Proceedings 2010. (2011), Vol 2, ISSN 1986-8154
www.sportkon.com
EFEKTI PRIMJENE RAZLIČITIH TRENAŽNIH
METODA NA RAZVOJ EKSPLOZIVNE SNAGE
EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT TRAINING
METHODS ON THE EXPLOSIVE FORCE DEVELOPMENT
Milan Gužvica1, Lazar Vulin2, and Miroslav Milju{1
Vi{a {kola unutra{njih poslova Republike Srpske, Banja Luka, Bosna i Hercegovina
Police College of the Republic of Srpska, Banja Luka, Bosnia & Hrezegovina
2
Osnovna {kola „Josip Pančić“, Kozica, Bosna i Hercegovina
Primary School „Josip Pancic“, Kozica, Bosnia & Herzegovina
1
doi​: 10.5550/SP.2.2010.26
UDK: 796.371.3
KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
COBISS.BH-ID: 2256408
Summary
Sažetak
In this study we were interested to what extent the ability of
rate of force development, changes under the influence of
different types of loads. For this purpose, we used three different methods: the development of explosive strength using
weights, plyometric method and a combination of both. The
sample consisted of 30 voluntarily registered students first
The College of Internal Affairs, divided into three sub-samples.
Unfortunately, only 16 students responded to the demands
of research (12 male and four female subjects). The program
was implemented during the period of six weeks for two hours
a week. The first group (T) has worked loading using weights,
the other groups (P) plyometric method, and the third (K) by
combining the two methods. After completion of the initial
and final measurements, data were analyzed by appropriate
statistical procedures, with all respondents, across the various
tests, achieving better results. However, statistically significant
differences were not fully obtained. Specifically, statistically
significant differences were obtained for groups T and K, in
a three test, whereas the P group statistically significant differences obtained in four tests conducted. Given results allow
us, with caution, to conclude that the plyometric method of
work within the limited amount of time is still somewhat more
effective than the other two methods.
U ovom istraživanju nas je interesovalo, u kojoj mjeri se
sposobnost brzine razvoja snage, mijenja pod uticajem
različitih vrsta opterećenja. Za ovu svrhu, kori{ćena su tri
različita metoda rada: razvoj eksplozivne snage pomoću
tegova, pliometrijskim metodom i kombinacijom ova dva.
Uzorak je činilo 30 studenata 1. godine Visoke {kole unutra{njih
poslova, podijeljenih u tri subuzorka, od čega je svega 16
studenata odgovorilo zahtjevima istraživanja (12 ispitanika
mu{kog i četiri ispitanika ženskog pola). Program je realizovan u periodu od {est nedjelja po dva časa nedjeljno. Prva
grupa (T) je radila opterećenje kori{ćenjem tegova, druga
grupa (P) pliometrijskim metodom, a treća (K) kombinacijom
ove dvije metode. Nakon provedenog inicijalnog i finalnog
mjerenja, dobijeni podaci su obrađeni odgovarajućom
statističkom procedurom, pri čemu su svi ispitanici, u svim
provedenim testovima, postigli bolje rezultate. Ipak, statistički
značajne razlike nisu u potpunosti dobijene. Naime, statistički
značajne razlike dobijene su za grupe T i K, u po tri testa,
dok su za grupu P statistički značajne razlike dobijene u četiri
provedena testa. Dobijeni rezultati nam omogućuju da, s
oprezom, zaključimo da je pliometrijski metod rada u
ograničenom vremenu ipak, ne{to efikasniji od druga dva
metoda.
Key Words: explosive power, plyometric, weights, combined
method.
Ključne riječi: eksplozivna snaga, pliometrija, tegovi, kombinovani metod.
Introduction
Uvod
Although the power of one of the most researched bio
motorics capabilities, it is still a very interesting problem for
researchers and trainers, particularly because all the other
motor skills are more or less related to the force.
In order to achieve the desired competitor sport performance,
it is necessary to demonstrate the maximum possible, to
have optimal capabilities and characteristics, which is to be
developed through proper training process. In this light and
sport karate should be seen. It is known that sports fight in
karate is complex, counter-typical and acyclic activity which
includes the engagement of the whole structural-functional
Iako je snaga jedna od najistraženijih biomotoričkih sposobnosti, ona je i dalje veoma interesantan problem za istraživače
i trenere, posebno zbog toga {to su i sve ostale motoričke
sposobnosti, vi{e ili manje, vezane za snagu.
Kako bi takmičar postigao željeni sportski rezultat, potrebno
je da ispolji maksimalne mogućnosti, da ima optimalne
sposobnosti i osobine, koje treba da razvije kroz odgovarajući
trenažni proces. U tom svjetlu treba posmatrati i karate sport.
Poznato je da je sportska borba u karateu složena, astereotipna i aciklična aktivnost u kojoj učestvuje cjelokupan
strukturalno-funkcionalni i nervno-mi{ićni sklop. Zato,
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and neural-muscular set. So, does the success of the struggle,
should consider its specification too. Specification refers to
the structure of a series of athlete’s abilities and characteristics that affect performance in sports fight. The most often
mentioned skills, as the dominant skills are: strength, speed,
coordination and flexibility, and given the pace at which the
sport fight takes, agility (depends on the level of reactive
power) is also important for the success of keeping the sport
of fighting. High level of reactive power allows karate expert
that in the shortest time interval implement motor skill programs or reprograms. Since the muscular system is very
important bond between fast and slow muscle fibers, as well
as the elasticity of muscles and tendons, in the case of
dominance of fast muscle fibers in the corresponding force
development training process will be higher, so strength
training should be oriented to the fast muscle fibers.
In the top sports karate for a long time the practice is to
organize more events per year, of which at least two are
“important” events. The “important” event are sometimes
not consistent with the possibility of maintaining the highest
level of sports form (form of sport at the highest level is not
possible to keep more than 2-2.5 months (Koprivica, 2002),
and is therefore a need for its overthrow and the refreshment
of competitors with other training activities. As the strength
is a very important capability, with which, as noted above,
are more or less related and all other motor skills relevant
to the successful conduct of combat sports in karate, we
were interested in how, in a relatively short time, possibly
the most effective develop explosive power as one of the
most important bio motorics ability to achieve results in
sport. For the purposes of this study the following methods
were selected: development of explosive strength using
weights, plyometric, and the combined method.
govori li se o uspje{nosti borbe, potrebno je sagledati i njenu
specifikaciju. Specifikacija se odnosi na strukturu niza
sporta{evih sposobnosti i osobina koje utiču na uspje{nost
u sportskoj borbi. Najče{će spominjane sposobnosti, kao
dominantne sposobnosti, jesu: snaga, brzina, koordinacija
i gipkost, a s obzirom na dinamiku u kojoj se odvija sportska borba i agilnost (zavisi od nivoa reaktivne sile) je takođe
značajna za uspje{nost vođenja sportske borbe. Visoki nivo
reaktivne sile omogućava karatisti da u najkraćoj vremenskoj
jedinici sprovodi motoričke programe, odnosno reprograme.
Po{to je u mi{ićnom sistemu veoma važan odnos između
brzih i sporih mi{ićnih vlakana, kao i elastičnost mi{ića i
tetiva, u slučaju dominancije brzih mi{ićnih vlakana razvoj
sile u odgovarajućem trenažnom procesu će biti veći, pa
zato i trening snage treba biti orijentisan na brza mi{ićna
vlakna.
