Cargo East
的存在偏淡 The Subdued Existence
Prigušena egzistencija
藝術家 | Artists | Umetnici
| 布蕾達·貝班 Breda Beban | 葛蘭·戴斯波圖斯基 Goran Despotovski
| 德拉甘·伊利奇 Dragan Ilić | 伊蓮娜·尤雷莎 Jelena Jureša | 史帝芬·克吉克 Stevan Kojić
MP_art | 童年博物館 Museum of Childhood | 安德蕾雅·帕拉斯提 Andrea Palašti
維斯納·佩努諾維奇 Vessna Perunovich | 娜塔莎·提歐弗羅維奇 Nataša Teofilović
卓藍·托多羅維奇 Zoran Todorović | 米洛斯·托米奇 Miloš Tomić | 塞爾曼·圖托瓦茲 Selman Trtovac
伊果·安提奇 Igor Antić
diStruktura
2
航向東方計畫
壓抑的存在
塞爾維亞當代藝術
策展人
珊雅•克吉克-姆拉德洛芙
斯維特蘭納•姆拉德洛芙
2014.05.31-08.03
國立台灣美術館202展覽室
Cargo East Project
Subdued Existence
Serbian Contemporary Art Scene
Prigušena egzistencija
Savremena umetnička scena SRBIJE
Curators:
Sanja Kojić Mladenov
Svetlana Mladenov
Kustoskinje:
Sanja Kojić Mladenov
Svetlana Mladenov
05.31-08.03.2014.
National Taiwan
Museum of Fine Arts
05.31-08.03.2014.
Nacionalni muzej
likovnih umetnosti Tajvana
3
序 | Foreword | Predgovor
4
序 | Foreword | Predgovor
航向東方 - 展開對話
「航向東方」是目前塞爾維亞所進行的極少數國際藝術合作計畫之一,其宗旨在於促進台灣與塞爾
維亞的藝術創作交流,並建立雙邊藝術家、策展人、文化機構之間的對話,以及透過當代藝術語
言,形成異文化之間的直接接觸。
這項國際合作計畫從兩年前便已開始進行。參與第一次雙邊對話的成員包括陳志誠、黃才郎、伊
果·安提奇、斯維特蘭納·姆拉德洛芙以及我本人;這場對談促成了在諾維薩德佛伊弗迪納當代
美術館舉辦的「凝視自由:台灣當代藝術展」,展出15位當代台灣藝術家的作品。此展透過展出作
品,以及參展藝術家的親臨、演說,提供了難得的機會,讓塞爾維亞觀眾進一步了解這些作品和藝
術家創作的在地脈絡與文化傳統,並認識台灣藝術的豐富與多元樣貌。
這場台灣當代藝術展在塞爾維亞的佛伊弗迪納當代美術館成功展出之後,我們也在國立台灣美術館
舉辦「壓抑的存在:塞爾維亞當代藝術」交流展,透過15組近年來在塞爾維亞國內與國際藝壇上皆
有傑出表現的藝術家和藝術團體及其作品,提供台灣觀眾進一步了解塞爾維亞當代藝術的機會。 參
加本次展覽的塞爾維亞藝術家與藝術團體利用當代媒體語言,來探討塞爾維亞社會環境的不同脈
絡,特別是藝術家面對社會政治轉變、遷移、流亡、全球化、身分認同、當代經濟、資本與科技的
關係等相關議題的態度。
本人要藉此機會向駐法國台灣文化中心、台北駐匈牙利代表處以及國立台灣美術館表達深深地感
謝;沒有這幾個單位同仁的努力,就不會有這場展覽。在我們與國美館夥伴合作的過程中,雙方代
表人員之間相互的友善了解,以及持續進行的對話讓我們體認到美術館之間的大型交流與合作計畫
能夠開發出多少機會與可能性。我也要感謝塞爾維亞中央及地方的文化資訊部為這項艱難的計畫提
供贊助。此外,台北、貝爾格勒、布達佩斯、巴黎、柏林與東京都有許多朋友認同「航向東方計
畫」對於在兩個距離遙遠的地區之間建立關係、分享創作經驗的重要性。我希望這項合作計畫能在
未來發展出更多機會與成就。
珊雅·克吉克-姆拉德洛芙
諾維薩德 佛伊弗迪納當代美術館 館長
5
序 | Foreword | Predgovor
Cargo East - Developing Dialogue
Cargo East counts amongst the very rare collaborative international projects in which Serbia currently participates,
and is aimed towards the mutual exchange of innovative artistic practices of Taiwan - Republic of China and Serbia,
their representational promotion and presentation, establishing a dialogue between artists, curators and cultural
institutions, as well as the affirmation of direct contact with other cultures through the language of contemporary
art.
The project began two years ago, with the first conversations between colleagues, including: Chih-Cheng Chen,
Tsai-Lang Huang, Igor Antić, Svetlana Mladenov, and myself, and it had its first realization with Gazing into
Freedom: Taiwan Contemporary Art Exhibition, at the Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina in Novi Sad,
in which fifteen artists from Taiwan had participated. By selecting the exhibited works, and with the personal
presence of the authors, and their lectures, this exhibition offered the opportunity for audiences in Serbia to better
understand the specific local context, culture and tradition in which these artists live and work, and revealed a very
diverse and productive art scene of Taiwan.
After a highly successful presentation of the contemporary Taiwanese art scene at the Museum of Contemporary
Art Vojvodina (MSUV), the audience of the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts in Taichung, Taiwan, will
be presented with the possibility of understanding the contemporary visual practices in Serbia at the exhibition
Subdued Existence: Serbian Contemporary Art Scene, through the works of fifteen artists, and artistic groups,
whose activities on the national and international art scene in recent years have been truly impressive. The selected
authors, through contemporary media language, explore different contexts of their social environment, especially
topics related to their personal attitude towards socio-political transition, migration, exile, globalization, issues of
identity and the relationship towards modern economy, capital and technology.
I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to our dear associates from the Taiwan Cultural Center
in Paris (Centre culturel de Taïwan à Paris), the Taipei Representative Office in Hungary and the National Taiwan
Museum of Fine Arts in Taichung, Taiwan - without their efforts this project would not have been possible. Mutual
understanding, collegiality, and the constant development of dialogue with our colleagues from NTMoFA reminded
us of the importance of large inter-museum exchanges, indicating opportunities that collaborative projects could
instigate. I would also like to thank the Ministry of Culture and Information of the Republic of Serbia and the
Provincial Department for Culture and Public Information, who were willing to provide the necessary financial
support for this challenging project. There are many individuals in Taipei, Belgrade, Budapest, Paris, Berlin and
Tokyo that have recognized the importance of the Cargo East project in establishing new relationships and sharing
creative experiences between distant geographical locations, and I hope that our joint efforts mark the beginning of
many new encounters and achievements.
Sanja Kojić Mladenov
Director of the Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina, Novi Sad
6
序 | Foreword | Predgovor
Cargo East – razvijanje dijaloga
Među veoma retkim kolaborativnim međunarodnim projektima u kojima učestvuje Srbija nalazi se Cargo East,
usmeren ka međusobnoj razmeni inovativnih umetničkih praksi Tajvana i Srbije, njihovoj reprezentativnoj
promociji i prezentaciji, uspostavljanju dijaloga među umetnicima, kustosima i institucijama kulture, kao i
afirmaciji direktnog kontakta sa drugim kulturama, a kroz jezik savremene umetnosti.
Projekat je otpočeo pre dve godine prvim dogovorima između kolega, među kojima su: Chih-Cheng Chen, TsaiLang Huang, Igor Antić, Svetlana Mladenov i ja, a svoju prvu realizaciju je imao izložbom Zurenje u slobodu: izložba
savremene umetnosti Tajvana (Gazing into Freedom: Taiwan Contemporary Art Exhibition) u Muzeju savremene
umetnosti Vojvodine u Novom Sadu, na kojoj je učestvovalo petnaest umetnika i umetnica sa Tajvana. Odabirom
prikazanih radova, ličnim prisustvom autora i njihovim stručnim predavanjima, ta izložba je omogućila publici u
Srbiji bolje razumevanje specifičnog lokalnog konteksta, kulture i tradicije u kojem stvaraoci žive i rade, i ukazala
na veoma raznovrsnu i produktivnu umetničku scenu Tajvana.
Posle veoma uspešnog predstavljanja savremene tajvanske umetničke scene u MSUV-u, publici Nacionalnog muzeja
likovnih umetnosti Tajvana u Tajčungu (National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts) biće omogućeno sagledavanje
savremene vizuelne prakse iz Srbije izložbom Prigušena egzistencija: savremena umetnička scena Srbije, kroz radove
petnaest umetnika, umetnica i umetničkih grupa čija je aktivnost na domaćoj i međunarodnoj umetničkoj sceni
poslednjih godina veoma upečatljiva. Izabrani autori savremenim medijskim jezikom istražuju različite kontekste
svog društvenog okruženja, naročito teme u vezi sa ličnim odnosom ka društveno-političkoj tranziciji, migraciji,
egzilu, globalizaciji, problemima identiteta i odnosa prema savremenoj ekonomiji, kapitalu i tehnologiji.
Iskoristila bih priliku da se zahvalim dragim saradnicima iz Tajvanskog kulturnog centra u Parizu (Centre culturel
de Taïwan à Paris), Predstavništva Tajpeija (Taipei Representative Office) u Mađarskoj i Nacionalnog muzeja
likovnih umetnosti Tajvana u Tajčungu (National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), bez čijeg zalaganja ovaj projekat ne
bi bio moguć. Međusobno razumevanje, kolegijalnost i stalno razvijanje dijaloga sa kolegama iz NTMoFA podsetili
su nas na značaj velikih međumuzejskih razmena i ukazali na mogućnosti koje se otvaraju iz saradničkih projekata.
Takođe se zahvaljujem i Ministarstvu kulture i informisanja Srbije i Pokrajinskom sekretarijatu za kulturu i javno
informisanje, koji su bili spremni da pruže neophodnu finansijsku podršku ovom zahtevnom projektu. Mnogo je
pojedinaca iz Tajpeija, Beograda, Budimpešte, Pariza, Berlina i Tokija prepoznalo značaj projekta Cargo East za
uspostavljanje novih veza i razmenu kreativnih iskustava međusobno udaljenih područja, te se nadam da je naš
zajednički napor početak mnogih novih susreta i ostvarenja.
Sanja Kojić Mladenov
direktorka Muzeja savremene umetnosti Vojvodine, Novi Sad
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序 | Foreword | Predgovor
國際藝術交流的重要意義,在於不同文化背景的地域,透過藝術來認識彼此,使共同合作成為促進對
話、相互瞭解的驅力。近年來國立台灣美術館多次辦理國際交流展,不但把台灣當代藝術推介到不同的
國家及區域,同時也將歐、美及亞洲地區的藝術呈現給台灣民眾。本館與塞爾維亞佛伊弗迪納當代美術
館共同合作之「航向東方」計畫,繼2013年「凝視自由:台灣當代藝術展」至塞爾維亞展出之後,今年由
佛伊弗迪納當代美術館策劃「壓抑的存在:塞爾維亞當代藝術」至國立台灣美術館展出,呈現塞爾維亞
獨特的當代藝術質理及創作觀照。
本展主題「壓抑的存在」與塞爾維亞的歷史、政治及社會有著密不可分的關聯,歷經1990年代恐怖統
治、戰亂下禁忌、不安的社會環境,以及20世紀末邁向民主後國家、社會持續行進中的轉型歷程,皆直
接反映在塞爾維亞的當代藝術議題及創作表現中。透過策展人珊雅·克吉克-姆拉德洛芙與斯維特蘭
娜·姆拉德洛芙的選件,顯示了參展藝術家對於國際政治、歷史、地域文化、社會環境、自然生態、日常
生活及自我認同等議題的關注,他們不僅關注創作的形式、媒材與命題,亦呈現當地文化在全球環境影
響下的迎拒及反思,顯影了塞爾維亞1990年代至今當代藝的發展趨向及其創作切面。
本展集結了15位/組塞爾維亞具代表性的當代藝術家及藝術團體,共展出24件作品,包括錄像、裝置、
攝影、繪畫、動畫等多元媒材的創作。本展將引領台灣的觀者跨越地理、文化的距離,從策展題旨及展出
作品中感受塞爾維亞的文化氛圍及其富含思辨性的當代藝術表現,並經由藝術家敏銳的創作視角,作為
理解塞國當代社會不同的觀察面向。
謹在此誠摯感謝塞爾維亞弗伊弗迪納當代美術館及策展人的精心策劃,讓國人有機會欣賞塞爾維亞當
代藝術的發展樣態及創作張力。
黃才郎
國立台灣美術館 館長
8
序 | Foreword | Predgovor
The significance of international art exchange is that regions with different cultural backgrounds can learn about one
another through art, turning cooperative effort into the catalyst that facilitates dialogues and mutual understanding.
In recent years, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts (NTMoFA) has organized numerous international exchange
exhibitions to not only introduce Taiwan’s contemporary art to different countries and regions, but also to present
regional arts from Europe, America, and Asia to the Taiwanese people. “Cargo East” is a collaborative project
between NTMoFA and Serbia’s Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina (MSUV). After “Gazing into Freedom:
Taiwan Contemporary Art Exhibition” was held in Serbia in 2013, MSUV organizes “Subdued Existence: Serbian
Contemporary Art Scene”, which is held in NTMoFA, to showcase the unique textures and creative perspectives of
Serbian contemporary art.
The theme of this exhibition, “Subdued Existence”, is closely related to Serbia’s history, politics, and society. Reign
of terror, taboos of wars, and social unrests during the 1990s, as well as the progress of democracy and ongoing
social transition at the turn of the century, are all reflected through the topics and creative expressions of Serbian
contemporary art. Works selected by the exhibition’s curators, Sanja Kojić Mladenov and Svetlana Mladenov, reveal
Serbian artists’ concerns for issues such as international politics, history, regional culture, social environment,
natural ecology, daily life, and self-identity. They not only pay much attention to creative forms, media, and topics,
but also present how the local culture debates over and reflects on global influences, exhibiting the trends and
dimensions of Serbian contemporary art since 1990.
The exhibition features 15 representative Serbian contemporary artists/ artistic groups, exhibiting 24 works of
diverse creative media, such as videos, installations, photographs, paintings, and animations. This exhibition will
bring Taiwanese audience across geographic and cultural distances to indulge in Serbia’s cultural atmosphere and
dialectical contemporary expressions via its themes and exhibits. Also, the artists’ sensitive and sharp creative
angles provide different dimensions for the observation on Serbia’s contemporary society.
The most sincere gratitude towards the Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina and the curators for bringing us
the exhibition, which provides Taiwanese people an opportunity to see the diverse developments and to admire the
creative tensions of Serbian contemporary art.
HUANG Tsai-Lang
Director of National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts
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序 | Foreword | Predgovor
Značaj međunarodne umetničke razmene leži u tome da se područja sa različitim kulturnim nasleđem upoznaju
kroz umetnost, pri čemu se zajednički trud pretvara u katalizator koji olakšava dijalog i međusobno razumevanje.
U poslednjih nekoliko godina, Nacionalni muzej likovnih umetnosti Tajvana (NTMoFA) organizovao je brojne
međunarodne izložbe i razmene, ne samo da bi predstavio savremenu umetnost Tajvana različitim zemljama i
delovima sveta, već i da bi prikazao regionalne umetnosti Evrope, Amerike, i Azije tajvanskoj publici. Cargo East
je zajednički projekat NTMoFA i Muzeja savremene umetnosti Vojvodine (MSUV) iz Srbije. Nakon što je izložba
Cargo East_Gazing Into Freedom: savremena umetnost Tajvana održana u Srbiji 2013. godine, MSUV organizuje
izložbu Prigušena egzistencija: savremena umetnost Srbije, koja se održava u Nacionalnom muzeju likovnih
umetnosti Tajvana, i predstavlja jedinstven stvaralački sklop i perspektive savremene umetnosti Srbije.
Tema ove izložbe, Prigušena egzistencija, blisko je povezana sa istorijom Srbije, njenom politikom i društvom.
Vladavina terora, prokletstvo ratova i društveni nemiri tokom devedesetih godina dvadesetog veka, kao i napredak
demokratije i tekuća društvena tranzicija na prelazu vekova - sve to se ogleda kroz teme i stvaralaštvo savremene
umetnosti Srbije. Radovi koje su odabrale kustoskinje izložbe, Sanja Kojić Mladenov i Svetlana Mladenov, ukazuju
na interesovanje umetnika Srbije za pitanja međunarodne politike, istorije, regionalne kulture, društvenog
okruženja, ekologije, svakodnevnog života, i identiteta. Ova dela ne samo da obraćaju izuzetnu pažnju na kreativnu
formu, medij i temu, već prikazuju i uticaj globalnog na diskurse i razmišljanja u lokalnoj kulturi, predstavljajući
trendove i raznolike dimenzije savremene umetnosti Srbije od 1990. godine do danas.
Izložba sadrži 15 reprezentativnih savremenih umetnika/umetničkih grupa Srbije, izlaže se 24 dela iz različitih
stvaralačkih medija, kao što su video, instalacije, fotografije, slike, i animacije. Ova izložba će tajvanskoj publici,
uprkos prostornim i kulturnim distancama, omogućiti da uživa u kulturnoj atmosferi Srbije i dijalektičkim
savremenim izrazima, kroz njene teme i eksponate. Pored toga, tanana i oštra stvaralačka percepcija umetnika
nam pruža i uvid u raznovrsne dimenzije savremenog društva Srbije.
Želim da izrazim najiskreniju zahvalnost Muzeju savremene umetnosti Vojvodine i njegovim kustoskinjama za
priređivanje ove izložbe, ona pruža priliku publici Tajvana da bliže upozna raznolika stvaralačka kretanja i da
uživa u kreativnim tenzijama savremene umetnosti Srbije.
Huang Tsai-Lang
direktor Nacionalnog muzeja likovnih umetnosti Tajvana
10
專文 | Essays | Tekstovi
11
在壓抑的存在之中
斯維特蘭納·姆拉德洛芙
塞爾維亞藝術從早期由共產黨主導與控制的寫實主義
解放出來後,進入戰後共產黨容忍下官僚與技術官僚
社會發展出來的社會主義式現代主義;接著從1960年
代起到整個1970年代,透過新的藝術創作與大量藝術
概念研究,進行社會主義式的社會自我管理;再到多
元、富有活力和顛覆性、兼容並蓄、典故豐富的後現代
氛圍,並且充滿解構手法的1980年代。但這些成果在
1990年代前南斯拉夫地區的戰亂,以及塞爾維亞米羅
賽維奇政權的恐怖統治之下全部枯萎了,在20世紀末
葉,塞爾維亞的藝術自由再度遭到擊敗。
因而,1990年代的塞爾維亞藝術圈裡,對話和互動總
是建立在極為複雜且困難的脈絡之下。整個藝術領域
相當龐大,涵蓋了多樣的個人詩意創作,也難以從中界
定出何為主流。但我們仍然能夠看出,這些相互平行的
藝術發展趨勢並不相互衝突;相反地,它們彼此之間還
有互補作用。
1990年代初期,塞爾維亞藝壇重要的發展之一便是「
新雕塑」的出現。新雕塑為塞爾維亞藝術圈帶來新的
活力,並且將媒材運用的極限推到極致。因其藝術創
作步驟較為理性,
「新雕塑」往往和形式主義、幾何主
義、極簡主義、新構成主義等等畫上等號。比較適合用
來描述1990年代的塞爾維亞藝術創作的名稱,其實是
更早以前用來指涉當代雕塑的名詞,像是「藝術作品」
、
「物件」、
「裝置」、
「局部」以及「環境」等。而創作方
式上,比較妥當的名稱則是「建構」、
「虛構」、
「合成」
等等。塞爾維亞藝術界對於媒材的態度也因此有所改
變;除了傳統媒材以外,許多非雕塑用媒材,像是毛氈、
皮革、尼龍、網線、玻璃、人造纖維、乙烯基、橡膠等
等,皆被使用到新雕塑的創作之中,任何東西都可以成
為藝術媒材。對年輕藝術家來說,能夠自由自在地,完
全依自己想法來實驗各種完全不同性質的媒材的組合,
這本身就是一大挑戰。藝術家在創作雕塑作品時,其暫
時性與未完成的狀態,往往說明了藝術家對於「創作過
程」本身的重視,甚至多過於完成的藝術品。
對許多藝術家來說,暗地的行動,或者壓抑的存在,是
他們唯一的出路,就像1990年代的塞爾維亞藝術圈本
身一樣。
原本極為豐沛的藝術潛力,在1990年代這令人沮喪無
力的氛圍之下,藝術家既無法走向創新藝術研究或實
驗發展,也難以透過普世性的藝術語言進行個人式、詩
意的藝術創作。然而,藝術家在本體論層次上的創作、
設計、建立關係,與在全球藝術圈中追求自我認同的需
求,卻遠強大於這個環境對創作的敵意;這股驚人的創
作能量在1990年代下半段表現得特別顯著。這段期間,
許多藝術家和相關專業工作者各自企圖在國際藝壇中
整合屬於自己的狹小的文化空間,並開始與這文化空間
進行長期對話。在這個價值錯亂的社會,許多有關藝
術、社會狀態及其對環境的影響、各種思想與訊息的價
值、使這個社會產生改變和影響當代人意識與良心的
力量等等問題,皆一一被提出來。在20世紀的尾聲,這
個國家漸漸從戰亂、禁忌、恐怖、貧困、分化的陰霾中
走出來;塞爾維亞開始進入一段至今仍持續進行中的
轉型歷程。
這個從平面影像創作邁入立體三度空間創作的突破過
程從1980年代開始。儘管目前的環境和氛圍皆已經有
所不同,這項轉變主要是建立在尼可拉斯.波西奧的美
學理論基礎上。接下來的1990年代,特別是1990年代
後半段,許多藝術家透過研究完全不同領域的裝置藝
術和「因地制宜」的藝術創作,創作出以繪畫為基礎,
卻有著特定效果的物體和裝置藝術作品。創作這類作
品的藝術家不只有雕塑家,反而更經常是畫家。
這段期間,藝術創作的社會實踐以及個別藝術家在塞
爾維亞反抗上述悲劇所作的努力既不劇烈,也不暴力。
相反地,這些實踐都相當低調、壓抑、保密。這反應在
藝術家的不作為、不行動、對外界忽視、自成小世界、菁
英主義,以及對自主藝術價值和普世藝術論述的專注。
他們往往躲在最狹小的世界裡,在家庭、親友、志同道
合者的小圈圈裡取暖。
因地制宜的藝術創作轉移了藝術家的興趣重心,特別
是如何將他們對於「可塑性」或「適應性」的概念,實
踐在各種公共空間上,從美術館到可用的另類城市空
間,透過其建築、歷史記憶、古蹟以及城市風貌,提供
12
研究者在社會、歷史與美學研究上豐富的素材。1990
年代後半段,以及接下來幾年間,塞爾維亞藝術界出
現了某種對一些被遺忘或遺棄的城市空間進行強力佔
領的行動。藉由藝術家們的介入、行動、表演或裝置藝
術進駐這些空間,並且吸引群眾觀賞,藝術成了活化脈
絡、作品與觀眾三者間直接溝通的媒介。
影裝置、環境藝術、偶發藝術或表演藝術。藝術越來越
無關嘗試創造出具體,並且能夠長久保存的成品;藝術
創作經常導向為某一空間或建築組合所面臨的挑戰提
供解答。這些藝術介入往往就在該空間實地進行,或者
透過電腦影像的合成與互動來虛擬進行,展現出藝術
家對於挑釁或震撼觀眾的企圖。偶爾,相片、錄影帶或
者印刷品變成藝術行動、偶發藝術或者展覽僅有的文
件或資料。
在1990年代的多元氛圍之下,我們可以觀察到現代主
義再生的幾個趨勢。這趨勢除了表現在1990年代中期
幾何主義色彩的「新雕塑」,也透過簡化、單色、極簡
風格等創作手法來重拾藝術自主性展現,不論是純粹
平面的繪畫,或者立體的繪畫物體皆然。藝評家薩雅.
絲黛帕諾芙稱這個現象為「抽象現代主義」;藝術史家
傑沙.丹奈格里則指出,1990年代中期,
「現代主義計
畫的重構」、
「後現代主義後的現代主義」、
「新現代主
義」、
「二度現代主義」等等名稱在藝術批評界被越來
越廣泛使用。
對於塞爾維亞藝術來說,20世紀末是一段極複雜的時
期。當我們對這段期間的藝術創作做一個概述時,我
們會發現這期間的藝術趨勢看起來非常廣泛、折衷、不
拘一格,沒有什麼大型或重大的合作計畫,也沒有明確
的風格或方向,或者嚴謹的概念,或者重要的代表藝術
家。在進入21世紀的前夕,藝術往往只是探索塞爾維亞
的歷史過往,對一些未曾被質疑的事實或真相提出懷
疑,對傳統和許多迷人的幻象提出嚴厲的批判。藝術再
也不追求大真理或大理想;藝術不論是作品本身,或者
創作過程,或者創作結果,都不像過去那麼重要了。對
藝術家們而言,不同藝術領域間的關係、建立新關係的
能力,以及探索其所存在的特定時空脈絡,這些議題變
得越來越重要也越有趣。在整個廣泛的藝術領域裡悠
遊自得,不斷地實驗,並且進行研究和論述,對藝術家
而言,才是激發靈感的方式。新媒體和新科技運動拓展
了塞爾維亞藝術的表現場域,創造了更大的實驗空間。
藝術本身對於嘗試全新領域的好奇心、探索精神和勇
氣造就了無數的多樣論述,皆在1990年代末期,為塞爾
維亞的新藝術實踐打開了無限的可能性。
相對於1990年代後半段,塞爾維亞藝術界對抽象形
式的偏愛,在1990年代初期,另一群年輕藝術家堅持
回歸到以圖形和圖案裝飾為藝術創作中心,並採取較
為寫實、擬真的藝術創作取向,像是普普藝術、新具
象藝術、超現實主義、原始藝術以及原住民藝術等傳
統。1990年代初期的這波回歸圖形取向,在風格上並不
像 1980 年初期的圖案裝飾藝術傳統,也就是傾向表現
主義式的扭曲變形、刻意醜陋的藝術風格。1990年代
初期的這波重回現代主義的趨勢,風格上較為拘謹、冷
漠、陰沈;知識上的思辨取代了強烈的情緒。存在的脆
弱情感使藝術家與作品之間的關係更加緊密,因為藝
術家把個人的命運與作品結合為一,透過作品來找尋、
確認自我認同。塞爾維亞藝術界中,這股藝術趨勢的代
表人物,其作品往往喚起疏離、寂寞、孤絕、憂傷、缺乏
溝通、缺乏興緻、冷漠的感受,有時候甚至帶點輕微的
諷刺或幽默。
在20世紀的最後10年間,隨著藝術家自由穿梭於不同
的文化空間,藝術也呈現出越來越強烈的遊牧性格,因
而也變得越來越國際化。南斯拉夫藝術家和藝廊只能
零星、艱困地和國際接觸;即使他們嘗試成功時,也僅 止
於個別藝術家或藝廊對於他們早先在歐洲或全球建 立
的人脈進行接觸而已。
1990年代—特別是1990年代中晚期—塞爾維亞藝術圈
氛圍的主要趨勢,是新概念主義研究的興起:透過無數
的展覽和公開表演,由1960年代晚期和1970年代「新
藝術實踐」的發起者們重申,並重新實現他們當時的藝
術宣言。
在推翻米羅賽維奇10年統治之後,塞爾維亞在兩個世
紀交替之間,在國家轉型過程之間,在邁向民主的路 上,
重新尋回自己。塞爾維亞藝術界對於對外開放,對 世界
尋求更緊密的關係的需求越來越明顯,與世界最 新藝
術潮流接軌,並且成為世界藝術潮流的一份子,和 國際
文化空間和實踐者—包括藝術家、藝廊、創作者聯 盟 、
重 大 展 覽 、藝 術 節 、藝 評 家 、藝 術 理 論 家 等 等
— 建 立聯繫的渴望越來越強烈。
1990年代後半期在新科技和電子藝術領域,開啟了無
限的藝術研究機會,使藝術家們得以克服自身的限制
和傳統的區隔方式,在好幾個媒體空間自由移動。各種
不同組合的可能性可說是無限廣:影像、燈光、聲音、
身體動作、氣味等等。任何對觀察者作感官刺激的方式
都可被接受。損壞或廢棄的物品也經常和燈光、聲音、
投影影像結合,成為藝術創作媒材。此外,相片、海報
還有任何其他可以被無限再製的影像,也可以被轉換成
錄影藝術或者電腦再製影像,再進一步轉變成裝置、錄
要在一個虛幻的「失序」狀態,還有不同領域研究—詩
學、可塑性的概念、藝術與非藝術媒材—的交會之中,
耙梳塞爾維亞藝術圈在21世紀頭10年間多元且生氣勃
勃的景象並不容易。更困難的則是清楚指認和區隔每
一個重要事件和代表人物。
「我們進入了一套全新的秩
13
序—一個美學大獲全勝的新秩序裡。這裡面再也沒有
偉大的藝術,或者偉大的藝術作品了。」這項美學的勝
利和「藝術的蒸發」相呼應,並從與其他文化交會的框
架中擷取意義。1
域、方法和藝術語言。雖然不再那麼堅持探索偉大、集
體、宏觀政治議題,而轉向較為個人的微政治概念,思
考在地與全球、區域與普遍、私密與公共、個人與政治
之間的關係,依然是塞爾維亞當代藝術界的重要潮流。
今天,我們可以提出幾個問題:
「微社群」,或家庭,或
個人的私密世界的重要性有多大?相互溝通的內涵是
什麼?今天宰制社會的價值體系為何?有哪些倫理或
美學標準在此扮演重要角色?以及,哪些標準或價值應
該被確立下來?如何對抗四處可見的刻板印象?
