JOURNAL ON PROCESSING AND ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE
ČASOPIS ZA PROCESNU TEHNIKU I ENERGETIKU U POLJOPRIVREDI
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Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic,
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Dr. Costas Akritidis, professor emeritus, Aristotle
Zagreb, Croatia,
University, Thessaloniki, Greece,
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Dr. Ljiljana Babić, professor, Faculty of Agriculture,
Science, Novi Sad, Serbia,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
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Thessaloniki, Greece,
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Ohridski", Bitola, FYR Macedonia,
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Gödöllö, Hungary,
Zemun Polje, Belgrade-Zemun,
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Dr. Branislav Karadžić, Faculty of Agriculture,
Dr. Mirjana Đurić, professor, Faculty of Technology,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Novi Sad, Serbia,
Dr. Ivan Pavkov, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad,
Dr. Richard Gladon, Iowa State University, USA,
Serbia.
JOURNAL ON PROCESSING AND ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE
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JOURNAL on processing and energy in agriculture = Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi / editor in chief
Mirko Babić. – Vol. 14, no. 1 (2010) - .- Novi Sad : Nacionalno društvo za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi, 2010-. –
Ilustr. ; 30 cm
Tromesečno. – Nastavak publikacije: PTEP - Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi (1997-2009)
ISSN 1821-4487
COBISS.SR-ID 247980295
CONTENT / SADRŽAJ
Peter HLAVÁČ, Monika BOŽIKOVÁ
INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS FACTORS ON PANCAKE DOUGH RHEOLOGIC PROPERTIES /
UTICAJ RAZLIČITIH FAKTORA NA REOLOŠKE OSOBINE TESTA ZA PALAČINKE ........................................................ 55
Anđelko BAJKIN, Ondrej PONJIČAN, Dragi RADOMIROVIĆ, Ivan PAVKOV, Mario DULIĆ
ENERGY BALANCE FOR CARROT ROOT RODUCTION AND DRYING /
ENERGETSKI BILANS PROIZVODNJE I SUŠENJA KORENA MRKVE ................................................................................. 59
Željko DŽELETOVIĆ, Jelena MAKSIMOVIĆ, Iva ŽIVANOVIĆ
YIELD OF Miscanthus×giganteus DURING CROP ESTABLISHMENT AT TWO LOCATIONS IN SERBIA /
PRINOS Miscanthus×giganteus, GAJENOG NA DVE LOKACIJE U SRBIJI U FAZI ZASNIVANJA USEVA ......................... 62
Siniša BIKIĆ, Maša BUKUROV, Bojan MARKOVIĆ, Ivan PAVKOV, Milivoj RADOJČIN
FLEXIBLE ALUMINIUM DUCTS AIR TIGHTNESS TESTING /
PROVERA ZAPTIVENOSTI FLEKSIBILNIH ALUMINIJUMSKIH CEVI ................................................................................ 65
Adewale O OMOLOLA, Afam I O JIDEANI, Patrick F KAPILA
MICROWAVE DRYING KINETICS OF BANANA (Luvhele Spp)/
KINETIKA MIKROTALASNOG SUŠENJA BANANE (Luvhele Spp) ........................................................................................ 68
Milka VUJAKOVIĆ, Ana MARJANOVIĆ-JEROMELA, Dušica JOVIČIĆ, Nada LEČIĆ, Radovan MARINKOVIĆ,
Nataša JAKOVLJEVIĆ, Sanja MEHANDŽIĆ-STANIŠIĆ
EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY ON SEED QUALITY AND YIELD OF OILSEED RAPE (Brassica napus L.) /
UTICAJ GUSTINE BILJAKA NA KVALITET SEMENA I PRINOS ULJANE REPICE (Brassica napus L.) ............................. 73
Dušan MILIĆ, Zorica SREDOJEVIĆ, Strahinja MARJANOVIĆ
A COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC ANALIYSIS OF THE DIFERENT
VARIETIES IN INTEGRATED APPLE PRODUCTION /
KOMPARATIVNA EKONOMSKA ANALIZA RAZLIČITIH SORTI U INTEGRALNOJ PROIZVODNJI JABUKE .............. 77
Valentina SEMENČENKO, Milica RADOSAVLJEVIĆ, Dušanka TERZIĆ,
Marija MILAŠINOVIĆ-ŠEREMEŠIĆ, Ljiljana MOJOVIĆ
DRIED DISTILLERS' GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES (DDGS) PRODUCED
FROM DIFFERENT MAIZE HYBRIDS AS ANIMAL FEED /
SUVA DŽIBRA RAZLIČITIH HIBRIDA KUKURUZA KAO HRANIVO ZA ŽIVOTINJE ....................................................... 80
Jasmina KNEŽEVIĆ, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ,
Miroljub AKSIĆ, Slavica ĆIRIĆ, Dragan TERZIĆ
QUALITY PROPERTIES OF WHEAT SEED THRESHED ON MOBILE THRESHER "ERNET" TYPE V-08 /
KVALITETNA SVOJSTVA SEMENA PŠENICE OVRŠENE NA MOBILNOJ VRŠALICI "ERNET" TIP V–08...................... 84
Biljana CVETKOVIĆ, Lato PEZO, Anamarija MANDIĆ, Aleksandra NOVAKOVIĆ,
Mladenka PESTORIĆ, Žarko KEVREŠAN, Jasna MASTILOVIĆ
CHEMOMETRIC APPROACH TO OPTIMIZATION OF WHITE CABBAGE FERMENTATION /
HEMOMETRIJSKI PRISTUP OPTIMIZACIJE PROCESA FERMENTACIJE BELOG KUPUSA ............................................. 88
Perica NIKOLIĆ, Vladimir BUGARSKI, Dragan MATIĆ, Filip KULIĆ
MODERN SUPERVISORY CONTROL SYSTEM IN A PNEUMATIC TRANSPORT
SYSTEM: PRACTICAL REALIZATION /
MODERAN SISTEM UPRAVLJANJA I NADZORA U SISTEMU
PNEUMATSKOG TRANSPORTA: PRAKTIČNA REALIZACIJA .............................................................................................. 91
LIST OF THE PERMANENT REVIEWERS /
LISTA STALNIH RECENZENATA .............................................................................................................................................. 94
INFORMACIJE ..................................................................................................................................................................... D1 – D2
POSLOVNO STRUČNI DODATAK ................................................................................................................................... D3 – D6
Guide for authors and list of permanent reviewers is on the internet address http://www.ptep.org.rs, as well as in the first issue
(No 1) of each respective year.
Uputstvo za pisanje radova i lista stalnih recenzenata nalazi se na internet adresi http://www.ptep.org.rs/casopis.html, kao i u
svakom prvom broju (No 1) časopisa odgovarajuće godine.
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 55-58
UDK: 62-404.9
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS FACTORS ON PANCAKE
DOUGH RHEOLOGIC PROPERTIES
UTICAJ RAZLIČITIH FAKTORA NA REOLOŠKE
OSOBINE TESTA ZA PALAČINKE
Peter HLAVÁČ, Monika BOŽIKOVÁ
Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics,
Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK - 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic,
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Presented paper is oriented on selected rheologic properties of pancake dough as: dynamic and kinematic viscosity and fluidity.
Influence of various factors such as: used ingredients and temperature on rheologic properties is investigated. Measurements were
performed on three pancake dough samples. In two samples were used milk with different fat content and in third sample were all ingredients in powder state. For rheologic properties measurement was used digital rotational viscometer Anton Paar DV-3P. The
principle of viscometer measurement is based on dependency of sample resistance against the probe rotation. Results of measurements are shown as graphical dependencies of rheologic parameters on temperature. For all rheologic parameters dependencies on
temperature were used exponential functions. Dynamic and kinematic viscosity had decreased and fluidity had increased with temperature. Highest values of dynamic viscosity were obtained for pancake dough from powder ingredients. Higher fat content of used
milk caused higher values of dynamic viscosity.
Key words: temperature, used ingredients, dynamic and kinematic viscosity, fluidity, pancake dough.
REZIME
U radu su predstavljene odabrane reološke osobine testa za palačinke: dinamička i kinematska viskoznost i tečljivost. Proučavan
je uticaj različitih faktora kao što su korišćeni sastojci i temperatura na reološka svojstva. Merenja su obavljena na tri uzorka. U dva
uzorka korišćeno je mleko sa različitim sadržajem masti, a u trećem uzorku su svi sastojci bili u praškastom stanju. Za merenje
reoloških osobina korišćen je digitalni rotacioni viskozimetar Anton Paar DV - 3P. Princip merenja viskozimetrom zasniva se na merenju otpora uzorka prema rotaciji sonde. Rezultati merenja prikazani su grafički kao zavisnosti reoloških parametara od temperature. Za sve zavisnosti reoloških parametarara od temperature korišćene su eksponencijalne funkcije. Dinamička i kinematička
viskoznost se smanjuje, a tečljivost se povećava sa povišenjem temperature. Najviše vrednosti dinamičke viskoznosti dobijene su za
testo dobijeno iz praškastih sastojaka. Veći sadržaj masti mleka izazvao je veće vrednosti dinamičke viskoznosti.
Ključne reči: temperatura, korišćeni sastojci, dinamička i kinematska viskoznost, tečljivost, testo za palačinke.
INTRODUCTION
Identification of food materials physical properties is necessary for its quality evaluation. During the processing of food materials we need to check their status step by step, in different
parts of processing. For detection of food material status we
could analyze chemical and physical properties. Chemical analyses usually take a longer time intervals than study of physical
properties. In modern physical research are often used dynamic
methods of measurements, which are quicker than static methods. By using dynamic methods we can get characteristics of
material in the short time. This fact is very important for the
practice (Božiková, Hlaváč, 2010).
This article deals with rheologic properties which are very
complicated characteristics of materials (Hlaváč, 2008, 2010;
Hlaváč, Božiková, 2011, 2012; Hlaváč et al., 2013). In paper
are presented selected theoretical basics from rheology and
rheologic measurement method. Results are presented as temperature relations of dynamic, kinematic viscosity and fluidity in
temperature range (12 – 26) °C on Fig. (1 – 6). Coefficients of
regression equations and coefficients of determination are summarized in Tab. 1 – 2.
Viscosity as one of the most important rheologic parameters
is defined as the resistance of a fluid to flow. The unit of dynamic viscosity in SI units is Pa.s. Viscosity changes with tem-
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
perature. The difference in the effect of temperature on viscosity
of fluids and gases is related to the difference in their molecular
structure. Viscosity of most of the liquids decreases with increasing temperature. Theories have been proposed regarding the effect of temperature on viscosity of liquids. According to Eyering
theory molecules of liquids continuously move into the vacancies (Bird et al., 1960).
This process permits flow but requires energy. Activation
energy is more readily audible at higher temperatures and the
fluid flows easily. The temperature effect on viscosity can be
described by an Arrhenius type equation
  0 e

EA
RT
(1)
where  0 is reference value of dynamic viscosity, E A is
activation energy, R is gas constant and T is absolute temperature (Figura and Teixeira, 2007).
Liquid molecules are closely spaced with strong cohesive
forces between them. The temperature dependence of viscosity
can also be explained by cohesive forces between the molecules
(Munson et al., 1994). As temperature increases, these cohesive
forces between the molecules decrease and flow became freer.
As a result viscosities of liquids decrease as temperature increases. In liquids, the intermolecular (cohesive) forces play an
important role. Viscosities of liquids show little dependence on
density, molecular velocity or mean free path. In most liquids,
55
Hlaváč, Peter and Božiková, Monika / Influence of Various Factors on Pancake Dough Rheologic Properties
viscosity is constant up to a pressure 10,134 MPa, but at higher
pressures viscosity increases as pressure increases (Sahin and
Sumnu, 2006).
Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as a ratio of dynamic viscosity η to density of fluid ρ at the same temperature



  Ce
  Ee
  Ae
56
 t
 B 
 to




(6)
2
3
(7)
2
3
(8)
2
t 
t 
t 
  P    Q    S    T
 t0 
 t0 
 t0 
(9)
where t is temperature, to is 1 °C, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, P, Q, S, T are constants dependent on kind of material, and on ways of processing and storing .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Temperature dependencies of dynamic viscosity for all pancake doughs are shown on Fig. 1 – 2.
240
Dynamic viscosity ; mPa.s
In our measurements we compared three types of pancake
doughs. Composition of Dough No.1 and Dough No. 2 was approximately same. Used ingredients were 2 eggs, 100 g of wheat
flour, 250 ml of milk, two spoons of sunflower oil and salt. Only
difference was in used milk. In Dough No.1 was used milk with
1.5 % of fat content and in Dough No. 2 was used milk with
3.5 % of fat content. Dough No. 3 was prepared from powder
ingredients (wheat flour, powdered milk, powdered eggs and
sugar) and mixed with 480 mL of water.
Ingredients of all three pancake doughs were properly mixed
and left for relaxation for 15 min. All three samples were mixed
also after the relaxation. Then the samples were cooled to temperature 10 °C and dynamic viscosity was measured at eight
temperatures in range (12 – 26) °C.
Measuring of dynamic viscosity was performed by digital
viscosimeter Anton Paar (DV-3P). Principle of measuring by
this viscosimeter is based on dependency of sample resistance
against the probe rotation. Probe with signification R7 was used
in our measurements. The frequency of probe rotation was 200
min-1.
Temperature dependencies of dynamic and kinematic viscosity can be described by decreasing exponential functions (4, 5)
or by power function of third degree (7, 8) and in the case of
temperature dependencies of fluidity can be used increasing exponential functions (6) or power function of third degree (9).




t 
t 
t 
   K    L    M    N
 t0 
 t0 
 t0 
(3)
MATERIAL AND METHOD
(5)
t 
t 
t 
  G    H    I    J
 t0 
 t0 
 t0 
Its unit in SI units is m2s-1. Reciprocal value of dynamic viscosity η is called fluidity φ and physical unit of fluidity is Pa-1s1.
Dough is usually made from flour (or combination of flours),
liquid components (water or milk or other dairy products), optionally eggs, fat ingredients (vegetable oils or animal fats),
sweeteners (natural or artificial, liquid or dry) and additional flavourings (salt, whey, malt, yeasts, vanilla, etc.) (Domingues and
Kirk, 2003). Properties of dough were examined by many authors. Physicochemical properties of gluten – free pancakes
made from rice and sweet potato flours were compared by Shih
et al. (2006). Effect of composition on dough was examined by
Koksel and Scanlon (2012). Chin et al. (2005) made investigation of bread doughs with different densities, salt contents and
water levels. Effect of nonpolar lipids physical state on gluten –
starch and wheat flour dough rheology and microstructure were
measured by Watanabe et al. (2002). Rheologic properties of
dough made with starch and gluten from several cereal sources
were analyzed by Petrofsky and Hoseney (1995). Rheological
behaviour of wheat gluten and starch doughs were investigated
by Yang et al. (2011).
 t
F 
 to



