Proceedings 2012. (2013), Vol 4, ISSN 1986-8146
www.sportkon.com
PROMENE MOTORIČKIH SPOSOBNOSTI
MLADIH FUDBALERA RAZLIČITOG UZRASTA
I RAZLIČITE POZICIJE U TIMU
CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS
OF YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS IN DIFFERENT
AGE GROUPS AND DIFFERENT POSITIONS
Srđan Bugarski1, Sa{a \urić1, and Sa{a Marković2
Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Srbija
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade, Serbia
2
Fakultet fizičkog vaspitanja i sporta, Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci, Bosna i Hercegovina
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
1
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KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
doi​: 10.5550/SP.4.2012.011
UDK: 796.332:572.512 KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
COBISS.BH-ID: 3955736
Summary
Sažetak
Contemporary total football requires footballers to play much
faster , which means they have less time to think, and thus
allows them a shorter reaction span. It also makes more
difficult demands on players, requiring that they possess
well-developed cognitive, functional and, of course, motor
skills. According to majority of research, additional physical
activity in the form of organized practice boosts the effects
of physical development as well as the effects of basic motor
skills.When it comes to player positions, the first thing we
should do is understand the function, that is, the role of
players in each position, and also, understand certain motor
skills which players in different positions in today’s football
are required to possess.
The subject of this research are motor skills used to assess
the development of football players from different age groups.
The objectives of the research are to assess differences among
certain age groups, that is ranks, and to assess trend of development for players in different positions. This research
was based on standard procedures for testing motor skills.
The participants were FC BASK youth academy members.
Each test was conducted on an outdoor football pitch with
artificial grass, at the FC BASK stadium. The anthropometric
tests and the Deep forward bend were carried out on the
club’s premises. 115 boys, aged 10 to 19 (15,01±2,13)
participated in the research. All of them are divided into
four ranks: cockerel, pioneers, cadets and youth. All of the
variables were placed into one of three groups, depending
on their methodological characteristics. The first group of
variables is made up of two independent variables and those
are: body mass and height of participants. The second group
of variables is made up of 3 dependent variables and those
are: 10m sprint, Agility (assessed by using the Illinois test)
and Vertical jump (Sergeant). The third group is made up of
2 categorical variables - age and position. The measuring
was carried out by using photo-cells, anthropometer (Martin),
a bench and a measuring tape. The results of this study can
be instrumental in proving that the tested motor skills can
develop until 16 or 17 years of age. After that period, there
is hardly any possibility for their improvement. When it
Savremeni, totalni fudbal, traži mnogo bržu igru, kraće vreme
reakcije, sa manje razmi{ljanja a težim zahtevima, sa razvijenijim kognitivnim, funkcionalnim i svakako, motoričkim
sposobnostima. Dodatna fizička aktivnost u obliku organizovanog treninga, prema većini dosada{njih istraživanja
povećava pozitivne efekte kako fizičkog razvoja tako i bazičnih
motoričkih sposobnosti. Kada su u pitanju pozicije, moramo
prvo razumeti funkciju, odnosno ulogu svakog igrača po
poziciji u timu a zatim i određene motoričke sposobnosti
koje zahtevaju pozicije u dana{njem fudbalu.
Predmet ovog rada su motoričke sposobnosti kojim procenjujemo razvoj fudbalera različitog uzrasta.Cilj ovog rada je
ispitivanje razlika između pojedinih uzrasta, odnosno selekcija, kao i ispitivanje trenda razvoja između različitih
pozicija u tim. Ovo istraživanje je sprovedeno na osnovu
standardnog testiranja motoričkih sposobnosti polaznika
omladinske {kole, fudbalskog kluba BASK. Svaki test sproveden je na terenu stadiona FK BASK sa vje{tačkom travom,
a antropometrijski testovi i test Duboki pretklon, odrađeni
su u prostorijama kluba. Istraživanjem je obuhvaćeno 115
dečaka, uzrasta od 10 do 19 godina (15,01±2,13). Svi
ispitanici su podeljeni u četiri selekcije: petlići, pioniri, kadeti i omladinci. Sve varijable su podeljene u tri grupe u
odnosu na njihovu metodolo{ku prirodu. Prvu grupu varijabli čine dve nezavisne varijable i to su masa tela i visina
tela ispitanika. Drugu grupu varijabli čine 3 zavisne varijable
i to su Sprint na 10 metara, Agilnost kroz test Ilinois i Vertikalni skok (prema Sardžentu). Treću grupu varijabli čine dve
kategorijske varijable, uzrast i pozicija. Merenje je vr{eno
kori{ćenjem foto – ćelija, vage, antropometra po Martinu,
klupe i metra. Rezultati ove studije doprinose da se uoči i
dokaže da, testirane motoričke sposobnosti mogu da se
razvijaju do 16-17 godine. Nakon tog perioda, prostor za
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comes to players aged 12 to 14, the tested motor skills are
developed on account of the critical, sensitive period, and
after 15 years of age, the tested skills show a progress on
account of muscular strength increase.
