an increase in nutritional
value and palatability of the product, increase in the content of
mineral substances, vitamins and antioxidants in the product, as
well as the mechanical strength of the blocks. The resistance to
external conditions is very important, since the molasses-mineral
blocks are often stored in natural surroundings and are not
protected from adverse external atmospheric factors.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: These results are part of the project
supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and
Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, TR-31055
and III 46012, 2011-2014.
REFERENCES
AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis, Washington, USA.
Ćupić, Ž., Mihaljev, Ž., Veselinović, S., Živkov-Baloš, Milica,
Ivančev, Anica (2006). Sadržaj minerala u uzorcima lucerke sa
područja Vojvodine, Savremena poljoprivreda, 55 (3-4), 71-74.
Đorđević, N. and Dinić, B. (2011). Proizvodnja smeša
koncentrata za životinje, Institut za krmno bilje, Kruševac,
Srbija
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Đordjević, N., Popović, Z., Beuković, M., Grubić, G. (2006).
Specifičnosti hraniva koje se koriste za dodatnu ishranu srne
(Capreolus capreolus L.) na različitim terenima, Savremena
poljoprivreda, 55 (3-4), 6-11.
Đorđević, N., Grubić. G., Vitorović, D., Jokić, Ž. (2006a).
Savremena dostignuća u pripremanju hrane i ishrani domaćih
životinja, XVII Inovacije u stočarstvu, Poljoprivredni fakultet
Zemun, Srbija, 85-102.
Đorđević, N., Makević, M., Grubić, G., Jokić, Ž. (2009). Ishrana
domaćih i gajenih životinja, Poljoprivredni fakultet
Univerziteta u Beogradu, Srbija.
Đorđević, N., Grubić, G., Dinić, B., Lević Jovanka, Stojanović,
B. (2010). Animal feed quality - past and present. XII
International Symposium on forage crops of Republic of
Serbia, 249-260.
Đorđević, N. and Dinić, B. (2011). Proizvodnja smeša
koncentrata za životinje, Institut za krmno bilje, Kruševac,
Srbija.
Grubić,
G.
and
Adamović,
M.
(2003).
Ishrana
visokoproizvodnih krava, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Beograd,
Srbija
Lević, Lj., Lević, Jovanka, Sredanović, Slavica. (2006).
Poboljšanje kvaliteta silaže lucerke primenom tečnih krmnih
predsmeša, Savremena poljoprivreda, 55 (3-4), 6-11.
Zakon o organskoj proizvodnji (2010). “Službeni glasnik RS”,
broj 30/10
Received: 17.03.2014.
Accepted: 30.11.2014.
219
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 220-224
UDK: 665.231
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
CHITOSAN FILM WITH ADDITION OF BEESWAX
AND CARAWAY ESSENTIAL OIL
HITOZANSKI BIOFILM SA DODATKOM PČELINJEG
VOSKA I ETARSKOG ULJA KIMA
Nevena HROMIŠ, Vera LAZIĆ, Senka POPOVIĆ, Danijela ŠUPUT, Natalija DŽINIĆ
Faculty of Technology, 21000 Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
In this paper, beeswax and caraway essential oil were added as hydrophobic compounds to chitosan film after synthesizing, to
improve its water vapor resistance. Influence of these two hydrophobic compounds on visual properties, structure and water content
of chitosan film was investigated. Results showed that addition of 1 % of caraway oil, as well as beeswax affected visual properties of
the chitosan film, which became yellowish, opaque and turbid. Addition of caraway essential oil did not alter original structure of
chitosan film (FTIR ATR technique), while addition of beeswax affected chitosan film structure. Water content in the films decreased
with the addition of beeswax. This is a very important change that could be used in chitosan film functionality improvement for
packaging application.
Key words: biofilm, chitosan, beeswax, caraway, characteristics.
REZIME
Kao aktivan i biorazgradiv, hitozanski biofilm se intenzivno ispituje i optimizuje sa ciljem da se njegova upotreba proširi i
intenzivira u oblasti aktivnih biorazgradivih ambalažnih materijala. Prednosti hitozanskog biofilma su mnogostruke: dobija se
preradom otpada prehrambene industrije, kao material je biorazgradiv, neškodljiv za ljude, aktivan (deluje antimikrobno i
antioksidativno) i dobrih filmogenih svojstava: daje jak, sjajan, proziran film, visoko barijeran prema gasovima. Osnovni nedostaci u
primeni ovog filma su visoka cena proizvodnje i osetljivost prema dejstviu vodene pare. U ovom radu su, nakon sinteze, biofilmu na
bazi hitozana dodati pčelinji vosak i etarsko ulje kima, dve hidrofobne komponente, sa ciljem da se poboljša otpornost filma prema
dejstvu vodene pare. Ispitan je uticaj dodatih hidrofobnih komponenti na vizuelna svojstva, strukturu i sadržaj vlage hitozanskog
biofilma. Rezultati su pokazali da dodatak 1% ulja kima, kao i dodatak pčelinjeg voska, utiču na vizuelna svojstva hitozanskog filma,
koji je postao žućkast, mutan i neproziran. Na strukturu hitozanskog filma (utvrđenu FTIR ATR tehnikom) nije uticao dodatak
etarskog ulja kima, dok je dodatak pčelinjeg voska imao značajni uticaj. Sadržaj vlage u filmovima se smanjivao sa dodatkom rastuće
mase pčelinjeg voska. Ova promena u sadržaju vlage je od velikog značaja i može se upotrebiti za poboljšanje funkcionalnosti u
primeni hitozanskog biofilma kao ambalažnog materijala.
Ključne reči: biofilm, hitozan, pčelinji vosak, kim, karakteristike.
INTRODUCTION
Edible biofilms, which are produced from renewable
resources, became trend in the development of packaging
materials. Among these films, chitosan biofilm occupies an
important place (Lazić and Gvozdenović, 2007; Lazić and
Novaković, 2010). Chitosan is the name for chitin substituent
with low acetilation degree. Until now, chitin has been
commercially produced from shellfish waste (Nicholas, 2003).
Use of chitin is limited due to its insolubility in water, in
common organic solvents and in acidic, alkali and neutral
aqueous solutions (Chhabra, 2004). Chitin can be deacetylated
using a sodium hydroxide solution or with a chitin deacetylase
enzyme to yield chitosan, a biopolymer that is soluble in organic
acids (Nicholas, 2003; Chhabra, 2004). Chitosan is insoluble in
water, but soluble in acid solutions, at pH lower then 6. His
features, such as: purity, viscosity, deacetylation degree,
molecular weight and crystalline structure can vary considerably
depending on the manufacturing process (Chi, 2004; Shahidi et
al., 1999). Properties that allow wide application spectra of
chitosan are its biodegradability, biocompatibility in both, plant
and animal tissues, non-toxicity and allerginicity, and the ability
to transform into gels, beads, fibers, colloids, films, flakes,
powders and capsules (Chhabra, 2004; Coma et al., 2002; Ravi
Kumar, 2000; Senel and McClure, 2004). Additional
characteristics that make chitosan an excellent choice as a food
additive are its nondigestibility and bland taste (Chhabra, 2004).
220
Many researchers agreed that chitosan antibacterial/antifungal
and antioxidant activities are pronounced. Together with its film
forming ability this makes chitosan interesting for use as a
biodegradable active packaging material (Yen et al., 2008; Kim
and Thomas, 2007; Coma et al., 2002; Chung and Chen, 2008;
Duta et al., 2009; Coma et al., 2003; El Ghaouth, et al., 1992;
Fernandez-Saiz et al., 2009). For wider application of chitosan
film as a food packaging material, properties that are of high
importance are numerous: visual, physical, mechanical, barrier,
structural and other properties important for specific application.
Chitosan films show fat and oil resistance and low permeability
to gases but lack resistance to water transmission (Bordenave et
al., 2007; Chi, 2004; Altiok et al., 2010, Krkić et al., 2012a,
Krkić et al.,2011, Krkić et al.,2010). This could be a drawback
for use of chitosan films in direct contact with foods and/or for
direct handling (No et al, 2007, Krkić et al., 2012b ). In order to
improve hydrophilic biofilm resistance to water transmission,
different fatty materials were incorporated in the film structure,
increasing the film hydrophobicity (Souza et al., 2011). In order
to improve the water barrier properties, some of lipid fractions
incorporated into the base of biopolymer films are fatty acids
(Srinivasa et al., 2007; Vargas et al., 2009), vegetable oils
(Bourtoom & Chinnan, 2009; Chi et al., 2006), hydrogenated
oils (The et al., 2009) and waxes (Hambleton et al., 2009; Fabra
et al., 2008).
