STOREPET report for second period
Magazines
No
1.
2.
Partner
responsible
or involved
Type
Title
Article in
scientific
magazine
Nauka i praksa
EUROPEAN PROJECT OF AN
INNOVATIVE THERMAL AND
ACOUSTIC INSULATION
SOLUTION FOR
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Article in
scientific
magazine
Facta
universitatis
THE APPLICATION OF NEW
ACTIVE (PCM) INSULATION
MATERIAL STOREPET
Countries
addressed
Description
Serbia
NAUKA I PRAKSA
No.16/2013
pages 51-61
http://www.gaf.ni.ac.rs/ind
ex1.php
Serbia
FACTA UNIVERSITATIS
Pages 21-28
http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/ea
o/eao.html
1600
Europe
http://www.sb13.org/index.
php/en/
pages 1488-1495
April 2014
175
Wastern
Balkan
December 2014
144
Europe
th
16
12
16
Date
Type and size of audience
Dundjer
Dec
2013
All stakeholders in
construction sector in Serbia
Circulation 250
Dundjer
Dec
2014
All stakeholders in
construction sector in Serbia
Circulation 250
Participating in exhibitions & conferences
International
Conference in
SB 2013 Graz
STOREPET – EUROPEAN PROJECT
OF AN INNOVATIVE THERMAL AND
ACOUSTIC INSULATION SOLUTION
FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Dundjer
4.
International
conference in
Subotica
NEW THERMALLY ENHANCED FIBER
INSULATION MATERIAL
Dundjer
24 – 25
5.
International
Symposium in
Belgrade
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF
NEW THERMALLY ENHANCED FIBER
INSULATION BASED ON PHASE
CHANGE MATERIALS
Dundjer
11
3.
Meetings
6.
7.
8.
Meeting
Meeting
Meeting
Mid-term meeting
Mid-term meeting
Final meeting
All partners on the Storepet project
All partners on the Storepet project
All partners on the Storepet project
th
25 – 28
th
September 2013
th
th
th
th
17 – 18 April 2013
th
21 November 2013
th
25 November 2014
http://www.gf.uns.ac.rs/~k
onferencija/index.php
page 104
http://www.iipp.rs/sIImPPo
zijum_2014/Simpozijum%2
02014.pdf
pages 32 – 45
Brusseles, Belgium
Nis, Serbia
Ljubljana, Slovenia
Brusseles REA
Nis
Ljubljana
RTD and DEMO activities
9.
10.
DEMO
activities
RTD
activities
Construction of part of the wall with Storepet
Dundjer
01-May-2013 to 15-Sep-2013
15
Niš, Serbia
DEMO
Testing in thermal lab of Faculty of Machanical enginering
Dundjer
01-May-2013 to 01-June-2013
5
Niš, Serbia
RTD
Nauka i praksa
STOREPET – EVROPSKI PROJEKAT KLASTERA „DUNDJER“1
Đorđe Đorđević2, Biljana Avramović3, Dragoslav Stojić2
Rezime: Gradjevinski klaster „DUNDJER“, zajedno sa većim brojem evropskih organizacija, učestvuje
na evropskom projektu FP7 pod nazivom „STOREPET“ (FP7-SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730).
STOREPET je projekat čiji je cilj da razvije jedan novi termički i akustički gredjevinski izolacioni
materijal, baziran na gradjevinskim materijalima koji pri korišćenju menjaju svoje agregatno stanje.
StorePET će biti posebno projektovan materijal za lake konstrukcije sa omotačem koji ima malu
termičku masu (termički kapacitet), kao i za bilo koju drugu stambenu/poslovnu/javnu novu ili
rekonstruisanu zgradu sa posebnim izolacionim i toplotno-kapacitetnim potrebama. Sa budžetom
projekta od 2.4 miliona € , procenjeno je da će novi proizvod stvoriti novu vrednost u iznosu od 170
miliona € u uštedi u materijalu i 300 miliona € u energiji. Istraživanje je trenutno u toku. Jedan od
završnih skupova, sa predstavljanjem rezultata istarživanja će biti održan u Nišu, u 2013. godini.
Gradjevinski klaster „DUNDJER“ će imati sva prava i licencu, uključujući proizvodnju i plasman u
regionu.
Ključne reči: Ocena gradjevina, održiva gradnja, evropske norme, ekološka gradnja, energetska
efikasnost, lokacija
Abstract: The Construction Cluster „DUNDJER“ participates in common with number of distinguished
research and development organizations in EU, in the 7th FP European project entitled STOREPET
(FP7-SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730). STOREPET is a project which goal is develop an innovative
thermal and acoustic insulation solution based on phase change materials building sector. StorePET
will be especially design for lightweight and low thermal mass building envelope structures, as well as
for any other residential/commercial/governmental new or refurbishing building projects, with extra
insulation and heat storage capacities needs. With a project budget of € 2.4 million, it has been
estimated that the new product will produce new streams of revenue worth € 170 million in the
materials and energy savings worth above € 300 million. The research is at a moment in progress.
One of closing meetings, with presentation of final research results will take place in Niš, Serbia, in the
year 2013. The Construction Cluster „DUNDJER“ will have all rights and royalties, including
regional production and merchendise.
Key words: building materials, thermal insulation, accoustic insulation, light building constructions,
energy efficiency, sustainable building.
1
This work is in part supported by the EC funded Project, FP7-SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730, and Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (research projects
TR37003 and III44006 )
2
Građevinsko-arhitektonski fakultet u Nišu, ul. A. Medvedeva 14, Niš, Srbija; Construction Cluster “Dundjer”, Niš, Srbija
3
Construction Cluster “Dundjer”, Niš, Srbija
1. UVOD
Nova strategija gradjenja koja se odnosi na
posledice klimatskih
promena i smanjenje
energije za grejanje i hladjenje su dva osnovna
cilja na nivou Evropske Unije. Brojke kao što je
35.000 incidentnih smrti usled toplotnog talasa na
Kontinentu u 2003. godini, ili 10% svetske
energije utrošene samo za zagrevanje zgrada
zaokupljuju pažnju evropskih gradjana i pozivaju
na novu EU legislativu. Nove nacionalne i
komunalne
stroge direktive
zajedno
sa
ekonomskom recesijom u gradjevinskom sektoru
(sa dvocifrenim padom) postavili su ekstremno
visoke izazove
i i onako oslabljenim
kompanijama u gradjevinskom sektoru, posebno
malim i srednjim preduzećima (MSP). Potrebe
tržišta i nova šansa za njih je istraživanje
konkurentnih rešenja za termičku i akustičnu
izolaciju lakih konstrukcija,
što je opšte
prepoznat pokretač tržišta u narednoj dekadi.
Lake konstrukcije predstavljaju ekonomsku
alternativu tradicionalnim gradjevinama čiji je
glavni nedostatak zahtev za velikom količinom
energije da bi se održali konformni unutrašnji
uslovi, pošto nisu u stanju da obuzdaju velike
promene temperature. U poredjenju sa
gradjevinama od težih materijala, procenjuje se
da održanje termički konfomne temperature u
opsegu od
18-24°C, gradjevine od lakih
materijala koriste izmedju 2 i 3 puta više energije
za grejanje i hladjenje.
T
Sl. 1: Laka drvena konstrukcija
Koncept projekta se bazira na činjenici da
razmena toplote unutra/spolja (koja igra značajnu
ulogu u toplotnom bilansu lakih konstrukcija)
može se potencijalno kontrolisati novom
fibroznom izolacijom koja poseduje termički
aktivni kapacitet akumuliranja toplote. Tokom
dana, kada temperatura raste, vrhovi opterećenja
mogu se absorbovati u velikoj meri izolacionim
slojem sa termički aktivnim materijalom (PCM –
Phase Change Material), da bi se polako vratila
nazad u okolinu docnije (tokom noći, kada
temperatura opadne), bez uticaja na unutrašnji
energetski bilans zgrade, što je regulisano
prisustvom standardnog izolacionog sloja. Ovaj
pristup će obezbediti dosta sporiji odziv omotača
zgrade na dnevne promene temperature,
pomažući održavanje unutrašnje temperature u
komfornom opsegu i time izbegavajući potrebu
potrošnje dodatne energije da bi se ovo postiglo.
Efektivni nivoi unutrašnjeg komfora će biti
dodatno garantovani vrlo poznatom osobinom
vlaknastog materijala da redukuje spoljašnju
buku i superiornu osobinu da kontroliše zvučnu
rezonancu u šupljinama konstrukcije.
2. EKOLOŠKI ZNAČAJ
Računa se da zgrade u svetu troše 40% svetske
energije i emituju skoro polovinu ugljen-dioksida.
To znači zgrade doprinose skoro polovinu emisije
CO2 . To dalje znači da zgrade doprinose
ispuštanju više CO2 nego saobraćaj, koji se
procenjuje na 31% i industrija, procenjena na
28%. Kada posebno razložimo i analiziramo
potrošnju energije zgrada, najzabrinjavajući
aspekt je da je većina energije koja se koristi za
grejanje, hladjenje ili ventilaciju nepotrebno
potrošena ili je rezultat loše izolacije i sve
skorašnje prognoze pokazuju da će ova
potrošnja značajno porasti u godinama koje
dolaze. S obzirom na to, poslednje preporuke
Medjuvladinog Panela o Klimatskim Promenama
(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC) utvrdjuju da vlade širom sveta, poslovni
svet i pojedinci moraju agresivno započeti
redukciju potrošnje energije u novim i postojećim
zgradama, kako bi redukovali
emisiju CO2
vezanu za energiju za 77% (u odnosu na
predvidjanje za 2050. godinu) i stabilizuju nivoe
CO2 kako bi se postigao nivo prema preporuci
IPCC. Da bi se postigao taj cilj procenjuje se da
globalni gradjevinski sektor treba da smanji
potrošnju energije u zgradama za 60% do 2050.
godine, da bi ispunio ciljeve vezane za globalne
klimatske promene.
zgrada, sa stupanjem na snagu u julu 2013. Do
kraja 2020. nove zgrade u EU moraju trošiti
energiju “blizu nule”.
Sa trenutnim brojem od oko 160 miliona zgrada u
EU, poslednja EPB Direktiva se odnosi na
adaptaciju postojećih zgrada, uključujući istorijske
gradjevine, a u skladu sa klimatskim promenama.
Kao i za nove zgrade, opšti trendovi pokazuju
sada kretanje ka lakim drvenim ili čeličnim
konstrukcijama (sa manjim gubicima na lokaciji i
manjom energijom unesenom u materijale), sa
globalnim zahtevom za prefabrikovanim kućama i
elementima, uz rast od 3.4% godišnje za tržište
vredno 51 milijardu € u 2004. godini, samo za
kompletne zgrade.
3. ZNAČAJ ZA GRADJEVINSKI SEKTOR
Sl . 2: Potrošnja enetgije po vrstama aktivnosti
Sa tako visokim nivoom potrošnje energije,
zamagljene različitim procenama klimatskih
promena, Evropska Zajednica (EZ) je uvela
značajan broj regulacionih i zakonskih akcija.
Marta 2007. Savet Evrope je postavio set jasnih
ciljeva za redukciju ukupne potrošnje energije od
20% do 2020. godine (nivoa u 2005. godini), sa
povećanjem doprinosa obnovljive energije do
20% u ukupnoj potrošnji i 20% smanjenja emisije
CO2 u odnosu na vrednosti u 1990. godini. U
tome kontekstu, gradjevinski sektor mora
postaviti vrlo ambiciozne ciljeve uštede energije
od oko 165 Mtoe (miliona tona ekvivalenta nafte)
i doprinosa od 50 Mtoe iz alternativnih izvora do
2020. godine. Da bi se podvukla veličina zadatka,
ove vrednosti su ekvivalentne ukupnoj potrošnji
energije Španije, Portugalije, Grčke i Irske u
2004. godini. Maja 2010., nova Direktiva o
Energetskim Performansama Zgrada (EPB) je
konačno usvojena kao DIREKTIVA 2010/31/EU.
Ona se odnosi na poboljšanje nacionalnih
regulativa o energetskoj efikasnosti novih i
renoviranih zgrada, sa vrlo ambicioznim
standardima i obavezujućim ciljevima.
Ona
sadrži okvir za nacionalne zahteve koji se odnose
na grejanje/hladjenje i ventilacione sisteme. Jula
2012., nova direktiva je objavljena i odnosi se na
mnoge elemente uključujući regulaciju sistema
Konstruktivni sektor je onaj koji je najviše
pogodjen trenutnom krizom, delimično usled
mnogih značajnih gradjevinskih naduvavanja
cena, ali takodje
i usled kreditne krize
finansijskih institucija. Gradjevinske aktivnosti u
EU-27 zapošljavale su oko 14,8 miliona ljudi u
2007 (oko 11,5 % u ne-finansijskoj biznis sferi),
ali stvaraju oko 562 milijarde € dodatne vrednosti
(9,3% dodatne vrednosti u ne-finansijskoj biznis
ekonomiji).
Svaki
zaposlenik
u
EU-27
gradjevinskom sektoru stvorio je u proseku
38.000 € dodatne vrednosti u 2007. godini. Ali,
kako
pokazuju
statistike
(EuroConstruct),
trenutna industrijska recesija će biti najizazovnija
u
poslednjim
decenijama.
Gradjevinska
proizvodnja je pala -8,8% u 2009, a slično se
očekuje i nadalje. Do kraja ove godine
gradjevinska industrija će biti u recesiji punih pet
godina. Prema statistikama (Eurostat), većina
gradjevinskih preduzeća obslužuje lokalno tržište
i posledično, gradjevinski sektor je karakterističan
po velikom broju MSPa sa relativno malo velikih.
Mikro i mala preduzeća (sa manje od 50
zaposlenih) zajedno zapošljavaju 72,1 % radne
snage u gradjevinskom sektoru u EU-27 (podatak
za 2006. godinu), mnogo veći udeo nego prosek
(50,2%, 2005.) u ne-finansijskoj sferi biznisa. Ova
preduzeća takodje obezbedjuju oko dve trećine
dodate vrednosti (64,7%) od sektorske dodate
vrednosti u 2006., u poredjenju sa dve petine
(39,8%, 2005.) ukupno u ne-finansijskom sektoru.
Pad
u
gradjevinskim
aktivnostima
ima
nezaobilazni uticaj na broj zaposlenih. Broj
zaposlenih u EU-27 u gradjevinarstvu je oštro
opao (-8,8%) izmedju prvog kvartala 2008. i
drugog kvartala 2009. Takodje nezaobilazno
MSP trpe usled navedenih okolnosti, sa većim
kritičnim kreditnim pragom za podršku i manjim
mogućnostima za brz oporavak.
Sl. 3: Trend u gradjevinskoj industriji
Medjutim, čak i sa sporijim tempom, gradjevinske
aktivnosti nastavljaju da budu potrebne i nužne i
tokom depresije, tako da će onim oslabljenim
MSP, koja su preživela ekonomsku recesiju, biti
potrebne dodatne komparativne prednosti radi
brzog odziva na oživljavanje EU tržišta (i odziva
na dvocifreni rast kineskog i indijskog tržišta) pre
nego što drugi zdraviji takmaci to učine, pogotovu
kompanije koje pokazuju rane znake oporavka,
kao što je US gradjevinsko tržište. Evropska kriza
usporava i oporavak američke privrede usled
smanjenog izvoza u Evropu, ali kada
gradjevinske aktivnosti ožive i u Evropi, američke
kompanije će biti mnogo spremnije od većine
evropskih, posebno u zelenoj gradnji. Skorašnji
izveštaj iz Gradjevinskog fonda McGraw-Hill
pokazuje da zelena gradnja u US predstavlja 25
% svih novih gradjevinskih aktivnosti u 2010. i da
je vrednost zelene gradnje porasla više od 50%
od 2008. do 2010. – od 42 milijarde $ na 55
milijardi i 71 milijardu, sa projekcijom rasta za
2015. godinu na 135 milijardi $. Bez sumnje,
značajan deo tog rasta odgovara izvozu od 14%
gradjevinskog materijala iz SAD u Evropu.
Posebno, fokusirajući se na segment montažnih
prefabrikovanih kuća lake konstrukcije, koje su od
drveta ili lakog čelika, i panelizovanih elemenata,
treba očekivati u sledećoj deceniji najveći rast u
smislu novih rešenja i proizvodnje u čitavom
svetu. Unutar ovog segmenta jedna od
najvažnijih tema vezanih za energetsku
efikasnost zgrada je korišćenje odgovarajućih
izolacionih materijala, za tople i hladne klimatske
uslove (vazdušna klimatizacija se ne smatra više
energetski efikasnom alternativom jer troši skoro
15% ukupne energije u Evropi).
Podržana sadašnjim i budućim potrebama,
svetska potrošnja izolacionih materijala se
povećava 3,8% godišnje počev od 2012.
Održavajući trend u poslednjoj dekadi, penasta
plastična izolacija će se koristiti u najvećem delu
ukupnih zahteva. Ekonomska ekspanzija u
zemljama u razvoju u Aziji će povećati potražnju,
posebno za penastom plastikom, kako u
gradjevinskim konstrukcijama, tako u potrebama
pokućstva. Očekuje se da se izolacija
fiberglasom proširi i izvan Severne Amerike
(uglavnom na Evropu, Aziju i BRIC zemlje), dok
će mineralna vuna smanjiti svoje učešće usled
konkurencije staklene vune. Ostali
fiber
alternativni materijali su najčešće napravljeni od
recikliranih materijala, kao što su netkani tehnički
izolatori, ostaće pomoćni produkti, ukoliko ne
obezbede i unaprede svoje performanse.
Povećana potreba za tehnologijama koje
podržavaju uštedu energije je doprinela
obnavljanju istraživanja u oblasti termičkih
materijala koji mogu aktivno kontrolisati varijacije
termičkog fluksa okoline – materijali koji menjaju
agregatno stanje (Phase Change Materials PCM). Očekuje se da se globalno tržište PCM
materijala poveća sa 300,8 miliona $ u 2009. na
1.488,1 miliona u 2015. godini, sa procenjenim
rastom od 31,7% od 2010. do 2015. (CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate ). PCM materijali
bazirani na parafinima zauzimaju najveći deo
tržišta u smislu vrednosti, dok materijali bazirani
na hidratima soli su najviše rasprostranjeni u
smislu količine.
Primena PCM materijala u gradjevinarstvu
trenutno čini najveću oblast primene usled
globalno povećanih zahteva za kontrolu
unutrašnje temperature u zgradama.
EU kompanije su vrlo sporo započele da se bave
novim zahtevima tržišta
orijentisanim ka
energetskoj
efikasnosti,
ali
poglavito
preuzimanjem inovativnih rešenja razvijenih izvan
Evrope (najviše u SAD), posebno u oblasti
termičke izolacije (energetska efikasnost), što
ima za rezultat gubitak konkurentnosti EU. Od 14
ključnih industrijskih (tehnoloških) inovacija iz
oblasti gradjevinskih materijala, 7 su razvijene u
američkim institucijama, a samo 3 u EU. Od njih,
7 su termički ili akustički izolatori (1 baziran na
PCM, 1 na glini, 1 na ugljeničnim nano-vlaknima,
1 EPS, 1 EPS penasti termički izolator, 1 aerogel
termički i akustički izolator, 1 PU - poliuretanski
akustički panel), od kojih je samo 1 ima Evropski
brend (BASF AG).