3
(2)
1


 t
 D 
 to
200
160
120
80
12
16
20
24
28
Temperature ; °C
Fig. 1. Temperature dependencies of dynamic
viscosity for samples Dough No. 1 + and Dough No. 2 ∆
It is possible to observe from Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 that dynamic
viscosity of pancake doughs is decreasing with increasing of
temperature. The progress can be described by decreasing exponential function, which is in accordance with Arrhenius equation
(1). Regression coefficients and coefficients of determination are
shown in Tab. 1 and in Tab. 2.
From Fig. 1 can be seen that dynamic viscosity of Dough
No. 2 is higher than viscosity of Dough No. 1. This proportion
is caused by different fat content in milk used in doughs. Used
ingredients had caused that Dough No. 3 had the highest viscosity (Fig. 2).
(4)
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Hlaváč, Peter and Božiková, Monika / Influence of Various Factors on Pancake Dough Rheologic Properties
Dynamic viscosity ; mPa.s
500
On Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are presented temperature dependencies
of kinematic viscosity for measured samples. Dependencies of
kinematic viscosity on temperature can be described also by decreasing function for all samples of dough. Regression coefficients and coefficients of determination are shown in Tab. 1 and
in Tab. 2.
The temperature dependencies of fluidity can be seen on Fig.
5 and Fig. 6. It is evident that fluidity is increasing with increasing of the temperature. Regression coefficients and coefficients
of determination are shown in Tab. 1 and in Tab. 2. Proportion
of curves in Fig. 3 – 6 can be explained in same way like for
previous Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
450
400
9
350
12
16
20
24
28
Temperature ; °C
Fig. 2. Temperature dependencies of dynamic
viscosity for sample Dough No. 3 ○
Kinematic viscosity ;
mm2/s
180
Fluidity ; 1/Pa.s
8
300
7
6
5
160
4
140
12
16
20
24
28
Temperature ; °C
Fig. 5. Temperature dependencies of fluidity for samples
Dough No. 1 + and Dough No. 2 ∆
120
3.2
12
16
20
24
28
Temperature ; °C
Fig. 3. Temperature dependencies of kinematic
viscosity for samples Dough No. 1 + and Dough No. 2 ∆
Kinematic viscosity ; mm2/s
440
Fluidity ; 1/Pa.s
100
2.8
2.4
400
2.0
360
12
16
20
24
28
Temperature ; °C
Fig. 6. Temperature dependencies of fluidity for sample
Dough No. 3 ○
320
280
12
16
20
24
28
Temperature ; °C
Fig. 4. Temperature dependencies of kinematic
viscosity for sample Dough No. 3 ○
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
It can be seen in Tab. 1 that the highest coefficients of determinations are in all measurements for sample Dough No. 3.
The smaller coefficients of determinations are in all measurements for samples Dough No. 1 and Dough No. 2. It can be concluded that only for Dough No. 3 could be used exponential
functions. And for Dough No. 1 and Dough No. 2 must be used
different function, in this case power function of third degree.
57
Hlaváč, Peter and Božiková, Monika / Influence of Various Factors on Pancake Dough Rheologic Properties
Regression coefficients and coefficients of determination are
shown in Tab. 2.
Table 1. Coefficients A, B, C, D, E, F of regression equations
(4, 5 and 6) and coefficients of determinations (R2)
Regression equations (4, 5, 6)
Coefficients
Sample of dough A [mPa.s]
B [1]
R2
No. 1
176.058
0.017 509 6
0.871 589
No. 2
241.788
0.018 377 0
0.931 841
No. 3
692.424
0.029 658 6
0.991 416
Sample of dough C [mm2.s-1]
D [1]
R2
No. 1
134.637 0.009 427 59
0.663 645
No. 2
187.274 0.009 823 79
0.797 689
No. 3
516.613
0.021 004 1
0.984 873
Sample of dough E [Pa-1.s-1]
F [1]
R2
No. 1
5. 677 37 0.017 530 9
0.873 768
No. 2
4.131 07 0.018 437 3
0.931 107
No. 3
1.447 19 0.029 561 5
0.991 929
Table 2. Coefficients G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, S, T of regression equations (7, 8 and 9) and coefficients of determinations (R2)
Regression equations (7, 8, 9)
Coefficients
Sample of dough
G [mPa.s]
H [mPa.s]
I [mPa.s]
No. 1
0.026 041 7
1.695 24
37.528 0
No. 2
0.041 193 2
2.526 14
53.045 5
Sample of dough
J [mPa.s]
R2
No. 1
401.955
0.991 358
No. 2
545.920
0.994 150
Sample of dough
K [mm2.s-1] L [mm2.s-1] M [mm2.s-1]
No. 1
0.022 875 6
1.472 65
31.433 2
No. 2
0.040 795 5
2.439 98
48.576 5
Sample of dough
N [mm2.s-1]
R2
No. 1
331.686
0.971 237
No. 2
475.114
0.979 007
Sample of dough
P [Pa-1.s-1]
Q [Pa-1.s-1] S [Pa-1.s-1]
No. 1
0.001 281 56 0.082 930 1
1.851 59
No. 2
0.001 297 35 0.077 356 5
1.593 36
Sample of dough
T [Pa-1.s-1]
R2
No. 1
5.875 15
0.988 286
No. 2
5.288 91
0.991 179
CONCLUSION
Particular properties of doughs depend mostly on the ingredients used during the production and on the used production
method. Rheological properties of doughs were measured by
many authors. Flow behaviour of the pancake slurry is important
in the pancake preparation. Batter viscosity affects the appearance, texture and sensory quality of the finished products (Shih
et al., 2005). Rheologic properties of three pancake doughs were
measured and analyzed in this paper. Effect of temperature and
also effect of used ingredients on used pancake doughs was
searched.
Temperature dependencies of all pancake doughs dynamic
and kinematic viscosity had decreasing shape and temperature
dependencies of fluidity had increasing shape (Fig. 1 – 6). For
temperature dependencies of Dough No. 3 rheologic properties
were used exponential functions (Tab. 1), which is in accordance
with Arrhenius equation (1). We found out that for Dough No. 1
and Dough No. 2 must be used different function, in this case
power function of third degree (Tab. 2). From Fig. 1 can be seen
that dynamic viscosity of Dough No. 2 is higher than viscosity
of Dough No. 1. This proportion is caused by different fat con-
58
tent in milk used in doughs. Used ingredients had caused that
Dough No. 3 had the highest viscosity.
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Accepted: 21.03.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 59-61
UDK: 635.13:66.047.55
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
ENERGY BALANCE FOR CARROT ROOT PRODUCTION AND DRYING
ENERGETSKI BILANS PROIZVODNJE I SUŠENJA KORENA MRKVE
Anđelko BAJKIN*, Ondrej PONJIČAN*, Dragi RADOMIROVIĆ*,
Ivan PAVKOV*, Mario DULIĆ**
*University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, 21000 Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića8, Serbia
**Mario DULIĆ, Agricultural farm Mario Dulić, 24213 Đurđin, Mišićevski put 16a, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Energy balance for field production and drying of carrot root, that was sowed in spring, was done in 2012. Carrot root was
grown in a field in Despotovo village and the produced yield was 69,000 kg/ha. Additional processing and drying of carrot root was
done in BAG, Joint Stock Company, a plant for vegetable drying. Total energy input starting from carrot root field production to its
drying was 425,414.75 MJ/ha, whereat field production of carrot root had a share of 12.33% (52,450.19 MJ/ha) in total energy input
and carrot drying process made 87.67% (372,964.56 MJ/ha) of total energy input. The largest energy input was for natural gas
(277,921.47MJ/ha) which was a direct energy input. Total specific energy input (EIsp) for field production of carrot root and its drying was 6.165 MJ/kg, total energy productivity (EP) was 0.162 kg/MJ and energy ratio (ER) was 0.281.
Key words: energy balance, caroot root, drying.
REZIME
Ispitivanje energetskog bilansa njivske proizvodnje mrkve, zasejane u proleće, i sušenja korena mrkve izvedeno je u proizvodnoj
2012. godini. Koren mrkve proizveden je u ataru sela Despotovo uz prinos korena od 69.000 kg/ha. Dorada i sušenje korena mrkve
izvedeno je u Bačkom Gradištu u fabrici za sušenje povrća BAG A. D. Ukupni energetski input od njivske proizvodnje korena mrkve
do osušenog proizvoda iznosi 425,414.75 MJ/ha, pri čemu ukupni energetski input za njivsku proizvodnju korena mrkve učestvuje sa
12,33% (52.450,19 MJ/ha), a sušenje korena mrkve sa 87,67% (372,964.56 MJ/ha), pri čemu najveću vrednost energetskog inputa
čini prirodni gas kao direktni energetski input (277,921.47MJ/ha). Ukupni specifični energetski input (EIsp) za njivsku proizvodnju
korena mrkve i sušenje korena mrkve iznosi 6,165 MJ/kg, ukupni stepen iskorišćenja energije (EP) 0,162 kg/MJ a energetski odnos
(ER) 0,281.
Ključne reči: energetski bilans, koren mrkve, sušenje.
INTRODUCTION
Carrot (Daucus carota) is categorized as one of ten most significant types of vegetables. It is grown for its enlarged root
which has both nutrient and therapeutic properties and is rich in
vitamin A.
Ridge cultivation is common in modern field production of
carrot. Ridge cultivation represents highly qualitative presowing
preparation of soil and it provides optimal conditions for carrot
root growing, development and high yield (Bajkin et al., 2010).
Carrot root grown for industrial processing is typically dried.
This way, carrot becomes an ingredient of various ready made
meals, spices, and it can be used in pharmaceutical industry.
There are different types of drying, depending on the heating:
convective drying at atmospheric pressure of the working fluid,
convective drying in vacuum, microwave drying, osmotic dehydration and freeze-drying by lyophilization (Babić, 2009). Besides the previously mentioned ways of drying, there is also a
combined technology for fruit and vegetable drying which uses
renewable energy sources and this involves both osmotic and
convective drying. Osmotic drying is done in water-sugar solution and convective drying is performed in dryers (Babić, et al.,
2005, Ponjičan et al., 2013a).
Numerous authors have written about the analysis of energy
balance for carrot root field production (Ponjičan et al., 2013b)
but the energy balance for postharvest technologies has not been
thoroughly studied in scientific literature. Effects of certain
technological operations can be analized by determining the
energy balance. Energy balance does not change in time, there is
possibility of eliminating critical points, it is easily calculated as
economic balance, and finally, positive energy balance confirms
economic justifiability of root carrot production (Ponjičan,
2009).
The objective of this research was to analyze all direct and
indirect energy inputs necessary for the production and drying of
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
carrot root. Analysis of energy balance and determination of critical points with respect to consumed energy provide conditions
for more efficient and energy saving technological process of
carrot root production and drying.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Energy balance for field production and drying of carrot root
that was sowed in spring was done in 2012. Carrot root was
grown in a field in Despotovo village and the produced yield
was 69.000 kg/ha. Additional processing and drying of carrot
root was done in BAG, Joint Stock Company, a plant for vegetable drying.
The technology applied in the production of carrrot root involved four tractors of different power, as well as a large number
of machinery ranging from plows, presowing cultivators, mineral fertilizer spreader and machines for ridge formation, sowing,
chemical protection, irrigation, carrot root picking and transport
to the location where it was processed and dried.
Energy balance for carrrot root production was calculated by
measuring the exploitation parameters of machinery used in the
production technology. Standard testing methods were used for
measuring working width, speed and structure of time shift
(Lazić, 1983). The obtained values were used to calculate the
exploitation parameters: indicators of time spent, aggregate
productivity and man and machine work.
Energy balance for carrot root drying is calculated by analyzing the technological procedures starting from carrot loading
on the reception plateau where carrot root is temporarily stored,
then at the reception bunker and rubber conveyor belt which
transports carrot to the washer and destoner. After stone separation carrot root is transported on conveyor belts to the steam peeler where top layer of carrot root is removed. After peeling,
brush polisher is used and then, carrot root is transported to the
inspection belt and after the inspection belt, rubber belt takes
59
Bajkin, Anđelko et al. / Energy Balance For Carrot Root Production and Drying
carrot root to the slicer which cuts carrots into slices with dimensions 10x10x3 mm. After slicing, conveyor belt transports carrot
root to blancher and through a vibrating sieve with showers carrots are sent to the belt dryer. Dryer is divided into five temperature zones. Temperature in the first zone is 86ºC, in the second
zone is 88ºC, in the third 97ºC, in the fourth 78ºC and in the fifth
zone temperature is 64ºC. After the drying process is completed
carrot is transported to the cooling basket where it is cooled
down until it reaches the storage temperature when it is sent to
calibrator. At the end of technological process 20 kg of dried
carrot is measured on automatic scale and packed in polyethylene bags.
Energy balance for field production and drying of carrot root
was determined according to the method given by OrtizCaňavate and Hernandez (1999), Đević and Dimitrijević (2009),
Refiee et al., (2010), Dimitrijević (2011), Dimitrijević et al.,
(2011), Dimitrijević et al., (2012) and Ponjičan et al., (2013b).
The method involves definition and determination of individual
direct energy inputs (DEI) and indirect energy inputs (IEI).
When doing the energy analysis a difference should be made between the inputs that are completely spent in one production
cycle and the inputs that are planned for a longer period of time,
such as the technical systems. With respect to the inputs used for
a longer period of time, energy viewed as material, production
and maintenance of technical systems should be divided to entire
period of use of those technical systems.
The energy input-ouput ratio (energy use efficiency), energy
productivity and specific energy were calculated by using the
total energy equivalent of inputs and outputs per unit (MJ/ha)
and carrot root yield (kg/ha), using the following equations (Refiee et al., 2010):
energy use efficiency (ER):
ER 
EV  G
,
EI
(–),
(1)
energy productivity (EP):
EP 
G
,
EI
(kg/MJ),
(2)
specific energy (EIsp):
EIsp 
EI
,
G
(MJ/kg),
(3)
where: G – carrot root yield (kg/ha) and EV – carrot root
energy value (1.73 MJ/kg)
(www.elements4health.com/carrots.html).
Indirect energy inputs for technical systems, equipment and
machines were determined based on energy equivalents for some
groups of technical systems (Pellizzi, 1992). Indirect energy inputs for facility where equipment was located were determined
based on the quantity of used construction material and energy
equivalents (Leslie and Jonathan, 1999; Krishnakedar, 2006;
www.kingspan.com). Total energy required for the construction
of facility where equipment for carrot root drying was installed
was divided by the life cycle of 40 year old facilities (Jovanović,
2005).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Total energy input for field production of carrot sowed in
spring was 52,450.19 MJ/ha (Table 1) out of which 23,330.36
MJ/ha or 44.48% was direct energy input and 29,119.83 MJ/ha
or 55.52% was indirect energy input. Feed had the highest energy input, 21,074.10 MJ/ha or 40.18% of total energy input, followed by transport of carrot root to the drying site which was
13,426.35 MJ/ha or 25.60%, and irrigation with 3,560.44 MJ/ha
or 6.79% energy input. Energy input for water which was used
for irrigation was 900 MJ/ha or 1.72%, which was 4,460.44
MJ/ha or 8.51% together with irrigation energy input.
60
Table 1. Total energy inputs for carrot root field production
Energy inputs:
No.
Technological
operation
1. Plowing 30 cm
2.
Cultivation
3.
Primary
fertilization
4.
Fertilizers
transport
5.
Cultivation
6. Rotary furrow
cultivation
7. Beds formation
8.
Sowing
9. Plant protection
10. Water transport
11.
Additional
fertilization (2 x)
12.
Fertilizers
transport
13.
Interrow
cultivation (2 x)
14.
Irrigation
(5 x) with 20 l/m2
15.
Removing
leaf mass
16. Carrot undremine
17.
Carrot root
transport
18.
Fertilizers
19.
Pesticides
20. Carrot seeds
21. Human labor
22. Water for plant
protection
23.
Water for
irrigation
TOTAL (DEI + IEI)
Direct energy Indirect energy Energy inputs
inputs (DEI)
inputs (IEI)
(EI)
MJ/ha
%
MJ/ha
% MJ/ha
%
1,531.09 6.56
260.98 1.12
38.30 0.16
72.40
13.54
2.52
0.25 1,603.50 3.06
0.05 274.51 0.52
0.01 40.83 0.08
0.16
3.29
0.01
260.99 1.12
1,405.88 6.03
13.54
59.41
0.05 274.52 0.52
0.20 1,465.29 2.79
38.30
41.60
0.08
937.25
944.20
177.04
177.04
76.60
4.02
4.05
0.76
0.76
0.33
51.41
73.40
16.02
14.61
5.05
0.18 988.67 1.88
0.25 1,017.60 1.94
0.06 193.05 0.37
0.05 191.64 0.37
0.02 81.65 0.16
76.60
0.33
6.59
0.02
83.19
0.16
732.57
3.14
54.68
0.19
787.24
1.50
3,371.61 14.45 188.83
431.53
1.85
47.11
0.65 3,560.44 6.79
0.16
478.64
0.91
824.78 3.54 53.17 0.18 877.95 1.67
12,045.60 51.63 1,380.75 4.74 13,426.35 25.60
-
-
-
-
21,074.10 72.37 21,074.10 40.18
2,056.50 7.06 2,056.50 3.92
1,485.00 5.10 1,485.00 2.83
1,546 5.31 1,546.83 2.95
1.08
1.08
900.00
3.09
900.00
1.72
23,330.36 100 29,119.83 100 52,450.19 100
By dividing total energy input for carrot root production (EI
= 52,450.19 MJ/ha) with produced carrot yield (G = 69,000
kg/ha) specific energy input (EIsp) of 0.760 MJ/kg was obtained,
and by dividing carrot root yield with total energy input, energy
productivity (EP) of 1.316 kg/MJ was obtained and energy ratio
(ER) was 2.276.
Total energy input for production of carrot root that was
sowed in summer was 76,435.14 MJ/ha, Ponjičan et al.,
(2013b), out of which 41,636.91 MJ/ha or 54.47% were direct
energy inputs and 34,798.23 MJ/ha or 45.53% were indirect
energy inputs. Same authors wrote that the highest energy input
of 25,078.52 MJ/ha (32.81%) was recorded for irrigation which
was even higher, 31,378.52 MJ/ha (41.05%), if energy value of
water was included. This was the consequence of frequent irrigation (35 times during the vegetation period) and Ponjičan et al.
(2013b) also wrote that frequent irrigation was the consequence
of sowing in June and July when soil and air temperatures were
high which complicated carrot germination, sprouting and
growth. Total energy input for field production of carrot root
sowed in spring (52,450.19 MJ/ha) was lower by 45.73% in
comparison to carrot root sowed in summer (76,435.14 MJ/ha).
Most influential factors were low energy inputs for water and
irrigation and they were 5.62 times lower for spring sowing in
comparison to summer sowing. Ponjičan et al., (2013b) wrote
that carrot root sowed in summer produced a yield of 50,000
kg/ha, and specific energy input (EIsp) was 1.529 MJ/kg, energy
productivity (EP) was 0.654 kg/MJ and energy ratio (ER) was
2.276. When compared to the production technology applied for
carrot root that was sowed in summer, sowing of carrot in spring
gave about two times lower specific energy input (EIsp) and
energy productivity (EP) but the energy ratio was doubled.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Bajkin, Anđelko et al. / Energy Balance For Carrot Root Production and Drying
Total energy input for carrot root drying was 372,964.56
MJ/ha (Table 2). Direct energy input of that value was
355,195.83 MJ/ha or 95.23%, and indirect energy input was
17,768.73 MJ/ha or 4.77%. The highest individual energy input
was calculated for natural gas which was used for carrot root
drying and it was 277,921.47 MJ/ha or 74.52% of total energy
input, followed by electricity, 73.600 MJ/ha or 19.73%, which
was used for processing equipment, and water used for washing
and additional processing of carrot root which energy input was
9.200 MJ/ha or 2.47%. Huge difference between direct and indirect energy inputs is the consequence of high quantity of natural
gas used in the process of carrot root drying (226 m3/h).
Table 2. Total direct and indirect energy inputs for carrot
root drying
Energy inputs:
Direct energy inputs, DEI:
Diesel fuel (transport)
Electricity (processing equipment)
Natural gas (drying)
LPG (transport)
Total direct energy inputs, DEI
Indirect energy inputs, IEI
Equipment and machines
Building
Washing water
Packaging
Human labor
Total indirect energy inputs, IEI
TOTAL (DEI + IEI)
MJ/ha
%
3,626.21
73,600.00
277,921.47
48.15
355,195.83
0.97
19.73
74.52
0.01
95.23
4,929.18
1,121.87
9,200.00
770.92
1,746.76
17,768.73
372,964.56
1.32
0.30
2.47
0.21
0.47
4.77
100.00
By dividing total energy input for carrot root drying (EI =
372,964.56 MJ/ha) with produced yield (G = 69,000 kg/ha), specific energy input (EIsp) of 5.405 MJ/kg was obtained. By dividing the obtained carrot root yield with total energy input, energy
productivity (EP) of 0.185 kg/MJ was obtained and energy ratio
for carrot root drying (ER) was 0.320. Total energy input for carrot root, starting from its production to drying, was 425,414.75
MJ/ha out of which total energy input for field production was
52,450.19 MJ/ha (12.33%). Total energy input for carrot root
drying was 372,964.56 MJ/ha or 87.67%, and natural gas had the
highest energy input of 277,921.47MJ/ha or 74.52%. Total specific energy input (EIsp) for carrot root production and drying
was 6.165 MJ/kg, total energy productivity (EP) was 0.162
kg/MJ and energy ratio (ER) was 0.281.
CONCLUSION
Total energy input for production of carot root sowed in
spring is 52,450.19 MJ/ha. The highest individual energy input
was observed with mineral feed, 21,074.10 MJ/ha or 40.18% of
total energy input, followed by transport of carrot to the drying
site, 13,426.35 MJ/ha or 25.60%, and irrigation 3,560.44 MJ/ha
or 6.79%. Specific energy input (EIsp) for field production of
carrot root is 0.760 MJ/kg, energy prodctivity (EP) is 1.316
kg/MJ, and energy ratio (ER) is 2.276. Total energy input for
carrot root drying is 372,964.56 MJ/ha. Out of total energy input, natural gas used for carrot drying had the highest individual
energy input, 277,921.47 MJ/ha or 74.52%, then the electricity,
73.600 MJ/ha or 19.73%, which was used for processing equipment, and water used for washing and additional processing of
carrot root which energy input was 9.200 MJ/ha or 2.47%. Huge
difference between direct and indirect energy inputs was the
consequence of high quantity of natural gas used in the process
of carrot root drying (226 m3/h). Total energy input for carrot
root, from its production to drying, is 425,414.75 MJ/ha out of
which total energy input for carrot root field production is
12.33% (52,450.19 MJ/ha), for carrot drying 87.67%
(372,964.56 MJ/ha), and natural gas, as direct energy input has
the highest value (277,921.47MJ/ha). Total specific energy input
(EIsp) for carrot root field production and drying is 6.165 MJ/kg,
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
total energy productivity (EP) is 0.162 kg/MJ and energy ratio
(ER) is 0.281.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The research presented in this paper was financied by the Ministry of Education, Science and
Technological Development, Republic of Serbia. Grant No TR
31058, 2011-2014.
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Received: 20.01.2014.
Accepted:28.01.2014.
61
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 62-64
UDK: 631.559633.15:
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
YIELD OF Miscanthus×giganteus DURING CROP ESTABLISHMENT
AT TWO LOCATIONS IN SERBIA
PRINOS Miscanthus×giganteus, GAJENOG NA DVE LOKACIJE U
SRBIJI U FAZI ZASNIVANJA USEVA
*
Željko DŽELETOVIĆ*, Jelena MAKSIMOVIĆ**, Iva ŽIVANOVIĆ***
University of Belgrade, INEP - Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy, Banatska 31-b, 11080 Zemun, Serbia
**
Institute of Soil Science, T. Drajzera 7, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
***
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Zemun, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Miscanthus (Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deu.) represents one of the best sources for low input bioenergy production in Europe. Miscanthus is a rhizomatous perennial C4 grass with a long life-span (15-20 years). It is harvested each year and is characterized with very high potential yield. In this field trial, we compared miscanthus yields from two different soil types in the vicinity of
Belgrade: leached chernozem and eutric cambisol. The crop establishment phase lasted 2 years, after which maximum yield was
reached in the third season of growing. In the first season of growing, a relatively low yield of aboveground biomass was obtained
(0.45-1.33 t dry matter ha-1, for the harvest at the beginning of October). In the first two years of growing, a considerably higher
yield was produced by the crop on cambisol than by that on chernozem. However, from the third season on, a higher and more uniform yield was obtained from the crop on chernozem. The average yield losses from the harvest in October till the harvest in February due to leaf shedding and falling of stem tops was 33-38%.
Key words: Miscanthus yield, bioenergy crop, leached chernozem, eutric cambisol.
REZIME
Miskanthus (Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deu.) je rizomatozna višegodišnja C4 trava, koja predstavlja jedan od najboljih izvora niskog inputa za proizvodnju bioenergije u Evropi. Visoko je perzistentna i dugovečna (15-20 godina). Žanje se svake godine i odlikuje se veoma visokim potencijalom prinosa biomase. U našem poljskom ogledu upoređeni su prinosi miskantusa na dva različita
tipa zemljišta u okolini Beograda: (I) izluženi černozem (Zemun), koji se smatra visoko produktivnim zemljištem; i (II) eutrični kambisol (Ralja), koji se smatra nisko produktivnim zemljištem. Faza zasnivanja useva traje 2 godine, nakon čega se u trećoj godini gajenja dostiže maksimalan prinos. U prvoj godini gajenja miskantus proizvodi relativno nizak prinos nadzemne biomase (na
černozemu 0,45 t suve materije ha-1, a na kambisolu 1,33 t s.m. ha-1, za žetvu izvedenu početkom oktobra). Usev na kambisolu prve
dve godine gajenja proizvodi znatno viši prinos nego usev na černozemu. Međutim, od treće godine usev na černozemu proizvodi viši
i ujednačeniji prinos (27,5-37,5 t s.m. ha-1 za žetvu izvedenu početkom oktobra), nego na kambisolu (15,5-25,7 t s.m. ha-1 za žetvu izvedenu početkom oktobra). Ispoljene razlike u visini prinosa preporučuju gajenje miskantusa na plodnijem zemljištu (černozem).
Prosečan gubitak prinosa od žetve u oktobru do žetve u februaru nastao opadanjem lišća i vrhova stabala iznosi 33-38%.
Ključne reči: prinos miskantusa, bioenergetski usev, izluženi černozem, eutrični kambisol.
INTRODUCTION
Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu.) is identified as one of the best options for low input bioenergy production in Europe (Khanna et al., 2008). It is a non-invasive perennial grassy crop for biomass production, one which possesses
very good quality for combustion and whose entire aboveground
biomass can be utilized as energy raw material. Miscanthus is a
very tall grass, with a long-life span (15-20 years). It is harvested
every year and has a very high potential yield, which is the basic
pre-requisite for economic bioenergy production (Dželetović et
al., 2013а). Due to efficient biomass production, this grass can
have an important role in sustainable agricultural production of
fuel biomass in the near future (Ericsson et al., 2009).
In Serbia comparatively good agroecological conditions for
miscanthus cultivation are present. The area under miscanthus is
continuously expanding. Nowadays in addition to marginal and
less productive soils the production on highly productive soils is
increasing so that the higher profit can be obtained. At present,
miscanthus in Serbia is cultivated in plains and river valleys at
lower altitudes on various soil types (Dželetović et al., 2013а).
Harvesting of miscanthus is performed once a year by mowing the entire aboveground biomass. Frequent mowing exhausts
and destroys the crop (Dragoni et al., 2011). Experiments carried out in Serbia, showed that the largest aboveground biomass
was formed by miscanthus during September in northern
Šumadija (Dželetović et al., 2009а) and at the beginning of October, in lowland Srem (Živanović et al., 2013). At the time of
maximum biological yield, the crop is green and its moisture
62
content high. Miscanthus biomass harvested at the end of September or at the beginning of October can be used as raw material for biogas production (Dragoni et al., 2011). By delaying the
harvest after that period, biomass quality for combustion is improved due to reduction of moisture content and content of undesired biomass components (Mos et al., 2013). Late harvest at
moisture content <30% is recommended first of all for economic
reasons because the cost of harvest and biomass drying increases
with miscanthus moisture content. However, delaying the harvest causes biomass losses due to leaf shedding and falling of
stem tops. The decrease in yield from the time of formation of
maximum aboveground biomass until the time of harvest at the
end of February differs from year to year. Deciding the date of
harvest represents a compromise between the yield that can be
harvested and the quality thereof (Miguez et al., 2008). In addition to this, optimal harvest dates may vary from region to region, depending on weather conditions. Delaying the harvest period has the most pronounced effect at locations where there is a
high potential of dry biomass yield. In the agroecological conditions of Serbia, intense and abundant rainfall during autumn and
winter can soak a crop, but the crop drying process in spite of
this transpires during intervals without rainfall (Živanović et al.,
2013).
The aim of our study was to compare miscanthus yields obtained in the crop establishment phase on two different soil types
under agroecological conditions of the wider surroundings of
Belgrade, Serbia. For comparing the yield, two harvest periods
were selected: the harvest at the beginning of October, when
maximum biomass yield was obtained; and the harvest in the
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Dželetović, Željko et al. / Yield of Miscanthus×Giganteus During Crop Establishment at Two Locations in Serbia
middle of February, when high-quality biomass yield was obtained for combustion in boilers.
a long drought in 2008, with regular occurrence of heat waves
during the summer, when maximal temperatures were >35ºC for
several days in succession, very likely induced drying and decay
MATERIAL AND METHOD
of the still very shallow root system in the first year of cultivaThe experiment was performed in the middle of May 2008 at tion. Frequent irrigation during the summer ensured only maintwo locations in the surroundings of Belgrade under agroecolog- tenance of the crop because growth during the drought was
ical conditions of moderate-continental climate. Field trials were slower, and high summer temperatures.
In the first two years of growing on cambisol, a considerably
established at two locations in the vicinity of Belgrade: Zemun
(44°51’N, 20°22’E, 82 m a.s.l.) and Ralja (44°34’N, 20°34’E, higher biomass yield was obtained than on chernozem. In the
190 m a.s.l.). According to the FAO system of soil classification second year of growing the miscanthus biomass yield was 6.05 t
-1
-1
(FAO, 1983), the Zemun soil is a leached chernozem formed on d.m. ha on chernozem and 10.37 t d.m. ha on cambisol for the
performed at the beginning of October and 4.48 t d.m.
loess, while the Ralja soil is a eutric cambisol formed on lake harvest
-1
-1
sediments, lessived. The most important chemical characteristics ha and 7.68 t d.m. ha , respectively for the harvest performed
in February (Table 2). In relation to the result obtained in the
are given in Table 1.
Trial plots measuring 5×4 m2, were randomTable 2. Average yields of miscanthus cultivated on two different soil types
ly placed at each location in three replications. (t d.m. ha-1 ± Standard deviations)
The experimental crop was established by plantChernozem (Zemun)
Cambisol (Ralja)
Aver. yield loss from
Years
ing vital rhizomes a depth of 10 cm, on preof
Harvest in Harvest in Harvest in Harvest in the harvest in Oct.
viously prepared land. A planting density of 2
breeding
October
February
October
February till the harvest in Feb.
rhizomes
I (2008/09) 0.45±0.12a* 0.34±0.09a 1.33±1.07b 1.01±0.79b
33%
-2
m is considered by Lewandowski et al. (2000)
II (2009/10) 6.05±1.35 a 4.48±1.00a 10.37±8.72b 7.68±6.46b
35%
and Miguez et al. (2008) to be the optimal plant- III (2010/11) 27.50±1.71a 20.22±1.26b 21.08±12.95c 15.50±9.52c
36%
ing density for miscanthus. Only in the first IV (2011/12) 38.47±0.60a 28.29±0.44b 25.69±8.90c 18.89±6.54c
36%
growing season (the year was 2008) the crop irV (2012/13) 30.17±1.86a 21.86±1.35b 15.54±4.38c 11.26±3.18c
38%
rigated according to need, with the aim of proAver. III-V 32.05±1.39a 23.46±1.02b 20.77±8.74c 15.22±6.41d
36%
viding sufficient quantity of water in the soil for *Values followed by the same letter within rows are not significantly different ccording to
growth and development of the planted rhi- Fisher’s protected LSD values; LSD – least significant difference at P  0.05.
0.05
zomes. Fertilization was performed every year
-1
-1
first
year,
the
biomass
yield thus increased approximately 13by the application of 100 kg N hа , 100 kg P2О5 ha and 100 kg
К2О hа-1 immediately before the appearance of shoots (1st to fold for the crop grown on chernozem and 8-fold for the one
grown on cambisol. In the second year, Riche et al. (2008) ob10th April).