In this paper caraway essential oil with different amounts of
beeswax were added to the biofilms based on chitosan in order
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Hromiš, Nevena et al. / Chitosan Film With Addition of Beeswax and Caraway Essential Oil
to improve chitosan film water resistance. Obtained films were
tested for their visual properties, structural properties, as well as
their water content.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Reagents
Commercial chitosan powder from crab shells, highly
viscous was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co. (St.
Louis, Missouri, USA). Caraway essential oil was purchased
from the manufacturer: Herba d.o.o. (Belgrade, Serbia), glacial
acetic acid and Tween 20 were obtained from Proanalytica d.o.o.
(Belgrade, Serbia) and beeswax was obtained from a local
beekeeper.
Film preparation
Chitosan film forming solution was prepared by dissolving
chitosan powder in acetic acid (1 % volume concentration) to
reach 1 % of chitosan mass per volume ratio. Solution was left
stirring over night on a magnetic stirrer to dissolve chitosan.
Caraway essential oil in volume concentration of 1 % and
wetting agent Tween 20 (50 % of essential oil volume) were
then added, solution was heated in a water bath to 60 ˚C and
stirred with a laboratory stirrer to obtain white homogenous
emulsion. In the same water bath, beeswax was melted (at 60 ˚C)
in deionized water. Hot film forming emulsion was added to
molten wax and five different film forming emulsions with
added beeswax masses: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g were obtained.
Emulsions were casted on Petri dishes covered with Teflon
coating and left to air dry (23±3 °C, 50 ±10 % RH) on a
horizontal table surface. Films were labeled according to
beeswax content as CV0, CV5, CV10, CV15, CV20 and CV25
(Table 1).
Table 1. Film labels, according to their composition
Film
C
K
CV5
CV10
CV15
CV20
CV25
Caraway essential oil (%vol)
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
Mass of beeswax (g)
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Water content
After 48 h in room conditions (23±3 °C, 50 ±10 % RH), film
samples 2 × 2 cm were weighed (w1), dried at 105 ˚C for 24h
and weighted (w2) again. Water content (WC) was determined as
the percentage of initial film weight lost during drying and
reported on a wet basis, Eq. (1):
WC (%) =
( w1 − w2 ) × 100
w1
(1)
Triplicate measurements of WC were conducted for each
film (Popović et al., 2011).
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was carried out using OriginPro 8
(OriginLab Corporation, Northampton, MA, USA). Data were
presented as mean value with their standard deviation indicated
(mean ± SD). Variance analysis (ANOVA) was performed, with
a confidence interval of 95 % (p < 0.05). Means were compared
by the Tukey test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Visual properties of all the films are represented in the Fig.
1. Film C (obtained by dissolving chitosan in acetic acid) was
pure, compact, transparent, flexible, colorless film. Film K was
also compact, flexible film, but yellowish and turbid with oily
surface. With addition of growing concentration of beeswax,
films stayed compact and flexible, but became more opaque,
yellow, soft, with waxy appearance and beeswax smell.
Films with added beeswax were obviously thicker. The K
film was the most elastic. It could be stretched by hands, while
the C film was stronger and more difficult to stretch before
tearing. Films with added beeswax were considerably weaker
and were easily torn by hand. All the films could be folded
without cracking.
No difference was found between the C and the K film
spectra (Fig. 2). Determined correlation between analyzed
spectra was 0.9423, indicating that there are no detectable
difference between these two spectra in the IR spectral range,
from 4000 to 500 cm−1.
Significant changes in the spectra of C film were detected
when beeswax was added to the film. In Fig. 3, for clarity, the
CV5 spectrum was presented as a representative spectrum for
Films labeled as C, without beeswax and
caraway essential oil (obtained by dissolving
chitosan in acetic acid), and K, without
beeswax, but with caraway essential oil, were
also casted on a Petri dishes and left to air dry
(Table 1).
Visual properties
Films were visually examined, described
and photographed.
FTIR
The ATR-FTIR spectra were recorded at
room temperature on a Nicolet iS10 FT-IR
spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MA,
USA). All spectra were taken in the spectral range of 4000–500
−1
cm−1 with a 4.0 cm resolution. Software Omnic 8.1. (Thermo
Fisher Scientific, MA, USA) was used to operate the FTIR
spectrometer and collect all the data, while the software TQ
Analyst (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MA, USA) was used to
process and present all the data.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Fig. 1. Photographs of casted films
the group of films with added beeswax.
Correlation of 0.2537 suggests considerable difference
between the spectra. Similar correlation values were determined
between the rest of the films with beeswax (CV10, CV15, CV20,
CV25) and the C film.
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Hromiš, Nevena et al. / Chitosan Film With Addition of Beeswax and Caraway Essential Oil
Peaks at 2915.90 cm-1 and 2848.16 cm-1 that represent
aliphatic –CH2 asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibration,
an hydrophobic component were much more pronounced,
compared to the C film and grew in intensity with higher wax
concentration. Absorption bands appeared at 1736.28 cm-1,
originating from C=O saturated absorption and CH2 scissor
vibration band appeared at 1472.27 and 1462.59 cm-1.
In order to evaluate uniformity and homogeneity of cast
films, the films were scanned from the top and the bottom side
by FTIR spectroscopy (Zivanovic et al., 2007).
Films were shown to be homogenous and no difference was
observed between the IR spectra for the top and the bottom sides
of all tested films (data shown in Fig. 4. for the CV5 and CV10
films). Determined correlation values between the sides of CV5
and CV10 film, respectively, were 0.9994 and 0.9998.
Using software TQ Analyst, Simple Beer's law quantitative
analysis was performed on spectra of the films with growing
amount of beeswax, using constant pathlength (ATR technique).
Functional dependency was determined between the amount of
added beeswax and the FTIR spectra of films. The spectral area
-1
of 3893.09-3890.68 cm and one point baseline type, 3896,47
-1
cm were chosen. Calculated verses actual values, shown in
Fig.5 and Table 1 showed very good correlation (R2=0.99153)
for the function given in Eq. (2):
(2)
Fig. 2. Spectra of the C and K films, with presented correlation
Fig. 3. Spectra of the C and CV5 films, with presented correlation
Fig. 4. FTIR spectra of the top and bottom sides of the films with correlation values; a) CV5 film str1 and CV5 film str2 are the
spectra from two sides of the film, b) CV10 film str1 and CV10 film str2 are the spectra from two sides of the film
222
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Hromiš, Nevena et al. / Chitosan Film With Addition of Beeswax and Caraway Essential Oil
film (p<0.05). Further addition of wax (CV25) did not
bring further lowering of water content of the films
(p>0.05).
Table 3. Actual and calculated values for water
contents (%) of tested films (calculated values are
based on the FTIR spectra of the films)
Film
C
K
CV5 CV10 CV15
Actual 16.56± 20.36± 17.46± 10.84± 7.91±
value 0.76b 1.81a 2.15ab 1.61c 0.31cd
Calc.
value 18.32 23.16 13.84 10.79
8.5
Fig. 5. Calculated vs actual plot for beeswax mass (g) in tested films, with
correlation and equation indicated
(calculated values are based on the FTIR spectra of the films)
Table 2. Actual and calculated values for beeswax mass (g) in
films (calculated values are based on the FTIR spectra of the
films)
Film
Actual value
CV5
5
CV 10
10
CV 15
15
CV 20
20
CV 25
25
Calculated value
4.07
11.5
14.76
20.54
24.13
Using the Eq. (2), it would be possible to determine mass of
beeswax in the film, based on the FTIR spectrum of the film.
Water content
The highest water content (Table 2) was recorded for the K film,
20.36±1.81 % and the lowest for the film CV25, 5.76±0.11 %.
Addition of caraway oil did not lower the water content of C
film. When beeswax was added, water content was lowered
significantly (p<0.05). First significant decrease of water content
was recorded for the CV10 film (p<0.05), and then for the CV20
CV20
6.69±
0.85d
CV25
5.76±
0.11d
7.43
6.58
Using software TQ Analyst, similar to the previous
example, Simple Beer's law quantitative analysis was
performed on spectra of the films, using constant
pathlength (ATR technique). Functional dependency
was determined between the water content of the films
and their FTIR spectra. The spectral area of 949.29-1
-1
940.13 cm and one point baseline type, 924.70 cm
were chosen. Calculated verses actual values, shown in
Fig. 6 and Table 2 showed good correlation
(R2=0.92110) for the function given in Eq. (3):
(3)
Using the Eq. (3), it would be possible to determine water
content in similar films, based on the FTIR spectrum of the film .