Evropske kompanije, u tom rastućem sektoru
inovacija u gradjevinarstvu, treba da reaguju brzo
na ovu situaciju i razvijaju zaštićena inovativna
rešenja, da bi ostale inovativne. Posebno, zahtevi
za veću energetsku efikasnost za zgrade su
identifikovani kao primarni pokretač u industriji
gradjevinskih materijala. StorePET će obezbediti
ovaj sektor, posebno MSP, izvanrednim
konkurentnim
sredstvom
za oporavak i
oblikovanje gradjevinskog sektora u bliskoj
budućnosti.
4. TEHNIČKI PROBLEM
Lake konstrukcije predstavljaju ekonomičnu
alternativu tradicionalnim gradjevinama, uz
nedostatak da im je potrebna velika termička
potrošnja da bi održale unutrašnje komforne
uslove, pošto nisu u mogućnosti da uspore brze
promene spoljašnje temperature. U poredjenju sa
gradjevinama od težeg materijala, procenjuje se
da za održavanje komfornog temperaturnog
opsega od 18-24°C laki materijali koriste izmedju
2 i 3 puta više energije za grejanje i hladjenje
nego što je potrebno gradjevinama od masivnog
materijala.
Uporedjujući dva tipa konstrukcija, studije su
pokazale da masivne konstrukcije mogu lakše
umanjiti efekte mogućeg scenarija klimatskih
promena
održavanjem
niže
unutrašnje
temperature u odnosu na lake konstrukcije za
veći period vremena, sa vršnim temeraturama
nižim za 4.5°C.
Sl. 4: Energetski zahtevi za konstrukcije od različitog materijala
Druge studije su pokazale da razlika izmedju
vršnih temeratura obeju konstrukcija može da
dostigne 8º C, a da se može utvrditi kašnjenje
vršne temperature do 6 sati, uz to da su
kašnjenje i amplituda kompleksne funkcije
termičke provodljivosti zida i različitih specifičnih
lokalnih termičkih gradijenata oko površine zida.
Uzrok ove velike razlike leži u različitoj termičkoj
masi ova dva tipa konstrukcija.
Na primer, u slučaju stambenih zgrada, toplotni
kapacitet i termička masa mogu značajno varirati,
od 55kJ/m2K za laku drvenu konstrukciju do
500kJ/m2K
za tvrdu zidanu zgradu. Dakle,
termička masa može biti
vrlo korisna za
održavanje unutrašnjeg termičkog komfora. Lake
konstrukcije imaju „brz termički odziv” i zagrevaju
se i hlade u kraćem vremenskom periodu nego
masivne zgrade koje imaju „spori odziv”, što je
dato na sl. 5.
Sl. 5: Materijali sa velikom (levo) i malom (desno) termičkom
masom
Sl. 6: Fluktuacije dnevne temperature
Termička masa je najefektivnija u mestima i
sezonama sa velikim dnevnim temperaturnim
promenama ispod i iznad balansne temperature
zgrade (Balance point temperature – BPT –
spoljašnja temperatura ispod koje je potrebno
grejanje zgrade pošto su unutrašnji toplotni
dobitci manji od toplotnih gubitaka kroz omotač
zgrade i ventilaciju). U ovim slučajevima dodatna
energija se štedi izbegavanjem značajnog
zračenja toplotnog fluksa kroz omotač u oba
pravca. Često su koristi veće tokom leta i jeseni,
kada se dešavaju
fluktuacije ispod i iznad
komforne temerature. Medjutim, isti koncept se
teoretski može koristiti da bi se ublažio toplotni
fluks pod ekstremno hladnim ili ekstremno toplim
uslovima, kada su nivoi spoljašnje temperature
prilično iznad ili ispod komforne temperature.
vrh u leto, unutrašnjost zgrade ostaje hladna jer
je penetracija toplote kroz masivni zid (toplotna
masa) odložena. Ukoliko bi se tokom dana
akumulirana toplota mogla selektivno evakuisati
tokom noći napolje, efekat termičke mase bi bio
vrlo sličan izolatoru visokih performansi.
predvidjeno intenzivno grejanje, termička masa
se može koristiti za efikasno sakuplja i akumulira
solarnu energiju i akumulira unutrašnji višak
toplote tokom dana i selektivno je vraća unutra.
Zgrade
koje
koriste
električno
grejanje/hladjenje mogu istovremeno koristiti
jeftinu tarifu kao dnevni period akumuliranja.
Rezultat će biti učteda energije i dodatno
smanjenje računa za električnu energiju.
Novi evropski državni propisi se sve više bave
energetskom efikasnošću postojećih i budućih
zgrada i konačno se orijentišu ka termalnom
kapacitetu kao ključnom elementu. Na primer,
novi propisi gradnje u Engleskoj (UK‘s Building
Regulations), koji se primenjuju od 1. oktobra
2010. godine definišu da termički kapacitet svih
unutrašnjih i spoljašnjih konstruktivnih elemenata
moraju da igraju odlučujuću ulogu i koriste se da
redukuju potrebe za grejanjem i hladjenjem.
Nadalje, neće biti dovoljno da se uzima u obzir
opšti koeficijent provodjenja toplote (U-vrednost)
elemenata zgrade (stepen izolacije), već takodje
njihov odgovarajući efektivni termički kapacitet po
jedinici površine, koeficijent termalne mase
(Thermal Mass Parameter (TMP)).
U principu, visoko izolovane konstrukcije ne
mogu efikasno nadoknaditi nedostatak termalne
mase. Termalna masa akumulira i zrači toplotu,
dok izolacija zaustavlja prolaz toplote u i iz
zgrade. Velika termalna masa generalno nije
dobra termička izolacija i najbolji termički izolator
skoro da nema termalnu masu. Dakle, u
ekstremno toplim klimatskim uslovima, jedini
način da se održi komforna unutrašnja
temperatura unutar zgrade od lakog materijala u
letnjim danima bez instalisane klimatizacije je da
se na neki način poveća termalna masa. To se
može učiniti na tradicionalan način masivnim
materijalom, ili primenom latentnog materijala sa
termalnim kapacitetom u konstrukciji.
Do danas je jedino rešenje bilo da se kombinuje
više različitih materijala
za postizanje
maksimalnih performansi. Dok je kod masivnih
zgrada to relativno lako postići, zahtev za
termalnom masom kod lakih konstrukcija (koje
skoro isključivo zavise od izolacije) se vidi kao
borba koju treba urgentno dobiti da bi se ostalo
konkurentnim u dolazećim godinama. Iako je bilo
priličnih investicija u istraživanje (najviše u SAD),
svetsko gradjevinsko tržište još čeka na
ekonomične proizvode koji mogu efikasno
kombinovati najbolje osobine oba materijala
(termička izolacija i termalna kapacitativnost), ne
zaboravljajući akustičku izolaciju u jednom, lako
dostupnom
i
jednostavno
funkcionalnom
materijalu.
Sl. 7. Uporedni termički kapaciteti različitih materijala
Glavni cilj je razvoj novog, termalno poboljšanog
fibroznog izolacionog materijala korišćenjem
materijala sa promenom agregatnog stanja
(PCM). PCM materijali su substance koje troše
dosta toplote na topljenje (veliki latentni toplotni
kapacitet), tako da se pri topljenju i očvršćavanju
na odredjenoj temperaturi akumulira i oslobadja
velika količina energije. Toplota se absorbuje ili
oslobadja pri promeni agregatnog stanja iz
čvrstog u tečno i obrnuto. PCM materijali su bili
korišćeni godinama kao komponente termalne
mase sa izvesnim stepenom efektivnosti radi
povećanja energetskih performansi zgrada.
Danas postoji više komercijalnih PCM proizvoda
raspoloživih na tržištu, ili u obliku jedinstvenog
materijala ili u obliku integrisanih proizvoda koji
se stavljaju na unutrašnje površine zidova,
plafona ili podova (kao što su PCM integrisane
gipsane ploče, beton, malter, itd.). Ovi proizvodi
se generalno koriste da redukuju
variranje
(dan/noć) unutrašnje temperature, uslovljeno
poglavito dnevnim osunčavanjem kroz staklene
površine, tako što autonomno akumuliraju toplotu
tokom dana i oslobadjaju je nazad tokom noći,
obezbedjujući dodatni izvor toplote radi održanja
unutrašnjeg komfora. Da bi se razumele
mogućnosti primene
PCM tehnologije u
uštedama energije, proučavanja su pokazala da
površina od približno 120 m2 uz korišćenje
poboljšanog maltera sa mikroenkapsuliranim
(tanki polimerski kontejner) PCM parafinskim
voskom (sa maksimalnim toplotnim kapacitetom
od 110 J/g ), može akumulirati oko 40.000 kJ, što
odgovara manje-više 11 kWh. Ova energetska
potrošnja
je
ekvivalentna
rashladnim
performansama jednog klima-uredjaja sa snagom
od 4 kW, koji se koristi punim kapacitetom 1 sat
dnevno. Za predvidjen radni proces PCM
materijala od 5 sati dnevno tokom 10 nedelja vrlo
toplog vremena u godini, postigao bi se isti efekat
kao i rad klima uredjaja 300 sati, čemu odgovara
srednja ušteda od 228 €/god., uzimajući u obzir i
investiciju u opremu. Medjutim, nijedan od
današnjih
gradjevinskih
materijala
sa
inkorporisanim PCM materijalom nije projektovan
tako da služi kao blokada toplotnog zračenja kroz
omotač zgrade (spoljni zidovi i krov), ili kao
zvučni izolator. StorePET projekt namerava da
popuni taj prostor na tržištu i da deluje različito od
bilo kog drugog raspoloživog PCM materijala,
koristeći tehnologiju PCM ugradjenih vlakana da
bi nadmašio prednosti konvencionalnih vlaknastih
izolatora, posebno u odnosu na velike
temperaturne promene u stambenim potkrovljima
ili u spoljnim zidnim površinama konstrukcija od
lakih materijala.
5. KONCEPT PROJEKTA
Koncept projekta je baziran na činjenici da se
razmena toplote unutra/spolja (koja igra značajnu
ulogu u termičkom opterećenju hladjenja i
grejanja lakih gradjevinskih konstrukcija) može
potencijalno kontrolisati pomoću novih vlaknastih
izolatora koji imaju aktivni termički akumulacioni
kapacitet. Tokom dana, kada rastu temperature,
vršno opterećenje može biti znatno absorbovano
pomoću izolacionog sloja poboljšanog PCM
materijalom, da bi bilo docnije polako vraćeno u
okolinu (tokom noći, kada spoljna temperatura
opadne), bez uticaja na unutrašni energetski
bilans
zgrade,
pošto
je
potpomognuto
standardnim izolacionim slojem. Ovaj pristup će
obezbediti mnogo sporiji odziv omotača zgrade
na dnevne fluktuacije temperature, pomažući
održanje unutrašnje temperature u konfornom
opsegu i tako izbegavajući potrebu za dodatnu
potrošnju energije da bi se to postiglo. Efektivni
nivo unutrašnjeg
konfora biće takodje
garantovan izuzetnim osobinama materijala,
kada se redukuje spoljašnja buka uz superiorne
performanse u kontroli rezonancije zvuka u
otvorima konstrukcije.
materijala, ventilacioni sistemi). Možda je
najznačajnija razlika u pogodnosti dodatnog
ventilacionog sistema da bi se u potpunosti
iskoristila prednost termičke inercije PCM
materijala.
Fig. 8. Spoljni zid lake konstrukcije sa standardnim rešenjem
izolacije
Fig 10. Spoljni zid lake konstrukcije sa StorePET izolacijom tokom
dana
Fig 9. Spoljni zid lake konstrukcije sa StorePET izolacijom
Sa gledišta projektovanja energetske efikasnosti,
dodata vrednost PCM materijala je njena
izuzetna osobina (pored termičke otpornosti) da
redukuje potrošnju energije zgrade. Gornja skica
Pokazuje kako rešenje sa StorePET materijalom
značajno
redukuje
unutrašnju
fluktuaciju
temperature, a time i potrebnu potrošnju za
grejanje/hladjenje, da bi se temperatura držala
konstantom, u scenariju visoke fluktuacije
spoljašnje temperature. Isto konceptualno
rešenje koje se primenjuje na ekstremno visoke ili
niske temperature zahtevalo bi različite proizvode
(Temperatura topljenja PCM materijala, relativna
koncentracija i distribucija duž poprečnog
preseka bila bi različita), kao što bi se prilično
razlikovali i instalirani slojevi (postavljanje
Fig 11. Spoljni zid lake konstrukcije sa StorePET izolacijom tokom
noći
Gornje slike bi trebalo da ilustruju scenario
ekstremno visokih temperatura. Tokom dana,
PCM deluje kao termička prepreka i samo deo
toplote dospeva u unutrašnjost, dok je ostatak
akumuliran u PCM sloju. Kada temperatura
tokom noći opada (ali još uvek iznad konformne
temperature), sloj greje okolni vazduh. Ukoliko je
ventilacija dobra, prirodna konvekcija tera vazduh
naviše, a zatim napolje, hladeći PCM i
sprečavajući da akumulirana toplota prodre u
zgradu. Pogodna konstrukcija panela koja
omogućava protok vazduha u ravni fasade i
sprečava normalno strujanje, pojačaće bočno
strujanje za ravnomerno hladjenje i vertikalno
strujanje za izbacivanje vazduha. Projektovanje i
proizvodnja takve konstrukcije koristeći pristup
pomoću više slojeva i druge alternative biće
važan zadatak u razvoju netkanih panela.
Iako pogodniji za topla klimatska područja,
projektovanjem sastava sa materijalima različitih
temperatura topljenja i različitim instaliranim
slojevima, StorePET će biti sposoban da
odgovori širokom spektru klimatskih područja. To
će mu doneti jedinstvenu i neprevazidljivu
prilagodljivost
medju
ostalim
izolacionim
materijalima. Ne računajući projektovanje za
različite temperaturne zone i sezone, proizvod će
funkcionisati kao i normalni vlaknasti izolacioni
materijal, zadržavajući sve ostale termalne i
akustičke karakteristike nepromenjene.
6. NAUČNI, EKONOMSKI I SOCIJALNI
CILJEVI PROJEKTA
Glavni cilj projekta StorePET je da razvije novi
netkani tehnički izolacioni proizvod koji integriše
osobine materijala sa promenom agregatnog
stanja za akumuliranje toplote.
Održavajući superiorni nivo termičke i zvučne
izolacije koji su zajednički za vlaknaste
materijale,
StorePET
će
biti
specijalno
projektovan za lake konstrukcije i konstrukcije sa
omotačem malog termičkog kapaciteta, kao i za
bilo koje stambene/poslovne/upravne nove ili
rekonstruisane zgrade, sa potrebama za
dodatnom izolacijom i toplotnim kapacitetom.
Iako se očekuje da bude efikasniji na mestima i u
sezonama sa velikim dnevnim promenama
temperature, kada je moguće da se potpuno
iskoriste prednosti karakteristika, ovaj novi
proizvod se može koristiti kao standardni
izolacioni materijal za bilo koju klimatsku zonu,
kao i da bude siguran izbor protiv globalnog
zagrevanja. Da bi se obezbedilo praćenje
projekta definisani su jasni ciljevi koji su
kvantifikovani, merljivi i nadgledani tokom
izvršenja projektnih radnih paketa (working
packages), uz neprekidnu procenu na bazi
odgovarajućih izveštaja o izvršenju zadataka.
6.1 NAUČNI CILJEVI
Naučni ciljevi projekta su sledeći:
‐ Postići jasno i detaljno razumevanje
sistema lake gradnje koja je trenutno raspoloživa,
njihove tehničke zahteve i najčešće primenjivane
materijale za termičku i zvučnu izolaciju, njihove
standarde i propisa o gradnji koji se odnose na
najnovije zahteve za energetsku efikasnost;
‐ Jasno definisati teorijske principe
vezane za termičku provodnost, termički
kapacitet, karakteristike provodljivosti PCM
vlaknastih kompozitnih materijala, kao i osnovna
pravila za zvučnu absorpciju i izolaciju;
‐ Jasno identifikovati najbolje tehničke
karakteristike vlakana, kao i koji PCM materijali
su najpogodniji za primenu, na osnovu njihovih
termodinamičkih, hemijskih i fizičkih osobina,
troškove proizvodnje, tehnološke zahteve za
proizvodnju (integraciju) netkanih PCM vlakana,
kao i ciljeve u konačnoj upotrebi.
6.2 TEHNOLOŠKI CILJEVI
‐ Razviti dizajn proizvoda i tehnologiju za
proizvodnju izradom novih prototipa linijskih
sistema za PCM integrisana vlakna, kao i probnu
proizvodnju.
‐
Usavršiti
proizvodnju
StorePET
materijala sa ciljem da se kombinuju najbolje
tehničke osobine sa najmanje utrošenom
energijom potrebnom za proizvodnju, koristeći
najbolje kost-efektivne sirovine sa najviše
sadržaja recikliranih materijala i proizvodnim
linijama sa najmanjom potrošnjom energije;
‐ Definisati aktivne ventilacione sisteme
koji bi trebalo da prate montiranje StorePET
izolatora, u područjima ekstremnih apsolutnih
temperatura, ali sa malim fluktuacijama;
‐ Razviti softver za ocenu toplotnih i
akustickih karakteristika sa ciljem da se
projektuje optimalni StorePET proizvod za
odredjeni tip instalacije i odgovarajuće parametre
i promenljive. On treba da razvije jednostavan
interfejs za profesionalce koji nisu visoko
kvalifikovani za korišćenje sofisticiranih alatki za
simulaciju, koji će se bazirati na modeliranju
koristeći metod konačnih elemenata (MKE, FEM),
karakteristikama sirovog materijala, projektovanje
izolacionih slojeva i klimatske karakteristike za
najobećavajuća tržišta.
proizvod, sa ciljem da vreme isplativosti bude
prihvatljivo za krajnje korisnike, s obzirom na
mogućnosti uštede energije (u roku od najviše 5
godina).
