Proceedings 2011. (2012), Vol 3, ISSN 1986-8146
www.sportkon.com
METODOLOGIJA IZVOÐENJA SERVISA U
ODBOJCI SA AKCENTOM NA SERVIS IZ SKOKA
BEZ ROTACIJE - FLOT SERVIS
METHODOLOGY OF SERVING IN VOLLEYBALL WITH
SPECIAL EMPHASIS TO JUMP FLOAT SERVE
Milenko Vojvodi}1 and Naim ]ele{2
Fakultet fizičkog vaspitanja i sporta, Univerzite Banja Luka, Bosna i Hercegovina
Faculty Physical Education and Sports, University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2
Pedago{ki fakultet, Univerzitet Biha}, Bosna i Hercegovina
Pedagogical Faculty, University of Biha}, Bosnia and Herzegovina
1
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
Summary
Sažetak
In modern volleyball, service is mainly the way of attack with
intent to disturb opponent’s reception and to score, if possible. In other words, the serve has two main tasks and aims
that are based on direct service scoring and disturbing the
reception, preventing the opposite team from quick, combined and efficient attack. How essential volleyball serve is
today says the fact that some authors compare it with the
importance of the first move in chess (Jankovic & Marelic,
2003). A good serve, correct realization as well as following
and applying of collective and individual tactic principles
can often be an important factor in the outcome of the game.
When talking about tactics, it is essentially important to
choose the best and the most efficient way of serving and
apply it at the right time. Services can be classified according
to the way of serving, ball trail and ball spin, as well as body
position while serving. The most frequent services in the
world’s top volleyball, both men and women, are spike serve
(jump serve with spin), jump float serve (jump serve with no
spin) and float serve (an overhand (land) serve with no spin).
Last European Volleyball Championship for men, held in
Austria and Czech Republic, definitely showed that spike
serve is no longer the most powerful and most efficient one,
because its preciseness is determined by strength and speed,
so when performing it, with the intent to make it as fast and
as elusive as possible, a lot of serve faults are being made.
When opponent’s reception needed to be more invaded,
head coach of European champions – Serbian team did not
go on players with strong, destructive spike serves, but on
the ones with extremely unpleasant and precise jump-float
serve. Jump float serve also won the Finals match point, with
an ace.
U dana{njoj odbojci servis je uglavnom sredstvo napada,
kojim se želi otežati, odnosno poremetiti prijem ili po
mogućnosti direktno osvojiti poen. Drugim riječima, servis
ima dva osnovna zadatka i cilja, koji se svode na direktno
poentiranje iz servisa i poremećaj prijema zbog onemogućavanje
brzog, kombinovanog i efikasnog napada od strane protivničke
ekipe. Koliko je danas servis bitan u odbojka{koj igri govori
i to da ga neki autori porede sa vrijedno{ću prvog poteza
u {ahu (Janković i Marelić, 2003). Dobro izvođenje servisa
i pravilna praktična realizacija, te pridržavanje i primjenjivanje principa kolektivne i individualne taktike, često
znaju da budu odlučujući faktor u ishodu utakmice. U
taktici serviranja izuzetno je važno izabrati najbolji, odnosno najefikasniji način serviranja i u pravo ga vrijeme primjeniti. Servisi u odbojci se mogu podijeliti po načinu izvođenja,
te po putanji i rotaciji lopte, kao i po položaju tijela kod
izvođenja servisa. Servisi koji se danas najvi{e koriste u svjetskoj vrhunskoj odbojci, kako mu{koj tako i ženskoj su:
smeč servis (servis iz skoka sa rotacijom), flot servis (servis iz
skoka bez rotacije) i lelujavac (servis bez skoka i bez rotacije).
Zadnje evropsko prvenstvo u odbojci za mu{karce, održano
u Austriji i Če{koj, definitivno je pokazalo da smeč servis
vi{e nije najmoćniji i najefikasniji servis. Kad je trebalo dodatno opteretiti prijem servisa kod protivničkih ekipa
selektor evropskih prvaka - Srbije, nije uvodio igrače sa
snažnim i razornim smeč servisima, nego je uvodio igrače
koji imaju izuzetno neugodan i precizan lelujavi servis iz
skoka (flot). Flot servisom osvojen je i zadnji poen u finalu i
to asom.
Key Words: service types, technical elements, tactics,
methodology implementation.
Ključne riječi: vrste servisa, tehnički element, taktika,
metodologija izvođenja.
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UDK: 796.325.015.1
doi​: 10.5550/SP.3.2011.20
Vojvodi}, M., & ]ele{, N.: METHODOLOGY OF SERVING IN VOLLEYBALL...
Introduction
Uvod
Service is a technical element of volleyball and represents
the beginning kickoff that is performed at the start of the set
and after each mistake. It is a technical element whose
performance begins at the struggle for points, and is delivered
by the player occupying the number one position behind
the baseline. It is one of the most important elements of
volleyball and therefore requires special attention and
plenty of training time at each training session. (Selinger
2000). Tomic has recommended that service training should
be linked with other elements such as reception, organizing
of attacks, organizing of specific roles for players and so on.
It is not recommendable to practice service separate from
other elements. Each type of service has its advantages and
disadvantages (Tomic, 1976, p. 146). Service delivery can
also be very stressful, especially during crucial points. That’s
because all the attention of players, coaches, audience and
environment are focused on the player delivering the serve.
Good service and proper practical implementation often
tend to be the decisive factor in the outcome of the match.
In the tactics of serving it is extremely important to choose
the best and most efficient way of serving, and the right time
to apply it as well.
According to the manner of delivery we can distinguish
several types of services including: lower frontal service,
overhead (upper) service, frontal jump service and side
service, while in relation to the rotation of the ball, the
service can be with rotation and without rotation of the
ball.