CONCLUSION
Addition of two different hydrophobic compounds, caraway
essential oil and beeswax to the chitosan biofilm altered chitosan
film properties. Visually, film with caraway oil became more
elastic, yellowish and turbid with oily surface, while films with
beeswax became thicker, weaker, opaque, yellow, soft, with
waxy appearance and beeswax smell.
IR spectrum of chitosan film was changed with addition of
beeswax. Higher contribution of existing and new, hydrophobic
groups, to the basic spectrum was recorded. All the films were
homogenous and correlation was determined between the mass
of beeswax in the film and corresponding IR spectrum. Based on
this correlation, mass of beeswax in the film could be
determined using the IR spectrum of the film.
Addition of beeswax lowered the water content of
chitosan film, lowering its sensibility to the ambient
moisture, a property that could contribute in the possible
application of chitosan film as a food packaging material.
A correlation was obtained that enables determination of
water content of tested films, based on their IR spectra.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This study was supported by
the Ministry of Science and Technological Development
of the Republic of Serbia, Project No. TR31032.
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Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 225-228
UDK: 582.998.16
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
EFFECT OF BIOSTIMULATORS ON ROOT LENGTH AND SHOOT
LENGTH OF SEEDLINGS OF SUNFLOWER PARENT LINES
UTICAJ BIOSTIMULATORA NA DUŽINU KORENA I NADZEMNOG
DELA PONIKA RODITELJSKIH LINIJA SUNCOKRETA
Zlatica MILADINOV*, Velimir RADIĆ*, Igor BALALIĆ*, Jovan CRNOBARAC**,
Milan JOCKOVIĆ*, Goran JOKIĆ*, Vladimir MIKLIČ*
*Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, 21000 Novi Sad, Maksima Gorkog 30, Serbia
**Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
The aim of this paper was to examine the effects of biostimulators on root and shoot length of sunflower seedling deriving from
seeds treated with biostimulators prior to sowing. Experiment was conducted at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops on five
cytoplasmic male sterile lines: OCMS: - 98 (L1), HA-NS-26 (L2), PH-BC2-74 (L3), VL-A-8 (L4), and HA-26-PR (L5). The seed was
produced in the period from 2010 to 2012. Two seed variants were tested – non-treated seed and seed which was prior to application
of biostimulators treated with metalaxyl-m. Prior to sowing, seed was treated with commercial preparations Slavol S, Bioplant Flora
and the combination of the two. Results of this research point out that application of appropriate biostimulator has positive effect on
growth and development of roots and shoots of seedling, while inadequate combination of biostimulators leads to inhibitory effect.
Key words: biostimultors, seedling root length, shoot length, sunflower.
REZIME
Cilj rada bio je da se ispita kako biostimulatori deluju na dužinu korena i nadzemnog dela ponika kada se pre setve njima tretira
seme. Testiranje je sprovedeno u novosadskom Institutu za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo na semenu pet citoplazmatski muško sterilnih linija
suncokreta: OCMS- 98 (L1), HA-NS-26 (L2), PH-BC2-74 (L3), VL-A-8 (L4) i HA-26-PR (L5) koje je proizvedeno u periodu od
2010.-2012. godine. Testirane su dve varijante semena: netretirano seme i seme koje je pre primene biostimulatora tretirano
metalaksilom-m. Seme je pre setve tretirano komercijalnim preparatima Slavol S, Bioplant Flora i njihovom kombinacijom. Rezultati
ovog istraživanja ukazuju da primena adekvatnog biostimulatora utiče pozitivno na rast i razvoj korena i nadzemnog dela ponika dok
neadekvatna kombinacija biostimulatora dovodi do inhibitornog delovanja. Tretiranje semena pre setve preparatom BIOPLANT
FLORA pokazalo je dobre rezultate obzirom da je koren ponika duži u proseku za 2,4 cm kod varijante koja je tretirana ovim
preparatom odnosno za 2,2 cm kod varijante semena gde je osim biostimulatora upotrebljen i fungicid na bazi metalaksila-m. Ovaj
preparat je imao najbolji uticaj i na dužinu nadzemnog dela ponika povećavši ga u proseku za 1,5 cm odnosno za 1,2 cm u odnosu na
kontrolnu varijantu.
Ključne reči: biostimulatori, suncokret, koren ponika, nadzemni deo ponika.
INTRODUCTION
Seed is a complex biological system whose reactions and life
span depend on different external factors, which cannot be
planed and predicted with certainty (Dević et al. 2007).
Destructive processes in seed lead to occurrence of atypical
seedlings and if biochemical processes develop too fast, as a
result of unfavorable storage conditions, it leads to complete loss
of germination (Mladenovski, 2001). The seed is one of the most
important factors determining the viability of a plant. Use of
good-quality, healthy, large, and viable seeds is of utmost
importance in the maintenance of on optimum plant density in a
crop (Ahmad, 2001). Seed quality depends on numerous factors
such as agroecological conditions, applied technology of
production, seed cleaning, preservation and storage, etc. Some of
them, like growing conditions (stress and similar) can neither be
influenced nor controlled (Kostić et al. 2009). Sunflower seed is
composed of oil (46-51 %), shell (24-27 %), proteins (16-20 %),
carbohydrates (12 %), and fiber (6.3 %) (Todorović and
Komljenović, 2013). Due to high level of oil content, sunflower
seed has a short life span with regard to other grain cultures. The
hydrolysis of oil and oxidation of free fatty acids during the seed
storage leads to an increase of acid number and quality
deterioration, which is one of the main reasons of decrease in
seed germination (Crnobarac and Marinković, 1994).
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
With the use of biostimulators (plant hormones, vitamins,
etc.), seed germination may be stimulated, especially the one
growing under stressful conditions (Záborsky S. et al. 2002).
They have an effect on better seed germination and stimulate
both the plants and microflora of soil (Yildrim et al. 2002,
Jelačić et al. 2006). Biostimulators improve immune system of
cultivated plants and have positive effect on their metabolism.
Application of biostimulators reduces stress in cases of
unfavorable temperatures, increases yield, and reduces bad
consequences in the event of drought, freezing, mechanical and
chemical damage. In case of virus infection of plants (Maini,
2006), quantity of chemicals used in agriculture is reduced
(Kolomazik et al. 2012). Many bacteria that are used as
biostimulators may synthesize physiologically active substance
such as gibberellins, cytokinins, vitamins and in this way
stimulate microbiological activity and better growth and
development of a plant (Govedarica, 2002). Application of
biostimulators which contain organic matter with macro and
micro elements, in a particular period of plant growth, is a good
technique for optimization of food and health condition of a
plant (Paravan, 2013). Those that contain auxins have positive
effect on seed germination even in conditions of excess
accumulation of salts (Iqbal et al. 2007).
The aim of this paper was to examine how biostimulators
influence root length and shoot leght on sunflower seedling,
225
Miladinov, Zlatica et al. / Effect of Biostimulators on Root Length and Shoot Length of Seedlings of Sunflower Parent Lines
with respect to the genotype and year of seed production, when
seed has been treated with biostimulators prior to sowing.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The study was carried out at the Institute of Field and
Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad in October 2013. Testing was
conducted on sunflower seed of five cytoplasmic male sterile
lines – OCMS-98 (L1), HA-NS-26 (L2), PH-BC2-74 (L3), VLA-8 (L4) and HA-26-PR (L5), produced in the period from 2010
to 2012, meaning that the tested seed was one, two, and three
years old. Two seed variants were used for the research: nontreated seed and seed treated with fungicide (a.m. metalaxyl-m).
Both seed variants were treated with the following
commercial preparations - biostimulators:
1. Slavol S (a.m. indol-3-acetic acid), concentration 25 % (S)
2. Indol-3-acetic acid has auxin activity. Auxins are
phytohormones which influence the growth of plants by
participating in elongation and division of cells, induction of
root growth, flowering, and fruit development. Indol-3-acetic
acid (IAA) is considered to be the most important auxin in
higher plants (Normanly et al. 1995).
3. Bioplant Flora (a.m. humus extract, humic acid, fulvic acid,
amino acid, phytohormones, macro and micro elements in
chelating form, N, K₂O), concentration 2 % (B)
4. Humic acids mostly affect increased uptake of nutrients in
plants due to influence on increased permeability of cell
membranes and soil exchange capacity. Complexes of
organic biostimulators which contain humic acids, amino
acids, vitamins, and mineral matters positively affect plants
growth and development, increase the yield and protect the
plant from physiological consequences of stress which may
be caused by numerous factors (Zeljković, 2013).