6.3 TEHNIČKI CILJEVI PROIZVODA
6.5 SOCIJALNI CILJEVI
‐ Postići na laboratorijskom nivou,
koristeći validni test (izolovana vruća kutija),
smanjenje protoka toplote od oko 40% sa novim
PCM-vlaknastim materijalom, u poredjenju sa
istim vlaknastim materijalom proizvedenim bez
PCM sadržaja, pod istim uslovima;
‐ Pokazati pomoću terenskog testa veliko i
značajno smanjenje opterećenja za hladjenje
tokom sezone proleće-leto. Ispunjenje ovog cilja
biće u zavisnosti od lokacije ovih testova. Za
mesta sa većom dnevnom temperaturnom
fluktuacijom tokom tople sezone, vrhunska
dnevna redukcija opterećenja više od 20% i
redukcija tokom hladjenja do 40% se može
očekivati (što predstavlja realnu uštedu energije),
u poredjenju sa običnim vlaknastim izolacionim
materijalima (mineralna vuna, staklena vuna,
itd.);
‐ Obezbediti
termičku provodnost K
(W/(mK)) ne veću od 0,04, a po mogućstvu i
ispod te vrednosti ;
‐ Postići termičku otpornost - RSI
vrednost
(m²K/W) ne manju od
2,5 za
nominalnu debljinu izolatora od 100mm;
‐ Postići zvučnu izolaciju (Rw) ne manju
od 55dB za StorePET, kada je postavljen
izmedju delova zida načinjenih od dvostrukog
zidnog panela, sa razmakom od 6cm;
‐ Garantovati sve ostale tehničke zahteve
radi usaglašavanja sa nacionalnim i lokalnim
norama gradnje i normi za svako potencijalno
tržište. Specijalnu pažnju obratiti na otpornost na
vlagu i požar, ovo poslednje u saglasnosti sa
Evropskom klasifikacijom požara tako da nije
manja od Klase Bs2d0.
‐ Povećati korisničko (projektanti i vlasnici
zgrada) znanje i prihvatanje ovog novog termički
usavršenog izolacionog proizvoda;
‐ Pokazati tržišne potrebe za novi
gradjevinski izolacioni materijal
kao što je
StorePET;
‐ Zaštititi /povećati zaposlenost u
odgovarajućim kompanijama, od sirovina i
proizvodjača netkanih materijala do PCM
snabdevača, do čitavog trgovačkog lanca u
gradjevinarstvu;
‐ Povećati nivo unutrašnjeg komfora
gradjana i smanjiti zdravstvene probleme
povezane sa termičkom i zvučnom izolacijom;
‐ Doprineti smanjenju globalne CO2
emisije ujedinjenjem napora za efektivno
smanjenje potrošnje energije zgrada.
6.4 EKONOMSKI CILJEVI
Postići značajne energetske uštede pomoću
redukcije potreba za vazdušnom klimatizacijom u
vezi sa razmenom toplote zidovi/krovovi i
kontrolisanom i uravnoteženom cenom za novi
7. DISEMINACIJA
PROJEKTA
REZULTATA
Diseminacione aktivnosti će biti sprovedene na
svim značajnim tačkama u toku izvršavanja
projekta i razmatrana na Odboru projekta (Project
Board) u svakoj kontrolnoj tački projekta
(milestone). Predvidjeno je da se koristi niz
diseminacionih sredstava za informisanje o
projektu počev od obaveštavanja javnosti do
potencijalnih investitora i glavnih zainteresovanih.
To uključuje EU web sajtove i informacione
publikacije, vrhunski referisane naučne časopise
i opšte medijske publikacije za diseminacijom
medju širom publikom. Da bi se tržište pripremilo
za StorePET rešenje, biće razvijena logična
strategija diseminacije što će biti realizovano
poglavito u završnoj godini rada na projektu.
Nosilac aktivnosti diseminacije i obuke biće firma
TECNIBERIA. Ona će biti odgovorna za pripremu
i koordinaciju plana diseminacije. Ovaj plan će
pokrivati tri glavne aktivnosti: interna diseminacija
postignutih
rezultata
istraživanja,
izrada
materijala za obuku i obaveštavanje šire javnosti
putem odgovarajućih diseminacionih aktivnosti. U
cilju uspešne realizacije ovog plana, biće uradjen
model eksploatacije i diseminacije, sa sledećim
aktivnostima:
1. Konkurisanje za Evropski/Svetski patent za
StorePET inovaciju. Tehnički sadržaj aplikacije
biće uradjen od strane Istraživačko-razvojnih
organizacija (RTD-Research and Technical
Development) da bi se osigurala tehnološka
ispravnost patenta. .
2. Komercijalna saglasnost (ugovor) biće
pripremljena i potpisana pre završetka projekta.
Cilj ovog ugovora je da se zaštite prava i minuli
rad partnera.
3. Ocena potreba Evropskih i svetskih tržišta
da bi se kreirala najbolja marketinška strategija
radi lociranja komercijalnih napora inicijalno na
regione sa najvećim potraživanjima.
4. Studija karakterizacije troškova proizvoda
će biti realizovana. Ova će studija analizirati, na
osnovu kvantitativne i kvalitativne ocene
potencijalnih tržišta, odgovarajuće dodatne
troškove proizvodnje.
5. Javni pristup rezultatima StorePET projekta
biće realizovan diseminacijom u gradjevinskom
sektoru. Način diseminacije ovog znanja biće
koristeći publikovanje u časopisima većeg
naučnog uticaja, predloženih od naučnoistraživačkih tela po konsultovanju Konzorcijuma
projekta.
6. Web portal će biti korišćen kao kontaktna
tačka za razmenu informacija izmedju partnera
na projektu (u ovom slučaju to je Dropbox). Web
sajt će biti ažuriran svaka 3 meseca.
7.
Konferencije:
Istraživačko-razvojne
organizacije će učestvovati na naučnim
konferencijama i kongresima radi predstavljanja
rezultata koji se postignu u radu i proglase da se
mogu publikovati od Eksploatacionog odbora i po
odobrenju Odbora projekta.
8. Obuka: Preuzimanje rezultata od strane
glavnih korisnika (IAG), njihovih članova i ostalih
malih i srednjih preduzeća (SME- Small and
Medium Enterprises) u konzorcijumu biće
obezbedjeno uglavnom u poslednjoj fazi projekta,
uz pomoć Istraživačko-razvojnih organizacija.
Tokom projekta biće izradjen plan obuke na
seminarima uz prezentaciju dokumentacije
korišćene u projektu.
9. Multimedijalni materijali (video materijali,
wikipages, itd.) biće uradjeni kao potvrda
koncepta razvoja i kao mediji koji se publikuju
kao ispunjenje ciljeva StorePET ciljeva.
10. Učešće na sajmovima u sektoru energije,
posebno
gradjevinarsta.
Trgovinske
prezentacije, izložbe, sajmovi kao BAU (Minhen),
CONSTRUMAT
(Barselona,
Španija),
CONCRETA (Lisabon, Portugal). Diseminacija i
komercijalizacija nove tehnologije krajnjim
korisnicima biće realizovana i prezentacijama na
drugim medjunarodnim sajmovima.
LITERATURA
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
UČESNICI
EN 15459 : Energy performance of buildings – Economic evaluation procedure for
energy systems in buildings.
EN ISO 15686-5 : Buildings and constructed assets — Service life planning - Part 5:
Life cycle costing.
EN ISO 15686-9 : Buildings and constructed assets – Part 8 Reference service life
and service life information.
Sustainability and property valuation: a risk-based approach. Meins, Wallbaum et al.
(2010). Building Research & Information 2010, 38(3), 281-301.
Upgrading the flexibility of buildings, Rob P. Geraedts, CIB World Congress, April
2001.
Recommendation SIA 112/1, 2004: Sustainable Building –Building Construction;
Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects.
Six steps resulting in a flexibility index of the building. Source: LEnSE: Methodology
Development towards a Label for Environmental, Social, and Economic Buildings,
Indicator: Increase Ease of Building Adaptability.
Aplication Of New Active (Pcm) Insulation Material Storepet
Facta universitatis
THE APPLICATION OF NEW ACTIVE (PCM) INSULATION MATERIAL
STOREPET
Đorđe Đorđević 1, Biljana Avramović2
1
University of Niš, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Serbia
2
Construction cluster DUNDJER Niš, Serbia
Abstract:
Key words:
1. Introduction
B1.2 Progress beyond the state of the art
State of the Art
Nowadays builders and contractors can choose from a large variety of insulations that can
vary in cost, performance and ease of installation. Generally divided in two main categories –
Bulk and Reflective, thermal insulation products are sometimes combined into one single
product to be able to resist to radiant heat flow (Reflective part) and to block the transfer of
conducted and convected heat (Bulk part), trusting on pockets of trapped air within its
structure to the last job.
Light weight construction
Traditionally, lightweight building systems involving timber and steel framing elements have
rely mostly on bulk fiber materials (fiberglass or mineral wool) for its heat insulation. Due to
technical and time consuming on-site building limitations, these structures are been replaced
by modern and less time consuming pre-fabricated plywood Structural Insulated Panels
(SIPs), or pre-fabricated composite Light Steel Framing (LSF) systems, that combines faster
buildings times, easiness of installation and resources economy, with good heat insulation
and superior air-tightness.
LSF construction
Aplication Of New Active (Pcm) Insulation Material Storepet
Following the overall trend to use rigid foam insulation, the choice of insulation materials for
modern off-site manufacturing approach is moving from the traditional fiber materials, and
being replaced for thick insulation layers of polystyrene (PS) or polyurethane (PU) foams,
sandwiched between oriented strand boards (OSB), or pre-finished skin products made of
steel or light aluminium alloys, filled with polyisocyanurate (PI) or PU foams.
Although these materials generally provide better air-tightness and moisture control to the
envelope structures, their heat insulation properties are not always superior and surely their
abilities to reduce levels of airborne noise are considerably worse than the ones given by the
majority of fiber solutions available. A balanced combination of thermal and noise insulation
excellence is still only achievable by fiber materials.
A summarized list of the most common types of bulk insulation products is expressed on
Table B1.2 -1, including bulk rigid foams, fiber blankets batts and rolls and also spray-inplace insulation options, that can even be used together to yield higher R-values (Thermal
Resistance, that indicates the material's resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the
greater the insulating effectiveness.
Spray-in-place cellulose
Rigid foam insulations are made from polymer materials – such as polystyrene, PU or PI,
moulded into rigid boards in a variety of sizes. Lightweight and easy to install, rigid foam
provides higher insulating values (typical R-values range from R-4 to R-6 per inch of
thickness), but generally offers much less guarantees as the fiber insulation materials, when
it comes to fire resistance and to reduce noise transmission. The most common product
made out of polystyrene is Styrofoam™ produced by DOW Chemicals 22. Ranging from R3.20 to 4.00, depending on its density, Styrofoam values are generally adequate for most
insulation needs. Closed-cell PI foam board products are being more welcomed (especially
in the US), not only because of their thermal insulation abilities but mainly due to its superior
reaction to fire. Polyisocyanurate insulation is a closed-cell rigid foam board manufactured
with isocyanate and ployether mixed together in the presence of a catalyst that allows the
molecules to rearrange, forming closed cells. Typical R values of PIR insulation range from
R-5.6 to R-8. Finally, there are a large number of commercially available products made of
PU foams systems, in the form of large lightweight boards capable of achieving extremely
high insulation values, or more commonly a two-component, spray-applied on site
polyurethane foam that creates a seamless, monolithic barrier for protection against water
vapour, heat and air in the interior of steel stud walls. Although generally regarded as good
thermal insulators, these product are incapable of levelling with fiber materials (like the
StorePET) when it comes to acoustic insulation, which represents their major drawback.
Fiberglass installation
Aplication Of New Active (Pcm) Insulation Material Storepet
“Spray-in-plac” has become one of the most popular types of insulations products, especially
due to the increasing number of retrofit actions. Spray-in-place cellulose, fiberglass and
mineral wool are cavity insulations that are mechanically blown into the wall. R-values vary
depending on installation but generally range from R-3 to R-4 per inch of thickness. This
insulation technique usually costs more than blanket insulations, but is well suited to use
around obstructions and irregularly shaped areas. However, it usually takes too long to be
completely installed, as it must dry completely before being covered by a drywall panel and
reach maximum performance. Another potential drawback to loose-fill spray-in-place
insulations is that, over time, the R-values can decrease because of particle settling. Spray
plastic foam usually overcomes this problem while it‘s usually made of polyurethane or other
polymers that have no settling problems. However, special equipment is still required to
meter, mix, and spray the foam into place. After application, spray foam expands and
conforms to the shape of the wall cavities, helping to minimize air infiltration. The ability to
conform to space makes spray foam ideal for insulating around obstructions and other hardto-reach areas. Spray foam materials and installation usually also cost more than blanket
insulation, but its effectiveness for air-tightness is sometimes its major advantage.
Freudenberg Politex’s Ecozero Autex’s Quietstuff KONTROL’s Supaloft Brits Nonwoven’s
Isotherm
DOW’s Safetouch
Fleacher Insulations’s Polybatts
By the other hand, fiber blankets, batts and rolls, available in different widths and thickness,
are the most cost-effective and widely available types of insulation. They are usually made
from glass and mineral wool, but also from recycled polymers (polyester insulation) and a
long list of natural materials like cotton fibers, sheep wool fibers and even recycled denim
jeans, with R-values ranging between R-1 and R-5 per inch of thickness. Rolls come in long
lengths that can be cut to required dimensions and batts come in pre-cut standard lengths.
Aplication Of New Active (Pcm) Insulation Material Storepet
Standard PCM building application
Blanket insulation is inexpensive, but the pieces must be hand-cut to fit snugly around
obstructions, such as window frames, wires and pipes. Small gaps between batts or small
non covered areas of the wall are generally the most important factors that lead to a loss of
efficiency of these products. Although capable of combining thermal and acoustic insulation
skills, there‘s still no fiber product available on the market at a broadly affordable price that is
sold as a standalone product and includes thermal storage abilities, thus being able to
provide extra energy savings on both cooling and heating dominant loads, like the StorePET.
Worldwide there are several manufactures and supplier of different polyester insulation
products (table B1.2 -2) that compete with other common fiber materials in the form of soft or
semi-rigid boards, batts and rolls, or even on in-situ blow applications. Primarily made out
recycled plastic (PET) bottles, this technical nonwoven insulation involves the melting of the
polymer materials, to then be spunned to form fibres that are bound together and cut into
different shapes and thickness. It‘s an excellent insulation product that does not release fiber
dust or irritate the skin as other insulation products can (i.e. fiberglass and mineral wool),
thus very easy to handle without the need of personal health safety equipment.
With R-values varying from 1 – 5.0 depending on its thickness, polyester insulation is
essentially the same material used in many pillows and often manufactured by the same
companies. Polyester allies its excellence heat insulation properties to its no-toxicity and
outstanding acoustic blocking properties, as also high resilience and outstanding
compressional resistance. Polyester is fire resistant material as it requires quite high
temperature to burn. However, poor polyester installation procedures, particularly on roofs
and ceilings, can be troubled if batts are not well protected or let to cover down lights &
ceiling fans with overheat potential. While being easy to install, resistant to fungis and
insects, unaffectable by moisture, produced without formaldehyde, borates or other
chemicals and none allergic or irritant, the main environmental benefit of polyester insulation
is that it is manufactured out of up to 70% recycled plastic bottles, reducing landfill and
contribute for carbon emission cutbacks.
Aplication Of New Active (Pcm) Insulation Material Storepet
Apart from the most common insulation products, recently the market has been receiving
some new materials and composites with very good performances and high R-value rates.
99% air-made material, Aerogel is probably the most notable one, as it can reach R-values of
about R-10 per inch and is capable of insulate up to 37 times more than fiberglass (the
lowest thermal conductivity yet available - 13 mW/mK, while mineral wool is 30-45 mW/mK).
Its major drawback is still its mechanical fragileness and huge price.
For example, fiber aerogel containing blankets with nominal conductivities of 14 mW/mK, like
the Aspen‘s Spaceloft23 ones (capable of reaching a 10.3 R-Value/Inch), are not expected to
cost less than $65 US dollars for each m2, for a 5mm thick batt24. Aerogel price has been
limiting its use in regular residential constructions, although other alternatives are arising like
their use inside R-30 and R-50 per inch vacuum insulation panels (VIPs)25, or instead in
cheaper but still efficient solutions, like the Thermablock26 aerogel thin tape that helps
eliminate thermal bridges on stud wall constructions that can be sold for about
$21/m2.However none of these aerogel solutions act like phase change materials, thus
incapable to overcome thermal mass issues and their price is not yet competitive for a broad
adoption.
Regarding the utilization of PCMs on the building sector, most studies have demonstrated
that the application of thermal mass in well-insulated structures could generate heating and
cooling energy savings of up to 25% in residential buildings. Considering that new PCMenhanced building envelope components could be installed in about 10% of both new and
existing U.S. homes, the potential for energy savings would be between 0.2 and 0.5
quad/year27.
All the extensive scientific research work that has been made over the last 40 years in this
area have allowed PCMs to hit the market by being incorporated into products such as:
plasterboards or drywall systems (Knauff Thermalcore PCM Smartboard28), interior plasters
with a temperature regulating effect (Maxit clima®29) or aerated concrete blocks (H+H
Deutschland GmbH‘s CelBloc Plus®30), all of them based on microencapsulated paraffin
waxes form BASF. BASF‘s Micronal® 23 is also the component that Datum
Phase Change incorporates into a magnesium oxide-based matrix to create the Racus®31
PCM ceiling tile system. DuPont‘s Energain®32 is another PCM related product that is used
Aplication Of New Active (Pcm) Insulation Material Storepet
in construction. It consists of paraffin-based gel core held between two sheets of conductive
aluminium, designed to be sealed behind plasterboard walls or above ceiling panels, so they
can act as a fire-retardant barrier to the material. The PCM is formulated to absorb heat
above 22°C, storing it until the temperature drops below 18°C, when it releases it back to the
room. DuPont claims that it can help reduce heat consumption by 15% and air conditioning
costs by 35%. Finally, Delta-Cool 24 by Dörken33 is a packaged PCM suited to retrofit
situations, that can be easily placed on top of suspended ceilings or under floors, ensuring
comfortable room temperatures around 25 °C.
Nevertheless, contrary to the StorePET, all the current building market solutions dealing with
PCMs do not have any acoustical insulation skills or the same thermal properties like the
ones expected from StorePET, which combines thermal storage and thermal insulation in
one single product. On traditional applications, PCMs uses the day solar gains trough glazing
to be able to store the heat without affecting the indoor comfort temperature, and then slowly
release it, during the night and with the aid of ventilation, avoiding the need for extra artificial
heating during this period. They do not block or buffer the heat exchange between the
outside and inside like the StorePET solution proposes.
27 Kosny J. et al (2007) Thermal Performance of PCM-Enhanced Building Envelope
Systems - in Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings X, proceedings of
ASHRAE THERM X, Clearwater, FL, Dec. 2007.
