Contents
Forewords
Sladjana Radulović....................................................................................................................................................1
Ana Jereb........................................................................................................................................................................1
1. Concept and Problem of ≈The Other√
Marko Rupčić; Feministička kritika teorija društvenog ugovora - C. Pateman.....
..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
2. Focus: The Living with the Other
Ajda Šoštarić; Dark continents between body and mind : femininity.................11
Gal Kirn; Antimilitarism: the institution of war and historical sketch for
further analysis....................................................................................................................................................19
Majda Puača; Queer + Yugoslavia = Queer-o-slavia..............................................................22
Aneta Ilić; Nasilje nad ženama u porodici.......................................................................................24
Marit van Kooij; A Vision on Feminism...............................................................................................25
3. Workshops: On different Forms of Women’s Artistic Expression
Theater
Sladjana Radulović; Alien.................................................................................................................................28
Creative writing
Respected writers.............................................................................................................................................29
Majda Puača, Ingrid Jooren, David Žohar, Sanja Petkovska, Barbara Pleić, Aneta IlićBajović , Barbara Drole, Ajda Šoštarič, Gal Kirn, Anja Zojčeska, Samo Bohak, Hrvoje
Ratkajec
Stencil..........................................................................................................................................................................37
Design..........................................................................................................................................................................40
Video.............................................................................................................................................................................44
Sladjana Radulović; Film kao mesto promene pogleda........................................................44
Hrvoje Ratkajec; Podoba ženske v filmu Das Fräulein..........................................................48
Concluding Words
Z-lot.................................................................................................................................................................................50
Summaries..................................................................................................................................................................50
Forewords
This publication, symbolically titled Living with the Other, will present you a series
of essays, poems and other forms of personal contemplations of the Other in ways
this theoretical term was understood and transfered into experience through the
work with the Others by the participants and organisers of Autumn Feminist School
on Equal Opportunities of Genders in the Area of Former Yugoslavia, in Pliskovica,
Slovenia.
Contributing authors showed, each from his/her own angle, how living with the Other
split through the prism of feminist theories can be considered in a given moment,
and how feminist theories can accept, disscus, criticise and refere to the importance
of conveying the knowledge and experience of youth through examination of equal
opportunities of genders in the area of former Yugoslavia.
Presented creative works indicate differences that originate from a recent political
division of participating countries according to which two (Slovenia and Holland)
are members of EU and two (Croatia and Serbia) are out of that frame as well as
similarities that derive from former connectedness of three participating countries
(Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia). However, this publication above all clearly reflects efforts
of young people to surpass such divisions and the need for development of such
projects of equal opportunities with the purpose to enable exchange of knowledge
and experience with the aim to reduce consequences of isolation of countries of
former Yugoslavia caused by the division.
Issues connected to similarities and/or differences proved to be inspiring enough for
creative writing in all our languages, and it is one of our future aspirations to continue
development of different and various forms and ways of analysis of these complex
issues that after reading these texts continue to be inspiring to all of us, regardless of
our origin.
Sladjana Radulović
Going through the ideas of feminism and looking at the fought positions in the so
called Western European societies, the relevancy of feminist topics, feminism in itself,
in theory and in practical actions on the street, becomes very obvious. Although
we might be opening up new spheres of articulating the position of a subject,
deconstructing gender, thinking beyond dichotomies gender/sex, man/woman,
homosexuality/heterosexuality… and through all this, daring to proclaim Third wave
of feminism, it is becoming clearly evident that from the perspective of everyday
political practice we are unfortunately going back to Second wave feminism, fighting
for the right to abortion, equal pay, free contraception…
1
As feminism as an ideal represents a way of thinking and acting in terms of
emancipation beyond fighting for the rights of patriarchally structured categorywomen, it is very difficult to express this kind of thinking to the people who are due to
historical, cultural, geopolitical… situation deprived of much information about the
modes of repression, not to go into assurance of equal rights regardless of genders.
