UDK 677 + 687
YU ISSN 0040-2389
SAVEZ INŽENJERA I TEHNIČARA TEKSTILACA SRBIJE
Naučni i stručni časopis tekstilne i odevne industrije
SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL JOURNAL OF THE UNION OF TEXTILE ENGINEERS AND TECHNICANS OF SERBIA
Godina LX ● Broj 4 ● Beograd 2012 ● Strana 74
Izdavač: SAVEZ INŽENJERA I TEHNIČARA TEKSTILACA SRBIJE
11000 Beograd, Kneza Miloša 7a/II, tel/fax: 011/3230-065
e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Tekući račun: 295-1201292-77 Srpska Banka
Štampa: Data kopi, Beograd, Kneza Miloša 2
Predsednik Redakcionog saveta: dr Goran Savanović
Redakcioni savet: dr Gordana Čolović, dr Dragan Đorđević, mr Branko Ilić,
dr Ana Jelić-Aksentijević, dr Biljana Popović, dr Goran Savanović, dr Snežana Urošević
Glavni i odgovorni urednik: dr Gordana Čolović
Sekretar redakcije: Vojislav Šešlija, dipl.pravnik
Kompjuterska priprema: Dragoslav Ješić
Redakcioni odbor:
dr Gordana Čolović - Visoka tekstilna strukovna škola
DTM, Beograd
mr Nenad Ćirković - Tehnološki fakultet, Leskovac
dr Dragan Đorđević - Tehnološki fakultet, Leskovac
dr Julija Avakumović - Visoka tekstilna strukovna škola
DTM, Beograd
dr Ana Jelić-Aksentijević - Visoka tekstilna strukovna
škola DTM, Beograd
mr Marina Kocareva Ranisavljev - Visoka tekstilna
strukovna škola DTM, Beograd
dr Branislava Lazić -Visoka tekstilna strukovna škola
DTM, Beograd
Herbert Kranjc, Pančevo
mr Mirjana Mizdraković, Škola za dizajn tekstila,
Beograd
mr Mirjana Reljić, Institut CIS Srbije
Vesna Marić - Škola za dizajn tekstila, Beograd
mr Katarina Nikolić - Visoka tekstilna strukovna škola
DTM, Beograd
dr Danijela Paunović - Visoka tekstilna strukovna škola
DTM, Beograd
dr Slobodan Pokrajac - Mašinski fakultet, Beograd
dr Biljana Popović - Visoka tekstilna strukovna škola
DTM, Beograd
dr Božidar Stavrić - Tehnološko-metalurški fakultet,
Beograd
dr Jovan Stepanović - Tehnološki fakultet, Leskovac
dr Dušan Trajković - Tehnološki fakultet, Leskovac
dr Snežana Urošević - Tehnički fakultet, Bor
Internacionalni redakcioni odbor:
dr Srđan Damjanović - Fakultet pos. ekonomije, Bjeljina
dr Goran Demboski - Tehnološko-met. fakultet, Skopje
dr Isak Karabegović - Tehnički fakultet, Bihać
dr Simona Jevšnik - Visoka šola za dizajn v Ljubljani
dr Mihailo Ristić - Tehnološki fakultet, Banja Luka
dr Zoran Stjepanovič - Fakulteta za strojništvo, Maribor
U FINANSIRANJU ČASOPISA UČESTVOVALO
MINISTARSTVO PROSVETE I NAUKE SRBIJE
SADRŽAJ
Reč predsednika Redakcionog saveta ........................ 3
Reč urednika................................................................. 4
Jelena Arsić, Nataša Radmanovac, Sandra Stojanović,
Dragan Đorđević
EFEKTI OBRADE PAMUČNE TKANINE
POSTUPKOM/KALIJUM HIDROKSID/
AMONIJUM HIDROKSID ...................................... 5
Sonja Ćortoševa, Sonja Jordeva, Nikola Kaloyanov
TERMO-FIZIOLOŠKI KOMFOR
DVOSLOJNIH PLETENINA ................................ 11
Miloš Nikolić
IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMITMENT OBJECTS AND TYPES IN
SERBIA .................................................................... 20
Milan M. Đuričić, Danijela Paunović,
Milutin R. Đuričić
INTEGRISANJE MENADŽMENT SISTEMA
I TRŽIŠNO ORIJENTISAN TEKSTILNI
POSLOVNI SISTEM .............................................. 25
Lepa Marković, Gordana Čolović, Ankica Jovanović
UTICAJ UMORA, MONOTONIJE I
CIRKADIJALNIH RITMOVA NA RAD ............... 33
Vesti i informacije ....................................................... 38
Vesti iz sveta ................................................................. 43
Izvodi iz diplomskih radova ...................................... 52
Prikaz časopisa ............................................................ 56
Nove knjige .................................................................. 60
Tržište tekstila ............................................................. 61
Neformalno obrazovanje – kursevi ........................... 73
Uputstvo autorima ...................................................... 74
UDK 677 + 687
YU ISSN 0040-2389
SAVEZ INŽENJERA I TEHNIČARA TEKSTILACA SRBIJE
Naučni i stručni časopis tekstilne i odevne industrije
SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL JOURNAL OF THE UNION OF TEXTILE ENGINEERS AND TECHNICANS OF SERBIA
Volume LX ● Number 4 ● Beograd 2012 ● Page 74
Publisher: Textile Engineers and Technicians Union of the Republic Serbia
Editoral offices: Serbia, 11000 Beograd, Kneza Miloša 7a/II, tel/fax: 011/3230-065
e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
President of the Editorial Council: Goran Savanović, Ph.D.