The results of this research also show that motor skills do not
differentiate between positions at younger age.
pobolj{anje ovih sposobnosti je minimalan. Kod dečaka
uzrasta od 12-14 godina, motoričke sposobnosti koje su
testirane, razvijaju se na račun kritičnog, senzitivnog perioda,
a nakon 15. godine, testirane sposobnosti pokazuju napredak na račun porasta mi{ićne snage.
Key words: motor skills, football, diferent postition, young
athletes.
Ključne riječi: motoričke sposobnosti, fudbal, pozicije u
timu, mladi fudbaleri.
Introduction
Uvod
For more than twenty years football has been the most
popular sport in the world, whether its popularity is judged
by the number of spectators or the number of active players.
During this period football has continuously developed,
especially towards increasing physical demands and the
degree of exertion that football players are subjected to
during practice and competition. Contemporary total football
requires footballers to play much faster , which means they
have less time to think, and thus allows them a shorter reaction span. It also makes more difficult demands on players,
requiring that they possess well-developed cognitive, functional and, of course, motor skills(Marković, & Bradic, 2008).
According to majority of research (Nićin, 2000; Petković,
2007), additional physical activity in the form of organized
practice boosts the effects of physical development as well
as the effects of basic motor skills. All sports, and football is
no exception, set a great portion of demands on sportsmen.
When it comes to football, those demands can be classified
in the following way: technical, tactical, psychological and
physical demands. During a football game players engage
in a great number of activities and make a vast number of
movements, both with and without the ball. Consequently,
different intervals of high and low intensity work alternate
without planning (and unpredictably). Therefore, football
can be described as a complex activity carried out in acyclic
intervals. Verheijen (1998) has shown that a player makes
1400 to 1600 changes in intensity and direction of movement per game, which means that one such change is made
every 3.5 to 4.0 seconds. On the other hand, Riley, Bangsbo, and Franks (2000) have calculated that footballers sprint
every 90 seconds on average, and that they are under great
strain every 30 seconds. It is interesting that of the entire
covered distance, only about 50% is made up of straight-line
running, while the remainder is made up of backward, lateral and zigzag movements, circular movements, etc. (Markovic & Bradic, 2008).
When it comes to player positions, the first thing we should
do is understand the function, that is, the role of players in
each position, and also, understand certain motor skills which
players in different positions in today’s football are required
to possess. We should be careful when reaching any conclusions about motor skills of youth players in different positions.
The reason for this is that, in most cases, players’ position
cannot be determined before the time their growth peaks,
because there are no rules which would make it possible to
determine the position based on players’ motor predisposition. In this period, anthropometric characteristics are the
key factor in the process of picking a team. Unfortunately,
in most cases, players with better acceleration are favoured,
and players’ positions in a team are determined according
to that parameter.
The subject of this research are motor skills used to assess
the development of football players from different age groups.
The objectives of the research are to assess differences among
certain age groups, that is ranks, and to assess trend of development for players in different positions.
Fudbal je već vi{e od dvadeset godina najpopularniji sport
na svetu bez obzira, posmatramo li ga sa aspekta broja
gledalaca ili pak broja aktivnih sportista. Tokom tog razdoblja
fudbal se kontinuirano razvijao, posebno u smeru povećanja
fizičkih zahteva i opterećenja kojima su izloženi fudbaleri
tokom treninga i takmičenja. Savremeni, totalni fudbal, traži
mnogo bržu igru, kraće vreme reakcije, sa manje razmi{ljanja
a težim zahtevima, sa razvijenijim kognitivnim, funkcionalnim i svakako, motoričkim sposobnostima (Marković i Bradić,
2008). Dodatna fizička aktivnost u obliku organizovanog
treninga, prema većini dosada{njih istraživanja (Nićin, 2000;
Petković, 2007) povećava pozitivne efekte kako fizičkog
razvoja tako i bazičnih motoričkih sposobnosti. Svaki sport,
pa tako i fudbal, postavlja određene zahteve pred sportiste.
U fudbalu, ti se zahtevi mogu podeliti u četiri segmenta:
tehnički, taktički, psiholo{ki i fizički zahtevi. Tokom fudbalske utakmice igrači izvedu veliki broj različitih aktivnosti i
kretnji s loptom i bez nje. Pri tome se neplanirano (i
nepredviđeno) izmenjuju intervali rada visokog i niskog
intenziteta, kao i njihovo trajanje. Stoga se fudbalska igra
može opisati kao kompleksna aktivnost acikličnog intervalnog
karaktera. Verheijen (1998) iznosi podatak da u toku utakmice
igrač napravi između 1400 i 1600 promena intenziteta i
pravca kretanja, {to iznosi promenu na svakih 3,5-4,0 sekunde.