tained a yield that was similar to ours, but in a slightly more liTable 1. Chemical properties of the soils
mited range, i.e. from 1.78 to 3.53 t d.m. ha-1.
Total
Available Available
pH
Maximum biomass yields of miscanthus were obtained in the
Soil type
Total
organic
P2O5
K2O
H2O KCl C (%) N (%) (mg/100g) (mg/100g)
third year of growing. From the third year on, the crop on chernozem produced both a higher and a more even yield (27.5-37.5
Chernozem
6.7 5.5 1.71 0.141
6.0
17.8
t d.m. ha-1 for the harvest performed at the beginning of October)
Eutric cambisol 5.3 4.2 1.38 0.114
5.0
11.8
than the one on cambisol (15.5-25.7 t d.m. ha-1 for that harvest).
The crop was harvest in two periods: at the beginning of OcFull establishment of miscanthus stands is usually achieved from
tober, when the maximum biomass yield was obtained, and in the second to fifth year, depending on climatic conditions. The
the middle of February. The first half of each trial plot was maximum yield is generally reached during the second year in
mowed at the beginning of October and the second half in Feb- South Europe, but not until the fifth year in Northern Europe
ruary. After the harvest, the crop was air dried to relatively sta- (Clifton-Brown et al., 2001). Our experiment in Serbia was conble moisture content (10-14%), and the dry mass yield was then ducted in a region of middle latitudes (44-45°N), with the result
measured (d.m.). The yields obtained at the two locations were that maximum yields were obtained in the third year of growing.
analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the effect was
Comparison with numerous published data on miscanthus
determined according to Fischer's least significant difference biomass yield indicates that we obtained relatively high average
procedure. Meteorological data were obtained from the Meteoro- yields on chernozem in the period from the 3rd to 5th year of
logical Yearbooks (Republic Hydrometeorological Service of growing (23.46 t d.m. ha-1 for the harvest performed in FebruSerbia).
ary). On the other hand, no more than usual miscanthus yields
(15.22 t d.m. ha-1 for the harvest performed in February) were
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
obtained on cambisol in the period from the 3rd to 5th year of
In the first year emergence of shoots and initial growth were growing. In countries situated at lower latitudes (Greece and Itauneven. At the beginning of October, relatively low yield of ly), higher yields were obtained due to the longer growing seabiomass (0.45 t d.m. ha-1) was produced on chernozem, while the son and higher temperatures, while in countries at higher latiyield on cambisol was 1.33 t d.m. ha-1. For the harvest per- tudes (Denmark, England, Germany, Ireland and the Netherformed in February, the obtained yields were 0.34 t d.m. ha-1 on lands) lower yields are due to the shorter growing season (Michernozem and 1.01 t d.m. ha-1 on cambisol (Table 2). For the guez et al., 2008). According to Price et al. (2004), variable
harvest performed in February-March, Riche et al. (2008) ob- space (area) and weather conditions result in yields that vary
tained biomass yields of 0.24-0.42 t d.m. ha-1 in the first year. from 7 to 24 tons hа-1. For example, according to Lewandowski
Schwarz et al. (1994) cultivated miscanthus at 11 locations in and Schmidt (2006), the miscanthus biomass yield varies beGermany and in the first year obtained a yield that was in the tween 8 and 38 t d.m. ha-1 at different locations. They obtained
range of 0.1-3.7 t ha-1. We assume that the main cause of low the lowest and the highest miscanthus biomass yields on the
yields in the first year is the undeveloped root system of miscan- same type of soil, on the haplic luvisol, but at different locations,
whereas on gleyosol they obtained average yields. Mishra et al.
thus (Dželetović et al., 2013аb).
Relatively favorable climatic-weather conditions, with an (2013) consider that sustainable production will be economically
average annual temperatures from 11.7°C (Zemun) and 10.7°C justifiable if the miscanthus yield is >10 tons hа-1 per year with(Ralja); and enough annual amount of precipitation, with an av- out additional irrigation, the average annual yield being 13 tons
-1
erage 669 mm (Zemun) and 649 mm (Ralja), doesn't represent hа in croplands of the USA croplands. It is considered that sealimiting factors for succesfully growing mischantus. Meantime, sonal differences in miscanthus biomass yields are mainly a re-
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
63
Dželetović,Željko et al. / Yield of Miscanthus×Giganteus During Crop Establishment at Two Locations in Serbia
sult of water stress (Price et al., 2004; Dželetović et al., 2013b).
With appropriate nitrogen supply, the highest yield increase is
obtained when water is not a limiting factor. The level of water
supply from precipitation has a strong effect on the formation of
miscanthus aboveground biomass yields in agroecological conditions in the wider surroundings of Belgrade (Dželetović et al.,
2013b). A statistically significant difference between the soil
types was recorded in the 5th year of cultivation, when the yield
on chernozem was higher. In our experiment, the yield loss from
the harvest at the beginning of October until the harvest in February due to leaf shedding and falling of stem tops was 33-38%;
36% on the average for the first 5 years of growing (Table 2). In
Serbia, the pattern of miscanthus harvest biomass decrease during autumn and winter established by Dželetović et al. (2009b)
was identical to that in the Netherlands as stated by Lewandowski et al. (2000). At two locations in Northern Ireland, Easson et
al. (2011) obtained an autumn yield of 18-20 t d.m. ha-1 in the
fourth year of growing, while the yield of 11-12 t d.m. ha-1 recorded in the early spring indicates losses of about 35% during
the winter. Climatic-meteorological conditions during the autumn and winter are what mostly affect the value of yield losses,
and they can differ from year to year (Lewandowski et al., 2000).
Fallen leaves and stem tops for the most part remain on the plot
on which miscanthus is grown and thereby contribute to the input of organic matter and nutrients in the soil under the miscanthus stand (Christian et al., 2008; Dželetović, 2012).
CONCLUSION
Very low yields of miscanthus biomass were obtained by us
in the first season of growing on two different soil types in the
agroecological conditions of the wider surroundings of Belgrade.
Maximum yields of miscanthus biomass were obtained in the
third year of growing. From the third year on, the crop on chernozem produced both a higher and a more even yield than the
one on cambisol. Upon reaching maximum yields (from the 3rd
to 5th year of growing) on chernozem, which is a highly productive type of soil, relatively high average yields were obtained in
our experiment. One the other hand, no more than usual miscanthus yields were on cambisol, which is a less productive type of
soil. The yield loss due to leaf shedding and falling of stem tops
from the harvest in October, when the crop forms the maximum
yield of biomass, until the harvest in February, when highquality biomass for combustion is formed, ranged from 33 to
38%; 36% on the average for 5 years of growing.
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UDK: 546.62:621.774.6
Expert Paper
Stručni rad
FLEXIBLE ALUMINIUM DUCTS AIR TIGHTNESS TESTING
PROVERA ZAPTIVENOSTI FLEKSIBILNIH ALUMINIJUMSKIH CEVI
*
Siniša BIKIĆ*, Maša BUKUROV*, Bojan MARKOVIĆ*, Ivan PAVKOV**, Milivoj RADOJČIN**
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, Serbia
**
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRAKT
The scope of the research presented in this paper are aluminum flexible ducts which have a wide application in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and process engineering. Aluminum flexible ducts consist of several alternating layers of aluminum and polyester and steel wire bent into a spiral, while the merger of layers is done using glue. The loss of energy in the air stream through
the aluminum flexible duct is due to friction of air stream and air leakage through the walls of the duct. In order to reduce energy
consumption after the installation of the ducts it is needed to check mechanical properties of aluminum flexible ducts right after manufacture. Checking of the mechanical characteristics of aluminum flexible ducts is done according to recommendations of standard
(EN 13180, 2002). Within the standard for testing mechanical properties of aluminum flexible ducts it is predicted to check tightness
of ducts and to grade duct quality from the point of tightness. The aim of this paper is to present the air tightness testing of ducts and
grade duct quality from the point of tightness with proposed methodology. Testing of the samples is shown for the following aluminum flexible duct diameters: 82 mm, 102 mm, 203 mm, 315 mm and 356 mm. The proposed methodology does not take into account
that the heated air in the duct could potentially affect the tightness of bonded layers of the duct wall. For this reason in the future is
recommended to test air tightness of ducts with heated air at different temperatures, in order to see the effect of the air temperature
on the tightness.
Key words: aluminum flexible tube, tube leaks, energy loss.
REZIME
Predmet rada su aluminijumske fleksibilne cevi koje imaju veoma široku primenu u grejanju, ventilaciji, klimatizaciji i procesnom
inženjerstvu. Aluminijumske fleksibilne cevi izrađuju se u nekoliko naizmeničnih slojeva aluminijuma i poliestera i čelične žice savijene u spiralu. Kroz zidove cevi dolazi do curenja vazduha na mestu spajanja slojeva, kao i kroz sam materijal zida cevi usled njegove poroznosti. Curenje vazduha iz sistema dovodi do gubitka energije, pa je potrebno da proizvođači cevi u okviru same proizvodnje urade kontrolu kvaliteta cevi sa stanovišta njene zaptivenosti. U tom duhu je Evropska Unija 2002. godine donela standard
EN 13180 kojim se preporučuje metodologija provere mehaničkih karakteristika cevi. U okviru navedenog standarda preporučena je
i metodologija provere zaptivenosti cevi kao i ocena njenog kvaliteta sa stanovišta zaptivenosti. Cilj rada bio je da se prikaže realizacija ispitivanja zaptivenosti cevi predloženom metodologijom i ocena kvaliteta cevi sa stanovišta zaptivenosti. Za potrebe ispitivanja
korišćena je eksperimentalna metoda i uzorci cevi sledećih prečnika: 82mm, 102mm, 203mm, 315mm i 356mm. Predložena metodologija ne uzima u obzir da zagrejan vazduh u cevi potencijalno može da utiče na zaptivenost lepljenih slojeva zida cevi. Iz tog razloga se predlaže da se u budućnosti uradi ispitivanje zaptivenosti cevi nakon zagrevanja cevi na različitim temperaturama, kako bi se
video uticaj temperature vazduha na zaptivenost cevi.
Ključne reči: aluminijumske fleksibilne cevi, zaptivenost cevi, gubitak energije.
INTRODUCTION
The scope of the research presented in this paper are aluminum flexible ducts which have a wide application in heating,
ventilation, air conditioning and process engineering. Aluminum
flexible ducts consist of several alternating layers of aluminum
and polyester and steel wire bent into a spiral, while the merger
of layers is done using glue.
Aluminium flexible ducts due to their flexibility have a
number of advantages over air distribution channels, such as:
easy bending, stretching and compression of the duct in the
space, a simple installation, easy transport and storage and less
weight. However, the flexibility of the ducts brings two major
deficiencies compared to air distribution channels: greater energy loss and increased noise at air flow. Due to these shortcomings aluminum flexible ducts are mainly used as short connections of terminal units (diffusers and grilles) to the main canal. In
most EU countries it is not even allowed the use aluminum flexible ducts in lengths greater than 1.5 m.
The loss of energy in the air stream through the aluminum
flexible duct is due to friction of air stream and air leakage
through the walls of the duct. The leakage of air through the wall
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
of the duct occurs at connecting points as well as through the
pores of the material of the duct.
Great attention is recently paid to determination of how
much a compressed aluminum flexible duct has a greater pressure drop than the maximum stretched one. Abushakra et al.
(2004) have demonstrated experimentally that in the medium
compressed duct, which is typical for the installation, a pressure
drop can be increased by four times, while the further compressing can increase a pressure drop up to ten times. Weaver and
Culp (2007) experimentally determined the pressure drops in
ducts of diameters 6', 8' and 10' for different degrees of compression. Culp and Cantrill (2009) have repeated the same experimental research for ducts of diameters: 12', 14' and 16'. The authors of this study found that the pressure drop at different degrees of duct compression is higher than those obtained by ACCA (1995) and ASHRAE (2005). Ugursal and Culp (2007)
compared the pressure drops obtained by computational fluid
dynamics and experiment with different degrees of duct compression. They found that a good comply of the data were obtained for 30% degree of compression of aluminum flexible
duct. Poor mechanical properties of aluminum flexible ducts
may increase resistance of air flow through the duct and increase
65
Bikić,Siniša et al. / Flexible Aluminium Ducts Air Tightness Testing
the leakage of air through the duct walls. For this reason, in or- mined which of the rotameters (11) is sensitive, than the valve
der to reduce energy consumption after the installation of the (13) on rotameter set the air pressure in the test duct according to
ducts, it is needed to check mechanical properties of aluminum showing of differential pressure gauge (4). Five minutes after the
flexible ducts right after manufacture. However, even a duct pressure is set and when the flow is settled and the system is stawith good mechanical characteristics can be damaged and a sig- bilized, the value of the adjusted pressure pm and flow of air Q
nificant leakage of air through the duct wall can appear. If the through the duct wall (1) are measured. Air tightness testing of
duct wall is damaged then there are methods that are used to stop ducts was performed with the step of test pressure of: 200 Pa,
the leakage and the duct can be used on (Szwedzicki and De- 500 Pa, 1000 Pa and >1000 Pa (EN 13180, 2002).
lahunty, 2000).
Checking of the mechanical
characteristics of aluminum flexible ducts is done according to
recommendations of standard
(EN 13180, 2002). Within the
Fig. 1. Installation for duct air leakage testing
standard for testing mechanical
properties of aluminum flexible ducts it is predicted to check
tightness of ducts and to grade duct quality from the point of
tightness. The aim of this paper is to present the air tightness
testing of ducts and grade duct quality from the point of tightness with proposed methodology. Testing of the samples is
shown for the following aluminum flexible duct diameters: 82
mm, 102 mm, 203 mm, 315 mm and 356 mm.
Nomenclature:
A (m2) – duct envelope area
d (m) – duct nominal diameter
f (L/m3s) – air leakage factor
fmax (L/m3s) – maximal air leakage factor
l (m) – duct length
pm (Pa) – gauge pressure
Q (L/s) – flow rate
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The duct testing of air tightness is performed on the test installation shown in Figures 1 and 2. Air tightness testing is carried out at ambient conditions, at a temperature of 20 C. Test
samples of the following aluminum flexible duct diameters: 82
mm, 102 mm, 203 mm, 315 mm and 356 mm were cut out of the
ducts at length of 5 m. To the ends of the duct (1) are placed
caps (2). A layer of silicone and clip carriers (3) enables air
tightness. Three-level caps (2) can be used for testing air tightness of ducts with three different nominal diameters.
Right cap is attached to the air stream of positive pressure,
while the left cap is attached to one end of differential pressure
gauge (4). The pressure in the reservoir (6) is adjusted on the
control cabinet (5) and then the compressor (7) is turned on. After reaching the desired pressure in the tank pm1 (6), the compressor (7) is turned off. Pressure regulator, located in the preparatory group (8), is used to adjust the air pressure in front of the air
flow meter (9), and then the valve (10) is opened.
Flowmeter (9) consists of four in-parallel connected rotameters (11). Flowmeters (11) have different measuring ranges and
cover a measuring range of air flow through the wall of the test
ducts. In front and after each rotameter (11) are placed taps (12),
which are used for putting into operation each rotameter individually. There are valves (13) on flowmeters, which are used to
adjust the air pressure in the test duct (1) according to reading of
the differential pressure gauge (4).
When the pressure regulator, located in the preparatory
group (8), has adjusted the air pressure in front of the flowmeter
(9), thanks to taps (12) certain rotameters (11) are included and
excluded in order to see which rotameter is sensitive for air flow
measuring through the wall of test duct (1). Once it is deter-
66
Fig. 2. Equipment used for air tightness testing and tightness
grading
On the bases of measured air flow rate the duct air leakage
factor was determined as (EN 13180, 2002):
f 
Q,
A
(1)
where are:
Q – volumetric air flow rate [L/s] and
A – duct envelope area [m2].
Duct envelope area is defined as:
A  d  pl
(2)
where are:
d – duct nominal diameter [m] and
l – duct length [m]
Calculated air leakage factor is compared to maximal air leakage factor at measured pressure and duct is classified into one
of three classes defined in Table 1.
Note: The minimum value of the air tightness factor has duct
class C, and the maximum value has the air tightness class A.
From the air tightness point of view the best duct belongs to
class C.
Table 1. Air tightness classes (EN 13180, 2002)
Air tightness class
fmax [L/m2s]
А
0.027  pm0.65
B
0.009  pm0.65
C
0.003  pm0.65
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Bikić,Siniša et al. / Flexible Aluminium Ducts Air Tightness Testing
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
In Tables 2 to 6 are presented results of ducts air tightness
testing for standard air conditions. By comparison of air tightness factor f gained by measuring parameters at room temperature of 20 C with maximal air tightness factor fmax it was concluded that all tested ducts belonged to air tightness class C.
Table 2. Results of air tightness testing of duct 82
А
B
C
pm
[Pa]
Q
[L/s]
A
[m2]
f
[L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
193
0.005
1.3388
0.00373
0.8259
0.2753
0.0917
400
0.0091
1.3388
0.00684
1.3264
0.4421
0.1473
1055
0.02
1.3388
0.01493
2.4915
0.8305
0.2768
2101
0.0416
1.3388
0.03112
3.8988
1.2996
0.4332
Air tightness class
Table 3. Results of air tightness testing of duct 102
Air tightness class
A
B
pm
[Pa]
Q
[L/s]
A
[m2]
502
0.00014
f
fmax
fmax
[L/m2s] [L/m2s] [L/m2s]
8.406110
1.6654
1.5375 0.5125
-5
1100
0.00033
1.6654
1520
0.00072
0.000201
2.5601
1
0.000432
1.6654
31590
3
C
fmax
[L/m2s]
0.1708
0.8533
0.2844
1.0530
0.3510
Air tightness class
B
C
f
fmax
[L/m2s] [L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
0.0583
3.3145 0.01759 0.9387
0.3129
0.1043
434
0.1
3.3145 0.03016 1.3987
0.4662
0.1554
980
0.1833
3.3145 0.05531 2.3749
0.7916
0.2638
1390
0.25
3.3145 0.07542 2.9807
0.9935
0.3311
Q
[L/s]
235
A
[m2]
A
Table 5. Results of air tightness testing of duct 315
Air tightness class
pm
[Pa]
Q
[L/s]
A
[m2]
f
[L/m2s]
A
B
C
fmax
[L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
335
0.000166 5.1433 3.240410-5
1.1820
0.3940
0.1313
515
0.000305 5.1433 5.9300 10-5
1.5632
0.5210
0.1736
975
0.000796 5.1433 0.0001548
2.3671
0.7890
0.2630
1345 0.004666 5.1433 0.0009073
2.9176
0.9725
0.3241
Table 6. Results of air tightness testing of duct 356
Air tightness class
pm
[Pa]
Q
[L/s]
A
[m2]
A
B
C
fmax
[L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
fmax
[L/m2s]
-5
f
[L/m2s]
230
0.000181 5.8127 3.125310
0.9257
0.3085
0.1028
600
0.001666 5.8127
0.0002867
1.7264
0.5754
0.1918
1110 0.005166 5.8127
0.0008888
2.5752
0.8584
0.2861
1470
0.0012902
3.0911
1.0303
0.3434
0.0075
5.8127
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:This paper is a result of the research within the project TR31058, 2011-2014, supported by
the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of
Serbia.
REFERENCES
Table 4. Results of air tightness testing of duct 203
pm
[Pa]
In this paper is described ducts air tightness testing and grading of ducts quality from the point of tightness according to methodology proposed in standard EN13180. The experimental research was presented on samples of aluminum flexible ducts of 5
m in length and of the following diameters: 82 mm, 102 mm,
203 mm, 315 mm and 356 mm. Testing was conducted at room
temperature of 20 C. The results showed that all of the samples
of investigated aluminum flexible ducts have the highest tightness class C.
The proposed methodology does not take into account that
the heated air in the duct could potentially affect the tightness of
bonded layers of the duct wall. For this reason in the future is
recommended to test air tightness of ducts with heated air at different temperatures, in order to see the effect of the air temperature on the tightness. If it is determined that the air temperature
affects the coefficient of duct tightness, then the equations for
determination of maximum coefficient of tightness should be
adjusted so that not only pressure is taken into account but the
temperature as well.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Abushakra, B., Walker, I. S., Sherman, M. H., (2004).
Compression Effects on Pressure Loss in Flexible HVAC
Ducts. International Journal of Heating, Ventilating, AirConditioning and Refrigeration Research, 10, (3), 275 – 289,
ISSN 0001-2491.
Culp, C. H., Weaver, K. E., Cantrill, D. E., (2007). Static
Pressure Losses in Nonmetalic Flexible Ducts, ASHRAE Final
Report RP-1333.
Culp, C., and Cantrill. D., (2009). Pressure losses in 12’, 14’,
and 16’ non-metallic flexible ducts with compression and sag.
ASHRAE Transactions. 115, (1), 622 – 628, ISSN 0001-2505.
ACCA, (1995). Residential Duct Systems. Manual D. Air
Conditioning Contractors of America. Washington, DC.
ASHRAE, (2005). 2005 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers, Inc.
Ugursal, A., Culp, C., (2007). Comparative Analysis of CFD P
vs. Measured P for Compressed Flexible Ducts, ASHRAE
Transactions, DA-07-049.
EN 13180, (2002). Ventilation for buildings. Ductwork.
Dimensions and mechanical requirements for flexible ducts.
Szwedzicki, T., Delahunty, D., (2000). Elimination of air
leakage through flexible ducting, Mineral Resources
Engineering,. 9, (3), 335 – 342, ISSN 0950-6098.
Received: 26.02.2014.
Accepted: 21.03.2014.
67
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 68-72
UDK: 531.3
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
MICROWAVE DRYING KINETICS OF BANANA (Luvhele Spp)
KINETIKA MIKROTALASNOG SUŠENJA BANANE (Luvhele Spp)
Adewale O OMOLOLA*, Afam I O JIDEANI*, Patrick F KAPILA**
*
Department of Food Science and Technology,
**
Department of Agricultural and Rural, Engineering, School of Agriculture,
University of Venda, Private Bag x5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Bananas (Musa spp) are tropical fruits with high moisture and low acid content. Drying is necessary to reduce their water activity, prevent microbial spoilage, reduce weight, decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. This study investigates the
microwave drying kinetics of thin layer Luvhele banana at power levels 100-300W. Five mathematical drying models; Wang and
Singh, Verma, Two-term, Page, and Two term exponential were fitted to experimental drying data obtained from the study. The statistical consistency of the models was determined using statistical parameters such as coefficient of determination, Mean Bias Error,
Root Mean Square Error, and reduced Chi square. Moisture migration from the banana slices was described using the Fick’s diffusion model and the effective diffusivity was calculated. The results indicated that drying took place majorly in the falling rate period
with higher and shorter drying times achieved at a lower and higher oven temperature respectively. The ED increased with increasing microwave power with values in the range of 5.26 x 10-10, 1.14 x 10-9, and 1.97 x 10-9 m2/s at 100, 200, and 300W respectively.
The Verma model gave the best results for the description of thin layer drying of Luvhele banana variety.
Key words: Banana (Luvhele spp); microwave; drying models; drying kinetics; effective moisture diffusivity.
REZIME
Banana (Musa spp) je tropsko voće sa visokim sadržajem vlage i niskim sadržajem kiseline. Sušenje je neophodno da se smanji
aktivnost vode, kvarenje, smanji težina, smanje troškovi pakovanja, manipulacije i transporta. Ova studija bavi se kinetikom mikrotalasnog sušenja banane Luvhel u tanakom sloju na nivoima snage od 100-300W. Pet matematičkih modela za sušenje: Vang i Singh,
Verma, Two-term, Page i Two-term eksponencijalni primenjeni su na eksperimentalnim podacima. Konzistentnost modela određena
je korišćenjem statističkih parametara, kao što su koeficijent determinacije, srednja pristrasnost greške , srednja kvadratna greška i
Hi kvadrat. Migracija vlage iz kriški banane opisana je upotrebom Fikovog modela difuzije i izračunata je efiktivna difuzija (ED).
Rezultati pokazuju da je sušenje obavljeno uglavnom velikom brzinom sa dužim i kraćim vremenom sušenja postignuto na nižoj i višoj
temperaturi. ED se povećava sa povećanjem snage mikrotalasa u opsegu od 5.26x10-10, 1.14x10-9 i 1,97x10-9 m2/s pri 100, 200, i 300
W. Model Verma dao najbolje rezultate za opis sušenja banane sorte Luvhele u tankom sloju.
Ključne reči: Banana (Luvhele spp), mikrotalasi, modeli za sušenje, kinetika sušenja, efiktivna difuzija vlage.
INTRODUCTION
The total world production of banana in 2012 was estimated
at over 99,996,519 metric tons (FAO 2012) of which exports
(essentially of Cavendish bananas) to the richer nations represent
less than a million tons. The rest over 85% of production is made
up of a wide range of banana varieties grown by peasant farmers
or small holders and their families for home use or traded in local markets. Drying refers to the removal of moisture from a material with the primary aim of reducing microbial activity and
product deterioration (Fellows, 2007). Most foods contain
enough moisture to permit the activity of native enzymes and
microorganisms for storage, and drying is necessary to reduce
their water activity and prevent microbial spoilage, reduce
weight, decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs
(Araya-Farias and Ratti, 2009; Sivasanker, 2008). Drying characteristics is a term used to describe the behavior of agricultural
commodities during drying process. Studies on drying characteristics of agricultural products available in literatures includes
banana (Karim and Hawlader, 2005; Nguyen and Price, 2007; da
Silva et al., 2013), water chestnut (Singh et al., 2008), date palm
fruit (Falade and Abbo, 2007), prickly pear fruit (Lahsasni et al.,
2004), apricots, grapes, peaches, figs and plums (Togrul and
Pehlivan, 2004). Microwave drying has been considered as an
alternative to oven drying by various researchers. The rise in its
use for drying of agricultural commodities is borne out of the
problems associated with hot air drying which includes long drying time involved coupled poor quality of final product (Chou
68
and Chua, 2001; Mousa and Farid, 2002; Soysal et al., 2006;
Zhou, 2009). The urge and desire to eliminate these problems,
prevent significant quality loss and also to achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in the increase in its use
for banana drying (Darvishi et al., 2013). However it should be
noted that drying process with the aid of microwave if not properly and carefully applied could result to low quality product
(Drouzas et al.,, 1996; Adu and Otten, 1996; Sousa and Marsaioli, 2004). Drying with the aid of microwaves is faster, more
uniform and energetically efficient as compared to the hot air
drying process. Moisture output is faster due to the ability of microwave to generate internal heat energy by molecular friction.
Some agricultural commodities which has successfully been
dried using microwaves includes banana (Garcia et al., 1988;
Sousa and Marsaioli, 2004; Ganesapillai et al., 2011; Nijhuis et
al., 1998; Maskan 2000), carrot (Prabhanjan et al., 1995; Lin et
al., 1998), grape (Tulasides et al., 1996); apple (Funebo and
Ohlsson, 1998). Unlike hot air drying, agricultural products
processed by microwaves are of superior quality, better aroma
and colour. Luvhele banana is an underutilized variety in South
Africa that requires research studies to ascertain the suitability
for industrial use and entrepreneurial opportunities. Like the
commercial varieties, the high moisture content makes them
highly perishable within few days under ambient conditions of
20-25oC, hence the present study seems to be hanging. There are
no studies on the drying characteristics of non-commercial banana on this variety in the region. Therefore the aim of this study
was to model the oven drying kinetics of Luvhele banana
variety.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Adewale O Omolola et al. / Microwave Drying Kinetics of Banana (Luvhele spp)
Nomenclature
Mo
initial moisture content, kg w/kg dry matter
M
moist. cont. of the product, kg w/kg dry matter
MR
moisture ratio
R2
coefficient of determination
X2
reduced Chi square value
RMSE
root mean square error
MBE
mean bias error
MRexp,i
experimental moisture ratio
MRpre,i
predicted moisture ratio
n
number of constants
N
number of observations
Deff (m²/s)
effective moisture diffusivity
L (m)
half-thickness
φ
slope
k, n, a, b, g
model constants
P (W)
microwave heating power
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Source and preparation of banana sample
Bananas of the variety “Luvhele” (Musa species) procured
from a farm in Limpopo province of South Africa was used in
the study. The fruits had a peel colour index of 7, which is associated with the maximum sucrose content and completely yellow
skin with small brownish speckles. The bananas fingers were
cleaned, washed, peeled and sliced manually into a thickness of
5 mm. The sliced portions were treated with 4% (w/v) citric acid
solution for 10 minutes. The initial moisture content was determined using AOAC 925.45 method (AOAC, 2000) and was
found to be 78.73% (wet basis).
Drying experiment
The drying experiment was carried out in a domestic microwave oven (model P70B17L-T8) with technical features of 220240 V, 50Hz and 700W at the frequency of 2450MHz. The dimensions of the microwave cavity were 262 x 452 x 335 mm
equipped with a glass turn table of 320mm diameter and a control facility to monitor the microwave output and processing during drying operation. Drying was conducted in triplicate at three
different microwave output powers: 100, 200 and 300W and the
data used were based on the average of these results. During the
drying experiment, banana slices were evenly spread on the glass
turn table inside the microwave and moisture loss was monitored
at regular intervals by removing the glass turntable and weighed
using a digital weighing balance (METTLER PJ 12 - SNR
J18751) with a precision of 0.01g.
Mathematical modeling of drying kinetics
In order to effectively study the drying kinetics of agricultural commodities, the effective modeling of drying behavior is inevitable. The data obtained from experimental drying of luvhele
banana variety at different temperatures were fitted with five
thin-layer drying models listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Mathematical models applied to the drying curves
The curve fitting was done using MATLAB software version
7.11.0.584. The moisture ratio (MR) of the sample was determined using equation 1 as used by Miranda et al., (2009), with
M being the moisture content of the product at each moment and
Mo the initial moisture content of the product before commencement of the drying operation.
MR 
(1)
M
MO
Statistical evaluation of drying models
Relevant statistical parameters were used to select the best
drying model expressing the drying curves of the samples and
also to determine the statistical consistency of the fits. Nonlinear regression was performed using SPSS version 20 for windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois). The coefficient of determination (R2) was used to select the best equation expressing the
drying curves of the sample. In addition to the coefficient of determination, parameters such as the reduced chi square value
(X2), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean bias error
(MBE) were used to determine the statistical consistency of the
fit. The highest values of R2 and the lowest values of X2, RMSE,
and MBSE were used as a basis for determining the best fit
(Wang et al., 2007; Ozbek and Dadali, 2007; Ganesapillai et al.,
2011). The statistical parameters were calculated using equations
2 to 4; where MRexp,i is the experimental moisture ratio, MRpre,i
is the predicted moisture ratio, n is the number of constants and
N is the number of observations.
  N M Re xp , i  MRpre, i 2 