Editorial Council: Gordana Čolović, Ph.D., Dragan Đorđević, Ph.D., Branko Ilić, M.A.,
Ana Jelić-Aksentijević, Ph.D., Biljana Popović, Ph.D., Goran Savanović, Ph.D., Snežana Urošević, Ph.D.
Editor in Chief: Gordana Čolović, Ph.D.
Secretary of the editorial: Vojislav Šešlija, L.A
Technical preparation: Dragoslav Ješić
Editorial Board:
Gordana Čolović, Ph.D. - The Collage of Textile-Design,
Technology and Management
Nenad Ćirković, M.A. - Faculty of Technology, Leskovac
Dragan Đorđević, Ph.D. - Faculty of Technology, Leskovac
Ana Jelić-Aksentijević, Ph.D. - The Collage of TextileDesign, Technology and Management
Ph.D. Julija Avakumović - The Collage of Textile-Design,
Technology and Management
Marina Kocareva Ranisavljev, M.A. - The Collage of
Textile-Design, TechnoIogy and Management
Branislava Lazić, Ph.D. - The Collage of Textile-Design,
Technology and Management
Herbert Kranjc, Pančevo
Mirjana Mizdraković, M.A. - Scool for Textile Design,
Belgrade
Mirjana Reljić, M.A. - Institut CIS Srbije
Vesna Marić - Scool for Textile Design, Belgrade
Katarina Nikolić, M.A. -The Collage of Textile-Design,
Technology and Management
Danijela Paunović, Ph.D. -The Collage of Textile-Design,
Technology and Management
Slobodan Pokrajac, Ph.D. - Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering, Belgrade
Biljana Popović, Ph.D. - The Collage of Textile-Design,
Technology and Management
Božidar Stavrić, Ph.D. - Faculty of Technology and
Metallurgy, Belgrade
Jovan Stepanović, Ph.D. - Faculty of Technology, Leskovac
Dušan Trajković, Ph.D. - Faculty of Technology, Leskovac
Snežana Urošević, Ph.D. - Technical Faculty, Вог
Internacional Editorial Board:
Srđan Damjanović, Ph.D. - Faculty of Business
Economics, Bijeljina
Goran Demboski, Ph.D. - Faculty of Technology and
MetaIIurgy, Skopje
Ph. D. Isak Karabegović - Technical Faculty, Bihać
Simona Jevšnik, Ph.D. - Academy of Design, Ljubljana
Mihailo Ristić Ph.D. - Faculty of Technology,
Banja Luka
Zoran Stjepanovič, Ph.D. - Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering, Maribor
CONTENTS
Editorial President of the Editorial Council ............... 3
Editorial ......................................................................... 4
Jelena Arsić, Nataša Radmanovac, Sandra Stojanović,
Dragan Đorđević
EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE/
AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE TREATMENT ON
COTTON FABRIC EXTRACT ................................ 5
Sonja Ćortoševa, Sonja Jordeva, Nikola Kaloyanov
THERMAL-PHYSIOLOGICAL COMFORT
OF INTEGRATED DOUBLE KNITTED
FABRICS ................................................................... 11
Miloš Nikolić
IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMITMENT OBJECTS AND TYPES IN
SERBIA ..................................................................... 20
Milan M. Đuričić, Danijela Paunović,
Milutin R. Đuričić
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM INTEGRATION
AND MARKET ORIENTED TEXTILE
BUSINESS SYSTEM ............................................... 25
Lepa Marković, Gordana Čolović, Ankica Jovanović
INFLUENCE OF FATIGUE, MONOTONY
AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS ON WORK ........ 33
News and information................................................. 38
World news .................................................................. 43
Extacts from graduation work .................................. 52
Extacts from magazine .............................................. 56
New books ................................................................... 60
Textile market ............................................................. 61
Informal education - courses ..................................... 73
Instructions for Authors ............................................. 74
Tekstilna industrija z Broj 4 z decembar 2012
Miloš Nikolić 1
IMPLICATIONS OF
ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMITMENT OBJECTS
AND TYPES IN SERBIA
Stručni rad
UDC:
Abstract: Creating a employees behavior which will be able to respond to modern tendencies of creating
“agile” organizational structure begins with the organizational commitment analysis. Organizational
commitment, as the employees overall attitude towards their organizations, can be observed on the work
group level, in which employees can be devoted to formal or informal group of colleagues, and the level of
organization in which employees can be committed to the organization as a whole, or its top menagement.