U vrhunskom sportskom karateu već odavno je praksa da
se organizuje vi{e takmičenja godi{nje, od čega su bar dva
„važna“ takmičenja. Ta „važna“ takmičenja ponekad nisu
usklađena s mogućno{ću održavanja najvi{eg nivoa sportske
forme (sportsku formu na najvi{em nivou nije moguće zadržati
vi{e od 2-2,5 mjeseca (Koprivica, 2002), pa se zato ukazuje
potreba za njenim obaranjem i osvježenjem takmičara nekim
drugim trenažnim aktivnostima. Kako je snaga veoma značajna
sposobnost, s kojom su, kako je već rečeno, vi{e ili manje,
povezane i sve ostale motoričke sposobnosti relevantne za
uspje{no vođenje sportske borbe u karateu, nas je interesovalo na koji način je, u relativno kratkom vremenu,
moguće najefikasnije razviti eksplozivnu snagu, kao jednu
od najvažnijih biomotoričkih sposobnosti u cilju ostvarivanja sportskih rezultata. U tom cilju, za potrebe ovoga rada,
izabrane su slijedeće metode: metod razvoja eksplozivne
snage pomoću tegova; pliometrijski i kombinovani metod.
Development of explosive power with weights
Razvoj eksplozivne snage pomoću tegova
Given the known requirements of sports fight where the
ability of rapid force generation in the shortest time interval
is of great importance for its success, it is necessary to choose
the means and methods for developing these skills. One of
the known and proven methods is surely to work with weights.
Orientation of training should be on the activation of motor
units of higher threshold afferents, and the fast glycolytic
fibers with high frequency pulses, which will provide increased
muscle force. The general opinion is that this is achivable
by a top speed muscle contraction, which would not significantly affect the change in muscle fibers, but will have
an impact on the ability of fast neural activation of motor
units. Targeted training (strong-speed method), allows selective activation of motor units of fast fibers, which can produce
great muscular force. Marković and Perusko (2003) claim
that the speed-strong method, characterized by small and
medium loads, can be performed with concentric part of
the movement speed. To make this possible, it is necessary
to provide adequate rest, not only between sets, but between
series as well, to minimize fatigue. Following these recommendations, it is possible to increase the ability of rapid
activation of motor units of higher threshold afferents, important for the more tangible success.
S obzirom na već poznate zahtjeve sportske borbe gdje je
sposobnost brzog generisanja sile u najkraćoj vremenskoj
jedinici od velikog značaja za njenu uspje{nost, potrebno je
odabrati sredstva i metode za razvoj te sposobnosti. Jedan od
već poznatih i provjerenih načina je svakako rad s tegovima.
Usmjerenost treninga treba da bude na aktivaciji motornih
jedinica visokog praga podražaja, odnosno na brza glikolitička
vlakna sa visokom frekvencijom impulsa, koji će obezbijediti porast mi{ićne sile. Op{te je mi{ljenje da je ovo moguće
postići maksimalnom brzinom mi{ićne kontrakcije, koja neće
bitno uticati na promjenu u mi{ićnim vlaknima, ali će imati
uticaj na nervnu sposobnost brze aktivacije motoričkih jedinica. Ciljanim treningom (brzinsko-snažnim metodom), moguća
je selektivna aktivacija motoričkih jedinica brzih vlakana, koji
mogu proizvesti veliku mi{ićnu silu. Marković i Peru{ko (2003)
tvrde da je brzinsko-snažnom metodom koju karakteri{u mala
i srednja opterećenja, moguće izvesti koncentrični dio
pokreta maksimalnom brzinom. Kako bi ovo bilo moguće,
potrebno je obezbijediti odgovarajuću pauzu, ne samo između
serija, već i između ponavljanja u okviru serije, čime bi se
zamor sveo na minimum. Po{tivanjem ovih preporuka, moguće
je povećanje sposobnosti bržeg aktiviranja motoričkih jedinica visokog praga podražaja, značajnih za rezultatsku uspje{nost.
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Plyometric training method
Pliometrijski metod treninga
Plyometric method is one of the more interesting discoveries of practice. It includes specific exercises which take turns
eccentric and concentric muscle contractions, in order to
develop a strong movement in the shortest period of time.
Between the two contractions, prior to concentric contraction, a short and strong isometric contraction that connects
the eccentric and concentric muscle contraction. This
muscle activity is taking place simultaneously in combined
muscle function in a short period of time and it is very important for the efficiency of sports fight in karate. It allows
you to quickly change direction, start and acceleration,
whether by direct, prolonged or reprogrammed attack, and
the corresponding type of defense and counterattacks.
Given that the phase resistance (reflection) is characterized
by eccentric-concentric activity, the greatest strain suffered
knee extensor muscles, and therefore power development
methodology required for efficient movement in sports
karate fighting should focus on developing explosive power
of knee extensor muscles. One of the methods that could
respond to these requirements is certainly the plyometric
method (the method of reverse mode of muscle).
Pliometrijski metod je jedno od zanimljivijih trenažnih otkrića.
On obuhvata specifične vježbe u kojima se smjenjuju
ekscentrična i koncentrična mi{ićna kontrakcija, u cilju
razvoja snažnog pokreta u najkraćem vremenskom periodu.
Između ove dvije kontrakcije, prije same koncentrične
kontrakcije, postoji kratka i snažna izometrijska kontrakcija
koja povezuje ekscentričnu i koncentričnu mi{ićnu kontrakciju. Ova mi{ićna aktivnost se odvija simultano u kombinaciji mi{ićnih funkcija u kratkom vremenskom periodu i
veoma je značajna za efikasnost vođenja sportske borbe u
karateu. Ona omogućava brzu promjenu pravca kretanja i
startno ubrzanje, bilo da je riječ o direktnom, produženom
ili reprogramiranom napadu, te odgovarajućim vrstama
odbrana i kontranapada. S obzirom na to da fazu odupiranja (odraza) karakteri{e ekscentrično-koncentrična aktivnost,
najveće naprezanje trpe mi{ići opružača nogu, pa zato i
metodiku razvoja snage potrebne za efikasno kretanje u
sportskoj karate borbi treba usmjeriti na razvoj eksplozivne
snage mi{ića opružača nogu. Jedan od metoda koji bi mogao
odgovoriti ovim zahtjevima svakako je pliometrijski metod
(metod povratnog režima rada mi{ića).
Development of speed and
explosive power combined method
Razvoj brzinske i eksplozivne
snage kombinovanim metodom
This method, for the purposes of this study, had involved a
combination of external load (working with weights) and
plyometrics, with successive change of this two methods.
Pod ovim metodom rada, za potrebe ovoga istraživanja,
podrazumijevala se kombinacija spolja{njeg opterećenja (rad
sa tegovima) i pliometrije, tako {to se sukcesivno radio jedan,
a zatim drugi metod.
Scope and objective
Predmet i cilj istraživanja
The subject of research is to increase explosive strength by
using three different training methods (rapid excitation
method, the speed of force generation metod and combined
method). Training stimulus must increase the maximum
result of different varieties of jumps, which would contribute
to the efficiency of sports fight in karate.
Although we were confident that they will be using all three
training methods to increase excitement of central nervous
system, it will come to involve a larger number of motor units
and greater frequency of discharge of nerve impulses, it will
increase the maximum force, shortening velocity manifestation
of force, and that it will positively affect their generation, we
were interested which of these three methods will be effective
in six weeks long training process. In this sense, the aim of this
study was to determine which training method would be more
effective, the expression of explosive power, expressed through
the achievement of a maximum length and height of different
varieties of jumps.