從年輕世代藝術家的藝術概念中,我們可以看到在古
典美術和新科技藝術 領域之間尋求平衡的過程。在
1990年代,曾為首要的古典美術領域的繪畫,在新科技
和新媒體(錄影、數位攝影、動畫、網路藝術等等)為
創新所提供的無數選擇而逐漸勢微。然而,在21世紀的
頭10年,繪畫再度成為年輕世代藝術家的研究興趣重
心。在這研究領域裡,我們可以看到藝術趨勢再度回歸
到圖案與圖形作為藝術創作中心的趨勢。因而,肖像與
自畫像等早先幾乎要消失的繪畫類型,過去十年來再
度燃起藝術家的興趣。
今天,藝術家之間的連結並非建立在某種共同的風格、
題材或圖像之上;他們所共享的東西比這些更加重要
得多:就是不論是理論層次或者實踐層次上,他們在行
動時所仰賴的一套共同的世界觀,也就是人群關係。因
此,在地藝術家和國際藝壇之間的溝通、對話與合作不
僅在當代藝術的推廣上扮演重要角色,也在透過展出
藝術作品,揭露這些在封閉孤立的在地環境中無法被
看見的元素之過程中,發揮重大功能。
今日的塞爾維亞藝術界代表了一套複雜的體系;初見
時可能覺得廣大且分散,然而他實際上卻是活生生,有
著脈動的有機體。在這裡面,我們看到巴爾幹半島轉型
的效應和整個中歐的藝術空間相互交織。我們很難指
出單一的重大藝術流派、藝術潮流、或者其最重要的代
表人物,因為不同藝術領域的研究同時進行著,彼此間
的交會和融合使得藝術圈的生態益發複雜。藝術家們
透過吸納國際藝術論述,藉此在他們操作的地區中豐
富某種特定的精神;他們並藉由吸收科技手法,讓自己
浸淫在多媒體和跨媒體研究中。
今天的塞爾維亞社會一方面背負著沈重的負面歷史包
袱,另一方面,隨著新的轉型過程的展開,同時卻造就
了不確定、不安、沮喪、失望、無助、冷漠氛圍的條件,
進一步使得從事任何創意、積極行動和藝術創作本身
的情境變得更加複雜。從1990年代起到今天,塞爾維
亞當代藝術過去並無法在自己所處的社會建立起舉足
輕重的位置,卻依然在一個壓抑的存在之下,企圖尋求
突破。儘管享有來自國際藝壇的支持、理解和肯認,然
而在它自己的社會裡,藝術研究和創作成果仍然處於
相當邊緣的地位。
在經歷過超過10年,因國家歷史和政治孤立導致的蕭
條期,以及社會緩慢復原階段之後的今天,藝術家和
獨立策展人在歐洲和世界各地的藝術圈建立起合作和
交流關係,同時並透過彼此的相互關係,拓展其研究領
1
伊夫.米蕭,
《藝術型態:關於美學的勝利》,札格雷布,2004 年出版。
14
航向東方:壓抑的存在
珊雅·克吉克-姆拉德洛芙
今天的藝術家往往也是充滿創意的旅人,不斷地在不
同領域、創作形式、空間—不論是實體空間或虛擬空
間—的邊界移動與流浪。因而他們也是異文化的探險
家,在不同文化之間冒險、觀察與紀錄,並且重新加工、
再製這些經驗。他們帶來新的知識、思想與觀念,並且
將之搬移到另一個不同的地理政治環境。今天,旅行已
經成為一項社會、經濟與文化發展的必需品;而在藝術
創作中,幾乎每一種不同的創作媒材都被藝術家用來
探討遷移與流離、溝通與轉譯、個人心情、事件的他者
化,或者刻畫地方圖像,或者在需要的國家,透過藝術
來從事激進活動。藝術家越來越常遠行到世界另一端
去尋找創作素材(包含錄影、攝影、商業廣告、紀錄片、
當地居民的個人故事與生活方式等),強調被觀察者的
主觀經驗。不論是個別藝術家的創作或是複雜的集體
創作計畫,與他者做社會地理考古學式或人類學式的
近距離交會,皆成了藝術作品原初的動力。同時,人際
接觸和直接溝通也開啟了全球藝術圈的各方主角們進
一步合作的可能。
台灣與塞爾維亞除了地理上,兩者皆遠離政治中心之
外,這兩個國家也各自受到了社會主義的影響(儘管兩
者的模式並不相同),並且脫離了這國家原本的價值與
理念,轉而追求社會開放與民主化,以及新自由主義市
場。然而不同的是,台灣在經歷了工業、技術、科技與
經濟的發展之後,緊接而來的便是當代藝術和媒體創
作的迅速發展,而這些都是塞爾維亞未有的經驗。在
塞爾維亞,致力於當代藝術研究、展演與保存,以及在
車站、大街、廣場、公共大樓等等公共空間與刺激公共
藝術作品出現的文化機構,至今並未得到適當的財務
支援,目前為止也從不被國家當作政策的優先重點。在
這個國家,
「文化」和「菁英主義」畫上等號,因而或多
或少被邊緣化了;取而代之的則是較趨近大眾品味,商
業價值較高的娛樂產業。1990年代開始的政治轉型過
程至今尚未完成,並且政治或經濟體系的發展方向仍
深受政黨間的動盪情勢所影響。國家公務機構貪腐,政
治經濟不穩定,人民生活水準低落,文化傳承斷裂,深
層的道德危機,以及深沈的無力感,在在傷害了塞爾維
亞的藝術發展。在如此的社會現實脈絡之下,藝術家與
從事政治社會改革的積極人士的藝術創作因而變得虛
幻。他們的批判手法大致上並不受重視;其創作既無法
得到必要的體制或經濟支持,在大眾傳播媒體也沒有
足夠的能見度。因而藝術創作變得只能侷限在專家菁
英認可的藝術界框架裡。塞爾維亞當代藝術界被來自
各個面向—從體制、政治、經濟到社會、文化、以及倫
理和價值—的一股深深的危機感所滲透。在這幾乎是
一直被忽視、被邊緣化的情形之下,塞爾維亞藝術界可
說是處於一種壓抑的存在,並且在這壓抑狀態下,企圖
發展出不同的批判、生存、非主流的自我支持以及反抗
模式。這種壓抑的狀態因而有雙重意義:第一個層次取
決於在地環境和宰制文化模式的關係;第二層次則取
決於塞爾維亞當地藝術界所能獲得的國際藝術圈支持
(儘管地理上它屬於歐洲)。對許多藝術家和策展人來
說,跨越國境代表著他們靠自己的力量與歐洲,甚至歐
洲以外的藝術圈建立合作與溝通機制,同時也透過彼
此的接觸,拓展他們在藝術語言與方法的研究。藉由出
國尋求和想法接近、志同道合的個人或機構合作的機
透過「航向東方」計畫所建立起的台灣與塞爾維亞藝
術合作關係,除了是難得的機會以外,它也十分令人好
奇。它針對兩個距離遙遠之間可能的相似與相異之處,
提出了幾個問題。這兩個分別位處歐洲與亞洲東方的
國家在藝術創作上的彼此對話,也為建立共同觀念提
供重要的基礎,並且激勵我們分析兩者所處的地理位
置在當代藝術發展上的重要性與特殊性。這項計畫為
合作的雙方提出了一些問題:他們是否在各自所處的地
理位置,也就是亞洲和歐洲,在主導的文化政策層面,
分別有過被孤立的經驗?各自的藝術家們目前是否仍
在該地區處於邊緣的地位?相對於各自所處的地區的
藝術發展,台灣與塞爾維亞的藝術圈,是否因為在地緣
政治上的邊緣角色,而發展出各自的獨特性?兩國各處
於該地區地理位置上的東方,有何優缺點?是否因此被
世界上的強勢文化賦予某種刻板印象,並且在藝術發展
與追求上,優先追逐西方文化與文明?
15
會,塞爾維亞藝術家也得以拓展知識,並且得以接觸來
自東方或中歐,巴爾幹半島或其他更遙遠的地區,不同
的社會民主人士或組織。
有些藝術家迫於塞爾維亞國內的社會、政治與文化危
機—特別是發生在1990年代的動亂—決定離開塞爾維
亞,移民到西歐、南美、北美等等國家求學或生活。儘
管他們享受著所謂「遊牧主體」的「多重混種」身分所
帶來的好處,居處在國界之外,或者甚至根本拒絕接受
國界,實際上是極為艱辛、一點都不浪漫的主體位置,
而這正是當今大批塞爾維亞當代藝術家所面臨的處
境。他們生存在國際藝壇,透過各種不同的社會脈絡、
地理背景和身分來自我定位,藉此打破傳統定義的「國
家藝術」刻板印象。「壓抑的存在」這個概念正是在一
種企圖打破傳統國家藝術展選拔模式的思維下形成,
藉此開創一個對多重身分與現象認可的機會,並將這
個模式延伸到地方藝術展演上。
本次在國立台灣美術館舉行的「壓抑的存在:塞爾維亞
當代藝術展」,參展藝術家包括伊果·安提奇、布蕾達·
貝班、葛蘭·戴斯波圖斯基、diStruktura、德拉甘·伊
利奇、伊蓮娜·尤雷莎、史帝芬·克吉克、MP_art、童年
博物館、安德蕾雅·帕拉斯提 、維斯納·佩努諾維奇、
娜塔莎·提歐弗羅維奇、卓藍·托多羅維奇、米洛斯·托
米奇、塞爾曼·圖托瓦茲。這些藝術家近年來不論在塞
爾維亞國內,或者國際藝壇的表現都越來越傑出。參
展藝術家和藝術團體透過當代媒體語言,探索其社會
環境的不同脈絡,特別是藝術家面對社會政治變遷、遷
移、流亡、全球化、身分認同、當代經濟、資本與科技的
關係等相關議題的態度。
本次展覽的藝術家之中,有些畢生致力於透過其作品
來克服封閉社群中的保守性格,有些悠遊於國際之間,
透過各種多媒體創作計畫、藝術節、工作坊、討論會和
駐地藝術創作計畫,來促進知識與經驗的合作和分享。
有些專注於透過藝術作品的批判內涵—像是檢驗社會
的孤立與排外,遷移、環境與身分認同問題,以及社會
刻板印象的存在等等議題—來介入社會實踐。有些藝
術家們透過原始資料和文物來檢視個人與共同歷史之
間的關係,並呈現歷史的重量。許多藝術家則透過簡
單、低成本的作品批判社會、經濟、法律、戰爭政策、民
族主義、歧視問題以及當前的消費主義問題。他們使用
日常生活中隨處可見的物品、材料和設備,透過各種不
同的工作方式,包括DIY的方式,直接暗中破壞這個社
會體系。儘管其行動極為隱密低調,透過他們的態度、
作品、教學以及社會媒體上的溝通,對各種致力於爭
取個人、弱勢與邊緣團體的社會運動的參與程度也越
來越高。此外,他們也分析人與自然,以及自然與科技
之間的關係,探索不同生活方式與個人習癖。他們以幽
默、諷刺和荒謬的手法作為基本元素,以戰勝長期累積
的種種社會問題。
自從政治轉型開始以來,有關在地與全球,區域與整
體,隱私與公共,個人與政治之間的關係,都是塞爾維
亞當代藝術創作觸及的主題。
「壓抑的存在」這個概念
仍持續適用,並且包含了各種探討當代藝術與科學、科
技、自然、社會與個人環境的關係的藝術取向。本次展
覽的入選作品涵蓋了各種媒材,包括素描、數位繪圖、
裝置藝術、錄影裝置、表演藝術、行動藝術、短片、錄
影、攝影、動畫以及數位媒體等等。這些作品皆傾向於
透過研究藝術與其他領域的社會或科學活動的關係,
來超越媒材本身的限制。這些作品的共同特色是,透
過消弭既有界限,追求與其他傳統、非藝術領域的不同
現象之間的整合和同化。這些與藝術創作相互對話的
非藝術領域包括社會學、哲學、心理學、科學、科技或
其他藝文領域包括音樂、電影與舞蹈。傳統上,道德規
範、政治或社會邊界,以及邊界之間的過渡空間,往往
被建構來界定何者可被接受、何為正常,何者則會遭受
爭議,甚至被拒絕。許多參加本展的藝術家在主題上涵
蓋了這層概念,探討關於邊界、遷移和流亡等等議題。
16
釋放存在的壓抑
陳妍卉
維亞受前南斯拉夫解體、共產主義的崩解等影響,在
政治、經濟和社會上皆有了重大變遷。過往的歷史透
過作品被藝術家重新敘述,在時間軸上形成縱向的連
結,對於物質文化、對象及文件的再現,及類似場景
於相異時空下的模擬,產生了不同的解讀及意指,形
成了歷史閱讀的多重性。如童年博物館(Museum of
Childhood)、布蕾達·貝班(Breda Beban)、安德
蕾雅·帕拉斯提(Andrea Palašti)及塞爾曼·圖托瓦
茲(Selman Trtovac)的作品,從地域性的歷史文化出
發,經由再現或仿擬的手法來進行創作,提供觀者開放
性的思考空間。
存在,為何壓抑?因其歷史中戰爭的傷痛?社會環境的
不安定?政治、經濟局勢的變遷?全球環境的衝擊?抑
或是對個人主體認同的疑問?
藝術創作,感知、思考、探索著無形的壓抑,在藝術創
作者將它有形化的過程中,同時將其釋放…
「壓抑的存在:塞爾維亞當代藝術」以塞爾維亞當下的
藝術現象出發,呈現1990年代至今其當代藝術創作的
不同切面,同時也反映在國際交流愈趨頻繁、自由的現
今,塞爾維亞的藝術家們如何結合在地文化與國際潮
流,關照在地、反思自我及所處之環境,細膩微觀的對
他們生存的環境、社會及歷史進行討論。
二是對社會關係及現象的探討。社會,由人所組成的
生存環境,是當代藝術創作中探究、討論的重心之一。
在此展中,可見這類創作主題被討論的廣度,包含人類
所組成的國家、社會、宗教、家庭等社群的相互關係,
如關注國家之間的相異局勢及意識形態、對社會問題
現象進行批判、觀察社會表徵及群體之間的疏離感、對
自我主體的認同提出疑問等等。在伊果·安提奇(Igor
Antić)、葛蘭·戴斯波圖斯基(Goran Despotovski)
、MP_art、卓藍·托多羅維奇(Zoran Todorović)、伊
蓮娜·尤雷莎(Jelena Jureša)及維斯納·佩努諾維奇
(Vessna Perunovich)的創作中,以各自的觀點對不
同的社會面向及其間壓抑的關係進行探討,引領觀者
一同正視問題所在。
「壓抑的存在」,描述著一種生存的狀態,它來自於歷
史、政治、文化及社會環境等因素,並對當代藝術造成
影響。大部分國土位於巴爾幹半島上的塞爾維亞,不同
於台灣四面環海,其為多鄰國環繞的內陸國,與鄰近國
家及不同民族間交流的機會頻繁,多元民族為其文化特
色,也是諸多紛端的導火線。自第一次世界大戰到20世
紀末,數次的國內外戰爭及社會政治情勢的轉變,造就
了文化環境的複雜性;其中1990年代的集權統治、民族
戰亂等因素,再次改變了塞爾維亞的生存環境及創作
環境。當時在國際交流、藝術創作上的受限,對塞國當
代藝術的發展造成了壓制。而今日,根據策展人所提出
的觀點,壓抑的狀態依然存在,塞國當代藝術的發展
取決於國內政策與文化環境對之重視的程度,以及在
國際藝壇上所獲得的認同。經由上述種種過往的軌跡
及當前的局勢,堆累出塞爾維亞當代藝術的內涵與現
況。
三是反思人類生存與自然環境的相互影響。隨著現代
科技及工業的發展,人類生存的環境與大自然之間越
來越難維持平衡。在近代,對於地球自然本體的重視,
使人們反省為求文明發展而對自然造成的傷害。如史
帝芬·克吉克(Stevan Kojić)試驗著科技、自然、個人
與環境之間的共生關係;藝術創作團體diStruktura則
思考城市地景與自然環境的對比,試圖重新建立人類
與自然間的連結。
親身所處的環境、經歷,成為塞國當代藝術家創作的背
景及動力,他們如何應對當下,在在反映於其藝術創作
中。就筆者的觀察,本次參展作品的創作主題約略可分
述如下。
一是文本、記憶的再現與歷史文化的重新表述。1990
年前後 東歐陸續發生政治體系的轉變,包括柏林圍
牆的倒塌、許多國家陸續結束共產執政,此時期塞爾
最後是關注日常與自身的對話,嘗試跨越既定認知的
可能性。人類所生存的社會中,存在著許多既定的認
17
知、習慣及規範,日復一日與我們的生活共存。藝術家
藉由對日常生活的微觀,重新思考習以為常或習慣忽
略的細節,並對既定的認知提出不同的觀點,如娜塔
莎·提歐弗羅維奇(Natasa Teofilović)處理虛擬與真
實之間的轉換與跨越,製造虛擬世界與觀者間的對視
及對話;德拉甘·伊利奇(Dragan Ilić)著重於探討人
與被使用的工具、機器間的支配與被支配的關係;米洛
斯·托米奇(Miloš Tomić)放大生活上細瑣的事件,並
結合音樂進行創作,不受限於演奏音樂既定的模式,運
用俯拾即是的聲響及物品創造旋律,跨越音樂原有的
可能性。
除。1如同此展中討論著跨越束縛與自由、真實與虛
擬、作品與現實生活、人造與自然、音樂與聲音等不同「
界線」的創作。跨越界線這種想法的產生,起因於我們
處在界線的某一邊,且對現狀產生的質疑、不滿足或欲
逃離的想法,希望跨越原有的界線,以實現某種追求異
於自身、渴望改變等,種種對於界線另一邊的憧憬及想
望。這也呼應了策展人珊雅·克吉克-姆拉德洛芙策展
論述中提到的社會情況,在1990年代時因為戰亂及政
治而產生生存的壓抑感,使得許多塞爾維亞的居民及
藝術創作者移居至國外。國界,這道現實中的界線,成
為了當時許多人的難題:要留下?抑或遷徙、
「跨越」至
其他國家?而在此,透過創作,界線被消弭或跨越,帶
出一種自身慾望的投射,同時也達到了壓抑的釋放。
在這些主題中,大略可見塞爾維亞的當代藝術創作所
關注的面向,藝術家熱衷於討論自己所生活的地域,不
論是歷史文化、社會現象、自然生態或日常生活,他們
觀察、覺知,重新思考著各種社會表象、制度及認同,
並經由藝術創作提出疑問及想法。或許因為身處環境
轉變的過渡期,強化了藝術家對於社會責任的自覺,使
他們更為積極的透過藝術創作,來為生存發聲。由本展
中的藝術創作,可觀見藝術家透過作品呈現所生存社
會的變動,以理性中帶感性的態度(部分包含了哀傷或
指責),訴說著來自於過往的記憶、歷史背景、政治變
動、國際關係及價值觀的擠壓等種種,種種過去到現在
因人類文明進步所產生的包袱及壓抑。本展藝術家或
從作品的形式中透露出受限、拘謹的緊繃感,或從創作
內容中反思過往留下的傷痛,來回應生存環境所帶給自
身或他人的影響。
本展匯集了塞爾維亞不同世代藝術家的創作觀點,以
多元的藝術創作形貌,反映了塞爾維亞社會的現實狀
態,在地的歷史與文化脈絡等在作品中被敘述、再現或
加以詮釋,表現生存於「壓抑的存在」環境中的人們及
當代藝術的處境及突破。雖處於壓抑的狀態,但藝術
家所表達的訴求,透過作品被強烈的體現,壓抑被轉
化為更顯其張力及寓意的藝術創作,並傳達、分享給眾
多不同地域背景的觀者。或許,對於本展所談論的「壓
抑的存在」,可以另做如此解釋:既有的「壓抑」,在形
成作品的創作過程中、在被展出的當下,已逐漸釋放。
藝術家們在創作中以形式、理念、或議題來敘述壓抑,
並藉由創作將壓抑轉化。在赫伯特·馬庫色(Herbert
Marcuse)所提的「被壓抑物的回歸」
(return of the
repressed)相關討論中,他認為人類的「藝術想像」
是一種反抗美學,表達了對現實的超越、對壓抑的消
1
Herbert Marcuse, Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud,
Boston: Beacon Press, 1966.
18
In the State of Subdued Existence
Svetlana Mladenov
The achieved results in the release of Serbian art from the
influence of a communist party-directed and controlled
realism and later a party-tolerated socialist modernism of
a post-war (World War II) bureaucratized and technocratic
society of socialist self-management, through new artistic
practice and waves of conceptual research in the late 1960s,
throughout the 1970s and the pluralistic, dynamic, subversive,
eclectic, citationist postmodernist atmosphere of the 1980s,
imbued with deconstructionist tactics, all faded before the
chaos of war and destruction in the 1990s on the territory of
ex-Yugoslavia and the terror of Milošević’s regime in Serbia.
Artistic freedoms, at the end of the 20th century, had to be
conquered again.
artistic values, and a universal artistic discourse, often
seeking refuge in the narrowest environment, family, friends
and like-minded individuals.
Dialogues and relationships within the art scene of Serbia
in the 1990s were established in a thus complicated and
inconvenient context. The feature of the scene was vastness,
a multitude of individual, personal poetics, among which it
was hard to determine the mainstream, but it was possible to
determine the existence of multiple parallel trends which were
not contradictory. Quite the opposite, they complemented
each other.
The beginning of the 1990s was marked by the emergence
of “new sculpture,” which brought a new spirit to the then
current scene in Serbia and pushed the limits of the medium,
itself. Using a more rational procedure, it turned to reduced
forms, geometrism, minimalism, neoconstructivism.... More
appropriate terms for the artistic practice of the 1990s were
ones previously adopted for contemporary sculpture: art
object, object, installation, fragment, and environment, and
the way of work would more appropriately be labeled as
construction, fabrication, assembling... The attitude towards
the material has also changed. In addition to the classic ones,
plenty of non-sculptural materials (felt, leather, nylon, mesh,
glass, polyester, vinyl, rubber..) were introduced. Everything
could be used and the options of various combinations of
completely different materials were quite a challenge for young
artists who experimented freely and very authoritatively.
An impression of temporality and incompleteness of their
sculptures speaks of the importance artists attribute to the
process of work, itself, which was very often more important
to them than the final art form.
For many artists, covert activities, a subdued existence, was
the only possible solution, as well as for the 1990s art scene
in Serbia, itself.
A surprisingly rich artistic potential was hiding in the
discouraging atmosphere of the 1990s, inclined neither
towards new artistic research and experiments nor to
individual, personal poetics which tended towards the
adoption of a universal language of art. The ontological need
of an artist to design, create, build, establish relationships
and search for his own identity within the global art scene
had been more powerful than the hostile environment. It
was particularly expressed during the second half of the
1990s. This period was marked by the individual efforts
of professionals and artists to integrate their own narrow
cultural space within the international art scene and to
begin an ongoing dialogue with it. In a society of a disturbed
system of values, numerous questions have been raised about
art, its role, social status, its impact on the environment,
the value of its ideas and messages, its power to channel
changes and affect the consciousness and conscience of its
contemporaries. At the very end of the 20th century, emerging
from the period of isolation, pervaded by the chaos of war,
bans, terror, ghettoization, divisions, Serbia entered a period
of a still ongoing transition.
The process of breakthrough of image into space, initiated
in the 1980s, and the creation of the painting-object and
installations with specific effects continued in the 1990s,
especially in the second half of the decade, through research
in the field of entirely different installations and work in situ,
albeit now in a different atmosphere of relations, based on
theory of art inspired by relational aesthetics whose founder
was Nicolas Bourriaud. The authors of these works were not
only sculptors, but more often - painters.
The social engagement of artistic practice and individual
artistic efforts in opposition to tragic events in this region
was neither dramatic nor violent. On the contrary, it was
quiet, subdued, and discreet. It was reflected in non-action,
ignoring, exclusivity, elitism and commitment to autonomous
The work in situ caused a shift of the artists’ focus of interest,
regarding the implementing of their concepts of plasticity,
19
The second half of the 1990s and the end of the century opened
up limitless opportunities for artistic research in the field of
new technologies and electronic disciplines. An artist was
free to move through a variety of media spaces, overcoming
their limits and classical divisions. The possibilities for
combining were numerous: image, light, sound, movement,
smell... Any provocation to the observer’s senses was allowed.
Finished or discarded objects were often combined with light,
sound, screen image. Also, photos, posters, and anything else
that could be reproduced (multiplied infinitely many times)
could be in relation to video-art or the computer image. The
result was installations, video installations, environments,
performances, happenings, spectacles... Art has increasingly
less been trying to create a concrete and lasting product.
Its actions are often directed towards providing answers to
challenges of a certain space or an architectural unit; these
interventions have been carried out on-site or interactively,
via the computer image. They can display the artist’s intention
to provoke or shock the audience... Sometimes photographs,
videos and printed material remain as the only documents of
an art action, a happening or an exhibition.
from the gallery space to alternative and available urban
spaces, which, with their architecture, historical memory,
patina and urban features provide rich material for research
on a socio-historical and aesthetic level. The second half
of the 1990s, and the years that followed, were marked by
the emergence of a more intensive artistic conquest of
forgotten and abandoned urban spaces. By moving in, with
its interventions, actions, performances, installations and
facilities, and by attracting the public, art was enabling an
entirely direct communication between context, work of art
and the audience.
In the pluralistic atmosphere of the 1990s, one could observe
trends of renewal of modernism, already indicated by “new
sculpture,” which manifested in the mid-1990s as geometrism
and the need to restore the autonomy of the artistic process
through reduction, monochromy, minimalism… whether it
was regarding a pure surface of a painting or an paintingobject. Art critic Sava Stepanov called this phenomenon in
Vojvodina’s art production “discrete modernism,” and art
historian Ješa Denegri pointed out that in the mid-1990s,
within art criticism, the use of terms such as reconstruction
of the modern project, modernism after postmodernism,
neomodernism, the second modernism, etc. was becoming
more common.