In addition, in every organization, employees can develop affective, continuas and normative organizational
commitment. This paper examines the four organizations, leaders in regional economic development, and tries
to identify each of the types and levels (objects) of employees organizational commitment to their organizations.
The paper also suggests a methodology for identifying the “superheroes” and “saboteurs” in organizations
and comes to the conclusion that organizational commitment is not only the ratio of employees attitudes
towards their workplace, but also a way of life and culture in general.
Keywords: organization, group, commitment, affective, continuous, normative.
IMPLIKACIJE PREDMETA I VRSTA ORGANIZACIONE POSVEĆENOSTI U SRBIJI
Rezime: Kreiranje oblika ponašanja zaposlenih koji će savremenim tendencijama stvaranja „agilne“
organizacione strukture moći da odgovore polazi od analize stepena organizacione posvećenosti. Organizacionu
posvećenost, kao sveukupni stav koji zaposleni imaju prema svojojim organizacijama, možemo posmatrati sa
nivoa radne grupe, u okviru koje zaposleni mogu biti posvećeni formalnoj ili neformalnoj grupi kolega, i
nivoa organizacije, u okviru koga zaposleni mogu biti posvećeni samoj organizaciji, ali i svom posrednom
rukovodstvu. Pored toga, u svakoj organizaciji, zaposleni mogu razviti afektivnu, kontinualnu i normativnu
organizacionu posvećenost. Ovaj rad sagledava četiri organizacije, ključne za razvoj regionalne ekonomije i
pokušava da identifikuje svaki od tipova, ali i nivoa (objekata i predmeta) organizacione posvećenosti zaposlenih
u njima. Takođe, rad nagoveštava postojanje metodologije za identifikovanje „superheroja“ i „sabotera“ u
organizacijama i zaključuje da je organizaciona posvećenost ne samo odnos zaposlenih prema svom radnom
mestu, nego i način i kultura života uopšte.
Ključne reči: organizacija, grupa, posvećenost, afektivna, kontinualna, normativna.
1. INTRODUCTION
To meet growing market demands, organizations
are trying to make their business processes as
flexible as possible. This introduces a set of major
organizational changes today, which represents the
process of achieving “agility”. Organizations that
can quickly respond to unexpected market demands,
are called “agile” organizations. Thus, organizational
1
Public Utility Company „Unified Billing“ Niš; Faculty
of Economics Niš 1; [email protected];
phone:+381631078071, +38118244542; address: Jovana
Skerlića No. 3/22, 18000 Niš, Serbia
agility is becoming the biggest business priority
of early twenty-first century. The ultimate goal of
an agile organization is understanding the unique
requirements of each customer/service user and ensure
their satisfaction. Therefore, companies today are not
just trying to sell their products, but to always take
into account new consumer demands and incorporate
them into their business processes. Human resources
function has to recognize the key role of employees
in these processes, and identifying the impact of
organizational commitment, as the overall attitude
of employees towards the organizations, implement
these trends and protect organizational assets in
every sense. All of these modern tendencies in
20
Tekstilna industrija z Broj 4 z decembar 2012
organizations are requiring a radical changes in the
behavior of part or all employees, and commitment
to the organization is one of the key postulates of
modern research concepts in that manner. Creating
these new behaviors is based on the human resources
sector/function. All this is changing the way of
understanding organizational commitment, and
practical analysis of this phenomenon with examples
of specific businesses, which we present in this paper,
is important for understanding future trends in public
and private sector organizations in Serbia.