Today, in world-class volleyball, men’s as well as women’s,
services that are exclusively applied are:
Servis je tehnički elemenat odbojka{ke igre i predstavlja
početni udarac koji se izvodi na početku seta i poslije svake
gre{ke, odnosno tehnički element čijim izvođenjem počinje
borba za poen, a izvodi ga igrač koji se nalazi u poziciji jedan
iza osnovne linije. On predstavlja jedan od najbitnijih elemenata odbojka{ke igre i zato mu treba posvetiti veliku
pažnju i dovoljno vremena na svakom treningu. (Selinger
2000). Tomić je preporučio da uvježbavanje servisa treba
povezivati sa drugim elementima kao {to su primanje servisa, organizovanje napada, organizovanje pojedinih specifičnih
uloga igrača i td. Nije dobro uvježbavati servis izdvojen od
ostalih elemenata. Svaka vrsta servisa ima svoje prednosti i
nedostatke (Tomić, 1976, str. 146). Izvođenje servisa može
da bude i veoma stresno, pogotovo kod odlučujućih poena.
To je zbog toga {to je sva pažnja igrača, trenera, publike i
okoline usredsređena na igrača koji je na servisu. Dobro
izvođenje servisa i pravilna praktična realizacija, često
znaju da budu odlučujući faktor u ishodu utakmice. U taktici serviranja izuzetno je važno izabrati najbolji, odnosno
najefikasniji način serviranja i u pravo ga vrijeme primjeniti.
Prema načinu izvođenja možemo razlikovati nekoliko vrsta
servisa i to: donji čeoni servis, gornji čeoni servis, gornji čeoni
servis iz skoka i bočni servis, a u odnosu na rotaciju lopte,
servis u odbojci može biti sa rotacijom i bez rotacije lopte.
Danas se u vrhunskoj odbojci odbojci, kako mu{koj tako i
ženskoj, koriste isključivo ovi servisi:
• wall head-on service from the jump with ball rotation
- Spike Service
• wall head-on service from the jump without ball rotation - Float Service
• upper butt out of service without ball rotation –
Floater
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
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Proceedings 2011, 173–182
•gornji čeoni servis iz skoka sa rotacijom lopte - smeč
servis
•gornji čeoni servis iz skoka bez rotacije lopte - flot
servis
•gornji čeoni servis iz mjesta i bez rotacije lopte - lelujavi servis
When it comes to the speed of the ball during the serve,
the highest possible speed is accomplished by setter service
and it is approximately 120 km / h, or about 33 m / s. During the well performed setter service, roughly the speed is
about 100 km / h or 28 m / s. Usually, the speed of the ball
during the service is approximately 15 m / s. It is established
that receiving players’ reaction time is 0.3 seconds, and that
during the service with maximum ball speed, the ball travels
about 0.5 seconds from the moment it is struck to the time
of receipt. That means that this service is virtually uncatchable. During a well executed service, time travel of the ball
is 0.7 seconds. This amount of time enables the receipt of
service if the ball, in the moment of reception by the receiving player, doesn’t require any leg movement (Selinger 2000).
During a normal ball speed service, the ball travels for about
one second. This time is sufficient for the service receiver to
position himself well and to pass the ball to the setter. Of
course, this is not always the case, but a good effect can be
achieved with this ball speed provided that the receiving
players are not ready, and the server hits the right spot at
the right time.
Kad je u pitanju brzina kretanja lopte kod serviranja, najveća
moguća brzina lopte postiže se izvođenjem smeč servisa i
ona približno iznosi otprilike do 120 km/h , odnosno približno
33 m/s. Prilikom odlično izvedenog smeč servisa, brzina
lopte približno iznosi oko 100 km/h ili 28 m/s. Najče{ća,
odnosno uobičajena, brzina lopte prilikom serviranja približno
iznosi oko 15 m/s. Ustanovljeno je da vrijeme reagovanja
primača iznosi 0,3 sekunde, a da kod servisa izvedenog
maksimalnom brzinom kretanja lopte, ona od momenta
udarca do momenta prijema putuje oko 0,5 sekundi. To
znači da je ovakav servis praktično neuhvatljiv. Prilikom
odlično izvedenog smeč servisa vrijeme leta lopte je 0,7
sekundi, tako da ovo vrijeme omogućuje izvođenje prijema
servisa ukoliko lopta u momentu prijema od primača ne
zahtijeva pomjeranje nogama (Selinger 2000).
Kod servisa izvedenog uobičajenom brzinom lopte vrijeme
leta lopte je oko jedne sekunde. Ovo vrijeme je dovoljno
da se primač servisa postavi na loptu i kvalitetno je doda
dizaču. Naravno, to nije uvijek tako, pa se dobar efekat
postiže i servisima sa ovakvom brzinom lopte, pod uslovom
da primači nisu dovoljno spremni, a server pogodi pravo
mjesto u pravom trenutku.
Service as an
element of the game
Servis kao
element igre
The service was created when volleyball was created, as
a way to throw the ball in play, that is to serve the ball to
Servis je nastao kada i odbojka, kao način da se lopta
ubaci u igru, odnosno da se lopta servira protivniku. U vrijeme
nastajanja odbojke servis je predstavljao samo početak igre
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Zbornik radova 2011, 173–182
the opponent player. At the time when volleyball was created, service represented only the beginning of the game
and there was no idea to distract the team on the opposite
side of the net, or to hinder reception in any way. As volleyball became a competitive sport, the service became more
and more an element of attack, through which points could
be directly received.