28 [Online] http://www.micronal.de/portal/streamer?fid=381231
29 [Online] http://www.micronal.de/portal/basf/ien/dt.jsp?setCursor=1_290829
30 [Online] http://www.hplush.de/web/de/celbloc_plus
31 [Online] http://www.datumphasechange.com/index.php?products
32 [Online] http://energain.co.uk/Energain/en_GB/index.html
33 [Online]http://www.doerken.de/bvf-ca-en/pdf/brochures/Cool.pdf
Aplication Of New Active (Pcm) Insulation Material Storepet
Up until now, PCMs association with fiber insulation materials has only been tested on in-situ blowing
test applications, at construction sites built for academic and industrial-driven research purposes. US
studies3435 have proved that using loose-fill cellulose and fiberglass insulations mixed with
microencapsulated paraffinic organic PCMs can be effective technique to reduce wall-generated peakhour cooling loads on roofs and wall cavities. It was found that it was possible to reach considerable
heat flow reductions values (up to 40%) and peak-hour load reductions of 30% during the summer
months, depending on the construction site climate conditions.
Although indoor temperature control and energy saving abilities were confirmed by those research
reports, none of the trial products tested have yet hit the market. Apart from time consuming
procedures, skilful application and specific machinery needs to perform its installation, there are two
major drawbacks of this on-site technique that the StorePET product and technology production will
aim to overcome – The difficult and inefficient PCM-fiber mixing using a insulation blower and the
tendency for the PCM content to become loose and settle on the bottom of the insulation cavity during
its life-time, thus reducing its efficiency.
Alternatively, the project proposal aims to produce a technical nonwoven insulation on a bulk
form (blanket, batt or roll), easily to be installed on the construction site like similar standard
mineral or glass wool products. Moreover, the precise layer concept and the ability to get the most
out of the PCM content by insert it inside the fibers, seems to be another advantage that surely
suppress what‘s being tested on the other side of the Atlantic. Thus its innovation beyond the state of
the art is clear. Not only it will outstand the fiber insulation products presently available for having the
PCM-fiber technology integration, its stockage, transport, installation and usage will not limitate its
time-life performance.
A patent search on fiber insulation products incorporating PCM materials was also undertaken. A
number of patents relating PCM integration with textile fibers were found, like the WO 0224830 (A2)
regarding the using of stable PCMs in temperature regulating synthetic fibers, fabrics and textiles and
the WO 9812366 (A1), concerning the PCM incorporation throughout the structure of polymer fibers,
as a loose fill insulating materials for clothes or bedding articles.
Directly linked with thermal control of nonwoven materials, 2003‘s patent n. º 20030551 (A), stated by
Frisby Technologies Inc [US] as applicant, have secured a method to produce fibers, where thermal
control material dispersed within a binder could be blown onto a preformed fiber web, to form a bilayered product with one layer having thermal control properties, and another one without such
properties. US 2010/0264353 A1 patent assigned by Outlast Technologies INC, describes thermal
regulation building materials and other constructions components containing polymeric phase change
materials, which shall be taken in consideration not to collide with the StorePET manufacturing
production system.
StorePET aims to offer a new solution to a large SME community by adapting already existent
technologies used by the textile industry. The latest achievements dealing with the PCMs on this
sector have been enormous, mainly dealing with the production of thermo-regulated fabrics (TRF).
Several manufacture processes, such as impregnating hollow or non-hollow fibers with a PCM
solution, wet-spinning, melt-spinning and electro-spinning are used to fabricate TRFs. Whilst the
concept of using PCMs is clearly a very attractive one, there are still a number of limitations. Up to
now, only a very small group of fibers are compatible with PCMs, and there is an upper limit to the
amount of PCM that can be incorporated into them, before tensile properties are appreciably reduced.
PCM integration with fibers
Currently, the textile market has to offer some commercial TRF products, like the viscose fibers
containing MicroPCMs manufactured by Kelheim Fibres (Germany), which provides all of the benefits
of regular viscose with temperature-buffering capabilities for extreme comfort36. Also, a new
environmental friendly technology developed for cellulose shaping was recently accomplished by
Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research (TITK)37. TITK introduced the Smartcell™ clima
fibre - an alloy of cellulose and a phase change material made by using lyocell technology.
34 Kośny, J. ―2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change
Material". Oak Ridge, TN, USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratory report—ORNL/TM-2007/186, 2007.
35 Kośny, J et al Development of new generation of thermally- enhanced fiber glass insulation. Oak
Ridge, TN, USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, March 2010.
36 Kelheim Fibres GmbH. [Online] http://www.kelheim-fibres.com/home/index_de.php.
37 TITK. [Online] http://www.titk.de/en/home/home.htm.
Unlike the related viscose-based product produced by Kelheim Fibres using the Outlast™
encapsulated phase change material, the TITK process uses the PCM directly and disperses it in the
dope with the aid of inorganic nanoparticles. Outlast Technologies microencapsulated PCMs (mPCMs)
called ―Thermocules‖ can then be applied as a finishing on fabrics, or infused into fibers during the
manufacturing process. Presently it´s undisputable that TRF can response to ambient temperature
and maintain the microclimate equilibrium and that is why worldwide researches are currently trying to
explore it.
From the knowledge acquired regarding the incorporation of PCMs into fibers, it‘s clear that to produce
the novel StorePET product there will be several implicit technological innovations to be undertaken
and that optimization process will be needed to provide frameworks for decision-making. Thus, risk
assessments mitigation procedures and contingency plans must be described by the consortium (type
of PCMs and fiber integration technology amongst the most important ones).
In parallel to the development of the new PCMs products and technology it is fundamental to develop
suitable thermal and acoustic simulation tools to aid in the definition of a range of fiber PCM products
and system solutions to fulfil the requirements for different applications. In order to implement these
tools we must first establish the mathematical models and physical parameters that drive the heat
transfer/storage and sound transmission/absorption in these materials.
With regard to the mathematical model for the analysis of the heat transfer in layers containing PCM
materials, the standard methods/algorithms for current materials/applications are based on the
equivalent electric circuit with the following analogies:
Temperature – electric potential, thermal resistance – electric resistance, heat capacity – capacitance,
heat flow - current. In this circumstances the thermal behaviour of a wall consisting of homogeneous
layers can be characterized by the period of the outdoor thermal wave (time between temperature
peaks), the thermal resistance and heat capacity of each layer.
However, the equivalent electric circuit method is not applicable to materials with PCMs because this
analogy is valid only for materials with constant heat capacity (thermal mass) and thus, the effect of
the fusion latent heat exchanged during the phase change cannot be taken into account by these
models. Moreover, due to the non-linear behaviour of the PCMs (see example in figures on the left),
the standard parameters used to measure the thermal performance of the thermal mass, that is the
time lag φlag (time delay between the peak temperatures in the outdoor and indoor peak
temperatures) and decremental factor which measures the ratio between outdoor and indoor
temperature wave amplitudes (see Figure on the right) , are no longer suitable and new parameters
have to be defined to evaluate the enhance in the energy saving introduced by the PCMs.
The simulation tool will allow then to calculate the energy saving of a certain wall configuration,
containing layers of the developed fiber PCMs materials, for different weather conditions represented
by the corresponding outdoor thermal wave. The simulation tool should also cover situations in which
the thermal mass of the PCMs is complemented with other indoor temperature control techniques
such as night ventilation and/ or solar thermal storage systems. The simulation tool will allow for an
optimization of the PCM layers and wall system for a wide range of applications.
On the other hand, in order to implement an acoustic tool it is necessary to fully understand first the
effect on the sound transmission and absorption of the embedded PCMs in fiber materials. The
mathematical equations and the physical parameters that characterize their acoustic behaviour have
to be stated and included in software module that will be employed to compute the sound reduction
index of multilayer walls including PCMs. Since the sound absorption and transmission through porous
materials is mainly driven by its flow resistance and matrix stiffness, it is key to investigate whether the
PCMs change substantially these properties of the fiber matrix. The acoustic simulation tool will
receive the following input data: number of layers, thickness of each layer, acoustic properties of each
layer and will compute the sound reduction of the wall.
4. Conclusion
Acknowledgement: This research is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological
Development of the Republic of Serbia, within the framework of the Technological Development
project TR36016 for project cycle 2011-2014, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of frames
and plates with semi-rigid connections from the view of the second order theory and stability analysis”
and TR36028 for project cycle 2011-2014, “Development and improvement of methods for analyses of
soil-structure interaction based on theoretical and experimental research” of the research organization
The faculty of civil engineering and architecture of University of Nis.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Ćorić B, Ranković S. i Salatić R, Dinamika konstrukcija, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Beograd, 1998.,
str. 247.
Bezuhov, Lužin i Kolkunov, Stabilnost i dinamika konstrukcija u primjerima i zadacima(prevod),
Građevinska knjiga, Beograd, 1973., str. 470.
Petrović, B., Odabrana poglavlja iz zemljotresnog građevinarstva, Građevinska knjiga,
Beograd,1985., str. 180.
Clough R.W. and Penzien J., Dynamics of structures, McGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY, New
York, Toronto, p. 634.
Maglajlić Z., Simonović G., Hadžović R. i Ademović N., Određivanje osnovne forme i perioda
oscilovanja građevina približnim metodama, Materijali i konstrukcije br. 3-4/2006., Beograd,
2006., str. 72-82.
Aničić, Fajfar, Petrović, Savits-Nossan, Tomažević, Zemljotresno inženjerstvo visokogradnja,
Građevinska knjiga, Beograd, 1990., str. 642.
Brice Carnahan, H.A.Luther, James O.Wilkes, Applied Numerical Methods, John Wiley & sons
INC, New York, 1969.
Folić R., Neke metode dinamike konstrukcija i njihova primjena u seizmičkoj analizi konstrukcija
građevinskih objekata, Građevinski kalendar, Vol. 39, Beograd, prosinac 2006., str. 143-233
Wolfram Research, www.wolfram.com
SB 2013 Graz
Storepet – European Project Of An Innovative Thermal And Acoustic Insulation Solution For
Construction Materials
Prof. Dr. Djordje
Djordjevic
Biljana Avramovic
Cluster general manager
Full professor at
Faculty of Civil
Engineering and
Architecture Nis,
Serbia
Construction Cluster
DUNDJER, Nis, Serbia
[email protected]
[email protected]
Short Summary
The Construction Cluster „DUNDJER“ participates together with number of distinguished
research and development organizations in EU, in the 7th FP European project entitled
STOREPET (FP7-SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730). STOREPET is a project which goal is
develop an innovative thermal and acoustic insulation solution based on phase change
materials in building sector. StorePET will be especially design for lightweight and low
thermal mass building envelope structures, as well as for any other
residential/commercial/governmental new or refurbishing building projects, with extra
insulation and heat storage capacities needs. With a project budget of € 2.4 million, it has
been estimated that the new product will produce new streams of revenue worth € 170
million in the materials and energy savings worth above € 300 million. The research is at a
moment in progress. One of closing meetings, with presentation of final research results will
take place in Niš, Serbia, in the year 2013. The Construction Cluster „DUNDJER“ will have
all rights and royalties, including regional production and merchendise.
Key words: building materials, thermal insulation, accoustic insulation, light building constructions,
energy efficiency, sustainable building.
8. INTRODUCTION
New building strategies addressing climate change effects and reduction of heating/cooling
energy are two fundamental issues at EU level. Figures as the 35,000 excess deaths
attributed to the last heat wave in the continent in 2003, or 10% of the world’s energy being
used just for heating of buildings support European citizen’s concerns and new EU
legislation. New national and communitarian stringent directives, together with the economic
slump of the construction sector (showing two digit shrinkage rates) have set extremely high
challenges to the already weakened companies in the construction sector, especially the
SMEs. A market need and a new opportunity for them is researching competitive solutions
for thermal and acoustic insulation of light-weighted constructions, a broadly recognized
market driver for the next decade. Lightweight constructions represent an economical
alternative to traditional buildings, one of whose main drawbacks is the very high energy load
needed to keep internal comfort conditions, as they are unable to curb rapid swings of
temperature. When compared to heavier weight materials buildings, it’s estimated that to
maintain a thermally comfortable temperature range of 18-24°C, low weight materials use
between 2 and 3 times the heating and cooling energy needed by a heavy weight material
construction.
9. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The project concept is based upon the fact that outdoor/indoor heat exchanges (which play a
significant part of lightweight buildings cooling and heating loads) can be potentially
controlled by a new fiber insulation that possesses a thermally active heat storage capacity.
During the day, when temperature rises, the peak loads can be largely absorbed by a PCMenhanced fiber insulation layer, only to be slowly discharged back to the environment later
(during the night time, when outside temperature drops), without affecting the interior building
energy balance, as it is aided by the presence of an standard low heat transfer fiber
insulation layer. This approach will provide a much slower response of the building envelope
to daily temperature fluctuations, helping maintaining inside temperature in a comfortable
range and thus avoiding the need for extra energy consumptions to accomplish it. Effective
levels of indoor comfort will be also guaranteed by the well known fiber materials excellence,
when it comes to reduce airborne noise transmission and its superior performance upon
controlling the sound resonance in construction cavities.
10. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
Currently buildings account for 40% of the world‘s energy and almost half of the today‘s
Green House gas emissions1. This means that buildings contribute more greenhouse gases
than traffic, which is estimated at 31%, and industry, estimated at 28%. When we breakdown
and analyse buildings‘ energy consumption the most worrying aspect is that most of this
energy used for heating, cooling or ventilation is needlessly wasted or resulting of poor
insulation and all the recent projections claims that this consumption will rise considerably on
the next years to come2. Under this scope, the last Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) recommendations3 has stated that worldwide governments, businesses and
individuals must aggressively start to reduce energy use in new and existing buildings, in
order to reduce the planet‘s energy-related carbon footprint by 77% (against the predicted
2050 baseline), and stabilize CO2 levels to reach the level called by IPCC. To reach this
objective it‘s estimated that global building sector needs to cut energy consumption in
buildings 60% by 2050, in order to meet the global climate change targets4.
Fig. 1
With such high levels of energy consumption clouded by severe climate change estimations,
the European Community (EC) has triggered a significant number of regulatory and
legislative actions. In March 2007, the European Council set clear goals for a reduction of
20% by 2020 in the total energy consumption (below 2005 levels), with a 20% contribution of
renewable energies to total energy use and a 20% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
with respect to 1990 figures. In this context, the building sector must assume very ambitious
objectives on energy consumption cuts of around 165 Mtoe (millions of tons of oil equivalent)
and contribute with 50 Mtoe from renewable energies by 20205. To underline the magnitude
of the task, these figures are equivalent to the total joint energy consumption of Spain,
Portugal, Greece and Ireland in 20046.
On May of 2010, the new Energy Performance of Buildings (EPB) Directive was finally
adopted as Directive 2010/31/EU. It calls for improved national regulations upon new and
renovated houses energy efficiency, with very ambitious standards and mandatory goals. It
also includes a framework for national requirements, related with heating/cooling and
ventilation systems. In July 2012, the new directive shall be implemented, though many
elements including the regulation of building systems will only be fully enforced by July 2013.
By the end of 2020, new buildings in the EU must consume ‗nearly zero‘ energy.
With a current stock of around 160 million buildings in the EU7, the latest EPB Directive also
tack the retrofit of existing buildings, including historic ones towards an effective action
against climate change. As for the new buildings, universal trends now show a movement
towards lightweight and modular timber or steel constructions (with less site wastes involved
and lower embedded energy materials), with global demand for prefabricated housing and
elements growing at 3.4 % per year, for a market valued at €51 billion in 2004 for complete
buildings alone.
11. THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR CONTEXT
The construction sector is the one that has suffered most the yet present downturn, partly
related to several significant construction bubbles, but also hardly affected by the financial
institutions‘ credit crisis.
In particular, focusing on the segment of lightweight prefabricated housing of the building
industry, consisting of wood or light steel frame (LSF) and panellized pre-cut structures is
expected to show in the next decade the largest growth in terms of novel solutions and
production worldwide. Within this segment one of the most
important subjects related with building‘s energy efficiency is the use of appropriate
insulation materials, both for warm and cold climates (air conditioning is no longer considered
an energy-efficient alternative as it accounts for almost 15% of the total energy consumed in
Europe). Boosted by present and provisional needs, worldwide consumption of insulation
materials is projected to expand 3.8% per year through 201213.. Maintaining the last decade
trend, foamed plastic insulation will continue to account for the largest portion of total
demand through 2012. Economic expansion in the developing countries of Asia will raise the
demand, preferably for foamed plastic, both in building construction and in the production of
household appliances. Fiberglass insulation is expected to expand its presence outside of
North America (mainly Europe, Asia and all the BRIC - Brazil, Russia, India, and China),
while mineral wool will see its share of the market shrink due to the competition of glass
wool. Other fiber alternative materials mostly made from recycled materials, like nonwoven
technical insulations, will continue to be niche products if they don‘t endorse and push
forward their performance.
The increasing demand for energy-saving technologies has contributed to a renewed
research for thermal materials that can actively control heat flux environment variations Phase Change Materials (PCM). The global PCM market is expected to grow from $300.8
million in 2009 to $1,488.1 million in 2015, at an estimated CAGR of 31.7% from 2010 to
2015. The paraffin-based PCM market commands the largest share of the overall PCM
market in terms of value, while salt hydrate-based PCMs lead the market in terms of volume.
Building and construction currently forms its largest application market, due to the globally
increasing demands for indoor temperature control.
European companies in the increasingly knowledge-intensive construction sector need to
react quickly to this situation and develop more protectable innovative solutions to remain
innovative. In particular the requirement of higher energy efficiency for buildings has been
identified as the primary driver for the construction materials industry16. StorePET will provide
this EU sector and particularly to the SMEs an excellent knowledge-based competitive tool to
ease the recovery and face the near future challenges of our Construction Sector.
12. THE TECHNICAL PROBLEM
Lightweight constructions represent an economical alternative to traditional buildings, one of
whose main drawbacks is the very high energy load needed to keep internal comfort
conditions, as they are unable to curb rapid swings of temperature. When compared to
heavier weight materials buildings, it‘s estimated that to maintain a thermally comfortable
temperature range of 18-24°C, low weight materials use between 2 and 3 times the heating
and cooling energy needed by a heavy weight material construction.
When comparing the two types of constructions, studies18 have showed the heavyweight
construction could suppress more easily the effects of possible climate change scenario, by
maintaining a lower internal temperature than the lightweight construction for most of the
time period, with peak temperatures up to 4.5°C cooler. Other studies have revealed that the
difference between the peak external and internal temperatures can reach 8º C, when
comparing both structures and that a peak temperature delay up to 6 hours can be
observed19, these delay and amplitude being a complex function of the wall thermal
conductivity, the specific heat and several local temperature gradients around wall surfaces.
The reason for this huge difference lies on the different thermal mass presented by the two
types of constructions. In the case of dwellings for instance, the heat storage and thermal
mass properties can vary significantly from 55kJ/m2K for a lightweight timber frame
construction to 500kJ/m2K for a solid masonry construction. Thus, thermal mass can be
hugely helpful to maintain indoor thermal comfort. Lightweight buildings have a ‗quick
thermal response‘ and will heat up and cool down over a shorter period than heavyweight
building that have a ‗slow response‘ (see figure bellow).