Sa druge strane Riley, Bangsbo i Franks (2000) izračunali su
da fudbaleri u proseku sprintaju na svakih 90 sekundi, a da
imaju visoko intenzivne napore na svakih 30 sekundi. Interesantan je podatak da od ukupne pređene udaljenosti,
samo oko 50% otpada na pravolinijsko kretanje, dok ostatak
čine kretanje natra{ke, bočno i cik-cak kretanje, kružno
kretanje i sl. (Marković i Bradić, 2008).
Kada su u pitanju pozicije, moramo prvo razumeti funkciju,
odnosno ulogu svakog igrača po poziciji u timu a zatim i
određene motoričke sposobnosti koje zahtevaju pozicije u
dana{njem fudbalu. Treba se ograditi kada su u pitanju
motoričke sposobnosti po pozicijama na nivou uzrasta u
mlađim kategorijama. Razlog je u tome {to do godine najvećeg
prirasta u visinu, pozicija mahom ne može da bude određena.
Tada ne postoje pravila koja povezuju pozicije sa određenim
motoričkim predispozicijama. U tom periodu preovlađuju
antropometrijske karakteristike prilikom odabira ekipe.
Nažalost, prednost uglavnom, dobijaju akceleranti, pa i
pozicije u timu su po tom pravilu i određene.
Predmet ovog rada su motoričke sposobnosti kojim procenjujemo razvoj fudbalera različitog uzrasta.
Cilj ovog rada je ispitivanje razlika između pojedinih uzrasta, odnosno selekcija, kao i ispitivanje trenda razvoja
između različitih pozicija u tim
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Bugarski, S. i saradnici: PROMJENE MOTORIČKIH SPOSOBNOSTI MLADIH...
Bugarski, S. et al.: CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG FOOTBALL...
Methods
Metode
Research course and conduct
Tok i postupci istraživanja
This research was based on standard procedures for testing
motor skills. The participants were FC BASK youth academy
members. All tests were conducted in one day, in two shifts
(depending on the time when the participants’ classes
started), and the research itself was conducted by the candidate and two assistants. Each test was conducted on an
outdoor football pitch with artificial grass, at the FC BASK
stadium. The anthropometric tests and the Deep forward
bend were carried out on the club’s premises. Each participant was wearing adequate equipment, including football
boots.
Ovo istraživanje je sprovedeno na osnovu standardnog testiranja motoričkih sposobnosti polaznika omladinske {kole,
fudbalskog kluba BASK. Testiranje je obavljeno u jednom
danu, u dve smene (u zavisnosti kada su ispitanici i{li u {kolu),
a samo testiranje obavio je kandidat sa dvojicom asistenata.
Svaki test je rađen na otvorenom fudbalskom terenu sa
ve{tačkom travom, na stadionu FK BASK, a antropometrijski testovi i test Duboki pretklon, odrađeni su u prostorijama
kluba. Svaki ispitanik je nosio odgovarajuću sportsku opremu
i kopačke.
Sample participants
Uzorak ispitanika
115 boys, aged 10 to 19 (15,01±2,13) participated in the
research. All of the participants are active members of FC
BASK and they all play in different competitions depending
on their age group. Also, all of them are divided into four
ranks: cockerel, pioneers, cadets and youth. All of the mentioned ranks include members of football school, cockerel,
pioneers, cadets and youth..
Istraživanjem je obuhvaćeno 115 dečaka, uzrasta od 10 do
19 godina (15,01±2,13). Svi ispitanici aktivno treniraju u
FK BASK i članovi su takmičarskih selekcija, svako u svom
uzrastu. Takođe, svi ispitanici su podeljeni u četiri selekcije:
petlići, pioniri, kadeti i omladinci. Sve navedene uzrasne
grupe obuhvataju selekcije {kole fudbala, petlića, mlađih i
starijih pionira, mlađih i starijih kadeta, kao i omladinaca.
Sample variables
All of the variables were placed into one of three groups,
depending on their methodological characteristics. The first
group of variables is made up of two independent variables
and those are: body mass and height of participants. The
second group of variables is made up of 3 dependent variables and those are: 10m sprint, Agility (assessed by using
the Illinois test) and Vertical jump (Sergeant). The third group
is made up of 2 categorical variables - age and position. The
measuring was carried out by using photo-cells, anthropometer (Martin), a bench and a measuring tape.
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Proceedings 2012, 104–112
Uzorak varijabli
Sve varijable su podeljene u tri grupe u odnosu na njihovu
metodolo{ku prirodu. Prvu grupu varijabli čine dve nezavisne
varijable i to su masa tela i visina tela ispitanika. Drugu
grupu varijabli čine 3 zavisne varijable i to su Sprint na 10
metara, Agilnost kroz test Ilinois i Vertikalni skok (prema
Sardžentu). Treću grupu varijabli čine dve kategorijske varijable, uzrast i pozicija. Merenje je vr{eno kori{ćenjem foto
– ćelija, vage ,antropometra po Martinu, klupe i metra.