A major change in the rules, that every rally brings a point,
set the service to be one of the most significant elements of
the game of volleyball. The main goal of the service is to
create problems for the opponent team or to win points
directly. Tactics of playing the game require a detailed
preparation of serving method, and a strict application of
serving tactics requires well trained players. In serving tactics
there are individual and collective tasks, that is, individual
and collective tactics (Jankovic & Marelić, 1995). In order
for players to perform this type of task, sufficient time and
quality of work must be devoted in the process of training
in perfecting of this very technical and tactical element,
which among other things determines whether a team is
world-class or not. Much has been written on the collective
and individual serving tactics, so here are just some of the
basic principles and tactics, which should be observed.
i nije postojala ideja da se ekipa na suprotnoj strani mreže
omete, niti da joj se na bilo koji način oteža prijem. Kako je
odbojka postajala takmičarski sport i servis je postajao sve
vi{e elemenat napada, preko kojega su se poeni dobijali i
direktno.
Velika promjena u pravilima, da svako nadigravanje donosi poen, postavile su servis na jedno od najznačajnijih
mjesta među elementima odbojka{ke igre. Osnovni zadatak
servisa je napraviti sa njim {to veći problem protivničkoj
ekipi kod prijema ili direktno osvojiti poen.
Taktika igranja utakmice zahtijeva detaljnu pripremu načina
serviranja, a precizno provođenje taktike serviranja pretpostavlja veoma dobru obučenost igrača. U taktici serviranja postoje individualni i kolektivni zadaci, to jest individualna i kolektivna taktika (Janković i Marelić, 1995). Da
bi igrači bili osposobljeni za takvu vrstu zadataka, mora se
u procesu treniranja posvetiti dovoljno vremena , kao i
kvalitetnog rada u usavr{avanju ba{ ovog tehničko-taktičkog
elementa, od kojega između ostalog zavisi da li je neka
ekipa vrhunska ili ne.
O kolektivnoj i individualnoj taktici kod serviranja je napisano veoma mnogo, i ovdje su navedeni samo neki od osnovnih principa te taktike, kojih bi se trebalo pridržavati.
Collective and individual
service tactics
Kolektivna i individualna
taktika kod servisa
Collective tactics are determined by the capabilities of one’s
own team, on one hand, and the characteristics of the opposing team, on the other hand.
Some of the principles of collective tactics include:
Kolektivna taktika se određuje prema sposobnostima sopstvene ekipe, sa jedne strane, kao i karakteristika protivničke
ekipe, sa druge strane.
Neki od principa kolektivne taktike mogu biti:
•to serve on the receiving player which is in the attack
zone
•to serve always on the same receiving players
•to serve on the receiving player who is the weakest
service receiver
•to serve on the receiving player who is most active in
the attack in order to tire him out
•to serve on the players who previously made a mistake
•to serve on a specific location in the field, depending
on the zone where the setter is located
•to serve when the lifter is in zone two, three and four
•serving on a specific location to provoke the organization of an expected attack by the opposing lifter.
•da se servira na primača koji je u zoni napada
•da se servira uvijek na istog primača
•da se servira na primača koji najslabije prima servis
•da se servira na primača koji najvi{e učestvuje u napadu sa ciljem da se umori
•da se servira na igrača koji je prethodno pogriješio
•da se servira na određeno mjesto u terenu u zavisnosti od toga u kojoj zoni je dizač
•da se servira na dizača kad je u zoni 2,3 i 4
•da se serviranjem na određeno mjesto izazove organizacija očekivanog napada od strane protivničkog
dizača.
The tactics include the selection of a site or serving area.
These zones are as follows:
U taktiku spada i izbor lokacije, odnosno zone serviranja.
To su sljedeće zone:
•zone 4 and 5, because in those areas receiving is most
complex
•in areas which are not properly defended because they
lack a proper arrangement of players who are receiving
the service
•avoid areas where the best receiver is located
•in areas that are on the path of the weight-lifting center
(between zones 2 and 3) when he runs in
•in areas where the opponent is receiving rarest
•in the zone between two receiving players
•zona 4 i 5, zato {to je u tim zonama najkompleksniji
prijem
•u zone koje zbog nedostatka pravilnog rasporeda igrača
koji primaju servis, nisu dovoljno branjene
•izbjegavati zone u kojima je najbolji primač
•u zone koje su na putu dizača do mjesta dizanja( između
zona 2 i 3) kada utrčava
•u zone gdje protivnik najrijeđe prima servis
•u zone između dva primača
The principles of collective tactics include many things, even
those considered unfair. Consistent implementation of collective serving tactics applies constant pressure on the opponent, turns your opponent’s attacks into more easily
recognizable options and gives you an advantage that can
be decisive. Each player has several ways of serving. These
Kao principe kolektivne taktike možemo primjenjivati mnoge
stvari, uključujući čak i one nesportske. Doslednim provođenjem
kolektivne taktike serviranja vr{i se stalni pritisak na protivnika, a napad protivnika se pretvara u lak{e prepoznatljive
varijante i stiče prednost koja može biti i odlučujuća. Svaki
igrač raspolaže sa nekoliko načina serviranja, pa ga te spo-
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abilities, among other things, characterize him as a player.
We are reminded that spike service came from beach volleyball and is mostly used and perfected by Brazilians. It
should be said that the spike service in today’s world-class
men’s volleyball is the most widely used service, unlike
women’s volleyball where the float service is most important,
and all other types of service are only used as an alternative.
There are players who do not use the spike service, but if
they perform the float service well, there are no shortcomings
in their game.
The best combination of tactics in individual servings in top
men’s volleyball is that the basic service is – the spike service,
and the alternative - float service. This is because the spike
service must be received by at least three nearby players
and because the preparatory work for the spike and float
management service are similar, so the opponent has to
prepare for this first one. This situation provides an opportunity to place the float service in the desired manner with
good effect, and to take your opponents by surprise. However, slower, or insufficiently aggressive and quick spike
service is very easy to receive, so according to many, it is
better to perform a good and precise float, rather than reducing the speed and power of a spike service.