MR   i 1


N n


(2)
1
1 N
2
RMSE   i1 ( MRpre, i  M Re xp, i )2 
N

1 N
MBE  i1 ( MRpre, i  M Re xp, i )
N
(4)
Determination of moisture diffusivity
The solution of Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to
compute the effective moisture diffusivity as used by Crank
(1975) and Doymaz (2005). Equations 5 to 7 summarize the solution of Fick’s second law of diffusion, where MR is moisture
ratio, Deff is the effective moisture diffusivity (m²/s) and L is the
half-thickness (m) of the banana slices.
  2 (2n  1) 2

1

1
(5)
 
exp
Deff t 
2 n  0
2
2

(2n  1)
4
L


Equation (6) is based on the assumption that the moisture
diffusivity is constant, with the banana slices representing infinite slab geometry and the initial moisture distribution is uniform (Darvishi et al., 2013). Equation (7) could be simplified to
a straight line equation; the plot of experimental drying data in
terms of ln (MR) against time gives a straight line with a negative slope (φ)
2
 8    Deff 
(6)
Ln(MR)  ln 2   
t
2

    L

MR 

 2 Deff
L2
Model
Equation
References
Page
Lahsasni et al.,(2004)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Wang and Singh
MR exp(ktn )
MR 1  at  at  bt 2
Miranda et al.,(2009)
Verma
Two term
Two term Exp.
MRaexp(kt)  (1 a) exp(gt)
MR a exp(kt)  bexp(gt)
MRaexp(kt)  (1 a) exp(kat)
Ganesapillai et al., (2011)
Lahsasni et al., (2004)
Doymaz, (2009)
Effect of microwave power on drying kinetics
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
(3)
(7)
The drying curves for luvhele banana obtained by plotting
the moisture ratio versus drying time as influenced by microwave heating power is shown in Figure 1.
69
Adewale O Omolola et al. / Microwave Drying Kinetics of Banana (Luvhele Spp)
0,6
1,2
0,4
1
0,2
0
0
10
20
30
Time (min)
40
50
Fig. 1. Drying curves of Luvhele banana at different microwave heating power levels
MR (Predicted)
Moisture ratio
The figure shows that an increase in the microwave power
model representing the thin layer drying of luvhele banana varieultimately resulted to a decrease in the drying time. This is in ty, based on the criteria of the highest R2 and the lowest X2,
line with findings reported by Drouzas and Schubert (1996), RMSE and MBE. For verma model, it can be seen that average
Sousa and Marsaioli (2004), and Ganesapillai et al (2011).
value of coefficient of determination R2 was found to be the
The time required to reduce the moisture to a certain level
highest and X2, RMSE and MBE values lowest when compared
was dependent on the microwave output, being the highest at to other models tested. The R2, X2, RMSE, and MBE of Verma
100 W and lowest at 300 W. The moisture content of the sample model varies between 0.9920 and 0.9951, 7.14E-06 and 3.47Ereduced from an initial of 78.73% to a final of 13.18, 11.01 and 05, 0.02159 and 0.0600, 2.69E-05 and 1.05E-03 respectively.
10.02% (w.b) at a drying time
Table 2. Results of the statistical computations and values of constants obtained from the models
of 40, 20 and 12 minutes reapplied to the drying curves of LBV
spectively.
Model Pow Constants
R² RMSE
X²
MBE
It is also obvious from the
(W)
curves that drying of luvhele
100 k = 0.0203 n =1.243
0.9923 0.02518 7.64E-06 2.86E-04
Page
200 k = 0.1257
n =1
0.9867 0.03656 1.60E-05 5.41E-04
banana variety at 100, 200 and
300 k = 0.0883 n =1.377
0.9879 0.05742 5.43E-05 1.17E-03
300W took place majorly in
Aver
0.9889 0.0397 2.59E-05 6.67E-04
the falling rate period which is
100
a
=
-0.0350
b
=
3.36E-04
0.9910 0.02796 1.16E-05 3.53E-04
an indication that moisture
Wang
200 a = -0.1057 b = 3.17E-03
0.9935 0.02545 3.77E-06 2.62E-04
removal from the banana was
& Singh
through diffusion mechanism.
300 a = -0.1415 b = 5.56E-03
0.9725 0.06398 8.38E-05 1.46E-03
Similar observations were reAver 0.9856 0.0391 3.30E-05 6.91E-04
ported for banana by Abano
100 a = -0.7872 k = 0.1134 g=0.0626
0.9927 0.0251 7.14E-06 2.69E-05
and Sam-Amoah (2011), Silva
Verma
200 a = 3.1650 k = -0.3781 g=0.1296
0.9951 0.0215 7.97E-06 3.59E-04
et al (2013), Ganesapillai et al
300 a = 1.5820
k = 0.25
g=0.6892
0.9920 0.0600 3.47E-05 1.05E-03
(2011), Sousa and Marsaioli
Aver 0.9932 0.0355 1.66E-05 4.78E-04
100 a = 1.659 k = 0.06145 b=0.6706 g=0.1238
0.9928 0.02563 2.12E-03 2.78E-04
(2004), Dandamrongrak et al
0.9915 0.03307 4.10E-04 3.44E-04
(2002) and Queiroz and Nebra Two-Term 200 a = 1.015 k = 0.132 b=5.55e-005 g=0.3526
300 a = 8.218
k=0.1771
b=-7.163 g=0.1762
0.9602 0.09951 2.64E-03 2.12E-03
(2001). However a short conAver 0.9815 0.0527 1.72E-03 9.14E-04
stant rate drying period was
100 a = 1.799 k = 0.0627
0.9927 0.02443 6.76E-06 2.69E-04
observed at the early stage of Two-term 200 a = 3.47E-03 k = 36.04
0.9915 0.03663 1.62E-05 5.43E-04
drying (between MR of 0.83
expo.
300 a = 1.969 k = 0.2722
0.9925 0.05471 4.48E-05 1.06E-03
and 0.80) during drying at
Aver
0.9922 0.0385 2.25E-05 6.24E-04
100W which implies that fallValidation
of
the
predicted
moisture
ratio values obtained from
ing rate period drying took place more than one period during
drying at 100W and this could be attributed to case hardening as Verma model was done by comparing the experimental moisture
ratio data with those predicted with the Verma model at 100, 00,
observed by Sankat et al (1996) and Demirel and Turhan (2003).
and 300W as shown in Figures 2 to 4. The values of coefficient
1,2
of determination for the straight line obtained were 0.994, 0.992,
and 0.986 for 100, 200, and 300W respectively. These relatively
100W
1
high values of coefficient of correlation are an indication of good
200W
fitness between the predicted and experimental moisture ratio
300W
0,8
values.
0,8
0,6
0,4
y = 0,991x + 0,004
R² = 0,994
0,2
Application of drying models to drying curves
The drying curves were fitted with five drying models. Estimated parameters for the models as well as various statistical
parameters i.e MBE, RMSE, R2 and X2 are presented in Table 2.
The average values of the statistical parameters were considered
in selecting the model that best describe the drying behaviour of
the banana. Verma model was selected as the most suitable
70
0
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
MR (Experimental)
Fig. 2. Comparison of experimental and moisture ratio from
Verma model at microwave output power of 100W
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Adewale O Omolola et al. / Microwave Drying Kinetics of Banana (Luvhele spp)
sweet cherries respectively. The moisture diffusivity values determined in this study were relatively higher than values reported
for banana by Marinos-Kouris and Maroulis, (1995) and Thuwapanichayanan et al (2011). This may be attributed to the effect of
variety, composition and tissue characteristics of bananas.
1,2
1
0
10
20
1
0,6
30
40
50
Drying time (min)
0
-1
0,4
y = 0,996x - 0,013
R² = 0,992
0,2
-2
ln (MR)
MR (Predicted)
0,8
0
y = -0,049x + 0,102
R² = 0,987
-3
-4
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
MR (Experimental)
1
1,2
Fig. 3. Comparison of experimental and predicted moisture
ratio from Verma model at microwave output power of 200W
-5
100W
-6
200W
y = -0,108x - 0,123
R² = 0,940
300W
-7
1,2
y = -0,186x + 0,036
R² = 0,948
-8
1
Fig. 5. Variation in In (MR) with time at different
microwave power levels
0,8
0,6
R² = 0,992
2,00E-09
0,4
y = 0,969x + 0,019
R² = 0,986
Deff (m²/s)
MR (Predicted)
2,50E-09
0,2
1,50E-09
1,00E-09
0
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
MR (Experimental)
1
1,2
Fig. 4. Comparison of experimental and predicted moisture
ratio from Verma model at microwave output power of 300W
Moisture migration during drying
Effective moisture diffusivity is a term used to describe the
migration or diffusion of moisture in agricultural products during drying operation and it is said to be a function of material
moisture content and temperature, as well as of the material
structure (Abano and Sam-Amoah, 2011). The variations in ln
(MR) with drying time for luvhele banana variety with predicted
regression equations at different microwave power levels are
shown in Figure 5. It was found that ln (MR) versus time resulted to straight line equations with negative slopes, which were
used in equation 7 for the determination of effective moisture
diffusivities at different microwave power. The relatively high
regression values are an indication of good correlation between
moisture ratio and microwave heating power. The determined
values of moisture diffusivity at different microwave power are
given in figure 6. The effective diffusivities of luvhele banana
variety were 5.26 x 10-10, 1.14 x 10-9, and 1.97 x 10-9 m2/s at 100,
200, and 300W respectively. The values are in line with the
general range of 10-12m2/s to 10-8m2/s for food materials (Zogzas
et al., 1996). It is obvious from Figure 6 that the values of moisture diffusivity increased with increase in microwave power.
Similar observation was made by Aghbashlo et al., (2008); Caglar et al., (2009); Zielinska and Markowski, (2010); Doymaz and
Ismail, (2011) for berberies fruit, seedless grape, carrots and
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
5,00E-10
0,00E+00
0
50
100
150
200
Power (W)
250
300
350
Fig. 6. Effect of microwave heating power on effective
moisture diffusivity of Luvhele banana variety
CONCLUSION
Results obtained for oven drying kinetics of Luvhele banana
variety shows that (i) increase in microwave power from 100300W decreased the drying time from 40 to 12 min, (ii) the entire drying operation took place majorly in the falling rate period
with a short constant rate period observed at the early of drying
at 100W, (iii) among the models tested, Verma was found suitable for the description of microwave drying kinetics of LBV, and
(iv) the moisture diffusivity increased with increasing microwave power with values in the range of 5.26 x 10-10, 1.14 x 10-9,
and 1.97 x 10-9 m2/s at 100, 200, and 300W respectively. The
results obtained in this study could be applied practically for the
optimization of drying process; design of effective drying
equipment; and the description of heat penetration during drying
of Luvhele banana variety.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors acknowledge the financial support to AOO from the Research fund project number
SARDF/14/FST/01 and also the Work Study Programme of the
University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa.
71
Adewale O Omolola et al. / Microwave Drying Kinetics of Banana (Luvhele Spp)
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Received: 24.02.2014.
Accepted: 17.03.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 73-76
UDK: 582.916.26:631.559
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY ON SEED QUALITY AND
YIELD OF OILSEED RAPE (Brassica napus L.)
UTICAJ GUSTINE BILJAKA NA KVALITET SEMENA I PRINOS
ULJANE REPICE (Brassica napus L.)
Milka VUJAKOVIĆ*, Ana MARJANOVIĆ-JEROMELA**, Dušica JOVIČIĆ**, Nada LEČIĆ**,
Radovan MARINKOVIĆ**, Nataša JAKOVLJEVIĆ*, Sanja MEHANDŽIĆ-STANIŠIĆ*
*
„Agricultural station“, 21000 Novi Sad, Temerinska 131, Serbia
**
Institute of field and vegetable crops, 21000 Novi Sad, Maksima Gorkog 30, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Due to its compostion the oilseed rape is widely used in the production of oil, animal feed and biodisel production. Due to a wide
range of rapeseed use, the aim of this paper was to determine the influence of genotype, production year and planting density on seed
germination, seed moisture content, mass of 1000 seed, hectoliter mass, seed yield per plot, and oil and protein content in the seed.
Tests were carried out on four rapeseed genotypes sown at a distance of 5 cm (80 plants/m2), 10 cm (40 plants/m2), 15 cm (27
plants/m2) and 20 cm (20 plants/m2) within the raw during 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 vegetation period. Seed germination, hectoliter
mass and seed yield depended on production year, mass of 1000 seeds depended on genotype, plant density and production year,
while the oil and protein content depended on genotype and production year.
Key words: rapeseed, planting density, seed quality, seed yield.
REZIME
Uljana repica, zbog svog sirovinskog sastava nalazi veliku primenu u proizvodnji ulja, ishrani domaćih životinja i proizvodnji
biodizela. Cilj istraživanja je bio da se utvrdi uticaj gustine setve, tj. različitog razmaka biljaka unutar reda na kvalitet semena i
komponente prinosa četiri sorte ozime uljane repice proizvedene u dve vegetacione sezone. Ispitivanja su izvršena na četiri genotipa
uljane repice (Slavica, NS-L-7, Artus, NS-L-21), posejane sa razmakom u redu od 5 cm (80 biljaka/m2), 10 cm (40 biljaka /m2), 15 cm
(27 biljaka /m2) i 20 cm (20 biljaka /m2) u vegetacionim sezonama 2007/2008. i 2008/2009. godina. Nakon žetve utvrđeni su prinos
semena po parceli, hektolitarska masa, masa 1000 semena, sadržaj vlage u semenu, klijavost semena, sadržaj ulja i sadržaj ukupnih
proteina. Klijavost semena ispitivanih genotipova uljane repice proizvedene u vegetacionoj sezoni 2007/2008. je bila viša od klijavosti semena proizvedenog 2008/2009. Uticaj različitih gustina setve, na ispitivani parametar, nije utvrđen. Sadržaj vlage nije zavisio
od genotipa, niti od gustine setve. Masa 1000 semena zavisila je od godine proizvodnje i genotipa. U zavisnosti od godine proizvodnje, ispitivani genotipovi, su različito reagovali na gustinu setve i dobijeno je seme sa različitom masom 1000 semena. Prinos semena uljane repice nije zavisio od genotipa i gustine setve, a zavisili su od godine proizvodnje. Sadržaj ulja i proteina u semenu zavisio je od genotipa i godine proizvodnje.
Ključne reči: uljana repica, gustina setve, kvalitet semena, prinos semena.
INTRODUCTION
Rape seed is a significant oilseed crop species in the world.
According to the area it covers it occupies the third place among
the oilseed crops after palm and soybean (FAOSTAT 2012). It is
grown mainly for seed containing 40-48% of oil and 18-25% of
protein. Due to its composition it is widely used in edible oil
production. In additon to oil production the rapeseed is used for
rapeseed meal production containing 25-40% of protein and 8%
of oil used for domestic animal feed (Enami, 2011). Rcently, the
rapeseed oil has increasingly been used for methyl ester
production, which has successfully been used for diesel engine
operation. Many countries are financially encouraging and
advertising the use of biodisel fuel, and thus the growing of
rapeseed (Marjanović et al., 2006). An opinion worth of discussion is the possibility of using bio-ethanol instead of fossil
methanol (made from natural gas pre-vailingly) in the transesterification of the rapeseed oil (Kiss and Bošković, 2012).
Due to diverse usage of rapeseed the demand for quality seed
production is on the rise. On one hand, the seed with high seed
quality in order to obtain successful sowing, and optimal stand
and high yield. On the other hand, the seed with higher oil
content and good oil quality. In order to achieve good oil quality
the rapeseed should be grown in well aerated and deep soils,
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
with the proper distribution of preticipation since it has a long
vegetation period (Marjanović-Jeromela and sar. 2007).
Since there are both winter and spring varieties this crop can
be successfully grown under various agro-ecological conditions.
Successful production ie. quality seed and yield depend on
various biotic and abiotic factors. In rapeseed the plant density
plays a significant role in achieving desired yield (Marinković, et
al., 2011). According to Al-Barzinjy et al. (1999) in different
parts of the world the rapeseed plant density ranges between 20
to 130 plants /m2, depending on production conditions and
genotypes. In our country, the rapeseed is sown at a distance
between the rows of 20-30 cm, the most often 25 cm, and the
distance within the row of 5-6 cm or plant density ranges
between 55 to 100 plants /m2. Production of rapeseed at low
density leads to development of greater vegetative mass, greater
number of pods per plant with uneven maturation, which can
affect the seed quality and yield components. On the other hand,
at higher density the plants are elongated, prone to logging and
susceptible to disease attack, which can have negative effect on
quality and yield of seed (Leach, et al., 1999).
The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence
of planting density, ie. various distances within the row on seed
quality and yield components of the four winter rapeseed
varieties produced in two growing seasons.
73
Vujaković, Milka et al. / Effect of Plant Density on Seed Quality and Yield of Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.)
in the difference value of the tested parameter.
Tested varieties showed various mass of 1000 seeds in the
Tests were carried out on four winter rapeseed genotypes 2007/2008 growing season (Tab. 1). Lower values of this
(Slavica, NS-L-7, Artus and NS-L-21) produced in 2007/2008 parametere were determined in genotypes Slavica and NS-L-21,
and 2008/2009 growing seasons. The survey was set in the trial and they were of statistical significance. In Slavica variety the
field of the Institute of field and vegetable crops in Novi Sad. mass of 1000 seeds was the highest in seed obtained per planting
Sowing was done in optimal time (30.08.2007. and 25.08.2008) density of 80 plants/m2 (4.11 g). In other tested varieties the
on plot areas of 4 m2. Sowing was done in rows spaced at 25 cm highest value of this parameter was obtained for seed produced
distance between rows and distances within rows of 5 cm (80 per planting density of 20 plants/m2. There were no statistically
plants/m2), 10 cm (40 plants/m2), 15 cm (27 plants/m2) and 20 significant differences between tested genotypes during the
cm (20 plants/m2). Trial was set in four replications.
2008/2009 growing season. (Tab. 3). Statistically significant
Harvest occurred on June 26, 2008 and July 3, 2009. Seed
differences for the tested parametere were found in seed
yield per plot, hectoliter mass, mass of 1000 seeds (ISTA, 2008), produced per various planting densities. Mass of 1000 seeds
moisture content (ISTA, 2008), seed germination (ISTA, 2008), produced per density of 40 plants/m2 had statistically
oil content (NMR method), and content of total proteins significantly higher values (3.36 g) than the seed produced per
(Kjeldahl method) were determined after
Table 1. Mean values regarding seed germination. seed moisture content. 1000
harvest.
seed weight. hectoliter mass. seed yield. oil and protein content of rapeseed varieties
Obtained results were statistically produced at different plant density during 2007/2008 growing season
evaluated using analysis of variance and test
Genotype
Plant
Germination Seed
1000 Hectoliter Seed
Oil Protein
of least significant differences for threshold
density
(%)
moisture
seed
mass
yield content content
significance level of 0.05 (Hadživuković,
(plant/m2)
content weight
(kg) (kg/plot) (%)
(%)
1991). MSTAT statistical package was used
(%)
(g)
for data analysis.
Slavica
80
98.25
6.6
4.11
69.70
2.10
39.74 19.19
MATERIAL AND METHOD
RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION
Germination of rapeseed produced in
2007/2008 growing season ranged from
94.75 to 98.25% (Tab. 1), and in 2008/2009
the values were somewhat lower and ranged
from 83.25 to 88.50% (Tab. 3). Obtained
values in both production years were
significantly above those prescribed by the
Rule on on quality of seed of agricultural
plants (Official Gazette SFRY 47/87). In all
tested genotypes there were no statistically
significant differences in germination of seed
obtained from different planting density.
During 2008/2009 growing season the
following was noticed: a lack of rainfall
during autumn, law temperatures and frost in
January, drought during intensive plant
growth and seed formation (April and first
half of May) and long rainy period in June,
which made that season unfavourable for
rapeseed production in relation to 2007/2008
(Tab. 2). Influence of production year on
tested parameter was determined by Elias
and Copeland, (2001), while dependence of
seed germination on variety (not confirmed
by our study) was determined by Jovičić et
al. (2011).
Seed moisture content during 2007/2008
growing season in all tested variants ranged
from 6.6 to 7.5% (Tab. 1), and during
2008/2009 from 6.5 to 7.2% (Tab. 3).
Moisture content was below that defined by
the Rule on quality of seed of agricultural
plants. Planting of seed at different distances
within row had no influence on tested
parameter in both years of investigation. The
harvest of the seed is done in all genotypes
and plant density at the same time it is assumed that for that reason, are not obtained
74
40
27
20
NS-L-7
80
40
27
20
Artus
80
40
27
20
NS-L-21
80
40
27
20
Average Slavica
Average NS-L-7
Average Artus
Average NS-L-21
Average 80 plants/m2
Average 40 plants/m2
Average 27 plants/m2
Average 20 plants/m2
LSD0.05 genotype
LSD0.05 plant density
LSD0.05 genotype ×
plants density
98.0
97.75
97.50
95.75
94.75
94.75
96.25
96.25
95.5
94.75
97.5
96.75
96.75
97.75
96.25
97.88
95.38
96.00
96.88
96.75
96.25
96.25
96.88
1.33
1.33
2.65
6.7
7.1
6.7
6.7
7.1
6.7
6.9
6.9
7.5
7.1
7.0
7.0
7.3
6.9
6.7
6.8
6.8
7.1
7.0
6.8
7.1
6.9
6.8
0.30
0.30
0.61
3.47
3.56
3.56
4.00
3.75
3.83
4.15
3.94
3.78
3.84
4.05
3.60
3.52
3.52
3.67
3.67
3.93
3.90
3.58
3.91
3.63
3.69
3.86
0.19
0.19
0.37
69.90
69.70
69.60
68.00
68.15
67.90
68.10
69.35
69.35
69.15
69.60
68.55
68.68
68.45
68.65
69.72
68.04
69.36
68.58
68.90
69.02
68.80
68.99
0.24
0.24
0.48
1.58
1.47
1.38
1.81
1.36
1.31
1.42
1.75
1.64
1.60
1.96
1.53
1.71
1.84
1.70
1.63
1.48
1.74
1.70
1.80
1.58
1.55
1.62
0.26
0.26
0.53
40.53
40.55
41.51
34.49
42.39
43.01
42.87
40.73
39.60
40.17
39.44
41.97
41.19
41.84
40.65
40.58
40.69
39.98
41.42
39.23
40.93
41.39
41.12
2.89
2.89
5.77
18.34
18.07
18.77
19.08
18.06
18.52
18.67
19.18
19.09
19.03
20.00
18.11
18.24
18.43
19.10
18.59
18.58
19.32
18.47
18.89
18.43
18.51
19.14
0.51
0.51
1.02
Table 2. Precipitation and mean monthly temperatures during 2007/2008 and
2008/2009 growing season (Rimski Šančevi)
August
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
June
Precipitation (mm)
2007/2008
2008/2009
59
33
72
71
106
28
108
45
35
68
32
53
11
54
41
51
47
15
10
43
68
128
Temperature (oC)
2007/2008
2008/2009
21.3
22.7
17.2
16.4
11.4
13.9
4.8
8.3
0.5
4.1
1.6
-0.3
2.6
2.4
8.6
7.2
12.8
14.1
17.5
18.1
21.6
20.1
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Vujaković, Milka et al. / Effect of Plant Density on Seed Quality and Yield of Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.)
density of 27 plants/m2 (2.84n g). Mass of
Table 3. Mean values regarding seed germination. seed moisture content. 1000
1000 seeds depended on production year and seed weight. hectoliter mass. seed yield. oil and protein content of rapeseed varieties
tested genotypes, which was confirmed by produced at different plant density during 2008/2009 growing season
Marjanović-Jeromela et alr. (1999). Genotype Plant Germination Seed
1000
Hectoliter Seed
Oil
Protein
Contrary to our findings, Ozer (2003)
density
(%)
moisture seed weight mass
yield content content
(plant/m2)
content
(g)
(kg)
(kg/plot) (%)
(%)
determined that distance within the row had
(%)
no influence on the mass of 1000 seeds.
Slavica
80
88.50
6.8
2.91
67.00
0.63
40.26
21.41
Hectoliter mass depended on tested
40
85.75
6.6
3.06
66.10
0.73
41.79
20.79
genotypes in 2007/2008 growing season and
27
85.00
6.7
2.94
66.60
0.74
39.83
20.84
statistically significantly higher values were
20
85.75
6.7
2.93
66.80
0.79
40.31
21.70
obtained in variety Slavica (69.72 kg)
NS-L-7
80
87.50
6.5
3.18
66.30
0.70
42.11
23.03
(Tab. 1). Hectoliter mass of seed produced
40
84.00
6.7
3.25
65.40
0.56
42.62
20.50
in 2008/2009 was lower in relation to the
27
87.50
6.7
3.00
66.25
0.43
41.98
20.11
values obtained in 2007/2008 (Tab. 3).
20
87.50
6.6
3.14
66.83
0.36
43.21
19.99
Statistically significant differences were
Artus
80
83.25
6.9
3.26
66.70
0.57
40.78
21.61
observed between tested genotypes and the
40
85.25
6.9
3.36
67.00
0.56
39.98
21.90
seed produced per various densities.
27
85.50
7.0
2.84
67.00
0.67
40.64
22.03
The seed yield per plot of genotypes
20
86.75
7.2
3.32
67.30
0.74
40.65
21.34
NS-L-7 (1.31 – 1.81 kg/plot), Artus (1.60 - NS-L-21
80
88.00
6.7
2.97
65.70
0.93
41.89
20.64
1.94 kg/plot) and NS-L-21 (1.53 - 1.84
40
83.75
6.7
3.14
65.90
0.44
40.18
21.90
27
88.50
6.6
2.89
66.20
0.56
42.12
22.03
kg/plot) (Tab. 1) showed no dependence on
20
88.25
6.9
3.16
66.60
0.96
41.88
21.34
the planting density in the growing season of
Average Slavica
86.25
6.7
2.96
66.63
0.73
40.55
21.18
2007/2008.
Statistically
significant
Average
NS-L-7
86.63
6.6
3.14
66.19
0.51
42.48
20.91
difference for the tested parameters were
Average Artus
85.19
7.0
3.19
67.00
0.64
40.51
21.72
obtained between the planting density of 80
2
Average NS-L-21
87.13
6.7
3.04
66.10
0.73
41.51
21.48
plants/m (2.10 kg/plot), and the density of
2
Average 80
86.81
6.7
3.08
66.43
0.71
41.26
21.67
20 plants/m (1.38 kg/plot) in Slavica
plants/m2
variety. The seed yield per plot in 2008/2009
Average 40
84.69
6.7
3.20
66.10
0.58
41.14
21.27
growing season showed neither genotype
plants/m2
nor the planting density dependence, but the
Average 27
86.63
6.7
2.92
66.51
0.60
41.14
21.25
values were lower than those in the previous
plants/m2
year. Vujaković et al. (2011) determined that
Average 20
87.06
6.8
3.17
66.88
0.71
41.51
21.09
the terms of production and the year had
plants/m2
LSD0.05 genotype
2.82
0.18
0.18
0.64
0.22
0.65
0.42
significant effect on the seed yield, which
LSD0.05 plants
2.82
0.18
0.18
0.64
0.22
0.65
0.42
was also confirmed by our studies.
density
The seed oil content in all tested
5.63
0.36
0.35
1.28
0.44
1.29
0.83
varieties ranged from 34.49 to 43.01% LSD0.05 genotype ×
plant density
(Tab. 1) in the 2007/2008 growing season.
Statistically significantly lower value of the
previous year and ranged from 19.99 to 23.03% (Tab. 3).
tested parameter was obtained in the line NS-L-7 produced with Statistically significant differences of the tested parameter were
plant density of 20 plants/m2 (34.49%) in relation to the seed observed only in the line NS-L-7. Seed produced with density of
produced with other planting density. No statistically significant 20 plants/m2 had statistically significantly higher value in
differences in seed oil content were found in other genotypes relation to the protein content obtained in seed when densities of
produced with various planting densities. During the growing 20 plants/m2 were applied. Influence of genotype on protein conseason of 2008/2009 the studied parameter depended on tent in rapeseed was determined by Marinković et al. (2010).
genotype (Tab. 3). Statistically significantly higher values were Shrief et al. (1990) determined that the protein content in seed
obtained in line NS-L-7 (42.48%) in relation to Slavica variety was higher in seed produced when higher densities were applied,
(40.55%) and hybrid Artus (40.51%). Statistically significantly while Van Deynze et al. (1992) observed no influence of density
higher oil content in this variety was found in seed produced on the tested parameter. Rathke et al. (2005) determined that the
with the planting density of 40 plants/m2 (41.79%), while presence of increased nitrogen had effect on protein synthesis
statistically significantly lower value in line NS-L-21 was increased at the expense of fatty acid synthesis, resulting in lowobtained for seed produced with the planting density of 40 er oil content in seed. On the other hand, Hao et al. (2004) found
plants/m2 (40.18%). In other tested genotypes no statistically negative correlation coefficient between oil and protein contents.
significant diferences in oil content were found in seed produced Negative coefficient of correlation between protein and oil conper various densities. Jovičić et al. (2011) determined that this tent, and we get and it are -0.481 in the 2007/2008 growing seaparameter mainly depended on the variety itself, while Ozer son and -0.391 in the 2008/2009 growing season. With this in
(2003) determined that the increased distance within the row mind, the care regarding the mode of rapeseed production and
caused
the increased seed oil content. However, those obtaining larger quantities of protein or oil should be taken.
differences were not significant, which was largely confirmed by
CONCLUSION
our studies.
In 2007/2008 the protein content ranged from 18.06 to
Based on the obtained results the following can be con20.00% (Tab. 1). In genotypes Slavica and NS-L-7 somewhat
cluded:
2
higher values were obtained with density of 80 plants/m , and in
Seed germination of tested rapeseed genotypes produced in
genotypes Artus and NS-L-21 with density of 20 plants/m2. The
2007/2008 growing season was higher than the seed produced in
tested parameter in 2008/2009 was somewhat higher than in the
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
75
Vujaković, Milka et al. / Effect of Plant Density on Seed Quality and Yield of Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.)
2008/2009. No effect of various planting densities on tested parameter was determined.
Moisture content depended neither on genotype nor the
planting density.
Mass of 1000 seeds depended both on production and the
genotype. In dependence on production year the tested genotypes showed different reaction to planting density and seed with
various mass of 1000 seeds was obtained.
Hectoliter mass of seed of rapeseed showed dependence on
genotype, planting density and production year.
Seed yield of rapeseed showed no dependence on genotype
and planting density. Tested parameters depended on the production year.
Oil and protein content in seed depended on genotype and
production year. Plant density had no influence on the tested parameters.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The study has been granted by
Ministry of Education, Science and Tehnological Development,
Republic of Serbia, project No TR 31025.
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(1999). Relationship between plant density and yield fortwo
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Scand. Sect. B, Soil Plant Sci., 49, 129–133.
Elias, S. G., Copeland, L., O. (2001). Physiological and harvest
maturity of canola in relation to seed quality. Agron. J., 93,
1054-1058.
Enami, H. R. (2011). A review of using canola/rapeseed meal in
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Jovičić, D., Marjanović-Jeromela, A., Vujaković, M.,
Marinković, R., Sakač, Z., Nikolić, Z., Milošević, B. (2011).
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(1999). Effects of high plant populations on the growth
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Marinković, R., Mrjanović-Jeromela, A., Mitrović, P., Milovac,
Ž. (2010). Uljana repica (Brassica napus L.) kao proteinska
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Marjanović-Jeromela, A., Marinković, R., Crnobarac, J. (1999).
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repice (Brassica napus L.). proizvodnja i prerada uljarica,
Savetovanje industrije ulja (zbornik radova) 40, 243-254.
Marjanović-Jeromela, A., Marinković, R., Furman, T. (2006).
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25-39.
Mrjanović-Jeromela, A., Marinković, R., Mitrović, P. (2007).
Oplemenjivanje uljane repice (Brassica napus L.) pregledni
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Ozer, H. (2003). The effect of plant population densities on
growth, yield and yield components of two spring rapeseed
cultivars. Plant Soil Environ., 49 (9), 422–426.
Rathke, G.W., Christen, O., Diepenbrock, W (2005). Effects of
nitrogen source and rate on productivity and quality of winter
oilseed rape (Brassica napus) grown in different crop rotation.
Field Crops Res., 94, 103-113.
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SFRJ, No. 47/87.
Shrief, S., A., Shabana, R., Ibrahim, A.F., Geisler, G. (1990).
Variation in seed yield and quality characters of four spring oil
rapeseed cultivars as influenced by population arrangements
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(1992). Effect of varying seeding rates on hybrid and
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Received: 04.03.2014.
Accepted: 22.03.2014.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 77-79
UDK: 634.10
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
A COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC ANALIYSIS OF THE DIFERENT
VARIETIES IN INTEGRATED APPLE PRODUCTION
KOMPARATIVNA EKONOMSKA ANALIZA RAZLIČITIH
SORTI U INTEGRALNOJ PROIZVODNJI JABUKE
*
Dušan MILIĆ*, Zorica SREDOJEVIĆ**, Strahinja MARJANOVIĆ***
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
**
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Beograd, Serbia
***
Delta Agrar, Beograd, Milentija Popovića 7b, 11070 Novi Beograd, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Given that the choice of varieties depends significantly on the extent and quality of production, the paper made a comparative
economic analysis of yield, production costs and the cost of four apple varieties (Gala, Braeburn and Golden Delicious Granny