Results
Rezultati
Table 1 shows results obtained by using descriptive statistics
to compare morphological variables of body height and body
mass. The results speak in favour of the statement that the
categorical variable named rank influences changes of morphological variables in a statistically significant way. When
the changes in these variables for two consecutive ranks are
compared, statistically significant differences are evident for
all ranks (p<.05), except when comparing the selections of
kadeti and omladinci for both variables of morphological
space.
Two-factor variance analysis for morphological variables
(Figure 1 and 2) does not indicate that the interaction of
rank and position factors is related to changes in body mass
and height in a statistically significant way (p>.05).
Two-factor variance analysis for motor variables (Figures 3,
4 and 5) does not indicate that the interaction between the
factors of rank and position is related to changes in results
in any of the mentioned tests in a statistically relevant way
(p>.05).
U Tabeli 1 prikazani su rezultati deskriptivne statistike za
morfolo{ke varijable Telesne visine i telesne mase. Rezultati govore u prilog tome da kategorijska varijabla selekcija
statistički značajno utiče na promene morfolo{kih varijabli.
Kada se promene u ovim varijablama posmatraju između
dve uzastopne selekcije, uočavaju se statistički značajne
razlike između svih selekcija (p<0,05) osim između selekcija kadeta i omladinaca za obe varijable morfolo{kog prostora.
Dvofaktorska analiza varijanse za morfolo{ke varijable (Slika
1 i 2) ne ukazuje da je interakcija faktora selekcija i faktora
pozicija u timu statistički značajno povezana sa promenama
mase tela i visine tela (p>0,05).
Dvofaktorska analiza varijanse za motoričke varijable (Slike
3, 4 i 5) ne ukazuje da je interakcija faktora selekcija i faktora pozicija u timu statistički značajno povezana sa promenama rezultata ni u jednom od pomenutih testova (p>0,05).
Discussion
Diskusija
Before discussing the results of this study, it is necessary to
consider certain methodological issues important for reaching proper conclusions.
Pre diskusije glavnih nalaza postojeće studije, neophodno
je razmotriti određene metodolo{ke aspekte, bitne za
izvođenje odgovarajućih zaključaka.
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Tabela 1: Osnovni deskriptivni pokazatelji morfolo{kih varijabli ispitanika različitih selekcija na nivou celog uzorka i
subuzoraka pojedinih pozicija u timu.
Table 1: Basic descriptive indicators of morphological variables for participants from different ranks at the level of the
entire sample, and the sub-sample of different positions in a team.
Selection
Cockerel
Pioneers
Cadets
Youth
Position
Body High (cm)
M
Body Mass (kg)
SD
M
SD
all
155.62
9.91
45.47
12.01
defense
159.25
12.25
51.97
15.77
midfielder
155.50
7.30
44.19
6.42
offensive
151.00
9.58
39.08
10.82
all
170.85
9.32
57.66
10.02
defense
173.56
7.91
61.14
9.87
midfielder
169.55
9.89
54.64
8.20
offensive
169.43
10.64
57.94
12.58
all
178.12
6.39
66.76
8.43
defense
178.58
6.83
64.46
9.50
midfielder
177.18
4.49
65.61
7.08
offensive
178.55
7.85
70.43
7.90
all
178.29
4.31
70.44
7.44
defense
179.14
5.34
73.40
6.42
midfielder
175.80
4.27
64.20
5.81
offensive
179.60
1.52
72.52
7.52
Bold number - p<.05 (statisticaly significant differenece when compared to a prevous rank)
Legend/Legenda: Selection - Selekcija; Position - Pozicija; Cockerel - Pjetlići; Pioneers - Pioniri;
Cadets - Kadeti; Youth - Omladinci; All - Svi; Defense - Odbrana; Midfielder - Vezni, Offensive - Napad; Body High - Telesna visina; Body Wight - Telesna težina; M - Mean (Aritmetička sredina); SD - Stadard deviation (Standardna devijacija).
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Slika 1: Dvofaktorska analiza varijanse mase tela (faktori: selekcija i pozicija).
Figure 1: Two-factor analysis of Body mass variance (factors: rank and position).
Selection*position: F(6, 103)=2.0524, p=.06530
90
85
80
75
Body Mass (kg)
70
65
60
55
50
elesna masa
45
40
DEFENSE
35
Position
30
25
Cockeler
Pioneers
Cadets
Selection
Youth
MIDFIELDER
Position
OFFENSE
Position
Legend/Legenda: Selection - Selekcija; Position - Pozicija; Cockerel - Pjetlići; Pioneers - Pioniri;
Cadets - Kadeti; Youth - Omladinci; Body Mass - Telesna težina; Defense - Odbrana;
Midfielder - Vezni; Offense - Napad.