Individual tactics service (Kostic & Kalajdžić, 1995) can be
reduced to the following tasks and objectives:
•to score a point
•to make it harder for opponents to organize faster and
more diverse attacks
•to prevent mistakes in the delivery of service
sobnosti, pored ostalog, karakteri{u kao igrača. Možemo se
podsjetiti da je smeč servis u pravu odbojku do{ao iz odbojke na plaži i da su ga Brazilci najvi{e koristili a i usavr{avali.
Treba reći da je smeč servis u dana{njoj mu{koj vrhunskoj
odbojci najče{ći i najvi{e kori{teni servis, za razliku od ženske
gdje je flot servis prvi po važnosti, a da su sve ostale vrste
servisa samo alternativa. Ima igrača koji ne koriste smeč
servis , ali ako dobro izvode flot servis u njihovoj igri se ne
osjeća nedostatak.
Najbolja kombinacija u individualnoj taktici serviranja u
mu{koj vrhunskoj odbojci je da je osnovni servis - smeč
servis, a alternativa - flot servis. To je zato {to se smeč servis
mora primati sa najmanje tri primača i zato {to su pripremne
radnje za smeč i flot servis slične, pa se protivnik mora pripremiti za ovaj prvi. Ta situacija pruža mogućnost da se flot
servis plasira na željeni način sa dobrim učinkom i protivnička
ekipa iznenadi. Međutim, sporiji, odnosno nedovoljno
agresivan i brz smeč servis veoma je lagan za prijem, pa je
po mnogima bolje izvesti dobar i precizan flot, nego smanjivati brzinu i snagu smeč servisa.
Individualna taktika servisa (Kostić i Kalajdžić, 1995) se može
svesti na sledeće zadatke, odnosno ciljeve:
•da se postigne poen
•da se oteža mogućnost brzog i raznovrsnog napada
protivnika
•da se ne pogrije{i kod izvođenja servisa
•start of the game
•after time-out
•after an error of the teammate who previously served
•after their own faults in previous servings
•when the opponent is in a negative series of points
•after a change which strengthens the block of one’s
team
•after a long and difficult change
Dio individualne taktike serviranja su situacije kada igrač ne
bi smio da napravi gre{ku, a to se odnosi na sledeće situacije:
•početak igre
•poslije tajm-auta
•poslije gre{ke saigrača koji je prethodno servirao
•poslije sopstvene servis gre{ke kod prethodnog serviranja
•kada je protivnik u negativnoj seriji poena
•poslije izmjene kojom se pojačava blok svoje ekipe
•poslije duge i te{ke promjene
Individual serving’s tactic involves many other things that a
player can do in order to gain any advantage over opponents.
This advantage can be achieved by changing the rhythm,
method, and frequency of the service. In addition to individual and collective tactics of serving, attention should be
focused on the more challenging tasks, which are considered
as both collective and individual tactics.
Individualna taktika serviranja obuhvata i mnoge druge stvari
koje igrač može raditi sa ciljem da stekne bilo kakvu prednost
u odnosu na protivnika. Ta prednost se može postići promjenom ritma, načina, kao i frekvencije izvođenja servisa.
Pored individualne i kolektivne taktike kod serviranja, pažnja
treba da bude usmjerena na vi{e zadataka koji se postavljaju i kao kolektivna i kao individualna taktika.
Methodology
of service delivery
Metodologija
izvođenja servisa
Spike service
Smeč servis
Spike service is one of the most difficult elements of the
game of volleyball because its implementation requires,
among other things:
•a precise drop ball
•precise and powerful momentum
•a strong high jump and long jump
•a kick with great force and speed
•landing
Smeč servis je jedan od najtežih elemenata odbojka{ke igre
zato {to njegovo izvođenje između ostalog zahtijeva i:
A service begins with a proper delivery position, and ends
when the player positions himself in the starting defense
position. All these activities individually, but especially as a
Servis se započinje pravilnim stavom za izvođenje, a zavr{ava
odlaskom igrača u početnu poziciju za odbranu. Sve ove
aktivnosti pojedinačno, a posebno kao cjelina, iziskuju
Part of the skill of individual servings are situations where a
player should not make a mistake, and this applies to the
following situations:
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•precizno podbacivanje lopte
•precizan i snažan zalet
•snažan skok u vis i dalj
•udarac velikom snagom i brzinom
•doskok
Zbornik radova 2011, 173–182
whole, require a major effort by the server. This service is a
killer if the ball speed is great, but this requires a lot of energy. The spike service delivered with low ball speed is very
easy to receive, so it makes no sense to deliver it that way.
Advice that is given to players in matches and trainings in
the delivery of the spike is to avoid contact with the ball in
the downward phase of the jump, that is to use the first
phase when the speed of the server is greatest and is on the
rise. With young players performing the spike service, we
should insist that the ball speed is such that it does not
jeopardize the safety of the service. Ball speed should be
increased, almost imperceptibly, as progress in service delivery is achieved.
The ball should be thrown so that the server makes contact
with the ball two feet from the base line (toward the net),
and jumps out as deeply as possible in the field (2 to 3
meters). Server player tosses the ball about three feet in front
of himself, and about four feet upwards. At ejection, the ball
must and should have front rotation, so that the server can
easily kick the ball with a “spin” (Apricot & Jankovic, 1996).
veoma veliki napor od strane servera. Ovaj servis je ubojit
ako je brzina lopte velika, a upravo to zahtijeva veliku uloženu
energiju. Smeč servis izveden sa malom brzinom lopte je
veoma lak za prijem i nema smisla tako ga izvoditi.