Fig 2. Materials with high (left) and low (right) thermal mass capacity
Fig 3. Daily temperature range fluctuations
Thermal mass is most effective in places and in seasons with large daily temperature
fluctuations above and below the balance point temperature -BPT- of the building (BPT is the
outdoor temperature below which heating will be required in the building because internal
heat gains are less than heat loss through envelope and ventilation). In such cases
substantially energy is saved by avoiding a significant portion of heat flux being transferred
through the envelop backward and forward. Often, the benefits are greatest during summer
and fall, when fluctuations above and below the comfort temperature occur. Nevertheless,
the same concept can be theoretically be used to moderate heat flux under either extreme
cold conditions or extreme warm conditions, where outer temperature ranges are well above
or below the comfort temperature.
When outdoor temperatures are at their high peak in warm climates, the inside of the building
remains cool because the heat penetration through the mass is delayed. If the heat that is
stored during the day hours could be evacuated selectively to the exterior at night, the effect
of the thermal mass would be very similar to a high performance insulator.
In cold climates requiring intensive heating, thermal mass can be used to effectively collect
and store solar gains and to store internal excess heat during the day and selectively release
it back inwards. Buildings using electric heating/cooling can simultaneously use off-peak
hours enjoying cheaper supply tariffs as daily storing phase. The result will be a substantial
net reduction in energy consumption and additional bill cuts due to cheaper electricity.
New European states‘ regulations are more and more concerned about energy efficiency of
existent and future buildings and finally looking at thermal capacity as a key element for it.
For instance, the new UK‘s Building Regulations, recently implemented on the 1st October
2010 refers that thermal capacity of all the internal and external construction elements must
play a decisive role on this goal, and used to reduce the heating and cooling demands of a
building. Onwards, it will not be enough to consider only the overall heat transfer coefficient
(U-Value) of the building elements (level of insulation), but also their related effective thermal
capacity per unit area - Thermal Mass Parameter (TMP).
Generally, highly insulated structures cannot efficiently substitute a lack of thermal mass.
Thermal mass stores and re-radiates heat, while insulation stops heat flowing into or out of
the building. A high thermal mass material is not generally a good thermal insulator and the
best insulation material has almost no thermal mass. Thus, in harsh hot climate conditions,
the only way to maintain a comfortable temperature inside a lightweight building on a
summer day without installing active air conditioning is to somehow increase its thermal
mass. You can do it in traditionally manner with heavy building materials, or by introducing
latent heat storage materials in its construction.
Up to now the only solution it‘s to combine different materials separately for maximum
performance. While it is reasonably easy for the heavyweight masonry sector to do this, the
quest for thermal mass by lightweight construction builders (that rely almost exclusively upon
insulation), it‘s still seen as a battle that needs urgently to be won in order to stay competitive
for the years to come. Although there have been a great deal of resources invested on
research (mainly on the US), worldwide construction market is still waiting for economical
products that can effectively combine the best of the two worlds (thermal insulation and
thermal storage properties), without forgetting the noise insulation ability on a single,
affordable and easy to work product.
Our goal is the development of a new thermally enhanced fiber insulation product solution
with the help of phase change materials (PCMs). PCMs are substances with high heat of
fusion (high latent heat storage) which, by melting and solidifying at a certain temperature,
are capable of storing and releasing large amounts of energy. Heat is absorbed or
released when the material changes from solid to liquid and vice versa. PCMs are been used
for several years as thermal mass components in buildings with some degree of
effectiveness upon building energy performance. Today, there are many commercial PCM
products available in the market, either in the form of a single material, or in the form of
integrated products placed on the interior surfaces of walls, ceilings or floors (such as PCM
integrated gypsum wallboards, concrete, plasters, etc). These products are generally used to
reduce indoor space day/night temperature swings, due mainly to diurnal solar gains through
glazing, by storing autonomously the heat during the day and release it back during the night,
providing an extra heat source to keep the inside comfort. To understand the extent of PCM
technology upon energy saving possibilities, studies20 have found that an area of approx. 120
m² using an enhanced plaster with a microencapsulated (thin polymer container) paraffin wax
PCM (with a maximum heat storage of 110 J/g), could match up about 40,000 kJ,
corresponding to more or less than 11 kWh. This energy consumption is equivalent to the
cooling performance of an air-conditioning unit with an input power rating of 4 kW, used at
full capacity for 1 hour a day. For a predicted PCM working process for five hours a day
during 10 weeks of significant hot weather a year, that would have the same effect as using
air conditioning unit for 300 hours, which corresponds to an average saving of 228 €/year,
considering the initial equipment investment.
However, none of today‘s building materials incorporating PCMs in a stand-alone product are
designed either to perform as heat flux blockers through the building envelope (external walls
and roofs), or as a noise insulator. The StorePET project intends to overcome this
market gap and act differently from any other PCM available product, using PCMs fiber
incorporation technology to excel the extra advantage of the conventional fiber
insulation work, regarding the large temperature fluctuations that take place in residential
attics or at the exterior wall surfaces of lightweight building structures.
13. THE PROJECT CONCEPT
The project concept is based upon the fact that outdoor/indoor heat exchanges (which play
a significant role in lightweight buildings cooling and heating loads) can be potentially
controlled by a new fiber insulation that possesses a termaly active heat storage capacity.
During the day, when temperature rises, the peack loads can be largely absorbed by a PCMenhanced fiber insulation layer, only to be slowly discharged back to the environment later
(during the night time, when outside temerature drops), without afecting the interior building
energy balance, as it is aided by the presence of an standard low heat transfer fiber
insulation layer. This approach will provide much slower response of the building envelope
to daily temerature fluctuations, helping maintaining inside temperature in a comfortable
range and thus avoiding the need for extra energy consumptions to accomplish it. Effective
levels of indoor comfort will be also guaranteed by the well known fiber materials excellence,
when it comes to reduce airborn noice transmission and its superior performance upon
controlling the sound resonance in construction cavities.
Fig. 4.
Fig 5.
From the point of view of energy efficiency design, the added value of the PCMs is its extra
ability (on top of the thermal resistance) to reduce energy consumption in the building. The
above figure shows how StorePET solution would significantly reduce inside temperature
fluctuation and therefore the needed heating/cooling load to keep temperature constant, in a
scenario of high fluctuation of outside temperature.
The same conceptual solution when applied to extreme hot or cold temperatures would need
different products (PCMs‘ fusion points, relative concentration and distribution along the matt
cross section would be different to avoid external heat than to recover internal heat), and
installation layouts (matt allocation, ventilation systems) would as well differ. Maybe the most
notable difference is the convenience of an additional ventilation system to take full
advantage of the thermal inertia provided by the PCMs.
Fig 6.
Fig 7
The above figure intends to illustrate a scenario of extreme high temperatures. During the
day, the PCM acts as a thermal barrier and only a fraction of heat reaches the inside, while
the rest is stored in the PCM batt. When temperatures go down in the night (but yet above
the comfort temperature), the batt warms up surrounding air. If properly ventilated, natural
convection pushes warm air up and then out to the outside, refrigerating the PCM and
avoiding storage heat to penetrate the building. An appropriate structure of the batt enabling
air mobility in the plane of the facade and restricting the perpendicular direction will favour
lateral convection for homogeneous refrigeration and vertical convection for evacuation. The
design and manufacture of such a structure through a multilayered approach and other
alternatives will be a relevant task of the non-woven panel research.
Although more suitable for warmer climates, while tailoring its composition with different
phase change temperature materials and different installation layouts, StorePET will be able
to respond to a broad range climate patterns. This will give it a unique and unmatchable
versatility amongst other building insulation products. Out of each design temperature
season, the product will just act like a normal fiber insulation material, keeping all other
thermal and acoustic properties intact.
14. THE SCIENTIFIC, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The main goal of the StorePET project is to develop a new nonwoven technical insulation
product that integrates phase change materials for heat storage capacity skills. Maintaining
the superior levels of thermal and noise insulation commonly recognized for fiber materials,
StorePET will be especially design for lightweight and low thermal mass building envelope
structures, as well as for any other residential/commercial/governmental new or refurbishing
building projects, with extra insulation and heat storage capacities needs. Although expected
to be more effective in places and seasons with large daily temperature fluctuations, where
it‘s possible to take full advantage of its performance abilities, this new product can also be
used as standard insulation on any type of climates and a secure choice to counteract global
warming rising temperatures.
To ensure that the project is a success we have defined clear objectives that are quantified,
measurable and focused during the project‘s work package tasks program and continuing
accounted on related deliverables reports.
6.4 SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES
‐ Achieve a clear and extensive understanding of the lightweight building systems currently
available, their technical needs and most commonly thermal and noise insulation materials
used, its relevant standards and building regulations dealing with the latest energy efficiency
requirements;
‐ Clearly define the theoretical principles evolving thermal conductivity and heat storage and
transfer behaviour of PCM fiber composite materials, as well as the fundamentals ruling its
acoustic absorption and insulation;
Noticeably identify the best technical fiber characteristics and which PCMs materials and are
most likely to be used, based on their thermodynamic, chemical and physics properties,
production costs and technological skills aiming the nonwoven PCM-fiber integration and its
end using goals.
6.5 TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES
‐ Develop the product‘s design and the technology for its making by building a newly
prototype line system for PCM-fiber integration and trial product manufacturing;
- Refine StorePET production technology, aiming to combine the best technical properties
with the least embodied energy necessary for its production, using the most cost effective
raw materials with the highest recycled content possible and least energy consuming
production lines;
‐ Define the active ventilation systems that should accompany the installation of StorePET
insulator, in areas of extreme absolute temperature but low fluctuation;
‐ Develop a software for thermal and acoustic properties evaluation aiming the design of the
optimum StorePET product for a type of installation and a set of variables. It will bring an
easy-to-use interface for professionals non highly qualified on the use of sophisticated
simulation tools, but will relay on finite elements modelling, properties of raw materials, layer
zone designs and climate patterns of the most plausible entrance markets.
6.6 PRODUCT TECHNICAL OBJECTIVES
‐ Achieve on a lab scale using a guarded hot box facility, reductions in heat flow of about
40% with the new PCM-fiber product, when compared on the equal conditions with the same
fiber material produced without the PCM content;
- Achieve by field tests potential and significant cooling load reductions during a springsummer season period. The fulfilment of this objective will be dependable on the location of
these tests. For places with large daily temperature fluctuations during the hot season, peakhour load reductions higher than 20% and cooling-dominated loads reductions up to 40%,
shall be expected (representing real energy savings), when compared with regular fiber
insulation materials (mineral wool, glass wool, etc.);
‐ Secure a thermal conductivity K (W/(mK)) not higher than 0,04 and preferably under this
value;
‐ Accomplish a thermal resistance - RSI value (m²K/W) not less than 2,5 for a nominal
thickness of 100mm;
‐ Achieve a noise transmission insulation (Rw) not less than 55dB for StorePET, when placed
between a wall partition made of a double drywall panel, with a 6cm cavity space;
‐ Guarantee all the other technical requirements to meet the national and communitarian
building codes and regulations for each proposed entrance market. Special emphasis shall
be given upon moisture and fire resistance, this last one with a European fire classification
stated not less than Class Bs2d0.
6.4 ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES
Accomplish significant energy savings concerning the reduction of air-conditioning needs
related with the walls/roofs heat exchanges, and a controlled and balanced price for this new
product, aiming a reasonable payback time for its end users considering the energy saving
possibilities (within a maximum of 5 years).
6.6 SOCIETAL OBJECTIVES
Increase the consumer (building constructors and home-owners) knowledge and acceptance
of this new thermally enhanced insulation product;
‐ Demonstrate the market demand for a new building insulation material like StorePET;
‐ Protect/increase the employment in related companies, from raw materials and technical
non-woven producers, to PCM suppliers, up to the overall building construction market chain;
‐ Increase citizen‘s level of indoor comfort and reducing health problems related with thermal
and acoustic insulation issues;
‐ Contribute for the reduction of global CO2 emissions by joining the effort to effectively
decrease the building sector account for energy usage.
REFERENCES
EN 15459 : Energy performance of buildings – Economic evaluation procedure for
energy systems in buildings.
[9] EN ISO 15686-5 : Buildings and constructed assets — Service life planning - Part 5:
Life cycle costing.
[8]
EN ISO 15686-9 – Buildings and constructed assets – Part 8 Reference service life
and service life information.
[11] Sustainability and property valuation: a risk-based approach. Meins, Wallbaum et al.
(2010). Building Research & Information 2010, 38(3), 281-301.
[12] Upgrading the flexibility of buildings, Rob P. Geraedts, CIB World Congress, April
2001.
[13] Recommendation SIA 112/1, 2004: Sustainable Building –Building Construction;
Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects.
[14] Six steps resulting in a flexibility index of the building. Source: LEnSE: Methodology
Development towards a Label for Environmental, Social and Economic Buildings,
Indicator: Increase Ease of Building Adaptability.
[10]
Participation at International
conference in Subotica
NEW THERMALLY ENHANCED FIBER INSULATION MATERIAL4
Djordje Djordjević 5
Biljana Avramović 6
UDK:
Summary: Lightweight constructions represent an economical alternative to traditional buildings, one
of whose main drawbacks is the very high energy load needed to keep internal comfort conditions, as
they are unable to curb rapid swings of temperature. When compared to heavier weight materials
buildings, it’s estimated that to maintain a thermally comfortable temperature range of 18-24°C, low
weight materials use between 2 and 3 times the heating and cooling energy needed by a heavy weight
material construction. This paper deals with research which developes and new thermally enhanced
active (PCM) fiber insulation material, named by research partners StorePET.
Development of such insulation material is in final phase in frame of European FP7 project
STOREPET (FP7-SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730) with researchers from Spain, Portugal, Italy,
Slovenia, and Sebia. Project participant from SEE is Construction Cluster „Dundjer” from Niš.
Keywords: Building materials, thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, light
constructions, energy efficiency, sustainable building.
building
1. INTRODUCTION
The research concept is based upon the fact that outdoor/indoor heat exchanges (which play a
significant part of lightweight buildings cooling and heating loads) can be potentially controlled by a
new fiber insulation that possesses a thermally active heat storage capacity. During the day, when
temperature rises, the peak loads can be largely absorbed by a PCM (Phase Change Material) enhanced fiber insulation layer, only to be slowly discharged back to the environment later (during the
night time, when outside temperature drops), without affecting the interior building energy balance, as
it is aided by the presence of an standard low heat transfer fiber insulation layer. This approach will
provide a much slower response of the building envelope to daily temperature fluctuations, helping
maintaining inside temperature in a comfortable range and thus avoiding the need for extra energy
consumptions to accomplish it. Effective levels of indoor comfort will be also guaranteed by the well
known fiber materials excellence, when it comes to reduce airborne noise transmission and its
superior performance upon controlling the sound resonance in construction cavities.
2. TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF STOREPET
The new thermally-enhanced fiber insulation proposed will be a technical nonwoven product, made
mainly from polyester fibers resulting from the recycling of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic
bottles, where some of the fibers will be modified/impregnated with phase change materials (PCMs),
on a single or multilayer bulk design, in the form of blankets, batts or rolls that shall be available ready
to be installed.
4
This work is in part supported by the EC funded Project, FP7-SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730, and Serbian Ministry of Education and
Science (research projects TR37003 and III44006 )
5
Djordje Djordjević, University of Niš, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, A. Medvedeva 14, Niš, tel: ++381 64 156 36 76, e –
mail: [email protected]
6
Biljana Avramović, Construction Cluster Dundjer, Niš, Rajićeva 30a, tel. ++381 18 522 812, e-mail: [email protected]
Figure 1. StorePET structure
Based upon the excellent thermal and noise insulation properties and market acceptance for
commonly glass and mineral wool materials, it was reasonable to think upon using those types of
fibers to integrate the StorePET approach, instead of the polyester. However, their manufacturing
process, dealing with high temperatures and other technical issues, makes it almost impossible to
incorporate the PCMs within its fiber structures. Other possible option was to choose cellulose fibers
as the core material for this new product. The reason to withdraw this pathway was that cellulose
insulation production is still too much based on low-tech machinery and methods, making it unfeasible
to re-process the shredded recycled cellulose fibers for PCM incorporation sake, and still be
competitive under the same basis. Thus, polyester fiber was chosen for this approach for being
currently the most promising material to be able to incorporate this novel thermal enhancement.
Thanks to the peculiarities of the polyester fiber, this type of insulation differs from other similar
products, for being breathable and because it‘s physical and chemical features remains unvaried over
time, maintaining their excellent thermal and acoustic insulation and mechanical properties. Generally
able to satisfy the different needs of application and/or of technical performances by meeting the
standard regulations in terms of thermal and acoustical insulation, moisture resistance and reaction to
fire. In addition, it contains no harmful substances for human beings, it is completely recyclable, and
by being manufactured with materials obtained from post consumer PET bottles recycling, it also
allows consequently savings of CO2 emissions.
Figure 2. PET fibers and polyester insulation production
The best production process shall be carefully evaluated during the research part of the project,
deciding which PCMs will be selected for the new concept and how they will integrate the nonwoven
polymer fibers. The challenging proposal that shall be primarily developed is to incorporate micro size
encapsulated PCMs inside the hollow or no-hollow recycled staple polyester fibers, during its early
production stage. This is probably the most challenging and revolutionary attempt made over the last
decades on the fiber insulation sector and should be regarded as a huge breakthrough that will vastly
contribute for its market competitiveness.
Up until now this PCM fiber integration has only be successfully made in the textile industry by a
limited number of companies, mostly using wet spun acrylic viscose techniques and modified
cellulose fibers using Lyocell technology. Complementary, recent research has proved that it is
possible to impregnate non encapsulated PCMs (i.e. Ecosine) into polyester fibers, with the aid of
supercritical CO2 fluid suspensions. Although this can be much more expensive solution, leading to
the need of extra industrial-size pressure chambers to perform the impregnation, supercritical carbon
dioxide is seen as an alternative promising technique.
If proved technical possible and commercially feasible, for instance by advanced manufacturing with
fiber electrospinning techniques, the PCM-fiber incorporation will have major advantages over other
technological integration solutions, mainly because the PCMs content will be protected by a dual wall the first being the wall of the PCM microcapsule and the second being the surrounding fiber itself. This
way, the PCM is less likely to leak from the fiber during its liquid phase and it will not settle or be lost
from the fiber matrix during handling, storing, application and end-using of the product, enhancing its
own life and the repeatability of its thermal response.
Figure 3. Dry-laid and thermobonding polyester nonwoven production line
StorePET product shall be engineered according to the specific end-use goals and the best
nonwoven technology available for its production. The PCM type that will be chosen will take in
consideration aspects like its nature and cost, physical and chemical properties, considering the
application market climates, its ease of being supplied and its
technological ability for being integrated with the polyester fibers at an industrial level, with minimum
economical and environmental costs associated.
One of the most important issues to accomplish will be the need to achieve the new heat storage
ability for the StorePET product, without compromise and preferably enhance, all other thermal,
acoustic, mechanical and fire resistance properties of the standard polyester insulation. This means
that it is important to maintain, at least, the same standard polyester fiber properties, like its density,
size, thermal conductivity, etc.