The area of former Yugoslavian countries, with its differentiated historical, religious,
cultural contexts but at the same time with a lot of common ties, is also tackling
different questions regarding gender issues. After the dissolution of Yugoslavia and
the disconnection of the majority of contacts between people of former countries it
is our opinion that this region has lost a lot of starting points for the emancipation of
women established in the prewar era. Because of the deeply rooted patriarchal values,
this area has a strong feminist potential, the potential to generate more radical ways
of feminist thinking and activism. Because of our common historical background,
fruitful intellectual and cultural ties of the past, which had been torn apart by the
insatiable jaws of the recent war, it is our desire to establish new networks. The project
“Equal opportunities of genders in the area of former Yugoslavia” is the expression of
our effort for the reconnection of the lost and an opportunity for the creation of the
new.
This is not only as a potential for feminist collaboration and development of common
projects and ideas, but also a feminist anti-war, anti-fascist, anti-homophobic radical
political statement.
Ana Jereb
1. Concept and Problem of ≈The Other√
Feministička kritika teorija društvenog ugovora - C. Pateman
Marko Rupčić
ugovora pak, polazeći od pretpostavke da se svi ljudi rađaju slobodni, legitimitet
suverena izvode iz volje građana koji mu predaju dio svoje slobode u zamjenu za
zaštitu. Samim činom sklapanja društvenog ugovora, slobodni pojedinci stvaraju novi
građanski poredak gdje statusne odnose zamjenjuju ugovorni. U prirodnome stanju,
prije sklapanja društvenog ugovora, vlada potpuna sloboda, ali i neizvjesnost. Zbog
želje za dokidanjem te neizvjesnosti pojedinci sklapaju društveni ugovor, predaju dio
svoje slobode suverenu i među sobom stvaraju ugovorne odnose.
Thomas Hobbes, predstavnik engleske empirističke filozofije, htio se obračunati
s teološkim shvaćanjima čovjeka i društva te problem države objasniti na prirodan
i racionalan način. (Petrović, 1982). On smatra da država nije prirodna već umjetna
tvorevina te da su ljudi u prirodnome stanju slobodni i približno jednakih tjelesnih i
duhovnih sposobnosti. Kako nitko od njih, u prirodnome stanju, ne može steći neku
trajnu prednost, kada dva pojedinca žele istu stvar sukob je neizbježan. «Iz jednakosti
naših sposobnosti nastaje jednakost nade u postizavanje ciljeva. Stoga, ako dvojica
žele istu stvar koju ipak ne mogu uživati obojica, oni postaju neprijatelji i na putu
prema cilju (a to je u prvom redu vlastito održanje, a samo ponekad zadovoljstvo)
pokušavaju uništiti ili podčiniti jedan drugoga.» (Hobbes, 2004:90) Bez zajedničke
vladavine i zakona ljudi se prepuštaju svojim prirodnim nagonima2 koji uzrokuju
sukobe i zbog kojih vlada rat svih protiv sviju, «bellum omnia contra omnes», a čovjek
je čovjeku vuk. «Time postaje očigledno da se ljudi, dok žive bez zajedničke vlasti koja
ih drži u strahu, nalaze u stanju koje zovemo RAT, i to rat svakog čovjek protiv svakog
drugog» (Hobbes,2004:91) Život u takvome stanju je bijedan i kratak, pa su ljudi zbog
straha od smrti voljni odreći se svog prirodnog prava na sve i uspostavom države, u
kojoj je dio slobode prenesen na suverena, dobivaju sigurnost i građanska prava. U
prirodnome stanju svaki se pojedinac, u odnosu prema drugima, može osloniti samo
na sebe i svoje umijeće, dok u građanskom društvu provedbu ugovornih odnosa
nadgleda suveren. «Bez mača, svi ugovori su samo riječi i nemaju uopće nikakvu
moć zaštite za čovjeka. Zbog toga, bez obzira na prirodne zakone (kojih se svatko
pridržava kad ima volju da ih se pridržava i kad to može činiti sigurno), ako nema
nikakve uspostavljene vlasti ili barem nedovoljne za našu sigurnost, svaki se čovjek
hoće i smije zakonito osloniti na svoju vlastitu snagu i umijeće da se zaštiti protiv
drugih ljudi» (Hobbes, 2004:119).