The end of the 20th century had been a very complex and
complicated time for art. An overview of the artistic practice
of that period gives a picture of a vast, eclectic situation,
without a large, significant joint project, a defined style or
direction, strict concept, leading figure... Art at the end of the
millennium, exploring the past and its own being, brought
into suspicion some established facts and accepted truths,
critically referring to tradition and many seductive illusions.
There are no more grand truths or ideals, the work of art,
itself, the process, or the outcome, do not matter so much
anymore. Relationships between artistic disciplines, the
ability to set up new relations, as well as their existence in
a particular place and time, are more important and more
interesting. Free movement through the wide field of art,
with constant experimenting, and a discourse of research,
became very inspiring for artists. The conquest of new media
and the implementation of new technologies expanded the
expressive field of art in Serbia and enabled more space
for experimenting, the limits of which are incalculable.
Curiosity, an exploring spirit and courage of art itself to
get involved in the new and unexplored, contributed to the
emergence of numerous different discourses, which opened
up vast possibilities for the new artistic practice in Serbia in
the 1990s...
Contrary to this preference for abstract form, in the beginning
of the 1990s, another group of young artists emerged insisting
on the return of figuration and figure in the center of events,
which was accompanied by a more realistic, imitative
approach to art, referencing traditions of pop art, new
figurative art, hyperrealism, primitive and naive art. Unlike
the figuration from the period of the early 1980s, which was
all in an expressive spasm, deformities, ugliness, the one
from the beginning of the 1990s was reserved, apathetic,
depressed. Strong emotions were replaced with intellectual
contemplation. Feelings of existential vulnerability rendered
the connection between the artist and his work tighter, as
the artist identified his personal destiny with his own work,
searching within it and through it a confirmation of his own
identity. Representatives of this trend in the art of Serbia
were connected with similar feelings and the atmosphere
which their works invoke- alienation, loneliness, isolation,
melancholy, lack of communication, lack of interest,
indifference, sometimes mild irony or hints of humor.
The atmosphere of the art scene in Serbia during the 1990s
(mid and second half of the decade) was marked by the
emergence of neoconceptualist research, through the reactualization of the initiators of the “new artistic practice”
of the late 1960s and the 1970s, by their revalorization and
reaffirmation through numerous exhibitions and public
performances.
In the last decade of the 20th century, in which art was
becoming more internationalized, and artists were freely
moving through various cultural spaces, in which art has
been taking on an increasingly nomadic character, Yugoslav
artists and galleries made contacts only sporadically and
with difficulty, and when they succeeded, it was only due
20
to personal efforts of individuals and their earlier private
contacts with artists and galleries in Europe and worldwide.
the specific spirit of the region they hail from, within which
they operate, and through adopting new technologies, artists
often submerge themselves in multimedia and intermedial
research.
By toppling Milošević’s ten-year regime, Serbia found itself,
between the two millenniums, in a position of a country
in transition, on its way towards democracy. The need of
its art scene for opening up and closer contacts with the
world was becoming more visible. There was a growing
desire to connect with the world’s current trends and also
become involved in them, the need to establish links with
the international cultural space and its protagonists - artists,
galleries, associations, major exhibitions, and art fairs,
critics, and theorists…
Today, more than ten years after a bleak period in national
history, political isolation, and during the slow process of
social recovery, artists and curators independently establish
cooperation and communication with the art scenes of
Europe and the world, while expanding their field of
research, methods and language of their artwork through
mutual relationships. Considering the local and the global,
the regional and the universal, intimate and public, personal
and political, remains a trend within the contemporary
art scene of Serbia, albeit now with less insistence on the
great, collective, macro-political issues, and a pronounced
shift towards individual, micro-political concepts. Some
of the questions proposed today are: how significant is the
importance of the micro-community, family, the intimate
and personal world of an individual, what is the quality of
mutual communication, what are the dominant value systems
today, which ethical and aesthetic criteria are present, and
which ones should be valorized, how to oppose prevailing
stereotypes?
It had not been easy to navigate the dispersed and dynamic
art scene of the first decade of the 21st century, amidst an
illusionary “disorder” and the intersection of different
subjective research, poetics, concepts of plasticity, artwork
and non-artistic materials, and particularly difficult to spot
and isolate significant events and personalities. “There is no
more Great Art or great works of art, and we truly entered into
a new economy, the economy of the total victory of aesthetics.
This victory, which corresponds to the “vaporization of
art,” receives its artistic meaning within the framework of
encounters and the mix of cultures.”1
Today, artists are not connected by any common style, theme
or iconography, they share something much more important:
a common theoretical and practical worldview in which they
act, and that is the sphere of human relations. Therefore,
communication, dialogue and cooperation between the local
fine art scene with the international one are key not only
for the promotion of contemporary art practice, but also
for the exhibiting of those elements of their art work which
would otherwise remain invisible living in an isolated local
environment.
A process of balancing between classic fine art disciplines
and the art of new technologies can be seen in the artistic
concepts of the younger generation of artists. In the 1990s,
painting, as one of the leading classical fine art disciplines,
was suppressed by innovative, numerous options provided
by new technologies and experiments with, and in, new
media (video, digital photos, animation, web art..), and in the
first decade of the new millennium it became yet again the
subject of research and interest, especially for the younger
generation of artists. Within this research, a turn towards
figuration could be recognized, as well as the return of the
figure at the center of events. Thus the portrait and selfportrait, genres which had almost disappeared, were again
becoming interesting for artists.
Serbia today is a society burdened, on the one hand, with
the past and a negative legacy, and on the other, with a new
transition process that is underway, creating conditions for
the development of an atmosphere of uncertainty, insecurity,
depression, disappointment, hopelessness, apathy, which
further complicates the implementation of any creative
idea, positive action, and therefore artistic practice, itself.
Contemporary art, from the 1990s until today, had not been
able to establish a visibly significant position in its own
society, but still works from the state of a subdued existence.
Support, understanding and recognition are coming from the
international art scene, while in its own society, its research
and results have been marginalized.
The Serbian art scene today represents a complex system,
which, at first glance, seems dispersed and vast, but it is
actually a living, pulsating organism in which the effects
of the transitional, the Balkan, as well the better organized,
Central European art space intertwine. It is difficult to
single out major artistic schools and trends and their most
important protagonists, since the simultaneity of different
artistic research, its intersection and mixing make the
situation on the art scene more complicated and complex. By
adopting an international artistic discourse, enriching it with
1
Yves Michaud, Umjetnost u plinovitu stanju, esej o trijumfu estetike,
Zagreb, 2004.
21
Cargo East – Subdued Existence
Sanja Kojić Mladenov
Artists today are creative travelers crossing the boundaries
of different disciplines, formats, and spaces, nomads in
constant motion - either real, or virtual. They have become
explorers of other cultures to which they venture, record and
document the observed, and then process and reproduce
the experienced. They bring new knowledge, thoughts and
concepts, and then transfer them into different geopolitical
environments. Travel today has become a necessity of
social, economic and cultural development, and, in art,
almost a separate medium with topics such as migration,
displacement, communication and translation, diary notes,
exoticization of events, mapping of the terrain, artistic
activism in countries in need, etc. Artists increasingly
travel to the other end of the world to find material for their
art practice (video recordings, photographs, commercial
products, documentation, personal stories of local people,
way of life, etc) emphasizing the subjective experience of the
observed. Socio-geographical archeology, anthropology and
a close encounter with the other can become the primary
impetus for the genesis of a work, whether in terms of
individual artwork or a complex collective project, while
personal acquaintances and direct communication open the
field for closer cooperation among the protagonists of the
global art scene.
the dominant parts of the world and the prioritizing of the
civilization and culture of the West?
In addition to the geographical distance from political
centers, both Taiwan - Republic of China and the Republic
of Serbia have a close and shared experience of a socialist
past (although with different models of communism)
and the break up with its ideals and values, a striving for
an accelerated democratization of society and an opening
up towards the post-liberal market. Industrial, technicaltechnological and economic development present in Taiwan,
followed by the rapid development of contemporary art and
media practice, has been absent in Serbia. The construction
and development of existent cultural institutions dedicated to
the research, presentation and preservation of contemporary
art, as well as stimulating the emergence of art in public
places (stations, streets, squares, public buildings, etc), have
still not received adequate financial support in our country
or have not been considered to be priority orientations of
state policy. Culture has been more or less sidelined under
the pretext of “elitism” and replaced with more profitable
entertainment, appropriate for the tastes of the masses. The
process of transition, which began during the 1990s, has
not yet been completed, and the direction of development
or the economic-political system still depends on political
turmoil and changes within parties. There is corruption of
state institutions, political and economic instability, low
standard of living for the citizens, a cultural discontinuity, a
deep moral crisis, accompanied by a feeling of futility, which
all undermine the art scene of Serbia. The creative work
of artists and activists, imbued with the contextualization
of social reality, becomes illusory, their critical approach
is generally not taken seriously, it does not receive the
necessary institutional and economic support or visibility in
the mass media, remains confined within the framework of
the art scene and is mostly recognized only by experts. The
state of the contemporary art scene in Serbia is permeated
by a deep crisis of all segments, from the institutional,
political, economic, to the social, cultural, ethical and
value-based. In this state of an almost constantly present
invisibility and marginalization, the art scene of Serbia lives
a subdued existence, developing models of critique, survival,
alternative self-sustainment and resilience. Its subdued
state is therefore twofold, dependent on the relationship
to the dominant cultural model of the local environment
The establishing of relations between the artistic practice
of Taiwan – Republic of China and Serbia facilitated by
the Cargo East project, other than being a rarity, almost a
curiosity, also raises a number of questions on the possible
similarities and differences between these geographically
distant territories. The dialogue between the two artistic
practices both located on the eastern side of their
continents, Europe and Asia, has served as the basis for a
common concept and as an incentive for the analysis of
the importance of geographic location and its specificity
for the development of contemporary artistic practice.
Questions raised for both protagonists are: has there been a
certain isolation of these territories in relation to the leading
cultural policy of Europe or Asia, is the marginalization of
their artists present, and do the art scenes of Taiwan and
Serbia have specific development in relation to the major
tendencies of the continent on which they are located, due
to being geographically sidelined? What are the advantages
and disadvantages of such an (eastern) geographical location
and are they associated with a stereotyped observation by
22
traditionally to construct what is common as familiar and
acceptable, as opposed to what is disputed and rejected.
Many of the authors included in this concept thematically
consider the problem of borders, migration and exile. Some,
through their education and/or life, decided to leave Serbia,
and live an immigrant life in Western European countries,
North and South America, driven by the socio-political
and cultural crisis (especially prevalent in the 1990s). Being
beyond borders or not accepting them, despite all the benefits
of multiple hybridizations of the so-called nomadic subject, is
a very tough, entirely unromantic position faced today by a
large number of contemporary artists from Serbia. They exist
on international art scenes, defining themselves through
different social contexts, geographical settings and identities,
thus breaking the traditional form of exemplars of national
art. The concept of Subdued Existence has been formulated
in a way that it tends towards the breaking of the traditional
model of a national exhibition selection, thus creating an
opportunity for the recognition of multiple identities and
phenomena that extend the notion of stereotypical revue
presentations of the local art scene.
and dependent on the support of the international art scene
(although geographically and naturally it belongs to Europe).
The crossing of borders represents a challenge to many artists
and curators, who, on their own, establish cooperation and
communication with the art scenes of Europe and the world,
while expanding their field of research, methods and language
of artwork through mutual relations. Seeking collaborators
abroad, like-minded individuals or enthusiasts, for whom the
cooperation with institutions, associations, and artists from
Serbia facilitates extended knowledge, and enables meeting
the different, socialist-democratic, collective-individual, East
or Central European, Balkan, or perhaps exotic.
The participants of the exhibition Subdued Existence:
Serbian Contemporary Art Scene, prepared and conceived
for presentation in the National Taiwan Museum of Fine
Arts in Taichung, are: Igor Antić, Breda Beban, Goran
Despotovski, diStruktura, Dragan Ilić, Jelena Jureša, Stevan
Kojić, MP_art, Muzej detinjstva, Andrea Palašti, Vesna
Perunović, Nataša Teofilović, Zoran Todorović, Miloš Tomić
and Selman Trtovac, authors whose activities at the national
and international art scene in recent years have become
increasingly distinct. Selected artists and artistic groups,
through contemporary media language, explore different
contexts of their social environment, especially topics related
to the personal attitude towards socio-political transition,
migration, exile, globalization, identity issues, daily life and
the relationship towards the modern economy, capital and
technology.
The exhibition consists of those authors who through their
activities strive to overcome the burden of conservatism
of a closed community, who are mobile internationally,
collaborate, share knowledge and experiences through
many multimedia projects, festivals, workshops, seminars
and residencies. Some are focused towards socially engaged
art that is imbued with the critical practice of works which
indicate the isolation and xenophobia of a society, the
problem of migration, environment and identity, as well as the
existence of social stereotypes. They examine the relationship
of the individual with the personal and common history,
pointing towards the problems of dealing with the weight
of the past, introducing original records and artifacts. Many
criticize society, economic laws, policies of war, nationalism
and discrimination, as well as the current consumerist
consumption, often through simple low-budget works. They
use objects, materials and equipment from their everyday life
through multiple principles, including DIY (do it yourself),
infused with a direct undermining of autonomous social
systems. Although discretely, they are becoming increasingly
involved in various social movements that fight for the rights
of individuals, marginalized and vulnerable groups, through
their attitudes, work, teaching and communications on
social networks. They also analyze the connection between
man and nature, the relationship between nature and
technology, explore different lifestyles and personal habits.
They use humor, irony and absurdity, as essential elements in
overcoming accumulated social problems.
Considerations of the relationships between local and global,
regional and universal, intimate and public, personal and
political are present within the contemporary art scene
of Serbia since the beginning of the transition process.
The concept of Subdued Existence continues this practice
and includes a variety of artistic approaches that explore
the relationships of contemporary artistic practice with
the scientific, technological, natural, social and personal
environment. The selected works were carried out in a
variety of media, including: drawing, digital graphics,
installations, video installations, performance, actions,
short film, video, photography, animation and digital
media. Gathered at this exhibition, the works tend towards
the expansion of their own media limitations, through the
study of the interrelationships of art and other fields of
scientific and social activities. They are characterized by the
elimination of boundaries and the pursuit of integration
and assimilation of phenomena from other, traditional and
non-artistic disciplines including: sociology, philosophy,
psychology, science, technology, or other arts: music, film
and dance. Disciplinary, political or social borders, as well
as the space “between borders” (the liminal zone) were used
23
Releasing the Existing Subduedness
CHEN Yan-Huei
Existence, why is it subdued? For sorrows of wars in
its history? Social upheavals? Political and economic
transitions? Impact of global environment? Or doubts about
personal subjective identity?
Their very own surroundings and experience have
become the creative backdrop and aspiration for Serbian
contemporary artists; their works fully reflect how
they respond to the current moment. Based on my own
observation, the themes of the works in this exhibition can
be roughly described below:
Artistic practice, contemplates on, and explores intangible
subduedness, which, as artists concretize it, is simultaneously
released in the process….
First, reenacting texts and memories, and re-discoursing
history and culture. In Eastern Europe many political
changes happened around 1990, including the fall of the
Berlin Wall, as well as the end of communist rule in many
countries. In the meantime, Serbia also experienced drastic
political, economic, and social changes, which were results
of the breakup of ex-Yugoslavia and the fall of communist
regime. Past history was re-narrated by artists through their
works, forming a vertical connection on the timeline; the
reenactment of material culture, objects, and documents, as
well as simulations that present similar scenes in a different
time and space, generated different interpretations and
implications, creating multiplicity in historical reading. For
example, as seen in works by Museum of Childhood, Breda
Beban, Andrea Palašti, and Selman Trtovac, the artists
focus on regional history and culture, conducting creative
process through methods of reenactment or simulation to
provide viewers with an open thinking space.
“Subdued Existence: Serbian Contemporary Art Scene”
focuses on Serbian art phenomena at the moment, presenting
the different facets of contemporary art from the 1990s to
modern day. At the same time, it also reflects how, in today’s
world that enjoys frequent international exchanges and
more freedom, Serbian artists combine local culture and
international trends to address local issues and reflect on
self and surrounding environment, conducting discussions
on their environment, society, and history in a delicate and
microscopic fashion.
“Subdued existence” is actually describing a state of
survival; it originates from different factors including
history, politics, culture, and social environment, and
influences contemporary art. Unlike Taiwan, which
is an island surrounded by seas, Serbia’s territory is
predominantly located on the Balkan Peninsula. As a
landlocked country surrounded by many neighboring
countries, Serbia frequently interacts with its neighboring
countries and different ethnical groups; ethnical diversity
is a unique trait of Serbian culture, but it is also the cause of
much turmoil. From WWI to the end of the 20th century,
numerous civil wars and conflicts with other countries,
as well as social and political transitions, contributed the
complexity of Serbian cultural environment; factors such
as the authoritarian regime and chaos of war during the
1990s once again changed Serbia’s survival and creative
environment. At the time, with limited international
exchange and artistic practice, the subdued state continued
to exist; the development of Serbian contemporary art
depended on how it was regarded by domestic policies
and the local culture, as well as recognitions earned from
the international art circles. Through the aforementioned
past and current conditions, the contents and status
quo of Serbian contemporary art are accumulated.
Second, examining social relations and phenomena.
Society, the environment of survival formed by human
being, is one of the main topics explored and discussed in
the realm of contemporary art. In this exhibition, we can see
the wide discussion on this kind of themes, which include
the inter-relationships among groups—country, society,
religion, and family—formed by people; the artists express
their concerns for the different situations and ideologies
between countries, criticize social issues and phenomena,
observe social representation and the alienation among
groups, and question personal subjective identities. In the
works of Igor Antić, Goran Despotovski, MP_art, Zoran
Todorović, Jelena Jureša, and Vessna Perunovich, the artists
and artistic group examine and probe different social
dimensions and the subdued relationship among them via
respective perspectives, allowing viewers to find out where
the real problems lie.
24
Third, reflecting on the mutual influence between human
survival and natural environment. With the development
of modern technology, it has become increasingly difficult
to maintain the balance between natural and human
environment. In recent years, with growing environmental
awareness, people have started to reflect on the harms
civilization and development have brought upon nature.
For example, Stevan Kojić focuses on the coexistence of
technology, nature, individual, and environment; artistic
group diStruktura compares and contrasts urban landscape
and natural environment in its attempt to reestablish ties
between human being and nature.
themes in response to the influences of the surroundings on
themselves and others.
In their works, the artists narrate this subduedness through
forms, concepts, or topics; and transform this sense of
repression through creative process. Based on related
discussions on “return of the repressed” proposed by
Herbert Marcuse, he believes that “art was opposition”, and
human “artistic imagination” can express the surpassing
of reality and the elimination of repression.1 This idea is
reflected by the different creative works on “boundaries” in
this exhibition that examine the cross-over of restrictions
and freedom, reality and virtuality, artwork and real life,
artificial and natural, and music and sound. The idea of
crossing over boundary emerges because we are on one side
of the boundary, and are uncertain of, unsatisfied with, or
longing for an escape from the current status; we hope to
cross over the existing boundary in order to realize our
pursuit for something different than what we already are,
changes that we desire, and the many expectations and
imaginations regarding the things beyond the boundary.
This also echoes the social conditions mentioned by SanjaKojić Mladenov, one of the curators, in the curatorial
statement; because of that sense of repression on survival
resulted from wars and politics, many Serbians and Serbian
artists emigrated in the 1990s. National boundary, this line
in reality, posed as a barrier for many people at the time: stay?
Or move and “cross over” to other countries? Here, through
creative process, the boundary is eliminated or crossed, like
a projection of own desires, which simultaneously releases
this sense of repression.
Lastly, conversing on daily life and self, and testing
the possibility to go beyond existing conceptions. The
society we live in contains many established concepts,
habits, and rules that coexist with us day after day. Artists,
through close observation on daily life, reexamine the
details we take for granted or often neglect, and propose
different views regarding these established conceptions.
For example, Natasa Teofilović addresses the conversion
and transcendence between virtuality and reality, allowing
the virtual world and viewers to see and converse with one
another; Dragan Ilić focuses on probing the relationship of
the manipulating and the manipulated between men and the
tools and machines used by them; Miloš Tomić magnifies
the trivial events and objects in life and incorporates music
in his works, using easily found sounds and objects to create
melody rather than limiting himself to existing ways of
playing music, to explore new possibilities for music.
Through these themes, we can roughly see the aspects
that Serbian contemporary art focuses on. The artists are
passionate in discussing the regions in which they live,
including the history, culture, society, natural environment,
and daily life. They observe, perceive, and reconsider
different social representations, institutions, and identities,
and propose their questions and ideas through artistic
creations. Maybe it is because their surroundings are in a
transitional period, which elevates their awareness of social
responsibility, so that they speak up for survival through
actively engaging in artistic practice. From the works in
this exhibition, we can observe how artists present the
changes in the society they live in through their works;
with a rational yet sensitive attitude (some include sorrows
and criticism), they narrate the memory, historic backdrop,
political turmoil, international relations, and repression of
values from the past, as well as the burdens and suppressions
resulted from the progress of human civilization along
the way. In this exhibition, the artists either reveal the
uneasiness of being limited and restricted through the
forms of their works, or reflect on past sorrows through the
This exhibition collects creative viewpoints of Serbian
artists of different generations to reflect Serbia’s society
at the moment via diverse creative forms. Local history
and cultural context are narrated, reenacted, or further
interpreted in the works, presenting the situations and
breakthroughs faced by those living in an environment of
“subdued existence” and contemporary art. Even though
they are in a subdued state, yet the things the artists are trying
to express are fully manifested in the works; repression
is transformed into works that can better showcase the
tensions and implications, conveying and sharing the
ideas to viewers of different regional backgrounds. Maybe,
the “subdued existence” featured in this exhibition can be
otherwise defined as: existing “subduedness”, in the process
of being created into artworks and at the moment of being
exhibited, has been gradually released.
1
Herbert Marcuse, Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud,
Boston: Beacon Press, 1966.
25
U stanju prigušene egzistencije
Svetlana Mladenov
elitizmu, sa vizurom ka autonomnim umetničkim
vrednostima i univerzalnom umetničkom diskursu, tražeći
često utočište u najužem okruženju, porodici, prijateljima i
istomišljenicima.
Postignuti rezultati, u oslobađanju srpske umetnosti
od uticaja partijski usmeravanog i kontrolisanog
realizma i kasnijeg partijski tolerisanog socijalističkog
modernizma posleratnog (II svetski rat) birokratizovanog i
tehnokratizovanog društva samoupravnog socijalizma, kroz
novu umetničku praku i talase konceptualnih istraživanja s
kraja šezdesetih i tokom sedamdesetih godina prošlog veka,
te kroz pluralističku, dinamičnu, prevratničku, eklektičku,
citatnu,
prožetu
dekonstruktivističkim
taktikama
postmodernističku atmosferu osamdesetih godina, bledeli
su pred stihijom ratnih razaranja tokom devedesetih godina
na prostorima ex-Jugoslavije i terorom Miloševićevog režima
u Srbiji. Umetničke slobode, pred kraj 20. veka, trebalo je
ponovo osvajati.
U ovako komplikovanom i nezahvalnom kontekstu vodili
su se dijalozi i uspostavljale relacije unutar umetničke
scene Srbije devedesetih. Karakteristika ove scene je
nepreglednost, postojanje mnoštva pojedinačnih, ličnih
poetika, među kojima se teško može odrediti glavni tok, ali
zato je moguće utvrditi postojanje više paralelnih tokova
koji nisu suprotstavljeni, već se, naprotiv, dopunju.
Početak devedesetih godina prošlog veka obeležen je pojavom
„nove skulpture” koja je u tadašnju aktuelnu scenu Srbije
unela novi duh i pomerila granice samog medija. Koristeći
racionalniji postupak ona se okreće svedenim formama,
geometrizmu,
minimalizmu,
neokonstruktivizmu….
Umetničkoj praksi devedesetih više odgovaraju termini već
ranije usvojeni za savremenu skulpturu, kao što su umetnički
predmet, objekt, instalacija, fragment, ambijent, a sam način
rada primerenije je označiti kao građenje, konstruisanje,
slaganje... Odnos prema materijalu je izmenjen. Pored
klasičnih, uvodi se obilje „ne-skulptorskih” materijala (filc,
koža, najlon, mreža, staklo, poliester, vinaz, guma..). Sve
može poslužiti, a mogućnost različitih kombinacija sasvim
raznorodnih materijala izazov su za mlade umetnike koji
slobodno i veoma autoritativno eksperimentišu. Utisak
privremenosti i nedovršenosti njihovih skulptura govori o
značaju i važnosti koju pridaju samom procesu rada. Često je
on za njih važniji od završnog umetničkog oblika.
Delovanje iz ilegale, u prigušenoj egzistenciji, za mnoge
umetnike, kao i za samu umetničku scenu Srbije devedesetih,
bilo je jedino moguće rešenje.
Tokom devedesetih godina prošlog veka, u obeshrabrujućoj
atmosferi, nenaklonjenoj novim umetničkim istraživanjima
i eksperimentima kao i pojedinačnim, ličnim poetikama koje
su težile ka usvajanju univerzalnog jezika umetnosti, krio se
iznenađujuće bogat umetnički potencijal. Ontološka potreba
za kreiranjem, stvaranjem, građenjem, uspostavljanjem
relacija, kao i traganjem za sopstvenim identitetom, unutar
globalne umetničke scene, bila je snažnija od neprijateljskog
okruženja i odvijala se burno, naročito u drugoj polovini
devedesetih. To je vreme obeleženo pojedinačnim naporima
stručnjaka i umetnika da sopstveni suženi kulturni prostor
priključe internacionalnoj umetničkoj sceni i sa njom
uspostave trajni dijalog. U društvu poremećenog sistema
vrednosti, postavljaju se, za umetnost, brojna pitanja o njenoj
ulozi, društvenom statusu, njenom uticaju na okruženje, o
vrednosti njenih ideja i poruka, o moći da kanališe promene
i utiče na svest i savest savremenika. Iz perioda izopštenosti
prožetog ratnom pometnjom, zabranama, terorom,
getoizacijom, podelama, ušlo se na samom kraju dvadesetog
veka u period tranzicije koji je još uvek u toku.
Proces prodora slike u prostor započet u osamdesetim i
stvaranje slike-objekata i instalacija specifičnog dejstva
nastavljen je u devedesetim, naročito u drugoj polovini
decenije kroz istraživanja u polju sasvim različitih instalacija
i rada in situ ali sada u drugačijoj atmosferi relacionih odnosa
oslonjenoj na teoriju umetnosti inspirisanoj relacionom
estetikom, čiji je utemeljivač Nikolas Burio. Njihovi autori
ne dolaze uvek iz vajarskih redova, već češće iz slikarskih .
Angažovanost umetničke prakse i pojedinačnih umetničkih
napora usmerenih protiv svih tragičnih dešavanja nije
bila burna i glasna, već tiha, pritajena i diskretna. Ona se
manifestovala u nečinjenju, ignorisanju, ekskluzivitetu,
26
Rad na licu mesta uslovio je prebacivanje težišta interesovanja
umetnika za realizaciju svojih plastičkih koncepata iz
galerijskih u alternativne i slobodne gradske prostore koji
svojom arhitekturom, istorijskim pamćenjem, patinom,
urbanističkim osobenostima nude bogat materijal za
istraživanje u polju društveno-istorijskih i estetskih premisa.
Druga polovina desete decenije i godine posle obeležene su
i pojavom sve intenzivnijeg, od strane umetnosti, osvajanja
zaboravljenih i napuštenih gradskih prostora Useljavajući se
u njega svojim intervencijama, akcijama, performansima,
instalacijama, objektima i privlačeći publiku, omogućila je
najdirektniju komunikaciju konteksta, dela i publike.
ponovne aktuelizacije inicijatora „nove umetničke prakse” s
kraja šezdesetih i tokom sedamdesetih godina prošlog veka,
kroz njihovu revalorizaciju i ponovnu afirmaciju preko
mnogobrojnih izložbi i javnih nastupa.