The PCM inclusion shall be preferably made during the extrusion or the melt spinning process stage of
the recycled polymer PET chips, when pluralities of individual synthetic fibers are formed to be
collected into a strand or made into a cut staple type. Afterwards, the standard Dry-Laid process
normally used to produce polyester insulation batts and boards seems to be the best option to choose,
as it is the easiest to perform the fibres opening mixing and carding. The carding step will provide the
thin web layers, which will be subsequently conveyed to a crosslapper unit to produce a multilayered
overlapping product on a synchronized process before the final thermobonding process.
If the regular carding Dry-Laid process should find unfeasible to reach the PCM incorporation goal,
other techniques should be evaluated like Spun-Laid, Spun-Bond, Melt-Blown or even Wet-Laid
processes to perform the job. On the other hand, if the thermobonding process should proved derlictic
for the PCM content, other fiber bonding ways should be searched, minding not to compromise the
final properties aimed for the product. Old and environmental unfriendly bonding techniques like the
latex ones should be avoided and, alternatively, consider other techniques like the mechanical
bonding ones (needle punching, stitchbonding or spunlacing –hydroentangling).
3. NEW PRODUCT BASIC CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS
Designed for thermal and acoustic insulation of new residential/commercial lightweight building
structures or for overall retrofit operations, StorePET is specially planned to be used on external walls
cavities and roof spaces, but also able to be installed under floor, between floors or inside internal
walls.
On its double/multilayer design option, it is proposed to be produced in the form of batts, blankets or
rolls, with commercial standard sizes and thickness, like, for example: 50, 60, 80, 100, and 120, up to
150 mm. The PCM integrated fibers should have a parallel production line, alongside with the non
modified polyester ones until the overlapping stage of the nonwoven manufacturing process. The
product will be made of, at least, two different zones - one inner (bottom) side zone made of a thick
stack of several layers of regular polyester fibers (low heat transfer zone of the bulk insulation) and a
outer (top) zone made of thinner pile of PCM-polyester fiber sheets (the heat storage part of the bulk
insulation).
One of the most challenging and positive advantages of StorePET solution will be the capability to be
produced and sold a thinner version of the product, made of a single PCM-polyester integration bulk
layer (from 10 to 50mm). This slim version will provide the constructors and homeowners a novel and
thermally active insulation material, easily combined on site with any other type of standard insulation
materials available (mineral and fiber wool, cellulose fibers, foam boards, etc.). Whenever extra
thermal mass is needed, thermal storage skills and superior thermal and noise performance provided
by the slim StorePET version can be unmatchable for renovation actions, where the lack of available
space for insulation is usually small.
Figure 4. PCM microcapsules
The guaranty of indoor warmth in winter and coolness in summer offered by StorePET insulation
products will be conjugated with a superior performance upon on reducing airborne noise transmission
by controlling resonating noise inside construction cavities. The excellent acoustical insulation and
absorption properties of polyester nonwoven fabrics mainly depend on fiber geometry and fiber
arrangement within the fabric structure. Usually, vertically lapped fabrics are ideal materials for use as
acoustical insulation products, because they have high total surface area. This surface area is directly
related to the denier and cross-sectional shape of the fibers, where smaller deniers yields more fibers
per unit weight of the material, thus greater possibilities for a sound wave to interact with the fibers in
the fabric structure. The PCMs incorporation technique will try to provide that the sound wave
interaction with the insulation matrix remains unaffected.
Regarding the PCMs to be used upon StorePET, nowadays the chemical industry has a large set of
different PCM types to offer to all different sorts of markets, based on their phase change process
(solid-liquid, liquid-gas and solid-solid) and on their composition (organic, inorganic, or eutectic).
While the list of technical features is long, for building application proposes, one can point out the
following as the most important ones: proper phase changes at daily regular climate temperature
fluctuations with high latent heat storage capacity and small volume change during their phase shifts,
desirable heat transfer characteristics (e.g. good thermal conductivity), low vapour pressure, no or
limited supercooling, sufficient crystallization rate, long term chemical stability, compatible with
different container materials, no toxicity and no or acceptable fire risk. Other crucial issues are the
economics requisites for PCM usage: plenty of resources, available for application and, most
important, to be cost effective for large production.
While metallic inorganic PCMs generally show high latent heat of fusion but are seldom used due to
their scarce availability and high cost, the hydrated salts of the same group (considered as alloys of
inorganic salt and water), lay their merits on a large amount of cost effectiveness candidates at proper
temperatures, and on their high latent heat of fusion and thermal conductivities during their phase shift
process. However, their biggest disadvantage is related to their incongruent melting during phase
change processes, which leads to the separation of the hydrated salt from water, preventing their
smooth recombination during the re-hydration phase (freezing process).
Organic PCM and especially the paraffin subgroup („waxes” like alkane hydrocarbons) have been the
most used for building purposes, due to: large availability for a wide range of temperatures, chemical
stability at multiple change cycles, no phase segregation, sufficient crystallization rate and very limited
supercooling, as well as they are not normally corrosive.
Over the last years, technical grade paraffins with some impurities levels are being available at very
reasonable prices, showing high levels of reliability concerning their thermo physical properties. Their
major drawbacks are normally the low thermal conductivity (solve when possible by their coating with
metallic fins or heat exchangers) and their moderate flammability, possible to overcome by
incorporating flame retardants. On the other hand, the large variety and versatile grades of nonparaffin PCMs (made from fatty acids or esters and glycols), although with very promising technical
properties, are still very expensive and thus not very cost effective for usage.
Extensive research developments on PCM science, led to the possibility of nutshell the thermal
material inside thin polymer capsules, preventing it from leak during its phase change and providing
higher flame resistance. These progresses gave birth to a new thrust on PCM production for building
®
materials. For example, chemical giant BASF currently uses a paraffin-based PCM in its Micronal
system, which completes a phase change from solid to liquid within the indoor temperature and
human comfort range (i.e. at 21°C, 23°C or 26°C) and by doing so it can store a large quantity of heat
(heat storage capacities from 51 to 145 KJ/kg). With microcapsules as small as 5μm and supplied
different forms (dry powder or liquid powder blends), this microencapsulation technique is consider
today the best way to incorporate PCM technology into all sort of building materials, thus also to
expected to be within non-woven technical products like the proposed StorePET one.
The PCM type to be used on the project will be carefully chosen, not only for its technical capabilities,
price, and manufacturability as impregnated or co-extruded with the fiber, but also for its merits when it
comes to provide an indoor comfortable and healthy temperature zone, which is between 21°C and
26°C.
Without discarding other climates, StorePET research program shall be largely focused upon hot
summer weather climate conditions. Thus it should spotlight primarily on high melting point and high
overall storage and latent heat capacity materials to absorb the excess of heat, preventing the
surroundings from heating up any further. Values around 26°C, 145kJ/kg and 110kJ/kg respectively,
like the microencapsulated paraffinic ones provided by BASF Micronal DS 5001 (with 5 to 20 μm),
should be a good work starting point, as it provides also a huge number of possible and complete
phase change cycles (averages of 300 phase changes per year, 10,000 cycles correspond to a
minimum life expectancy of more than 30 years).
Although the research program should not be tight only on organic paraffin waxes (other PCMs must
be considered), it should be present that the PCMs ability to store heat over a period of several hot
summer days will depend always on the amount present. When storage capacity reaches saturation
no more heat can be absolved and its performance is diminished. Thus, the overall PCM content to be
included on StorePET must be carefully identified towards maximum performance, aiming at least
20% wt content as a start working value.
The selection of PCM type and its overall content, the fibers characteristics and the best and most
suitable technology process to accomplish their combination, will be subject of an extensive materials
research, backed up by thermal and acoustic modelling and analytical simulation, towards the making
of a prototype product that will be largely tested. The thickness of the PCM integration zone-layer shall
be evaluated on the same bases, in order to achieve all the anticipated technical properties, and the
fulfilment of the mandatory building codes, before it can be delivered to the market. Other important
characteristics like moisture and particularly the fire resistance will also play an important role of the
project towards the compliance of the specific market regulations, especially considering the PCM
content. Nevertheless, when installed, StorePET will be contained within the cavity sheathing and
internal lining board until these layers are destroyed. Therefore, it will not contribute to the
development stages of a fire or present a smoke or toxic hazard until the lining is compromised.
The research program will also be committed to the need to combine, the least embodied energy and
energy footprint possible for StorePET production, with the lowest manufacture expenses, towards a
cost-effective solution with a good market acceptance and a minimum time energy-saving payback for
householders.
REFERENCES
[1] Tae Won Kim et al.: Impregnation of Eicosane into Polyester Fiber Using Supercritical Carbon
Dioxide. Solid State Phenomena Journal, 2007, (Volumes 124 - 126), pp 1095-1098.
[2] Kośny J. et al.: (2007) Thermal Performance of PCM-Enhanced Building Envelope Systems - in
Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings X, Proceedings of ASHRAE THERM
X, Clearwater, FL, Dec. 2007.
[3] Kośny, J. : Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material. Oak
Ridge, TN, USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report—ORNL/TM-2007/186, 2007.
[4] Kośny, J et al.: Development of new generation of thermally- enhanced fiber glass insulation. Oak
Ridge, TN, USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, March 2010.
[5] Kelheim Fibres GmbH. [Online] http://www.kelheim-fibres.com/home/index_de.php.
[6] Advanced Phase Change Materials (PCM) Market: Global Forecast (2010-2015) Report MarketsandMarkets, June 28, 2010 - Pub ID: MKMK2717813
[7] Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings Summary Report - Nordic Innovation Centre,
September 1, 2010.
[8] Eurostat, Statistics in focus, 7/2010. The EU-27 Construction sector: from boom to gloom.
[9] Green Outlook 2011: Green Trends Driving Growth, McGrow-Hill November 2010.
[10] World Insulation Report - Freedonia Group Inc, February 1, 2009 - Pub ID: FG2703472
[11] Frost&Sullivan: Strategic Developments in Construction Materials Industry- Technical Insights,
Materials and Coatings, June 2010.
NOVI TERMIČKI POBOLJŠANI VLAKNASTI IZOLACIONI
MATERIJAL
Rezime: Gradjevinski klaster „DUNDJER“, zajedno sa većim brojem evropskih organizacija,
učestvuje na evropskom projektu FP7 pod nazivom „STOREPET“ (FP7-SME-2011-2,
Proposal 286730). STOREPET je projekat čiji je cilj da razvije jedan novi termički i akustički
gradjevinski izolacioni materijal, baziran na materijalima koji pri korišćenju menjaju svoje
agregatno stanje. StorePET će biti posebno projektovan materijal za lake konstrukcije sa
omotačem koji ima malu termičku masu (termički kapacitet), kao i za bilo koju drugu
stambenu/poslovnu/javnu novu ili rekonstruisanu zgradu sa posebnim izolacionim i
toplotno-kapacitetnim potrebama. Sa budžetom projekta od 2.4 miliona € , procenjeno je da
će novi proizvod stvoriti novu vrednost u iznosu od 170 miliona € u uštedi u materijalu i 300
miliona € u energiji. Istraživanje je trenutno u toku. Jedan od završnih skupova, sa
predstavljanjem rezultata istraživanja je biti održan u Nišu, u 2013. godini. Gradjevinski
klaster „DUNDJER“ će imati sva prava i licencu, uključujući proizvodnju i plasman u
regionu..
Ključne reči: Gradjevinski materijali, termička izolacija, akustička izolacija, lake
gradjevinske konstrukcije, energetska efikasnost, održiva gradnja.
International Symposium in Belgrade
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF NEW THERMALLY ENHANCED FIBER
INSULATION BASED ON PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS7
Djordje Djordjević 8
Biljana Avramović 9
Summary: Lightweight constructions represent an economical alternative to traditional buildings, one of whose
main drawbacks is the very high energy load needed to keep internal comfort conditions, as they are unable to
curb rapid swings of temperature. When compared to heavier weight materials buildings, it’s estimated that to
maintain a thermally comfortable temperature range of 18-24°C, low weight materials use between 2 and 3
times the heating and cooling energy needed by a heavy weight material construction. This paper deals with
research which developes a new thermally enhanced active (PCM) fiber insulation material, named by research
partners StorePET.
Development of such insulation material is in final phase in frame of European FP7 project STOREPET (FP7SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730) with researchers from Spain, Portugal, Italy, Slovenia, and Sebia. Project
participant from SEE is Construction Cluster „Dundjer” from Niš.
Keywords: Building materials, thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, light building constructions,
energy efficiency, sustainable building.
4. INTRODUCTION
The research concept is based upon the fact that outdoor/indoor heat exchanges (which play a
significant part of lightweight buildings cooling and heating loads) can be potentially controlled by a
new fiber insulation that possesses a thermally active heat storage capacity. During the day, when
temperature rises, the peak loads can be largely absorbed by a PCM (Phase Change Material) enhanced fiber insulation layer, only to be slowly discharged back to the environment later (during the
night time, when outside temperature drops), without affecting the interior building energy balance, as
it is aided by the presence of an standard low heat transfer fiber insulation layer. This approach will
provide a much slower response of the building envelope to daily temperature fluctuations, helping
maintaining inside temperature in a comfortable range and thus avoiding the need for extra energy
consumptions to accomplish it. Effective levels of indoor comfort will be also guaranteed by the well
known fiber materials excellence, when it comes to reduce airborne noise transmission and its superior
performance upon controlling the sound resonance in construction cavities.
5. TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF STOREPET
The new thermally-enhanced fiber insulation proposed will be a technical nonwoven product, made
mainly from polyester fibers resulting from the recycling of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic
bottles, where some of the fibers will be modified/impregnated with phase change materials (PCMs),
7
Acknowledgement: This work is supported by EU FP7 project STOREPET (FP7-SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730), with following partners
(and co-authors of this paper): SGG Slovenia, Techniberia Spain, Texclubtex Italy, Dundjer Serbia, Ecoterra Spain, Rama Spain, Devan
Portugal, Itav Spain, IPN Portugal, Centrocot Italy, and Acciona Spain. Part of research is supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education
and Science (research projects III44006 and TR37003) and Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (research projects TR37003 and
III44006 )
8
Djordje Djordjević, University of Niš, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, A. Medvedeva 14, Niš, tel: ++381 64 156 36 76, e –
mail: [email protected]
9
Biljana Avramović, Construction Cluster Dundjer, Niš, Rajićeva 30a, tel. ++381 18 522 812, e-mail: [email protected]
on a single or multilayer bulk design, in the form of blankets, batts or rolls that shall be available ready
to be installed.
Figure 1. StorePET structure
Based upon the excellent thermal and noise insulation properties and market acceptance for commonly
glass and mineral wool materials, it was reasonable to think upon using those types of fibers to
integrate the StorePET approach, instead of the polyester. However, their manufacturing process,
dealing with high temperatures and other technical issues, makes it almost impossible to incorporate
the PCMs within its fiber structures. Other possible option was to choose cellulose fibers as the core
material for this new product. The reason to withdraw this pathway was that cellulose insulation
production is still too much based on low-tech machinery and methods, making it unfeasible to reprocess the shredded recycled cellulose fibers for PCM incorporation sake, and still be competitive
under the same basis. Thus, polyester fiber was chosen for this approach for being currently the most
promising material to be able to incorporate this novel thermal enhancement.
Thanks to the peculiarities of the polyester fiber, this type of insulation differs from other similar
products, for being breathable and because it‘s physical and chemical features remains unvaried over
time, maintaining their excellent thermal and acoustic insulation and mechanical properties. Generally
able to satisfy the different needs of application and/or of technical performances by meeting the
standard regulations in terms of thermal and acoustical insulation, moisture resistance and reaction to
fire. In addition, it contains no harmful substances for human beings, it is completely recyclable, and
by being manufactured with materials obtained from post consumer PET bottles recycling, it also
allows consequently savings of CO2 emissions.
Figure 2. PET fibers and polyester insulation production
The best production process shall be carefully evaluated during the research part of the project,
deciding which PCMs will be selected for the new concept and how they will integrate the nonwoven
polymer fibers. The challenging proposal that shall be primarily developed is to incorporate micro size
encapsulated PCMs inside the hollow or no-hollow recycled staple polyester fibers, during its early
production stage. This is probably the most challenging and revolutionary attempt made over the last
decades on the fiber insulation sector and should be regarded as a huge breakthrough that will vastly
contribute for its market competitiveness.
Up until now this PCM fiber integration has only be successfully made in the textile industry by a
limited number of companies, mostly using wet spun acrylic viscose techniques and modified
cellulose fibers using Lyocell technology. Complementary, recent research has proved that it is
possible to impregnate non encapsulated PCMs (i.e. Ecosine) into polyester fibers, with the aid of
supercritical CO2 fluid suspensions. Although this can be much more expensive solution, leading to
the need of extra industrial-size pressure chambers to perform the impregnation, supercritical carbon
dioxide is seen as an alternative promising technique.
If proved technical possible and commercially feasible, for instance by advanced manufacturing with
fiber electrospinning techniques, the PCM-fiber incorporation will have major advantages over other
technological integration solutions, mainly because the PCMs content will be protected by a dual wall
- the first being the wall of the PCM microcapsule and the second being the surrounding fiber itself.
This way, the PCM is less likely to leak from the fiber during its liquid phase and it will not settle or
be lost from the fiber matrix during handling, storing, application and end-using of the product,
enhancing its own life and the repeatability of its thermal response.
Figure 3. Dry-laid and thermobonding polyester nonwoven production line
StorePET product shall be engineered according to the specific end-use goals and the best nonwoven
technology available for its production. The PCM type that will be chosen will take in consideration
aspects like its nature and cost, physical and chemical properties, considering the application market
climates, its ease of being supplied and its
technological ability for being integrated with the polyester fibers at an industrial level, with minimum
economical and environmental costs associated.
One of the most important issues to accomplish will be the need to achieve the new heat storage ability
for the StorePET product, without compromise and preferably enhance, all other thermal, acoustic,
mechanical and fire resistance properties of the standard polyester insulation. This means that it is
important to maintain, at least, the same standard polyester fiber properties, like its density, size,
thermal conductivity, etc.
The PCM inclusion shall be preferably made during the extrusion or the melt spinning process stage of
the recycled polymer PET chips, when pluralities of individual synthetic fibers are formed to be
collected into a strand or made into a cut staple type. Afterwards, the standard Dry-Laid process
normally used to produce polyester insulation batts and boards seems to be the best option to choose,
as it is the easiest to perform the fibres opening mixing and carding. The carding step will provide the
thin web layers, which will be subsequently conveyed to a crosslapper unit to produce a multilayered
overlapping product on a synchronized process before the final thermobonding process.
If the regular carding Dry-Laid process should find unfeasible to reach the PCM incorporation goal,
other techniques should be evaluated like Spun-Laid, Spun-Bond, Melt-Blown or even Wet-Laid
processes to perform the job. On the other hand, if the thermobonding process should proved derlictic
for the PCM content, other fiber bonding ways should be searched, minding not to compromise the
final properties aimed for the product. Old and environmental unfriendly bonding techniques like the
latex ones should be avoided and, alternatively, consider other techniques like the mechanical bonding
ones (needle punching, stitchbonding or spunlacing –hydroentangling).