5. Slavol S. + Bioplant Flora (in the above mentioned
concentrations) (S+B)
6. Control – seed not treated with biostimulators (C).
After treatment with biostimulators, seeds were sowed in
containers with sand being used as a substrate. The seedlings
were obtained by seed germination at a temperature of 25 ºC and
relative humidity of 95 % (ISTA, 2009). Ten days after the
sowing, five plants per repetition were taken (sample) and the
length of roots and shoot length of seedling was measured.
Obtained results were statistically processed by the variance
analysis of trifactorial split-split-plot experiment (A factor genotype, G factor -seed production year, C factor biostimulators). Data were processed by a computer software
package Statistica 8, while ranking of significance of the
obtained differences was determined by Tukey test (Tukey HSD
test ), with α=0.05 (Hadživuković, 1991).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect of biostimulators on seedling
root length
Analysing the obtained results it can be found that sunflower
parent line HA-26-PR had significantly longer seedling root
length with regard to other lines, except VL-A-8 line – variant
treated with metalaxyl-m. Seedling root length in HA-26-PR line
was 12.0 cm respectively 11.6 cm. No significant differences
were found between other lines’ root length as well as between
seed year production. Seed produced in 2011 had the longest
root – 10.3 cm and 10.6 cm, respectively (Table 1).
Ten days after treatment with BIOPLANT FLORA, the
seedling root length was 12.0 cm, i.e., 12.2 cm, on an average,
which is for 2.4 cm, i.e., 2.2 cm more than in the control.
226
Parađiković (2008) points out that biostimulators based on
humic acids, amino acids, proteins, peptides, polysaharids, and
vitamin complexes increase the resistivity of the root in the event
that the land is treated with pesticides or the saline soil. The joint
effect of preparations SLAVOL S and BIOPLANT FLORA had
inhibitory effect on the root.
By separate analysis of lines it may be concluded that by
application of BIOPLANT FLORA on OCMS-98 line, root
length was 12.2 cm, i.e., 11.9 cm, on an average, which is for 3.1
cm, i.e., 3.0 cm more than in the control variant. It was also
found that there was the biggest root increase (4.4 cm) with this
genotype with respect to seed produced in 2010.
Table 1. Effect of biostimulators on seedling root length
Seed non treated with
Seed treated with metalaxyl-m
Lines Years
metalaxyl-m
A
Biostimulators C Aver.
Biostimulators C
G
Aver.
A
A
S
B S+B K
S
B S+B K
2010 10.6 13.1 9.1 8.7
10.2 13.0 8.3 9.0
2011 11.1 10.9 10.0 9.2
11.3 10.9 9.2 8.5
10.3
10.0
9.9 11.7 9.1 9.2
L1 2012 9.6 12.5 9.0 9,5
A*C 10.6 12.2 9.4 9.1
10.5 11.9 8.9 8.9
2010 9.9 12.5 7.9 9.5
10.1 13.3 7.9 10.2
2011 11.1 12.9 7.0 11.1
11.0 12.6 8.0 11.2
10.2
2012 9.8 11.6 7.1 8.9
9.7 11.4 7.2 9.5
L2
10.0
A*C 10.3 12.3 7.3 9.8
10.3 12.4 7.7 10.3
11.1 11.0 7.7 9.6
2010 10.9 10.0 7.4 8.6
2011 9.5 12.0 8.7 8.8
9.7 12.8 8.8 9.2
2012 9.3 10.9 8.2 10.0 9.5
9.7 12.3 7.6 9.2
9.9
L3
A*C 10.9 11.0 8.1 9.1
10.2 12.0 8.0 9.3
2010 11.0 10.9 7.0 9.7
11.1 12.8 8.5 10.3
2011 9.6 10.4 8.8 8.2
9.4 10.8 10.7 10.5
9.5
11.3 10.8 11.3 10.5 10.8
L4 2012 11.1 11.3 6.4 8.6
A*C 10.6 10.9 7.4 8.8
10.6 11.5 10.2 10.4
2010 12.1 13.7 11.0 11.1
12.2 13.1 10.0 10.7
2011 12.3 13.4 10.2 11.3
12.0 13.3 10.1 10.8
12.0 12.1 13.7 9.8 11.0 11.6
2012
12.7
13.9
10.7
11.2
L5
A*C 12.4 13.7 10.6 11.2
12.1 13.4 10.0 9.8
Aver.
Average C 10.7 12.0 8.6 9.6
10.7 12.2 9.0 10.0
C
2010 10.2
2010 10.5
Aver
Aver.
2011 10.3
2011 10.6
G
G
2012 10.1
2012 10.4
Table 2. Difference significance ranking by Tukey test
Factors Seed non treated with metalaxyl-m Seed treated with metalaxyl-m
A
1.1
1.2
G
1.3
1.4
C
0.8
1.1
A*C
1.4
1.5
The best effect was accomplished by application of
BIOPLANT FLORA on HA-NS-26 genotype – 12.3 cm, i.e.,
12.4 cm, on an average, which is for 2.1 cm, i.e., 2.5 cm more
than control variant seedling root length (Table 1). Arancon et
al. (2006) found that application of humic acids has positive
effect on growth of paprika and velvet plant root. Akinci et al.
(2009) also came to the same conclusion by examining the
influence of biostimulators on broad bean seed. They found that
humic acids, beside positive influence on root length, also lead
to change in nutrients in this culture. The joint effect of of
preparations caused negative effect and with regard to control
variant the root was shorter by an average of 3.1 cm. Similar
results were obtained with PH-BC2-74 line. Influence of active
matter contained in BIOPLANT FLORA preparation made the
root to be longer by an average of 1.9 cm and 2.7 cm,
respectively. Zeljković et al. (2010) also found the positive effect
of biostimulators on root development of sage. Application of
combination of preparations led to negative effect on root
growth. The root is shorter with regard to control variant for 1.3
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Miladinov, Zlatica et al. / Effect of Biostimulators on Root Length and Shoot Length of Seedlings of Sunflower Parent Lines
cm, but only in case when prior to sowing the seed was treated
with fungicide based on metalaxyl-m. Biostimulators had
positive effect on VL-A-8 line but only on non-treated seed
variant. Using BIOPLANT FLORA the root was longer by an
average of 2.1 cm. Treating the seed of HA-26-PR line with
BIOPLANT FLORA preparation led to significant increase of
seedling root length. Root length, ten days after sowing, was
13.7 cm, respectively, 13.4 cm, which is an average of 2.5 cm,
and 3.6 cm more compared to the control (Table 1).
Effect of biostimulators on the shoot length
Analysing the obtained results it can be found that there are
no significant differences in length of seedling between lines of
both seed variants treated and not treated and not treated with
fungicide based on active matter metalaxyl-m. The longest
seedling part was found with HA-NS-26 line which was 6.1 cm
and 6.2 cm, respectively (Table 3).
Treating seed with biostimulators resulted in different effect
on seedling shoot length. Application of BIOPLANT FLORA
led to significant increase of length with relation to control
variant and other treatments. Length of shoot of seedling had a
span from 7.0 cm, i.e., 6.8 cm, on an average, which is for 1.5
cm, i.e., 1.2 cm longer than the control. Combination of
preparations had inhibitory effect, thus the shoot length was
shorter by an average of 0.5 cm, i.e., 0.6 cm than the control.
Table 3. Effect of biostimulators on the shoot leght
Seed non treated with
Lines
metalaxyl-m
Years
A
G Biostimulators C Aver.
A
S B S+B K
2010 4.6 7.1 4.0 4.4
2011 4.9 7.8 4.5 4.4
5.2
L1
2012 6.4 6.1 3.7 5.1
A*C 5.3 7.0 5.1 4.6
2010 5.6 7.3 5.0 4.6
2011 5.5 7.4 5.4 5.8
6.1
L2
2012 6.8 8.1 5.7 6.1
A*C 6.0 7.6 5.4 5.5
2010 4.7 6.6 4.4 6.2
2011 5.2 6.7 5.3 6.0
5.6
L3
2012 6.0 7.6 4.5 5.2
A*C 5.3 7.0 4.7 5.8
2010 5.7 4.9 6.0 6.1
2011 5.4 4.9 4.4 5.4
5.6
L4
2012 5.4 7.0 5.9 5.9
A*C 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.8
2010 5.3 7.2 4.9 5.5
2011 5.9 8.1 5.3 5.7
6.0
L5
2012 5.9 8.3 4.7 5.4
5.7
7.9
5.0
5.5
A*C
Aver. C 5.6 7.0 4.9 5.5 Aver. C
2010 5.5
Aver.