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Slika 2: Dvofaktorska analiza varijanse visine tela (faktori: selekcija i pozicija).
Figure 2: Two-factor analysis of Body height variance (factors: rank and position).
Selection*position: F(6, 103)=.65292, p=.68766
195
190
185
180
Body Hight (cm)
175
170
165
160
155
DEFENSE
150
Position
145
140
Cockeler
Pioneers
Cadets
Youth
Selection
MIDFIELDER
Position
OFFENSE
Position
Legend/Legenda: Selection - Selekcija; Position - Pozicija; Cockerel - Pjetlići; Pioneers - Pioniri;
Cadets - Kadeti; Youth - Omladinci; Body High - Telesna visina; Defense - Odbrana;
Midfielder - Vezni; Offense - Napad.
Slika 3: Dvofaktorska analiza varijanse rezultata u testu Sprint 10 metara (faktori: selekcija i pozicija).
Figure 3: Two-factor variance analysis of results for the 10m Sprint test (factors: rank and position).
Selection*position: F(6, 103)=.19288, p=.97820
2.6
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2.5
2.4
2.3
Sprint 10m (s)
2.2
2.1
print
2.0
1.9
1.8
DEFENSE
Position
1.7
1.6
Cockeler
Pioneers
Cadets
Selection
Youth
MIDFIELDER
Position
OFFENSE
Position
Legend/Legenda: Selection - Selekcija; Position - Pozicija; Cockerel - Pjetlići; Pioneers - Pioniri;
Cadets - Kadeti; Youth - Omladinci; Body High - Telesna visina; Defense - Odbrana;
Midfielder - Vezni; Offense - Napad.
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Slika 4: Dvofaktorska analiza varijanse u Ilinois testu agilnosti (faktori: selekcija i pozicija).
Figure 4: Two-factor variance analysis for the Agility test (Ilinois test) (factors: rank and position).
Selection*position: F(6, 103)=.35993, p=.90258
20.0
19.5
19.0
18.5
18.0
Ilinois test (s)
17.5
(s)
17.0
16.5
Ilinois test
16.0
15.5
15.0
DEFENSE
14.5
Position
14.0
13.5
Cockeler
Pioneers
Cadets
Youth
Selection
MIDFIELDER
Position
OFFENSE
Position
Legend/Legenda: Selection - Selekcija; Position - Pozicija; Cockerel - Pjetlići; Pioneers - Pioniri;
Cadets - Kadeti; Youth - Omladinci; Body High - Telesna visina; Defense - Odbrana;
Midfielder - Vezni; Offense - Napad.
Slika 5: Dvofaktorska analiza varijanse rezultata u Vertikalnom skoku (faktori: selekcija i pozicija).
Figure 5: Two-factor variance analysis for the results of Vertical jump test (factors: rank and position).
Selection*position: F(6, 103)=1.1880, p=.31859
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65
60
Vertikalni skok (cm)
55
50
45
40
35
30
DEFENSE
Position
25
20
Cockeler
Pioneers
Cadets
Selection
Youth
MIDFIELDER
Position
OFFENSE
Position
Legend/Legenda: Selection - Selekcija; Position - Pozicija; Cockerel - Pjetlići; Pioneers - Pioniri;
Cadets - Kadeti; Youth - Omladinci; Body High - Telesna visina; Defense - Odbrana;
Midfielder - Vezni; Offense - Napad.
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KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
Bugarski, S. et al.: CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG FOOTBALL...
First of all, we should mention that the sample for this research
was not big enough to guarantee that the research is valid.
At the time when the tests were conducted, it was not possible to provide a greater number of participants.
Secondly, after the testing, it was determined that the data
for goalkeepers cannot contribute to the results, so these
players were removed from the sample, and so were their
positions. Consequently, this paper deals with tests results
for players in the following positions: defender, midfielder
and forward. Another important thing is that all of the midfielders, and all of the defenders were divided in two respective categories: defence and midfield. That might also have
affected the results, bearing in mind the fact that, in terms
of motor skills, players deployed wider in the field, in both
cases, can be very different from the corresponding players
deployed in more central roles .
In the third place, the sample of participants who belong to
the omladinci rank was too small and, therefore, the result
for this rank is not valid. Upon considering the results, a
significant amount of information was obtained, making it
possible to trace changes in certain variables during the
processses of growth and development.
The first independent variable - body height - shows that
there is a statistic significance for the difference between
consecutive age groups, except when comparing kadeti and
omladinci. There is no cross-effect between position and
age, which means that there is no difference between some
of the positions in a given age group. This means that age is
the only factor that determines height changes..