Savjet koji se najče{će daje igračima na utakmicama i
treninzima kod izvođenja smeč servisa je da se izbjegne
kontakt sa loptom u silaznoj fazi skoka, odnosno da se iskoristi prva faza kada je brzina servera uzlazna i najveća.
Kod mladih igrača treba zahtijevati da prilikom izvođenja
smeč servisa brzina lopte bude takva da ne ugrožava sigurnost izvođenja servisa. Sa napredovanjem u usavr{avanju
servisa, skoro neprimjetno, brzinu lopte treba povećavati.
Loptu treba podbaciti tako da konakt sa njom server započne
pola metra od osnovne linije (prema mreži), a skok izvede
{to je moguće dublje u teren (2 do 3 metra). Server podbacuje loptu oko tri metra ispred sebe, a oko četiri uvis. Kod
izbačaja, lopta mora i treba da ima prednju rotaciju, kako
bi server lak{e izveo udarac po lopti sa “spinom” (Marelić i
Janković, 1996)
Najče{će gre{ke koje se mogu javiti kod izvođenja smeč
servisa su lo{ ili neadekvatan izbačaj lopte, zatim nepravilan
kontakt dlana i lopte , te nepravilan zalet i skok .
Service without jump and without rotation (Float)
Lelujavac (servis bez skoka i bez rotacije)
This service belongs to the group of services rendered frontally without a jump, and appeared after the side service
without a jump and without ball rotation (the Japanese
service). Because of easier implementation and faster technique learning it has become increasingly widespread. In
recent years it is used less than services performed from the
jump, because they have a much shorter travel time of the
ball and are more efficient. Float is more often used in
women’s volleyball in lower skill categories, where it’s often
used as a basic service, while top players usually use it as an
alternative. It is done in a way that the server is facing the
net, with one foot sticking out front (left foot for the right
handed and right foot for the left handed), while the ball is
not ejected by more than one meter in height. The hand
that is performing the service right before the jump ball goes
in the back swing and the wrist is placed in a straight extension of the forearm, solid and fixed. The ball is strongly hit
in the center by the root of the hand, and moves without
any rotation. This provides the floating effect due to the loss
of speed at which the ball is moving, which depends on
increased air resistance (Selinger, 2000).
The trajectory of the ball is almost a horizontal line, and the
greater the horizontal velocity of the ball, the greater is the
effect of swinging. Therefore, it is recommended that during
the delivery of the float service, the player moves away from
the main line at least six meters. Particularly, the effect of
the wavy service is based on an undetermined path and
change of ball direction, resulting in difficult service reception
(Kostic, 1999).
Pripada grupi servisa izvedenih čeono bez skoka, a pojavio
se nakon bočnog servisa bez skoka i bez rotacije lopte (japanski servis). Zbog lak{eg izvođenja i lak{eg usvajanja tehnike
postao je veoma rasprostranjen. U novije vrijeme potisnut
je servisima koji se izvode iz skoka zato {to imaju daleko
kraće vrijeme leta lopte i daleko su efikasniji. Lelujavi servis
(lelujavac) če{će se koristi u ženskoj odbojci i kod nižih
kategorija obučenosti, gdje ga najče{će koriste kao osnovni
servis, dok kod vrhunskih igrača najče{će predstavlja alternativu. Izvodi se na način da server bude okrenut licem
prema mreži, sa jednom nogom isturenom naprijed (de{njaci
lijevu, a ljevaci desnu), a lopta se ne izbacuje vi{e od jednod
metra u visinu. Ruka kojom se izvodi servis treba da
neposredno prije podbacivanja ide u zamah unazad, a zglob
{ake je postavljen ravno u produžetku podlaktice, čvrst i
fiksiran. Lopta se energično udara korjenom {ake u njen
centar, a kreće se bez ikakve rotacije. Time se postiže lelujajući
efekat zbog gubljenja brzine kojom se kreće lopta, a koja je
u zavisnosti od povećanja otpora vazduha (Selinger, 2000).
Putanja leta lopte je skoro horizontalna linija i {to je horizontalna brzina lopte veća, to je efekat lelujanja veći. Zato
se preporučuje, da se kod serviranja lelujavog servisa odmakne
od osnovne linije najmanje {est metara. Naime, dejstvo lelujavih servisa se temelji na neutvrđenoj putanji i promjeni
pravca leta lopte, čime se postiže otežan prijem servisa
(Kostić, 1999).
Service from the jump
without rotation (Float service)
Servis iz skoka
bez rotacije (Flot servis)
Well trained float service represents the possibility of serving
without the risk of errors. This service can, quite literally, hit
any part of the opponent’s court with a relatively short
travel time of the ball and very low percentage of error.
These circumstances provide an opportunity for the implementation of many tactical ideas. The efficiency of this
service is much greater when used as an alternative to spike
service, especially if you can hide it and perform it well.
According to phases of the throws, the spike and float service
are somewhat similar. Specifically, in both types of service
we have a running phase, a drop ball, a jump phase, kick
Dobro uvježban predstavlja mogućnost serviranja bez rizika
od gre{ke. Ovim servisom se, bukvalno, može pogoditi
svaki dio protivničkog terena sa relativno kratkim vremenom
leta lopte i veoma malim procentom gre{ke. Ove okolnosti
pružaju priliku za realizaciju mnogih taktičkih zamisli. Efikasnost ovog servisa je znatno veća ako se upotrebljava kao
alternativa smeč servisu, naročito ako se dobro prikrije i
dobro izvede.
Po fazama izvođenja flot i smeč servis su donekle slični.
Naime, i kod jednog i kod drugog servisa imamo faze zaleta,
podbacivanja lopte, skoka, udarca po lopti i doskoka.
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the ball phase and landing. However, each of these service
phases is different from the same phase of the other service.
The main difference is that in the float service the ball travels without rotation, and in the spike service with rotation.