6. NEW PRODUCT BASIC CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS
Designed for thermal and acoustic insulation of new residential/commercial lightweight building
structures or for overall retrofit operations, StorePET is specially planned to be used on external walls
cavities and roof spaces, but also able to be installed under floor, between floors or inside internal
walls.
On its double/multilayer design option, it is proposed to be produced in the form of batts, blankets or
rolls, with commercial standard sizes and thickness, like, for example: 50, 60, 80, 100, and 120, up to
150 mm. The PCM integrated fibers should have a parallel production line, alongside with the non
modified polyester ones until the overlapping stage of the nonwoven manufacturing process. The
product will be made of, at least, two different zones - one inner (bottom) side zone made of a thick
stack of several layers of regular polyester fibers (low heat transfer zone of the bulk insulation) and a
outer (top) zone made of thinner pile of PCM-polyester fiber sheets (the heat storage part of the bulk
insulation).
One of the most challenging and positive advantages of StorePET solution will be the capability to be
produced and sold a thinner version of the product, made of a single PCM-polyester integration bulk
layer (from 10 to 50mm). This slim version will provide the constructors and homeowners a novel and
thermally active insulation material, easily combined on site with any other type of standard insulation
materials available (mineral and fiber wool, cellulose fibers, foam boards, etc.). Whenever extra
thermal mass is needed, thermal storage skills and superior thermal and noise performance provided
by the slim StorePET version can be unmatchable for renovation actions, where the lack of available
space for insulation is usually small.
Figure 4. PCM microcapsules
The guaranty of indoor warmth in winter and coolness in summer offered by StorePET insulation
products will be conjugated with a superior performance upon on reducing airborne noise transmission
by controlling resonating noise inside construction cavities. The excellent acoustical insulation and
absorption properties of polyester nonwoven fabrics mainly depend on fiber geometry and fiber
arrangement within the fabric structure. Usually, vertically lapped fabrics are ideal materials for use as
acoustical insulation products, because they have high total surface area. This surface area is directly
related to the denier and cross-sectional shape of the fibers, where smaller deniers yields more fibers
per unit weight of the material, thus greater possibilities for a sound wave to interact with the fibers in
the fabric structure. The PCMs incorporation technique will try to provide that the sound wave
interaction with the insulation matrix remains unaffected.
Regarding the PCMs to be used upon StorePET, nowadays the chemical industry has a large set of
different PCM types to offer to all different sorts of markets, based on their phase change process
(solid-liquid, liquid-gas and solid-solid) and on their composition (organic, inorganic, or eutectic).
While the list of technical features is long, for building application proposes, one can point out the
following as the most important ones: proper phase changes at daily regular climate temperature
fluctuations with high latent heat storage capacity and small volume change during their phase shifts,
desirable heat transfer characteristics (e.g. good thermal conductivity), low vapour pressure, no or
limited supercooling, sufficient crystallization rate, long term chemical stability, compatible with
different container materials, no toxicity and no or acceptable fire risk. Other crucial issues are the
economics requisites for PCM usage: plenty of resources, available for application and, most
important, to be cost effective for large production.
While metallic inorganic PCMs generally show high latent heat of fusion but are seldom used due to
their scarce availability and high cost, the hydrated salts of the same group (considered as alloys of
inorganic salt and water), lay their merits on a large amount of cost effectiveness candidates at proper
temperatures, and on their high latent heat of fusion and thermal conductivities during their phase shift
process. However, their biggest disadvantage is related to their incongruent melting during phase
change processes, which leads to the separation of the hydrated salt from water, preventing their
smooth recombination during the re-hydration phase (freezing process).
Organic PCM and especially the paraffin subgroup („waxes” like alkane hydrocarbons) have been the
most used for building purposes, due to: large availability for a wide range of temperatures, chemical
stability at multiple change cycles, no phase segregation, sufficient crystallization rate and very
limited supercooling, as well as they are not normally corrosive.
Over the last years, technical grade paraffins with some impurities levels are being available at very
reasonable prices, showing high levels of reliability concerning their thermo physical properties. Their
major drawbacks are normally the low thermal conductivity (solve when possible by their coating with
metallic fins or heat exchangers) and their moderate flammability, possible to overcome by
incorporating flame retardants. On the other hand, the large variety and versatile grades of nonparaffin PCMs (made from fatty acids or esters and glycols), although with very promising technical
properties, are still very expensive and thus not very cost effective for usage.
Extensive research developments on PCM science, led to the possibility of nutshell the thermal
material inside thin polymer capsules, preventing it from leak during its phase change and providing
higher flame resistance. These progresses gave birth to a new thrust on PCM production for building
materials. For example, chemical giant BASF currently uses a paraffin-based PCM in its Micronal®
system, which completes a phase change from solid to liquid within the indoor temperature and human
comfort range (i.e. at 21°C, 23°C or 26°C) and by doing so it can store a large quantity of heat (heat
storage capacities from 51 to 145 KJ/kg). With microcapsules as small as 5μm and supplied different
forms (dry powder or liquid powder blends), this microencapsulation technique is consider today the
best way to incorporate PCM technology into all sort of building materials, thus also to expected to be
within non-woven technical products like the proposed StorePET one.
The PCM type to be used on the project is carefully chosen, not only for its technical capabilities,
price, and manufacturability as impregnated or co-extruded with the fiber, but also for its merits when
it comes to provide an indoor comfortable and healthy temperature zone, which is between 21°C and
26°C.
Without discarding other climates, StorePET research program is largely focused upon hot summer
weather climate conditions. Thus it should spotlight primarily on high melting point and high overall
storage and latent heat capacity materials to absorb the excess of heat, preventing the surroundings
from heating up any further. Values around 26°C, 145kJ/kg and 110kJ/kg respectively, like the
microencapsulated paraffinic ones provided by BASF Micronal DS 5001 (with 5 to 20 μm), were a
good work starting point, as it provides also a huge number of possible and complete phase change
cycles (averages of 300 phase changes per year, 10,000 cycles correspond to a minimum life
expectancy of more than 30 years).
Although the research program was not tight only on organic paraffin waxes (other PCMs must be
considered), it should be present that the PCMs ability to store heat over a period of several hot
summer days will depend always on the amount present. When storage capacity reaches saturation no
more heat can be absolved and its performance is diminished. Thus, the overall PCM content to be
included on StorePET must be carefully identified towards maximum performance, aiming at least
20% wt content as a start working value.
The selection of PCM type and its overall content, the fibers characteristics and the best and most
suitable technology process to accomplish their combination, were subject of an extensive materials
research, backed up by thermal and acoustic modelling and analytical simulation, towards the making
of a prototype product that will be largely tested. The thickness of the PCM integration zone-layer
shall be evaluated on the same bases, in order to achieve all the anticipated technical properties, and
the fulfilment of the mandatory building codes, before it can be delivered to the market. Other
important characteristics like moisture and particularly the fire resistance will also play an important
role of the project towards the compliance of the specific market regulations, especially considering
the PCM content. Nevertheless, when installed, StorePET will be contained within the cavity
sheathing and internal lining board until these layers are destroyed. Therefore, it will not contribute to
the development stages of a fire or present a smoke or toxic hazard until the lining is compromised.
The research program will also be committed to the need to combine, the least embodied energy and
energy footprint possible for StorePET production, with the lowest manufacture expenses, towards a
cost-effective solution with a good market acceptance and a minimum time energy-saving payback for
householders.
7. STATE OF THE ART
Nowadays builders and contractors can choose from a large variety of insulations that can vary in
cost, performance, and ease of installation. Generally divided in two main categories – Bulk and
Reflective, thermal insulation products are sometimes combined into one single product to be able to
resist to radiant heat flow (Reflective part) and to block the transfer of conducted and convected heat
(Bulk part), trusting on pockets of trapped air within its structure to the last job.
Figure 5. Lightweight timber construction
Figure 6. LSF construction
Traditionally, lightweight building systems involving timber and steel framing elements have relied
mostly on bulk fiber materials (fiberglass or mineral wool) for its heat insulation. Due to technical and
time consuming on-site building limitations, these structures are been replaced by modern and less
time consuming pre-fabricated plywood Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs), or pre-fabricated
composite Light Steel Framing (LSF) systems, that combines faster buildings times, easiness of
installation and resources economy, with good heat insulation and superior air-tightness.
Following the overall trend to use rigid foam insulation, the choice of insulation materials for modern
off-site manufacturing approach is moving from the traditional fiber materials, and being replaced for
thick insulation layers of polystyrene (PS) or polyurethane (PU) foams, sandwiched between oriented
strand boards (OSB), or pre-finished skin products made of steel or light aluminium alloys, filled with
polyisocyanurate (PI) or PU foams.
Although these materials generally provide better air-tightness and moisture control to the envelope
structures, their heat insulation properties are not always superior and surely their abilities to reduce
levels of airborne noise are considerably worse than the ones given by the majority of fiber solutions
available. A balanced combination of thermal and noise insulation excellence is still only achievable
by fiber materials.
A summarized list of the most common types of bulk insulation products is to be found in references
and includes bulk rigid foams, fiber blankets bats and rolls and also spray-in-place insulation options,
that can even be used together to yield higher R-values (Thermal Resistance, that indicates the
material's resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating effectiveness.
Rigid foam insulations are made from polymer materials – such as
polystyrene, PU or PI, molded into rigid boards in a variety of
sizes. Lightweight and easy to install, rigid foam provides higher
insulating values (typical R-values range from R-4 to R-6 per inch
of thickness), but generally offers much less guarantees as the
fiber insulation materials, when it comes to fire resistance and to
reduce noise transmission. The most common product made out
of polystyrene is Styrofoam™ produced by DOW Chemicals.
Ranging from R-3.20 to 4.00, depending on its density, Styrofoam
values are generally adequate for most insulation
needs. Closed-cell PI foam board products are being more
welcomed (especially in the US), not only because of their
thermal insulation abilities but mainly due to its superior reaction to fire.
Figure 7. Spray-in-place cellulose
Polyisocyanurate insulation is a closed-cell rigid foam board manufactured with isocyanate and
polyether mixed together in the presence of a catalyst that allows the molecules to rearrange, forming
closed cells. Typical R values of PIR insulation range from R-5.6 to R-8. Finally, there are a large
number of commercially available products made of PU foams systems, in the form of large
lightweight boards capable of achieving extremely high insulation values, or more commonly a twocomponent, spray-applied on site polyurethane foam that creates a seamless, monolithic barrier for
protection against water vapor, heat and air in the interior of steel stud walls. Although generally
regarded as good thermal insulators, these product are incapable of levelling with fiber materials (like
the StorePET) when it comes to acoustic insulation, which represents their major drawback.
Figure 8. Fiberglass installation
“Spray-in-place” has become one of the most popular types of insulations products, especially due to
the increasing number of retrofit actions. Spray-in-place cellulose, fiberglass and mineral wool are
cavity insulations that are mechanically blown into the wall. R-values vary depending on installation
but generally range from R-3 to R-4 per inch of thickness. This insulation technique usually costs
more than blanket insulations, but is well suited to use around obstructions and irregularly shaped
areas. However, it usually takes too long to be completely installed, as it must dry completely before
being covered by a drywall panel and reach maximum performance. Another potential drawback to
loose-fill spray-in-place insulations is that, over time, the R-values can decrease because of particle
settling. Spray plastic foam usually overcomes this problem while it‘s usually made of polyurethane or
other polymers that have no settling problems. However, special equipment is still required to meter,
mix, and spray the foam into place. After application, spray foam expands and conforms to the shape
of the wall cavities, helping to minimize air infiltration. The ability to conform to space makes spray
foam ideal for insulating around obstructions and other hard-to-reach areas. Spray foam materials and
installation usually also cost more than blanket insulation, but its effectiveness for air-tightness is
sometimes its major advantage.
Figure 9. Standard PCM building application
By the other hand, fiber blankets, batts and rolls, available in different widths and thickness, are the
most cost-effective and widely available types of insulation. They are usually made from glass and
mineral wool, but also from recycled polymers (polyester insulation) and a long list of natural
materials like cotton fibers, sheep wool fibers and even recycled denim jeans, with R-values ranging
between R-1 and R-5 per inch of thickness. Rolls come in long lengths that can be cut to required
dimensions and batts come in pre-cut standard lengths. Blanket insulation is inexpensive, but the
pieces must be hand-cut to fit snugly around obstructions, such as window frames, wires and pipes.
Small aps between batts or small non covered areas of the wall are generally the most important
factors that lead to a loss of efficiency of these products. Although capable of combining thermal and
acoustic insulation skills, there‘s still no fiber product available on the market at a broadly affordable
price that is sold as a standalone product and includes thermal storage abilities, thus being able to
provide extra energy savings on both cooling and heating dominant loads, like the StorePET.
Worldwide there are several manufactures and supplier of different polyester insulation products that
compete with other common fiber materials in the form of soft or semi-rigid boards, batts and rolls, or
even on in-situ blow applications. Primarily made out recycled plastic (PET) bottles, this technical
nonwoven insulation involves the melting of the polymer materials, to then be spunned to form fibres
that are bound together and cut into different shapes and thickness. It‘s an excellent insulation product
that does not release fiber dust or irritate the skin as other insulation products can (i.e. fiberglass and
mineral wool), thus very easy to handle without the need of personal health safety equipment.
With R-values varying from 1 – 5.0 depending on its thickness, polyester insulation is essentially the
same material used in many pillows and often manufactured by the same companies. Polyester allies
its excellence heat insulation properties to its no-toxicity and outstanding acoustic blocking properties,
as also high resilience and outstanding compressional resistance. Polyester is fire resistant material as
it requires quite high temperature to burn. However, poor polyester installation procedures,
particularly on roofs and ceilings, can be troubled if batts are not well protected or let to cover down
lights & ceiling fans with overheat potential. While being easy to install, resistant to fungis and
insects, unaffectable by moisture, produced without formaldehyde, borates or other chemicals and
none allergic or irritant, the main environmental benefit of polyester insulation is that it is
manufactured out of up to 70% recycled plastic bottles, reducing landfill and contribute for carbon
emission cutbacks.
Figure 10. Different PCM applications
Apart from the most common insulation products, recently the market has been receiving some new
materials and composites with very good performances and high R-value rates. 99% air-made
material, Aerogel is probably the most notable one, as it can reach R-values of about R-10 per inch
and is capable of insulate up to 37 times more than fiberglass (the lowest thermal conductivity yet
available - 13 mW/mK, while mineral wool is 30-45 mW/mK). Its major drawback is still its
mechanical fragileness and huge price. For example, fiber aerogel containing blankets with nominal
conductivities of 14 mW/mK, like the Aspen‘s Spaceloft23 ones (capable of reaching a 10.3 RValue/Inch), are not expected to cost less than $65 US dollars for each m2, for a 5mm thick batt24.
Aerogel price has been limiting its use in regular residential constructions, although other alternatives
are arising like their use inside R-30 and R-50 per inch vacuum insulation panels (VIPs)25, or instead
in cheaper but still efficient solutions, like the Thermablock26 aerogel thin tape that helps eliminate
thermal bridges on stud wall constructions that can be sold for about $21/m2.However none of these
aerogel solutions act like phase change materials, thus incapable to overcome thermal mass issues and
their price is not yet competitive for a broad adoption.
8. APPLICATION OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL (PCM)
Regarding the utilization of PCMs on the building sector, most studies have demonstrated that the
application of thermal mass in well-insulated structures could generate heating and cooling energy
savings of up to 25% in residential buildings. Considering that new PCM-enhanced building envelope
components could be installed in about 10% of both new and existing U.S. homes, the potential for
energy savings would be between 0.2 and 0.5 quad/year.
All the extensive scientific research work that has been made over the last 40 years in this area have
allowed PCMs to hit the market by being incorporated into products such as: plasterboards or
drywall systems (Knauff Thermalcore PCM Smartboard28), interior plasters with a temperature
regulating effect (Maxit clima®29) or aerated concrete blocks (H+H Deutschland GmbH‘s CelBloc
Plus®30), all of them based on microencapsulated paraffin waxes form BASF. BASF‘s Micronal® 23 is
also the component that Datum Phase Change incorporates into a magnesium oxide-based matrix to
create the Racus®31 PCM ceiling tile system. DuPont‘s Energain®32 is another PCM related product
that is used in construction. It consists of paraffin-based gel core held between two sheets of
conductive aluminium, designed to be sealed behind plasterboard walls or above ceiling panels, so
they can act as a fire-retardant barrier to the material. The PCM is formulated to absorb heat above
22°C, storing it until the temperature drops below 18°C, when it releases it back to the room. DuPont
claims that it can help reduce heat consumption by 15% and air conditioning costs by 35%. Finally,
Delta-Cool 24 by Dörken33 is a packaged PCM suited to retrofit situations, that can be easily placed
on top of suspended ceilings or under floors, ensuring comfortable room temperatures around 25 °C.
Nevertheless, contrary to the StorePET proposal, all the current building market solutions dealing
with PCMs do not have any acoustical insulation skills or the same thermal properties like the ones
expected from StorePET, which combines thermal storage and thermal insulation in one single
product. On traditional applications, PCMs uses the day solar gains through glazing to be able to
store the heat without affecting the indoor comfort temperature, and then slowly release it, during
the night and with the aid of ventilation, avoiding the need for extra artificial heating during this
period. They do not block or buffer the heat exchange between the outside and inside like the
StorePET solution proposes.
Up until now, PCMs association with fiber insulation materials has only been tested on in-situ
blowing test applications, at construction sites built for academic and industrial-driven research
purposes. Some US studies have proved that using loose-fill cellulose and fiberglass insulations mixed
with microencapsulated paraffinic organic PCMs can be effective technique to reduce wall-generated
peak-hour cooling loads on roofs and wall cavities. It was found that it was possible to reach
considerable heat flow reductions values (up to 40%) and peak-hour load reductions of 30% during
the summer months, depending on the construction site climate conditions.
Although indoor temperature control and energy saving abilities were confirmed by those research
reports, none of the trial products tested have yet hit the market. Apart from time consuming
procedures, skillful application and specific machinery needs to perform its installation, there are two
major drawbacks of this on-site technique that the StorePET product and technology production will
aim to overcome – The difficult and inefficient PCM-fiber mixing using a insulation blower and the
tendency for the PCM content to become loose and settle on the bottom of the insulation cavity
during its life-time, thus reducing its efficiency.
Alternatively, the project proposal was to produce a technical nonwoven insulation on a bulk form
(blanket, batt or roll), easily to be installed on the construction site like similar standard mineral or
glass wool products. Moreover, the precise layer concept and the ability to get the most out of the
PCM content by insert it inside the fibers, seems to be another advantage that surely suppress what‘s
being tested on the other side of the Atlantic. Thus its innovation beyond the state of the art is clear.
Not only it will outstand the fiber insulation products presently available for having the PCM-fiber
technology integration, its stockage, transport, installation and usage will not limitate its time-life
performance.