»Čovjek se rađa slobodan, a posvuda je u okovima«
Uvod – društveni ugovor
Svi se ljudi rađaju slobodni i posjeduju vlasništvo u svojoj osobi, jedna je od glavnih
pretpostavki i revolucionarnih misli vodilja novovjekovnih političkih filozofa koji su
stvaranje građanskog društva i moderne države prikazali kroz teorijski konstrukt
sklapanja društvenog ugovora. Do pojave tih autora1 stoljećima je vladalo mišljenje da
suveren svoj legitimitet crpi iz božanske volje, a njegovi su podanici i njihov društveni
položaj bili determinirani statusom kojeg su zaradili rođenjem. Teoretičari društvenog
John Locke prirodno stanje definira kao stanje savršene slobode i jednakosti gdje ljudi
mogu raspolagati svojim posjedima i samim sobom, u granicama prirodnih zakona,
bez da ikoga pitaju za dopuštenje. Ipak to stanje slobode nije stanje samovolje,
jer pojedinac ne smije uništiti sebe ili neko stvorenje u svojem posjedu osim kad
neka uzvišenija korist od pukog očuvanja tog stvorenja to zahtijeva. (Locke, 1978).
U prirodnome stanju svi se pojedinci moraju pokoravati prirodnome zakonu, ali
imaju i obvezu da isti provode. «Jer, u takvome stanju savršene jednakosti, u kojem
po prirodi ne postoji nadmoćnost ili pravosudna vlast jednog nad drugim, sve što
netko može da učini u izvršavanju tog zakona, svatko zaista ima pravo da to učini».
2
3
Jean Jacques Rousseau
(Locke, 1978:13). Pojedinci se, prema Lockeu, ujedinjuju jer im je to u prirodi, jer žele
očuvati svoje vlasništvo i jer im treba neovisni i nepristrani arbitar koji će donositi i
provoditi zakone. «Međutim drugog izlaza nema, jer u prirodnom stanju, prvo, nema
utvrđenog, poznatog i opće priznatog zakona, na osnovu kojeg bi se mogli rješavati
svi sporovi; drugo, nema poznatog i nepristranog suca, koji bi presuđivao u skladu
za zakonom; i treće, nema sile, koja bi mogla osigurati izvršenje donesenih osuda.»
(Petrović, 1982:76). Potpisivanjem društvenog ugovora, pojedinci se lišavaju prirodne
slobode i stavljaju okove građanskog društva, jer u građanskome društvu lakše mogu
obraniti svoje vlasništvo i mogu živjeti sigurnije i miroljubivo. (Locke, 1978).
Francuski filozof Jean Jacques Rousseau polazi od pretpostavke da su ljudi po prirodi
dobri, slobodni, jednaki i ravnopravni. Nitko od pojedinaca u prirodnom stanju nije
dovoljno jak da bi mogao dugotrajno nametnuti svoju volju. «Najjači nikada nije
toliko jak da bi zauvijek mogao postati gospodar ne pretvori li svoju snagu u pravo,
a poslušnost u dužnost» (Rousseau, 1978:96). Za Rousseaua ne postoji prirodna vlast
nad drugima i osnova svake zakonite vlasti je konvencija ili ugovor. «Kako nijedan
čovjek nema prirodne vlasti nad svojim bližnjim i kako sila ne stvara nikakvo pravo,
kao osnova svake zakonite vlasti među ljudima ostaju, dakle, konvencije. (Rousseau,
1978:97). Nakon što je pojedinac društvenim ugovorom svoja prava transferirao na
zajednicu, on se ne pokorava svima, već samome sebi, a od države dobiva zaštitu.