Predmet istraživanja odnosi se na povećanje eksplozivne
snage pomoću tri različita trenažna metoda (metod brzih
ekscitacija, metod brzine generisanja sile i metod njihove
kombinacije). Trenažni stimulusi treba da doprinesu povećanju
maksimalnih rezultata različitih varijanti skokova, koji bi
doprinijeli efikasnosti vođenja sportske borbe u karateu.
Iako smo bili uvjereni da će se pomoću sva tri trenažna
metoda povećati ekscitiranost centralnog nervnog sistema,
da će doći do uključivanja većeg broja motornih jedinica i
veće frekvencije pražnjenja nervnih impulsa, da će se povećati
maksimalna sila, skratiti brzina ispoljavanja sile, kao i da će
se pozitivno uticati na njeno generisanje, nas je interesovalo koji će od ova tri načina ipak biti efikasniji u {estonedjeljnom
trenažnom procesu. U tom smislu i cilj ovog istraživanja je
bio da se utvrdi koji trenažni metod će dati veće efekte, u
ispoljavanju eksplozivne snage, izražene kroz postizanje
maksimalne dužine i visine različitih varijanti skokova.
The hypothesis
Hipoteza istraživanja
Given the variety of methods to develop explosive power
(the external load-weights, plyometric, and the combined
method), it is assumed: Different methods of work in the
limited time of training process, will contribute to statistically significant differences in all observed motor tests.
S obzirom na različite metode rada na razvoju eksplozivne
snage (spolja{nje opterećenje - tegovi, pliometrija i kombinovani metod), realno je pretpostaviti: Različiti metodi
rada, u ograničenom vremenu trenažnog procesa, doprinijeće
statistički značajnim razlikama u svim posmatranim motoričkim
testovima.
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Research methods
Metode istraživanja
The study was based on experiment with three groups, to
determine more efficient methods to develop explosive
power in a limited period of time.
Istraživanje je zasnovano na eksperimentu sa tri grupe, s
ciljem utvrđivanja efikasnijeg metoda za razvoj eksplozivne
snage u ograničenom vremenskom periodu.
The sample of respondents
Uzorak ispitanika
The sample comprised 30 respondents, first-year students
of The College of Internal Affairs who had volunteered for
the training process, of which 20 were male and 10 female
subjects. Before the experiment all students, trough the
regular education process, were familiar with the basic elements of movement and kicks from karate. They are, in
addition to regular classes in special physical education, were
subjected to additional, focused training sessions twice a
week for six weeks. Before and three days after the training
process, were also tested levels of explosive power of the
five motor tests, one of which was tested and proven in
practice and four specific unconfirmed tests. The experiment
was conducted in three groups that operated different
methods of developing speed and explosive power. One
group was exposed to working with weights (Group T), the
other plyometric (group P), and the third combined-method
weights and plyometric (group C). Each group consisted of
ten respondents, but given the different circumstances, the
number had almost halved, so that the group T consisted of
only 4 respondents, the group P - 8, and group C - 4 respondents. Thus, only 16 respondents completed the training
process, whose results were taken into consideration.
Uzorak ispitanika je činilo 30 ispitanika, studenata prve
godine Visoke {kole unutra{njih poslova koji su se dobrovoljno javili za trenažni proces, od čega je 20 ispitanika
mu{kog i 10 ispitanika ženskog pola. Svi studenti su prije
eksperimenta, kroz redovni nastavni proces, bili upoznati sa
osnovnim elementima kretanja i udaraca iz karatea. Oni su,
pored redovne nastave iz Specijalnog fizičkog obrazovanja,
bili podvrgnuti dodatnim, usmjerenim treninzima dva puta
nedjeljno u trajanju od {est nedjelja. Prije početka i tri dana
nakon zavr{etka trenažnog procesa, izvr{eno je testiranje
nivoa eksplozivne snage pomoću pet motoričkih testova, od
čega je jedan provjeren i potvrđen u praksi i četiri specifična
nepotvrđena testa. Eksperiment se odvijao u tri grupe koje
su radile različitim metodama razvoja brzinske i eksplozivne
snage. Jedna grupa je bila izložena radu s tegovima (grupa
T), druga pliometriji (grupa P), a treća kombinovanoj
metodi- tegovi i pliometrija (grupa K). Svaka grupa je brojala po deset ispitanika, ali s obzirom na različite okolnosti,
taj broj se gotovo prepolovio, tako da je grupa T brojala
svega 4 ispitanika, grupa P– 8 i grupa K – 4 ispitanika. Dakle, svega 16 ispitanika je zavr{ilo trenažni proces, čiji su
rezultati uzeti u razmatranje.
The sample of variables
and methods of measurement
Uzorak varijabli
i način njihovog mjerenja
Variables were selected so that the most part of them was
near the structure of sports fight in karate. These are:
FDLSDL - Fudo daci left - long jump in the same position (left);
FDDSDD - Fudo daci right - long jump in the same position
(right); FDLSDSS - Fudo daci left - long jump in the opposite
position (right); FDDSDSS - Fudo daci right - high jump in the
opposite position (left) and SV - high jump Sardzent. Estimate
of the total test duration for one of the respondent is 2 minutes.
Number of examiners: one examiner. Equipment: 3 thin mats,
chalk, and measuring rope in centimeters. Description of site:
Sports hall. By the wall a narrower set mat is positioned, and
in its extension the other two. The wall serves to fix the mats.
The scale for measuring the length of jump starts 1.5 meters
from the end of the mat against the wall, up to 3.50 m. On
each side of mat, at a distance of 1 cm, 20 cm long parallel
lines were made. For better orientation, full meters, decimeters
and every 5 cm were particularly marked. Task: The candidate
is on the first mat in a combat stance and guards with the toes
of the protruding leg on the edge of the mat. Respondent’s
task is to jump as far as possible with simultaneous reflection
of both legs. The task is repeated four times, with a break that
respondent needs, at a walking pace, to get back to its original
position. The task was completed after the subjects performed
four correct jumps.
The examiner stands on the side of respondents and controls
does the toes of respondent pass over the edge of the mat.
After the respondent performs the correct jump, the examiner approaches the mat, reads the result and registers it.
Rating: Registers the correct length of the jump in centimeters
from the edge of the mat to a footprint on the mat that is clos-
Varijable su bile izabrane tako što su velikim dijelom bile
približne samoj strukturi sportske borbe u karateu. To su:
FDLSDL – fudo dači lijevi – skok udalj u isti stav (lijevi);
FDDSDD – fudo dači desni – skok udalj u isti stav (desni);
FDLSDSS – fudo dači lijevi – skok udalj u suprotni stav
(desni); FDDSDSS – fudo dači desni – skok udalj u suprotni
stav (lijevi) i SV – skok uvis Sardžent
Procjena ukupnog trajanja testa za jednog ispitanika iznosi
2 minuta. Broj ispitivača: 1 ispitivač.
Rekviziti: 3 tanke strunjače, kreda, i krojački metar. Opis
mjesta izvođenja: Sportska sala. Do zida se užim krajem
postavi strunjača, a u njezinu produžetku ostale dvije. Zid
služi za fiksiranje strunjača. Skala za mjerenje dužine skoka
počinje 1,5 metar od kraja strunjače naslonjene na zid, pa
sve do 3,50 m. Sa svake strane strunjača, na razmaku od 1
cm, povučene su paralelne linije duge 20 cm. Radi bolje
orijentacije, posebno su označeni puni metri, decimetri i
svakih 5 centimetara. Zadatak: Ispitanik se nalazi na prvoj
strunjači u borbenom stavu i gardu s prstima stopala isturene
noge na rubu strunjače. Ispitanikov je zadatak da istovremenim odrazom obje noge skoči naprijed {to dalje može.