Aver.
2011 5.7
G
G
2012 6.0
Seed treated with metalaxyl-m
Biostimulators C
S
B S+B K
5.0 6.7 4.9 5.1
5.0 7.3 5.5 5.5
5.6 6.0 3.9 5.3
5.2 6.7 4.8 5.3
5.8 7.0 4.9 5.5
5.6 7.4 5.8 5.3
7.2 8.5 5.8 5.8
6.2 7.6 5.5 5.5
5.1 6.2 4.3 6.4
6.2 6.1 5.2 5.5
6.5 7.4 4.7 5.6
5.9 6.6 4.7 5.8
5.2 4.4 5.8 5.7
5.6 4.6 4.5 5.7
5.7 7.6 5.7 5.4
5.5 5.5 5.3 5.6
6.1 7.1 5.3 5.7
6.0 7.7 5.1 5.6
5.8 8.3 4.9 5.3
6.0 7.7 5.1 5.5
5.8 6.8 5.1 5.6
2010 5.6
2011 5.8
2012 6.1
Aver.
A
5.5
6.2
5.8
5.5
6.1
Table 4. Difference significance ranking by Tukey test
Factors Seed non treated with metalaxyl-m Seed treated with metalaxyl-m
A
1.1
1.0
G
0.9
1.0
C
0.5
0.8
A*C
1.0
1.0
Russo and Berlyn (1990) concluded that the application of
biostimulators which contain humic and fulvic acids leads to
improvement of plant’s growth due to increased permeability of
cell membranes, transpiration, photosynthesis, oxygen, phosphor
and other nutrients. There was no significant difference found
between production years. Seed produced in 2012 had the
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
longest shoot length – 6.0 cm and 6.1 cm, respectively (Table 3)
By separate analysis of lines, it may be concluded that
application of BIOPLANT FLORA on both seed variants of line
OCMS-98 led to obtaining the shoot length by an average of 5.2
cm, i.e., 5.5 cm, which means that the shoot length was longer
for 2.4 cm, i.e., 1.4 cm in relation to control variant. The best
increase was achieved with this genotype – 3.8 cm with seed
produced in 2010. Thi Lua and Böhme (2001) found that the
application of biostimulators based on amino and humic acids,
next to having positive influence on germination, favorably
affect the growth of root and shoot length.
It is similar with HA-NS-26 genotype where the application
of preparation based on humic acids had significant effect.
Seedling that developed from seed which was treated with
BIOPLANT FLORA prior to sowing had the shoot length for 2.1
cm longer than the control variant. Sánchez-Sánchez et al.
(2009) also found that humic acids significantly influence not
only the growth and development of plants, but also the uptake
of iron
especially with those plants with lack in this element.
Application of BIOPLANT FLORA on genotype PH-BC2-74
led to significant increase of shoot length, but only with seed
which was not treated with fungicide prior to application of
biostimulators (Table 3). The shoot length was longer for 1.2 cm
with regard to control. However, combination of BIPLANT
FLORA and SLAVOL S had inhibitory effect on initial rise, thus
the shoot length was shorter by an average of 1.1 cm than
control with both seed variants. All treatments led to
inconsiderable inhibitory effect on shoot elongation of the line
line VL-A-8. Govedarica (2002) points out that efficiency of
biostimulators also depends on the genotype. With the
application of biostimulators based on humic acids the shoot
length of genotype HA-26-PR was longer for 2.4 cm and 2.2 cm,
respectively. Cimrin and Yilmaz (2005) concluded that the
application of humic acids has positive effect on growth and
development of some grains.
CONCLUSION
Line HA-26-PR had significantly longer root in relation to
other variants except the VL-A- 8 line variant which was treated
with fungicide. No significant difference was determined in the
shoot length.
Seed year production did not have significant influence on
root length and shoot length.
Treating seeds with preparation BIOPLANT FLORA, prior
to sowing, showed good results considering that the seedling
root was averagely longer for 2.4 cm with variant which was
treated with this preparation, i.e., for 2.2 cm with seed variant
where fungicide, based on metalaxyl-m, was used
biostimulators. This preparation also had the best influence on
the shoot length in an average of 1.5 cm, i.e., 1.2 cm in relation
to control variant.
Beside positive influence which can be achieved with the
application of certain biostimulators, it may be concluded that
the inadequate combination may have inhibitory effect on
growth of the seedling.
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Received: 06.04.2014.
Accepted: 19.10.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 229-231
UDK: 633.31
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT POLYETHYLEN GLYCOLE
CONCENTRATIONS AND EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT
METHODS FOR GERMINATION OF ALFALFA
PRIMENA RAZLIČITIH KONCENTRACIJA POLYETHYLENE
GLYCOLA I OCENA RAZLIČITIH METODA NA
KLIJAVOST SEMENA LUCERKE
Ratibor ŠTRBANOVIĆ*, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ*, Lana ĐUKANOVIĆ*, Dobrivoj POŠTIĆ*,
Jordan MARKOVIĆ**, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ**, Nenad DOLOVAC*
*Institute for Plant Protection and Environment, 11040 Belgrade, Teodora Drajzera 9, Serbia
**Institute for Forage Crops, Kruševac, 37251 Globoder, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
This paper presents the germination three cultivars of alfalfa using different concentrations of PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol)
and control. The aim of this study was to determine the tolerance of alfalfa under drought stress effects and the choice of optimal
testing methods. Seed germination and establish the presence of hard seed alfalfa was done by the standard method without
pretreatment and with pretreatment. Readout germination of alfalfa seeds was done after ten days, according to the Rules for testing
seed quality of agricultural products. The concentration of PEG of 0.4 MPa has proven to be optimal for assessing the seed
germination of alfalfa. The alfalfa cultivars have behaved differently towards different concentrations on PEG, indicating the
possibility of correct selection of alfalfa cultivars for autumn sowing period (September) after seed harvest in August.
Key words: alfalfa, germination, PEG 6000, seed.
REZIME
Lucerka je najvažnija višegodišnja i višeotkosna krmna biljka, koja daje visoke prinose i odličan kvalitet krme u različitim
ekološkim uslovima. Gajena u kombinovanoj proizvodnji (seme/krma) tokom višegodišnjeg korišćenja veoma je varijabilna prema
visini prinosa semena (CV = 29,4% do 47,5%) dok je prema visini prinosa krme sa nižom varijabilnšću (CV=17,1% do 25,7%), i
najmanjom varijabilnošću za kvalitet semena (klijavost CV=5,4% do 6,4%). U radu je prikazana klijavost tri sorte lucerke primenom
različitih koncentracija PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol) i kontrole. Cilj ovog rada je utvrđivanje tolerantnosti lucerke prema efektu
stresa na sušu i izbor najoptimalnije metode ispitivanja. Ispitivanje klijavosti i utvrđivanje prisustva tvrdih semena lucerke rađeno je
standardnom metodom bez predtretmana i sa predtretmanom. Očitavanje klijavosti semena lucerke urađeno je nakon deset dana,
prema pravilniku za ispitivanje kvaliteta semena poljoprivrednog bilja. Koncentracija PEG-a od 0,4 Мpa pokazala se optimalnom za
ocenu klijavosti semena lucerke. Sorte lucerke su se različito ponašale prema različitim koncentracijama na PEG, što ukazuje na
mogućnost pravilnog izbora sorti lucerke za jesenji setveni rok (septembar) nakon žetve semena u avgustu mesecu. Sorte lucerke
tolerantnije na PEG u jesenjem setvenom roku, kada je i najčešće nedostatak vlage u zemljištu u našim klimatskim uslovima bile bi
uspešnije za zasnivanje lucerišta. Ove sorte bi bile pogodne i za uključivanje u proces selekcije radi stvaranja sorti tolerantnijih
prema stresu na sušu.
Ključne reči: PEG 6000, lucerka, seme, klijavost.
INTRODUCTION
Alfalfa is a nutrient rich, high-yielding and multi-cutting
forage crop, adapted to diverse environmental conditions (Đukić
and Erić, 1995). Depending on the genotypes characterized by
high variability in forage yield (CV=28.6 %) (Štrbanović, 2010).