Druga polovina devedesetih i sam kraj veka otvorili su
neograničene mogućnosti umetničkog istraživanja na
polju novih tehnologija i elektronskih disciplina. Umetnik
se slobodno kreće kroz sasvim različite medijske prostore
prevazilazeći njihove granice i klasične podele. Mogućnosti
kombinovanja su brojne: slika, svetlo, zvuk, pokret, miris...
Svaka provokacija na naša čula je dozvoljena. Često se
gotovi ili nađeni odbačeni predmeti kombinuju sa svetlom,
zvukom, ekranskom slikom. Takođe fotografije, plakati
i sve što može biti reprodukcija (umnoženo nebrojeno
puta) može biti u relaciji sa video-artom ili komjuterskom
slikom. Rezultat su instalacije, video-instalacije, ambijenti,
performansi, hepeninzi spektakli... Umetnost sve manje teži
za konkretnim i trajnim proizvodom. Često su njene akcije
usmerene u pravcu odgovora na izazove određenog prostora
ili arhitektonske celine, te se intervencije izvode na licu
mesta ili interaktivno preko kompjuterske slike. One mogu
ispoljiti želju za provokacijom, šokantnošću... Ponekad su
jedini dokumenti o nekoj umetničkoj akciji, hepeningu ili
izložbi: fotografije, video-zapis i štampani materijal.
U pluralističkoj atmosferi devedesetih mogle su se uočiti
tendencije obnavljanja modernizma što je već nagovestila
„nova skulptura”, a što se sredinom decenije u slikarstvu
manifestovalo geometrizmom i potrebom obnavljanja
autonomnosti umetničkog postupka kroz redukciju,
monohromiju, minimalizam... bilo da se radilo o čistoj
površini slike ili slici-predmetu. Likovni kritičar Sava
Stepanov ovu pojavu u vojvođanskoj umetničkoj produkciji
naziva „diskretni modernizam”, a teoretičar umetnosti
Ješa Denegri . govori o tome da se sve češće polovinom
devedesetih u okviru umetničke kritike može uočiti upotreba
termina kao što su obnova modernog projekta, moderna posle
postmoderne, neomoderna, druga moderna i sl.
Kraj dvadesetog veka za umetnost je vrlo kompleksno i složeno
vreme. Pogled na umetničku praksu ovog vremena daje
sliku nepregledne, eklektičke situacije u kojoj nema velikog
značajnog zajedničkog projekta, nema određenog definisanog
stila ni pravca, stroge koncepcije, vodeće ličnosti... Umetnost
na kraju milenijuma, inventarišući po prošlosti i sopstvenom
biću stavila je pod sumnju neke već ukorenjene činjenice
i prihvaćene istine, kritički se odnoseći prema tradiciji i
mnogim zavodljivim iluzijama. Nema više velikih istina niti
ideala, nije više toliko bitno ni samo umetničko delo, rad
na njemu kao i sam krajnji rezultat. Važniji su i zanimljiviji
odnosi među umetničkim disciplinama, mogućnost novih
relacija, kao i njihova egzistencija u određenom prostoru i
vremenu. Slobodno kretanje kroz široko polje umetnosti uz
stalno eksperimentisanje i istraživački diskurs postali vrlo
inspirativni za umetnike. U Srbiji, osvajanje novih medija
i uvođenje novih tehnologija proširilo je izražajno polje
umetnosti i omogućilo više prostora za eksperiment čije su
granice nesagledive. Radoznalost, istraživački duh i hrabrost
same umetnosti da se upusti u novo i neistraženo, doprinelo
je mnoštvu različitih diskursa koji su otvorili neslućene
mogućnosti novoj umetničkoj praksi u Srbiji devedesetih
godina dvadesetog veka.
Nasuprot ovom opredeljenju za apstraktne forme, početkom
devedesteih godina zapaža se, od jedne druge grupe mladih
umetnika, insistiranje na figuraciji i vraćanju figure u
centar zbivanja što je praćeno jednim više relističkim i
podražavalačkim pristupom umetnosti oslonjenim na na
tradicije „pop arta”, „nove figuracije”, „hiperrealizma”,
primitivne i naivne umetnosti. Za razliku od figuracije
s početka osamdesetih koja je sva u ekspresivnom grču,
deformacijama, ružnoći, ova sa početka devedesetih
je uzdržana, ravnodušna, depresivna. Snažne emocije
zamenjene su intelektualnom kontemplacijom. Osećanje
ugroženosti sopstvene egzistencije čini vezu između
umetnika i dela tešnjom, te umetnik svoju ličnu sudbinu
poistovećuje sa sopstvenim delom, tražeći u njemu i
kroz njega potvrdu sopstvenog identiteta. Predstavnike
ovog toka umetnosti u Srbiji povezuju slična osećanja i
atmosfera kojom odišu njihova dela, a to su otuđenost,
usamljenost, izolovanost, melanholija, nekomunikativnost,
nezainteresovanost, ravnodušnost, ponekad blaga ironoja ili
tek nagovešteni humor.
Takođe, atmosfera umetničke scene u Srbiji devedesetih
(sredina i druga polovina decenije) obeležena je pojavom
neokonceptualističkih istraživanja i to kroz nastojanja
27
U toj poslednjoj deceniji prošlog veka u kojoj se umetnost
sve više internacionalizuje, u kojoj se umetnici slobodno
kreću različitim kulturnim prostorima, u kojoj umetnost
sve više poprima nomadski karakter, jugoslovenski umetnici
i galerije, kontakte su ostvarivali vrlo teško i sporadično, a
kada je do njih dolazilo, oni su bili rezultat ličnog zalaganja
pojedinaca i njihovih već ranijih privatnih kontakata sa
umetnicima i galerijama iz Evrope i sveta.
umetničkog prostora. Teško je izdvojiti glavne umetničke
tokove i pravce i njihove najznačajnije aktere jer
istovremenost različitih umetničkih istraživanja, njihovo
dodirivanje i mešanje čine situaciju na umetničkoj sceni
zamršenijom i kompleksnijom. Usvojivši internacionalni
umetnički diskurs, obogativši ga specifičnim duhom
regiona iz koga potiču i u okviru koga deluju i usvojivši nove
tehnologije, umetnici se često prepuštaju multimedijalnim i
intermedijalnim istraživanjima.
Zbacivši desetogodišnji Miloševićev režim, Srbija je, na
prelazu vekova, zemlja u tranziciji, na putu ka demokratiji.
Potreba njene umetničke scene za otvaranjem i snažnijim
kontaktima sa svetom, sve više se aktuelizuje. Raste želja za
povezivanjem sa svetskim aktuelnim tokovima umetničke
prakse i uključivanjem u istu, za uspostavljanjem veza sa
internacionalnim kulturnim prostorom i njegovim akterima:
umetnicima, galerijama, asocijacijama, velikim izložbama,
umetničkim sajmovima, kritičarima, teoretičarima...
Danas, skoro deset godina nakon sumornog perioda
nacionalne istorije, političke izolovanosti i tokom
sporog procesa društvenog oporavka, umetnici i kustosi
samoinicijativno uspostavljaju saradnju i komunikaciju sa
umetničkom scenom Evrope i sveta, istovremeno proširujući
svoje polje istraživanja, metode i jezik umetničkog dela
kroz međusobne relacije. Razmatranje odnosa lokalnog i
globalnog, regionalnog i univerzalnog, intimnog i javnog,
ličnog i političkog ostaje i dalje aktuelno unutar savremene
umetničke scene Srbije, ali sada sa manjim insistiranjem na
velikim, kolektivnim makro-političkim pitanjima, već sa sve
primetnijim usmerenjem ka individualnim, mikropolitičkim
konceptima. Neka od pitanja koja se danas postavljaju su:
koliki je značaj mikro-zajednice, porodice, intimnog i ličnog
sveta pojedinca, kakav je kvalitet međusobne komunikacije,
koji su danas preovlađujući vrednosni sistemi, koji su etički
i estetski kriterijumi prisutni, a koje bi trebalo valorizovati,
kako se suprotstaviti vladajućim stereotipima?
Na razuđenoj i dinamičnoj umetničkoj sceni prve decenije
21. Veka, u prividnom „neredu” i ukrštanju različitih
subjektivnih istraživanja, poetika, plastičkih koncepata,
umetničkog i neumetničkog materijala nije se lako snalaziti,
a posebno uočiti i izdvojiti značajne pojave i ličnosti. „Više
nema ni Velike umjetnosti ni velikih djela i mi smo uistinu
ušli u jednu novu ekonomiju, ekonomiju potpune pobjede
estetike. Ta pobjeda, koja odgovara "isparivanju umjetnosti",
dobiva svoj umjetnički smisao u okviru susreta i miješanjа
među kulturama.”1
U umetničkim konceptima mlađe generacije umetnika
može se uočiti proces ka uspostavljanju ravnoteže
između klasičnih likovnih disciplina i umetnosti novih
tehnologija. Slikarstvo kao jedna od vodećih klasičnih
likovnih disciplina, u devedesetim godinama prošlog veka
biva potisnuto od inovativnih i brojnih mogućnosti koje
su pružale nove tehnologije i eksperimenti sa i u novim
medijima (video, digitalna fotografija, animacija, vebumetnost..), da bi ponovo, u prvoj deceniji novog milenijuma
postalo predmet istraživanja i interesovanja pre svih mlađe
generacije umetnika. U okviru tog istraživanja može se
zapaziti izraženi tok ka figuraciji i vraćanju figure u centar
zbivanja. Tako portret i autoportret, koji su se kao žanrovi
skoro izgubili, ponovo za umetnike postaju zanimljive teme.
Umetnike danas ne povezuje neki zajednički stil, tematika
ili ikonografija, oni dele nešto mnogo značajnije: zajednički
teorijski i praktični vidokrug u kome duluju, a to je sfera
međuljudskih odnosa. Zato su komunikacija, dijalog i
saradnja domaće likovne scene sa internacionalnom ključni
ne samo za afirmaciju savremene umetničke prakse, već i za
ispoljavanje onih elemenata umetničkog rada koji bi svojim
životom u zatvorenoj, lokalnoj sredini ostao nevidljiv.
Danas je Srbija društvo koje, opterećeno s jedne strane
prošlošću i negativnim nasleđem, a sa druge novim
tranzicionim procesom koji je u toku, stvara uslove za
razvoj atmosfere neizvesnosti, nesigurnosti, depresivnosti,
razočaranosti, beznađa, apatičnosti, što još više otežava
realizaciju svake kreativne ideje, pozitivne akcije, pa samim
tim i umetničke prakse. Savremena umetnost od devedesetih
godina prošlog veka do danas nije uspela da se izbori za
vidno značajniju poziciju u sopstvenom društvu, već i dalje
deluje iz stanja prigušene egzistencije. Podrška, razumevanje
i priznanja stižu više sa međunarodne umetničke scene,
dok su u sopstvenom društvu njena istraživanja i rezultati
marginalizovani.
Umetnička scena Srbije danas predstavlja složeni sistem koji
na prvi pogled deluje rasplinuto i nepregledno, ali je, zapravo,
jedan živo pulsirajući organizam u kome se prepliću uticaji
tranzicionog, balkanskog, ali i uređenijeg, srednjoevropskog
1
Yves Michaud, Umjetnost u plinovitu stanju, esej o trijumfu estetike, Zagreb,
2004.
28
Cargo East – Prigušena egzistencija
Sanja Kojić Mladenov
Osim geografske udaljenosti od političkih centara, za Tajvan
i Srbiju je blisko i zajedničko iskustvo socijalističke prošlosti
(iako različitih modela komunizma), te raskidanje sa njenim
idealima i vrednostima, težnja ka ubrzanoj demokratizaciji
društva i otvaranje ka postliberalnom tržištu. Industrijski,
tehničko-tehnološki i ekonomski razvoj prisutan na Tajvanu,
koji prati snažni razvoj savremene umetničke i medijske
prakse, izostao je u Srbiji. Izgradnja i razvoj egzistentnih
institucija kulture posvećenih istraživanju, prezentaciji i
čuvanju savremene umetnosti, kao i podsticanje izlaska
umetnosti u javne prostore (stanice, ulice, trgovi, javni objekti
i sl), kod nas još uvek nisu naišli na adekvatnu finansijsku
podršku ili nisu smatrani prioritetnim usmerenjima državne
politike. Kultura je više ili manje skrajnuta, pod izgovorom
„elitizovane“, i zamenjena profitabilnom zabavom
primerenijom ukusu širokih narodnih masa. Proces
tranzicije, počet devedesetih godina 20. veka, još uvek nije
završen, te pravac razvoja ili ekonomsko-politički sistem još
uvek zavisi od političkih previranja i partijskih promena. Na
snazi je korupcija državnih institucija, politička i ekonomska
nestabilnost, nizak standard građana, kulturni diskontuitet,
duboka moralna kriza praćena osećanjem beskorisnosti, koji
podrivaju umetničku scenu Srbije. Stvaralački rad umetnika
i aktivista, prožet kontekstualizacijom društvene stvarnosti,
postaje iluzoran, njihov kritički stav se uglavnom ne uzima
ozbiljno, ne dobija potrebnu institucionalnu i ekonomsku
podršku ili vidljivost u mas-medijima, te ostaje zatvoren
unutar okvira umetničke scene i prepoznat uglavnom samo
od strane stručne javnosti. Stanje savremene umetničke
scene Srbije prožeto je dubokom krizom svih segmenata, od
institucionalne, političke, ekonomske do socijalne, kulturne,
etičke i vrednosne. U takvom stanju gotovo konstantno
prisutne nevidljivosti i državne marginalizacije, umetnička
scena Srbije prigušeno egzistira razvijajući modele kritike,
preživljavanja, alternativnog saodržavanja i samosnalaženja.
Njena pritajenost je zato dvostruka, zavisna od odnosa ka
dominantnom kulturnom modelu lokalne sredine i zavisna
od podrške na internacionalnoj umetničkoj sceni (iako
pripada evropskoj, geografski i prirodno). Izlazak van
granica predstavlja izazov mnogim umetnicima i kustosima,
koji samoinicijativno uspostavljaju saradnju i komunikaciju
sa umetničkim scenama Evrope i sveta, istovremeno
Umetnici su danas kreativni putnici koji prelaze granice
različitih disciplina, formata i prostora, nomadi koji su
u stalnom kretanju, bilo realnom ili virtuelnom. Postali
su istraživači drugih kultura u koje odlaze, beležeći i
dokumentujući viđeno, a zatim obrađujući i reprodukujući
doživljeno. Donose nova znanja, razmišljanja i koncepte, i
zatim ih prenose u različite geopolitičke sredine. Putovanje
je danas postala neminovnost društvenog, ekonomskog i
kulturnog razvoja, a u umetnosti gotovo zaseban medij sa
temama kao što su migracija, raseljavanje, komunikacija i
prevođenje, dnevnički zapis, egzotizam događaja, mapiranje
terena, umetnički aktivizam u ugroženim zemljama i slično.
Umetnici sve češće odlaze na drugi kraj sveta kako bi tamo
pronašli materijal za svoj umetnički rad (video-zapisi,
fotografije, komercijalni proizvodi, dokumentacija, lične
priče lokalnog stanovništva, način života i sl), naglašavajući
subjektivni doživljaj viđenog. Društveno-geografska
arheologija, antropologija i bliski susret sa drugim mogu
postati primarni impuls za nastanak dela, bilo da je u
pitanju pojedinačni umetnički rad ili kompleksni kolektivni
projekat, dok lično poznanstvo i direktna komunikacija
otvaraju prostor za neposredniju saradnju među protagonista
globalne savremene umetničke scene.
Uspostavljanje relacija između umetničke prakse Tajvana
i Srbije, omogućeno projektom Cargo East, osim što
predstavlja retkost, gotovo kuriozitet, postavlja i niz
pitanja o mogućim sličnostima i razlikama tih geografski
udaljenih teritorija. Dijalog dve umetničke prakse locirane
na istoku svojih kontinenata, Azije i Evrope, poslužilo je
kao osnova zajedničkog koncepta i podsticaj za analiziranje
značaja geografske pozicije i specifičnosti mesta na razvoj
umetničke scene. Za oba aktera se postavljaju pitanja: da
li postoji izvesna izolovanost tih teritorija u odnosu na
vodeću kulturnu politiku Evrope ili Azije, da li je prisutna
marginalizacija njihovih umetnika i umetnica, kao i da li
zbog geografske skrajnutosti umetničke scene Tajvana i
Srbije imaju specifičan razvoj u odnosu na vodeće tendencije
kontinenata na kojima su locirane? Kolike su prednosti, a
kolike mane takve (istočne) geografske pozicije i da li one
imaju veze sa stereotipnim posmatranjem dominantnih
delova sveta i davanja prioriteta civilizaciji i kulturi zapada?
29
proširujući svoje polje istraživanja, metode i jezik
umetničkog dela kroz međusobne relacije. Traže saradnike u
inostranstvu, istomišljenike ili entuzijaste, kojima saradnja
sa institucijama, udruženjima, umetnicima i umetnicama
iz Srbije proširuje poznata saznanja, omogućava sustret
sa drugačijim, socijalističko-demokratskim, kolektivnoindividualnim, istočnoevropskim ili srednjoevropskim,
možda i balkanski egzotičnim.
školovanjem i/ili životom opredelili za odlazak iz Srbije,
za život emigranata u zemljama Zapadne Evrope, Severne
i Južne Amerike, podstaknuti društveno-političkom i
kulturnom krizom (naročito prisutnom tokom devedesetih
godina 20. veka). Biti izvan granica ili ih ne prihvatati
je, i pored svih povlastica višestrukih hibridizacija
takozvanog nomadskog subjekta, veoma teška, nimalo
romantična pozicija sa kojom se danas susreće veliki broj
savremenih umetnika i umetnica iz Srbije. Oni egzistiraju
na internacionalnim umetničkim scenama, definišući sebe
kroz različite društvene kontekste, geografske odrednice i
identitete, razbijajući tako tradicionalne forme egzemplara
nacionalne umetnosti. Koncept Prigušene egzistencije
formulisan je tako da teži razbijanju tradicionalnog modela
nacionalne izložbene selekcije, te otvaranju mogućnosti za
afirmaciju mnogostrukih identiteta i pojava koje proširuju
sliku stereotipnih revijalnih prezentacija lokalne umetničke
scene.
Na izložbi Prigušena egzistencija: savremena umetnička
scena Srbije, pripremljenoj i koncipiranoj za prezentaciju
u Nacionalnom muzeju likovnih umetnosti Tajvana
u Tajčungu (National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts)
učestvuju: Igor Antić, Breda Beban, Goran Despotovski,
diStruktura, Dragan Ilić, Jelena Jureša, Stevan Kojić, MP_
art, Muzej detinjstva, Andrea Palašti, Vesna Perunović,
Nataša Teofilović, Zoran Todorović, Miloš Tomić i Selman
Trtovac, autori i autorke čija je aktivnost na domaćoj i
međunarodnoj umetničkoj sceni poslednjih godina sve
upečatljivija. Izabrani umetnici, umetnice i umetničke
grupe savremenim medijskim jezikom istražuju različite
kontekste svog društvenog okruženja, naročito teme u
vezi sa ličnim odnosom ka društveno-političkoj tranziciji,
migraciji, egzilu, globalizaciji, problemima identiteta,
svakodnevice i odnosa ka savremenoj ekonomiji, kapitalu
i tehnologiji.
Izložbu čine oni autori i autorke koji svojim aktivnostima
nastoje da prevaziđu teret konzervativizma zatvorene
zajednice, koji se internacionalno kreću, sarađuju,
razmenjuju znanja i iskustva kroz mnoge multimedijske
projekte, festivale, radionice, seminare i rezidencije. Neki
su usmereni ka socijalno angažovanoj umetnosti koja
je prožeta kritičkom praksom radova koji ukazuju na
zatvorenost i ksenofobiju društva, na problem migracije,
ekologije i identiteta, kao i na postojanje socijalnih
stereotipa. Ispituju odnos pojedinca prema ličnoj i opštoj
istoriji ukazujući na probleme suočavanja sa težinom
prošlosti, uvodeći originalne zapise i artefakte. Mnogi
kritikuju društvo, ekonomske zakonitosti, politiku rata,
nacionalizma i diskriminacije, kao i aktuelnu konzumersku
potrošnju, često kroz jednostavne niskobudžetne radove.
Koriste predmete, materijale i sprave iz svoje svakodnevice
kroz mnogostruke principe, među kojima je i uradi to sam
(do it yourself – DIY), prožete direktnim podrivanjem
autonomnih društvenih sistema. Iako nenametljivo, sve više
učestvuju u različitim društvenim pokretima koji se bore za
prava pojedinaca, marginalnih i ugroženih grupa – svojim
stavovima, radovima, predavanjima i komunikacijom na
društvenim mrežama. Takođe, analiziraju povezanost
čoveka sa prirodom, odnos prirode i tehnologije,
istražuju drugačije stilove života i lične navike. Koriste se
humorom, ironijom i apsurdom, kao bitnim elementima u
prevazilaženju nagomilanih društvenih problema.
Razmatranja odnosa lokalnog i globalnog, regionalnog i
univerzalnog, intimnog i javnog, ličnog i političkog prisutna
su unutar savremene umetničke scene Srbije od početka
procesa tranzicije. Koncept Prigušene egzistencije nastavlja
tu praksu i uključuje različite umetničke pristupe koji
istražuju relacije savremene umetničke prakse sa naučnim,
tehnološkim, prirodnim, društvenim i ličnim okruženjem.
Izabrani radovi su realizovani u različitim medijima,
među kojima su: crtež, digitalna grafika, instalacija,
video-instalacija, performans, akcija, kratki film, video,
fotografija, animacija i digitalni mediji. Okupljeni na ovoj
izložbi radovi teže proširivanju sopstvenih medijskih
ograničenja kroz istraživanje međuodnosa umetnosti i
drugih oblasti naučne i društvene delatnosti. Karakteriše ih
iskorenjivanje granica i težnja ka uključivanju i asimilaciji
pojava drugih, tradicionalnih i neumetničkih diciplina,
među kojima su: sociologija, filozofija, psihologija, prirodne
nauke, tehnologija ili druge umetnosti: muzika, film i igra.
Disciplinarne, političke ili socijalne granice, kao i prostor
„između granica“ (limitativna zona) tradicionalno su
služile da bi konstruisale ono što je zajedničko kao blisko
i prihvatljivo, nasuprot onog što se osporava i ne prihvata.
Mnogi autori uključeni u taj koncept tematski razmatraju
probleme granica, migracija i egzila. Neki su se svojim
30
Oslobađanje postojeće prigušenosti
Čen Jan-Huei
Zašto je egizstencija prigušena? Zbog tuge i ratova u
istoriji? Društvenih potresa? Političkih i ekonomskih
tranzicija? Uticaja globalnog okruženja? Ili sumnji o ličnom
subjektivnom identitetu?
Njihova sopstvena okolina i iskustvo su postali kreativni
okvir i podsticaj za srpske savremene umetnike; njihovi
radovi u potpunosti odražavaju njihove reakcije na aktuelni
trenutak. Na osnovu posmatranja, teme radova na ovoj
izložbi mogu grubo opisati na sledeći način:
Umetnička praksa istražuje i razmišlja o neopipljivoj
prigušenosti, koja se, pošto je umetnici konkretizuju,
istovremeno oslobađa u tom procesu...
Prvo, kroz rekonstrukciju tekstova i sećanja, i promenu
diskursa istorije i kulture. Mnoge političke promene u
Istočnoj Evropi su se desile oko 1990. godine, uključujući
i pad Berlinskog zida, kao i kraj komunističke vladavine
u mnogim zemljama. U međuvremenu, Srbija je takođe
doživela drastične političke, ekonomske i društvene
promene, koje su posledica raspada bivše Jugoslavije i pada
komunističkog režima. Umetnici rekonstruišu narativ
prošlosti kroz njihove radove, i time formiraju vertikalnu
nit na vremenskoj osi; rekonstrukcija materijalne kulture,
objekata i dokumenata, kao i simulacije koje predstavljaju
slične scene u drugačijem vremenu i prostoru, generišu
različite interpretacije i implikacije, stvarajući mnoštvo
opcija u istorijskom čitanju. Na primer, kao što se vidi u
delima Muzeja detinjstva, Brede Beban, Andree Palašti, i
Selmana Trtovca, umetnici se usmeravaju na regionalnu
istoriju i kulturu, kroz sprovođenje kreativnih procesa
metodama rekonstrukciie ili simulacije da bi obezbedili
publici otvoren prostor za razmišljanje.
Prigušena egzistencija: savremena umetnost Srbije fokusira
se na najnovije umetničke pojave u Srbiji, predstavljajući
različite aspekte savremene umetnosti od 1990. godine
do danas. Istovremeno, ona takođe prikazuje kako, u
savremenom svetu, sa čestim međunarodnim razmenema
i većim slobodama, umetnici Srbije kombinuju lokalnu
kulturu i međunarodne trendove u rešavanju lokalnih
problema, razmišljajući o sebi, svojoj okolini, i vode
diskusije o svom okruženju, društvu, i istoriji na delikatan
i detaljan način.
Prigušena egzistencija zapravo opisuje stanje opstanka; ono
potiče od različitih faktora, uključujući istoriju, politiku,
kulturu i društveno okruženje, i utiče na savremenu
umetnost. Za razliku od Tajvana, koji je ostrvo okruženo
morima, teritorija Srbije se pretežno nalazi na Balkanskom
poluostrvu. Kao kontinentalna zemlja, okružena mnogim
susedima, Srbija se često nalazi u interakciji sa susednim
zemljama i različitim etničkim grupama; etnička raznolikost
je jedinstvena osobina srpske kulture, ali i uzrok mnogih
previranja. Od Prvog svetskog rata do kraja 20. veka,
brojni građanski ratovi i sukobi sa drugim zemljama, kao i
društvene i političke tranzicije, doprineli su kompleksnosti
srpskog kulturnog okruženja; faktori kao što su autoritarni
režim i vihor rata tokom devedesetih godina 20. veka
ponovo su uticali na opstanak Srbije i njenu kreativnu
sredinu. U to vreme, sa ograničenom međunarodnom
razmenom i umetničkom praksom, stanje prigušenosti se
nastavilo; razvoj savremene srpske umetnosti zavisio je od
toga kako se prema njoj odnosila domaća politika i lokalna
kultura, kao i od priznanja međunarodnih umetničkih
krugova. Kroz pomenutu prošlost i u sadašnjim uslovima,
sadržaji i status kvo savremene srpske umetnosti su se
akumulirali.
Drugo, ispitivanje društvenih odnosa i pojava. Društvo,
okruženje formirano radi opstanka, od strane čoveka, jedna
je od glavnih tema istraživanja i diskusije u oblasti savremene
umetnosti. Na ovoj izložbi svedoci smo široke diskusije
o ovoj vrsti tema, koje uključuju međusobne odnose koje
ljudi formiraju među grupama - u zemlji, društvu, religiji,
u porodici; umetnici izražavaju svoju zabrinutost zbog
različitih dešavanja i ideologija među zemaljama, kritikuju
socijalna pitanja i fenomene, posmatraju društvenu
zastupljenost i otuđenje među grupama, i ispituju lične
subjektivne identitete. U radovima Igora Antića, Gorana
Despotovskog, MP_arta, Zoran Todorovića, Jelene Jureše,
i Vesne Perunović, umetnici i umetničke grupe ispituju i
istražuju različite društvene dimenzije i prigušene odnose
među njima kroz sopstvene perspektive, pružajući publici
mogućnost da spozna gde leže pravi problemi.
31
Treće, razmišljanje o međusobnom uticaju ljudskog
opstanka i prirodnog okruženja. Sa razvojem moderne
tehnologije, postalo je sve teže održavati ravnotežu između
prirodnog i ljudskog okruženja. U poslednje vreme, uz
rastuću ekološku svest, ljudi su počeli da razmišljaju o šteti
koju civilizacija i razvoj nanose prirodi. Na primer, Stevan
Kojić usmerava svoju pažnju na suživot tehnologije, prirode,
pojedinca i životne sredine; umetnička grupa diStruktura
poredi i suprotstavlja urbani pejzaž i prirodno okruženje u
svom pokušaju da ponovo uspostavi veze između čoveka i
prirode.
razmišljaju o prošlim tugama kroz svoje teme, kao odgovor
na uticaje okoline na sebe i druge.