Zadatak se ponavlja četiri puta, s pauzom koja je potrebna
da se ispitanik, laganim korakom, vrati u prvobitnu poziciju.
Zadatak je zavr{en nakon {to ispitanik izvede 4 ispravna
skoka.
Ispitivač stoji bočno u odnosu na ispitanika i kontroli{e prelaze
li nožni prsti ispitanika preko ruba strunjače. Nakon {to je
ispitanik izveo ispravni skok, ispitivač prilazi strunjači, očitava
rezultat i registruje ga. Ocjenjivanje: Registruje se dužina
210
Zbornik radova 2010, 207-216
est to the place of reflection. The length of each of the four
jumps in particular is noted. Note: The candidate jumps
barefoot. Jump is considered wrong in the following cases: if
the respondent made a double reflection (viper) in place before
the jump, if fingers cross the edge of the mat, if the optimal
length and width of a combat stance is shorten, if in the landing touches the mat with hands behind heels and if sits down
during the landing. Each incorrect jump is repeated. The task
is to demonstrate and simultaneously provide guidance. Respondent does not have a trial attempt.
When it comes to vertical jump - “Sardzent “, its testing was
performed by well-known and standardized procedure, and
on this occasion it will not be discussed.
ispravnog skoka u centimetrima od ivice strunjače do otiska
stopala na strunjači koji je najbliži mjestu odraza. Bilježi se
dužina svakog od 4 skoka posebno. Napomena: Ispitanik
skače bos. Skok se smatra neispravnim u slijedećim slučajevima:
ako ispitanik napravi dupli odraz (poskok) u mjestu prije
skoka, ako prstima pređe ivicu strunjače, ako skrati optimalnu dužinu i {irinu borbenog stava, ako pri doskoku
dodirne strunjaču rukama iza peta i ako pri doskoku sjedne.
Svaki se neispravni skok ponavlja. Zadatak se demonstrira i
istovremeno se daje uputstvo. Ispitanik nema probni poku{aj.
Kada je u pitanju skok uvis – „Sardžent“, njegovo testiranje
je vr{eno po poznatoj i standardizovanoj proceduri, pa ovom
prilikom o njemu neće biti govora.
Training program
Program obuke
Development of speed
and explosive strength with weights
Razvoj brzinske
i eksplozivne snage pomoću tegova
First week – “fast” squat: from the starting point, which is the
same for the first five weeks (feet shoulder-width apart and
the weight is on the shoulders held with hands) slowly lowering into a deep squat is done (to parallel position with the thigh
pad) and lifting is done explosively. Recommendations for
implementation: the load is equal to the mass of jumping, the
number of repetitions: 4 - 6, number series: 2 – 4. Rest between
sets = 3 min.
Second week – half squat with rising on the fingers: from the
initial position lowering half squat is performed (angle between
lower leg and thigh is about 90 °), and after that explosive
lifting is done standing on finger toes. Attempts connect
quickly. The recommendation to perform: load is 100 - 150%
of the mass of jumping, the number of repetitions: 4 - 6,
number series: 2 – 4. Rest between sets = 3 min.
Third week - step on the Swedish box (40 cm): exercise is
performed rapidly by climbing on the Swedish box, with the
previous step in the opposite leg before the Swedish box.
Lowering should be slow and careful. Recommendations for
implementation: the load is equal to the mass of jumping, the
number of repetitions: 3 - 4 (on each leg), the number series:
2 – 4. Rest between sets = 3-5 min.
Fourth week - step forward: from the starting point, steps
forward are performed forward or at an angle of 45 °. Recommendations for implementation: load is 50% of the weight,
number of repetitions: 80-10 (each leg), the number of series
2 – 4. Rest between sets = 3-5 min.
Fifth week – step a side: from the initial position steps a side
are performed by stepping a side. Recommendations for implementation: load is 50% of the mass of jumping, the number
of repetitions: 8 - 10 (each leg); number series: 2 – 4. Rest
between sets = 3-5 min.
Sixth week - “rapid” steps forward: from the initial position
(step forward position, the weight is on the shoulders held with
hands) alternately change the position of the legs. Recommendations for implementation: load is 50% of the mass of
jumping, play time: 8 - 10 s, the number series: 2 – 3. Rest
between sets = 4-6 min.
Prva nedjelja – ,,brzi’’ čučanj: iz početnog položaja koji je
isti za prvih pet nedjelja (stopala u {irini ramena, a teg se
nalazi na ramenima pridržavan rukama) izvodi se sporo
spu{tanje u duboki čučanj (do paralelnog položaja natkoljenica s podlogom), a podizanje se vr{i eksplozivno.
Preporuka za izvođenje: opterećenje je jednako masi skakača;
broj ponavljanja: 4 – 6; broj serija: 2 – 4. Odmor između
serija = 3 min.
Druga nedjelja – polučučanj s podizanjem na prste: iz
početnog položaja izvodi se spu{tanje do polučučnja (ugao
između potkoljenice i natkoljenice je oko 90°), a nakon toga
se vr{i eksplozivno podizanje na prste. Poku{aji se povezuju brzo. Preporuka za izvođenje: opterećenje je 100 – 150%
od mase skakača; broj ponavljanja: 4 – 6; broj serija : 2 – 4.
Odmor između serija = 3 min.
Treća nedjelja – step na {vedski sanduk (40 cm): vježba se
izvodi brzim penjanjem na {vedski sanduk, uz prethodni
korak suprotnom nogom prije {vedskog sanduka. Spu{tanje
treba da bude polagano i oprezno. Preporuka za izvođenje:
opterećenje je jednako masi skakača, broj ponavljanja: 3
– 4 (na svaku nogu); broj serija: 2 – 4. Odmor između
serija = 3–5 min.
Četvrta nedjelja – iskoraci: iz početnog položaja iskoraci se
izvode prema naprijed ili pod uglom od 45°. Preporuka za
izvođenje: opterećenje iznosi 50% od mase; broj ponavljanja: 8–10 (na svaku nogu), broj serija 2 – 4. Odmor između
serija = 3–5 min.
Peta nedjelja – otkoraci: iz početnog položaja otkoraci se
izvode u stranu. Preporuka za izvođenje: opterećenje
iznosi 50% od mase skakača; broj ponavljanja: 8 – 10 (na
svaku nogu); broj serija: 2 – 4. Odmor između serija = 3–5
min.
[esta nedjelja – ,,brzi’’ iskoraci: iz početnog položaja (iskoračni
stav, teg se nalazi na ramenima pridržavan rukama) naizmjenice se mijenja položaj nogu. Preporuka za izvođenje:
opterećenje je 50% od mase skakača; vrijeme izvođenja: 8
– 10 s; broj serija: 2 – 3. Odmor između serija = 4–6 min.
Development of speed
and explosive strength plyometric method
Razvoj brzinske
i eksplozivne snage pliometrijskim metodom
Given that these respondents whose previous experience
was unknown to investigators, planning and organization of
the load carried by progressive scale and intensity in order
S obzirom na to da je riječ o ispitanicima čija su ranija
iskustva ispitivačima bila nepoznata, planiranje i organizacija opterećenja vr{ena je progresivnim obimom i intenzitetom
211
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to avoid the risk of injury. Trainings were conducted twice a
week with a break of 72 hours. Exercise with low or medium
intensity were performed with 10 reps around 6-8 series,
while more intense exercise performed in the 3-6 series.