Grown in a combined production (seed / fodder) during the years
of use is very variable according to the amount of seed yield
(CV=29.4 % to 47.5 %), while according to the amount of
forage yield with lower variability (CV=17.1 % to 25.7 %), and
lowest variability for seed quality (germination CV=5.4 % to 6.4
%) (Stanisavljević et al., 2012). In Serbia, seed production is
mainly from the combined production of which is the harvest of
seeds from the second cut in August (Terzić, 2011). The
resulting seeds can be used for establishing alfalfa crop in the
autumn sowing period, which is one to two months after the
harvest of alfalfa seed. It can also be used in the spring or
autumn sowing period in the coming years.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
In the period of autumn sowing of alfalfa in the west Balkan
area, the lack of rainfall is frequent, which leads to the shortage
of soil moisture. In such circumstances there is a possibility of
drought mitigation planting alfalfa seed which would require less
moisture in the soil to germinate, which for practical conditions
gave a high contribution to establishing alfalfa crop. Also,
tolerance genotypes to drought is a very important trait for
breeding programs and the creation of tolerant varieties under
drought stress conditions in Southeast Europe (Carmen and
Nedelea, 2012).
On the other hand in the time period between one to two
months after seed harvest (August and September) in alfalfa is
already hard seed (Fairey and Lefkovitch, 1991; Hall et al.,
1998; Čupić et al., 2005; Kimura and Islam, 2012) which is
attributed to seedlings to not allow the penetration of water and
gas. On establishing the alfalfa crop, hard seeds germinate later,
and can not withstand the competition already developed
seedlings and have a great contribution to establishing alfalfa
crop (Albrecht et al., 2009).
229
Štrbanović, Ratibor et al./Appli. of Diff.t Polyethylen Glycole Conc. and Evaluation of Different Methods for Germination of Alfalfa
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Harvesting seeds of different cultivars of alfalfa was
conducted in August 2013th year. After harvest, seed tests were
conducted in September of the same year, 45 days after harvest.
These tests were conducted on seeds of three different cultivars
of alfalfa: Kruševačka 28 (N 45º34'47.18'' E 20º35'36.52''; 72 m
asl.), Osiječka 66 (N 45º00'13.06'' E 13º58'29.65''; 172 m asl.),
NS Mediana (N 45º32'15.56'' E 20º03'13.17''; 71 m nv.).
Seed quality of alfalfa was done with three different
methods:
A0 - Seeds were placed in Petri dishes on filter paper
moistened with distilled water until complete saturation and
placed on pretreatment (+4 ºC temperature) for 5 days. Then the
seeds were transferred in hothouse at a temperature of 20 ºC and
determined the energy germination (after four days) and total
germination (after ten days) of the Rules of the quality of seeds
of agricultural plants "Official Gazette of SFRY ", no . 47/87
Republic of Serbia.
A1 - the seeds were placed in Petri dishes on the filter paper,
but without the addition of distilled water and placed in a
pretreatment (+4 ºC temperature) for 5 days. Then the seeds
were transferred in hothouse at a temperature of 20 ºC and
determined the energy germination (after four days) and total
germination (after ten days) of the Rules of the quality of seeds
of agricultural plants "Official Gazette of SFRY", no. 47/87
Republic of Serbia.
A2- seeds were placed in Petri dishes on filter paper
moistened with distilled water until fully saturated and placed in
hothouse at a temperature of 20 ºC and determined the
germination (after four days) and total germination (after ten
days) of the Rules of the quality of seeds of agricultural plants
"Official Gazette of SFRY", no. 47/87 Republic of Serbia.
Then germination was studied all the three cultivars of
alfalfa with varying concentrations of Polyethylene glycol 6000
(PEG): Concentration I - 0.4 MPa (B1), Concentration II 0.7MPa (B2), Concentration III - 1.0 MPa (B3) and control
without the use of PEG (B0). PEG was applied on the basis of
recommendations (Villela et al., 1991).
The Petri dishes are directly charged PEG 10 ml and seeds
were transferred to the hot bed temperature of 20 ºC and
determined the energy germination (after four days) and total
germination (after ten days).
The obtained experimental data were processed by a
mathematical statistical procedure using the statistical package
STATISTICA 8.0 for Windows. The differences between the
treatments were determined by analysis of the variance
(ANOVA).
method found significantly more hard seeds of standard methods
resulting in reduced germination. These results variation of hard
seeds depending on variety and location of production in the
period after harvest (K-28 4%, OS-66 20 %, NS-Mediana 25 %)
are consistent with the results (Hall et al., 1998; Kimura and
Islam, 2012). In practical agronomic practices presence hard
seeds is largely determined by the management and use of seeds
(Fairey and Lefkovitch, 1991; Čupić et al., 2005).
On the tested cultivars, the standard method has been
established and the difference in fresh seeds (K-28 1 %, OS-66 1
%, NS-Mediana 5 %) table 1.
Table 1. Impact methods (A0, A1, A2) evaluation of seed
germination of three cultivars of alfalfa
Cultivar Method
A0
A1
A2
CV %
A0
A1
OS-66
A2
CV %
A0
A1
NSMediana A2
CV %
K-28
230
Germination %
Hard seed %
Fresh seed %
94 ± 0.651 A
90 ± 0.705 B
83 ± 0.516 C
6.256
77 ± 0.405 A
60 ± 0.296 B
54 ± 0.712 C
18.739
69 ± 1.236 A
52 ± 0.986 B
48 ± 1.065 C
19.794
4 ± 6.232 C
7 ± 0.121 B
12 ± 0.321 A
52.715
20 ± 0.356 C
26 ± 0.601 B
30 ± 0.198 A
19.868
25 ± 0.987 C
42 ± 1.109 B
40 ± 1.258 A
26.051
1± 0.344 B
1± 0.101 B
3 ± 0.621 A
69.289
1± 0.432 C
12± 0.563 B
15± 0.258 A
78.976
5 ± 0.321 AB
6 ± 0.321 A
10 ± 0.321 B
37.796
Dancanov test, A, B,…Different letters between treatment
denote significant differences ( p ≤0.05), Values are mean ±
standard error of the mean (SEM).
Polyethylene glycol simulates drought stress conditions
and is acceptable for this purpose in alfalfa seed (Carmen and
Nedelea, 2012; Tilaki et al., 2009; Tiryaki et al., 2009).
However the optimal concentration of seed of agricultural plants
are different (Villela, 1991).
Table 2. The effect of different concentrations of PEG on the
germination of alfalfa cultivars
Seed %
Cultivars
K-28
ОS-66
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The methods used to investigate the germination of alfalfa
given different results, indicating the coefficient of variation for
germination (K-28 CV=6.256 %, OS-66 CV=18.739 %,
CV=19.794 % of the NS-Mediana), the presence of hard seed
(K-28 CV=52,715 %, OS-66 CV=19.868 %, CV=26.051 % of
the NS-Mediana), and fresh seed (K-28 CV=69,289 %, OS-66
CV=78 976 %, NS-Mediana CV=37.796 %). Generally in all
cultivars of alfalfa significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) germination
was determined by the standard method table 1. This was
expected, because the pretreatment Ph (precooling) effect on the
termination of dormancy and decrease the percentage of hard
seeds, seedlings in these conditions has become more permeable
to water and gases, which led to such normal seeds germinate
table 1. On the long side of A2 is determined using significantly
more hard seeds in relation to the method A1, and A1 is a
Seed
NS-Mediana
PEG
B0
B1
B2
B3
B0
B1
B2
B3
B0
B1
B2
B3
Germination
Hard seed
94 ± 0.563 A
62 ± 0.456 B
35 ± 0.369 C
0 ± 0.537 D
77 ± 0.495 A
71 ± 0.631 B
29 ± 0.563 C
0 ± 0.000 D
69 ± 0.665 A
61 ± 0.456 B
31 ± 0.236 C
0 ± 0.425 D
4 ± 0.452 A
5 ± 0.423 B
3 ± 0.235 C
0 ± 0.652 D
20 ± 0.478 A
17 ± 0.452 B
7 ± 0.429 C
0 ± 0.000 D
25 ± 0.258 A
20 ± 0.456 B
4 ± 0.253 C
0 ± 0.000 D
Dancanov test, A, B,…Different letters between treatment
denote significant differences ( p ≤0.05), Values are mean ±
standard error of the mean (SEM).
In our studies table 2 it has been found that the use of PEG at
various concentrations is influenced to a significant reduction in
germination compared to control. This is consistent with the
results of (Wang et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2009). Variant with
the strongest concentration of PEG-B3 led to a completely
disable the germination of alfalfa seed in all three cultivars, and
accordingly influenced the lack of hard seeds. So any stronger
concentration of PEG was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05)
effect on reducing germinated and hard seeds of alfalfa table 2.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Štrbanović, Ratibor et al./Appli. of Diff.t Polyethylen Glycole Conc. and Evaluation of Different Methods for Germination of Alfalfa
According to our research for the evaluation of alfalfa seed
germination optimum concentration was 0.4 MPa (B1).