Smith) in integrated production. On average for the period 2008-2013 in the production of the analyzed apple cultivars largest financial result (profit ) was recorded in the variety Braeburn (1,166,980 RSD/ ha). In the production of varieties Braeburn highest average yield (54,071 RSD/ha) and relatively low production costs (1,049,931 RSD/ha) were positively influenced the achievement of a
satisfactory profit. The cultivar Braeburn financial result was almost doubles that of the variety Granny Smith. At the same time the
cultivar Braeburn was detected and the lowest cost (20.24 $ /kg). In the analyzed production of varieties Gala total costs of production amounted to 1,009,787 L/ha. Labor costs in the amount of 392,360 d / ha takes a share of 38.85 % in the total cost. According to
the representation in the total costs then comes cost of materials (23.13 %). The calculated cost is an average of 20.23 L/kg, with a
variation of the observed age of 14.10 L/kg in 2011 to 34.43 kg/ha in the 2008th year.
Key words: economic analysis, apple variety, integrated production, cost.
REZIME
S obzirom da od izbora sorte značajno zavisi obim i kvalitet proizvodnje, u radu je sačinjena komparativna ekonomska analiza
prinosa, troškova proizvodnje i cene koštanja za četiri sorti jabuke (Gala, Breburn Zlatni delišes i Greni smit) u integralnoj
proizvodnji. U proseku za period 2008-2013. godine u proizvodnji analiziranih sorti jabuke, najveći finansijski rezultat (profit) je
ostvaren kod sorte Breburn (1.166.980 RSD/ha). U proizvodnji jabuke sorte Breburn najveći prosečan prinos (54.071 kg/ha) i
relativno niski troškovi proizvodnje (1.049.931 RSD/ha) su pozitivno uticali na postizanje zadovoljavajućeg profita. Kod sorte
Breburn ostvareni finansijski rezultat je skoro dvostruko veći u odnosu na sortu Greni Smit. Istovremeno kod sorte Breburn je
konstatovana i najniža cena koštanja (20,24 RSD/kg). U analiziranoj proizvodnji sorte Gala ukupni troškovi proizvodnje su iznosili
1.009.787 RSD/ha. Troškovi rada sa iznosom od 392.360 RSD/ha zauzimaju učešće od 38,85 % u strukturi ukupnih troškova. Po
zastupljenosti u ukupnim troškovima, zatim, dolaze troškovi materijala (23,13 %). Izračunata cena koštanja iznosi u proseku 20,23
RSD/kg, sa variranjima po posmatranim godinama od 14,10 RSD/kg u 2011.godini do 34,43 kg/ha u 2008. godini.
Ključne reči: ekonomska analiza,sorta jabuke, integralna proizvodnja,cena koštanja.
INTRODUCTION
Apple is native to the northwestern regions of Asia and
neighboring European areas. These regions of Asia and Europe
are characterized by the greatest variety of forms of apples and
their corresponding hereditary variability. Today, in almost all
deciduous forests on moderate elevations (600-2000 m) in different climatic regions, particularly in the northern hemisphere,
among other plants, and wild apples are in the form of population with many biotypes of various properties (Milić and
Radojević, 2003). Apple is one of the most important fruit species in the world and the leading in Europe. Production and consumption of apples in relation to the total production and consumption is in third place, just behind the citrus and banana
(Milić et al., 2005). It may be noted that the measure of development apple fruit production of each country, as the number of
apple trees increases the intensity of fruit production in general
and vice versa. On average for the period (2009-2013) apple
production in the EU (28) stood at 10.5 million tons (www.wap association.org). Poland is the leading producer with an average
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
production of 2.6 million tons, accounting for 24.76% of total
volume of apple production in the EU. Then, followed by Italy
(2.2 million tons), France (1.5 million tons) and Germany
(927,000 t).
Modern apple breeding and intensive production in agriculture, in general are the result of technological advances and
pursuit of profit. However, the desire for achieving greater economic benefits, both individuals and businesses and the lack of
motivation for environmental protection are increasingly taking
their toll. Striving for achieving the higher returns still lead to
negative environmental consequences of large-scale. Economic
thinking is to seek solutions and capabilities, both in the circumstances the best, most appropriate and economical way to
use limited production resources, without having negative consequences of their use come to the fore in the least possible
(Sredojević et al., 2005). Keeping in mind the latest trends in the
environment and are increasingly demands for food production
with less usage of synthetic chemical products, the more we talk
about the concept of integrated production. This concept is based
77
Milić, Dušan et al. / A Comparative Economic Analiysis of the Diferent Varieties in Integrated Apple Production
on using a combination of genetic, agronomic, chemical and biotechnological methods in a commercially acceptable production
system, which provides the biological quality of the fruit and the
environment. Production of the concept of integrated production,
in fact, represents a compromise between the demands of consumers for safe food and environmental protection objectives
and manufacturers to economically sound and sustainable production (Milić et al., 2012).
Table 1. Economic indicators analyzed apple varieties in the
period 2008-2013 (Planting density 3.2 x 0.80 m)
Ord.
num.
1.
2.
3.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
As the main source of data used as internal records, Costing,
technology and online business plan successful long-time growers of apples in Vojvodina. In addition, as data sources were
used and available statistical data on the production of apples in
the EU (www.wap-asociation.org), and the publication of scientific and technical consulting. For four apple cultivars Gala,
Braeburn, Golden Delicious and Granny Smith, an analysis of
grain yields, production costs and the cost of the integral production in the period 2008-2013 year. We apply the calculative methods of determining the full cost, and then made a comparative
analysis calculated economic indicators. Collected and systematized data, calculating procedures and established economic indicators are presented in tables.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Production and economic analysis in
production of apple
When selecting varieties of fruit should strive to Biological
characteristics of fully correspond to the ecological conditions of
the environment in which it now raises and that the fruits of the
same variety to meet the demand of the market. Therefore, we
can say that the selection of varieties is very important and complex issue to be resolved even before raising orchards. The long
period of operation and a large number of varieties of different
economic - technological characteristics, more importantly,
highlight the problem of properly solving the assortment of fruit.
Mistakes made in the selection of varieties is difficult to remove
later, and if they do have opportunities to amend the need to allocate significant financial resources. From represented varieties
depends on the possibility of placing products on the domestic
and international markets.
The creation and introduction into production of vital, gender
and high-quality varieties of apples can significantly increase the
volume of production and improve the quality of fruits. The
world is more intense for breeding apples than any other fruit.
As a result of spontaneous and planned hybridization occurred
more than 10,000 varieties of precious apples. Varieties resistant
to various pathogens greatly facilitate the application of the concept of integrated production of apples. Increasing attention is
paid to the breeding of creating varieties with high fruit quality
(Mišić, 2002).
Therefore, the selected varieties depend significantly on the
production, use and market value of the fruit, and its profits,
purpose and implementation of the product in the market. On
average for the period (2009-2013), the most common varieties
of apples in the EU (28) are a Golden Delicious. This variety,
with an average production of about 2.5 million tons occupies a
share of 23.78 % in the assortment of apples European Union.
Against actual production volume, then are following varieties
Gala, I dared, Red Delicious and Jon gold.
78
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Economic
indicator
Period of
cultivation
Period of
exploitation
Average yield
Market
(selling) price
of apples
Average value
of production
(3. × 4.)
Average cost
of production
Average
financial result
(5.-6.)
Cost price of
apples (6. /3.)
Unit of
measurement
I
year
2
Apple Variety*
II
III
2
2
IV
2
year
20
20
20
20
kg/ha
49913
54071
48120
41517
RSD/kg
41
41
41
41
RSD/ha
2046433 2216911 1972920 1702197
RSD/ha
1009787 1049931 1107350 1081598
RSD/ha
948646 1166980 865570 620599
RSD/kg
20.23**
20.04** 24.88*** 27.16***
*
Gala (I), Braeburn (II), Golden Delicious (III), Granny Smith (IV)
Six annually average
***
Seven annually average
**
Apple tree or plant in operation is giving the uneven yields.
If the factors that regulate fertility are in harmony with, the
yields from year to year until they reach the maximum. This is
the so-called period of increasing yields or increasing cropping
period. After him, there is a period of full-yielding, and this is
the longest period during the planting operation. Towards the
end of the lifetime of plantation yields begin to decline sharply,
with the yield reduction stands out period or a period of declining fertility.
On average for the period 2008-2013 was the yield in the
production of the analyzed apple cultivars ranged from 41,517
kg/ha variety Granny Smith to 54,071 kg/ha in variety Braeburn
(Table 1). At Braeburn varieties, in which the highest average
yield was observed, despite the variation in the observed years,
yield increases from 17,176 kg/ha in the 2008th year to 92 461
kg/ha in the 2013th year.
Economic indicators in the production of apples
Production value is the market value of the resulting products and services during a fiscal year. The production is economically justified if the total cost is less than the total benefits
achieved in a production. Thus, the realized value of production
is the product of the realized returns and the selling price, but it
must not be forgotten that there is another summand, which is in
the literature as "other", while in developed countries this term
include incentives and benefits of the state, and incentives for
production.
On average for the period studied (2008-2013) realized the
value of production of the analyzed apple cultivars ranged from
1,702,197 RSD/ha in variety Granny Smith to 2,216,911
RSD/ha in variety Braeburn (Table 1). Thus, at the same retail
price, the highest production was achieved in the production of
varieties Braeburn which has achieved the largest average yield.
The cost of production in a broader sense , to the value of
the means of production consumed in order to produce new
products or achieve new performance evaluation in a given time
period. From this conceptual definition, it is clear that the emphasis on the types of costs (Sredojević, 2011). In terms of competition, the goal of every manufacturer is to offer not only a
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Milić, Dušan et al. / A Comparative Economic Analiysis of the Diferent Varieties in Integrated Apple Production
greater quantity, but also the costs to be as low as possible and
average for the period 2008-2013. The production costs are fairly equal in production analyzed varieties of apples with a variation of 1,009,787 RSD/ha in variety Gala to 1,107,350 RSD/ha
in variety Golden Delicious (Table 1). Low cost was recorded in
the variety Braeburn (20.24 RSD/kg), and the highest in the variety Granny Smith (27.16 RSD/kg). The success of economic
activity depends on the farm, on the one hand, the value of farm
production that is realized and, on the other hand, the costs incurred in connection with the production and the sale, i.e. implementations (Marko et al., 1998). When the output value exceeds the amount of actual expenses, then realized a positive financial result (profit). Conversely, when the cost over the value
of production, operation is achieved financial negative result
(loss). Financial result depends both on the cost of the product,
as well as the socially recognized the value of production in the
market.
On average for the period 2008-2013, the financial result in
the production of the analyzed apple cultivars ranged from
620,599 RSD/ha in variety Granny Smith to 1,166,980 RSD/ha
in variety Braeburn. In the production of varieties Braeburn financial result (profit) is almost twice as higher than the Granny
Smith variety.
More detailed analysis of the cost of production is carried out
only for the variety Gala (Table 2). On average for the period
2008-2013 year, in the analyzed apple production, total production costs amounted to 1,009,787 RSD/ha.
Table 2. Cost of production of varieties Gala in the period
2008-2013
Yield and elements of costs
B. Yield (kg/ha)
1. Cost of materials (RSD/ha)
Fertilizer (RSD/ha)
Pesticides (RSD/ha)
Other material (RSD/ha)
2. Machinery (RSD/ha)
3. Gross wages (RSD/ha)
Permanent workers
Seasonal workers
Guarding
4. Amortization (RSD/ha)
5. General costs (RSD/ha)
6. Costs per ha (RSD/ha) (1.-5.)
7. Cost price (RSD./kg) (6./B)
Average 2008-2013
Share (%)
49,913
233,555
54,245
173,543
5,767
147,880
392,360
181,543
176,808
34,009
150,855
85,139
1,009.789
20,23
/
23.13
5.37
17.19
0.57
14.64
38.86
17.98
17.51
3.37
14.94
8.43
100.00
/
Cost of labor in the amount of 392,360 RSD/ha take a share
of 38.85% in the total cost. According to the representation, the
total cost, then comes the cost of materials (23.13%). The calculated cost is an average of 20.23 RSD/kg, with a variation of the
observed age of 14.10 RSD/kg in 2011 to 34.43 RSD/ha in 2008
year.
CONCLUSION
For the study orchard apples are represented best varieties of
apples: Gala, Braeburn, Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Golden
Delicious, organic apple Goldraš (Goldrush). The orchard is
based according to the latest technological requirements. The
total plantation area was covered by a network of anti-hail protection system for protection from frost. Station orchard monitor
weather conditions and flight microspore phytopathogens, which
is very important for optimal protection apples. Watering and
feeding orchard performs system "drop by drop ". For now it's
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
covered with GPRS systems and the control parameters and performs the computer. In research company in the future plans
rounding apple orchard at 600 ha. In addition built and ULO storage capacity of 6,000 t for apples.
On average for the period 2008-2013 in the production of the
analyzed apple cultivars largest financial result (profit) was recorded in the variety Braeburn (1,166,980 RSD/ha) . In the production of varieties Braeburn highest average yield (54,071
kg/ha) and relatively low production costs (1,049,931 RSD/ha)
were positively influenced the achievement of profit. The cultivar Braeburn financial result was almost doubles that of the variety Granny Smith. At the same time the cultivar Braeburn has
reached the lowest cost (20.24 RSD/kg).
On average for the period 2008-2013 in the analyzed production of varieties Gala, the total cost of production amounted to
1,009,787 RSD/ha. Cost of labor in the amount of 392,360
RSD/ha take a share of 38.85% in the total cost. Per share, the
total cost, then comes the cost of materials (23.13%). The calculated cost is an average of 20.23 RSD/kg, with a variation of the
observed age of 14.10 RSD/kg in 2011 to 34.43 kg/ha in the
2008th year.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This paper is a result of the research
within the projects: TR31058- Drying of Organic and Integrated
Fruits and Vegetables Drying Technology; 46009-Promotion
and development of hygienic and technological processes in the
production of foods of animal origin in order to obtain highquality and safe products competitive on the world market and
the 179028-Rural labor markets and rural economy of Serbiathe diversification of income and poverty reduction; funded by
the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia,
in period 2011-2014, supported by the Ministry of Education,
Science and Technology, Republic of Serbia.
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Milić, D., Bulatović, Mirjana, Kukić, Đ. (2005). Ocena
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Milić, D., Sredojević, Zorica, Marjanović, S. (2012). Economic
Analysis of Integrated and Organic Fruit Production, PTEPJournal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture Vol.16, No.1,
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Конгреса за заштита на растенијата во Република
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www.templez.com, Date of access, 12/02/2014
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Received: 03.03.2014.
Accepted: 20.03.2014.
79
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 80-83
UDK: 633.15:591.133.1
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
DRIED DISTILLERS' GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES (DDGS) PRODUCED
FROM DIFFERENT MAIZE HYBRIDS AS ANIMAL FEED
SUVA DŽIBRA RAZLIČITIH HIBRIDA KUKURUZA KAO
HRANIVO ZA ŽIVOTINJE
Valentina SEMENČENKO*, Milica RADOSAVLJEVIĆ*, Dušanka TERZIĆ*,
Marija MILAŠINOVIĆ-ŠEREMEŠIĆ*, Ljiljana MOJOVIĆ**,
*
Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, 11185 Belgrade – Zemun, Slobodana Bajića 1, Serbia,
**
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, 11000 Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
This paper presents results of studies on qualities of maize dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), as animal feed, which is
a by-product from the process of maize grain-based bioethanol production. Twenty maize hybrids, developed at the Maize Research
Institute, Zemun Polje, were used in this study. The moisture content in all DDGS samples was below 13% - the maximum value according to the Serbian Regulation. Furthermore, obtained results show that all observed DDGS samples had a high content of protein (29.58 - 36.08%), i.e. three-fold higher than in the initial raw material - maize grain. The digestibility of dry matter in samples of
DDGS ranged from 74.09 (ZP Rumenka) to 82.41% (ZP 505). Based on obtained results, samples of DDGS were of high quality and
therefore can be used as feed for the preparation of complete and concentrated feed.
Key words: maize, dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS), animal feed, bioethanol.
REZIME
Proizvodnjom bioetanola od zrna kukuruza dobija se sporedni proizvod poznat kao kukuruzna džibra. Na svaki litar bioetanola
proizvedenog od zrna kukuruza nastaje oko 0,89 kg suve kukuruzne džibre. Ovaj sporedni proizvod industrije bioetanola predstavlja
odličan izvor proteina i energije pa se zbog toga najčešće koristi kao komponenta smeša za ishranu domaćih životinja. Prihod od
prodaje suve kukuruzne džibre mogao bi da ima pozitivan uticaj na ekonomsku isplativost proizvodnje bioetanola postupkom suvog
mlevenja s obzirom da se ovim procesom jedna trećina kukuruznog zrna prevodi u suvu džibru. U ovom radu prikazani su rezultati
ispitivanja kvaliteta suve kukuruzne džibre, kao hraniva za životinje. U istraživanju je korišćeno 20 hibrida kukuruza Instituta za
kukuruz „Zemun Polje”. Sadržaj suve materije kretao se od 90,47 (ZP Rumenka) do 91,87% (ZP 362), što ukazuje da je sadržaj vlage
u svim uzorcima bio manji od 13%, maksimalne vrednosti prema Pravilniku o kvalitetu hrane za životinje. Rezultati su pokazali da su
svi ispitani uzorci imali visok sadržaj proteina, između 29,58 (ZP 505) i 36,08% (ZP 611k). Pored toga uočeno je da je sadržaj
proteina u suvoj džibri skoro utrostručen u odnosu na zrno kukuruza kao polaznu sirovinu. Svarljivost suve materije uzoraka suve
kukuruzne džibre kretala se u rasponu od 74,09 (ZP Rumenka) do 82,41% (ZP 505). Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata ustanovljeno je da
su uzorci suve džibre svih ispitivanih hibrida dobrog kvaliteta i mogu se koristiti kao hranivo za pripremu potpunih i koncentrovanih
smeša za ishranu životinja.
Ključne reči: kukuruz, suva kukuruzna džibra, hrana za životinje, bioetanol.
INTRODUCTION
Alternative fuel - bioethanol is mostly produced from starchy
parts of the maize grain leaving significant amounts of valuable
by-products such as distillers' dried grains with solubles
(DDGS), which can be used as a substitute for traditional feedstuff. Maize grain consists of approximately 70% of starch,
which makes it a very suitable feedstock for the bioethanol production (Radosavljević et al., 2008). Renewability of maize and
growing environmental pollution by oil products represent two
principal reasons for maize becoming one of the major raw materials for the energy production (Radosavljević et al., 2009).
The production of bioethanol has been increasing over the years,
and has reached the level of 85 billion litres in 2013. According
to the Global Renewable Fuels Alliance (GRFA), this level of
the bioethanol production was predicted to reduce GHG emissions by 100 million tonnes in 2013 (Renewable Fuels Association - RFA, 2013).
Stillage, distillery wastewater from the bioethanol production
process, is mostly used as feedstuff in dried (dried distillers'
grains with solubles -DDGS) or wet form (wet distillers' grains -
80
WDG) (Mojović et al., 2012). A new concept of fermented liquid stillage has been recently introduced in animal diets. One of
the examples of incorporating fermented stillage in animal feed
is using dried residues of lactic acid fermentation on whole
wasted bread as feedstuff (Đjukić-Vuković et al., 2013, 2013a).
A recent increase in the biofuel production, particularly the dry
grind maize-to-ethanol process, creates a sizable stockpile of its
co-product in the form of dried distillers' grains with solubles
(DDGS), which is made by blending wet distillers' grains
(WDG) and syrup and drying the mix (Liu et al., 2011). A gallon
(3.78 l) of bioethanol produced from maize kernels generates
about 3.36 kg DDGS (Pimentel, 2003). The typical moisture
content of the final product, DDGS, necessary to prevent microbial degradation and to maintain product stability, should range
from 10% to 13%). Due to the high proportion of nutritional
components, especially protein content, DDGS is sold as animal
feed. Income from DDGS is important to the profitability of
maize ethanol production by dry-grind process since one-third of
maize is converted into DDGS in dry-grind processing (Probst et
al., 2013). The utilisation of DDGS to feed animals in Serbia
could provide income generation in the amount of 14% of the
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Semenčenko, Valentina et al. / Dried distillers' grains with solubles (ddgs) produced from different maize hybrids as animal feed
total revenue from the bioethanol production. Accordingly, there
is a tendency in the world to increase the proportion of distillers'
dried grains in the combination with other feeds and feedstuffs
(complete, supplements) for different types and categories of
domestic animals (Semenčenko, 2013).
The majority of previously globally carried out studies on
physical and chemical properties of maize distillers' dried grains
have been performed on samples taken from plants for the commercial bioethanol production. This paper presents some of the
results obtained in studies carried out at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje under laboratory conditions of the production of bioethanol and distillers' dried grains of ZP maize hybrids.
comparison to the protein content in whole grains of corresponding maize hybrids as starting raw material (Figure 1).
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Samples of maize dried distillers' grains, a by-product of a
laboratory process of producing alternative fuel - bioethanol
were used in experiments. The starting raw material was grain,
i.e. whole grain maize flour of 20 maize hybrids developed at the
Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje. These hybrids encompassed standard grain quality hybrids and specialty maize hybrids. Samples of dried distillers' grains were prepared by the
procedure consisting of a separate two-step hydrolysis and fermentation of starch from samples of whole grain maize flour.
The method is based on use of commercial enzymatic products
Termamyl SC and SAN Extra L (Novozymes, Denmark) in the
phases of maize starch hydrolysis and on the application of yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus during fermentation
of hydrolysates after the procedure described by Semenčenko et
al. (2013). Samples of total distillers' grains of selected ZP maize
hybrids were dried in the ventilation dryer at the temperature of
60˚C for 48h. Dried samples were crushed in a mortar and subsequently ground in a laboratory mill with a rotating blade and a
cooling chamber. The contents of dry matter and protein were
determined by the standard laboratory method and the Kjeldahl
method, respectively. The dry matter digestibility was determined by a method suggested by Aufréré (2006). The content of
certain amino acids in dried distillers' grain samples was estimated by equations proposed by Fiene et al. (2006).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results obtained on quality of distillers' dried grains of ZP
maize hybrids show that the dry matter content varied from
90.47 (ZP Rumenka) to 91.87% (ZP 362), meaning that the
moisture content in all samples of distillers' dried grains was below 13%, which is the maximum value according to Serbian
Regulation on Quality of Feedstuff (2010). According to the US
Grain Council (2012), the recommended moisture content in distillers' dried grains amounts to 11%, which means that all observed samples of distillers' dried grains have met this criterion.
The protein content in the samples of distillers' dried grains
varied from 29.5% (ZP 505) to 36.08% (ZP 611k), which is
within recommended values (Pravilnik o kvalitetu hrane za
životinje, Sl. Glasnik RS 4/2010, 113/2012, 27/2014). According
to this Regulation, the minimum content in distillers' dried maize
grains should be 25%. Based on the comparison of the protein
content in the samples of dried distillers' grains with the protein
content in the whole grain flour of maize hybrids (9.07% vs.
13.25%) it can be concluded that the protein content in the samples of dried distillers' grains increased more than double in
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Fig. 1. Increase of protein content in DDGS compared to maize
grain as a starting raw material
Generally, proteins of maize distillers' grains originate from
two main sources: yeast and maize grain. During the growth,
yeast ferments starch and produces a cell mass that mainly consists of proteins (Belyea et al., 2004). Therefore, one part of proteins of maize distillers' grains originate from yeast. Since yeasts
do not have proteolytic enzymes, they cannot degrade maize proteins, and thus maize grain proteins remain in maize distillers'
grains, where they are enriched by yeast proteins.
The dry matter digestibility of samples of maize distillers'
grains was determined by the pepsin-cellulase method and
ranged from 74.09% (ZP Rumenka) to 82.41% (ZP 505) (Figure
2). A very high digestibility (81.88%) of dry matter of maize
dried distillers' grains was recorded in the waxy maize hybrid ZP
704wx. Waxy maize hybrids contain approximately 100% amylopectin starch components, unlike dent maize hybrids in which
the amylopectin to amylase ratio amounts to 72:28%. Some researches have determined that the use of waxy maize hybrids as
a dent maize substitute had a positive effects in nutrition of dairy
cows during the lactation period, as well as during the growth of
cattle (Akay et al., 2001). Other researchers concluded that it is
better to use waxy maize than yellow-seeded dent maize in the
diet of ruminants due to the high amylopectin digestibility in the
rumen of ruminants (Mohd et al., 1984). The good dry matter
digestibility of the waxy maize hybrid ZP 704 wx can be contributed, to the greatest degree, to the high amylopectin digestibility.
All coefficients of dry matter digestibility of maize distillers'
grains are higher than coefficients of dry matter digestibility of
the whole maize plant. Terzić et al. (2010) have registered values
of digestibility of dry matter of the whole maize plant ranging
from 58.09 to 66.65%. Previously published data on digestibility
of dry matter of maize grains of two ZP hybrids varied from
83.90 % for ZP 633 to 81.67 % for ZP Rumenka (Radosavljević
et al., 2010). A higher digestibility of dry matter of maize grain
than maize dried distillers' grains can be explained by a lower
content of cellulose and ashes and a higher content of easily digestible carbohydrates (mainly starch) in maize grain. The coefficient of correlation (r = - 0.15) indicates that the protein content does not have a significant effect on the dry matter digestibility (Semenčenko, 2013).
81
Semenčenko, Valentina et al. / Dried distillers' grains with solubles (ddgs) produced from different maize hybrids as animal feed
Numerous studies have been conducted on
the effects of feeding DDGS to different categories of animals. Niemiec et al. (2013) reported that 15% addition of maize dried distillers' grains with solubles to feed mixtures for
commercial flocks of laying hens was advisable. If maize DDGS addition exceeds 15%, a
slight decrease in production results and deterioration in selected parameters of egg quality
shall be expected. Loar et al. (2010) conducted
a study in which they fed laying hens with
varying levels of DDGS. The 16% DDGS
treatment resulted in a significantly higher egg
production than the 0, 8, and 24% treatments,
whereas the 32% treatment was intermediate
and was not significantly different from any
other treatment. Lumpkins et al. (2004) concluded that high quality DDGS was an acceptable ingredient in broiler diets and recomFig. 2. Dry matter digestibility of investigated DDGS samples
mended a 6% maximum dietary inclusion rate
in the starter period and 12 to 15% DDGS in grower and finisher
Table 1 shows calculated values of the content of certain
phases of broiler production. A study by Noll and Brannon
amino acids in maize dried distillers' grains.
(2005) showed that up to 20% DDGS could be included in turTable 1. Content of certain amino acids in DDGS samples key tom grower or finishing diets but when high protein levels
calculated according to equations proposed by Fiene et al. were fed, diets containing 15% DDGS can improve growth per(2006)
formance. The use of maize distillers' dried grains in swine diet
has been increasing. Many breeders add 20% DDGS into feed
Genotype
mixtures for all categories of swine. Although this percentage is
Amino acid
(%)
recommended, some breeders add DDGS to grower and finisher
ZP
ZP
ZP
ZP
ZP
ZP
diets of swine even in a higher percentage (up to 30%). Due to
434
611k
633
704wx
74b Rumenka
the risk that a higher share of maize distillers' dried grains in
Arginine
1.37
1.52
1.42
1.44
1.31
1.41
swine diet can adversely affect the quality (hardness) of bacon,
Isoleucine
1.22
1.36
1.29
1.28
1.15
1.28
this share should be limited to 20%, until negative effects are
Leucine
3.88
4.31
4.09
4.03
3.64
4.01
examined in detail. When formulating feed mixture with maize
Lysine
1.03
1.16
1.08
1.09
0.97
1.07
distillers' dried grains for different categories of swine, attention
Methionine
0.67
0.74
0.70
0.69
0.63
0.70
should be paid to meeting needs of digestible amino acids and
Cystine
0.66
0.72
0.68
0.69
0.64
0.68
absorbable phosphorus, as well as to the lysine to protein ratio.
TSAA
1.32
1.44
1.36
1.37
1.26
1.35
This ratio should not be lower than 2.80 in diets fed to swine
Threonine
1.19
1.31
1.23
1.24
1.13
1.22
(Stein, 2007).
Tryptophan
0.25
0.28
0.26
0.27
0.24
0.26
The participation of maize distillers' dried grains in all stages
Valine
1.62
1.78
1.69
1.68
1.53
1.68
of fattening cattle can be 40% of the diet dry matter. Such a parTSAA -Total Sulphur Amino Acid
ticipation of maize distillers' dried grains in diets fed to fattening
Spiehs et al. (2002) established a greater range of values of cattle results in a greater growth, better quality of meat and carthe arginine content (0.92-2.17 %), and a somewhat lower con- casses (U.S. Grains Council, 2012). The best applications for ustent of leucine (2.97-3.81%). According to the US Grain Council ing DDGS in beef cow diets are in situations when: 1) supple(2012) the contents of lysine, arginine, tryptophan and methion- mental protein is needed (especially when feeding low quality
ine of maize dried distillers' grains should range from 0.61% to forages) to replace maize gluten feed or soya bean meal, 2) a low
1.06%, 1.01 to 1.48%, 0.18 to 0.28% and 0.54 to 0.76%, respec- starch, high fibre energy source is needed to replace maize glutively. The calculated values for amino acids, in the majority of ten feed or soy hulls and 3) a source of supplemental fat is