U svojim delima, umetnici pripovedaju o toj prigušenosti
kroz forme, koncepte, ili teme; i transformišu osećaj represije
kroz kreativni proces. U sličnim diskusijama o “povratku
potisnutog” Herberta Markuzea, on smatra da je “umetnost
opozicija,” i da ljudska “umetnička mašta” može biti izraz
prevazilaženja stvarnosti i eliminacije represje.1 Ova ideja
se ogleda u različitim kreativnim radovima o “granicama”
na ovoj izložbi, koji ispituju prevazilaženje ograničenja i
slobode, realnog i virtuelnog, umetničkog dela i stvarnog
života, veštačkog i prirodnog, muzike i zvuka. Ideja
prelaska granice nastaje zato što se mi nalazimo sa jedne
strane granice, i nesigurni smo, nezadovoljni, ili čežnemo za
begom iz trenutnog stanja; nadamo se da ćemo preći preko
postojeće granice radi ostvarenja našeg traganja za nečim
drugačijim nego što smo već, promenâ koje želimo, i mnogih
očekivanja i maštanja u vezi sa stvarima izvan te granice.
Ovo takođe podseća na društvene uslove koje je navela Sanja
Kojić Mladenov, jedan od kustosa, u svojoj kustoskoj izjavi;
zbog tog osećaja svođenja na preživljavanje kao posledice
ratova i politike, mnogi Srbi i umetnici Srbije su devedesetih
godina dvadesetog veka i emigrirali. Nacionalna granica, ta
linija u stvarnosti, predstavljala je barijeru za mnoge ljude
u to vreme: ostati? Ili poći i “preći” u druge zemlje? Ovde,
kroz kreativni proces, granica je eliminisana ili je pređena,
kao projekcija sopstvenih želja, što istovremeno oslobađa od
osećaja represije.
Konačno, razgovore o svakodnevnom životu i sopstvu,
i istraživanje mogućnosti prevazilaženja postojećih
koncepata. Društvo u kome živimo sadrži mnoge utvrđene
koncepte, navike i pravila koja koegzistiraju sa nama, iz dana
u dan. Umetnici, kroz blisku posmatranje svakodnevnog
života, preispituju detalje koje mi uzimamo zdravo za gotovo
ili ih često zanemarujemo, i predlažu različite stavove u
vezi sa ovim utvrđenim shvatanjima. Na primer, Nataša
Teofilović se bavi konverzijom i transcendencijom između
virtuelnog i realnog, tako što omogućava virtuelnom
svetu i publici da se vide i razgovaraju jedni sa drugima;
Dragan Ilić se fokusira na sondiranje odnosa manipulacije i
izmanipulisanosti između čoveka i njegovih alata i mašina;
Miloš Tomić uveličava trivijalne događaje i objekte u životu
i uključuje muziku u svojim delima, koristeći zvukove
i objekte za stvaranje melodije koji se lako pronalaze,
ne ograničavajući se postojećim načinima reprodukcije
muzike, da bi istražio nove mogućnosti u muzici.
Ova izložba sakuplja kreativna gledišta srpskih umetnika
različitih generacija da bi predstavila trenutni odraz društva
u Srbiji kroz raznovrsne kreativne forme. Lokalna istorija
i kulturni kontekst se pripoveda, rekonstruiše, ili prolazi
dalja tumačenja u ovim radovima, predstavljajući situacije
i spoznaje sa kojima se suočavaju oni koji žive u okruženju
“prigušene egzistencije” i savremene umetnosti. Iako su
u stanju prigušenosti, stvari koje umetnici pokušavaju da
izraze se u potpunosti ispoljavaju u njihovim radovima;
represija je transformisana u radove koji mogu jasnije
iskazati sve tenzije i implikacije, predstavljajući i deleći
ideje sa publikom različitog porekla. Možda se “prigušena
egzistencija” prikazana na ovoj izložbi može definisati i kao:
postojeća “prigušenost,” i u procesu kreiranja u okvirima
umetničkih dela, i u trenutku izlaganja, može biti postepeno
oslobođena.
Kroz ove teme, možemo grubo oceniti aspekte na koje se
srpska savremena umetnost fokusira. Umetnici žustro
diskutuju o područjima u kojima žive, uključujući njihovu
istoriju, kulturu, društvo, prirodno okruženje, i svakodnevni
život. Oni posmatraju, vide, i razmatraju različite društvene
predstave, institucije, i identitete, i postavljaju pitanja i
predlažu ideje kroz svoje umetničke kreacije. Možda je to
zato što je njihova okolina u periodu tranzicije, što podiže
svest o sopstvenoj društvenoj odgovornosti, tako da oni
podržavaju njen opstanak kroz aktivno angažovanje u
umetničkoj praksi. Kroz radove na ovoj izložbi, možemo
videti kako umetnici svojim delima prikazuju promene
u društvu u kome žive. Sa racionalnim, ali i osetljivim
stavom (neki uključuju i tugu i kritike), oni pripovedaju
o sećanju, istorijskom okviru, političkim previranjima,
međunarodnim odnosima i represiji vrednosti iz prošlosti,
kao i o teretima i pritiscima koji su rezultat napretka ljudske
civilizacije. Na ovoj izložbi, umetnici ili otkrivaju nelagodu
sputanosti i ograničenja kroz forme njihovih dela, ili
1 Herbert Marcuse, Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud,
Boston: Beacon Press, 1966.
32
藝術家 | Artists | Umetnici
33
伊果·安提奇
Igor Antić
量身訂作2013 →
裝置(206個火柴盒、火柴)
視場地而定
Made to measure (2013)
Instalation – 206 matchboxes and maches
variable
Pravljeno po meri (2013)
Instalacija – 206 kutija od šibica i šibice
Dimenzije promenljive
伊果·安提奇1962年生於諾維薩德,是一名法國和
塞爾維亞混血的視覺藝術家。他的作品曾在歐洲各地展
出,如漢斯、斯德哥爾摩、莫斯科、巴黎、米蘭、柏林等並
曾至加拿大魁北克和日本大阪參展。安提奇曾獲各種獎
項,包括1999年紐約帕洛克克雷斯諾基金會所頒發的獎
助金。
n
孤軍奮戰2005 - 2010 ↓
裝置(100張黑白相片)
視場地而定
Alone against the Elements (2005-2010)
Installation - set of 100 black & white
photographs
Variable
伊果·安提奇的作品探討經濟和政治對社會的影響力。
他以圖像和物件來打造各種格狀排列,在突顯社會和文
化脈絡的同時,也探索了藝術的生產過程和其實用性。
Sami naspram stihije (2005-2010)
Instalacija – 100 crno-belih fotografija
Dimenzije promenljive
Igor Antić, born in 1962, in Novi Sad, is a French-Serbian
visual artist. He has exhibited his work across Europe – in
Reims, Stockholm, Moscow, Paris, Milano, Québec, Berlin,
Osaka, etc. He has received several awards such as: The
Pollock-Krasner Foundation’s Grant, New York (1999).
n
The artworks of Igor Antić aim to explore and highlight
economic and political forces operating within a given place.
He creates images, objects and situations as physical “grids”
beyond which emerges the social and cultural context of the
chosen site. Through them, different questions linked to the
conditions of the art production and its use in general, are
raised.
n Igor Antić je francusko-srpski vizuelni umetnik, rođen
1962. u Novom Sadu. Izlagao je svoje radove u Remsu,
Stokholmu, Moskvi, Parizu, Milanu, Berlinu, Kvebeku,
Osaki itd. Dobitnik je nekoliko nagrada, među kojima je i
The Pollock-Krasner Foundation’s Grant u Njujorku (1999).
Dela Igora Antića istražuju ekonomske i političke sile koje
dejstvuju na određenom mestu. On stvara slike, predmete i
situacije kao vrstu „rešetke“ kroz koju se tumače društveni
i kulturni kontekst izabrane lokacije i ujedno postavljaju
pitanja o uslovima produkcije umetničkog dela i o njegovoj
upotrebi.
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35
Serija fotografija Sami naspram stihije inspirisana je
sinergologijom – metodom koja pokušava da dešifruje
kodove govora ljudskog tela. Ove fotografije istražuju
misteriozne relacije između političara i umetničkih dela.
Motivi fotografija su preuzeti iz medija i prikazuju svetske
lidere, njihovu gestikulaciju i poze u prisustvu umetničkih
dela. Fotografije su razvrstane u serije, po žanrovskoj
srodnosti. Tako razvrstane, one nude ključ za razumevanje
vlastite ideološke pozadine.
「肢體語言同步學」是〈孤軍奮戰〉系列照片的靈感
來源,也是解讀人類肢體語言密碼的一種方式。本系列
照片探討政治人物和藝術創作間的微妙關係,主題取材
自媒體對各國領袖的報導,呈現這些領袖的特定手勢和
儀態,並鼓勵觀者反思自身的意識形態。
n
n
為了製作〈嵌入#3〉,藝術家先將一張五百歐元的鈔票
放大複製後,做成一只旗子,並於2013年中將它帶到歐
洲最高的白朗峰拍照。照片和旗子成了藝術品和創作行
動的證據。
Instalacija Umetanja #3 sadrži novčanicu od 500 evra
uvećanu i reprodukovanu na platnu kao zastava. Ta zastava
je sredinom 2013. pobodena na najviši planinski vrh Evrope
– Monblan i fotografisana. Fotografija i zastava su artefakti,
dokazi o izvedenoj akciji.
〈量身訂作〉是根據數據原則來打造的裝置藝術。這些
標有各式國旗的小盒子彷彿是全球各國的縮影,每一支
火柴代表一百萬人口,居民有幾百萬人,盒子裡就有多少
支火柴。當它們成排並置,就構成了一個迷你的世界。有
些盒子擠滿了火柴,滿到像是快起火燃燒。
Napravljeno po meri je instalacija napravljena po statističkom
principu. Svaka šibica predstavlja milion stanovnika jedne
zemlje. U jednoj kutiji ima onoliko šibica koliko i miliona
stanovnika. Na kutijama se nalaze zastave svih zemalja sveta,
pa je celina reprezentacija sveta u minijaturi. Moglo bi se čak
govoriti o maketi monumentalnih razmera. Pojedine kutije
su prepune, do granice njihovih fizičkih mogućnosti… i do
rizika zapaljivosti.
The series of photographs Sami naspram stihije (Alone
Against the Elements) was inspired by synergology - a
method that attempts to decipher the codes of speech of
the human body. These photographs explore the mysterious
relationships between politicians and artworks. Motifs of the
photographs are taken from the media and present world
leaders, their gestures and postures in the presence of works
of art. The photographs are arranged in series, by genre
kinship. Thus arranged, they offer the key to understanding
our own ideological background.
n
The installation Umetanja #3 (Insertions #3) contains a 500
euro bill, enlarged and reproduced on canvas as a flag. In
mid-2013, this flag was placed on top of the highest peak of
Europe - Mont Blanc and photographed. The photograph,
as well as the flag, is an artefact, evidence of the performed
action.
嵌入#3 2013 →
裝置(相片、旗子)
視場地而定
Insertions #3 (2013)
installation - photography 60 x 90 cm and 1 flag
variable
Napravljeno po meri (Made To Measure) is an installation
created by statistical principle. Each matchstick represents a
million inhabitants of a country. There are as many matches
in a box as there are millions of inhabitants. The flags of all
the countries in the world are on the boxes, so the totality
represents the world in miniature. One could even talk about
a mock-up of monumental proportions. Some of the boxes
are packed, up to the limits of endurance... and come close to
the risk of flammability.
Umetanja #3 (2013)
Instalacija – fotografija 60x90cm i 1 zastava
Dimenzije promenljive
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37
布蕾達·貝班
Breda Beban
n 布蕾達·貝班身兼藝術家、電影工作者、策展人和製作
人。當代主體性和情感等概念,雖然在地理、政治和愛等
大框架下變得微不足道,但卻是她著重探討的主題。
貝班於1952年在前南斯拉夫的諾維薩德市出生,但先後
在馬其頓和克羅埃西亞度過童年。她曾在札格拉布的藝
術學院研習繪畫。貝班以畫家和表演者的身分展開藝術
生涯,但自從她在80年代和人生伴侶兼合作夥伴沃耶·霍
伐奇(Hrvoje Horvatić)相遇後,便也從事電影、錄像和
攝影創作。1991年前南斯拉夫戰爭爆發後,兩人決定一起
流亡。他們四處漂泊,最後落腳倫敦,直到1997年霍伐奇
不幸過世前,都還持續共同創作。貝班除獨力創作外,有
時也和其他藝術家或電影工作者合作,其作品曾在歐洲和
美國各大美術館及當代藝廊展出。
貝班曾住過倫敦和雪菲爾,並擔任雪菲爾哈倫大學的媒
體藝術教授。她在2012年過世,身後留下許多未完成的創
作計畫。
n Breda Beban was an artist, filmmaker and curator/creative
producer whose work deals with contemporary notions of
subjectivity and emotion that occur on the margins of big
stories about geography, politics and love. Breda Beban’s films
and photographs are recognized as unique expressions of
intimacy, vulnerability and authenticity.
Born in Novi Sad, ex-Yugoslavia in 1952, Breda Beban was
raised in Macedonia and Croatia. She studied painting at
the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb. Starting her career as
a painter and performance artist, she began to work with
film, video, and photography after meeting her partner and
collaborator Hrvoje
Horvatid in the mid-eighties. Exiled together in 1991 after
outbreak of the war in former Yugoslavia, they travelled from
place to place before eventually settling in London, where
they continued their collaboration until Horvatid’s untimely
death in 1997. Working independently and/or in collaboration
with other artists or filmmaker, she has fashioned a range of
productions that have been exhibited at major museums of
contemporary art in Europe and the U.S.
Breda Beban lived in London and Sheffield, where she was
Professor of Media Arts at Sheffield Hallam University. She
passed away in 2012, leaving various projects uncompleted.
Arte Vivo, 2008-2011.
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39
Breda Beban je bila umetnica, rediteljka i kustoskinja /
kreativni producent, čiji se rad bavio savremenim pojmovima
subjektivnosti i emocija koje se javljaju na marginama velikih
priča o geografiji, politici i ljubavi. Filmovi i fotografije Brede
Beban priznati su kao jedinstveni izrazi intimnosti, ranjivosti
i autentičnosti.
n
死亡奇蹟
Miracle of Death (2000)
Čudo smrti (2000)
Rođena u Novom Sadu, u bivšoj Jugoslaviji, 1952.godine,
Breda Beban je odrastala u Makedoniji i Hrvatskoj. Studirala
je slikarstvo na Akademiji likovnih umetnosti u Zagrebu.
Počela je svoju karijeru kao slikar i performans umetnik, a
zatim je nastavila da radi na filmu, videu i fotografiji nakon
što je upoznala svog budućeg partnera i saradnika Hrvoja
Horvatića sredinom osamdesetih. Zajedno su emigrirali
1991. godine nakon izbijanja rata u bivšoj Jugoslaviji, putovali
su od mesta do mesta pre no što su se konačno nastanili
u Londonu, gde su nastavili saradnju sve do Horvatićeve
prerane smrti 1997. godine. Radeći nezavisno i/ili u saradnji
sa drugim umetnicima ili rediteljima, izvela je niz produkcija
koje su izložene u velikim muzejima savremene umetnosti u
Evropi i SAD.
Breda Beban je živela u Londonu i Šefildu, gde je bila profesor
Umetnosti medija na Šefild Halam Univerzitetu. Preminula
je 2012. godine, ostavljajući za sobom razne nedovršene
projekte.
在〈漫步椅端〉中,布蕾達·貝班乘著小筏,在貝爾格
勒的多瑙河中漂流,有些人認為這裡就是巴爾幹的終點
和歐洲的起點。河的一岸是工業地景,另一岸樹林蓊鬱,
木屋林立。影片標題源自巴爾幹的一個異教儀典,貝班
的祖父就曾在賭博贏錢後進行了該儀式。在不斷變動的
背景畫面中,貝班舞動肢體,一方面傳達詭異而歡慶的
氣息,一方面也表達了「複雜的愉悅感,一種因哀傷而生
的喜悅」。甜蜜和酸楚的概念,在貝班的戀愛歌曲中縈繞
不散,她一面前進一面唱著:
「不懂得如何受苦的人,哪
懂得如何去愛。」
n
古查最美麗的女人
The most beautiful Woman in Gucha (2006)
Najlepša žena u Guči (2006)
n
Walk of Three Chairs shows Breda Beban floating on a
raft between two banks of the Danube in Belgrade, believed
by some to be the point at which the Balkans end and Europe
begins. One bank reveals an industrial landscape whilst trees
and wooden dachas populate the other. The movie takes its
title from a traditional Balkan pagan ritual, one that the
artist recalls her grandfather performing after winning at
gambling. The precarious yet celebratory act performed by
Beban against the shifting backdrop, is for her an expression
of ‘a complex kind of joy, joy informed by sadness’. This
idea of bitter sweet is encapsulated in the love song Beban
attempts to sing as she travels: Who Doesn’t Know How to
Suffer Doesn’t Know How to Love.
Walk of Three Chairs (Šetnja od tri stolice) prikazuje
Bredu Beban kako pluta na splavu između dve obale Dunava
u Beogradu, za koje se veruje da su tačka na kojoj Balkan
završava a Evropa počinje. Jedna obala otkriva industrijski
pejzaž, dok stabla i vikendice od drveta prekrivaju drugu
obalu. Film je dobio naziv po tradicionalnom balkanskom
paganskom običaju koga se umetnica seća kako ga je njen
deda izveo posle pobede na kocki. Neizvestan, ali slavljenički
čin koji Breda Beban izvodi naspram promenljivog pejzaža
za nju predstavlja izraz „složene vrste radosti, radosti koja
se meša sa tugom“. Ta ideja o slatko-gorkom sažeta je u
ljubavnoj pesmi koju Breda Beban pokušava da peva dok
putuje: Ko ne zna da pati, on ne zna da voli.
n
40
漫步椅端2003
錄像電影 10 分鐘
Walk of Three Chairs (2003)
movie for gallery staging , 10-minute
segment looped
製片& 導演:布蕾達·貝班
攝影:羅比·穆勒
剪輯:史蒂夫·史龐
音效:德揚·佩由維奇
音樂:巴爾幹傳統音樂
「不懂如何受苦的人,哪懂得如何去愛」
演員:Jova樂團、布蕾達·貝班 影片拍攝
於塞爾維亞貝爾格勒
彩色
製作:電影與錄像傘
出資:英格蘭藝術協會
版本:3 + 2 a.p. 藝術家私人和Kalfayan
藝廊(雅典–塞薩洛尼基)收藏
Production & Direction: Breda Beban
Photography: Robby Muller
Editing: Steve Sprung
Sound: Dejan Pejovic
Music: traditional Balkan song ‘Who
Doesn’t Know How To Suffer Doesn’t
Know How to Love’
Cast: ‘Jova’ band, Breda Beban
Filmed on location in Belgrade, Serbia
Colour
Commissioned by: Film & Video
Umbrella
Funding: The Arts Council of England
Editions: 3 + 2 a.p.
*Courtesy of the artist's estate and
Kalfayan Galleries (Athens-Thessaloniki)
41
Šetnja od tri stolice (2003)
film za galerijsko izlaganje, 10’
Proizvodnja i režija: Breda Beban
Fotografija: Robi Miler
Montaža: Stiv Sprang
Zvuk: Dejan Pejović
Muzika: tradicionalna balkanska pesma
„Ko ne zna da pati, on ne zna da voli”
Uloge: „Jova“ bend, Beba Bredan
Snimano na lokaciji u Beogradu, Srbiji
U boji
Preporučena veličina projekcije:
400 x 225cm, minimum
Ponavljanje 10-minutnog segmenta
Naručilac: Film & Video Umbrella
Finansiranje: Umetnički savet Engleske
Edicije: 3 + 2 a.p.
*Ustupljeno ljubaznošću zaostavštine
umetnika i Kalfajan Galerija (Atina-Solun)
葛蘭·戴斯波圖斯基
Goran Despotovski
葛蘭·戴斯波圖斯基生於1972年。他在1999年以繪
畫主修完成大學學位,並在2003年取得諾維薩德藝術學
院的碩士學位。戴斯波圖斯基在海內外舉辦過30多場個
展,參與多場聯展和藝術計畫,並曾多次獲得獎項。2004
年起,他回到諾維薩德藝術學院的繪畫系擔任助理教授,
並主持該校的「差異與繪畫」計畫。
n
n 〈外套〉呈現一系列姿態各異的外套,它們看起來就像
是戲劇化的空殼,一方面引導觀者想像其底下的身軀,
另一方面暗示人體的缺席。幾件外套凍結在各自的動作
裡,象徵社會和個人之間的角力。空殼底下那名看不見
的裸身男子反映了現代人在社會中的處境,不僅生存中
遭到根本忽視,獨特性也不復存在。動作各異的外套可
看作是有限空間中抽象的運動表現,並象徵著在遺棄和
失落間游移的生死曖昧狀態。
Born in 1972. He graduated in painting in 1999, and
completed his Master’s degree in 2003 at the Academy of Arts
in Novi Sad. He had more than thirty solo exhibitions, as well
as group exhibitions and projects, both in Serbia and abroad.
He received several awards. Since 2004 he has been employed
at the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad, Department of Painting,
in the capacity of Assistant Professor (2009). He is the author
of the projects Differences and Painting at the Academy of
Arts, Novi Sad.
n
〈選擇〉中的人偶沒有臉,穿著再普通不過的衣服,失去
了各自的身分、個性和特色。他們手邊的事似乎被別人
打斷了,於是陷入困惑又瘋狂的當機狀態中。本作品表
達了一種「悲劇性疏離」的視覺和空間敘事,並在可見
的、實質的、與人相關的場域中,透過生命的空缺來強
化這種疏離感。面對全球化的威脅和日漸扭曲的價值體
系,藝術家提出了「共存」的核心概念,邀請觀者和這些
充滿象徵性的人偶對話,以提高作品的完成度。觀者也
許會認同這些人偶的狀態,也或許會反思本身在社會中
的位置。但其實人偶們所發出的聲音,就是一般大眾在
誤解他人、或是心不在焉時的想法。這些缺乏真實人體
支撐的形體,實際上源自於我們所生活的時代。它們就
像是潮流和命運底下的幽魂,反映出社會對個人生命的
影響。
n Rođen je 1972. Diplomirao je slikarstvo 1999. godine na
Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu. Postdiplomske studije
je završio 2003. godine na istoj akademiji. Izlagao je na
trideset osam samostalnih i više kolektivnih izložbi u zemlji
i inostranstvu. Više puta je nagrađivan. Autor je projekata
Razlike, Slika i Knjiga Akademije umetnosti u Novom Sadu.
Od 2004. godine zaposlen je na Akademiji umetnosti u
Novom Sadu, a od 2009. godine radi kao docent na Katedri
za slikarstvo.
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外套2013 ↑
相片裝置
視場地而定
The work Coat presents a sequence of photographs of
coats in various positions. Coats, shown in their entirety,
form dramatic bodiless shapes which suggest the presence
or absence of a human body. These sequences of coats, frozen
in motion, depict various forms of tension caused by the
attitude of society towards the individual. The patchwork
coat is shown in a state of physical floating, suggesting spent
faded images. These forms depict the naked man i.e. aspects
the individual’s life, due to social influences, therefore the
existing state of the discarded speaks of an elementary
abandonment and the loss of individuality. The displayed
shapes of coats in different amorphous scenes, express
metaphysical movement within space itself. A piece of
clothing symbolizes a state between life and death in a space
that levitates between the abandoned and the lost.
n
Coat (2013)
Foto installation
variable
Sako (2013)
Foto instalacija
Dimenzije promenljive
the non-presence of life in the field of the visible, physical
and human. The criteria of coexistence are deeply rooted
in this work, as there is a need to incite dialogue and create
opportunities for the observer to complete them. Peoplefigures-dolls should allegorically and symbolically urge the
viewer to identify with them and examine one’s own place
in society that is in permanent crisis on a global scale, and
whose values are often distorted. The sound consists of the
sequences of daily thoughts which constantly exhibit the
moment of dominant misunderstanding and wandering.
These revived bodiless forms, derived from the times in
which we lived in, present the ghosts of generational trends
and destinies, showing the naked man or aspects of an
individual’s life in the midst of social influences.
The work Selection presents the depicted group of people
in a crowd. Dolls without faces, dressed in everyday
men’s clothing, halted in a confused and demented state
of a disrupted action and act. These are figures of people
who no longer have an identity, a specific persona and a
singular character. Selection expresses the visual and spatial
dramaturgy of “tragic alienation” which is reinforced by
43
我們老是盯著對方看
我們很累,我們站著等待
我們不停看著彼此
我們慢慢開口說話
我們說話,他們卻不肯聽
就算他們聽,也不會理解
我們不敢抬頭望
我們在尋找一個友善的臉龐
我們在人群裡遊蕩
幾百個可悲的人偶
We constantly watch each other
We are tired, we stand and wait
We’ve been watching each other
We are slowly starting to speak
If we speak, they don’t listen
If they listen, they don’t understand
We do not dare to look up
We search for a friendly face
We wander among people
Hundreds of miserable dolls
Stalno gledamo jedni druge
Umorni smo, stojimo i čekamo
Gledali smo jedni druge
Polako počinjemo da govorimo
Ako govorimo, ne slušaju
Ako slušaju, ne razumeju
Ne usuđujemo se da podignemo pogled
Tražimo prijateljsko lice
Lutamo među ljudima
Stotine jadnih lutaka
zaustavljene u konfuznom i dementnom stanju u prekinutoj
radnji i činu. To su figure ljudi koji više nemaju identitet,
specifičan lik i singularni karakter. Rad Selekcija izražava
vizuelnu i prostornu dramaturgiju „tragične otuđenosti“ koja
se pojačava neprisutnošću života u polju vidljivog, telesnog i
ljudskog. U radu su ukorenjeni kriterijumi koegzistencije, pri
čemu pоstојi potreba za podsticanjem dijaloga i stvaranjem
mogućnosti da ih posmatrač upotpuni. Ljudi-figure-lutke
trеbа dа alegorijski i simbolički nagone gledaoca da se s
njima identifikuje i preispita sopstveno mesto u društvu, koje
je u permanentnoj krizi na globalnom planu i čije vrednosti
su često izopačene. Zvuk čine sekvence svakodnevnih misli
i u njemu se konstantno iskazuje momenat dominantnog
nesporazuma i lutanja. Te oživlјene bestelesne forme,
proizašle iz vremena u kom smo živeli, predstavlјaju utvare
generacijskih i sudbinskih tokova života, prikazujući
ogolјenog čoveka, odnosno aspekte života individue usled
društvenih uticaja.
Rad Coat (Sako) predstavlja sekvence snimaka sakoa
u raznim položajima. Sakoi, prikazani u celini, oblikuju
dramatičnu vantelesnu formu koja sugeriše na prisutnost
ili odsutnost ljudskog tela. Te sekvence sakoa, zaustavljene
u pokretu, prikazuju različite oblike napetosti izazvane
odnosom društva prema pojedincu. Krpаrа sаkо prikаzаnа
je u stаnju prostornog plutаnjа sugerišući na potrošene
izbledele predstave. Te forme prikazuju ogoljenog čoveka,
odnosno aspekte života individue, usled društvenih uticaja.
Stoga zatečeno stanje ostavljenog govori o elementarnoj
napuštenosti i gubitku individualnosti. Unesene forme
sakoa u različitim amorfnim scenama iskazuju metafizičko
kretanje unutar samog prostora. Odеvni prеdmеt simbolizuje
stаnjе izmеđu živоtа i smrti u prоstоru koji lеvitirа izmеđu
оdbаčеnоg i izgublјеnоg.
n
Rad Selection (Selekcija), predstavlja grupu ljudi u masi.