Table 3. The use of optimal concentrations of PEG on the
germination of alfalfa cultivars
PEG
B1
Cultivar
K-28
OS-66
NS-mediana
Germinaton %
62 ± 0.456 B
71 ± 0.631 A
61 ± 0.456 B
Dancanov test, A, B,…Different letters between treatment
denote significant differences ( p ≤0.05), Values are mean ±
standard error of the mean (SEM).
The cultivars of alfalfa with an optimal concentration of PEG
in the germination differed by 10 % table 3. Obtained results
from laboratory have to be confirmed in field conditions and in a
number of varieties and locations in which they are produced,
and seed lots.
CONCLUSION
In the period of 45 days after harvest real indication of
germination is possible to establish a standard method for testing
seed quality. The effect of PEG on germination of alfalfa
optimal concentration of PEG was 0.4 MPa, with which it is
possible to detect differences between the varieties of alfalfa.
Alfalfa cultivars tolerant to PEG in the autumn sowing period,
when it was most often a lack of moisture in the soil in our
climate would be more effective for establishing alfalfa crop.
These cultivars would be suitable for inclusion in the selection
process in order to develop cultivars tolerant to drought stress.
ACKNOWLEGEMENT: The work was realized within the
projects TR 31057 and TR 31018, Ministry of Education,
Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia.
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Accepted: 30.09.2014.
231
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 5; p 232-234
UDK: 633.15:111.4
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
GRAIN QUALITY OF MAIZE INBRED LINES
ORIGINATED FROM LOCAL POPULATIONS
KVALITET ZRNA SAMOOPLODNIH LINIJA
KUKURUZA DOBIJENIH OD LOKALNIH POPULACIJA
Jasmina MILENKOVIĆ*, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ**, Snežana ANĐELKOVIĆ*, Dragan TERZIĆ*, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ*,
Tanja VASIĆ*, Dejan SOKOLOVIĆ*
* Institute for forage crops Kruševac, Globoder 37251
**
Institute for plant protection and environment Belgrade. Teodora Drajzera 9,
11000 Beograd.
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Evaluation of seed quality was done from seeds of inbred lines originated from local maize populations of Eastern Serbia.
Following parameters were investigated: 1000 seed weight, dry matter content, protein content and lysine content. In this study, 1000
seeds weight ranged from 311.03 to 365.04 g. In dry matter content were included soluble carbohydrates, starch, ash, and the
remainder of proteins. It ranged from 10.14 to 10.96 %. The protein content is ranged from 9,31 to 10,84 %, but the crude protein
content is not necessarily an indicator of quality. Important quality indicator is the amount of the essential amino acids and their
digestibility. Several lines were obtained a lysine content up to 3 %, which is considered to be the high content of lysine in the
"normal" maize types. The results indicated that the local maize populations can be a significant source of beneficial genes to obtain
better quality hybrids.
Key words: maize, inbred lines, seed quality, organic production.
REZIME
Zbog visoke produktivnosti, kao i visoke adaptabilnosti, kukuruz je postao veoma raširena kultura i gaji se u različitim klimatskim
uslovima. Današnji hibridi daju znatno veće prinose od ranije gajenih sorti i hibrida, što je rezultat dugogodišnjeg oplemenjivačkog
procesa. Semenarske kompanije diktiraju programe oplemenjivanja gde je glavni cilj prvenstveno prinos, dok je hranljivi kvalitet
dobijenih hibrida uglavnom zapostavljen.
U eri najveće tehnološke razvijenosti otkad postoji ljudska civilizacija, sve je veća potreba za proizvodnjom zdravstveno bezbedne
hrane. Zbog toga organska poljoprivreda zauzima sve značajnije mesto u agrarnoj politici razvijenih zemalja. S obzirom da su izvori
varijabilnosti za stvaranje novih hibrida kukuruza gotovo iscrpljeni, javlja se trend povratka starim, gotovo zaboravljenim, sortama
kukuruza koje mogu biti značajan izvor kvalitetne hrane za ljude. Lokalne sorte - populacije kukuruza mogu dati značajan doprinos
poboljšanju kvaliteta ishrane kako ljudi, tako i životinja.
U ovom istraživanju je korišćeno 15 samooplodnih linija kukuruza koje su dobijene iz lokalnih populacija poreklom iz istočne
Srbije (okolina Zaječara i Pirota). Ogled je postavljen po slučajnom blok sistemu u tri ponavljanja. Određivani su sledeći parametri:
masa 1000 semena, sadržaj suve materije, sadržaj sirovih proteina i sadržaj lizina.Masa 1000 semena je iznosila od 311,3 do 365,04
g. U sadržaj suve materije ulaze rastvorljivi ugljeni hidrati, skrob, pepeo, proteini i ostatak. Sadržaj suve materije je iznosio od 10,14
do 10,96%. U ovom istraživanju je dobijen sadržaj proteina od 9,31 do 10,84%. Ovo svojstvo je pod jakim uticajem genetičkih
faktora, međutim, sadržaj sirovih proteina nije nužno i pokazatelj kvaliteta. Kvalitet proteina biljaka se ceni i prema količini
esencijalnih aminokiselina i njihovoj svarljivosti. Kukuruz, prema sadržaju esencijalnih aminokiselina, ne spada u kvalitetna hraniva.
U semenu standardnih tipova kukuruza lizin nije sadržan u većoj meri, što umanjuje njihovu nutritivnu vrednost. Navode se rezultati
sadržaja lizina u zrnu kukuruza normalnog tipa od 1,6%, a u zrnu opaque-2 tipa 3,7%. U ovom radu, kod pojedinih linija je dobijen
sadržaj lizina preko 3%, što se smatra za visok sadržaj lizina kod „običnih“ tipova kukuruza. Dobijeni rezultati ukazuju da lokalne
populacije mogu biti značajan izvor poželjnih gena za dobijanje kvalitetnijih hibrida kukuruza.
Ključne reči: kukuruz, samooplodne linije, kvalitet zrna, organska proizvodnja.
INTRODUCTION
Due to the high productivity and high adaptability, maize has
become widespread culture and grown in different climates.
Today's single-cross hybrids provide significantly higher yields
than earlier double-cross and open pollinated varieties, as a
result of long-term breeding process. Seed companies dictate
breeding programs, where the main objective is yield, and
nutritional quality of the obtained hybrids is less significant.
According to the content of protein, maize is one of the poor
feed. Earlier, an attempt was made to improve the quality of the
maize genetically engineered. Mutants opaque-2 (with a high
content of lysine) and floury-2 (with a high content of
tryptophan), did not give the expected results. Due to the adverse
effects of the correlation (lower yield, a softer grain, increased
moisture in the grain, weakened stalks and other product
232
characteristics); this program was abandoned after 20 years
(Vasal, 2001).
Given that the sources of variability for creation of new
hybrids almost exhausted (Hallauer, 1994), there is a trend back
to the old, almost forgotten varieties of corn that can be a
significant source of high-quality food for humans (Pollak and
Salhuana 2001). Borlaug (1992) started with the introduction of
the genetic diversity of wild plants and local populations in
modern varieties of plants.
In the era of the greatest technological development of
human civilization, there is a growing need for the production of
safe food. Generations of people have grown up in an industrial
food, with ample use of artificially synthesized substances. After
decades of use industrial food, organizations and movements for
the obtaining food in a natural way are getting louder. Organic
farming, also, makes a significant contribution in increasing
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
Milenković, Jasmina et al. / Grain Quality of Maize Inbred Lines Originated From Local Populations
interest in the development of hybrids with higher grain quality.
Maize is poor in some essential amino acids, and lysine is one of
them (Bhan et al, 2003).
In this paper, we studied 15 inbred lines with high protein
content, in order to detect lines with higher lysine content than
conventional hybrids.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The field experiment was performed on the experimental
field of the Institute for agricultural and technological research
in Zaječar during 2003 and 2004. The area where the institute is
located has characteristics of temperate continental climate
(Table 1).
In order to obtain the seeds of the same generation of selfcrossing (S4) in both years of investigation, harvested seed from
2002 was used for planting.