cases, are in accordance with the average values given by the US needed (U.S. Grains Council, 2012).
Grain Council.
Data on the chemical composition, contents of digestible and
CONCLUSION
metabolisable energy, as well as presence of certain substances
Based on obtained results it can be concluded that samples of
in samples of dried distillers' grains of ZP maize hybrids, previously published by Semenčenko et al., (2013), also point to the dried distillers' grains of all studied ZP maize hybrids can be
characterised as very good. Values of observed parameters:
high quality of this nutrient.
moisture content, protein content and dry matter digestibility are
Spiehs et al. (2002) concluded that the chemical composition
of maize dried distillers' grains varied not only in dependence on in accordance with regulations on quality of feedstuffs. Therethe type of raw material, fermentation procedures and techno- fore, dried distillers' grains obtained from ZP maize hybrid can
logical processing, but it also varied from batch to batch within be used as nutrients for the preparation of complete and comthe same processing plant. Therefore, they recommended that a plementary feed.
The dry matter content varied from 90.47 (ZP Rumenka) to
complete chemical analysis to check the content of maize dried
91.87%
(ZP 362), pointing out that the moisture content in all
distillers' grains that were added to feedstuffs should be persamples
was below 12%, which is the maximum value according
formed at least once a year. Moreover, they concluded that
maize dried distillers' grains were generally higher in crude fat, to the Serbian Regulation (2014). A high protein content
digestible and metabolisable energy, lysine, methionine and (29.58% in ZP 505 and 36.08% in ZP 611k) indicates a high nuthreonine levels than DDGS of other cereals, hence they would tritional and energy value of distillers' dried grains as feed. The
protein percentage in maize distillers' dried grains was doubled
be better suited for use in diets of animals especially swine.
in relation to the maize grain as a starting raw material. The di-
82
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Semenčenko, Valentina et al. / Dried distillers' grains with solubles (ddgs) produced from different maize hybrids as animal feed
gestibility of dry matter of samples of maize distillers' dried
grains ranged from 74.09% (ZP Rumenka) to 82.41% (ZP 505),
i.e. it was higher than the digestibility of dry matter of the whole
maize plant, pointing out to potentially positive effects of distillers' dried grains as feed.
Calculated values of contents of certain amino acids in the
majority of cases agree with average values given in literature.
Obtained results point out to the fact that maize distillers'
dried grains with solubles as a by-product of bioethanol cerealbased industry can positively affect the development of bioethanol production in our country, as well as it could be used as
feedstuffs in diets of many domestic animals.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Research presented in this paper
is a result of the project TR 31068, funded by the Ministry of
Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.
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83
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 84-87
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Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
QUALITY PROPERTIES OF WHEAT SEED THRESHED ON MOBILE
THRESHER "ERNET" TYPE V-08
KVALITETNA SVOJSTVA SEMENA PŠENICE OVRŠENE NA MOBILNOJ
VRŠALICI "ERNET" TIP V–08
Jasmina KNEŽEVIĆ*, Dragoslav ĐOKIĆ**, Rade STANISAVLJEVIĆ***, Miroljub AKSIĆ*, Slavica ĆIRIĆ*, Dragan TERZIĆ**
*University of Priština, Faculty of Agriculture, 38219 Lešak, Kopaonička bb, Serbia
**Institute for Forage Crops, 37251 Globoder, Kruševac, Serbia
***Institute for Plant Protection and Environment, Teodora Drajzera 9, 11000 Beograd, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
The examination results on threshing ten wheat varieties on the reconstructed mobile thresher “Ernet” type V-08 in small experimental plots in the village Globoder are presented in this paper. The threshing process is an integral part of the collection of seed
wheat and was conducted on experimental plots immediately after the manual mowing of the crops. During the testing the following
qualitative characteristics of each variety were determined: seed moisture, weight of 1000 grains, hectoliter mass, germination energy and germination. The thresher's cleaning quality was determined by taking the average sample from the bags in which the seeds
were collected after threshing. The samples were taken in the process of threshing wheat in the experimental fields, and then in the
laboratory of the Institute for Forage Crops in Globoder-Krusevac clean and broken seed, other varieties, inert matter and weed
were subsequently separated for each cultivar. The study aim was to examine the quality of different varieties wheat seed, as well as
practical application and evaluation of the operating quality of the reconstructed mobile thresher, “Ernet” type V-08.
Key words: wheat seed, germination energy, seed germination, mobile thresher, broken seeds.
REZIME
U radu su prikazani rezultati ispitivanja pri vršidbi deset sorata pšenice na rekonstruisanoj mobilnoj vršalici ,,Ernet“ tip V-08 na
malim oglednim parcelama u ataru sela Globoder. Proces vršidbe je sastavni deo ubiranja semenske pšenice i obavljen je na
oglednim parcelama odmah nakon ručnog košenja useva. Pri ispitivanju za svaku sortu određena su sledeća kvalitativna svojstva:
vlažnost semena, masa 1000 zrna, hektolitarska masa, energija klijanja i klijavost. Kvalitet čišćenja vršalice određivan je uzimanjem
prosečnog uzorka iz kesica u koje je seme prikupljeno nakon vršidbe. Uzorci su uzimani u procesu vršidbe pšenice na oglednim
poljima, a zatim u laboratoriji Instituta za krmno bilje u Globoderu-Kruševcu naknadno je za svaku sortu izdvojeno čisto i
polomljeno seme, druge vrste, inertne materije i korov. Cilj ispitivanja bio je ispitivanje kvaliteta semena pšenice različitih sorata,
kao i praktična primena i ocena kvaliteta rada vršidbenog uređaja rekonstruisane mobilne vršalice ,,Ernet“ tip V-08.
Ključne reči: seme pšenice, energija klijanja, klijavost semena, mobilna vršalica, polomljeno seme.
INTRODUCTION
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important field
crop in Serbia and other countries of the Balkan Peninsula, as
well as throughout the world due to the production of bread for
human consumption (Babić et al., 2010; Vučković, 1999; Đokić,
2003; Štatkić et al., 2008; Barać et al., 2005; Barac et al.,
2011). Over 70% of population in the world is feed on wheat
bread. Out of the total arable areas on the Earth that include
about a billion acres, about 23% are occupied by the wheatgrown areas. Wheat bread is characterized by high protein content (16 - 17%), carbohydrates (77 - 78%), fat (1.2 - 1.5%) and
good digestibility (Jevtić, 1996). Wheat is important in the milling industry, the industry of bread, biscuits, brewery, pharmaceutical industry and dextrin industry. The straw is used as bedding in livestock breeding and it can also be used as biofuel. The
bran as a by-product is used as a concentrated animal feed and it
also serves to improve the quality of bread.
According to the areas on which it is grown in Serbia, wheat
ranks second behind corn. As the most significant field crop in
Serbia in 2011 wheat was harvested on the area of 493006 ha
with an average yield of 4.2 t ha-1 (Statistical Yearbook of the
Republic of Serbia, 2012).
Seeds by definition are used for the reproduction in agriculture or for survival and subsistence of plant species under natural
conditions. Quality seed has a great impact on the yield of the
crop plants. On the quality of seeds primarily affect genetic
84
traits, applied cultural practices, agro-ecological conditions, procedures in finishing making of the seed starting from threshing,
reception, drying, packaging and storage of seeds (Marić, 1987).
Produced from quality seed plants have faster growth, provide
healthy plants that are resistant to various stress conditions (tolerate drought, low temperatures better, they are less subject to
diseases and pests). For the production of quality seed a long
production process is required starting from the sowing and includes controlling the crops in the field, through testing the seeds
quality in the laboratory and ending with the finishing process.
One of the basic indicators of seed vigor of which its use
value depends on is certainly the germination. It represents the
percentage of germinated seeds for a certain time under certain
conditions. High seed germination provides the crop that will
achieve the best structure in the field, uniform germination of
crops enabling high yields of excellent quality. The biological
property of seeds is particularly important in practical terms because it directly affects the amount of seed for sowing per unit
area. If seed germination is greater the less quantity of seed for
sowing is needed and vice versa (Dolijanović and Broćić, 2004).
For grain agricultural products the concept of thousand grains
mass is introduced, determined by a count of 1000 grains, and
then their mass using analytical scale is determined (Babić and
Babić, 2007).
When threshing wheat in whole grain mass the content of
impurities, broken and poor grain is undesirable, both in seedy
goods and also in grain used for processing, since it makes more
difficult the process of cleaning and storage of seeds, as well as
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Knežević, Jasmina et al. / Quality Properties of Wheat Seed Threshed on Mobile Thresher "Ernet" type v-08
the quality of the resulting product. The operating parts of harvesting device are limiting factors for the thresher operating
quality. By the improper adjustment and increased inflow of
mass being threshed the percentage of impurities is increased
and also the losses of threshing machines. The number of factors
that affect the quality of the cleaner is large: the moisture of
crops and seeds, compliance of the drum-concave gaps with
drum revolving speed, screens setting, fan speed, openness of
side fan covers. With the appropriate combination of drumconcave clearance with drum speed depending on the condition
of crops the least amount of impurities are obtained. If all of the
factors are not harmonized then the amount of impurities increase. The aim of the threshing process is to get as high as possible quantity of quality seeds without impurities.
In the wheat harvest using harvesters in conditions of Vojvodina the quality of harvested seeds was very high, with a high
content of whole seeds and low content of broken seeds, small
grain seeds and impurities (Đević et al., 2004; Malinović et al.,
2005; Barać et al., 2006). Seed grain size distribution is significant for cleaning, grading and separation. (Babić et al., 2010).
By the Law on seeds and planting material wheat seed quality
must comply with statutory norms for seed material with the
lowest seed purity of 97%, minimum germination of 82%, with
the highest moisture content in the seeds of 15%, without the
presence of other types of seeds and weeds (Official Gazette of
SFRY no. 47, 1987).
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Testing the quality of mobile thresher Type V-08 in threshing wheat seeds were carried out in 2013. year on the sample
plots in the village Globoder (Fig. 1). The size of basic plot was
5 m2 (4 m x 1.25 m). Before harvest, the state of the crops, the
presence of weeds has been determined and plant height measured. The crop was laid with partial weed. The average plant
height from the base to the top of the ear ranged from 75.3 cm in
the variety X to 93.0 cm in the variety VIII. Sowing of all experimental plots was carried out on 19th November and the sprouting was recorded on 29th November 2012. Prior to threshing
each plot was previously mowed by hand, and then complete
harvest mass was collected from the ground and gradually
thrown into the thresher. The threshing of one variety lasted until
the whole seed and straw left the threshers. The quality of
threshing was determined by taking an average sample from the
bag collecting the threshed seeds from the thresher. In the lab
from the average sample the whole, poor and broken seed, weeds
and other inert materials were separated and weighed on an analytical balance. Seed purity is the ratio of the given seed variety
and the amount of the various impurities contained in the sample.
Threshing was carried out on 22. 07. 2013. year at very favorable hydro-meteorological conditions. After completion of
the threshing of each variety the quality of harvested wheat seed
was determined in the laboratory where the following seed properties were analyzed: 1000 grains weight, seed moisture, hectoliter mass, germination energy, germination and seed purity. The
weight of 1000 wheat seed was determined by taking the 8 x 100
seeds where the seeds were manually separated. Hectoliter mass
is the weight of the seed in the volume of 1 hl (100 liters). It is
determined by hectoliter (Schopper) scale with a cylinder capacity of 0.4 l. When the mass of seeds in a volume of 0.4 l is measured, the hectoliter mass is determined by calculation. Germination energy and seed germination was determined after germination in the hot bed of the Institute of Forage Crops in GloboderKruševac. Germination viability is the speed and uniformity of
germination. Determination of germination viability was performed on the fourth day after placement in the hothouse, and
seed germination on the eighth day after the placement in the
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
hothouse according to standards for testing wheat seed. The
temperature in the hot bed was set at 21oC with the mode 16
hours a day, 8 hours a night. Seed germination is the percentage
of germinated seeds for a certain time under certain conditions.
It is determined by the germination test and expressed as a percentage. Germination is one of the most important biological
characteristics of seeds and based on it future development of the
crop and its density can be predicted. To determine the germination the seeds were placed in plastic containers on the ground for
germination of filter paper with a certain amount of water. Germination is the most important parameter for determining the
amount of seeds for planting.
Fig. 1. Threshing wheat in a mobile threshing machine "ERNET" Type V-08
Technical characteristics of the tested mobile thresher “ERNET” Type V-08 are shown in Table 1.
Table. 1. Technical features of a mobile thresher "ERNET"
Type V-08
Parameters
Engine power (kW)
Drum width (mm)
Drum diameter (mm)
Number of drum rails
Drum revolution (min-1)
Sieve surface (m2)
Clearance drum-concave (mm)
Weight (kg)
Height x width x length (mm)
V-08
29.5
500
350
6
450-1000
0.49
20-8
470
2020 x 1350 x 3300
Using variator in the tested tresher, the number of drum
revolutions can be regulated. The clearance between the drum
and concave can be controlled. The orientation and volume of air
flow can be regulated by the secondary sieve opening. For
threshing wheat the bottom sieve was used with round holes of 6
mm in diameter. Separation of chaff from seed happens at the
lower sieve. Clean seeds passing through the lower sieve fall on
the collecting table below it and are collected into a suitable container through the outlet opening of threshing machine. The reconstructed threshing machine in comparison to the previous
structure differs in that instead of drive drum pulleys drive is
realized by the variator enabling a more simple change of the
gear ratio that is the change of the number of revolutions. The
distance between the drum and concave is also adjusted through
the threaded spindle.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
One of the most important indicators of the threshing machine operating quality in addition to the amount of losses on
trashing device is the quality of the threshing that is the extent of
damage and mechanical damage of wheat seed. The quality of
harvested wheat seeds is shown in table 2. From inert material
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Knežević, Jasmina et al. / Quality Properties of Wheat Seed Threshed on Mobile Thresher "Ernet" Type v-08
soil had the highest share as well as straw and crop residues,
shriveled grain and a certain percentage of broken seeds. The
lowest quality of harvested wheat seed was recorded in the variety IX and amounted to 83.7%. The content of inert material in
the form of chaff, straw, crop residues and broken seeds (3.2%)
was very high at 13.2%. In the sample from weeds common
knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare L.) was present with 3.1%.
Such a high content of inert materials can be due to a larger content of harmful plants and the uneven operation of the threshing
device due to insertion of a larger quantity of threshing mass.
The highest percentage of pure seed was recorded in the variety
X (92%), with 7.6% of inert material in the form of chaff, soil,
straw, poor seeds and broken seeds (0.09%). Weeds in the form
of sorrel (Rumex spp.) and bindweed (Convulvus arvensis) were
present with 0.4%.
Table 2. The purity of wheat seed after threshing in %
Var. Seed struc- (%)
Weed species
ture
Pure seed
91.3
Other species I Inert matter 7.6 Soil, chaff, crop residue, broken seeds (0.3%)
Weed
1.1 Common knotgrass (Poligonum aviculare L.),
sorrel (Rumex spp.)
Pure seed
91.8
Other species II Inert matter 6.1
Weed
2.1 Chaff, straw, crop residues, shriveled grain, broken
seeds (0.98%)
Pure seed
88.7
Other species III
Inert matter 7.7 Soil, chaff, crop residue, broken seeds (0.3%)
Weed
3.6
Pure seed
90.8
Other species IV Inert matter 5.6 Chaff, straw, shriveled grain, broken seeds (1,2%)
Weed
3.6 sorrel (Rumex spp.), common knotgrass (Poligonum aviculare L.)
Pure seed
90.4
Other species 1.1 Barley
V Inert matter 8.3 Soil, chaff, crop residue
Weed
0.2 Couch grass (Agropyron repens Beauv), field thistle (Cirsium arvense L.)
Pure seed
90.4
Other species VI
Inert matter 7.0 Soil, chaff, crop residue
Weed
2.6 Bindweed (Convulvus arvensis)
Pure seed
88.0
Other species VII Inert matter 9.6 Chaff, straw, shriveled grain, broken seeds (1.2%)
Weed
2.4 Common knotgrass (Poligonum aviculare L.),
couch grass (Agropyron repens Beauv)
Pure seed
90.8
Other species VIII
Inert matter 5.6 Chaff, crop residue, soil, broken seeds (0.62%)
Weed
3.6 sorrel (Rumex spp.), Poligonum
Pure seed
83.7
Other species IX
Inert matter 13.2 Chaff, straw, crop residue, broken seeds (3.2 %)
Weed
3.1 Common knotgrass (Poligonum aviculare L.)
Pure seed
92.0
Other species X Inert matter 7.6 Chaff, soil, straw, poor seed, broken seeds (0.09%)
Weed
0.4 Sorrel (Rumex spp.), bindweed (Convulvus arvensis)
Design features and technical and technological possibilities
of experimental thresher "ERNET" Type V-08, according to studies are such that samples of high purity even up to 98.52% can
be obtained (Djokic et al., 2012). If in the experimental field a
higher content of weeds is present and if the right mode is not
used for threshing, the percentage of pure seed is reduced, i.e.
the seed with a higher percentage of impurities in the form of
86
chaff, parts of plant and ears, leaves are obtained. The quality of
harvested wheat seed is affected by several factors, primarily the
crop moisture, compliance of the drum-concave clearance with
drum's number of revolutions, fan speed, as well as the size of
aperture for air flow setting, setting of medium sieve aperture
size and the proper selection of the diameter of the lower variable sieve. Impurities, broken and small grained seed in the
threshed seeds are undesirable because they hamper the further
process of cleaning and storing seeds and adversely affect the
quality of the resulting product. Operating elements for cleaning
are the limiting factor of seed cleaning quality (Đokić et
al.,2013). Technological parameters and design of the threshing
apparatus influence grain damage (Špokas et al., 2008).
The table 3. shows the yield of each variety of wheat,
hectoliter mass, 1000 seed weight, germination energy, germination and seed moisture. The lowest yield was in the variety IX
and amounted 1.820 kg on the area of 5 m2, while the highest
yield was 2.650 kg on the area of 5 m2 in the variety IV. The average yield for all varieties was 2.342 kg on the area of 5 m2.
Hectoliter mass of seed is dependent on the shape, the purity and
moisture. Better soaked and large seed has a higher hectoliter
mass. The minimum hectoliter mass was 79.0 kg hl-1 in the variety IX, while the highest of 86.75 kg hl-1 was in the variety X.
The average value of hectoliter mass for all varieties was 83.17
kg hl-1.
Table 3. Yield, hectoliter mass, weight of 1000 seeds, germination energy, germination and seed moisture
SortYield at time on Hectoliter Weight of Germination Germination Seed
harvesting in kg mass
1000
energy
(%)
moist.
per 5 m2
(kg hl-1) seeds (g)
(%)
(%)
I
2.270
85.0
45.21
91.0
93.0
12.4
II
2.050
82.27
42.54
89.0
91.0
13.0
III
2.180
82.87
38.81
89.0
89.0
10.9
IV
2.650
84.8
44.31
89.0
90.0
12.0
V
2.270
82.65
40.67
92.0
94.0
11.0
VI
2.550
79.6
42.15
90.0
93.0
13.4
VII
2.580
84.82
33.39
93.0
94.0
11.6
III
2.500
83.97
33.68
88.0
94.0
13.6
IX
1.820
79.0
41.28
90.0
90.0
11.0
X
2.550
86.75
44.15
93.0
95.0
11.6
2.342
83.17
40.62
90.4
92.2
12.05
X
The absolute mass of seeds represents 1000-grain weight and
is expressed in grams. The absolute weight of the wheat seed
represents soaked seed and ranges between 30-50 g depending
on varieties, cultural practices and meteorological conditions
(Mladenovski and Nikolovski, 2000). The amount of seed that
will be used for planting depends on the mass of 1000 seeds. It
depends on seed size, moisture and physiological maturity of
seeds. Larger seed provides a stronger root system, stronger tillering, thus achieving higher yield. For tested samples the lowest
absolute weight was 33.39 g in the variety VII, while the highest
was 45.21 g in variety I. The average value of the absolute mass
of all varieties amounted to 40.62 g. Germination viability is the
ability of seeds to germinate as much as possible in the shortest
possible time. Seeds with higher germination energy have faster
sprouting having an impact of seeds in the first stages of vegetative growth germinating uniformly and simultaneously. This ensures that the crop has an initial advantage and is more ready for
the negative impact of climatic factors. Seed of the variety VIII
had the lowest germination energy of 88% while wheat seed of
varieties II, III and IV had uniform germination energy of 89%.
The highest germination energy of 93% had seed varieties VII
and X. The average energy of germination for all the cultivars
was 90.4%. One of the basic indicators of seed vigor of which its
use value depends on is certainly the germination. High germina-
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Knežević, Jasmina et al. / Quality Properties of Wheat Seed Threshed on Mobile Thresher "Ernet" type v-08
tion seed provides the best crop structure in the field. Uniform
crop emergence leads to high yields of excellent quality. Germination ranged from 89% in the variety III to 95% in the variety
X. The average germination amounted to 92.2%, which was significantly higher value than the statutory standards. Seed moisture was rather uniform, with a minimum moisture content of
10.9% in the variety III and maximum seed moisture of 13.6% in
the variety VIII. The average moisture of the wheat seed was
12.05%. Seed moisture is an important indicator of quality. The
length of storage also depends on the seed moisture. The data in
Table 3 show that all the wheat samples had seeds moisture favorable for long-term storage which according to the standards
for seed material is 15%. In the process of the seed threshing the
seed there also comes to damage and breakage of seeds. Damaged seeds with weeds seeds and other impurities with the increased humidity are spoiled more quickly because in these conditions the seeds are more susceptible to intensive breathing and
increase in temperature of mass. In these conditions there is a
high possibility of increasing the number of harmful microorganisms. These jointly lead to a drop in germination energy and
germination, that is reduces the use-value of seeds.
CONCLUSION
In the process of threshing ten varieties of wheat seed using
the mobile experimental thresher, “Ernet” Type V-08 quality
parameters were investigated such as: seed purity, germination
energy, germination, hectoliter and absolute weight, moisture.
Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the purity
of seeds ranged from the lowest value of 83.7% to 92%. The
hectoliter mass ranged from 79.0 kg hl-1 to 86.75 kg hl-1 with an
average value of 83.17 kg hl-1. The absolute weight ranged from
33.39 g to 45.21 g. The germination energy was from 88% to
93%. Germination ranged from 89% to 95%, which is significantly higher than the statutory minimum germination of 82%.
The seed moisture ranged from 10.9% to 13.6%, which is lower
than the statutory value amounting to 15% for wheat seed. Based
on the results of threshing of wheat seed using the experimental
mobile thresher "Ernet" Type V-08 it can be concluded that the
device with the proper setup and operation mode corresponds to
the purpose and also that the quality properties of the tested
wheat varieties is satisfactory.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT:Research was financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of
Republic of Serbia, Projects: TR-31092 (2011-2014) and TR31057 (2011-2014).
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87
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 88-90
UDK: 005.591.1
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
CHEMOMETRIC APPROACH TO OPTIMIZATION OF
WHITE CABBAGE FERMENTATION
HEMOMETRIJSKI PRISTUP OPTIMIZACIJE PROCESA
FERMENTACIJE BELOG KUPUSA
Biljana CVETKOVIĆ*, Lato PEZO**, Anamarija MANDIĆ*, Aleksandra NOVAKOVIĆ*,
Mladenka PESTORIĆ*, Žarko KEVREŠAN*, Jasna MASTILOVIĆ*
*
University of Novi Sad, Institute for Food Technology, Bulevard cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
**
University of Belgrade, Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, 11000 Belgrade,
Studentski trg 12/V, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
The aim of the present work is to optimize fermentation process of whole cabbage heads of white cabbage (cultivar „Futoški“
and hybrid “Bravo“ were considered within this research). Both cabbages were subjected to fermentation process, with addition of
1- 2% NaCl, at temperature 18-22oC. Different organic acids contents (oxalic – OK1, lactic – OK2, acetic – OK3, malic – OK4, citric –
OK5, succinic – OK6 and formic– OK7) within cabbage leaves and brine were monitored during 80 days. Principal component analysis exerted good discrimination capabilities for different samples of „Futoški“ and hybrid “Bravo“ cabbage heads fermentation
process, while standard score helped in optimal process parameters determination.
Key words: cabbage, fermentation, organic acid, pca, optimization.
REZIME
Cilj ovog rada je da se optimizuje proces fermentacije belog kupusa u glavicama (populacija “Futoški” beli kupus i hibrid
“Bravo” su analizirani). Obe vrste kupusa su podvrgnute procesu fermentacije uz dodatak 1-2% soli, i na temperaturi od 18-22oC.
Sastav različitih organskih kiselina (oksalna – OK1, mlečna – OK2, sirćetna – OK3, jabučna – OK4, limunska – OK5, ćilibarna – OK6 i
mravlja – OK7) je određivan u listovima kupusa i nalivu tokom 80 dana fermentacije.
Maksimalna detektovana količina mlečne kiseline u rasolu bila je 11,9·103 i 15,7·103 mg/L za kupus “Futoški“ i hibrid “Bravo“,
respektivno. Koncentracija mlečne kiselina u listovima bila je 11,2·103 mg/kg i 14,2·103 mg/kg za “Futoški“ i hibrid “Bravo“, respektivno. Fermentacija glavice Futoškog“ kupusa je završena ranije nego fermentacija kod hibrida “Bravo“, ali je kod hibrida
“Bravo“ bila veća koncentracija organskih kiselina. Primenjena višeparametarska analiza glavnih komponenata (Principal Component Analysis) pokazala je dobre mogućnosti za određivanje grupa među različitim uzorcima glavica sorte „Futoškog“ i hibrida
“Bravo“, u toku procesa fermentacije. Analiza standardnih ocena (Standard score) je korišćena za određivanje optimalnih procesnih
parametara.
Ključne reči: kupus, fermentacija, organska kiselina, pca, optimizacija.
INTRODUCTION
Lactic acid fermentation, an ancient preservation method, is
nowadays especially favored as a “natural” process to increase
the shelf-life, with effect on sensorial characteristics of various
products (Halász et al., 1999; Korovičova et al. , 2003; Breidt et
al, 2007; Di Cagno et al. 2011). Proper cabbage fermentation
depends on cabbage variety (Dobričević et al., 2004; Stamer et
al., 1969), temperature and on the addition of sodium chloride at
the correct concentration (Pederson & Albury, 1969; Wiander &
Ryhänen, 2005; Wiander et al., 2003, Penas et al., 2010; Wolkers-Rooijackers et al., 2013). Sauerkraut as shredded salted and
fermented cabbage is well reported in the literature
(Johanningsmeier et al., 2007; Johanningsmeier et al., 2005; Lu
et al., 2003; Wiander & Palva, 2008; Martinez‐Villaluenga et
al., 2009). The same is not true for the fermentation of whole
cabbage heads which is tradition in the region of western Balkan, and the study of its quality is aim of this work.
Chemical changes during fermentation process have been
analyzed.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Fermentation trials
About 60 kg of cultivar “Futoški”, and hybrid “Bravo”
cabbage have been subjected to spontaneous fermentation
process. Cabbage heads were prepared by removing the 3-4 outer leaves. NaCl solution was applied on cabbage heads and all
together was pressed tightly and covered with a plastic film. The
NaCl was used in concentrations of 1, 1.5 and 2% (w/w), tem-
88
perature of fermentation was applied in intervals 16-18oC, 1820oC and 20-22oC. NaCl was purchased from the local market.
Oxalic, lactic, acetic, malic, citric, succinic, formic, propionic
and butyric acid concentration have been measured during
fermentation.
Cabbage heads were taken from the barrel in the given time
intervals, blended and frozen (-18oC) for further organic acids
analysis as one represetative sample. Brine samples were also
taken. pH value was measured directly in cabbage brine with
mobile ExStik pH Meter (Extech instruments, U.S.A).
Organic acid analysis:
For organic acid analysis brine samples were defrosted,
diluted (1:1), centrifuged for 10 min at 4000 rpm and applied in
chromatograph, after filtration through 0.45 µm filter. Cabbage
tissue samples were defrosted, choped and homogenized in
Ultra-turrax IKA T25 digital, 6000 rpm and diluted with distilled
water (ratio 1:1.5). Homogenized cabbage leaves samples along
with water were stired on magnetic stirrer, 400 rpm, for 30
minutes, for better extraction, centrifuged for 15 minutes, 4000
rpm and filtered (0,45 µm) before injection into column.
Determination of organic acids was carried out by HPLC system
on Liquid Chromatograph Agilent Technologies 1200 series,
with diode array detector, in column Zorbax SB C18, 3 x 250
mm, according to Jayabalan et al., 2007. Organic acids were
detrmined in cabbage tissue after 10 , 20, and 50 days of
fermenation, and in the brine on 3rd, 6th, 10th, 15th, 22nd, 37th, 55th
and 80th day of fermentation.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were performed using StatSoft Statistica, for
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Cvetković, Biljana et al. / Chemometric Approach to Optimization of White Cabbage Fermentation
Windows, version 10.0 program. Principal component analysis
(PCA) has been applied successfully to classify and discriminate
the different cultivars of cabbage. Pattern recognition technique
has been applied within results descriptors to characterize and
differentiate all varieties of samples. In order to describe and optimize the fermentation process, organic acid contents were monitored. The accepted 33 full factorial, central composite experimental design, with 3 levels and 3 parameters in 1 block was
applied in calculation. The RSM method was selected to estimate the main effect of the process variables on organic acids
content. The independent variables were: duration of fermentation process (X1) - 0, 10 and 20 days (for cabbage heads),
and 0,40 and 80 days for brine; temperature (X2) - 18, 20 and
22o C; X3 is the salt concentration (1, 1.5 and 2% w/w), and the
dependent variables were the responses: oxalic – OK1, lactic–
OK2, acetic– OK3, malic– OK4, citric– OK5, succinic– OK6 and
formic– OK7. The following second order polynomial (SOP)
model was fitted to the data. Seven models of the following
form were developed to relate four responses (OK) to three
process variables (X):
3
3
2
OK k  k 0   ki X i   kii X i2  
i 1
i 1
3