The second independent variable - body mass - provides
the same results as body height. Results produced by measuring morphological traits clearly indicate that there is an
increase in body dimensions (height and body mass) with
age. Descriptive indicators of morphological variables are in
accordance with the results published in several different
studies (Gil, Ruiz, Irazusta, Gil, & Irazusta 2007; Ostojić,
2000; Strudwick, Reili, & Doran, 2002; Vaeyens et al., 2006).
The only significant difference in the results for 10m sprint
is between the ranks of petlici and all other ranks. If we
consider the fact that the coefficient of inborn ability to run
fast is .90 to .95 (Kurelić i sar.1975) we can conclude that
practice has not significantly influenced the statistical relevance
of the difference between arithmetic means for these selections, so this can be related to morphological traits of the
players.
After the results for 10m sprint test came in, the processed
data showed relations similar to those for 20m and 60m
sprint tests in a research conducted by Molnar, Popovic, and
Doder (2009). A research conducted by Rajlija et al. (2000)
also confirms that when testing acceleration and maximum
speed, there is no significant difference between players in
different positions. A research conducted by Tomas and
Nelson (2001) shows similar relations for 10m sprint and
agility tests respectively. Also, in this study, results for the
agility test appear to be unrelated to the results for acceleration and maximum speed tests. A study by Battifant,
Graham, & Cross (2002) has produced similar results, also
showing a slight correlation between results for the Illionois
test and the maximum speed test.
Results for the Illinois and Vertical jump tests show no significant statistical significance for differences between the
ranks of kadeti and omladinci. Vertical jump is one of the
most easily applicable tests for assessing leg power. The test
is carried out in a variety of ways. As a specific motor assignment, vertical jump is present in different forms, not only in
football, but in many other sports (spike and block in volleyball, jumping for possession, blocks and shots in basketball,
110
Proceedings 2012, 104–112
Prvo, treba napomenuti da uzorak ispitanika nije dovoljno
veliki da bi se sa velikom sigurno{ću tvrdili dobijeni rezultati. U vreme testiranja, nije bilo mogućnosti da se obezbedi veći broj ispitanika.
Drugo, nakon testiranja, utvrđeno je da broj golmana ne
može doprineti rezultatima, pa su kao uzorak sklonjeni iz
rada, kao i njihove pozicije. Samim tim, u radu su obrađeni
rezultati dobijeni prema pozicijama odbrane, veznih igrača
i napadača. Jo{ jedna bitna stavka je da su svi vezni igrači i
igrači odbrane, grupisani u dve grupe, odbrana i vezni. To,
takođe, može da utiče na rezultate, znajući da spoljni igrači
i u jednoj i u drugoj grupi, najče{će mogu dosta da se razlikuju, kada su u pitanju motoričke sposobnosti, u odnosu
na centralne igrače.
Treće, uzorak ispitanika koji pripada selekciji omladinaca je
bio mali i rezultat nije validan.
Razmatranjem dobijenih rezultata, uočava se nekoliko bitnih
detalja na osnovu kojih je moguće pratiti promene pojedinih
varijabli tokom rasta i razvoja.
Prva nezavisna varijabla, visina tela nakon dobijenih rezultata pokazuje da između uzastupnih uzrasta postoji statistička
značajnost, osim između kadeta i omladinaca. Ne postoji
ukr{teni efekat pozicija u timu i uzrasta, {to znači da ne
postoji razlika između pojedinih pozicija u timu za svaki
uzrast zasebno. Tako da je uzrast, jedini faktor koji determini{e
promene u visini.
Druga nezavisna varijabla, masa tela pokazuje iste rezultate
kao i telesna visina. Rezultati dobijeni merenjem morfolo{kih
karakteristika jasno ukazuju na postojanje određenog uvećanja
telesnih dimenzija sa uzrastom (visine i mase tela). Deskriptivni pokazatelji morfolo{kih varijabli u skladu su sa rezultatima objavljenim u nekoliko različitih studija (Gil, Ruiz,
Irazusta, Gil i Irazusta 2007; Ostojić, 2000; Strudwick, Reili
i Doran, 2002; Vaeyens i saradnici, 2006).
Kod Sprinta na 10 metara značajna razlika postoji samo
između selekcije petlića i ostalih selekcija. Ako se uzme u
obzir da je koeficijent urođenosti kod brzine 0,90-0,95
(Kurelić i saradnici, 1975) može se zaključiti da trening nije
značajnije uticao na statističku značajnost razlike aritmetičkih
sredina ovih selekcija, već se razlog može tražiti u morfolo{kim
karakteristikama.
Nakon dobijenih rezultata za procenu brzine na 10 metara,
može se zaključiti da su rezultati pokazali slične relacije kao
i test za procenu brzine na 20 i 60 metara u istraživanju koje
su sproveli Molnar, Popović i Doder (2009). Istraživanje koje
su sproveli Rajlija i saradnici (2000) takođe potvrđuje, da u
testovima za procenu ubrzanja i maksimalne brzine, nema
značajnije razlike po pitanju različitih pozicija u timu.