«Pronaći takav oblik udruživanja što brani i zaštićuje svim zajedničkim snagama osobu
i imanje svakog udruženog, i u kojem se svatko, ujedinjavajući se sa svima, pokorava
ipak samo sebi i ostaje isto tako slobodan kao i prije. To je osnovni problem koji rješava
društveni ugovor» (Rousseau,1978:101). Sklapanjem društvenog ugovora nastaje
novo skupno tijelo u kojem je svaki pojedinac njegov nerazdvojni dio. On gubitak
svoje prirodne slobode nadomješta onom građanskom. «Čovjek je društvenim
ugovorom izgubio prirodnu slobodu i neograničeno pravo na sve što ga mami i što
može očekivati, a dobio je građansku slobodu i vlasništvo nad svime što posjeduje»
(Rousseau, 1978:104).
Društvenim ugovorom među pojedincima se uspostavlja pravna jednakost koja
ljudima jamči slobodu, jednakost i sigurnost.
Spolni ugovor- nastavak patrijarhata
»Ako su svi muškarci rođeni slobodni,
kako to da su sve žene rođene kao ropkinje?«
Mary Astell
Neke feminističke autorice, posebice Carole Pateman, prvobitni ugovor smatraju
spolno-društvenim paktom, s potisnutom pričom o spolnom ugovoru. (Pateman,
2000.) Prije nego je uspostavljen patrijarhat, to jest vlast oca, sklopljen je spolni
ugovor kojime se utvrđuje pravo muškarca nad ženom. Jer da bi očevi mogli imati
potpuno vlast nad sinovima, oni moraju imati spolni pristup i vlast nad ženama. S
4
činom sklapanja društvenog ugovora spolni ugovor nije ukinut već je, kako ističe
Patemanova, tim činom nastao jedan moderni oblik patrijarhata. "No, posrijedi je
priča o političkom pravu kao patrijarhalnom pravu ili spolnom pravu, odnosno moći
koju muškarci ostvaruju nad ženama. Polovica priče koja nedostaje govori o tome
kako je uspostavljen jedan specifično moderan oblik patrijarhata. Novo građansko
društvo stvoreno putem prvobitnog ugovora jest patrijarhalni društveni poredak"
(Pateman, 2000:17). Patemanova ističe kako je sklapanjem prvobitnog društvenog
ugovora uspostavljenja građanska sloboda, ali samo za odrasle muškarce, dok su
žene ostale u subordiniranom položaju. Kroz teorijski konstrukt sklapanja prvobitnog
društvenog ugovora promatra se ustroj današnjeg građanskog društva. Ono je pak,
prema tumačenju Patemanove, duboko prožeto patrijarhalnim odnosom specifično
modernog oblika. To je u suprotnosti s mnogim tumačenjima teorija društvenog
ugovora koja ističu antipatrijarhalnost novog građanskog društva, jer je sklapanjem
prvobitnog ugovora moć oca podijeljena svim pojedincima (ali, ističe Patemanova,
radi se o muškarcima). Tako se i Locke, kao protivnik tradicionalnog patrijarhata,
sukobio sa Sir Robertom Filmerom koji je smatrao da je politička moć očinska i da
ona izvire iz njegovog prokreativnog prava. Locke je smatra da otac ima moć nad
djetetom samo dok ono ne stekne razum i samim time postane slobodno. «Ali dok
je u stanju u kojem nema vlastitog razuma3 da upravlja svojom voljom, ne treba
imati neku svoju volju koju bi slijedio; onaj tko za njega shvaća također mora za njega
izražavati volju; on mora odrediti njegovu volju i upravljati njegovim djelatnostima; ali
kada dođe u stanje koje je njegovog oca učinilo slobodnim čovjekom, sin je također
slobodan čovjek» (Locke,1978:37). Detroniziranog oca zamijenili su njegovi sinovi, sada
slobodni građani, ali žene su i dalje ostale u subordiniranom položaju. «Patrijarhat je
odavno prestao biti paternalan. Struktura modernog građanskog društva ne počiva
na srodstvu i moći očeva; u modernome svijetu žene su podređene muškarcima kao
muškarcima, odnosno muškarcima kao bratstvu» (Pateman, 2000:19).