Lutke bez lica, obučene u svakodnevnu mušku odeću,
44
選擇2013
裝置(縫製人偶、服裝、布料)
視場地而定
Selection (2013)
Installation (sewn dolls, clothing, fabric)
Variable
Selekcija (2013)
Instalacija (šivene lutke, odela, tkanina)
Dimenzije promenljive
45
diStruktura
米莉查·米利伽維奇和米蘭·波士尼奇都是塞爾維亞
貝爾格勒市藝術大學美術所繪畫系的碩士畢業生。儘管
兩人的創作重心不同,也分別辦過多場個展,他們在八年
前組成了雙人小組,協力完成許多藝術計畫。他們使用各
種媒介來表達想法,但以攝影、繪畫、素描和錄像居多。
他們目前定居貝爾格勒。
n
面對面
( 持續創作中 )
輸出、複合鋁板
(80x120cm) x12件
Face to Face (in progress)
Print installed on dibond
(80x120cm) x12 pieces
Face to Face
Print montiran na alubond
(80x120cm) x12 komada
兩名藝術家在歐洲各地辦過15場個展,並參與了30餘場
的聯展,地點包括盧森堡(2013)、維也納和布拉提斯拉
瓦(2012)、布拉格(2012)、布加勒斯特(2010)、貝爾
格勒(2009)、荷恩(2008)、聖愛廷尼(2008)和格拉茲
(2007) )。
n Milica Milićević and Milan Bosnić - both graduated and
completed an MA at the Department of Painting, Faculty of
Fine Arts, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia. Although
in diverse individual artistic ventures in group and solo
exhibitions, they have been working on joint projects for the
past eight years, under name diSTRUKTURA. Their ideas are
expressed in different media, mostly photography, painting,
drawing and video. They live and work in Belgrade.
藝術家企圖打造一個開闊的自然視野,就像是都市
裡的星空那樣地超脫、類擬或甚至充滿合成,希望能藉
此為各種或真實或虛幻的關係來下定義。這些關係構成
了當代生活的現實,藝術則在此發揮重大功能,不但發
掘了人類的進化歷程,也為其寫下不帶任何功利色彩的
紀錄。
n
diSTRUKTURA took part in over 15 individual and more that
30 group exhibitions across Europe - in Luxembourg (2013), in
Vienna and Bratislava (2012), Prague (2012), Bucharest (2010),
Belgrade (2009), in Hoorn (Netherlands) (2008), Saint Etienne
(2008), Graz (2007), etc.
觀眾初看〈面對面〉時,也許會感到浪漫無比,但很快就
會發現這其實是後工業時代的荒蕪地景。這是藝術家對
觀者提出的挑戰,也是社會/心理生態學的一個實例。
目前這項計畫仍在進行中,兩人每到一處便會利用各種
媒材來創作,但主要是以攝影為主。
Milica Milićević i Milan Bosnić su diplomirali i
magistrirali na Fakultetu likovnih umetnosti u Beogradu,
na Odseku za slikarstvo. Od 2005. rade na zajedničkim
projektima kao umetnički par pod nazivom diSTRUKTURA.
Mediji u kojima rade su uglavnom fotografija, slika, crtež i
video. Žive i rade u Beogradu.
n
透過〈面對面〉,藝術家邀請觀者一同來反思都市地景在
當代的意義,並提出全新的隱喻來強調生理、科技和社
會的複雜性,同時更為大自然提出寬廣的定義,從而剖
析生活中的片刻真實。
diSTRUKTURA je uzela učešća na preko 15 individualnih
i više od 30 grupnih izložbi širom Evrope - u Luxemburgu
(2013), u Beču i Bratislavi (2012), TINA B festival u Pragu
(2012), u Bukureštu (2010), Beogradu (2009), u Hoornu
(Holandija) (2008), Sent Etjenu (Saint Etienne) (2008), Gracu
(2007), itd.
46
47
In their efforts they are trying to build on an extended
view of Nature - as sublime, pseudo, or synthetic nature
in urban constellations - aiming to define the various
relationships, both real and virtual, that create the realities
of modern-day life in which art has a significant function
of pointing towards and defining, without any utilitarian
means, the evolving drama around us.
n
The series of photographs Face to Face literally replicates the
romanticized topography of the spectator who is directly
confronted with the sublime and amazing scenes of a postindustrial landscape and is, in fact, an example of a new
Social and Mental Ecology. It is a work in progress project
that they intend to carry out in every place they visit, and
it is comprised of works in different media, but mostly
photographic works. This is how the motifs of landscapes
and cities all over the world became the object of their
isolated contemplation, inviting the observer to join that
contemplation.
Artists are proposing new metaphors that would reflect the
complexities of biological, technical and social being and
form a new, modern and wider idea of Nature which reflects
on the actual moment and modern day life.
n Razmatrajući proširene pojmove prirode danas, bilo da se
radi o prirodi, pseudoprirodi ili sintetički stvorenoj prirodi,
odnosno urbanim konstelacijama, diSTRUKTURA u svojim
radovima pokušava da definiše odnose u novoformiranim
strukturama koje tvore realnost savremenog života u kojem
umetnost ima značajnu ulogu u ukazivanju i definisanju
narastajuće drame oko nas.
Ciklus fotografija Face to Face doslovno replicira
romantičarsku topografiju posmatrača neposredno
konfrontiranog sa uzvišenim i zadivljujućim prizorima
jednog postindustrijskog predela i primer je jedne nove
socijalne i mentalne ekologije. To je rad u nastajanju (work
in progress project) koji se izvodi na svakom mestu koje
posete i sastoji se od radova u različitim medijima, mada
je najzastupljeniji medij fotografije. Tako su motivi pejsaža
i gradova širom sveta postali objekt njihove izolovane
kontemplacije pozivajući i posmatrača da se toj kontemplaciji
pridruži.
Umetnici predlažu nove metafore koje uzimaju u obzir
kompleksne aspekte prirodnog, biološkog, tehnološkog i
socijalnog bića i grade novu, modernu i širu ideju Prirode
koja odgovara trenutnom, savremenom životu.
48
49
德拉甘·伊利奇
Dragan Ilić
德拉甘·伊利奇1948年生於貝爾格勒,是一名塞爾維
亞、澳洲和美國混血的藝術家,現居紐約和貝爾格勒。
n
伊利奇曾在澳洲坎培拉國立大學藝術學院就讀,並取得
藝術創作學士學位。他曾在1974-75年參加知名製作人多
維賽蒙斯(Dov S-S Simens)舉辦的電影製作課程,並
於1986年在紐約千禧電影實驗室進修。
伊利奇曾辦過多次個展,地點包括塞爾維亞的貝爾格
勒、美國紐約、日本東京、德國科隆、荷蘭阿姆斯特丹、
比利時布魯塞爾、法國巴黎以及澳洲墨爾本、雪梨和坎
培拉等。
機器人行動#10 2013 →
錄像裝置、輸出 2分鐘
prints 100x70cm x 4件
Born in Belgrade, 1948. Serbian-Australian-American
artist, living and working in New York and Belgrade.
Robo Akcija #10 (2013)
video instalacija 2’
printovi (100x70cm) x 4 komada
Robo Action #10 (2013)
video installation 2’
prints 100x70cm x 4 pieces
n
Education: ANU (Australian National University) School of
Art Canberra, BFA, 1974-75. Dov S-S Simens’ Film Program,
Millenium Film Lab, New York, 1986. He had many solo
exibitions, such as exhibitions in Belgrade (Serbia), New
York (NY), Tokyo (Japan), Koln (Germany), Amsterdam
(Netherland), Brussels (Belgium), Paris (France), Melbourne
(Australia), Sydney (Australia), Canberra (Australia), etc.
n 我對人類和機器的互動過程感到著迷,這也是我作品
中的主題,著重於藝術創作時所使用的工具。我完成了
無數個裝置,進行了多場演出,利用自己的身體來和量身
訂做的繪畫裝置互動。這些裝置是把石墨、彩色鉛筆、
粉彩筆或刷子筆直地綁在一起,數量介於兩百到五百枝
之間。這種作品是藝術家的身體、繪畫工具和參與的觀
眾共同生產出來的。它們代表著一種活動、一種經驗,並
充滿了能量、聲響和影像。我作品中的關鍵,或說起點,
就是一種概念分析,一種解構/重建繪畫的過程,這種
繪畫就像是對身體和機械活動的銘刻,不管是在紙上或
其他素材亦然,同時更開啟了溝通的空間,有助於特定
藝術概念的實踐。
Rođen u Beogradu, 1948. godine. Srpsko-australijskoamerički umetnik, živi i radi u Njujorku i Beogradu.
Obrazovanje: ANU (Australijski nacionalni univerzitet),
Škola umetnosti u Kanberi, BFA, 1974-75., Filmski program
Dov S-S Simensa, Milenijum filmska laboratorija, Njujork,
1986.
n
Održao je veliki broj samostalnih izložbi, kao što su izložbe
u Beogradu (Srbija), Njujorku (SAD), Tokiju (Japan), Kelnu
(Nemačka), Amsterdamu (Holandija), Briselu (Belgija),
Parizu (Francuska), Melburnu (Australija ), Sidneju
(Australija), Kanberi (Australija), itd.
物理和數學是我作品的基礎。我利用手動和機械的裝
置,透過自己的雙眼和耳朵,來探索科技力量和人類意
志與直覺的合作可能。我想透過藝術來思考人類與當今
的工具、未來的機器之間類人工智慧的關係。
50
51
Physics and mathematics inform my work. I explore in
visual and aural terms the power of technology - manual and
robotic – in collaboration with human volition and intuition.
My work considers the threshold between our quasi-android
relationship with tools today and the robotics of tomorrow.
Proces stvaranja koji proizilazi iz ljudske interakcije sa
mašinama me fascinira. To je vodeća tema mog rada. Veći
deo moje prakse fokusiran je na alate umetničke produkcije.
Autor sam brojnih instalacija i performansa u kojima sam, sa
svojim celim telom, pokretao pojedinačno izrađene uređaje
za crtanje koje sam sâm proizveo. Moji uređaji se sastoje
od kompleta grafitnih ili olovaka u boji, pastela, ili četki
stegnutih u gomilu, u pravoj paralelnoj liniji, od dve do pet
stotina komada. Radovi nastali usled spajanja tela umetnika,
alata i publike koja učestvuje, proizvodi događaj, doživljaj
energije, zvuka i slike. Ključ ili polazna tačka u mom radu
je konceptualna analiza i de/rekonstrukcija procesa crtanja
kao traga telesnih i mašinskih aktivnosti na papiru i drugim
materijalima za crtanje, i otvaranje prostora za komunikaciju
ideja ili realizaciju konkretnih umetničkih namera.
n
n The process of creation that comes from human interaction
with machines fascinates me. It is the primary theme in
my work. Much of my practice focuses around the tools of
artistic production. I have created numerous installations
and performances wherein, with my entire body, I set in
motion individually-fabricated drawing devices that I have
produced. My devices are comprised of sets of graphite or
colored pencils, pastels, or brushes that are clamped together
in a straight, parallel line of two to five hundred pieces. The
works created through the convergence of the artist’s body,
tools, and participating audiences, produces an event, an
experience of energy, sound, and imagery.” The key or the
starting point in my work is conceptual analysis and de/
reconstruction of the process of drawing as inscription of
bodily and machine-based activities on paper and other
drawing materials and opening the space for communication
of ideas or realization of specific artistic intentions.
Fizika i matematika informišu moj rad. Istražujem u
vizuelnom i auralnom smislu moć tehnologije – i ručne i
robotike - u saradnji sa ljudskom voljom i intuicijom. Moj
rad proučava prelaz između našeg kvazi-androidnog odnosa
sa alatima danas i robotike sutrašnjice.
52
53
伊蓮娜·尤雷莎
Jelena Jureša
伊蓮娜·尤雷莎1974年生於塞爾維亞的諾維薩德,是
一名以攝影和錄像為創作主軸的視覺藝術家。她嘗試各
種影像再現的可能,並深入解析被拍攝的主題,以及影
像中可述或不可述的訊息,來探討觀者和被觀者之間的
關係。不論是攝影、錄像或影音裝置,她都是以靜態影
像來做為創作基礎。尤雷莎擁有敏銳的藝術視野,這使
得她能細膩地探究性別、身分、記憶和歷史等主題。
n
Jelena Jureša (1974, Novi Sad, Serbia) is a visual artist
working primarily with photography and video. Her visual
research is based on testing the representational limits of the
“image”: the focus of her work is the portrait through which
she explores the relationship between the observer and the
observed via the given possibility of understanding the
portrayed subject and the problematized issue of what the
“image” does or does not convey. The photographic image
is the starting point of her creative consideration of the
portrait, irrespective of the medium – photography, video or
an audio-visual installation. Her artistic sensitivity directs
the focus of her artistic concept towards the issues of gender
and/or cultural identity, memory and history.
n
米拉,肖像的研讀2010-2013 →
錄像裝置
HD影像 x2,彩色,有聲,各42分鐘
Mira, Study for a Portrait (2010-2013)
Video installation, consists of two
videos: HD Video, colour, sound, 42 min
(each)
Mira, skica za portret (2010-2013)
Video instalacija, obuhvata 2 video
zapisa: HD Video, u boji, zvuk, 42’
(svaki)
〈米拉,肖像的研讀〉以「空缺」做為主題,在肖像的
形式下探討記憶的脆弱,以及攝影媒材和人類感知的關
係。透過這個長期、多面向的計畫,藝術家探究了國家、
家庭和女性的歷史。本作品包括一個錄像裝置、一批照
片、12張版畫和一本書。
n
Jelena Jureša (1974, Novi Sad, Srbija) je vizuelna
umetnica koja se izražava u mediju fotografije i videa.
Njeno vizuelno istraživanje oslonjeno je na propitivanje
reprezentacijskih granica „slike“: njen fokus je portret kroz
koji istražuje odnos između posmatrača i posmatranog kroz
ponuđenu mogućnost razumevanja portretisanog subjekta
i problematizovanja pitanja šta „slika“ predstavlja, a šta ne.
Fotografska slika je polazište njenog kreativnog promišljanja
portreta, bilo da je reč o medijumu fotografije, videa ili
audio-video instalacije. Njen umetnički senzibilitet određuje
fokus njenog umetničkog koncepta prema pitanjima rodnog,
odnosno kulturnog identiteta, sećanja i istorije.
n
本作品片長約為一小時,它為觀者提出一種全新的視
野,藉以剖析靜態照片和動態影像。影片中的空間經過
編碼,成為記錄或抹除意義的媒介。雖然作品前半部是
以客觀角度來呈現歷史事件,卻仍適切地回應了作者後
續對個人生命史的陳述。本作品也透過敘事者的私密獨
白,婉轉地對女性的各種角色提出質疑,比如母親、妻
子、女兒等等。
54
55
n Mira, Study for a Portrait is a work on absence which uses
the form of the portrait to explore the fragility of memory as
well as the relationship between the photographic medium
and perception. It is a long-term and multi-layered project
in which the artist dealt with the history of one country, one
family and one woman. It comprises of a video installation,
set of photographs, 12 lithographs and the book.
n Mira, skica za portret je rad o nedostajanju koji kroz formu
portreta istražuje krhkost sećanja, kao i odnos fotografskog
medijuma i percepcije. To je višegodišnji projekat, u kom se
kroz nekoliko medija umetnica bavila istorijom jedne zemlje,
jedne porodice i jedne žene. Sastoji se od video instalacije,
fotografija, 12 litografija i knjige.
Kroz dva četrdesetominutna videa, posmatrač ima priliku
za novim čitanjem fotografske i pokretne slike, šifrirajući
mesto kao medijsku odrednicu u koju se upisuju i brišu
različita značenja. Iako prvi deo rada čini istorijsko vreme
sa svojim objektivnim delovanjem, baziranim na poznatim
događajima, oni se lome kroz lične istorije koje umetnica
stavlja u prvi plan. U isto vreme, indirektno, kroz intiman
monolog naratora, rad propituje različite ženske uloge:
majke, supruge, deteta.
Through a more than an hour long video, the viewer is
given a new way to read the photographic and moving
image, encrypting the place as a medium for recording
and erasing new meanings. Although the first part of the
work is historical time with its objective duration, based on
well known historical events, these are refracted through a
personal history which Jureša puts in the foreground. At the
same time, indirectly, in the form of the narrator’s intimate
monologue, the work questions the theme of various female
roles: mother, wife, child.
56
57
史帝芬·克吉克
Stevan Kojić
n 史帝芬·克吉克1973年生於基京達。他在貝爾格勒取
得雕塑學士和碩士學位,目前在諾維薩德藝術學院的新
媒體藝術系擔任副教授,同時也在特雷比涅藝術學院授
課。他透過類比/數位、生物/科技、生態/經濟、低科技/
高科技、開放/封閉系統、時間/空間、虛擬/真實等,來探
討藝術、社會、科學和科技間的關係。
n 最近這幾年,我在「自我維生的荒謬系統」實驗室
裡,探索了個人、社會、科技、自然之間的關係。這個實
驗室由幾個互相依賴的「生物科技裝置」所組成,一開
始只是簡單的結構體(不過連結的方式很特殊),當中的
植物和電子裝置可以互動,但彼此不帶有利害關係。隨
著時間過去,這些結構體被我擴建了數倍之多,彼此的
關係也更加複雜。這些裝置就像是有機生命體般,以生
存及維持生命為目的(如擴散於空間中的病毒)。很有趣
的一點是,我在家裡初步測試這些結構體時,往往是使
用手邊現有的植物或工具。在我使用私人物品製作本裝
置的基礎架構時,它們就成了實驗素材;等到這些裝置
蔓生成另類的「棲息地」以後,這些素材卻又變回了個人
物品。由於後續置入的元素和展覽主題有變動,最初的
作品名稱已替換成現在的標題,但核心概念仍在。
Stevan Kojić (1973, Kikinda) completed his BA and
MA at the Department of Sculpture, Faculty of Fine Arts in
Belgrade. He is an Associate Professor at the Department of
New Art Media at the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad and the
Academy of Fine Arts in Trebinje.
n
His main interest is research of the relationship between art,
society, science and technology through the analog/digital,
biology/technology, ecology/economy, low-tech/hi-tech,
open/closed systems, time/space, virtual/realistic, etc.
在日常環境、電子廢棄物和有機生命體的交融下,我創
造出了這種另類的棲息地,它本身充滿了擴展和進化的
可能。
n Stevan Kojić (1973, Kikinda) je diplomirao i magistrirao
na vajarskom odseku Fakulteta likovnih umetnosti u
Beogradu. Vanredni je profesor na katedri za Nove likovne
medije Akademije umetnosti u Novom Sadu i na Akademiji
likovnih umjetnosti u Trebinju. Izlagao je u: Japanu,
Južnoj Koreji, Kanadi, Nemačkoj, Austriji, Francuskoj,
Švajcarskoj,Rumuniji, Sloveniji, Hrvatskoj i Srbiji.
n In recent years, I have explored the relationships
between individuals-society-technology-nature within the
laboratory Samoodrživi sistemi apsurda (Self-Sustaining
Systems of Absurdity), which has been composed of several
interconnected and interdependent “bio-technology”
segments. These were initially simple structures (linked in
unusual ways) in which plants influenced the electronics and
vice versa, without any particular, utilitarian purpose. Over
time, these structures have multiplied and their relationships
became more complicated, but the result was always utterly
useless. Like a living organism whose sole purpose is its very
Njegova osnovna interesovanja se kreću u polju istraživanja
relacija između umetnosti, društva, nauke i tehnologije kroz
odnose: analogno/digitalno, biologija/tehnologija, ekologija/
ekonomija, low-tech/hi-tech, otvoreni/zatvoreni sistemi,
vreme/prostor, virtualno/realno i dr.
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自我維生的荒謬系統 2014 ↓
多媒體裝置
視場地而定
Self-sustaining Systems of the Absurdity (2014)
Multimedium Installation
variable
Samoodrživi sistemi apsurda (2014)
Multimedijalna instalacija
Dimenzije promenljive
existence and maintenance of life (like a virus spreading
through space). It is perhaps interesting to note that I have
tested and connected all of these structures at home, often
using parts (technology and plants) that I am otherwise
surrounded by. Thus objects from the private environment
first become a part of these absurd installations, and later
return to the private space by changing it into a kind of an
alternative habitat. I later changed the title Self-Sustaining
Systems of Absurdity depending on the installed elements
and the theme of the exhibition, although the core concept
had remained close to the original one.
i uzajamno zavisnih „bio-tehnoloških” segmenata. To
su u početku bile jednostavne strukture (povezane na
neuobicajen nacin) u kojima su biljke uticale na elektroniku
i obrnuto bez bilo kakvog određenog, utilitarnog cilja.
Vremenom su se te strukture umnožavale i njihovi odnosi su
se komplikovali, ali je rezultat uvek bio krajnje beskoristan.
Kao neki živi organizam čija je jedina svrha njegovo samo
postojanje i održavanje u životu (kao virus koji se širi kroz
prostor). Možda je interesantno da napomenem da sam
sve ove strukture testirao i povezivao u kućnim uslovima
često koristeci delove (tehniku i biljke) kojima sam inače
okruzen. Tako objekti iz privatnog okruženja prvo postaju
deo ovih apsurdnih instalacija a kasnije se vraćaju u privatni
prostor menjajući ga u neku vrstu alternativnog staništa.
Naziv „Samoodrživi sistemi apsurda” sam posle menjao
u zavisnosti od elemenata instalacije i teme izložbe iako je
suštinski koncept ostao blizak prvobitnom.
In the parasitic symbiosis of objects from my everyday
environment, electronic waste and living organisms, a kind
of alternative bio-social habitat is created, with the potential
of further expansion and transformation.
U parazitskoj simbiozi predmeta iz mog svakodnevnog
okruženja, elektronskog otpada i živih organizama nastaje
svojevrsno alternativno bio-socijalno stanište sa potencijalom
daljeg širenja i transformacije.
n Poslednjih godina istražujem odnose pojedinac-društvo-
tehnologija-priroda u okviru laboratorije Samoodrživi
sistemi apsurda (Self-Sustaining Systems of Absurdity)
koja je bila sastavljena od nekoliko međusobno povezanih
59
60
61
MP_art
context in which a personal experience of intimacy and
privacy reflects upon the universally recognized and accepted
phenomena. Their artistic practice/strategy is based on
closeness and directness, on interaction and liberation from
ideological restraints imposed by mass communication,
on the aesthetics of a personal attitude towards the world,
post avant-garde and conceptual art experiences in the
social context of the current moment, which they are openly
critical of.
「MP」是瑪雅·布薩羅芙和普雷德拉格·夕達尼這對
藝術家伴侶名字的縮寫。他們認為作品本身比藝術家更
重要,因為「藝術是獨立的個體,而非依附藝術家而存
在」。兩人從2003年1月起開始同居創作,並決定放下各
自過去的創作成果和所熟悉的藝術媒材,以實質的演出
(表演藝術)和引人沉思的事物(繪畫、文本、色彩)來
探索兩人的情感和親密關係。兩人主要使用身體、攝影、
文字、錄像、網路來創作,偶爾也會結合新媒體和繪畫、
陶瓷、玻璃等素材。他們的作品雖然有著特定的時間、地
點和背景,指涉著個人經驗或親密關係,卻也反映出許
多普世皆然的現象。親密和直接不但是這兩人的藝術策
略,也是他們的藝術表現。他們也力圖打破大眾傳播體
系所帶來的意識型態限制,建立起面對世界的個人美學
態度,並採用後前衛與觀念藝術手法來批判社會環境。
n
MP_art je akronim umetničkog para [Maja Budžarov i
Predrag Šiđanin] koji smatraju njihov zajednički rad važnijim
od prikupljanja sopstvenih umetničkih biografija - „umetnost
se sastoji od same umetnosti, a ne od umetnika.” Počevši da
žive i rade zajedno u januaru 2003., oni su odlučili da odbace
svoje ranije zarađene lične istorije, rad pod svojim ličnim
imenima, kao što su smanjili medijume njihovog prethodnog
istraživanja. Oni se fokusiraju na istraživanje međusobnih
emocija i bliskost kroz prvenstveno fizičko (performans) i
meditativno (slika/tekst/kolor) izražavanje . U svom radu
podjednako koriste svoja tela, fotografiju, tekst, video,
internet i povremeno kombinacije novih medija sa različitim
klasičnim materijalima (slika, keramika i staklo). Njihovi
radovi obično imaju jaku referencu na mesto, vreme i fizičko/
meditativni kontekst u kome se lično iskustvo intimnosti i
privatnosti odražava na univerzalno priznate i prihvaćene
pojave. Njihova umetnička praksa/strategija se zasniva na
bliskosti i neposrednosti, na interakciji i oslobađanju od
ideoloških stega koje nameću masovne komunikacije, na
estetici ličnog odnosa prema svetu, post-avangardnog i
konceptualno-umetnickog iskustva u društvenom kontekstu
datog momenta, koji otvoreno kritikuju.
n
MP_art is an acronym of the artistic couple [Maja
Budžarov and Predrag Šiđanin] who regard their joint work
as more important than collecting artistic biographies –
“art consists of art alone, not artists.” Starting to live and
work together in January 2003, they decided to reject their
previously earned personal histories, the work under their
own personal names, as well as also reducing the mediums
of their previous research. They focus on exploring mutual
emotions and intimacy through a primarily physical
(performance art) and meditative (painting/text/color)
expression. In their work they equally use their bodies,
photography, text, video, the Internet, and occasionally
combinations of new media with different classical materials
(paintings, ceramics and glass). Their works usually have a
strong reference to the place, time and physical/meditative
n
62
n
〈塞爾維亞當代〉是一場互動式的表演,觀眾的參
與不可或缺,沒有他們,這個作品就不算完整。藝術家
會根據展覽環境來選擇演出的語言,並以寫有簡短提示
的明信片引導觀眾互動。在觀眾自由參與互動的同時,
表演本身就成了集體創作。創作者藉由演出來表達以下
概念:我們無法避免個人的行動影響事物的構成,此作
品就是一例;亦不可避免社會大眾集體意識與政治、文
化和經濟上產生關聯。塞爾維亞民眾在回顧近代史時,
常常會懷抱一種集體的罪惡感,但這並不是藝術家想表
達的論點。兩人是希望透過作品提出對生活的多元批判
性思考,因此〈塞爾維亞當代〉以批判的角度檢視日常生
活,從道德危機、價值淪喪到貧窮,從物質到精神,皆在
在加以批判。
〈信仰〉是一個單頻的錄像投影裝置,引導千禧人類多
方思考神祇和宗教。信仰往往使人們失去寬容心,變得
有攻擊性,而狹隘的思維更使得數百萬人數受害,信徒
自虐,宗教戰爭爆發,權力濫用。但由於傳播管道透明
化,全球網路互通,信仰的負面效應不但隨處可見,也成
為媒體攻擊和嘲弄的目標。使得大眾產生自覺,或表達
反對意見,或加入街頭抗爭,進而挑戰權威和教條。僅管
這個世界的信仰走向激進,人們卻也排斥暴力和偏見,
並且不願放任資本家默默壯大。往日受到壓迫的個人和
團體越發覺醒,改變的力量蓄勢待發。本作品指出了當
今世界的現實,包含部分兒童從事苦力、遭到性侵或上
戰場、戀童及同性戀教士的問題、教徒集體獻祭、貧困、
宗教狂熱、恐怖主義、宗教及種族屠殺的犧牲,及和平
或激烈的示威抗爭等。本作品同時代表藝術家的良知與
其對救贖的渴求,因為他們除了創作,再沒有權力做些
什麼了。
塞爾維亞當代 2014
互動行為藝術
Serbian Contemporary (2014)
Interaction performance
Serbian Contemporary (2014)
Interaktivni performans
Faith is a single-channel video projection with the main
motto being the millennial human belief in different deities,
religious diversity, which often leads to a lack of tolerance
and aggression, a single-mindedness that results in millions
of victims, self-flagellation, religious wars, the abuse of
power. In the age of transparency of communications and
global networks, the negative consequences of faith are
visible every day and are the target of media information,
and often, manipulation. Access to information is such that
this carpet-bombing with the negative aspects of faith puts
us in the position of critical thought, awareness, personal
disagreement, protest, gatherings on the streets, conflicts
with authority and established dogmas. We live in a world of
fanatically radicalized religious belief, on one side, and on the
other, in a world of resistance to any violence, non-tolerance,
the inconceivable enrichment of a small number of corporate
capitalists… We live in a time “just before the explosion” of
increasingly aware and oppressed individuals and groups.