Istraživanje koje su sproveli Tomas i Nelson (2001) pokazuje slične relacije testova Sprint na 10 metara, testa za
procenu agilnosti. Čak, u njihovoj studiji, rezultati testa
agilnosti pokazuju samostalnost u odnosu na dobijene rezultate ubrzanja i maksimalne brzine. Slično potvrđuje i
studija Battifant, Graham i Cross (2002) koja u svojim rezultatima, takođe, pokazuje malu korelaciju Ilinois testa sa
testom za procenu maksimalne brzine.
U testovima Ilinois i Vertikalni skok, nema značajnijih
statističkih razlika između dve selekcije, kadeta i omladinaca. Vertikalni skok spada među najprimenjivije testove u
proceni snage nogu. Test se primenjuje u različitim oblicima.
Kao specifičan motorički zadatak, vertikalni skok se pojavljuje u različitim formama u mnogim sportskim igrama osim
fudbala (smeč i blok u odbojci, skok za loptom, blokade i
{utevi u ko{arci, skok-{ut u rukometu). Vertikalni skok se
{iroko primenjuje u proceni različitih oblika snage mi{ića
Zbornik radova 2012, 104–112
jump-shot in handball). Vertical jump is widely used when
assessing different types of strength of leg extensor muscles.
It is also applied in assessing anaerobic power and capacity.
(Bobert, Gerritsen, Litjens, & Van-Soest, 1996; Bosco,
Luhtanen, & Komi, 1983; Sebert & Barthelemy, 1993; Viitasalo, Rahkila, Oesterback, & Alen, 1992). Results in vertical jump tests improve with age, which confirms claims by
Haubenstricker and Seefeld (1986). Results for vertical jump
in this study are in most cases lower than those provided by
the previous ones. For example, data from Vaeyens et al.
(2006) show that players aged 12 to 15 were characterized
by higher maximum speed than this test’s paticipants, Gil et
al. (2007) show a similar difference for players aged 14 to
17, while Malina et al. (2004) published results similar to
those in this research for players aged 13 to 15. Majority of
research dealt with abilities of players aged 17 to 18 or
older, and the results were much higher than in this research
(Chamari et al., 2004; Strudwick et al., 2002). Higher results
for Vertical jump can be a consequence of using different
methods of measuring jump height (Sargent method, Abalak method, method of measuring jump height based on
the duration of flight, the method of testing Vertical jump
by measuring the impulse of force and vertical speed of
jump). In many of these studies, it was not possible to determine which type of jump test was used.
After analasing the results, it is safe to conclude that tests
applied on different age groups show no significant difference
between players in different positions in terms of motor skills.
ekstenzora nogu. Energetski gledano, vertikalni skok primenjuje se u proceni anaerobne moći i kapaciteta (Bobert,
Gerritsen, Litjens i Van-Soest, 1996; Bosco, Luhtanen i Komi,
1983; Sebert i Barthelemy, 1993; Viitasalo, Rahkila, Oesterback i Alen, 1992). Visina vertikalnog skoka pokazuje
pobolj{anje povezano sa uzrastom, čime su potvrđene
tvrdnje Haubenstricker i Seefeld (1986). Dobijene visine
vertikalnog skoka uglavnom su manje od vrednosti dobijenih u prethodnim istraživanjima. Tako su, Vaeyens i
saradnici (2006) dobili vrednosti veće maksimalne visine za
fudbalere uzrasta 12-15 godina, Gil i saradnici (2007) za
uzraste 14-17 godina, a slične vrednosti rezultatima u ovom
radu dobili Malina i saradnici (2004) za fudbalere uzrasta
13-15 godina. Najveći broj istraživanja bavio se sposobnostima fudbalera uzrasta 17-18 godina i seniorskog uzrasta, a
i u tim istraživanjima dobijene su vrednosti znatno vi{e od
vrednosti dobijene u ovom istraživanju (Chamari i saradnici,
2004; Strudwick i saradnici, 2002). Veće vrednosti visina
skokova mogu biti posledica različitog načina merenja visine
skokova (Sardžentova metoda, Abalakova metoda, metoda
merenja visine skoka na osnovu trajanja faze leta, metoda
merenja visine skoka na osnovu impulsa sile i vertikalne
brzine pri odskoku), a u mnogim studijama se, čak, ne može
tvrditi koja vrsta skoka je primenjena.
Nakon analize svih dobijenih rezultata, takođe, može se
zaključiti da testirane motoričke sposobnosti u različitim
uzrastima, nemaju značajnije razlike u rezultatima pri različitim
pozicija.