kij
Xi X j ,
i 1 j  i 1
k=1-7
(1)
where: β0, βi, βii, βij are constant regression coefficients.
Min-max normalization is one of the most widely used technique to compare various characteristics of complex samples determined using multiple assays, where samples are ranked based
on the ratio of raw data and extreme values of the measurement
used. Since the units and the scale of the data from various parameters are different, the data in each data set should be transformed into normalized scores, according to following equations:
xi 
max xi  xi
i
max xi  min xi
i
(2)
, i
i
with some researchers’ claims (Johanningsmeier et al., 2005;
Johanningsmeier et al., 2007), and commercial sauerkrauts values (Trail et al., 1996), and slightly higher than certain claims
(Wolkers-Rooijackers et al., 2013). Higher values of acetic acid
were found in hybrid “Bravo” brine and in the cabbage leaves in
relation to cabbage cultivar “Futoški”, but in both cabbages obtained values for acetic acid content are slightly lower than in
statements of other authors (Fleming, 1987; Johanningsmeier et
al., 2007; Trail et al., 1996; Plevingdyhua et al., 2007). The recorded acetic acid content in “Bravo” cabbage brine was 1.0·103
mg/L, after 37th day of fermentation, while the concentration of
1.4·103 mg/L was noticed after 80th day. Acetic acid content
reached 1.0·103 mg/L, after 37 days in “Futoški” cabbage brine,
and its concentration remain unchanged till 80th day. All of the
above indicates that fermentation is slower in hybrids and salt
much more slowly diffuses into the cabbage tissue which results
in slower growth of acids content. In the cabbage leaves, content of acetic acid was higher in hybrid cultivar, after 50 days of
fermentation it was 1.8 ·103 mg/L, while in cabbage cultivar
“Futoški” was about 1.2 ·103 mg/L.
“Bravo“ hybrid cultivar has a higher content of oxalic acid
and formic acid in relation to cabbage cultivar “Futoški“. Malic,
citric and succinic acid were equally attended in both varieties
during the fermentation of cabbage in the quantities that are in
line with other authors.(Fleming, 1987; Trail et al., 1996). Propionic and butyric acid where not detected in the cabbage head
and brine samples during fermentation of cultivar “Futoški” and
hybrid “Bravo“.
“Futoški” achieved the end of fermentation after 20 days for
cabbage head, while“Bravo“ reached the end of fermentation
after 50 days for cabbage head.
The SOP models for all variables were found to be statistically significant and the response surfaces were fitted to
these models. ANOVA analysis revealed that the linear terms
contributed substantially in all of the cases to generate a significant SOP model.
Linear term of temperature in SOP model, was the most in-
i
i
i
 min xi  xi  m,
i
m