This video work points towards just some of the segments
of this situation: the exploitation of children, by both
physical labour and sexual abuse, religious fundamentalism,
poverty, children warriors, paedophile priests, priests that
are homosexual, fanaticism and terrorism, no matter of
what brand, mass religious and genocidal sacrifices, peaceful
protests and protests with clashes, hence, the world that
surrounds us, and which, unfortunately, we cannot always
help out, rather can be sucked into it unprepared, usually as
victims. This work is at the same time “the conscience” of the
authors and their need for their own “redemption” because
of their powerlessness to do anything, other than make art.
Serbian Contemporary is an interactive performance
in which audience participation is inevitable and without
whose help it cannot be implemented. The authors initiate
action from the audience with postcards, prepared for
this occasion, with a brief instructional text. Audience
involvement is voluntary and the result of the performance
is a collective work, act. The performance expresses the
intention of the authors to indicate the inevitability of action
of every individual in the creation of the contemporary, in
this case, the artwork, as well as collective consciousness
related to politics, culture and the economy. The action of
each individual is a contribution to the entire society, which
does not mean that the authors represent the argument of
“collective guilt,” which the Serbian people wrongfully went
through in their recent history... Serbian Contemporary also
opens up a wide field of critical thought towards everyday
life in which the authors live in, from the crisis of morality,
the decay of all values, to poverty, from the material to the
spiritual. This is the first performance of the series which
the authors will implement in different environments and in
different languages.
n
63
Serbian Contemporary je interaktivni performans u kome
je učešće publike neminovno i bez čije pomoći se on ne može
realizovati. Autori iniciraju akciju publike, za to pripremljenim
razglednicama sa kratkim instrukcionim tekstom. Uključivanje
publike je dobrovoljno a rezultat performansa je kolektivni
rad, akt. Performans ukazuje na nastojanje autora da ukažu na
neminosvnost akcije svakog pojedinca u kreiranju savremenog,
kako, u ovom slučaju umetničkog dela, tako i kolektivne svesti
vezane za politiku, kulturu, ekonomiju. Akcija svakog pojedinca
je doprinos celokupnom društvu, što ne znači da autori zastupaju
tezu „kolektivne krivice” kroz koju je srpski narod neosnovano u
svojoj najskorijoj istoriji prolazio… Serbian Contemporary takođe
otvara široko polje kritičnosti spram svakodnevice u kojoj autori
žive, od krize morala, pada svakolikih vrednosti, do siromaštva, od
materijalnog do duhovnog. Ovo je prvi performans iz serije koju će
autori realizovati u različitim sredinama i na različitim jezicima.
n
Faith je jednokanalna video projekcija čiji je osnovni moto
višemilenijumsko ljudsko verovanje u različita božanstva, versku
različitost koja često dovodi do netolerancije i agresije, jednoumlja
koja su rezultitrala milionskim žrtavama, samokažnjavanjem,
verskim ratovima, zloupotrebama moći. U veku transparentnosti
komunikacija i globalnog umrežavanja, negativne posledice
verovanja su svakodnevno vidljive i meta su medijskih informacija,
ali često i manipulacija. Dostupnost informacijama je takva da
nas bombardovanje negativnim aspektima vere dovode u poziciju
kritičnosti, osvešćavanja, ličnih ne slaganja, protesta, izlazaka na
ulice, sukoba sa vlastima i ustaljenim dogmama. Živimo u svetu,
s jedne strane fanatično radikalizovanih religijskih ubeđenje, a
s druge strane u svetu otpora svakolikom nasilju, netoleranciji,
nepojmljivom bogaćenju malog broja korporacijskih kapitalista…
Živimo u trenutku „pred eksploziju” sve svesnijih i ugnjetenih
pojedinaca i grupa. Ovaj video rad ukazuje samo na neke od
segmenata ovakve situacije: eksploataciju dece, kako fizičkim radom
tako i seksualnu, religijski fundamentalizam, siromaštvo, decu
ratnike, sveštenike pedofile i homoseksualce, fanatizam i terorizam
ma koje boje bio, masovna religijska i genocidna žrtvovanja, mirne
proteste i proteste sa sukobljavanjima, dakle svet koji nas okružuje
i kome, na žalost ne možemo uvek pomoći, a nespremni u njega
možemo biti uvučeni, najčešće kao žrtve. Ovaj rad je ujedno i
„savest” autora i njihova potreba za sopstveno „iskupljenje” zbog
nemoći da nešto drugo, osim umetnosti, preduzmu.
64
信仰 2014
錄像
Faith (2014)
Video
Faith (2014)
video
65
童年博物館
Museum of Childhood
n
弗拉迪米爾·佩里奇和米莉查·史托亞諾夫在2006
年創立了「童年博物館」。起先這只是多媒體藝術家兼
收藏家佩里奇個人的藝術計畫,但後來藝術史學家史托
亞諾夫也加入了行列。此計畫最初是以十年為期(20062016),收集各種見證了人們童年時光的物品。這項計
畫,或說這座博物館,不但以個展形式展出過,也曾在各
大聯展中展出,更曾代表塞爾維亞參加第55屆威尼斯雙
年展。
受損的臉孔2013
圖像複製、塑膠板
20x30cm x 21件
Vladimir Perić and Milica Stojanov constitute Muzej
detinjstva (Museum of Childhood). Museum of Childhood
started in 2006, first as a solo project of the multimedia
artist and collector Vladimir Perić, who was then joined by
art historian Milica Stojanov. The basic component of the
project, initially conceived as a ten-year commitment (20062016), has been a collection of testimonies regarding different
aspects of childhood. This project/museum presented itself
to the audience through a series of group, as well as solo
exhibitions, most notably the one representing Serbia at the
55th Venice Biennale.
n
Damaged faces (2013)
Photo-reproduction on plastic
20x30cm x 21 pieces
Oštećena lica (2013)
Foto-reprodukcije na plastici
(20x30cm) x 21 komad
n 童年博物館中的物件最初只是做為創作發想的素材,
但後來藝術家發現它們有做為時代見證的潛力,於是將
其納入作品中。這些老物件多半來自前南斯拉夫時代,
大半是在札姆和新貝爾格勒的跳蚤市場找到的。它們
不但反映原物主的童年時光,也蘊含各種私人的生活回
憶。在尋找物品、發掘故事的過程中,藝術家開始反思自
己的人生和身分,並以「見證童年」的概念來發展作品。
但童年原本就是個複雜的議題,其詮釋上的限制也時有
變動。在個人和社會的架構下,這些物件最終疊構出一
永恆、開放且成長的整體,並涵納了命運、認同和記憶。
n Muzej detinjstva čine Vladimir Perić i Milica Stojanov.
Muzej detinjstva započet je 2006. godine, najpre kao samostalni projekat multumedijalnog umetnika i kolekcionara Vladimira Perića, kome se potom pridružila istoričarka
umetnosti Milica Stojanov. Osnovnu komponentu projekta u
početku zamišljenog kao desetogodišnjeg angažmana (20062016), čini kolekcija svedočanstava različitih aspekata detinjstva. Ovaj projekat/muzej predstavio se publici kroz niz
grupnih, ali i samostalnih izlozbi, od kojih je najznačajnije
predstavljanje Srbije na 55. Venecijanskom bijenalu.
童年博物館展示各種反映人們的童年、經驗和回憶的物
品,並在個人和社會的層次上,讓敘事、想法、知識和情
感實體化。它也創造出一種藝術的敘事、歷史的事實。
當這類物品在被轉化置入藝術脈絡時,更發展出全新的
角色和意義。
66
Initially, the objects of the Museum of Childhood were
identified as material for an artistic process, and then their
testimonial potential had been discovered, the value of
the document which illustrates childhood and a range of
personal, intimate narratives related to private life, mainly
the socio-cultural space of the former Yugoslavia. Most of
the objects were found at the Zemun and New Belgrade “flea
markets,” and finding these items, and often the stories that
go with them, also became a process of meditation for the
authors, of reflection, self-knowledge in relation to past,
history and identity. The idea then continued to evolve in
the direction of unifying the testimonies of the category of
childhood, a complex phenomenon with constantly shifting
limits of interpretation, and the objects and stories began to
build a perpetually open and growing totality of heritage,
identity, memory, both in an individual and collective
framework.
n
Prvobitno su predmeti Muzeja detinjstva, prepoznati
kao materijal za umetnički proces, a potom je otkriven
njihov svedočanstveni potencijal, vrednost dokumenta koji
ilustruje detinjstvo i niz ličnih, intimnih narativa vezanih
za privatni život, najvećim delom sociokulturnog prostora
nekadašnje države Jugoslavije. Većina predmeta pronađena
je na zemunskoj i novobeogradskoj „buvljoj pijaci“, a
pronalazak ovih predmeta a često i priča koje idu uz njih, za
autore predstavlja ujedno i proces meditatacije, promišljanja,
samospoznaje u relaciji sa prošlošću, istorijom, identitetom.
Ideja je potom nastavila da se razvija u smeru objedinjavanja
svedočanstava kategorije detinjstva, složenog fenomena sa
stalno pomerajućim granicama tumačenja, a predmeti i priče
počeli su da grade uvek otvorenu i rastuću celinu nasleđa,
identiteta, memorija, kako individualnih tako i kolektivnih
okvira.
n
The Museum of Childhood creates a collection from objects
that have shaped our childhood, experiences, memories,
items that materialize a range of accumulated narratives,
ideas, knowledge, emotions, at an individual and collective
level, as well as creating an artistic fiction, a construct
based on objects borrowed from historical reality, which,
transposed into an artistic context acquire entirely new roles
and meanings.
Od predmeta koji su oblikovali naše detinjstvo, iskustvo,
sećanje, predmeta koji materijalizuju niz akumuliranih
narativa, ideja, znanja, emocija na individualnom i
kolektivnom nivou, Muzej detinjstva stvara kolekciju ali
i umetničku fikciju, konstrukt zasnovan na predmetima
pozajmljenim iz istorijske realnosti, koji transponovani u
umetnički kontekst dobijaju posve nove uloge i značenja.
67
68
69
安德蕾雅·帕拉斯提
Andrea Palašti
安德蕾雅·帕拉斯提是諾維薩德藝術學院的攝影系
畢業生。她從2006年起與其他藝術家和創作團體共同
完 成 並 展 出 了 許 多 作 品 。她 跨 足 創 作 與 策 展 ,並
關 注 文 化地理、批判性拓樸學和日常生活。其作品探討
塞爾維 亞 和 鄰 近 地 區 的 文 化 、社 會 和 政 治 現 況
,幽 默 中 不 失 諷 刺。帕拉斯提使用象徵語彙來打造作
品中的概念架構, 引導觀者深入觀察當代生活。她目前接
受國家科學部的 獎助,於貝爾格勒藝術大學修讀藝術和
媒體理論學系的 博士課程。
〈巴爾幹迪斯可〉是一個類似舞廳的裝置,它以展覽
的概念來呈現夜總會的樣貌。本標題源自歐洲各地幾間
夜總會的名稱,它們全都採使用了「巴爾幹」一字(比如
威尼斯的「巴爾幹迪斯可」,維也納的「巴爾幹迪斯可快
車」,還有漢堡的「巴爾幹之夜」)。這其實是諷刺西歐
這類社交場所的雙關語,因為它總是俗套地放著巴爾幹
的正宗「旋轉民俗樂」。在90年代,旋轉民俗樂在定義塞
爾維亞國家和社會認同上扮演著重要的角色,也形塑了
該國犯罪族群的意識形態和生活風格。當夜總會空間在
畫廊/美術館中衍生出新的意義,
〈巴爾幹迪斯可〉也成
為一種現成物,並且對美學和倫理、地理和地緣政治,
以及日常生活和藝術創作間的界線提出質疑。以此觀
之,巴爾幹再也不只是地理而是文化上的指稱,更成了
享樂的代名詞。
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Andrea Palašti. Graduated from the Academy of Arts
in Novi Sad at the Department of Photography. Since
2006, exhibits and collaborates with artists, art collectives/
initiatives. Works across artistic and curatorial boundaries,
with attention to issues of cultural geography, critical
topography and everyday life. In her work, she investigates
the cultural, social and/or political circumstances in her
country and the region, often with a playful, ironic and
humorous attitude. She uses symbolic language, putting
forward a conceptual framework for (re)understanding
the aspects of our contemporary life. As a stipendist of the
Ministry of Science, she is currently a PhD fellow at the
University of Arts, at the department for Theory of Art and
Media in Belgrade.
照片拍攝於2010年於義大利威尼斯的巴爾幹迪斯可俱樂部。
Balkan Disco, is a disco-like installation, conceived as
a spectacular incorporation of a nightclub in the exhibition
concept. Its title was borrowed from several nightclubs
throughout Europe that bear the name Balkan (e.g. Balkan
Disco, Vicenza; Balkan Disco Express, Vienna; Balkan
Night, Hamburg) and as such, is a double entendre – a
parodic citation of the behavioral clichés that belong to the
social lives of these clubs in Western Europe which offer
authentic `turbo-folk entertainment` from the Balkans.
In the 1990s, turbo folk had a key role in defining Serbian
social and national identity, it promoted the ideology and
lifestyle of the new criminal elite. By recontextualising the
space of a nightclub inside a gallery/museum, the work
becomes a readymade, questioning the borders between
aesthetics and ethics, geography and geopolitics, as well as
the distinction between everyday life and artificial artwork.
In this light, Balkan is no longer a geographical but a cultural
determinant: today, Balkan became a stereotypical signifier
of a place for having a good time.
n
Andrea Palašti. Osnovne i master studije završila na
Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu na odseku Fotografija.
Od 2006. godine izlaže i sarađuje sa umetnicima, umetničkim
kolektivima/inicijativama. Do sada je svoje radove predstavila
na više samostalnih i grupnih izložbi u zemlji i inostranstvu.
Bavi se istraživanjima u oblasti (nove) kulturne geografije,
kritičke topografije i istorije. Koristi simbolički jezik u okviru
„dokumentarnih praksi,” te postavlja konceptualni okvir za
ponovno razumevanje aspekata našeg savremenog života.
Kao stipendista Ministarstva nauke za mlade doktorante,
trenutno pohađa Interdisciplinarne doktorske studije
Univerziteta umetnosti u Beogradu, na odseku za Teoriju
umetnosti i medija.
n
/The photos were made at the Balkan Disco in Vicenza (Italy) in 2010/
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71
n
Balkan Disco predstavlja uvođenje ambijenta diskoteke u
profesionalni umetnički prostor. Sam naziv rada preuzet je od
diskoteka koje nose naziv sa prefiksom Balkan (Balkan Disco,
Vićenza; Balkan Disco Express, Beč; Balkan Night, Hamburg),
i kao takav, predstavlja igru značenja - parodično citiranje
bihejvioralnih klišea koji pripadaju društvenom životu klubova
po Zapadnoj Evropi sa autentičnim `turbo-folk provodom`
sa Balkana. Devedesetih je turbo-folk muzika imala ključnu
ulogu u definisanju srpskog socijalnog i nacionalnog identiteta,
promovisala je ideologiju i način života kriminalne elite.
Rekontekstualizacijom diskoteke unutar umetničkog prostora,
rad postaje svojevrsni ready-made, preispitujući tako granice
estetike i etike, geografije i geopolitike, kao i svakodnevice i
artificijelnog umetničkog dela. U tom svetlu, Balkan prestaje
biti geografska odrednica te postaje kulturološka: Balkan danas
postaje stereotipni označitelj mesta dobrog provoda.
/Fotografije su nastale u diskoteci Balkan u Vićenci (Italija) 2010. godine./
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巴爾幹迪斯可2010-2012
多媒體裝置
視場地而定
Balkan Disco (2010-2012)
Multimedium installation
Variable
Balkan Disco (2010-2012)
Multimedijalna instalacija
Dimenzije promenljive
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維斯納·佩努諾維奇
Vessna Perunovich
維斯納·佩努諾維奇是一名在塞爾維亞出生的加拿
大藝術家,現居多倫多市。雖然她20多年前就離開了前
南斯拉夫統治下的貝爾格勒,卻仍常以流亡和思鄉為創
作主題。自從1988年在多倫多從事創作以來,佩努諾維
奇便嘗試了各種媒材,包括繪畫、素描、裝置、雕塑、錄
像和表演等等。這些不同媒材的創作自成一格卻又互為
影響,儘管難以定義,卻使她得以不斷精進、實踐藝術。
n
洞/流亡之屋 2002-2010 →
錄像 , 雕塑裝置
版本五
(W)hole, House of Exile (2002-2010)
Video and Sculptural Installation
edition of five
佩努諾維奇的作品在全球各地的藝廊與美術館皆有展
出,並曾參與古巴、阿爾巴尼亞、英格蘭、葡萄牙、塞爾
維亞、希臘、中國、加拿大和美國等地的國際美展。
Sve, kuća egzila (2002-2010)
Video-skulpturalna instalacija
edicija od pet video radova
她更曾多次獲獎,包括20 05年的多倫多視覺藝術之友
獎。
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Vessna Perunovich is Serbian born, Canadian artist who
lives and works in Toronto Canada. Although she departed
from her home in Belgrade (Former Yugoslavia) more than
20 years ago the themes of exile and longing still echo in
her work. From the time she started her career in Toronto,
Canada in 1988 until today, she has worked in a diverse range
of media including painting, drawing, installation, sculpture,
video and performance. Individual yet inter-related, these
aspects combine into an ever-evolving practice that defines
simple categorization.
n
Rođena u Srbiji, Vesna Perunović je kanadska umetnica
koja živi i radi u Torontu, Kanadi. Iako je napustila svoj dom
u Beogradu (bivšoj Jugoslaviji) pre više od 20 godina, teme
egzila i čežnje i dalje odlikuju njene radove. Od trenutka
kada je započela svoju karijeru u Torontu, Kanadi, 1988.
godine, do danas, delovala je u širokom rasponu medija,
uključujući slikarstvo, crtež, instalaciju, skulpturu, video
i performans. Osobeni, a ipak međusobno povezani, ovi
aspekti se kombinuju u praksu koja se stalno razvija i opire
se jednostavnoj kategorizaciji.
Perunovich has exhibited in many galleries and museums
around the world, and took part in a number of international
exhibitions in Cuba, Albania, England, Portugal, Serbia,
Greece, China, Canada, USA, etc.
Izlagala je u mnogim galerijama i muzejima širom sveta i
učestvovala u brojnim međunarodnim izložbama na Kubi, u
Albaniji, Engleskoj, Portugaliji, Srbiji, Grčkoj, Kini, Kanadi,
SAD, itd.
Vessna Perunovich is the recipient of several awards,
including T.F.V.A. (Toronto Friends of Visual Arts) award in
2005.
Vesna Perunović je dobitnik nekoliko nagrada, uključujući
T.F.V.A (Toronto Friends of Visual Arts) nagrade u 2005.
godini.
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尋愛2012 →
錄像
3分鐘,版本十
Finding Love (2012)
Video, edition of ten
3’
Pronalaženje ljubavi (2012)
Video, edicija od deset video radova
3’
Meant to embody security and belonging, the viewer is faced
with the notion of home as a shifting, vulnerable construct.
The video of nature and destruction shown as an endless
cycle projected onto the house structure takes the viewer into
experiencing a myriad of different emotions and reactions,
mirroring thus the emotional turmoil that many of us feel in
crossing borders and breaking out limitations-weather they
be physical, social or physiological. (W)hole, House of Exile
has been created for the IV Cetinje Biennial in Montenegro
and has since been shown at a number of biennials, group
and solo exhibitions and it is part of museum collections of
the Berardo Museum of Modern Art in Portugal and of the
National Gallery of Art in Tirana, Albania.
〈洞/流亡之屋〉
(2002-2010)是一個簡易的籠狀
結構體,它就像是小朋友畫的房子,有著能遮風避雨的
屋頂及四面牆。本作品探討「家」這個人類生存中最重要
也最基礎的概念。儘管家能給予安全和歸屬感,並強化
居住者的身分認同,但它本質上卻也相當脆弱,就像觀
者眼前這個變動的結構體一般。自然和毀滅如同無盡的
循環,投影在作品中的家園之上。它引領觀者體驗各種
不同的情緒反應,並投射出人們在打破疆界時內心的混
亂狀態,不管那是身體、社會或心理使然。
〈洞/流亡之
屋〉創作於蒙特內哥羅第四屆策廷耶雙年展,並曾於其
他幾個雙年展、聯展和個展展出。它也是葡萄牙貝拉多
現代美術館以及阿爾巴尼亞地拉那國立美術館的典藏。
n
〈尋愛〉
(2012)檢視另一種重要而基本的人類需求:愛
與被愛。本錄像作品是在紐約布魯克林國際工作室和策
展計畫(International Studio & Curatorial Program,
ISCP)駐村期間完成。藝術家工作室的窗戶成了記憶的
所在。它靜謐的調性反映著過去,它的畫面模糊卻又令人
熟悉。本作品描繪美好夏日裡幾扇闔上的窗戶,以懷舊
的黑白色調來捕捉氛圍,並表達藝術家對愛的感受。
〈尋
愛〉探討「渴求」的概念:正是對事物的渴求,促使人們
打破個人疆界,擁抱無限的可能。
Finding Love (2012), looks at yet another of most fundamental
needs in human condition: a need to love and be loved. A
video work, created while attending the ISCP residency in
Brooklyn, New York, portrays an artist studio window as a
place of memory: muted tonality relegating to the past, its
imagery both indistinct and familiar. Depicting a curtained
window on a fine summer day, captured in nostalgic tones of
black and white and overlaid with the artists professions of
love, Finding Love explores the notion of longing as a place
where personal boundaries can be broken and a place of
belonging opens itself up for unlimited possibilities. Finding
Love is part of the permanent collection of Macdonald
Stewart Art Centre in Guelph, Canada.
〈尋愛〉獲加拿大圭爾夫市麥當勞史都華藝術中心收
藏。
(W)hole, House of Exile (2002-2010), explores the idea
of ‘home’ as the most important and fundamental concept
inherent in human condition – a house as a shelter. By
implying simultaneously the notion of homeland and
identity, the simple cage-like structure, with the basic roof
and four walls seen in the earliest childhood drawings of a
house, remind the viewer of the primary symbol of home,
while revealing the inherent fragility of such a symbol.
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n
(W)hole, House of Exile (2002-2010), Sve, Kuća egzila,
istražuje ideju „doma” kao najvažnijeg i osnovnog koncepta
urođenog ljudima - kuće kao skloništa. Podrazumevajući
istovremeno i pojam zavičaja i pojam identiteta, jednostavna
struktura nalik na kavez, sa bazičnim krovom i četiri
zida koja se mogu videti na crtežima kuće iz najranijeg
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Finding Love (2012), Pronalaženje ljubavi, proučava još jednu
od najosnovnijih potreba čoveka: potrebu da voli i bude
voljen. Ovaj video rad, sačinjen tokom studijskog boravka
u ISCP u Bruklinu, Njujorku, prikazuje prozor umetničkog
ateljea kao mesto sećanja: prigušenog tonaliteta koji vodi u
prošlost, njegova obličja su i nejasna i poznata. Prikazom
prozora sa zavesom u sred prelepog letnjeg dana, snimljenog
u nostalgičnim crno-belim tonovima i obloženog izjavama
ljubavi umetnika, Pronalaženje ljubavi istražuje pojam žudnje
kao tačke mogućeg prevazilaženja ličnih granica i mesta
pripadanja koje se otvara ka neograničenim mogućnostima.
Pronalaženje ljubavi je deo stalne zbirke Mekdonald Stjuart
centra za umetnost u Guelfu, Kanadi.
detinjstva, podsećaju posmatrača na primarni simbol kuće,
ujedno otkrivajući urođenu krhkost takavog simbola. Iako
namenjen otelotvorenju osećaja sigurnosti i pripadanja,
posmatrač dela je suočen sa pojmom doma kao promenljivog,
ranjivog konstrukta. Video prirode i uništenja, prikazanih
kao beskrajan ciklus, projektovan je na strukturu kuće i
inspiriše gledaoca na doživljaj bezbroj različitih emocija i
reakcija, odražavajući na taj način emocionalni nemir koji
mnogi od nas osećaju tokom prelaska granica i odbacivanja
ograničenja – bila ona fizička, društvena ili fiziološka. (W)
hole, House of Exile je izvedena za IV Cetinjsko bijenale u
Crnoj Gori i od tada je prikazana na brojnim bijenalima,
grupnim i samostalnim izložbama i čini deo muzejskih
zbirki Berardo muzeja moderne umetnosti u Portugalu i
Nacionalne galerije umetnosti u Tirani, u Albaniji.
77
娜塔莎·提歐弗羅維奇
Nataša Teofilović
不/對稱2013 →
3D、2D角色動畫 7分57秒
a│symmetry (2013)
3d and 2d karakter animacija, 7:57’
a│symmetry (2013)
3d and 2d character animation, 7:57’
n
娜塔莎·提歐弗羅維奇結合藝術、科學和科技來進
行數位藝術創作。她使用實驗錄像、3D動畫和數位氛
圍來探討虛擬世界的身分認同和感知,遊走於真實和虛
擬之間。 她曾獲日內瓦第一屆電子藝術大獎(Prix Ars
Electronica [email protected])的榮譽獎,並在2011年
日本東京的第15屆日本媒體藝術節拿下評審獎。
n
單一的旋臂動作,構成了動畫作品〈不/對稱〉的內
容。虛擬的手臂碰觸著虛擬的空間,那是一種游移又充滿
曖昧的碰觸。它的動作經過無數複製後,形成眼前整齊
統一的畫面。旋轉、對稱、鏡像和延遲的時間組成了抽象
的形體,它彷彿是一個有機結構,並產生如曼陀羅或宇宙
脈動般的符號特質。每個微小緩慢的動作互相加乘,在最
終的構圖中被賦予戲劇化的動能和速度,化零為整。這樣
的構圖源自我本人對意義體系形塑過程的認知。每個單
一的元素在觀者的眼前,都將如鏡子那樣地反映四周,並
形成一個萬花筒般核心、穩定而可靠的整體圖像。如此一
來,原本不起眼的物體便獲得了意義。在這個由平凡、擬
人的元素所形成的畫面中,上演著和諧、溫柔、愛、感知和
不完美(不/對稱)的故事,也正是這些元素,讓人類在萬
物中顯得特別。本作品的數位音源來自大提琴演奏和我本
人的歌聲。
Nataša Teofilović works in digital art, which merges art,
science and technology. Technically speaking, she works in
diverse media including experimental video, 3D animation
performance and digital ambiances. Conceptually, these
works are connected with topics of identity in the void
of virtual space, the perception of virtual beings and the
boundaries between virtual and real spaces. She won an
honorary award at the first Prix Ars Electronica Collide@
CERN competition for digital art and her work was in the
Jury Selection Award at 15th Japan Media Arts Festival,
Tokyo, Japan 2011.
n
〈s.h.e.〉是一個遊走於虛擬和現實之間的3D動畫裝置。
它含有兩個基礎元素,即虛擬的空間和虛擬的角色。這個
虛擬的空間不含任何場景元素,因此必須透過角色們的
動作來確認。在探索其身分時,角色們會先碰觸到螢幕的
邊緣,再進入虛擬的3D模型裡,這便強化了它們的虛擬本
質。角色代表著一種虛擬的薄膜、一種沒有器官的身體,
透過擬仿、手勢和(從螢幕另一端傳來的)聲音彼此溝通,
或和觀者互動。這幾個數位模型都是以我自己作為樣本,
個人、私密和自畫像的元素在作品中處處存在。數位的光
源(HDR、IBL)來自我家的燈光,螢幕上有節奏的敲打聲
則是敲打玻璃屏幕而來。不論是擬仿、動作或手勢,都是
來自我所屬的生活。
n Nataša Teofilović radi dela digitalne umetnosti koja spajaju
umetnost, nauku i tehnologiju. Tehnički posmatrano, ona
istražuje različite medije, od eksperimentalnog videa preko
3D karakter animacije i digitalnih ambijenata. Konceptualno,
ovi radovi objedinjuju teme identiteta u praznom (void)
virtuelnom prostoru, percepcije virtuelnih bića i ispitivanje
granica između virtuelnog i stvarnog prostora. Od dobijenih
priznanja izdvajaju se Honorary mention at the first Prix Ars
Electronica [email protected], i selekcija žirija na 15th Japan
Media Arts Festival, Tokyo.