A patent search on fiber insulation products incorporating PCM materials was also undertaken. A
number of patents relating PCM integration with textile fibers were found, like the WO 0224830 (A2)
regarding the using of stable PCMs in temperature regulating synthetic fibers, fabrics and textiles and
the WO 9812366 (A1), concerning the PCM incorporation throughout the structure of polymer fibers,
as a loose fill insulating materials for clothes or bedding articles. Directly linked with thermal control
of nonwoven materials, 2003‘s patent Nº 20030551 (A), stated by Frisby Technologies Inc. [US] as
applicant, have secured a method to produce fibers, where thermal control material dispersed within
a binder could be blown onto a preformed fiber web, to form a bi-layered product with one layer
having thermal control properties, and another one without such properties. US 2010/0264353 A1
patent assigned by Outlast Technologies INC, describes thermal regulation building materials and
other constructions components containing polymeric phase change materials, which shall be taken
in consideration not to collide with the StorePET manufacturing production system.
StorePET aims to offer a new solution to a large SME community by adapting already existent
technologies used by the textile industry. The latest achievements dealing with the PCMs on this
sector have been enormous, mainly dealing with the production of thermo-regulated fabrics (TRF).
Several manufacture processes, such as impregnating hollow or non-hollow fibers with a PCM
solution, wet-spinning, melt-spinning and electro-spinning are used to fabricate TRFs. Whilst the
concept of using PCMs is clearly a very attractive one, there are still a number of limitations. Up to
now, only a very small group of fibers are compatible with PCMs, and there is an upper limit to the
amount of PCM that can be incorporated into them, before tensile properties are appreciably
reduced.
Figure 11. PCM integration with fibers
Currently, the textile market has to offer some commercial TRF products, like the viscose fibers
containing MicroPCMs manufactured by Kelheim Fibres (Germany), which provides all of the benefits
of regular viscose with temperature-buffering capabilities for extreme comfort. Also, a new
environmental friendly technology developed for cellulose shaping was recently accomplished by
Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research (TITK). TITK introduced the Smartcell™ clima fibre
- an alloy of cellulose and a phase change material made by using lyocell technology. Unlike the
related viscose-based product produced by Kelheim Fibres using the Outlast™ encapsulated phase
change material, the TITK process uses the PCM directly and disperses it in the dope with the aid of
inorganic nanoparticles. Outlast Technologies microencapsulated PCMs (mPCMs) called
“Thermocules” can then be applied as a finishing on fabrics, or infused into fibers during the
manufacturing process. Presently it´s undisputable that TRF can response to ambient temperature
and maintain the microclimate equilibrium and that is why worldwide researches are currently trying
to explore it.
From the knowledge acquired regarding the incorporation of PCMs into fibers, it‘s clear that to
produce the novel StorePET product there will be several implicit technological innovations to be
undertaken and that optimization process will be needed to provide frameworks for decisionmaking. Thus, risk assessments mitigation procedures and contingency plans must be described by
the consortium (type of PCMs and fiber integration technology amongst the most important ones).
Figure 12. PCM heat storage
9. SIMULATION OF PCM AND ACCOMPANIED SOFTWARE
In parallel to the development of the new PCMs products and technology it is fundamental to develop
suitable thermal and acoustic simulation tools to aid in the definition of a range of fiber PCM products
and system solutions to fulfil the requirements for different applications. In order to implement these
tools we had first to establish the mathematical models and physical parameters that drive the heat
transfer/storage and sound transmission/absorption in these materials.
With regard to the mathematical model for the analysis of the heat transfer in layers containing PCM
materials, the standard methods/algorithms for current materials/applications are based on the
equivalent electric circuit with the following analogies:
Temperature – electric potential, thermal resistance – electric resistance, heat capacity – capacitance,
heat flow - current. In this circumstances the thermal behaviour of a wall consisting of homogeneous
layers can be characterized by the period of the outdoor thermal wave (time between temperature
peaks), the thermal resistance and heat capacity of each layer.
Figure 13. Parameters for thermal storage characterisation
However, the equivalent electric circuit method is not applicable to materials with PCMs because this
analogy is valid only for materials with constant heat capacity (thermal mass) and thus, the effect of
the fusion latent heat exchanged during the phase change cannot be taken into account by these
models. Moreover, due to the non-linear behaviour of the PCMs, the standard parameters used to
measure the thermal performance of the thermal mass, that is the time lag φlag (time delay between the
peak temperatures in the outdoor and indoor peak temperatures) and decremental factor
f=Aindoor/Aoutdoor which measures the ratio between outdoor and indoor temperature wave amplitudes
(see figure above) , are no longer suitable and new parameters have to be defined to evaluate the
enhance in the energy saving introduced by the PCMs.
Figure 14. Effect of PCM on indoor temperature
The simulation tool will allow then to calculate the energy saving of a certain wall configuration,
containing layers of the developed fiber PCMs materials, for different weather conditions represented
by the corresponding outdoor thermal wave. The simulation tool should also cover situations in which
the thermal mass of the PCMs is complemented with other indoor temperature control techniques such
as night ventilation and/ or solar thermal storage systems. The simulation tool will allow for an
optimization of the PCM layers and wall system for a wide range of applications.
On the other hand, in order to implement an acoustic tool it is necessary to fully understand first the
effect on the sound transmission and absorption of the embedded PCMs in fiber materials. The
mathematical equations and the physical parameters that characterize their acoustic behavior are
stated and included in software module that will be employed to compute the sound reduction index of
multilayer walls including PCMs. Since the sound absorption and transmission through porous
materials is mainly driven by its flow resistance and matrix stiffness, it was investigated whether the
PCMs change substantially these properties of the fiber matrix. The acoustic simulation tool has the
following input data: number of layers, thickness of each layer, acoustic properties of each layer and
computes the sound reduction of the wall.
10. CONCLUSION
The new thermally-enhanced fiber insulation is a technical nonwoven product, made mainly from
polyester fibers resulting from the recycling of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles,
where some of the fibers are modified/impregnated with phase change materials (PCMs), on a single
or multilayer bulk design, in the form of blankets, batts or rolls that are available ready to be
installed.
Based upon the excellent thermal and noise insulation properties and market acceptance for
commonly glass and mineral wool materials, it was reasonable to think upon using those types of
fibers to integrate the StorePET approach, instead of the polyester. However, their manufacturing
process, dealing with high temperatures and other technical issues, makes it almost impossible to
incorporate the PCMs within its fiber structures. Other possible option was to choose cellulose fibers
as the core material for this new product. The reason to withdraw this pathway was that cellulose
insulation production is still too much based on low-tech machinery and methods, making it
unfeasible to re-process the shredded recycled cellulose fibers for PCM incorporation sake, and still
be competitive under the same basis. Thus, polyester fiber was chosen for this approach for been
currently the most promising material to be able to incorporate this novel thermal enhancement.
Thanks to the peculiarities of the polyester fiber, this type of insulation differs from other similar
products, for being breathable and because it‘s physical and chemical features remain unvaried over
time, maintaining their excellent thermal and acoustic insulation and mechanical properties.
Generally able to satisfy the different needs of application and/or of technical performances by
meeting the standard regulations in terms of thermal and acoustical insulation, moisture resistance
and reaction to fire, furthermore not containing harmful substances for human beings, being
completely recyclable, and by being manufactured with materials obtained from post consumer PET
bottles recycling, it also allows consequently savings of CO2 emissions.
REFERENCES
[12]
Tae Won Kim et al.: Impregnation of Eicosane into Polyester Fiber Using Supercritical
Carbon Dioxide. Solid State Phenomena Journal, 2007, (Volumes 124 - 126), pp 1095-1098.
[13]
Kośny J. et al.: (2007) Thermal Performance of PCM-Enhanced Building Envelope Systems in Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings X, Proceedings of ASHRAE
THERM X, Clearwater, FL, Dec. 2007.
[14]
Kośny, J. : Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material.
Oak Ridge, TN, USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report—ORNL/TM-2007/186, 2007.
[15]
Kośny, J et al.: Development of new generation of thermally- enhanced fiber glass insulation.
Oak Ridge, TN, USA: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, March 2010.
[16]
Kelheim Fibres GmbH. [Online] http://www.kelheim-fibres.com/home/index_de.php.
[17]
Advanced Phase Change Materials (PCM) Market: Global Forecast (2010-2015) Report MarketsandMarkets, June 28, 2010 - Pub ID: MKMK2717813
[18]
Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings Summary Report - Nordic Innovation Centre,
September 1, 2010.
[19]
Eurostat, Statistics in focus, 7/2010. The EU-27 Construction sector: from boom to gloom.
[20]
Green Outlook 2011: Green Trends Driving Growth, McGrow-Hill November 2010.
[21]
World Insulation Report - Freedonia Group Inc, February 1, 2009 - Pub ID: FG2703472
[22]
Frost&Sullivan: Strategic Developments in Construction Materials Industry- Technical
Insights, Materials and Coatings, June 2010.
ISTRAŽIVANJE I RAZVOJ NOVE TERMIČKI POBOLJŠANE VLAKNASTE IZOLACIJE BAZIRANE NA
MATERIJALU SA PROMENOM AGREGATNOG STANJA
Rezime: Gradjevinski klaster „DUNDJER“, zajedno sa većim brojem evropskih organizacija, učestvuje
na evropskom projektu FP7 pod nazivom „STOREPET“ (FP7-SME-2011-2, Proposal 286730).
STOREPET je projekat čiji je cilj da razvije jedan novi termički i akustički gradjevinski izolacioni
materijal, baziran na materijalima koji pri korišćenju menjaju svoje agregatno stanje. StorePET će biti
posebno projektovan materijal za lake konstrukcije sa omotačem koji ima malu termičku masu
(termički kapacitet), kao i za bilo koju drugu stambenu/poslovnu/javnu novu ili rekonstruisanu zgradu
sa posebnim izolacionim i toplotno-kapacitetnim potrebama. Sa budžetom projekta od 2.4 miliona €
, procenjeno je da će novi proizvod stvoriti novu vrednost u iznosu od 170 miliona € u uštedi u
materijalu i 300 miliona € u energiji. Istraživanje je trenutno u toku. Jedan od završnih skupova, sa
predstavljanjem rezultata istraživanja je održan u Nišu, u 2013. godini. Gradjevinski klaster
„DUNDJER“ će imati sva prava i licencu, uključujući proizvodnju i plasman u regionu..
Ključne reči: Gradjevinski materijali, termička izolacija, akustička izolacija, lake gradjevinske
konstrukcije, energetska efikasnost, održiva gradnja.
Brusseles REA
Nis, My Place
DEMO
BUILDING MATERIALS SPECIFICATION FOR 1 STOREPET DEMO HOUSE IN NIŠ
r.b
Unit description
unit
quantity
price
total
m
2
9.00
€ 1.50
€ 13.50
m
3
2.59
€ 5.00
€ 38.85
I. EARTHWORKS
1
2
Site clean-up and remuval of topsoil in depth of
d=15cm, with transport of extra soil to landfills
Handwork to dig earth of III. Category for strip
foundation,
€ 52.35
3
Supply of gravel for flooring base and foundation
strips of d=10cm,
2,40*3,00=7,20m2
a) gravel
1
m
3
0.72
€15.00
€ 10.80
sum :
€ 63.15
II. CONCRETE WORKS
Supply of materials for foundation streeps
concreting by concrete MB20,
2*0,3*0,8*2,40+2*0,3*0,8*2,4=2,30m3
a) concrete PC-450kg
b) gravel
kg
700.00
3
3.00
m
€ 0.25
€15.00
€ 175.00
€ 45.00
€ 220.00
2
Concreting of floor basement with d=10cm by
concrete MB20,
2,4*1,8=4,32m2
a) concrete PC-450kg
b) gravel
kg
150.00
€ 0.25
€ 37.50
3
0.60
€15.00
€ 9.00
m
€ 46.50
sum :
€ 266.50
III. REINFORCING WORKS
1
Supply of round bar,
a) Ø12mm
8*2,55m*0,95kg/m=18,77kg
kg
18.77
8*3,15m*0,92kg/m=23,18kg
kg
23.18
41.95
€ 1.10
€ 46.15
€ 1.10
€ 11.62
b) Ø6mm
18*1,20m*0,22kg/m=4,75kg
kg
4.75
22*1,20m*0,22kg/m=5,81kg
kg
5.81
10.56
sum :
IV. METAL WORKS
€ 57.76
1
Supply of metal box profiles 80*80*3mm, anchor
plate of dimension 15*15*3mm, anchor
Ø6/500mm and paint for metal construction
protection,
a) profiles 80*80*3mm
10*2,60+4*0,60+1*0,90+2*1,05+2*0,75+1*2,25+
2*3,00+3*2,40=48,35m,
8 pcs *6,00m=48,00m*6,50kg/m=312,00kg
kg
312.00
1pc *0,35m=0,35m*6,50kg/m=2,28kg
kg
2.28
kg
314.28
€ 2.40
€ 754.27
b) anchor of plate 15*15*3mm
pcs
10.00
€ 3.00
€ 30.00
c) anchor Ø6/500mm
pcs
40.00
€ 0.65
€ 26.00
d) paint for metal construction protection
kg
4.00
€ 8.00
€ 32.00
1.00
€ 25.00
€ 25.00
e) Remaining non-specified materials
sum :
€ 867.27
V. SHEET METAL WORKS
1
Supply of roof covering of steel tin of d=1,0mm
of table dimension 1250/2000mm
2,54*3,14+0,20*(2*3,14+2*2,54)=10,25m2
5 tables *20kg/table=100,00kg
kg
remaining non-specified materials
1
2
100.00
1.00
€ 2.65
€ 265.00
€ 15.00
€ 15.00
sum :
€ 280.00
VI. JOINERY WORKS
Supply of windows of laminated wood, of
dimension 60/90cm, glazed by low-emission
glass package of depth (4+15+4)mm, argon
filled according to window characteristic U=1,30
W/m2K. Window to supply by opening hardware
acording to openning sheme, depending on
position. Placing to be done by dry insallation on
pre-installed blind steel stock.
Supply and installation of metal entry doors of
dimension 90/205cm. Door to be supplied by
hardware for openning according to scheme and
with lock with four keys.
pcs
2.00
€120.00
€ 240.00
pcs
1.00
€ 200.00
€ 200.00
sum :
€ 440.00
VII. FACADE WORKS
1
Supply of Kronospan Burgas OSB3 plates
d=22mm, 122*244 cm for veneering facing walls.
2*2,60*3,05+2*2,60*2,45-2*0,60*0,900,90*2,05=25,68m2
9 kom*2,98m2=26,79m2
other non-specified materials
m
2
26.79 € 18.50
€ 495.62
1.00 € 25.00
€ 25.00
sum :
VIII. INTERIOR WORKS
€ 520.62
2
Glueing of Rigips RB plates of depth of 12,5mm
on the wall (Ti) using Rifix glue for plates. Rifix is
precured in parts on the distance of 25 cm in the
middle and on the edges of plate. Edge joints are
to be filled, jointing by tape and skimmed by
rigips sealing compound.
2*2,84*2,60+2*2,24*2,60-2*0,60*0,900,90*2,05=29,86m2
2
a) Rigips RB plates 12,50mm (120*200cm)
m
€
2.50
€ 78.00
b) Rifix-glue for plates (30kg)
kg
119.46 €
0.83
€ 99.15
c) Joint sealing compound (Super) (5kg)
kg
8.96 €
1.18
€ 10.57
d) Binding band with glass fibers (25m)
m
23.89 €
1.90
€ 45.39
e) Aluminium angular safety rail
m
€
0.95
€ 2.85
31.20
3.00
sum :
1
€ 235.97
IX. ELECTRICAL ASSEMBLY WORKS
Supply electro material for electro assembly
works
a) Electro board (exposed installation) ETI N/Z,
8/1R
pcs
1.00 € 10.62
€ 10.62
b) FID trip 25A/30mA,2p
pcs
1.00 € 27.43
€ 27.43
c) Automatic fuse switch C32/25A
pcs
1.00 €
2.65
€
d) Automatic fuse switch B32/16A
pcs
2.00 €
2.65
€ 5.30
e) Automatic fuse switch B32/10A
pcs
1.00 €
2.65
€
f) Single pole one-way built-in switch
pcs
1.00 €
1.77
€ 1.77
g) Single pole socket outlet 16A,250V
pcs
4.00 €
1.95
€ 7.80
h) Ceiling luminaire, open, fluorescent 2x40W
pcs
1.00 € 15.04
€ 15.04
i) Distribution box for "knauf" Φ78
pcs
4.00 €
0.62
€ 2.48
j) Distribution box for "knauf" Φ60
pcs
5.00 €
0.58
€ 2.90
k) Cable PP00-y 3 x 1,5mm2
m1
6.00 €
1.06
€ 6.36
l) Cable PP00-y 3 x 1,2mm2
m1
25.00 €
1.70
€ 42.50
m) Cable PP00-y 3 x 4,0mm2
m1
18.00 €
2.64
€ 47.52
n) SKS (self-supporing cable beam) for home
installation (cable) X00/O-A 2x16mm2
m1
18.00 €
0.87
€ 15.66
o) Terminal of SKS for installation by straining
2x16,25 (3813016)
pcs
2.00 €
1.42
€ 2.84
p) Transient joint Al-Cu FALIS16/4 (3501604)
pcs
4.00 €
0.93
€ 3.72
r) Fixing clip with torsional hook Φ2", (3890652)
pcs
2.00 €
7.96
€ 15.92
s) Tube Fe 2" paint and corrosion protected (m)
m1
8.00 € 13.27
€ 106.16
t) metal head for tube 2" (code nr. 3890250)
pcs
2.00 €
3.10
€ 6.20
u) Bracket elna ravna 2" (kodni br. 3890523)
pcs
4.00 €
2.65
€ 10.60
v) Holding-down clip (inserting) 11-18
pcs
40.00 €
0.08
€ 3.20
1.00 € 26.55
w) Small non-specified material (lump sum)
sum :
2.65
2.65
€ 26.55
€ 365.87
X. OTHER WORKS
1
Internet service
mon
9.00 € 20.00
€ 180.00
2
Land rental (by month rent)
mon
9.00 € 200.00
€ 1,800.00
sum :
€ 1,980.00
RECAPITULATION:
I. EARTHWORKS
€ 63.15
II. CONCRETE WORKS
€ 266.50
III. REINFORCING WORKS
€ 57.76
IV. METAL WORKS
€ 867.27
V. LIMARSKI RADOVI
€ 280.00
VI. JOINERY WORKS
€ 440.00
VII. FACADE WORKS
€ 520.62
VIII. INTERIOR WORKS
€ 235.97
IX. ELECTRICAL ASSEMBLY WORKS
€ 365.87
X. OTHER WORKS
€ 1,980.00
TOTAL:
€ 5,077.13
REMARK:
Material prices are given in Euros without VAT
(20%)
RTD
Ljubljana
Download

Storepet Dundjer dissemination report