Volume was expressed through a number of foot contacts
the ground. At the beginning of the experiment exercises
were performed with low-intensity, that every week the intensity increased to the full respondent’s potential. Height of
a spring down increased also and was 40, 60, 80 and 100
cm. Exercises were carried out by the time the respondents
were unable to achieve their maximum or nearly maximum
results, or when the heel touched the floor, lengthen the time
contact with the ground, lowered center of gravity or reduce
the horizontal speed. The duration of training, along with
warming at the beginning and relaxation exercises at the end,
amounted to, about 60 minutes. Warming up was focused
on the entire body, with special emphasis on stretching and
specific exercises that were holding the structure in the training process. Means used in this method of operation are:
First Week: hurdling, jumping on one foot, triple jump, jumping from one leg in the squat and from the squat on the other
leg, diagonal jumps, jump sideways to other leg and from the
other diagonally forward to the first, then second, and from
the other sideways on the first. Break between reps is while
the other is working, and between the series 2-3 min.
Second week: spring with both feet on the bench, both feet
jump over benches; one-legged spring at a bench, one-legged
jump over benches; step forward - distance 1m from the bench
- spring at the opposite leg – jump a side - landing on the opposite; step forward - distance around 1m from the bench –
jump over - landing on the opposite leg. Break between reps
is while the other is working, and between sets, 3 min.
Third week: step forward with one leg (approx. 1m), jump
over the bench and landing on the same leg, side – with both
feet jumps over the bench; from half squat (distance about 1
meter from the bench) the spring and distant jump on booth
feet; from a deep squat jump over the bench (the distance
from the bench about 1 m). Rest between reps while the
other is working, and between sets, 3-5 min.
Fourth week: jumping on the crate with both feet, with both
feet jumps from the chest, depth jump with a turn of 180°,
depth jump with a turn of 360 degrees, drop jumps and far
bounce; depth jump and bounce on one foot. Rest between
repetitions is while the other is working, and 3-5 min between
sets.
Fifth week: deep jump and bounce straight up, jump and
bounce deep in the side, depth jump and bounce diagonally;
depth jump and sprint 5m, depth jump and leap forward on
one foot. Rest between reps is while the other is working, and
the series 4 - 6 min.
Sixth week: depth jump and jump diagonally on one leg;
one-legged depth jump; one-legged depth jump and bounce
on both feet; one-legged depth jump and bounce forward on
the other foot, depth jump and bounce into the side on one
leg. Rest between reps is while the other is working, between
a series of 6-8 min.
kako bi se izbjegle opasnosti od povreda. Treninzi su izvođeni
dva puta nedeljno sa pauzom od 72 sata. Vježbe nižeg i
srednjeg intenziteta su izvođene sa 10 ponavljanja oko 6–8
serija, dok su intenzivnije vježbe izvođene u 3–6 serija. Obim
se izražavao kroz broj kontakata stopala sa tlom. Na početku
eksperimenta izvođene su vježbe niskog intenziteta, da bi
se svake nedjelje intenzitet povećavao da maksimalnih
mogućnosti ispitanika. Visina saskoka je takođe povećavana
i iznosila je 40; 60; 80 i 100 cm. Vježbe su se izvodile do
trenutka kada ispitanici nisu mogli da postižu svoje maksimalne ili približno maksimalne rezultate, odnosno kada bi
petom dotakli pod, produžili vrijeme kontakta sa podlogom,
spustili teži{te ili smanjili horizontalnu brzinu. Trajanje
treninga, zajedno sa zagrijavanjem na početku i vježbama
relaksacije na kraju, iznosilo, je oko 60 minuta. Zagrijavanje je bilo usmjereno na cijelo tijelo, s posebnim akcentom
na istezanje i specifičnim vježbama koje su podražavale
strukturu aktivnosti u trenažnom procesu. Sredstva koja su
kori{ćena u ovom metodu rada su:
Prva nedjelja: prepona{ki skokovi; skokovi na jednoj nozi;
troskok; skok s jedne noge u čučanj i iz čučnja na drugu,
dijagonalni skokovi; skok bočno na drugu nogu, sa druge
dijagonalno naprijed na prvu, drugu, pa sa druge bočno na
prvu. Odmor između ponavljanja je dok drugi radi, a između
serija 2–3 min.
Druga nedjelja: sunožni naskoci na klupu; sunožni preskoci
preko klupe; jednonožni naskok na klupu; jednonožni
preskok preko klupe; iskorak – udaljenost 1m od klupe –
naskok na suprotnu nogu – odskok – doskok na suprotnu;
iskorak – udaljenost oko1m od klupe – preskok – doskok na
suprotnu nogu. Odmor između ponavljanja je dok drugi
radi, a između serija, 3 min.
Treća nedjelja: iskorak jednom nogom (udaljenost oko 1m),
preskok preko klupe i doskok na istu nogu; bočni – sunožni
preskoci preko klupe; iz polučučnja (udaljenost oko 1m od
klupe) naskok i daleki saskok; iz dubokog čučnja preskok
preko klupe (udaljenost od klupe oko 1m). Odmor između
ponavljanja je dok drugi radi, a između serija, 3-5 min.
Četvrta nedjelja: sunožni skokovi na sanduk; sunožni saskoci
sa sanduka; dubinski skok s okretom za 180°; dubinski skok
s okretom za 360 stepeni; dubinski skok i daleki odskok;
dubinski skok i odskok na jednu nogu. Odmor između
ponavljanja je dok drugi radi, a između serija 3–5 min.
Peta nedjelja: dubinski skok i odskok uvis; dubinski skok i
odskok u stranu; dubinski skok i dijagonalno odskok; dubinski skok i sprint 5m; dubinski skok i skok naprijed na
jednu nogu. Odmor između ponavljanja je dok drugi radi,
a između serija 4–6 min.
Šesta nedjelja: dubinski skok i skok dijagonalno na jednu
nogu; jednonožni dubinski skok; jednonožni dubinski skok
i odskok na obje noge; jednonožni dubinski skok i odskok
na drugu nogu naprijed; dubinski skok i odskok u stranu na
jednu nogu. Odmor između ponavljanja je dok drugi radi,
a između serija 6–8 min.
Development of speed
and explosive power using combined method
Razvoj brzinske
i eksplozivne snage kombinovanim metodom
The girls formed a group that has worked a combined training. They are the first three weeks of work load with the
weight (maximal and explosive muscle contractions), as the
group that has worked loading weights. The other three weeks
they were working plyometric (medium and high intensity),
Djevojke su činile grupu koja je radila kombinovani trening.
One su prve tri nedjelje radile opterećenje s tegovima
(maksimalnom i eksplozivnom mi{ićnom kontrakcijom), kao
i grupa koja je radila opterećenje tegovima. Druge tri nedjelje
radile su pliometriju (srednji i visoki intenzitet), po programu
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Gužvica, M., Vulin, L. i Milju{, M.: EFEKTI PRIMJENE RAZLIČITIH TRENAŽNIH... Zbornik radova 2010, 207-216
according to a program of the group that worked plyometric,
at program from the second, fourth and fifth week.
grupe koja je radila pliometriju, i to po programu iz druge,
četvrte i pete nedjelje.
Data procesing
Obrada podataka
Survey data obtained were analyzed by descriptive and
discriminative statistical procedure. Their mathematical
processing was conducted on a PC Pentium 4, with the use
of SPSS-16 statistical software application.