Furthermore, the difference in these services are reflected
in the strength and speed of running and hitting the ball,
strength and jump height, location where the ball is hit, and
part of the palm which is hitting the ball.
Delivery of this service requires far less energy than a
spike because the run-up, jump and kick are of far lesser
intensity. Ball speed is much lower, but it can hit a place
that requires a significant movement of the receiving player,
which significantly increases performance.
It is essential for the float service to perform the jump
as much as possible in the depth of the field court, to
“carry over” the ball to the serving hand and to perform and
finish the strike in the first phase of the jump. In this way,
the movement and server speed are fully used.
During the service execution ball travels with the server,
which means that it has his speed of movement. The kick
itself is adding speed to the ball at the moment when the
vertical component of its speed equals zero. Therefore in
volleyball jargon we use the term ‘’ carrying out ‘’, and not
throwing the ball, because this ball is essentially carried out
to the serving hand.
The ball is hit at the very root of the palm center and thus
avoids rotation, increases speed, reduces the parabola of
the ball, or the elevation angle, which is why it can get an
unpredictable path, or undulation and “dancing.” What will
be the extent of the “floating” amplitude, depends on the
stroke power, the size of the ball deformation, pressure in
the ball, distance of servers from the baseline, the size of
elevation angle, server’s impact height, gravity and air resistance (Stojanovic, Kostic, & Nesic, 2010, p. 61).
Figures 1 and 2 shows the position of hands and palms,
which are striking the ball, including the place the ball is
kicked.
Međutim, svaka od ovih faza jednog servisa različita je od
iste faze drugog, a osnovna razlika je {to kod flot servisa
lopta putuje bez rotacije, a kod smeč servisa sa rotacijom.
Dalje, razlika kod ovih servisa se očituje jo{ u snazi i brzini
zaleta i udarca po lopti, snazi i visini skoka, kao i mjestu
udarca po lopti, te dijelu dlana kojim se udara po lopti.
Izvođenje ovog servisa zahtijeva daleko manje energije od
smeč servisa jer su zalet, skok i udarac daleko manjeg intenziteta. Brzina lopte je znatno manja, ali se može pogoditi mjesto koje zahtijeva značajno pomjeranje primača,
čime se učinak bitno povećava.
Su{tina flot servisa je u tome da skok bude izveden {to je
moguće vi{e u dubinu terena i da se “izno{enje” lopte pred
ruku za serviranje i sam udarac izvedu i zavr{e u prvoj fazi
skoka. Na ovaj način se u cjelosti koristi kretanje odnosno
brzina servera. Pri izvođenju servisa lopta putuje sa serverom,
{to znači da ima njegovu brzinu kretanja. Sam udarac je
dodavanje brzine lopti u trenutku kada je vertikalna komponenta njene brzine ravna nuli. Zbog toga se u odbojka{kom
žargonu koristi izraz „izno{enje“ lopte, a ne podbacivanje,
jer se ona u su{tini iznosi pred ruku kojom se servira. Lopta
se udara korijenom dlana u sami centar i na taj način izbjegava rotacija, povećava ubrzanje, smanjuje parabola leta
lopte,odnosno elevacioni ugao, zbog čega se može dobiti
nepredvidljiva putanja, odnosno lelujanje i „ plesanje“. Kolike će biti amplitude „lelujanja“ zavisi od: snage udarca,
veličine deformacije lopte, pritiska u lopti, udaljenosti servera od osnovne linije, veličine elevacionog ugla, udarne
visine servera, sile zemljine teže i otpora vazduha (Stojanović,
Kostić i Ne{ić, 2010, str. 61).
Slike 1 i 2 pokazuju položaj ruke, odnosno dlana kojim se
udara po lopti, kao i mjesto udarca po lopti.
Slika 1: Položaj dlana i mjesto udarca po lopti
Figure 1: Position of the palm and place where the ball is
kicked
Slika 2: Položaj i povr{ina dlana kod udarca
Figure 2: Position of the palm and surface at kick
Last European Volleyball Championship for men, held in
Austria and the Czech Republic, has definitely shown that
spike service is no longer the most powerful and most efficient
service. When we needed to additionally burden the service
reception of other teams, the coach of European championsSerbia-did not introduce players with a powerful and devastating spike service, but chose players who have an extremely unpleasant and accurate floater from the jump (float).
Float service won the last point in the final and with an ace.
On the women’s volleyball championship which was held
Zadnje evropsko prvenstvo u odbojci za mu{karce, održano
u Austriji i Če{koj, definitivno je pokazalo da smeč servis
vi{e nije najmoćniji i najefikasniji servis. Kad je trebalo dodatno opteretiti prijem servisa kod protivničkih ekipa selektor evropskih prvaka - Srbije nije uvodio igrače sa snažnim
i razornim smeč servisima, nego je uvodio igrače koji imaju
izuzetno neugodan i precizan lelujavi servis iz skoka (flot).
Flot servisom osvojen je i zadnji poen u finalu i to asom. Na
ženskom odbojka{kom prvenstvu koje se održalo u Beogradu i u kojem je takođe reprezentacija Srbije osvojila
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Vojvodi}, M. i ]ele{, N.: METODOLOGIJA IZVO\ENJA SERVISA U ODBOJCI...
in Belgrade, where the Serbian national team also won the
gold medal, float service was dominant compared to other
services.
There are several ways of performing the float service which
differ from each other, and this can be seen in:
•a different way of running
- momentum with two steps
- momentum with three steps
- momentum with four and more steps
•variations in drop ball implementation
- taking and jump ball with one hand
- taking and jump ball with two hands
•different kinds of reflection
- reflection on one leg
- reflection on two legs
Zbornik radova 2011, 173–182
zlatnu medalju, flot servis je bio dominantan u odnosu na
druge servise.