2. OBJECTS AND TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
Employees can be devoted to different entities
in their organizations. Thus, employees may be
committed to their:
• work group levels, in which again employees
can be devoted to informal or formal group
of colleagues who are in direct contact with
them at work, and, on the other side, to their
direct superiors. That feeling may result from
close friendly relations that developed between
colleagues as well as from years of working
together and helping each other. Commitment
to colleagues can come even from friendly
relationships and kinship ties outside the
workplace. Dedication to superiors occurs mostly
due to very good acceptance from the beginning,
and the mutual understanding and friendship that
eventually developed between them,
• organizational level, which is commitment
to organization in general and leadership
(management) of organization on the other side. In
smaller organizations, employees are more likely
directly devoted to the charismatic management
and the commitment to the organization derives
from it. In larger organizations, the situation
is reversed, the employee does not know the
management of the enterprise and commitment
to them can only occur as a result of commitment
to the organization as a whole [1].
Since the commitment may be low or high on the
work group level and at the organizational level, we
can construct a matrix of organizational commitment.
On the other hand, we distinguish three types of
organizational commitment:
• affective organizational commitment is defined
as an emotional attachment to the organization,
identification and involvement by employees
with organization and its goals. Employees
who are affectively committed believe in the
organizational goals and values, and they are
ready to focus efforts on helping the organization
Figure 1. - Matrix of organizational commitment
(Source: Robbins S. (2003), Organisational behavior, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall Inc.)
21
Tekstilna industrija z Broj 4 z decembar 2012
to achieve the same, and develop relational
relationship with the employer [2].
• continuas organizational commitment is the
endeavor to remain in the organization because
of the lack of other alternatives, work social
security and possible pension, but in this type
of commitment quality relationships with other
employees are important. Therefore, employees
who are continuously committed remain in
the organization not because they want to, but
because they must.
• normative organizational commitment
is
dependent on social circumstances and external
pressures (family, environment), but also
employees who are normative commited have a
sense of obligation to their own workplaces [3].
they want and desire so, those with a strong continuas
commitment becouse they have to, and those with
strong normative commitment because of feelings
of duty [4], and three basic types of organizational
commitment we separate on the grounds of their
associated factors, we can conclude that in our study
of four organizations normative commitment is the
list represented, followed by affective commitment,
and continuous commitment to the organizations
is most common, and no doubt due to the general
situation of the Serbian economy, the lack of adequate
alternative for employment and the desire to achieve
a grater number of years of service, but the worst is
a sense of personal long-term “investment” in the
development of the organization, which are not good
circumstances.
Figure 2. - Three types of organizational commitment on the bases of Meyer-Alenn model
(Source: Allen N.; Meyer J.P.: The Measurment and ancedents of affective, continuas and normative commitment to
the organization, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 1990, according, Schultz, R. (2000), Organizational behavior,
Psyhological Review)
Analysis of normative commitment in our examples
show that a very small number of employees (1 of
10 across all surveyed organizations) feel any moral
obligation to the employer, which is at least negative.
Almost 2 out of 10 respondents said that in the
If we accept conclusions of Meyer, Allen and organizations continue their work life due to external
Smith’s: Employees with a strong sense of affective influences and pressures (marriage, family), which
commitment will remain in the organization becouse also speaks for itself about the crisis of the positive
3. IMPLICATIONS OF
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
TYPES IN RESEARCHED TEXTILE
ORGANIZATIONS
22
Tekstilna industrija z Broj 4 z decembar 2012
trends of organizational commitment in companies in
Serbia.
We must say that the concepts of organizational
commitment and career commitment strongly
influence each other, so that this interaction should be
tested in the near future, becouse there is no doubt
that employees who are committed to develop good
career will develop organizational commitment
(probably affective) and be more organizational then
personally oriented [5]. That could further examine the
relationship and interaction effects of organizational
commitment to the career commitment, but also
the reverse relationships. If we consider time of
employment in one particular organization and age,
the influence of these variables on certain types of
organizational commitment, and what implications
they might have on the possible favorable behavior in
the workplace is not fully explained. Note that none of
the proposed future studies so far did not conducted in
theory and practice.
4. “SUPERHEROES” AND “SABOTEURS”
Research shows that employee engagement is
directly linked to the performance achieved by the
organization in product sales. When an organization
fails to meet the expectations of employees, or
violates the psychological contract as an implicit set of
expectations that employees have of their employers,
employees will feel the injustice and will be fewer
hired, interested and dedicated to the organization in
every sense. Thus, employees are trying to reclaim
disturbed balance - reducing the results of their work
and reducing job and organizational commitment,
but also reducing commitment to whole work
environment. It returns all the items of the parties of
the old psychological contract, in which employment
was guaranteed and assumed whole working life, and
the continuas nature of organizational commitment employees do what they need to keep their jobs but
nothing more. So employees can be divided as follows
in figure 3.