From each line, sample of 15 ears was taken. From each ear
the same number of grains was counted. In this way it is made
unique pattern for every inbred line, for each replication. That
balanced sample has been used for investigation of all the
properties.
o
Table 1. Average monhtly temperatures ( C) and
precipitations (mm) for the April-September in 2003 and 2004
and long-term averages for period 1967-2002
Temperatures (oC)
Precipitations (mm)
Month
2003 2004 19672003
2004
19672002
2002
April
10.2
11.9
11.2
89.0
46.4
52.8
May
22.9
14.9
16.4
60.5
27.6
65.6
June
22.5
19.5
19.6
43.3
81.3
68.1
July
22.3
21.9
21.5
55.6
49.0
57.9
August
24.3
20.5
20.9
1.3
62.1
38.2
September 15.6
15.9
16.3
67.6
35.6
45.5
Average
19.6
17.4
17.7
317.3 302.0 327.3
1000 seed weight was measured on a random sample of
absolutely pure and air-dry seed. The dry matter content was
calculated by subtracting % hygroscopic moisture of 100 (Sl.
List br. 47/87).
Crude protein was computed indirectly by the standard
Kjeldahl method (Vivek et al., 2008), based on nitrogen
multiplied by factor 6.25 (conversion factor for maize). Lysine
content in seeds was determined from hydrolysate, on the device
UPLC AMINO ACID ANALYSIS SOLUTION in the
laboratory "Hemtek" in Belgrade.
For each feature, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
was used to examine differences in mean values among lines.
Differences were considered as significant at probability value
p<0.01. Statistical analyses were performed using the program
STATISTICA 8.0.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Process of obtaining inbred lines sometimes required more
than ten years, with the uncertain results. After five years of
work on obtaining inbred lines we made an assessment and
evaluating the quality of grain. This allows working only with
those lines that match the specified properties. Results of mean
values and LSD test at p<0.01 for each analyzed inbred line are
presented in Table 2 and Table 3. By observing the results, we
can notice, that there were statistically significant differences
between the analyzed inbred lines. 1000 seed weight is the ratio
between the weight and number of seeds and represents seed
size. It is also one of the main yield components of corn. This
property is very variable because it is affected by genetic factors
and environmental conditions. The average weight of 1000 seeds
ranged from 311.03 (inbred line No. 4 in 2003) to 365.04 g
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
(Inbred line No. 11 in 2004; Table 2). The obtained values are in
agreement with the results of researchers who have examined
this feature in hybrids (Bekrić, 1997).
In the grain of standard hybrids, dry matter content is about
10 % (Bekrić (1997). In this study dry matter content of inbred
lines ranged from 10.14 (inbred line No. 2 in 2003) to 10.96 %
(inbred line No. 5 in 2004; Tab. 2).
Seed protein content is strongly influenced by genetic
factors. A number of authors refer that the protein content of the
standard hybrids varies from 5-12 %. Results of the protein
content in standard hybrids were from 8.3 to 12.3 %
(Radosavljevic et al. 2010). Results of the grain protein content
of tropical maize inbred lines varied from 7.4 to 12.6 % (Vasal,
2001).
Table 2. Average values of 1000 seed weight (g) and dry
matter content (%) in 15 inbred lines originated from local
populations of Eastern Serbia
Inbred
line
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1000 seeds weight (g)
2003
Mean LSD
352.65 b
323.00 jk
313.67 no
311.03 o
331.64 gh
320.67 klm
319.33 klm
331.05 gh
331.04 gh
329.31 hi
347.32 cd
339.05 e
318.67 lm
340.01 e
339.00 e
2004
Mean LSD
349.65 bc
321.05 klm
319.00 klm
317.31 mn
332.32 gh
322.33 jkl
325.63 ij
337.64 ef
336.67 ef
334.66 fg
365.04 a
344.31 d
326.06 ij
346.33 cd
344.65 d
Dry matter content (%)
2003
Mean LSD
10.19
lm
10.14
m
10.50
defg
10.65
cd
10.86
ab
10.29 ijklm
10.23
jklm
10.20
jklm
10.37
ghij
10.32
ijkl
10.49 defgh
10.65
cd
10.15
m
10.33
hijkl
10.35 ghijkl
2004
Mean LSD
10.21 jklm
10.19 klm
10.55 cdef
10.42 efghi
10.96
a
10.39 fghi
10.28 ijklm
10.28 ijklm
10.40 fghi
10.57 cde
10.68
c
10.71 bc
10.21 jklm
10.42 efghi
10.36 ghijk
Note: Mean values with the same letter in LSD column are
not significantly different according to Fisher’s LSD test (p <
0.01)
Table 3. Average values of protein content and lysine content
in 15 inbred lines originated from local populations of Eastern
Serbia
Protein content (%)
Lysine content (%)
Inbred
2003
2004
2003
2004
line
Mean LSD Mean LSD Mean LSD Mean LSD
1
9.86
jkl
9.88
ijk
3.90
a
3.90
a
2
9.75
m
9.73
m
2.78
j
2.72
k
3
10.00 efg
9.95
ghi
3.79
b
3.75
bc
4
10.84
a
10.78
a
1.58
r
1.53
s
5
10.01 efg
8.99
fg
3.26
i
3.22
i
6
9.33
p
9.31
p
3.43
ef
3.41
fg
7
10.12
cd
10.07
de
2.59
mn
2.52
o
8
9.98
gh
9.96
gh
2.30
p
2.28
p
9
9.90
hij
9.87
ijk
3.35
h
3.35
gh
10 10.31
b
10.28
b
2.70
kl
2.63
lm
11
9.64
n
9.62
n
3.50
d
3.47
de
12
9.53
o
9.51
o
3.78
b
3.70
c
13
9.81
klm
9.78
lm
3.25
i
3.22
i
14 10.12
cd
10.07 def
2.58
mn
2.53
no
15 10.17
c
10.14
cd
2.33
p
2.30
p
Note: Mean values with the same letter in LSD column are
not significantly different according to Fisher’s LSD test (p <
0.01)
In this study, the protein content is derived from 9.31(line
No. 6 in 2003) to 10.84 % (line No. 4 in 2003; Tab. 3). There
was high variability of the testing material in protein content,
and differences between lines were statistically significant. The
233
Milenković, Jasmina et al. / Grain Quality of Maize Inbred Lines Originated From Local Populations
protein content is characteristic strongly influenced by the
genetic factors; however, the crude protein content is not
necessarily an indication of the quality. The quality of plant
proteins depends on the amount of the essential amino acids and
their digestibility (Gasic, 1992). Maize, according to the content
of essential amino acids, is not one of quality nutrients. Lysine is
not contained to a greater extent in the standard types of maize
seed, which reduces their nutritional value. Bewley and Black
(1985) reported the results of lysine content in maize normal
type of 1.6 %, and in opaque-2 type 3.7 %. In this paper, in both
years, eight lines (1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12 and 13) obtained lysine
content over 3 %; which is considered as a high content of lysine
in the "regular" types of corn. This feature had high variability
among investigated lines (Table 3). The 1000 seed-grain mass
was in negative correlation with total protein, and in positive
correlation with lysine. But, these correlations were small and
not statistically significant. At the same time correlation between
the protein content and lysine content was significantly negative
(Table 4).
Table 4. Correlation coefficients between investigated
features in 2003 and 2004.
Year
1000 seed
mass
Dry matter
content
Protein
content
Protein content
2003
2004
Lysine content
2003
2004
-0.30
-0.16
0.35
0.28
0.2
-0.44
0.07
0.25
-
-
-0.75
-0.67
Three lines (1, 3 and 9) had a high protein content as well as
lysine in both years. Also, inbred lines 5 and 13, have
demonstrated this just in one year. Lines in both of cases were
marked with the red dots on the charts (Figure 1).
Protein x lysine 2003
4,50
4,00
3,50
3,00
2,50
2,00
1,50
1,00
0,50
0,00
R² = 0.559
9,00
9,50
10,00
10,50
11,00
Protein x lysine 2004
4,5
4
CONCLUSION
By surveying 15 inbred lines of maize, we can conclude that
there is high variability within the investigated material. The
results indicated that the local maize landraces can be a
significant source of beneficial genes to obtain better quality
hybrids. Several lines could be a good material for obtaining
maize hybrids with high quality grain. Eight lines had lysine
content higher than 3 % (1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13). At the same
time, five inbred lines (1, 3, 5, 9 and 13) had relatively high total
protein content. Inbred line No. 1 had the highest lysine content
in this research (3.90 %). Further research should focus attention
on improving these 8 lines, testing them in hybrid combinations,
examination of heterotic potential, etc.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is part of project TR
31057, supported by Ministry of education, Science and
Technological Development, Republic of Serbia.
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3,5
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2,5
R² = 0.448
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Fig. 1. Regression analyssis of correlations between proteine
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234
Received: 11.03.2014.
Accepted: 02.12.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 5
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