Tradicionalni patrijarhalisti, s kojima su se teoretičari društvenog ugovora sukobljavali,
izjednačavali su vlast kraljeva i očeva, obitelj i zajednicu te su tvrdili da su sinovi po
prirodi podređeni očevima. Nasuprot njima, zagovornici društvenog ugovora, odvojili
su paternalnu i političku vlast, obitelj i zajednicu te ustvrdili kako se sinovi rađaju
slobodni i jednaki, a među sobom stvaraju ugovorne odnose. «Ali su ove dvije vlasti,
politička i očinska, tako potpuno različite i odvojene, zasnovana na različitim temeljima
i okrenute tako različitim ciljevima da svaki podanik, koji je otac, ima isto toliko očinske
vlasti nad svojom djecom koliko princ nad svojom, a svaki princ, koji ima roditelje,
duguje im onoliko sinovljeve dužnosti i poslušnosti koliko i najniži od njegovih
podanika svojim roditeljima, te zbog toga očinska vlast ne može obuhvaćati neki dio
ili stupanj one vrste gospodstva koje princ ili vladar imaju nad svojim podanicima»
(Locke, 1978:44).
Međutim, da bi otac ili kralj imao političko pravo, on mora imati pravo očinstva koje
proizlazi iz prava na pristup ženskome tijelu ili spolnog prava. «Paternalna vlast nije
5
izvor političkog prava. Geneza političke vlasti leži u Adamovu4 bračnom ili spolnom
pravu, a ne u njegovom očinstvu. Adamov politički položaj dan je prije nego
što je postao otac» (Pateman, 1998:43). Žena je, prema tumačenju tradicionalnih
patrijarhalista, nastala od muškarca i on joj je na neki način roditelj. Stoga se pravo
na spolni pristup i posvemašnju vlast nad ženom podvodi pod očinsko pravo. «Žene
su samo prazne posude za očitovanje očeve spolne i prokreativne moći. Prvobitno
političko pravo koje Bog daje Adamu jest, da tako kažem, pravo da napuni posudu»
(Pateman,1998:43). Od dvije dimenzije patrijarhalizma: paternalne (otac sin) i muške
(muž i žena) teoretičari društvenog ugovora bavili su se samo prvom, dok je druga
opstala u privatnoj sferi građanskog društva. Teoretičari društvenog ugovora slagali
su se s tradicionalnim patrijarhalistima u pogledu legitimacije spolnog, patrijarhalnog
prava, samo su tvrdili da ono nije političko. «Pobjeda teoretičara ugovora ovisila je o
odvajanju paternalne od političke vlasti, te zato nisu mogli, poput Filmera, supsumirati
spolnu pod paternalnu – to jest političku – vlast. Umjesto toga, priča o društvenom
ugovoru skriva prvobitno političko pravo proklamirajući spolno ili bračno pravo kao
prirodno»(Pateman:1998:44). Žene su tako prema teoretičarima društvenog ugovora5,
kao i prema tradicionalnim patrijarhalistima, prirodno podređene muškarcima.
Pojedinac = muškarac
Muškarac je prema Lockeu «sposobniji i jači» te zbog toga mora vladati nad svojom
ženom. Žene su tako, zbog svoje «prirodne» inferiornosti i nedostataka, izostavljene iz
samog čina sklapanja društvenog ugovora. U spolno neutralnoj kategoriji pojedinca
nema mjesta za žene, jer one nemaju osjećaj za pravdu i ne mogu sublimirati svoje
emocije i partikularne interese, što je nužno za održanje građanske zajednice. Njima
također nedostaje vlasništvo u vlastitoj osobi, a prema Kantu i građanski razum. «...
svako zahvaljujući činjenici da je ljudsko biće, ima razum, te zato posjeduje sposobnosti
postupati u skladu s univerzalnim moralnim zakonima i sudjeluje u građanskom životu.