min
xi

i
(3)

xi  
m  xi  n, 1
, i

xi  n
 n  xi  max xi , 1 
i
max
xi  n

i

Tim e (days)
where: xi represents the raw data. Above written formula was
used for standard score calculation for oxalic and
formic acid.
20
“Futoški”
Normalized scores of the rest of organic acids
contents are evaluated according to optimal values,
16
using trapezoidal function, as follows:
12
x  min x

8
4
0
1400 1600
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
(a)
“Bravo”
1400
1600
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
(b)
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
Salt concentration
Salt concentration
Fig. 1. Oxalic acid content in cabbage tissue (×103mg/kg) during fermentation,
for cultivar “Futoški“ and hybrid “Bravo“, at 20oC
where m and n are minimum and maximum of
optimal range values. Optimal values for lactic acid
were in the range of 5000-20000 mg/L, optimal acetic acid range was between 0-7000 mg/L, malic acid range was
in the range of 50-100 mg/L, optimal citric acid content was between 500-1000 mg/L, an succinic acid content was in the range
between 0 and 200 mg/L.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 1 shows oxalic acid content in the cabbage leaves during fermentation.
In the hybrid “Bravo” brine, from 55th day to 80th day ,
lactic acid content increased from 11.3 ·103 mg/L to 15.7 ·103
mg/L. , while in the brine of cabbage cultivar “Futoški”, lactic
acid content after 37, until 80 day didn’t changed (12.7 ·103
mg/L. Values of lactic acid content in both cabbages are in line
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
fluential for oxalic, lactic, acetic and malic content calculation in
cabbage heads for “Futoški” cultivar, while quadratic term of
time duration was most influential for citric, succinic and formic
acids content. Obtained coefficients of determination for organic
acids calculation ranged between 0.771 and 0.999 were considered as adequate for organic acids evaluation.
During fermentation of “Bravo” hybrid cabbage heads, linear
temperature term in SOP model was the most influential for
oxalic, lactic, acetic, malic and citric acids content evaluation,
while quadratic term in SOP model was most important in succinic and formic acids content calculation. Obtained coefficients
of determination for organic acids calculation ranged between
0.717 and 0.993 were considered as adequate.
89
Cvetković, Biljana et al. / Chemometric Approach to Optimization of White Cabbage Fermentation
90
Factor 2: 3.96%
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1.5
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3
2112
1.0
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1.0 27 24
19
15 6
11 2
10
Lu, Z., Breidt, F., Plengvidhya, V.,
22
20
9
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OK4
OK7
1
0.5
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25
Fleming, H. (2003). Bacteriophage
4
OK1
OK2
5
14
13
23
OK3
OK3
ecology in commercial sauerkraut
16 7
10 1
0.0 OK6
0.0
fermentations.
Applied
and
OK2
19 4
OK5
8
17
OK5
OK1 156
13 7
17
8
environmental
microbiology,
69(6),
26
26
24 9
OK7
23
-0.5
-0.5
25 2216
14
OK4 18
3192-3202.
OK6
5
27
21 12
20
Martinez‐Villaluenga, C., Peñas, E.,
3
11
-1.0
-1.0
2
Frias, J., Ciska, E., Honke, J., Piskula,
(a)
(b)
-1.5
M. K., Vidal‐Valverde, C. (2009).
-1.5
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
0
1
2
3
4
Influence of fermentation conditions
Factor 1: 94.87%
Factor 1: 90.15%
on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and
Fig. 2. Biplots of organic acids content in “Futoški" (a) and
ascorbic acid content in white cabbage
“Bravo” during fermentation process (b)
(Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv.
Taler) cultivated in different seasons.
CONCLUSION
Journal of food science, 74 (1), C62-C67.
Organic acid analysis in fermentation of cultivar“Futoški" Pederson, C.S., Albury, M.N. (1969). The sauerkraut
and hybrid “Bravo” shows that fermentation is slower in hybrfermentation. Cornell University.
ids and salt much more slowly diffuses into the cabbage tissue Peñas, E., Frias, J., Sidro, B., Vidal-Valverde, C. (2010).
which results in slower growth of acids content. More acetic acid
Chemical evaluation and sensory quality of sauerkrauts
and lactic acid were found in brine and the cabbage leaves in hyobtained by natural and induced fermentations at different
brid in
relation to cultivar “Futoški”.Cultivar “Futoški”
NaCl levels from Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Bronco
achieved the end of fermentation after 20 days for cabbage
grown in eastern Spain. Effect of storage. Journal of
head, while “Bravo“ reached the end of fermentation after 50
agricultural and food chemistry, 58 (6), 3549-3557.
days for cabbage head. Analysis and comparison of two cabbage Plengvidhya, V., Breidt, F., Lu, Z., Fleming, H. P. (2007). DNA
varieties, shown that Serbian cultivar “Futoški” is more suitable
fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut
material for fermentation of cabbage heads than hybrid “Bravo“.
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Compacted hybrid cabbage heads possibly require higher con73(23), 7697-7702.
centration of salt for fermentation process.
Stamer, J., Dickson, M., Bourke, J., Stoyla, B. (1969).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: These results are part of projects
Fermentation patterns of poorly fermenting cabbage hybrids.
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supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, III 46001 and TR- Trail, A., Fleming, H., Young, C., McFeeters, R. (1996).
Chemical and sensory characterization of commercial
31055. 2011-2014
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Factor 2: 8.20%
Quadratic term of fermentation time was the most important
for organic acids calculation using SOP models, for both
"Futoški" cultivar and "Bravo" hybrid. Obtained coefficients of
determination for "Futoški" cultivar were in the range between
0.724 and 0.960, and between 0.867 and 0.966 for "Bravo" hybrid. These values can be considered as adequate for organic acids
calculation.
Standard scores analysis showed that the optimum organic
acids content have been experienced with “Futoški” cultivar.
Optimal processing parameters for both cabbage heads were: 20
days of fermentation process, 2.0% salt content, 20oC temperature. The PCA allows a considerable reduction in a number of
variables and the detection of relationship structure between
measuring parameters. PCA gives complimentary information
about analyzed cabbage cultivars and process parameters. All
samples have been produced with different cabbage cultivars and
various conditioning treatment and predicted by PCA score plots
(Figure 2). The full auto scaled data matrix consisting of two different varieties of cabbage heads with different technological
treatment are submitted to PCA. As can be seen, there is a neat
separation of the different processing conditions, according to
used assays for all samples. Quality results show that the first
two principal components, accounting for 98.35 % of the total
variability for “Futoški" cabbage and 98.83% for hybrid “Bravo”
can be considered sufficient for data representation
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Biblid: 1821-4487 (2014) 18; 2; p 91-93
UDK: 621.86
Original Scientific Paper
Originalni naučni rad
MODERN SUPERVISORY CONTROL SYSTEM IN A PNEUMATIC
TRANSPORT SYSTEM: PRACTICAL REALIZATION
MODERAN SISTEM UPRAVLJANJA I NADZORA U SISTEMU
PNEUMATSKOG TRANSPORTA: PRAKTIČNA REALIZACIJA
Perica NIKOLIĆ, Vladimir BUGARSKI, Dragan MATIĆ, Filip KULIĆ
Univesity of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, 21000 Novi Sad,
Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, Serbia
e-mail: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Modern supervisory control systems cover a large number of different solutions for different production processes. A pneumatic
transport process of powdered and granular materials served as an example in this paper. The supervisory control system performs a
task of controlling and supervising transport paths. The paper presents a possible solution for a supervisory control system and its
practical realization. The task of this SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is to meet all functional requirements and to offer a user-friendly everyday production system. The practical implementation of SCADA system is based on the underlying programmable logic controller. The solution presented in the paper can be used in similar transport systems in production
plants.
Key words: transport, pneumatic, programmable logic control, SCADA, supervision, practical implementation.
REZIME
U procesu proizvodnje i skladištenja zrnasto-praškastih materijala kao čest sistem transporta se koristi pneumatski transport.
Kao i svi procesi u savremenoj industrijskoj proizvodnji i proces transporta je jedan od zahteva modernog upravljanja i nadzora sistema. Uzimajući ovo u obzir u radu je prikazan jedan takav moderan sistem upravljanja pneumatskim transportom materijala primenom programabilnog logičkog kontrolera i SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) sistema za nadzor i upravljanje.
Sistem se sastoji od nekoliko paralelnih linja koje transportuju materijal u veći broj ćelija, a korišćenjem skretnica se odabira
odgovarajući transportni put u kombinaciji sa ostalim elementima neophodnim za ispunjenje uslova uspostavljanja transportne putanje. Koristeći programabilni logički kontroler i SCADA sistem realizovano je upravljanje i nadzor sistema. Kontrolno upravljački
sistem treba da obezbedi mogućnost odabira transportne putanje kojom će se transportovati materijal. Osim toga, u toku transporta
treba da proverava uslove transporta i ispravnost izabrane putanje i u slučaju nepravilnosti da prijavi grešku i zaustavi transport.
Upotrebom modernih nadzorno upravljačkih sistema moguće je realizovati sistem koji ostvaruje funkcionalno zadovoljenje
postavljenih zahteva ali i pruža jednostavnost svakodnevnog korišćenja i praktične upotrebne primene, te će i sa te strane biti posmatrano i diskutovano rešenje. Predloženo rešenje je praktično implementirano i realizovano na realnom sistemu pri čemu su date
smernice praktične realizacije sa osvrtom na mogućnosti korišćenja predstavljenog rešenja u sličnim transportnim sistemima.
Ključne reči: pneumatski transport, programabilni logički kontroler, SCADA, nadzor, upravljanje, praktična implementacija.
INTRODUCTION
In processing industry, there is often a need for transporting
powdered and granular materials during their production and
storage. This is the task of a modern supervisory control system
(Klinzing at al., 2010). This paper presents such a system realized by using SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) software. The realized system uses all the advantages of
modern supervisory control systems (Bugarski at al., 2011).
Special attention was paid to the presentation of the realized system, the proposed solution and the presented components of the
supervisory control system used in practical realization. The use
of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and SCADA systems
allowed great flexibility in the implementation of the control
systems (Bailey and Wright, 2003). The realized system meets
functional requirements and it is designed in a user-friendly
manner with the possibility of changing the transport path by
choosing destination. The supervisory control system consists of
two basic components: PLCs and SCADA system which will be
described in the following sections. The PLC and its functionality will be described in conjunction with the SCADA system,
which is the interface between the process and the human (operator) (Groover, 2007). The proposed solution is created to satisfy the system functionality as well as to provide the practical
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
application by observing and making adjustments in order to obtain a user-friendly solution for everyday use. One of the requirements supervisory control systems have to meet is the use
of widely accepted solutions in the field of information technology tailored to the specific needs of a given process. The following chapters describe the supervisory control system and its
components used in the realization of the transport system and
the proposed software solutions.
System description
The transport system consists of multiple parallel lines for
transporting materials and the corresponding switches which direct the material into the storage cells (Bugarski at al., 2010). In
the observed case, each transport line is connected to a production process or corresponding production device. The transmission path should enable the transport of the materials to the appropriate storage cell. The particular system uses air for transporting powdered and granular materials. Supervisory control
should enable the management of the path in the system, the detection of the critical levels in the storage cells in conjunction
with blowers which provide transport and aspirations of individual storage cells.
Figure 1 shows the technological scheme of the controlled
system. There are several parallel lines which originate from dif-
91
Nikolić,Perica et al. / Modern Supervisory Control System in a Pneumatic Transport System: Practical Realization
ferent production lines and the layout of switches. The principle
of operation is based on setting the switch to the proper position
in order to direct materials to the appropriate storage cell. Each
switch is equipped with the position detector which allows tracking the position of a switch with the aim of verifying the correct
path of transported materials. The position is constantly monitored and if not appropriately placed this will interrupt the transport of the materials. The other conditions necessary for material
transport such as the level in the cell or the failure of the aspiration devices are also monitored. All signals are connected to a
PLC as standard voltage or current signals or as a part of a distributed system. During the implementation, we use distributed
peripheral systems connected to ProfiBus network, whereas the
distributed modules of peripheral system are placed near the
equipment. A proper choice of place for the modules of peripheral system can reduce wiring need to connected sensors and actuators to a PLC device. This also reduces the time of system
implementation and the cost of maintenance during the lifespan
of the system. Nowadays, modern control systems often use distributed peripheral systems. From the SCADA viewpoint, there
is no difference between centralized and distributed systems,
whereas from the viewpoint of connectivity significant savings
can be achieved regarding both financial terms and system operating costs. Considering all the above-mentioned facts, it is necessary to connect sensors and actuators in the system by using
distributed peripherals.
Fig. 1. System schematic
The supervisory control system is devised by using a Siemens PLC series S7-300 equipped with the appropriate number
of digital inputs, analogue inputs and output modules as well as
communication channels for connecting distributed peripheral
modules and the SCADA system. In practice, the distributed peripherals are connected by using the communication protocol
ProfiBus and the SCADA system is connected by using the
Ethernet communication (Vasić at al., 2006). A part of the PLC
is used for task management and the transport process supervision. The supervisory SCADA system was implemented by using the WinCC software package which provides a complete
graphical representation of the system, the system parameter setting and the acquisition of the collected values. The PLC and the
SCADA together make a supervisory control system with the
purpose of connecting the man (operator) and the system, thus
making a human machine interface. This equipment is necessary
92
to collect data in the process and to realize a supervisory control
system which meets system functionality requirements.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The previously described system with the corresponding
elements can be used for supervisory control functions. It is possible to implement different solutions for transport route management. With this type of a system, end users can often choose
the transport path only by setting the transport elements in a desired position. Our intention was to make a system which can
enable end users to choose the desired transport path by setting
individual elements in system and also choose the path by selecting the transport route. The solution which meets both requests
is the manual choosing of the transport path by using individual
transport element and the selection of transport path. The realized system is such that there are predefined transport routes in
each of the independent pathways. From the control standpoint,
the predefined paths are sets of parameters and signals that need
to be provided to make transport possible. For this reason, we
considered two possible solutions for keeping predefined paths.
Predefined paths are the set of parameters whic must meet transport conditions by using the appropriate line for transport and
can be stored in a PLC or SCADA system (Nikolić at al., 2010).
Considering the two possible solutions, keeping a set of parameters in the SCADA system gives us the ability to modify the parameters because the end
user can easy change the
parameter set needed to
make transport possible.
The storage parameters
require a proper place or
method that can be in the
form of a database in
case of a large number of
parameters, or in some
other form if a small
number of transport parameters is present. In the
case of using the independent SCADA systems
for redundancy purpose
in the same control system, problems occur with
the synchronization between the SCADA systems because they store
data locally. It is necessary to provide a mechanism for synchronizing
the data (Ponsa at al.,
2010). In the case of using the database, there are widely used
mechanisms for synchronizing data between implemented databases. In other case, parameters can be stored in a PLC and this
requires the memory resource reduced flexibility because in this
case the end user cannot easily change the set of parameters
needed for transport. Such a solution does not require synchronization mechanisms. The variant where necessary conditions for
transport are stored in the PLC is used when there is a need for
the amount of information and the frequency of changes, like in
the presented system. We chose the solution where the transport
path is stored in the PLC device. This solution is satisfactory due
to technical features which do not allow easy changes in transport routes but simplify the SCADA system and it can be used
for specific implementation. For this type of system with a small
number of transport paths without the need for frequently chang-
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
Nikolić,Perica et al. / Modern Supervisory Control System in a Pneumatic Transport System: Practical Realization
ing paths, the solution of storing transport paths in the PLC device is satisfactory.
Usually other similar systems use PLC for storing transport
paths like in this practical realization but this method of storing
transport paths is good only for small systems with a limited
number of transport paths. A big system with more transport
paths which are frequently changed by end users requires some
kind of database for storing transport path. Our control system
has a possibility of controlling the transport path by choosing
both the individual elements and the destination.
Figure 2 presents the graphical display of the SCADA system where all the elements of the transport system are visually
presented with the possibility of choosing the path of transport.
Choosing the path of transport on the SCADA initiates the procedures on PLC that execute procedure set elements in the
proper position and check if all elements meet the requirements
for a given path. The control system constantly checks the conditions for transport paths and if necessary stops the transport. In
the SCADA system, we have a visual representation of all the
elements in transport systems. They are presented by their position and have graphical representation of the active transportation route. The proposed supervisory control system provides
two modes. The first mode comprises the manual mode adjusting all the system elements manually with a controller checking
the conditions and finding appropriate transport path and the
SCADA system showing the path where this condition is met.
The second mode is a choice of transport paths. In this case the
CONCLUSION
A supervisory control system should meet the requirements
of modern production. A practically realized system of pneumatic transport represents one of such applications. The system
should provide full functionality in the user-friendly everyday
use. This system is designed and practically implemented to
meet this requirement, which is only possible by means of a
modern supervisory control system. In order to implement the
system, a set of experiences was gathered from end users with
the application of the designed solution and the improvement of
the practical usability. The system may provide a foundation to
complex transportation systems in processing industry.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This research was supported by the
Ministry of Education and Science (Government of the Republic
of Serbia) under Grant Number TR-31058.
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Fig. 2. SCADA graphical representation of the system
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control system sets all the elements of the transport system to
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and allows easy everyday usage in the production process (SelaPrimena PROFIBUS komunikacije u upravljanju procesom
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presovanja u proizvodnji biljnih ulja. PTEP Časopis za
be easily expanded with other function requests in any other
procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi. 10 (3-4), 77-80.
production process and can be implemented in any other transport system. The created control system for transport is a solu- Received: 03.03.2014.
Accepted: 25.03.2014.
tion based on the previous experience of creating and analysing
similar systems.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014) 2
93
List of the Permanent Reviewers
LIST OF PERMANENT REVIEWER – Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture
LISTA STALNIH RECENZENATA - Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi
Prof. Dr. Costas Akritidis, Greece, Emeritus Professor, Department of Hydraulics, Soil Science and Agric. Engineering.
School of Agriculture. University of Thessaloniki Greece Drying,
Prof. Dr. Babić Mirko, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Head of Department of Agricultural engineering,
Head of Laboratory of Biosystem Engineering, General
Secretary of National Society of Processing and Energy in
Agriculture - Postharvesting, Physical properties of Agricultural Materials, Renewable Energy,
Prof. Dr. Babić Ljiljana, Faculty of Agriculture, University of
Novi Sad, Vice-president of National Society of Processing
and Energy in Agriculture - Postharvesting, Physical properties of Agricultural Materials, Renewable Energy,
Prof. Dr. Haris Lazarides, Greece, Head of Department Food
Science and Technology - Food Processing & Engineering,
Prof. Dr. Milica Radosavljević, Maize Research Institute “Zemun Polje”, Belgrade, Vice-president of National Society
of Processing and Energy in Agriculture - Cereal
processing and food quality,
Prof. Dr. Mirjana Đurić, Faculty of Technology, University of
Novi Sad, Thermodynamics Prof. Dr. Silva Cristina, Portugal, Portuguese Catholic University, President of I ISEKI-Food Association - Design and Optimization of Food
Process Conditions,
Prof. Dr. Miloš Tešić, Faculty of Technical Science, Novi Sad,
Member of Vojvodina Academy of Sciences and Arts Agricultural Engineering, Renewable energy,
Dr. Gerhard Schleining, Austria, BOKU, Wiena, Secretary General of ISEKI-Food Association - Quality Management,
Functional Properties of Food and Food Technology,
Prof. Dr. Tajana Krička, Croatia, Faculty of Agronomy, Zagreb Postharvesting, Biomass and Biofuel from Agriculture,
Prof. Dr. Zuzana Hlavačova, Slovakia, Department of Physics,
Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Slovak University of
Agriculture in Nitra, Vice-Dean of Faculty of Agricultural
Engineering - Physical Properties of Food and Agricultural Materials,
Prof. Dr. Anđelko Bajkin, Faculty of Agriculture, University of
Novi Sad - Horticulture Engineering,
Prof. Dr. Zsuzsanna Fustos, Hungary, Head of Department Central Agricultural Office; University of Horticulture and
Food Science, Budapest, ISHS - President of Vegetable
Section in Hungary - Testing of Food and Agricultural
Products,
Prof. Dr. Marko Dalla Rosa, Italy, President of the Degree
Course Committee on Food science and Technology at
University of Bologna, site of Cesena, Member of the Advisory Committee of ISEKI – Food Processing,
Prof. Dr. Richard Gladon, USA, Department of Horticulture,
Iowa State University - Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Products,
Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Demoulin, France, Food process engineering
at Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Industries Agroalimentaires (ENSIA) changed in Agroparistech (1er January
2007), in Massy, Member of ISEKI Board - Food Engineering,
Prof. Dr. Costas Biliaderis, Greece, Head of Laboratory of Food
Chemistry - Biochemistry, Dept. of Food Science & Tech-
94
nology, Faculty of Agriculture, Aristotle University of
Thessaloniki - Food Chemistry,
Prof. Dr. Janos Beke, Hungary, Vice-rector Szent István University Gödöllő, Hungary - Drying and Storage Agricultural
Materials,
Dr. Vlasta Vozarova, Slovakia, Nitra, Head of Department of
Physics, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra - Physical Properties of
Food and Agricultural Materials,
Prof. Dr. Vangelče Mitrevski, FYR Macedonia, Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technical
Sciences, Bitola - Drying,
Dr. Stavros Vougioukas, Greece, Dept. Of Hydraulics, Soil
Science and Agricultural Engineering, Aristotle University
of Thessaloniki - Automatic Control and Sensing,
Dr. Jasna Mastilović, Institute for Food Technology, University
of Novi Sad - Feed Technology and Quality,
Prof. Dr. Mirjana Milošević, Institute of Field and Vegetable
Crops, Novi Sad,Seed Production and Testing,
Prof. Dr. Dušan Milić, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad – Management and Economy of Fruit and Grape
production,
Prof. Dr. Filip Kulić, Faculty of Technical Science, University of
Novi Sad - Automatic Control,
Prof. Dr. Dragan Marković, Mechanical Faculty, University of
Belgrade - Designing in Agricultural Engineering,
Prof. Dr. Cecilia Hodur, University of Szeged, Institute of
Mechanical and Process Engineering, Hungary, Process
engineering,
Prof. Dr. Nebojša Novković - Faculty of Agriculture, University
of Novi Sad – Planning and Management in Agriculture,
Dr. Neven Voća, Croatia, Faculty of Agronomy, Zagreb - Postharvesting, Biomass and Biofuel from Agriculture,
Dr. Bojana Filipčev, Institute for Food Technology, University
of Novi Sad, Cereal processing, Quality and Properties of
Cereal Products,
Dr. Lubomir Kubik, Slovakia, Nitra, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra Physical Properties of Food and Agricultural Materials,
Dr. Milka Vujaković, Poljoprivredna stanica, Novi Sad, Physical Properties of Agricultural Materials,
Dr. Sandra Voća, Croatia, Faculty of Agronomy, Zagreb - Postharvesting and Processing horticultural products,
Dr. Maša Bukurov, Faculty of Technical Science, University of
Novi Sad – Mechanics of Fluid, Fluid Plant Engineering,
Dr. Miodrag Zoranović - Faculty of Agriculture, University of
Novi Sad – Cattle Engineering, Microclimate Engineering,
Dr. Branislav Karadžić, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad - Automatic Control, Information technology,
Dr. Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Faculty of Agriculture, Zemun –
Beograd, Agriculture Engeenering,
Dr. Ponjičan Ondrej, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Agriculture Engeenering and
Dr. Ivan Pavkov, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, - Postharvesting , Physical Properties of Agricultural Materials,
Renewable Energy
The editorial board can also contact other reviewers if an article
is from a specific science area.
Redakcija može da pozove i druge recenzente ako je rad iz
specifične naučne oblasti.
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18 (2014)
INFORMACIJE
KURS ZA RUKOVAOCE
SUŠARA U POLJOPRIVREDI
(09.06 - 13.06.2014)
Poljoprivredni fakultet u Novom Sadu preko petnaest
godina radi na posebnoj obuci stručnjaka koji brinu o sušenju
i skladištenju svega onoga što se u domaćoj poljoprivredi
proizvede. Ova obuka se obavlja u okviru planiranog kursa.
Zbog povećanog interesovanja pred sezonu žetve 2014, Kurs
za rukovaoce sušara u poljoprivredi će biti organizovan u
toku juna meseca.
Preko 700 rukovaoca sušara iz Srbije do sada je pohađalo
kurs, što je najvažniji dokaz njegovog kvaliteta i potrebe. To
je najkompetentniji kurs u državi, predavači su profesori
Poljoprivrednog fakulteta sa višedecenijskim iskustvom kako
u obrazovanju tako i u praksi.
Pozivamo Vas da uputite vaše rukovaoce sušarom na
obuku kod nas, pa čak i ako su ga pohađali pre nekoliko
godina. Vaša firma će imati višestruke koristi jer ćete biti
sigurni:
1. da ćete znatno smanjiti opasnost od požara,
2. da ćete potrošiti manje goriva za sušenje,
3. da ćete imati bolji kvalitet proizvoda koji sušite i
4. da ćete povećati odgovornost rukovaoca sušare,
a to sve zahvaljujući novom znanju i certifikatu koje će Vaši
rukovaoci steći.
Odlukom nastavno-naučnog veća Fakulteta odobren je
plan i program kursa u trajanju od 30 časova – pet radnih
dana. On obuhvata: goriva, gorionike, enegetiku, tehnologije
sušenja, konstrukcije sušara, opremu na centru, rukovanje
sušarom, automatiku, evidenciju rada, održavanje,
protivpožarne i bezbednosne mere i dr. Svaki polaznik kursa
dobija knjigu. Nastavu će održati prof. dr Ljiljana Babić i
prof. dr Mirko Babić sa saradnicima. Po održanom kursu
organizuje se ispit – provera znanja pred tročlanom
komisijom. Ispit i uručivanje sertifikata biće 20. juna 2014.
Nakon uspešno završenog ispita svaki slušalac dobija:
CERTIFIKAT O ZAVRŠENOM KURSU ZA
RUKOVAOCA SUŠARA U POLJOPRIVREDI
koji potpisuje Dekan Poljoprivrednog fakulteta i ispitna
Komisija.
Termin kursa je 09.06 - 13.06.2014, a održava se na
Poljoprivrednom fakultetu Univerziteta u Novom Sadu,
svakodnevno od 9-15 časova, radnim danima. Cena kursa
zavisi od broja učesnika iz jedne firme: - za 1 (jednog)
učesnika je 15.600 dinara; - za 2 (dva) učesnika je 15.000
dinara po učesniku; - za 3 (tri) učesnika je 14.400 dinara po
učesniku i - za 4 (četiri) i više učesnika je 13.800 dinara po
učesniku. U cenu je uračunato: pohađanje nastave, potrebna
literatura u formi knjige, konsultacije i polaganje ispita. U
cenu je uračunat i PDV.
Kontakt:
Prof. dr Mirko Babić ili dr Ivan Pavkov, Poljoprivredni
fakultet, 21000 NOVI SAD, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8.
Tel: (021) 485-3441 (dr Mirko Babić); (021)485-3318 (dr
Ivan Pavkov); (021)459-958; Mob:(063) 531-686; (064) 24638-70, Fax: (021) 459-989,
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18(2014) 2
DRUŠTVO SELEKCIONERA I
SEMENARA REPUBLIKE SRBIJE
OTVORENO PISMO- PREDLOG UPUĆENO:
NACIONALNOM DRUŠTVU ZA
PROCESNU TEHNIKU I ENERGETIKU
U POLJOPRIVREDI – PTEP
Društvo selekcionera i semenara Republike Srbije je
osnovano 18. juna 1992. godine na osnivačkoj Skupštini
održanoj u Zavodu za selekciju šećerne repe u Aleksincu.
Društvo predstavlja udruženje pravnih i fizičkih lica koji se
bave poslovima oplemenjivanja biljaka, semenarstvom i
prometom semena. Društvo ima za cilj da organizuje i
koordinira aktivnosti svojih članova u cilju unapređivanja
njihovog naučnog i stručnog rada iz oblasti oplemenjivanja,
proizvodnje i prometa semena i sadnog materijala
poljoprivrednih biljaka. U okviru svojih aktivnosti Društvo
periodično objavljuje naučno-stručni časopis "Selekcija i
semenarstvo" koje distribuira članovima i srodnim
institucijama u zemlji i inostranstvu. Takodje periodično
organizuje Naučno-stručni simpozijum selekcije i
semenarstva.
Društvo razmatra i daje mišljenje o bitnim pitanjima od
zajedničkog interesa za razvoj obrazovanja, istraživanja,
organizovanja uslova privređivanja i regulative u oblasti
oplemenjivanja biljaka semenarstva i prometa semena.
Istovremeno inicira i predlaže rešenja koja su neposredno
vezana za najznačajnije probleme oplemenjivanja biljaka,
semenarstva i prometa semena. U cilju sprovođenja
navedenih aktivnosti Društvo sarađuje sa odgovarajućim
organima, organizacijama, institucijama, pojedincima i
drugim zainteresovanim udruženjima.
U vreme osnivanja Društvo je bilo podržano od strane
više od 90 privrednih subjekata koji su se bavili navedenom
delatnošću. U proteklih dvadesetak godina znatno je
izmenjena privredna slika delatnosti iz oblasti semenarstva i
oplemenjivanja poljoprivrednih biljaka. Veliki broj pravnih
subjekata više ne postoji. Sa druge strane, pored ovog našeg
udruženja na teritoriji Republike Srbije postoji još nekoliko
udruženja koja okupljaju gotovo istu grupu organizacija i
pojedinaca. Stoga se u ovako izmenjenim uslovima postavlja
pitanje svrsishodnosti paralelnog postojanja više udruženja
koja okupljaju istu interesnu grupu privrednih subjekata. Na
sednici UO Društva doneli smo predlog da pokrenemo
inicijativu, kod srodnih udruženja, o izvesnom spajanju ili
pridruživanju. Mišljenja smo da bi se na taj način –
udruženim snagama, efikasnije zastupali interesi semenarske
i oplemenjivačke struke na svim poljima delovanja.
U dogovoru sa članovima predsedništva Nacionalnog
društva za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi
koristimo priliku da na 26. Nacionalnom skupu PTEP-2014
upoznamo članove vašeg uduženja sa našom inicijativom.
Nadamo se da ćete u toku trajanja skupa naći vremena da
razmotrite ovu inicijativu i eventualno date odredjene
predloge.
S poštovanjem,
U Zemunu, 14.03.2014. god.
Dr Vojka Babić,
Predsednik Društva selekcionera i semenara Republike
Srbije
D1
PTEPOV PROGRAM ZA DRUŽENJE
RAFTING NA TARI I ANDRIĆGRAD 4-6. juli 2014.
Pošto na rafitng ide dosta mladih, krećemo malo
ranije zbog Exit-a. Očekujemo da početak jula treba
da bude dovoljno topao. Uživaćemo u svežini letnjih
planinskih reka (Tara, Piva i Drina) i posetiti
Višegrad i u njemu Andrićgrad (7 dana nakon
svečanog završetka ovog posebnog kompleksa).
Podelimo te radosti i užitke.
Program:
04. juli (petak) – polazak u 8.00 h, ujutro, sa parkinga
Poljoprivrednog fakuleta. Prevoz turističkim autobusom:
Novi Sad – Ruma – Loznica – Sokolac – Goražde – Foča Bastasi. Odmor za ručak po slobodnom izboru negde, na
polovini putovanja, najverovatnije na prevoju planine
Javor (Han Pogled). Smeštaj u bungalove u kampu
„Kalista” (Da se podsetimo - kamp nije hotel. Bićemo
smešteni u drvenim kućicama sa 2 ili 3 kreveta, sa
čistom posteljinom, tuševi i toaleti su u namenskim
kabinama kampa). Nakon smeštaja odmor, odbojka,
gledanje u reku Drinu (odmaranje očiju i živaca), drugi
oblici rekreacije i sl. Večera u 20 h. Zabava uz logorsku
vatru i muziku pod nazivom PTEP IMA DUŠU. Noćenje.
05. juli (subota) – Doručak. Podela rafting opreme i
prevoz kombijima do Brštanovice odakle je start
splavarenja. „Splâvari”
se (na specijalnim gumenim
čamcima) oko 3-4 sata u dužini od 22 km
najzanimljivijim delom Tare za rafting. Prolazi se preko
17 bukova. Zaustavljanje je na dva-tri predivna mesta
sa vodopadima. Oko 15 h dolazak čamcima u kamp i
ručak. Nakon nešto malo kasnijeg, ali zato izuzetnog
ručka polazimo autobusom prema Višegradu. Tu se
smeštamo u hotel „Andrićev konak“ (***) u najužem
centru starog Višegrada, neposredno pored istorijskog
mosta. Večera po slobodnom izboru. Raspitaćemo se za
mesta za večernju zabavu i obavestiti vas o tome tokom
puta.
06. juli (nedelja) – Doručak. zajednički odlazak u
Andićgrad. Obilazak ovog posebnog arhitektonskog i
kulturološkog poduhvata. Naša poseta ovoj destinaciji
biće 7 dana nakon svečanog otvaranja (završetka
radova), koje se predviđa za 28. juni. Ručak je po
slobodnom izboru. Nakon ručka polazimo autobusom
prema Novom Sadu sa usputnim zadržavanjima radi
pauza (odmora i kafa).
Cena aranžmana: 110 €, (može i dinari po sredenjem
kursu NBS). U cenu uključeno: prevoz, jedan ručak, dve
večere, dva doručka, jedno spavanje u bungalovima
kampa „Kaliste“ u Bastasima, a drugo hotela „Andrićev
konak“ u Višegradu. I ove godine očekuju nas popusti za
dame (105 €) i učesnike konferencije PTEP 2014 (105
€). Postoji mogućnost smeštaja u jednokrevetnoj sobi ili
dvokrevetnim apartmanima u hotelu, a u tom slučaju
doplaćuje se 10 € po osobi. Poseban popust dajemo za
osobu koja svira neki muzički instrument pogodan za
druženje (gitara ili harmonika). Raspoloženje morate
poneti i nuditi ga drugima. Dozvoljeno je i nuđenje pića.
Rok za prijavu i uplatu prve rate od 50 € je 12. maj
2014. Ovaj raniji rok usledio je zbog krajnjeg roka
rezervacije hotela u Višegradu. Ostatak se plaća pri
polasku. Mi nismo turistička agencija, mi organizujemo
druženje naših članova i svih onih koji nam se
dobrovoljno pridruže. Pozivamo sve one koji su
tradicionalni „raftingaši”, ali i one koji žele po prvi put
da uživaju sa nama.
Pogledajte reportaže sa prethodnih raftinga na sajtu
Društva PTEP – www.ptep.org.rs.
Informacije i prijave: prof. dr Mirko Babić, generalni
sekretar Društva PTEP ili dr Ivan Pavkov ili Milivoj
(Mile) Radojčin, MSc, tehnički sekretari Društva PTEP.
Telefoni:
021/4853-441;
063/531-686
(Mirko);
021/4853-318 (Ivan); 021/4853-431 (Mile);
e-mail: [email protected] ili [email protected]
Poljoprivredni fakultet, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja
Obradovića 8.
Sa jednog od prethodnih raftinga na Tari
D2
Journal on Processing and Energy in Agriculture 18(2014) 2
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