Postoji vi{e načina izvođenja flot servisa koji se razlikuju
jedni od drugih, a to očituju se u:
•različitom načinu zaleta
- zalet sa dva koraka
- zalet sa tri koraka
- zalet sa četiri i vi{e koraka
•različitom načinu podbacivanja lopte
- izno{enje i podbacivanje jednom rukom
- izno{enje i podbacivanje sa dvije ruke
•različitoj vrsti odraza
- odraz sa jedne noge
- odraz sa dvije noge
Evo nekih od tih načina:
Here are some of these ways:
Lopta se drži sa obe ruke ispred tijela u visini kukova. Kreće
The ball is held with both hands in front of the body at hip
level. The move starts with the right foot, then we catch se sa desnom nogom, zatim lijeva kojom hvatamo zalet,
momentum with the left foot, kick, right foot, left foot, reflect izbačaj, desna, lijeva, odraz sa obe noge i udarac po lopti.
Doskok je u teren.
on both feet and kick the ball. Landing is in the court.
Slika 3: Flot-četiri koraka (izno{enje i podbacivanje sa dvije ruke)
Figure 3: Float-four steps (carrying out and tossing with two hands)
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Slika 4: Flot – četiri koraka iz drugog ugla (izno{enje i izbačaj sa dvije ruke)
Figure 4: Float - four steps from another angle (carrying out and tossing with two hands)
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Slika 5: Koraci kod izvođenja flota sa četiri koraka
Figure 5: The steps in the derivation of the float with four steps
Besides the float service which is performed from the running
in four steps, it is important to emphasize that many volleyball players perform this version of the float service with
only three steps and it is perhaps used more often. The only
difference is in the first step because the move begins with
the left leg when the ball is tossed, then right foot, left foot,
reflects on both feet and kicks the ball....
Pored flot servisa koji se izvodi iz zaleta od četiri koraka,
bitno je naglasiti da mnogo odbojka{ica izvodi ovu verziju
flot servisa samo sa tri koraka i da je on je možda i če{će u
upotrebi. Razlika je jedino u prvom koraku jer se kreće sa
lijeve noge kad se i podbacuje lopta, zatim desna, lijeva,
odraz sa obe noge i udarac po lopti.
Slika 6: Flot servis sa skip korakom (izno{enje i podbacivanje sa dvije ruke)
Figure 6: Float service with skip step (carrying out and tossing with two hands)
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Slika 7: Izbačaj jednom rukom, dva koraka, odraz sa jedne noge i doskok u teren
Figure 7: Toss with one hand, two steps, with the reflection from one foot and landing in a field
The ball is held with both hands outstretched in front of the
body. It starts with the right foot, jump ball, right foot again
(like a child jumping), and then left leg and reflection on
both legs, and then kick the ball. Landing is also deep in the
court ground.
180
Lopta se drži sa obe ispružene ruke ispred tijela.Kreće se
desnom nogom, podbacivanje, ponovo desna noga(kao
dječiji poskok), pa onda lijeva i odraz sa obe noge, te udarac
po lopti. Doskok je takođe, duboko u teren.
Vojvodi}, M. i ]ele{, N.: METODOLOGIJA IZVO\ENJA SERVISA U ODBOJCI...
Zbornik radova 2011, 173–182
It starts with the left foot, then right, left foot and reflection
with both feet and kicks the ball. As it can be seen from the
picture above, landing after kick is behind the baseline at
about 1.5m to 2m. This method is often done so that the
landing after the service is in the field, or to reflect the service
right next to the baseline.
As with other modes of service delivery, certain irregularities
and errors can occur during the delivery of the jump float
service. These errors are often an inadequate initial position,
incorrect steps during a drop ball, inadequate ball height
and manner of jump ball. In addition, the ball is not hit to
reach the highest point, and it is often inadequate hand
contact with the ball which causes ball rotation.
Kreće se lijevom, zatim desna, lijeva, te odraz sa obe noge
i udarac po lopti. Kao {to se može vidjeti na slici gore, doskok poslije udarca je iza osnovne linije na otprilike 1.5m do
2m. Ovaj način se često izvodi i tako da doskok poslije
servisa bude u terenu, odnosno da odraz za servis bude tik
uz osnovnu liniju.
Kao i kod drugih načina izvođenja servise i kod izvođenja
flot servisa iz skoka dolazi do određenih nepravilnosti i
gre{aka. Te gre{ke su najče{će u neadekvatnom početnom
stavu, pogre{nim koracima pri podbacivanju lopte, neadekvatna visina podbačene lopte i način podbacivanje. Osim toga,
lopta se ne udara u najvi{oj tački dohvata, a čest je i nepravilan
kontakt dlana i lopte, zbog čega dolazi do rotacije lopte.
Conclusion
Zaključak
Every technical element in volleyball, including service, is a
unit of movement of players and a ball, and those interrelationships of movement of players and a ball are governed
by certain principles. These laws are studied and analyzed,
and the purpose of this analysis is to improve and facilitate
further development and efficiency of service. Ability and
knowledge of service delivery, with the right individual and
collective tactical implementation of services, can often be
the deciding factor in the final outcome of the game. What
every coach and player should and must know is that during
service delivery there is no need to hurry, unless this is part
of the tactic. The player needs to remain calm, maintaining
composure and complete concentration. Each service has
its advantages and disadvantages, so the eternal dilemma of
coaches and players is which service should be applied in
the most vulnerable stages of the game.
Should you apply a strong spike service with a huge risk and
the possibility of major errors or use a weaker service without risk, thus providing an opportunity for the opponent to
play around it, is a matter of choice at the given moment.