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The a|symmetry animation is composed out of the same
singular arm movement. The virtual arm touches the void
of virtual space. This is a wondering and sensual touch.
The isolated movement, when it is multiplied, starts to lose
particularity and forms one picture. Rotation, symmetry,
mirroring and time delay produce abstract form. This form
associates a living structure and begets qualities of symbols
like the mandala or some kind of living pulsating universe.
Every small and slow single finger movement in the final
composition received dramatic impulse and velocity due
to multiplication. A particular one becomes the One. The
compositing method is chosen following the idea (metaphor)
of creation of the systems of meaning. Each particular and
isolated artifact, when passed through many observations,
“mirroring,” forms a centric, stable, reliable picture. Like a
kaleidoscope. The insignificant singular receives a meaning.
The resulting “big picture,” produced with ordinary humanlike elements, speaks of unity, gentleness, love, human
sensuality and imperfection (a-symmetry) that make us
unique. The sound is virtually generated cello and my voice.
n
The work s.h.e. plays with virtuality and reality. The 3D
character animation has two basic elements: virtual space
and the virtual actor. Virtual space is “emptied”, it has no
elements of scenography, and its spatiality has been defined by
3D virtual creatures in virtual space by their movements and
acting. The virtual nature of the actresses has been stressed
by their animation and materialization. Digital models in fact
present a virtual membrane, a body without organs, which
by mimics, gestures and sound (knocking from the other
side of the screen) communicate mutually and/or with an
observer. In the void of virtual-space, the virtuals are left to
explore their own virtual identities. That’s why they touch the
boundary (the edge) of the picture and enter their own virtual
bodies. The elements of the personal, the private and the selfportrait are present throughout all the segments of the piece.
The virtual actresses’ portraits have been derived from my
own. The digital lighting was captured (HDR IBL) from the
ambient I live in. The sound - the rhythm of the beating on
the screen, is the knocking on the glass surface of the screen
on which the s.h.e.(s) were created. Mimics, movements and
gestures are privately mine.
kompozitnoj formi dobija dramatični impuls i ubrzanje.
Pojedinačno jedno postaje Jedno. Metod ovakvog generisanja
metaforički simulira ideju stvaranja sistema značenja.
Svaka pojedinačna i izolovana pojava, nakon višestrukih
opservacija, prelamanja, „ogledanja” kao u kaleidoskopu,
formira centričnu i stabilnu sliku. Beznačajno pojedinačno
dobija značenje. Rezultujuća „velika slika” nastala od
pojedičnog nepretencioznog ljudskog pokreta upućuje na
poruku o jedinstvu, nežnosti, ljubavi, ljudskoj senzualnosti i
nesavršenosti (a-symmetry) koje nas čine jedinstvenim. Zvuk
u radu su generičko čelo i moj glas.
Rad s.h.e. se poigrava sa pojmovima virtuenog i stvarnog. Ovu
3D karakter animaciju grade dva elementa - virtuelni prostor
i virtuelni akter. Virtuelni prostor je „ispražnjen,” ne sadži
elemente scenografije, njegovu prostornost jedino definišu
virtuelna bića kretanjem i gestom. Virtuelna priroda 3D
glumica je prikazana kroz njihovu materijalzaciju i animaciju.
Digitalni modeli su virtuelne membrane, telo bez organa koje
mimikom, gestom i zvukom (kucanjem sa unutrašnje strane
ekrana) komuniciraju uzajamno i/ili sa posmatračem. U
praznini virtuelnog prostora, virtuelna bića su ostavljena da
istražuju svoj virtuelni identitet. Iz tog razloga one dodiruju
ivicu (granicu) virtuelne slike i ulaze u svoja vlastita virtuelna
tela. Elementi ličnog, privatnog i autoportreta su prisutni u
svakom segmentu ovog rada. Portreti virtuelnih glumica se
u osnovi zasnivaju na mom licu. Digitalno osvetljenje modela
je kepčerovano (HDR IBL) iz ambijenta u kome živim. Zvuk ritam udara o ekran je kucanje po staklenoj površini monitora
na kom je ovaj rad nastao. Mimika, pokret i gest su lično moji.
Animacija a|symmetry je nastala iz jednog pokreta
virtuelne ruke koja čulno i ispitijuće dodiruje prazninu (void)
virtuelnog prostora. Ovaj izolovani pokret, nakon višestrukog
umnožavanja se više ne prepoznaje kao pojedinačni element
već formira jedinstvenu sliku. Rotacija, simetrija i sukcesivno
kašnjenje pokreta generišu apstraktnu formu koja asocira
na organsku strukturu i poprima kvalitete simbola poput
mandale ili neke vrste oživljenog pulsirajućeg univerzuma.
Multiplikacijom, svaki najmanji trzaj prsta u finalnoj
n
79
s.h.e.2006
3D角色動畫 6分52秒
s.h.e. (2006)
3d character animation, 6:52’
s.h.e. (2006)
3d karakter animacija, 6:52’
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81
卓藍·托多羅維奇
Zoran Todorović
n 卓藍·托多羅維奇1965年生於塞爾維亞的貝爾格勒,
錄像作品〈噪音〉是以特殊的裝置拍攝而成,它就像
是開放式的攝影機或自動裝置,可以錄下自願者的宣言
或敘事。作品本身包含三個地點錄下的三段影像,一在
街上,二在監獄,三在精神科診所。這個作品可說是由機
器(攝影機)來完成的,並且是由畫面中的民眾主動向觀
眾訴說觀點、想法、偏見、焦慮和信念。因此這三個拍攝
地點可看作是某種邊緣性的場景,從而跳脫了整個社會
場域。本作品無意代表不同的社會族群發聲,以避免陷
入批判的位置中。我們一定要理解這點,因為「社會表
徵」就是作品的核心。更精確地說,社會表徵的機制就
是作品的動機、靈感和主題。
n
在生命政治表演、激進身體藝術、互動表演藝術和後政
治媒體藝術等領域相當出名。他的作品探討、再現個人
和群體的處境,以及這些不同處境間的界線。托多羅維
奇是2009年第53屆威尼斯雙年展的塞爾維亞代表藝術
家。目前於貝爾格勒藝術研究院擔任助理教授。
Zoran Todorović (born 1965, lives in Belgrade, Serbia) is
a representative of biopolitical performance, radical body art,
interhuman performance art and politicised postmedia art.
He works with affective individual and collective situations
and representations of the borders of “human conditions”.
He was the representative of Serbia at the 53rd Biennale di
Venezia (2009). He is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of
Fine Arts, Belgrade, Serbia.
n
n Video artwork The Noise was shot by an especially designed
device for recording of video messages, that functioned as
some kind of open camera, an automaton, which records
statements, stories and representations of people that were
willing to use it. The work itself consists of three images,
taken with the same device on three different locations:
in the street, in the prison, and in the psychiatric clinic. It
might be said that this work was made by the machine to
which “the public” announced its statements, inclinations,
ideas, prejudices, anxieties, beliefs, etc. These three positions
are therefore only taken as borderline situations or points
of orientation in which the entire social field can be marked
off. At the same time, this film does not pretend to represent
the speech of different social groups, avoiding to find itself
in the very position it is criticizing. This is an important
point to understand, as it constitutes the very mobile of this
work, which is the problem of social representation, or, more
precisely, the system of social representation was the external
motivation, incitement and theme of this work.
Zoran Todorović (rođen 1965. godine, živi u Beogradu,
Srbiji) predstavnik je biopolitičkog performansa, radikalnog
bodi arta, međuljudskog performansa i politizovane
postmedijske umetnosti. Radi sa afektivnim individualnim
i kolektivnim situacijama i predstavama granica „ljudskih
stanja.” Bio je predstavnik Srbije na 53. Bijenalu u Veneciji
(2009). Docent je na Fakultetu likovnih umetnosti u
Beogradu, u Srbiji.
n
82
噪音1999
三頻道錄像裝置
Noise (1999)
3 channel video installation
Šum (1999)
Trokanalna video instalacija
itd. Ove tri pozicije su stoga uzete kao granične situacije
ili tačke orijentacije kojima celo društveno polje može
biti obuhvaćeno. Istovremeno, ovaj film ne pretenduje da
predstavlja glas različitih društvenih grupa, izbegavajući
da se nađe u samom položaju koji kritikuje. Ovu činjenicu
je važno razumeti, jer predstavlja samu suštinu ovog rada,
problem socijalne reprezentacije, ili, tačnije, sistem socijalne
reprezentacije je spoljna motivacija, podsticaj i tema ovog
rada.
Umetnički video rad The Noise (Buka) snimljen je sa
posebno dizajniranim uređajem za registrovanje video
poruka, koji je poslužio kao neka vrsta otvorene kamere,
automata, koji snima izjave, priče i predstave ljudi koji su
spremni da ga koriste. Sam rad se sastoji od tri slike, koje
su snimljene istim uređajem na tri različite lokacije: na ulici,
u zatvoru, i u psihijatrijskoj klinici. Moglo bi se reći da je
ovo delo stvorila mašina kojoj je „javnost” iznosila svoje
izjave, sklonosti, ideje, predrasude, strahove, verovanja,
n
83
84
85
米洛斯·托米奇
Miloš Tomić
米洛斯·托米奇,1976年2月5日生於貝爾格勒。小
學高年級時開始塗鴉、畫畫、到街上四處收集物品、
拍照片、玩音樂,接著就讀卓藍和史維特拉 娜·鮑布
維奇(Zoran and Svetlana Popovic)創辦的克瓦
德拉特(Kvadrat)電影中學。1993至2 0 02年擔任「
美好心節奏」電台節目來賓。20 0 0年於俄國文化之家
(Russian Culture Home)修習舞蹈課程。2001年自
藝術學院畢業,主修導演,師事米沙·拉迪沃耶維(Miša
Radivojevid)。後於布拉格影視學院取得動畫碩士學
位,師事彼得·斯卡拉(Petar Skala)。曾在馬德里和柏
林做交換學生。日前完成博士學位及論文《珍貴的廢棄
物:當垃圾成為電影和藝術的素材》。2009年起搬回貝
爾格勒並建立家庭,自此不再常常旅行。現於辛迪農大
學(Singidunum University)教授短片製作。
saradnik u emisiji „Lepi ritam srca.“ Svršeni polaznik kursa
okretnih igara u Domu ruske culture, 2000.
Born 5 February 1976, in Belgrade. At the end of
elementary school he started doodling, coloring, collecting
objects from the street, photographing, playing a bit of
music... During high school he went to “Kvadrat” film
school run by Zoran and Svetlana Popović. 1993 - 2002.
contributor of the “Beautiful Rhythm of the Heart” radio
show. Successfully completed a partner dance course at the
Russian Culture Home, 2000.
我就是我自己的心理醫師,我為自己開了每日的音樂
處方。我從來沒上過音樂學校,也不會讀樂譜,但我從小
就聽著森林裡的聲音。在跟家人吃晚餐時,也會用手指
在桌上敲打節奏,只是父母老是阻止我這麼做。
n
2001. diplomira na filmskoj režiji na Akademiji umetnosti
u klasi Miše Radivojevića. Magistarske studije na animaciji
završava u Pragu, na Famu u klasi Petra Skale. Bio gost
student u Madridu i Berlinu. Doktorirao u Pragu kao
specijalista đubrolog na temu „Dragocenost odbačenih
predmeta, tj. đubreta kao materijala za film, fotografiju...”
Učestvovao na mnogo grupnih i desetak samostalnih
izložbi, prikazivao svoje filmove sa nebrojenim filmskim
festivalima sa promenjljivim uspehom. Ako se i to računa,
2014. zajedno sa Vladimirom Perićem, predstavljao Srbiju na
Venecijanskom Bijenalu u Veneciji.
n
n
這本音樂日記記載著我每天演奏的音樂。我會利用樂
器、器具或是手邊現有的物品來進行即興演出,它們彷
彿會回應我。有時我也會用自己或身邊人們的身體來演
奏。
2001. Graduated at the Academy of Arts (Directing) in the
class of Miša Radivojević. Completed graduate studies in
Animation at Famu, in Prague, in the class of Petar Skala.
Was a guest student in Madrid and Berlin. Just finished
his doctoral studies, thesis on “Preciousness of discarded
objects, i.e. trash as the material for film, photography...”
Lives in Belgrade, again, since 2009, as a family man, with
not so frequent, planned travels. Teaches short video forms
at Singidunum University.
「即興」是去掌握你所選擇的樂器或物品,利用它來發
出各種聲音,不管是噪音或旋律都行。同時要仔細聆聽
它的聲響,就算彈錯也要盡量將它轉化為各種母題,雖
然我不知道該不該這麼做。因為小學參加合唱團時,要
是我們唱錯,音樂老師總會拿粉筆甚至沉重的鑰匙圈丟
我們。
也許這就是我還在用鑰匙、水龍頭、運動鞋或是碎玻璃
瓶演奏的原因。此外,我也會彈走音的吉他、薩克斯風、
口風琴和鋼琴,不管你給我什麼,我都彈得出音樂來。
Rođen 05.02.1976. u Beogradu. Krajem osnovne škole
počinje da crtka, boji, skuplja predmete sa ulice, fotografiše,
malo svira... U srednjoj školi prolazi kroz kurseve filmske
škole „Kvadrat” kod Zorana i Svetlane Popović. 1993 - 2002.
n
我那三歲的兒子很快就從演奏中發現了打破家規的良
機。不管他怎麼撒野、砸東西、又吼又跳,只要發出的聲
響還算是音樂,他就可以規避懲罰。於是他很快地成為
86
塑膠袋 2007
錄像 5分鐘
音樂日記1-3 2012-2013
錄像 3分鐘+5分鐘+8分鐘
Plastic Bags (2007)
video , 5’
Musical Diary 1-3 (2012-2013)
Video, 3’+5’+8’
Kese (2007)
video , 5’
Muzički dnevnici 1-3 (2012-2013)
Video, 3’+5’+8’
音樂日記創作的一部分,這日記也成了我們父子關係的
寫照(或許這麼說太浪漫了些):他不斷長大,我卻老是
像個小孩子。
As my own personal psychiatrist, I prescribed myself a
daily curative dose of musicianship. I never went to music
school, I cannot read music, but I often hear a melody in
the forest of sounds around me and since childhood I have
drummed rhythms with my fingers on the table, during
family dinners, always silenced by my parents.
n
Here, a diary means that I play around every day, improvise
on a musical instrument or an object I use, or come across,
and suddenly, it “reverberates” to me. As well as on a body my own or one that is at hand.
prstima po stolu, tokom porodičnih ručkova, uvek ućutkivan
od roditelja.
Improvisation here means to get into grips with the selected
instrument or object and squeeze everything out of it - from
noise to melody. All the while one is constantly listening to
its every audio response and turning one’s every mistake into
a possible motif. Although, I do not know if I am permitted
to do this, the music teacher at my elementary school
“Braća Baruh” would throw chalk at us, or a heavy key ring,
whenever we would make any such “musical mistakes.”
Dnevnik ovde znači da se svakog dana igram, improvizujem
na nekom muzičkom instrument ili predmetu koji koristim
ili nabasam na njega a odjednom mi „zazvuči.” Kao in a telu
– svom ili onom koje se nađe pri ruci.
Improvizacija ovde znači, uhvatiti se u koštac sa izabranim
instrumentom ili predmetom i iscediti iz njega sve – od
buke do melodije. Pri tom stalno osluškujući svaku njegovu
zvučnu reakciju i pretvarajući u mogući motiv svaku svoju
grešku. Iako, ja ne znam da li smem to da radim, nastavnik
muzičkog vaspitanja u mojoj osnovnoj školi „Braća Baruh,”
gađao bi nas kredom ili teškom svežnjem ključeva kad god bi
napravili neku takvu „muzičku grešku.”
Maybe this is why I still play using keys, taps, trainers,
broken glass from bottles... as well as out-of-tune guitars,
saxophones, harmonicas, pianos, give me anything, I’ll play!
Very quickly, my son, at three years of age, saw in these
sessions a chance to destroy many house rules. To go wild,
smash things, yell and jump around, and if it passes as
music - it goes unpunished. So he immediately became part
of the musical diaries that have thus become (perhaps a bit
romanticized) chronicle of our relationship: of him growingup and my childlike behaviour.
Možda baš zato ja danas sviram na ključevima, česmama,
čičkovima patika, razbijenim staklićima flaša… kao in a
raštimovanoj gitari, saksofonu, usnoj harmonici, klaviru,
dajte mi bilo šta, sviraću!
Vrlo brzo, moj sin sa svoje 3 godine video je u ovim seansama
šansu da poruši mnoga kućna pravila. Da luduje, razbija, dere
se i skače pa, ako to prođe kao muzika – on prođe nekažnjen.
Tako da je odmah uskočio u muzikalne dnevnike koji su
tako postali (možda malo romantizovana) zabeleška našeg
odnosa: njegovog odrastanja i mog podetinjavanja.
Kao lični psihijatar, prepisao sam sebi dnevnu lekovitu
dozu muziciranja. Nikada nisam išao u muzičku školu,
ne umem da čitam note ali često čujem melodiju u šumi
zvukova oko sebe i od detinjstva sam bubnjao ritmove
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87
髮2007
錄像 3分鐘
Hair (2007)
video 3’
Dlake (2007)
video 3’
88
肉體之鴿 2005
錄像 7分鐘
Clay pigeon (2005)
Video 7’
Glineni golub (2005)
Video 7’
89
塞爾曼·圖托瓦茲
Selman Trtovac
塞爾曼·圖托瓦茲1970年8月14日生於南斯拉夫的
札達爾市。1990至1993年於貝爾格勒藝術研究院 就
讀。圖托瓦茲在1993年就已取得了貝爾格勒藝術學院
的博士學位,並在同年轉到杜塞爾多夫藝術學院,克勞
斯林可(Klaus Rinke)教授的班上,並在1997年取得碩
士學位。2003年成為國際藝術委員會(International
Arts Committee)的一員。他是第三貝爾格勒獨立藝
術協會(Independent Artistic Association Third
Belgrade)的創辦人之一。現居貝爾格勒。
n
素描能反映出一個概念的發展過程。因此不論使用
的素材為何,素描永遠是視覺思考的基礎,甚至代表人
類進化的一部分。
n
2013年5月,自由藝術公社「第三貝爾格勒」(3BGD)
前 往 札 格 拉 布 參 觀 藝 術 家喬 希 普凡 尼 斯 塔(J o s i p
Vaništa)的回顧展,希望能檢視他畫作中著名的那條
線。由於這條線恰巧呼應了公社成員們從貝爾格勒一路
行至札格拉布的路線,因此這不僅僅是一趟旅程,更可
說是一場藝術行動、甚至是一種藝術隱喻。
隨著這場行動讓當時在札格拉布的藝術家們所留下的
強烈印象,塞爾曼·圖托瓦茲也完成了一幅名叫〈薩瓦馬
拉之線〉的作品。這不僅是他和另一名藝術家維伊克·帕
弗羅維奇(Veljko Pavlovic)之間的「線條對話」,也反
映出兩人對凡尼斯塔作品的思考。
Born 14 August 1970, in Zadar, Yugoslavia. From 1990
until 1993 he studied at the Faculty of Fine Arts, Belgrade.
In 1993 he moved to Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, in the art
class of Professor Klaus Rinke, where he was declared a
Master of Art in 1997. In 2003 he became a member of IKG
(International Arts Committee). He is the initiator and cofounder of Independent Artistic Association Third Belgrade
(www.trecibeograd.com). In 1993 he was declared a Doctor
of Fine Arts at the Academy of Arts in Belgrade. Lives and
works in Belgrade.
n
The art of drawing is the basis of every other visual
thinking, in any other visual medium and not only that, the
art of drawing is part of the evolution of the human species
in general! Drawing, then, represents the means of primary
thinking that reflects the development of an idea.
n
Free art cooperative Treći Beograd (Third Belgrade) travelled
to Zagreb in May 2013 for the exhibition of Josip Vaništa.
In a metaphorical sense, this became the drawing of a line
between Belgrade and Zagreb, an artistic act of the whole
group. The motivation for this particular journey was the
will of the 3BGD group of artists to “view” Vaništa’s line.
This event left a powerful impression on all artists who were
in Zagreb at the time.
Rođen 1970. u Zadru, SFR Jugoslavija. Od 1990.
do 1993. studirao je na Fakultetu likovnih umetnosti u
Beogradu. 1993. prešao na Kunstakademie u Dizeldorfu, u
klasu prof. Klausa Rinkea, gdje je 1997. godine proglašen za
majstora umetnosti. Član IKG-a (Internacionalni umetnički
gremijum) postao 2003. godine. Kreator, inicijator i suosnivač
Nezavisne umetničke asocijacije Treći Beograd (www.
trecibeograd.com). Doktorirao 2012. godine na odseku za
skulpturu Fakulteta likovnih umetnosti u Beogradu. Živi i
radi u Beogradu.
n
Linija za Savamalu (The Line for Savamala) is the title of
the drawing of the artist Selman Trtovac and represents
an artistic dialogue between two artists - Veljko Pavlović
and Selman Trtovac, which can be understood as one of
the reflections on the encounter with Vaništa’s line and the
emptiness that he mentions in the letter to Selman Trtovac.
90
薩瓦馬拉之線2013
繪畫 110x400 cm
錄像 3分12秒
Line for Savamala (2013)
Drawing (graphit on paper, 110x400cm
video 3:12’
Linija za Savamalu (2013)
crtež (grafit na papiru, 110x400cm
video 3:12’
91
cele grupe. Motiv za to, naročito putovanje, jeste volja grupe
umetnika 3BGD-a da „vide” Vaništininu liniju. Taj događaj
je na sve umetnike koji su tada bili u Zagrebu ostavio moćan
trag.
Umetnost crtanja se nalazi u osnovi svakog drugog
vizuelnog mišljenja, u bilo kom drugom vizuelnom mediju
i ne samo tu, umetnost crtanja se nalazi i u evoluciji ljudske
vrste uopšte! Crtanje je, dakle, sredstvo primarnog mišljenja
u kome se ogleda razvoj neke ideje.
n
Linija za Savamalu je naslov crteža umetnika Selmana
Trtovca i umetnički dijalog dva umetnika - Veljka Pavlovića
i Selmana Trtovca, koji se može razumeti i kao jedna od
refleksija na susret sa Vaništinom linijom i prazninom koju
on pominje u pismu Selmanu Trtovcu.
Slobodna umetnička zadruga Treći Beograd je, povodom
izložbe Josipa Vanište, putovala u Zagreb u maju mesecu 2013.
godine. U prenesenom smislu to je predstavljalo povlačenje
linije između Beograda i Zagreba, odnosno umetnički akt
92
93
Title of the Exhibition | Naziv izložbe: Subdued Existence | Prigušena egzistencija
Date of the Exhibition | Datum izložbe: 31.5.2014 - 03.08.2014.
Venue | Lokacija: National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts (NTMoFa)
No. 2, Section 1, Wuquan West Rd, Xi District, Taichung City, Taiwan 403
www.ntmofa.gov.tw
Organizer | Organizator: Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts
Director | Direktor: Sanja Kojić Mladenov, Tsai-Lang Huang
Executive Publisher | Za izdavača: Sanja Kojić Mladenov
Curators | Kustoskinje: Sanja Kojić Mladenov, Svetlana Mladenov
Editor-in-Chief | Glavna urednica: Sanja Kojić Mladenov
Editor | Urednica: Svetlana Mladenov
Art Administration Supervisors | Odgovorni za umetničku administraciju: Jen-Chi Chang, Chao-Yi Tsai
Writers | Autori tekstova: Sanja KojićMladenov, Svetlana Mladenov, Yan-Huei Chen
Design | Dizajn: Mirjana Dušić Lazić, Chung-Yi Liu
Artwork used for cover design: diSTRUKTURA, Not so far away 4 | Rad korišćen za dizajn korica: diSTRUKTURA, Not so far away 4.
Translators | Prevodioci: Milana Vujkov, Yen-Yu Liu, Shih-Yang Ma, Tien-Ying Hsu
Executive Editors | Lektura: Katja Juršić-Huzjan, Predrag Rajić, Yan-Huei Chen, Yu-Jie Chen
Space Designer | Koncept postavke: Sanja Kojić Mladenov, Svetlana Mladenov
Producers | Producenti: Tijana Filipov, Jovan Jakšić, Luka Kulić
Video editing | Montaža: io MEDIA, agencija za audio vizuelnu produkciju – Aleksandar Ramadanović; Marko Ercegović
Technical staff | Tehnička podrška: Đorđe Popić, Pajica Dejanović
Publisher | Izdavač: Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina
Dunavska 37, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Tel +38121526634, +381216611463 Fax +381216613526 www.msuv.org
Printer | Štampa: Službeni glasnik, Beograd
Supported by | Projekat podržali:
Provincial Secretariat for Culture and Public Information, AP Vojvodina | Pokrajinski sekreterijat za kulturu i javno informisanje AP Vojvodine
Ministry of Culture and Information, Republic of Serbia | Ministarstvo kulture i informisanja Republike Srbije
Ministry of Culture, Republic of China (Taiwan) | Ministarstvo kulture Republike Kine (Tajvan)
Thanks | Zahvaljujemo:
Association of Artists of Applied Arts and Designers of Vojvodina | UPIDIV (Udruženje primenjenih umetnika i dizajnera Vojvodine)
Association of Artists of Visual Arts of Vojvodina | ULUV (Udruženje likovnih umetnika Vojvodine)
Cultural Center of Belgrade | Kulturni centar Beograda
Artist’s estate and Kalfayan Galleries (Athens – Thessaloniki) | Zadužbina umetnice Brede Beban i ‘Kalfayan’ galerije (Atina-Solun)
Taipei Representative Office, Budapest, Hungary | Predstavništvo Taipeija, Budimpešta, Madjarska
Centre Culturel de Taiwan à Paris | Kulturni centar Tajvana u Parizu
CHEN Chih-cheng
Igor Antić
CIP - Каталогизација у публикацији
Библиотека Матице српске, Нови Сад
7.036/ . 083 (497.11) (083.824)
PRIGUŠENA egzistencija : savremena srpska umetnička
scena = Subdued Existence : Serbian contemporary art scene /
autori izložbe Sanja Kojić Mladenov, Svetlana Mladenov. Novi Sad : Muzej savremene umetnosti Vojvodine, 2014
(Beograd : Službeni glasnik). - 96 str. : ilustr. ; 23 cm
Uporedo srp. tekst i engl. i kin. prevod. - Tiraž 400.
(978-86-6333-012-2)
1. Уп. ств. насл.
а) Савремена уметност - Србија - Изложбени каталози
COBISS.SR-ID 285811207
MUSEUM OF
CONTEMPORARY
ART VOJVODINA
Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
PROVINCIAL SECRETARIAT
FOR CULTURE AND INFORMATION
Republic of Serbia
MINISTRY OF CULTURE AND INFORMATION
MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY
ART VOJVODINA
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Prigušena Egzistencija KATALOG - Muzej savremene umetnosti