Conclusion
Zaključak
The results of this study can be instrumental in proving that
the tested motor skills can develop until 16 or 17 years of
age. After that period, there is hardly any possibility for their
improvement. When it comes to players aged 12 to 14, the
tested motor skills are developed on account of the critical,
sensitive period, and after 15 years of age, the tested skills
show a progress on account of muscular strength increase.
The results of this research also show that motor skills do not
differentiate between positions at younger age.
The study has also shown that there is no great statistical
significance for the difference in results for different positions,
but it shoul be emphasized that the sample was very small
and that there were maximum 10 players in each position.
According to these findings, there appears to be a problem
that needs to be solved in the future. A research should be
conducted in which team positions will be precisely determined. This is the case because there are great differences
between wide and central players in the same position (both
defenders and midfielders). Moreover, similarities between
defenders and midfielders deployed in central positions, and
defenders and midfielders deployed in wide positions are
much greater than the similarities between players deployed
on wide and central positions. In modern football, if we look
at motor skills, side backs and side midfielders are much
more similar, because both these positions demand a pacy,
agile player able to penetrate the opposition’s defence, a
player who can cover an entire side of the pitch, able to
fulfill both offensive and defensive assignments. At the same
tame, central backs and central midfielders are, generally,
slower players, characterized by great agility, ability to jump
higher and a great level of maximum oxygen consumption.
Modern football is characterized by the tendency to assign
players to different positions as soon as their sensitive period
of development is completed. Because of this, training
process should be adjusted according to players’ position.
Rezultati ove studije doprinose da se uoči i dokaže da, testirane motoričke sposobnosti mogu da se razvijaju do 16-17
godine. Nakon tog perioda, prostor za pobolj{anje ovih
sposobnosti je minimalan. Kod dečaka uzrasta od 12-14
godina, motoričke sposobnosti koje su testirane, razvijaju se
na račun kritičnog, senzitivnog perioda, a nakon 15. godine,
testirane sposobnosti pokazuju napredak na račun porasta
mi{ićne snage.
Rezultati ovog istraživanja navode da motoričke sposobnosti ne diferenciraju pozicije u mlađim uzrastima, ali, treba
naglasiti, da je uzorak ispitanika bio jako mali i da je najvi{e
desetak igrača bilo na jednoj poziciji po selekciji.
Studija je, takođe, pokazala da ne postoji posebna statistička
razlika dobijenih rezultata pri različitim pozicijama u timu.
Verovatno je to posledica malog broja uzoraka, ali i grube
podele između pojedinih pozicija u timu.
Samim tim, nailazi se na problem koji treba re{iti u budućim
istraživanjima. Trebalo bi da se sprovedu istraživanja u kojima će se precizno odrediti pozicije u timu. Jer se zna da
postoje velike razlike između bočnih i centralnih igrača, pa
čak i da su veće sličnosti bočnih odbrambenih igrača sa
bočnim veznim igračima, nego {to je to slučaj sa centralnim
odbrambenim igračima. Ipak su, u savremenom fudbalu,
po motoričkim sposobnostima, mnogo bliži spoljni bekovi i
bočni vezni, jer na obe pozicije se traži brzi, eksplozivni i
probojni igrači, sa puno povratnog trčanja i takođe, puno
ofanzivnih i defanzivnih zadataka. Dok su, centralni odbrambeni i centralni vezni, uglavnom, po prirodi sporiji igrači, sa
izrazitom agilnosti, skočnosti i visokim vrednostima maksimalne potro{nje kiseonika.
S obzirom da je tendencija savremenog fudbala da se igrači,
već nakon zavr{etka senzitivnog perioda, specijalizuju prema
poziciji u timu, treba da se formira trenažni proces prema
funkciji u igri. Postoje radovi koji govore u prilog činjenici
111
SHORT SCIENTIFIC PAPER
KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
Bugarski, S. i saradnici: PROMJENE MOTORIČKIH SPOSOBNOSTI MLADIH...
SHORT SCIENTIFIC PAPER
KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
Bugarski, S. et al.: CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG FOOTBALL...
Proceedings 2012, 104–112
There are studies which confirm that there are certain differences, but this subject has not been studied enough so
far, and this research was an attempt to contribute to the
existing knowledge as much as possible. Therefore, in any
further attempts at researching this subject, teams should be
compared on the basis of their quality and level of competition in which they participate.
da razlike postoje, ali da je to nedovoljno istraženo polje,
ovo je bio jedan od poku{aja. U budućim istraživanjima,
stoga, treba uporediti ekipe po kvalitetu, odnosno po različitom
rangu u kojem se ekipe takmiče.
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Korespodencija/Correspondence to:
112
Srđan Bugarski
Phone: 00381 60 14 85 599
E-mail: sr_bugiªhotmail.com
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promene motoričkih sposobnosti mladih fudbalera različitog uzrasta