However, the strategy applied by the Serbian coach at the
last European Championship may have surprised many, but
also showed that the service can be just as unpleasant and
disrupt the reception of the opponent, and there’s less risk
of error in the service when it’s performed from the jump
without rotation (float service). Today, this service is right
Svaki tehnički elemenat u odbojci, pa tako i servis, predstavlja jednu cjelinu kretanja igrača i lopte, a ti međusobni
odnosi kretanja igrača i lopte su regulisani određenim zakonitostima. Te zakonitosti se proučavaju i analiziraju, a
svrha te analize je da se pobolj{a i omogući dalji razvoj i
efikasnost servisa. Sposobnost i znanje izvođenja servisa, uz
ispravnu individualnu i kolektivnu taktičku realizaciju servisa često mogu da budu odlučujući faktor u krajnjem
ishodu utakmice. Ono {to svaki trener, pa i igrač trebaju i
moraju znati je da se pri izvođenju servisa ne treba žuriti,
osim ako to nije dio taktike. Igrač treba da zadrži mirnoću,
staloženost i potpunu koncentraciju.Svaki servis ima svoje
dobre strane, ali i nedostatke, pa je vječita dilema trenera i
igrača koji servis u najosjetljivijim fazama utakmice treba
servirati.
Da li odservirati jak smeč servis sa puno rizika i velikom
mogućno{ću gre{ke ili slabiji servis bez rizika i na taj način
pružiti priliku protivniku da se razigra, stvar je izbora u datom
trenutku. Međutim, ono {to je radio selektor Srbije na zadnjem evropskom prvenstvu možda je mnoge iznenadilo, ali
i pokazalo da servis koji može biti isto tako neugodan i
poremetiti prijem protivniku, a uz to je i neuporedivo
manji rizik od gre{ke kod njegovog izvođenja je servis iz
skoka bez rotacije (flot servis). Danas je ovaj servis u mu{koj
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Slika 8: Izbačaj jednom rukom, zalet tri koraka, odraz sa obe noge
Figure 8: Toss with one hand, three-step momentum, reflection from both legs
Vojvodi}, M., & ]ele{, N.: METHODOLOGY OF SERVING IN VOLLEYBALL...
Proceedings 2011, 173–182
behind the spike service in male competition, and remains
the most dominant in female competition.
There is no book on volleyball which can be found here,
that in one way or another does not analyze all types of
services, and the techniques and methodologies of their
performance. In many books we find detailed analyses and
descriptions of services that have long since disappeared
and are nowhere in use, even in elementary schools (various
lower and upper services to the punch, and the side service
which is no longer in use even in the countries where it was
invented), and the jump float serve which is now almost
non-existent in literature. Service from the spot without
rotation, which is described in detail in all textbooks, is
similar to the service of the jump without rotation (float
service) only in the point of impact, and part of the palm
hitting the ball, while everything else is different. There are
certain similarities with the spike service and only in some
options of the float service in the starting phase, but everything
else is different. We guess that due to similarities with both
the (float service without jump) and the (spike service), the
service from the jump without rotation (float service) is insufficiently or almost never described, analyzed and represented in our textbooks. This paper is only a small and
modest attempt to rectify this imbalance.
konkurenciji odmah iza smeč servisa, a u ženskoj je najdominantniji.
Ne postoji knjiga iz odbojke, koja se može naći kod nas, a
da se na ovaj ili onaj način ne analiziraju sve vrste servisa,
te tehnike i metodologija njihovog izvođenja. U velikom
broju knjiga analiziraju se i do detalja opisuju servisi koji su
davno nestali i vi{e se nigdje ne koriste, pa čak ni u osnovnim
{kolama (razni donji i gornji servisi sa udarcima {akom, te
bočni koji se ne izvode vi{e ni u zemljama iz kojih su potekli), a flot servis iz skoka gotovo da ne postoji u literaturi.
Servis iz mjesta bez rotacije(lelujavac), koji postoji opisan
do detalja u svim udžbenicima, sličan je sa servisom iz skoka
bez rotacije(flot servis), samo po mjestu udarca po lopti i
dijelom dlana kojim se udara po lopti, a po svemu ostalom
se razlikuje. Postoje određene sličnosti i sa smeč servisom,
i to isključivo u nekim varijantama flot servisa u fazi zaleta,
a sve ostalo je drugačije. Valjda zato {to ima sličnosti i sa
jednom (lelujavac) i drugom vrstom servisa (smeč servis),
servis iz skoka bez rotacije (flot servis) je nedovoljno ili skoro
nikako opisan, analiziran i zastupljen u na{im udžbenicima.
Ovaj rad je samo mali i skromni poku{aj da se ta nesrazmjera
ispravi.
Reference
Marelić, N., & Janković, V.(1996). Odbojka{ke tehnike
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Stojanović, T., Kostić, R., & Ne{ić, G. (2010). Odbojka-tehnika i taktika ŠVolleyball – technique and tactics¹.
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Tomić, D. (1976). Sto treninga odbojke ŠOne hundred
volleyball practices¹. Beograd: Savez za fizičku kulturu
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Tomić, D. (1986). [kola odbojke ŠSchool of volleyball¹.
Beograd: Partizan.
Janković, V., & Marelić, N. (1995). Odbojka ŠVolleyball¹.
Zagreb: Fakultet fizi~ke kulture.
Janković, V., & Marelić, N. (2003). Odbojka za sve ŠVolleyball for everybody¹. Zagreb: Autorska naklada.
Kostić, R., & Kalajdžić,D. (1995). Odbojka - Metodika
sportske pripreme ŠVolleyball – Methods of sports preparation¹. Ni{: Studentski kulturni centar.
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Korespodencija/Correspodence to:
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
Dr Milenko Vojvodi}
Phone: 0038765750967
E-mail: milenkoblªgmail.com
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metodologija izvoðenja servisa u odbojci sa akcentom na servis iz