Superheroes are the most innovative, and believe
that the organization has fully met all its obligations
to them, maybe even more than expected. They lead
the organization forward and propose innovations,
because they feel the need to support management in
all business ventures. They go beyond the requirements
of their jobs and trying to remain “free mind”. They
are usually affectively committed and personally and
substantially connected with the organization.
Troupers also like superheroes find that their
expectations are realized and met. In the defined
responsibilities and parameters of their job, they will
fight to give more speed through the organization
and achive more quality work. They are realizing the
vision which has been created by superheroes. They
will develop affective or normative organizational
commitment.Law Abiders are those whose expectations
are largely fulfilled, but still – they are disappointed.
They will meet the demands of their job, but they will
rarely give the organization more than that - continuas
organizational commitment.
Figure 3. - “Superheroes” and “saboteurs”
(Source: Patrick Gilbert, Maria Dodd, David Tong (2008), „Developing a Performance Based Culture: A New Look at The
Psichological Contract“, Mercer Journal)
23
Tekstilna industrija z Broj 4 z decembar 2012
Oportunists minimize all the effort. These
individuals believe that many of their expectations
were not fulfilled in practice, and that the organization
failed to fulfill its obligations to them. They are trying
to meet the minimum requirements of the job and
they will be achiving negative results if there is not
adequate control. These individuals usually develop
continuas organizational commitment or because
of external pressure - the normative commitment to
organization [6].
Saboteurs destroy the existing value. They believe
that there is a significant breach of their psychological
contracts, a situation that inevitably follows when one
side continuously fail to meet expectations. These
individuals provide active or passive resistance. They
sabotage management and the quality of the work to
balance the psychological contract breach. They are
completely not commited employees.
5. CONCLUSION
Dedicated employees are the basis for any
successful organization development. Committed
employees feel the problems of the organization
as their own, they feel the organization as a part of
their family, they are very emotionally attached to
organizational values, and have a strong sense of
belonging. These employees will be productive and
their organizational behavior will be more favorably
oriented than with those who are not committed.
Organizational commitment has a significant effect on
the overall organizational culture, which proved true
in our analyzed cases. The high degree of employees
commitment indicates a greater motivation, and
consequently, a higher degree of productivity of their
work. Dedicated staff will certainly be absent from
work less and will show less tendency to leave the
organization, so internal and external fluctuations
will be smaller. Finally, organizational commitment
has a positive personal consequences. It leads to a
better understanding of careers in general and thus
a better and greater satisfaction and better business
performance in the future. Committed employees
are more satisfied with their work, a pleasure to be
spilled over into the private life, because, as research
shows, those who are dedicated to their work and
their organizations have a successful career and
lead a comfortable life in every other way. Finally,
organizational commitment can have significant
implications to organizational effectiveness and
overall performance. One organization that has
dedicated and loyal workforce have greater potential
than other organizations in which this is not the case.
Therefore, the need for dedication and organizational
commitment of the employees is very important, and
the construction of quality trends should be a core
strategy for human resources of each organization.
REFERENCES
[1] Angle, H.L. & Perry, J.L. (1983) “Organizational
commitment: Individual and organizational
influences”. Work and Occupations, 10, 119-136.
[2] Allen N.; Meyer J.P.: The Measurment and
ancedents of affective, continuas and normative
commitment to the organization, Journal of
Occupational Psychology, 1990, 23-42
[3] DeCotis, T. & Summers, T. (1989). “A path analysis
of a model of the antecedents and consequences of
organizational commitment”. Human Relations,
40, 237- 312.
[4] Meyer, J.P. & Allen, N.J. (1991). A Tree-component
conceptualitazation of organizational commitment.
Human Resource Management Review, 1, 51-78.
[5] Meyer, J. P. Allen, N. J. Smith, C. A. (1993).
“Commitment to Organizations and Occupations:
Extension and Test of a Three-Component
Conceptualization”.
Journal
of
Applied
Psychology, 78, 4, 421-459.
[6] Patrick Gilbert, Maria Dodd, David Tong (2008),
„Developing a Performance Based Culture: A
New Look at The Psichological Contract“, Mercer
Journal, 8-10.
24
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Implications of organizational commitment objects and types in