To estimate the basic features set, descriptive analysis of data
were calculated: arithmetic mean (M), as a measure of the
average value, standard deviation (S) - as an indicator of the
absolute difference between the results from the arithmetic
mean and standard error of mean (SE) - a measure of absolute deviation results from mean values.
Determine the differences of means within the groups between the initial and final measurement was performed
using T-test for paired samples, the significance level of p
<.05.
Podaci dobijeni istraživanjem obrađeni su deskriptivnom i
diskriminativnom statističkom procedurom. Njihovo matematičko
procesiranje realizovano je na PC računaru Pentijum 4, uz
upotrebu aplikacionog statističkog programa SPSS – 16.
Za procjenu osnovnih karakteristika skupa, deskriptivnom
analizom podataka izračunate su: aritmetička sredina (M),
kao mjera prosječnih vrijednosti; standardna devijacija (S) –
kao pokazatelj apsolutnog odstupanja rezultata od aritmetičke
sredine i standardna gre{ka aritmetičke sredine (SE) – kao
mjera apsolutnog odstupanja rezultata od srednjih vrijednosti.
Utvrđivanje razlika aritmetičkih sredina u okviru posmatranih
grupa između inicijalnog i finalnog mjerenja vr{eno je pomoću
T-testa za zavisne uzorke, na nivou značajnosti p < 0,05.
Interpretation
of results and discussion
Interpretacija
rezultata sa diskusijom
In order to economize space, although with the analysis of
difference, descriptive and correlation analysis of paired
samples was performed, for the purposes of this paper only
the results of differences within the groups will be presented.
Therefore, in this place, only the information that speaks
that the participants, after completing treatment and appropriate statistical procedures, achieved better results on
all tests. However, statistically significant differences were
not obtained in all the observed variables.
U cilju ekonomisanja prostora, iako je pored analize razlika
urađena deskriptivna i korelaciona analiza sparenih uzoraka,
za potrebe ovoga rada biće prikazani samo rezultati razlika
u okviru posmatranih grupa. Zato će, na ovom mjestu,
uslijediti samo informacija koja govori da su ispitanici, nakon
zavr{enog tretmana i odgovarajuće statističke procedure,
postigli bolje rezultate na svim provedenim testovima.
Međutim, statistički značajne razlike nisu dobijene u svim
posmatranim varijablama.
M
SD
SE
df
p
3
.001
-1.069
3
.364
-2.698
3
.074
4.08
2.041 -10.780
3
.002
8.01
4.008
3
.003
Pair 1
sv1 - sv2
-7.75
.95
Pair 2
fdlsdl1 - fdlsdl2
-9.75
18.25
9.123
Pair 3
fddsdd1 - fddsdd2
-14.25
10.56
5.282
Pair 4
fdlsdss1 - fdlsdss2
-22.00
Pair 5
fddsdss1 - fddsdss2
-35.25
t
.479 -16.190
-8.795
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Tabela 1: Statistička značajnost razlika u okviru grupe T za varijable: SV1 - SV2; FDLSDL1 - FDLSDL2; FDDSDD1 - FDDSDD2; FDLSDSS1 - FDLSDSS2 i FDDSDSS1 - FDDSDSS2
Table 1: Statistical significance of differences within the group T for variables: SV1 - SV2; FDLSDL1 - FDLSDL2; FDDSDD1
- FDDSDD2; FDLSDSS1 - FDLSDSS2 and FDDSDSS1 - FDDSDSS2
Legend/Legenda: M - Arithmetic mean (Aritmetička sredina); SD - Standard deviation (Standradna
devijacija); SE - Standard error of mean (Standardna ger{ka aritmetičke sredine); t - t-test;
df - Degris of freedom (Stepeni slobode); p - Significance (Značajnost); sv - High jump Sargent (Skok u vis - Sardžent); fdlsdl - Fudo daci left - long jump in the same position - left
(fudo dači lijevi – skok udalj u isti stav - lijevi); fddsdd - Fudo daci right - long jump in the
same position - right (fudo dači desni – skok udalj u isti stav - desni); fdlsdss - Fudo daci
left - long jump in the opposite position - right (fudo dači lijevi – skok udalj u suprotni stav
- desni); fddsdss - Fudo daci right - high jump in the opposite position - left (fudo dači
desni – skok udalj u suprotni stav - lijevi).
Table 1 shows the results of the difference for the respondents
who were on the development of explosive speed and strength
work using weights. The table shows that statistically significant difference was not obtained between the variables and
FDDSDD1 FDDSDD2, or between FDDSDD1 and FDDSDD2,
which indicates that the hypothesis H1 is only partially confirmed. The explanation for the results could be primarily
sought in a relatively short period of treatment, which the
respondents were exposed. It is also possible that respondents
U Tabeli 1 prikazani su rezultati analize razlika za ispitanike
koji su na razvoju eksplozivne i brzinske snage radili pomoću
tegova. Iz tabele je vidljivo da statistički značajna razlika nije
dobijena između varijabli FDDSDD1 i FDDSDD2, kao ni
između FDDSDD1 i FDDSDD2, {to ukazuje na to da je hipoteza H1 samo djelomično potvrđena. Obja{njenje za
dobijene rezultate moglo bi se, prije svega, potražiti u relativno kratkom tretmanu, kome su bili izloženi ispitanici.
Takođe, moguće je da ispitanici nisu u potpunosti izvodili
213
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Gužvica, M., Vulin, L., & Milju{, M.: THE EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF... did not fully perform a given exercise in a way that was suggested, that they didn’t always perform exercise with maximum
speed of muscle contraction, and possibly missing the activation of fast motor units. Of course, it is possible that respondents have not always been sufficiently motivated to work,
which also affected the quality of the exercise.
Table 2 shows the results of respondents who worked on the
development of power using plyometric method (the method
of reverse mode of muscle). The table shows that, after treatment, there was no statistically significant difference only
between the variables FDLSDSS1 and DLSDSS2, so that the
hypothesis, even in this case, is not fully confirmed. However, these respondents have achieved better results compared
to group T, for which an explanation, especially, should look
into the specifics of this method. Specifically, with plyometric
work method is possible to use the energy of elastic deformation during the concentric contraction, which during the
elongation in eccentrics contraction is created in the connective tissue and tendons (Asmussen, et al; see in Nedeljković,
2004), as in the previous method was not the case. It is possible to assume that myotatic (or stretch) reflex, is a reflex
which, in eccentric contraction, significantly contributes to a
stronger concentric contraction stronger concentric contraction
of the jump in reverse mode, contributes to increased efficiency (Bosco, et al; see in Nedeljković, 2004). Furthermore,
the reason for the increased efficiency may be that, that eccentric contractions proceeding concentric allows muscle
sufficient time for activation at a higher level, so that upcoming concentric contraction starts from the maximum active
state (Bosco & Viitasalo; see in Nedeljkovic, 2004). Jaric et
al. (1985). claim that the previous stretch of active muscle
changes contractile apparatus properties, where there is increased cross-bridge strain circuit myosin and actin and increased muscle stiffness itself, which contributes to the initial
concentric force, which in turn contributes to a better result.
Increasing priactivation increases the alpha motor neurons
excitement, so the reflex potentiation is better (Simonsen et
al; see in Čoh, 2004), which also positively affects the efficiency of the more tangible. Certainly, motivation as a very
important factor in the process of training (it was more apparent in the respondents in this group than among respondents
in the group T) could also be the cause of better achievement.
Proceedings 2010, 207-216
zadate vježbe na način koji im je sugerisan, odnosno da nisu
uvijek izvodili vježbe maksimalnom brzinom mi{ićne kontrakcije, pa je, moguće, izostala i aktivacija brzih motornih
jedinica. Naravno, moguće je i da ispitanici nisu uvijek bili
dovoljno motivisani za rad, {to je takođe negativno uticalo
na kvalitet izvođenja vježbe.
U Tabeli 2, prikazani su rezultati ispitanika koji su radili na
razvoju snage pliometrijskim metodom (metod povratnog
režima rada mi{ića). Iz tabele je vidljivo da, nakon tretmana,
nije dobijena statistički značajna razlika samo između varijabli FDLSDSS1 i DLSDSS2, tako da hipoteza, ni u ovom
slučaju, nije u potpunosti potvrđena. Ipak, ispitanici ove
grupe postigli su ne{to bolje rezultate u odnosu na grupu T,
za {ta obja{njenje, prije svega, treba potražiti u specifičnosti
ovoga metoda. Naime, pliometrijskim metodom rada moguće
je kori{ćenje energije elastične deformacije, tokom koncentrične
kontrakcije, koja se prilikom izduženja u ekscentirčnoj
kontrakciji stvara u vezivnom tkivu i tetivama (Asmussen i
saradnici; vidi u Nedeljkoviću, 2004), {to u prethodnom
metodu nije slučaj. Moguće je pretpostaviti da miotatički
refleks, koji u ekscentričnoj kontrakciji značajno doprinosi
jačoj koncentričnoj kontrakciji kod skoka u povratnom režimu
rada, doprinosi većoj efikasnosti (Bosco i saradnici; vidi u
Nedeljkoviću, 2004). Dalje, razlog većoj efikasnosti može
biti i to, {to ekscentrična kontrakcija koja prethodi koncentričnoj
omogućava mi{iću dovoljno vremena za aktivaciju na vi{em
nivou, tako da nastupajuća koncentrična kontrakcija počinje
iz maksimalno aktivnog stanja (Bosco i Viitasalo; vidi u
Nedeljković, 2004). Jarić i saradnici (1985) tvrde da se prethodnim istezanjem aktivnog mi{ića mijenjaju osobine
kontraktilnog aparata, pri čemu dolazi do pojačanog naprezanja spoja poprečnih mostića miozina i aktina, odnosno
do pojačane krutosti samoga mi{ića, {to doprinosi povećanju
inicijalne koncentrične sile, koja opet, doprinosi boljem
rezultatu. Povećanjem predaktivacije povećava se i podraženost
alfa motoričkih neurona, pa je samim tim bolja i refleksna
potencijacija (Simonsen i saradnici; vidi u Čohu, 2004), {to
takođe pozitivno utiče na rezultatsku efikasnost. Svakako,
motivacija kao izuzetno značajan faktor u procesu treninga
(bila je vidljivija kod ispitanika u ovoj grupi nego kod ispitanika u grupi T) bi takođe mogla biti uzrok boljem postignuću.
Tabela 2: Statistička značajnost razlika u okviru grupe P za varijable: SV1 - SV2; FDLSDL1 - FDLSDL2; FDDSDD1 - FDDSDD2; FDLSDSS1 - FDLSDSS2 i FDDSDSS1 - FDDSDSS2
Table 2: Statistical significance of differences within the group P for the variables: SV1 - SV2; FDLSDL1 - FDLSDL2; FDDSDD1 - FDDSDD2; FDLSDSS1 - FDLSDSS2 and FDDSDSS1 - FDDSDSS2
M
SD
SE
t
df
p
Pair 1
sv1 - sv2
-4.13
.89
-4.61
4.60
7
.002
Pair 2
fdlsdl1 - fdlsdl2
-26.10
16.97
5.99
-4.36
7
.003
Pair 3
fddsdd1 - fddsdd2
-21.30
18.59
6.57
-3.23
7
.014
Pair 4
fdlsdss1 - fdlsdss2
-6.25
8.59
3.04
-2.06
7
.079
Pair 5
fddsdss1 - fddsdss2
-9.25
8.81
3.11
-2.97
7
.021
Legend/Legenda: M - Arithmetic mean (Aritmetička sredina); SD - Standard deviation (Standradna
devijacija); SE - Standard error of mean (Standardna ger{ka aritmetičke sredine); t - t-test;
df - Degris of freedom (Stepeni slobode); p - Significance (Značajnost); sv - High jump Sargent (Skok u vis - Sardžent); fdlsdl - Fudo daci left - long jump in the same position - left
(fudo dači lijevi – skok udalj u isti stav - lijevi); fddsdd - Fudo daci right - long jump in the
same position - right (fudo dači desni – skok udalj u isti stav - desni); fdlsdss - Fudo daci
left - long jump in the opposite position - right (fudo dači lijevi – skok udalj u suprotni stav
- desni); fddsdss - Fudo daci right - high jump in the opposite position - left (fudo dači
desni – skok udalj u suprotni stav - lijevi).
214
Gužvica, M., Vulin, L. i Milju{, M.: EFEKTI PRIMJENE RAZLIČITIH TRENAŽNIH... Table 3 presents the results of the difference for the group who
worked a combined method. The table shows that statistically significant difference was not obtained between the
variables SV1 - SV2, while on the border of statistical significance
are the variables FDLSDL1 - FDLSDL2. Explanation of this
phenomenon can be sought, above all in the mode of operation, but also in the methods of the given exercise. In fact, it
was noted that respondents did not fully meet the requirements
of individual exercises (referring to the pace and technique of
the individual exercises). Furthermore, the respondents observed
variability of motivation in the work process (probably caused
by the weight of individual exercises, as well as knowledge
that they do not perform completely in the right way), which
is likely, in addition to the aforementioned reasons, affected
the achievement of better results.
Zbornik radova 2010, 207-216
U Tabeli 3 prikazani su rezultati analize razlika za grupu koja
je radila kombinovanim metodom. Iz tabele je vidljivo da
statistički značajna razlika nije dobijena između varijabli SV1
- SV2, dok se na granici statističke značajnosti razlika nalaze
varijable FDLSDL1 - FDLSDL2. Obja{njenje ove pojave
moguće je potražiti, prije svega, u modalitetu rada, ali i u
načinu izvođenja zadanih vježbi. Naime, primijećeno je da
ispitanici nisu u potpunosti ispunjavali zahtjeve pojedinih
vježbi (misli se na tempo i tehniku izvođenja pojedinih
vježbi). Nadalje, kod ispitanika je primijećena i motivaciona
varijabilnost u procesu rada (vjerovatno uzrokovana težinom
pojedinih vježbi, kao i svije{ću da se u potpunosti, na pravi
način, one i ne izvode), {to je vjerovatno, uz već pomenute
razloge, uticalo na postizanje boljih rezultata.
Tabela 3: Statistička značajnost razlika u okviru grupe K za varijable: SV1 - SV2; FDLSDL1 - FDLSDL2; FDDSDD1 - FDDSDD2; FDLSDSS1 - FDLSDSS2 i FDDSDSS1 - FDDSDSS2
Table 3: Statistical significance of differences within the group of K variables SV1 - SV2; FDLSDL1 - FDLSDL2; FDDSDD1
- FDDSDD2; FDLSDSS1 - FDLSDSS2 and FDDSDSS1 - FDDSDSS2
M
SD
SE
-2.25
1.71
.85
t
df
p
-2.64
3
.078
Pair 1
sv1 - sv2
Pair 2
fdlsdl1 - fdlsdl2
-16.00
10.36
5.18
-3.09
3
.054
Pair 3
fddsdd1 - fddsdd2
-25.50
12.12
6.06
-4.21
3
.025
Pair 4
fdlsdss1 - fdlsdss2
-22.80
15.41
7.70
-2.95
3
.006
Pair 5
fddsdss1 - fddsdss2
-13.00
8.83
4.41
-2.94
3
.006
Conclusion
Zaključak
In this paper the effect of training on the development of
explosive strength in students from The College of Internal
Affairs using three different methods, namely: using weights,
plyometric, and a combination of both. Research is organized
on a sample of 30 subjects (first year students of the College
of Internal Affairs in Banja Luka). The sample was formed and
divided into three samples, regardless of their motor skills. One
group was exposed to working with weights (Group T), the
other plyometric (group P), and the third combined method
- weights and plyometric (group C). Each group consisted of
ten respondents, but only 16 respondents, according to the
requirements of research, completed the training process, so
that the group T mathematically processed only 4 respondents,
in group P – 8 and in group C - 4 respondents.
All respondents before the experiment started, trough the
regular education process, were familiar with the basic elements of movement and kicks from karate. They are, in addition to regular classes in Special physical education, were
subjected to additional, focused training sessions twice a week
for six weeks. Before and three days after the training process,
were also tested levels of explosive power of the five motor
tests, of which one test was tested and proven in practice, and
four are specific and unconfirmed. After completion of the
initial and final measurements, data were analyzed by appropriate statistical procedures, where all respondents, across
U radu je istraživan efekat treninga na razvoj eksplozivne
snage kod studenata Visoke {kole unutra{njih poslova primjenom tri različita metoda, i to: pomoću tegova, pliometrijom i kombinacijom ova dva. Istraživanje je organizovano
na uzorku od 30 ispitanika (studenti 1. godine Visoke {kole
unutra{njih poslova iz Banje Luke). Uzorak je bio formiran
i podijeljen na tri subuzorka, nezavisno od njihovih motoričkih sposobnosti. Jedna grupa je bila izložena radu s tegovima (grupa T), druga pliometriji (grupa P), a treća kombinovanoj metodi – tegovi i pliometrija (grupa K). Svaka grupa
je brojala po deset ispitanika, ali svega 16 ispitanika je, po
zahtjevima istraživanja, zavr{ilo trenažni proces, tako da su
u grupi T matematički procesirana svega 4 ispitanika, u
grupi P – 8 i u grupi K – 4 ispitanika.
Svi ispitanici su prije eksperimenta, kroz redovni nastavni
proces, bili upoznati s osnovnim elementima kretanja i
udaraca iz karatea. Oni su, pored redovne nastave iz Specijalnog fizičkog obrazovanja, bili podvrgnuti dodatnim,
usmjerenim treninzima dva puta nedjeljno u trajanju od {est
nedjelja. Prije početka i tri dana nakon zavr{etka trenažnog
procesa, izvr{eno je testiranje nivoa eksplozivne snage
pomoću pet motoričkih testova, od čega je jedan test provjeren
i potvrđen u praksi, a četiri su specifična i nepotvrđena.
Nakon provedenog inicijalnog i finalnog mjerenja, dobijeni
podaci su obrađeni odgovarajućom statističkom procedurom,
215
SHORT SCIENTIFIC PAPER
KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
Legend/Legenda: M - Arithmetic mean (Aritmetička sredina); SD - Standard deviation (Standradna
devijacija); SE - Standard error of mean (Standardna ger{ka aritmetičke sredine); t - t-test;
df - Degris of freedom (Stepeni slobode); p - Significance (Značajnost); sv - High jump Sargent (Skok u vis - Sardžent); fdlsdl - Fudo daci left - long jump in the same position - left
(fudo dači lijevi – skok udalj u isti stav - lijevi); fddsdd - Fudo daci right - long jump in the
same position - right (fudo dači desni – skok udalj u isti stav - desni); fdlsdss - Fudo daci
left - long jump in the opposite position - right (fudo dači lijevi – skok udalj u suprotni stav
- desni); fddsdss - Fudo daci right - high jump in the opposite position - left (fudo dači
desni – skok udalj u suprotni stav - lijevi).
Gužvica, M., Vulin, L., & Milju{, M.: THE EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF... Proceedings 2010, 207-216
the various tests, achieved better results. However, statistically significant differences were not obtained in all tests.
Specifically, statistically significant differences, after the final
measurements were obtained for groups T and K, in the three
tests, while for the P group statistically significant differences,
obtained in four tests conducted. Therefore, the results point
to partially accept the hypothesis, but they allow us that, with
caution, we conclude that the plyometric method of work in
the limited time is somewhat more effective than the other
two methods.
Seen whether the practical significance of this research in terms
of efficiency, it is evident that for the development of explosive
power, in a relatively short period of time, more convenient
method is plyometric work method. Of course, the results of
this study indicate the need for further exploration of this issue;
it considers, first of all, the top competitors in sport karate, as
well as the research on a larger sample and longer training
process.
pri čemu su svi ispitanici, u svim provedenim testovima,
postigli bolje rezultate. Ipak, statistički značajne razlike nisu
dobijene u svim provedenim testovima. Naime, statistički
značajne razlike, nakon finalnog mjerenja, dobijene su za
grupe T i K, u tri testa, dok su za grupu P statistički značajne
razlike, dobijene u četiri provedena testa. Zato dobijeni
rezultati upućuju na dijelomično prihvaćanje hipoteze, ali
nam omogućuju da, s oprezom, zaključimo da je pliometrijski metod rada u ograničenom vremenu ipak ne�����������
{����������
to efikasniji od druga dva metoda.
Posmatra li se praktični značaj ovog istraživanja s aspekta
efikasnosti, vidi se da je za razvoj eksplozivne snage, u relativno kratkom vremenskom periodu, pogodniji pliometrijski metod rada. Naravno, rezultati ovoga rada ukazuju na
potrebu daljeg istraživanja ove problematike; misli se, prije
svega, na vrhunske takmičare iz karate sporta, kao i na
istraživanje na većem uzorku i u dužem trenažnom procesu.
Reference
dynamics. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 54 (2),
216-221.
Markovic, G., & Peru{ko, M. (2003). Method of physical
training, International scientific conference. Zagreb.
Milo{ević, M., Zulic, M., & Bozic, S. (2001). Special Physical Education. Belgrade.
Nedeljković, A. (2004). The jump in depth as a mean of
plyometric training method for improving vertical
jump. Physical Education, 57/58 (1-4).
Čoh, M. (2004). Methodology and diagnostic of the development of vertical jump in the preparation of physical
training of athletes, physical training of athletes. Zagreb.
Jaric, S., Gavrilovic, P., & Ivancevic, V. (1985). Effects of
Previous Muscle contractions on cyclic movement
Received: September, 22nd 2010
Correspodence to:
SHORT SCIENTIFIC PAPER
KRATKI NAUČNI ČLANAK
Milan Gužvica, PhD
Cara Du{ana 82
78252 Trn
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Phone: +387 66 16 55 36
E-mail: guzvica.milanªgmail.com
216
Primljeno: 22. septembar 2010. godine
Korespodencija:
dr Milan Gužvica
Cara Du{ana 82
78252 Trn
Bosna i Hercegovina
Telefon: +387 66 16 55 36
E-mail: guzvica.milanªgmail.com
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efekti primjene različitih trenažnih metoda na razvoj eksplozivne