S druge pak strane, ljudska je sposobnost spolno diferencirana. Ženama nedostaje
politički ili građanski razum» (Pateman, 2000:166). Izvor ženske «inferiornosti» i
nemogućnosti postojanja pojedincem, odnosno građaninom, teoretičari društvenog
ugovora vide u ženskoj prirodi. Žene su po prirodi izvor nereda i kao takve bi mogle
razorno djelovati na društveno i političko tkivo. «Žene su, drži se, izvor nereda jer je
njihovo biće, ili njihova priroda, takvo da ih nužno vodi do toga da razorno djeluju
u društvenom i političkom životu» (Pateman, 1998:25). Ženska anatomija se prema
Rousseau i Freudu odražava i na njihovim moralnim osobinama. Za Rousseaua izvor
ženskog nereda je u njihovoj bezgraničnoj spolnoj želji. (Pateman:1998). Žene, za
razliku od muškaraca, nisu u mogućnosti sublimirati svoju spolnu želju i zbog toga
su trajni izvor «nereda» i nestabilnosti. Iako je skromnost, tvrdi Rousseau, prirođena
ženska osobina žene nisu sposobne obuzdati ženski spolni nagon. Zbog toga je im je
namijenjena jedina i najstarija prirodna zajednica, a to je obitelj6.
Obitelj se temelji na ljubavi i sklonosti, a ne na konvencionalnim odnosima kao
građansko društvo. Zbog toga su žene izostavljene iz sudjelovanja u kreiranju
građanskog društva te im je namijenjena uloga u obitelji u kojoj se i nakon sklapanja
6
društvenog ugovora zadržala patrijarhalna vlast. «Rousseau tvrdi kako je obitelj
najbolji primjer društvene institucije koja slijedi zakon prirode, jer u obitelji starost
prirodno ima prednost pred mladošću, a muškarci prirodno vladaju ženama. Obitelj je
za Rousseaua nužno patrijarhalna» (Pateman, 1998:27).
Cijela je civilizacija7 prema Freudu i Rousseau, djelo muškaraca, jer su samo oni, zbog
svojih bioloških karakteristika, sposobni je stvoriti. Freud tvrdi da su muškarci zbog
svojih «genitalnih potreba» imali razloga držati žene pored sebe, dok su se žene
pokoravale muškarcu kako bi se on skrbio za njihovu bespomoćnu djecu. Nakon
što su stvorili prvotnu obitelj, razvitak civilizacije bio je u rukama muškarca, jer su
samo oni u mogućnosti sublimirati svoje strasti i sposobni za pravdu koju zahtijeva
građanski život. (Pateman,1998). Prema Freudu, jedino muškarci imaju razvijen nad-Ja
što je nužno za uspostavu civilizacije. Nad-Ja je nastao nakon što su «prvi» sinovi ubili
«prvog» oca, kojeg su i voljeli i mrzili. Iz tog čina javili su se grizodušje i krivnja koji
su, tvrdi Freud, doveli do nastanka nad-Ja. Nakon prvotnog ocoumorstva braća su
međusobno uspostavila uzajamna ograničenja kako se taj strašan čin ne bi ponovio,
a to je primjer prvotnog zakona u čijem su stvaranju sudjelovali samo muškarci. Iz
toga Freud iščitava muško «podrijetlo» pravde, političkog prava i nad-Ja što su sve
nužni uvjeti za uspostavljanje građanskog društva. (Pateman, 1998). Pošto žene
nisu slobodni pojedinci muškarci sklapanjem društvenog ugovora svoje prirodno
patrijarhalno pravo transformiraju u građansko patrijarhalno pravo.
Paradoks je da se od žena, iako nisu «pojedinci», očekuje da sklope bračni ugovor.
One tako nisu u mogućnosti dati pristanak i postati dio građanskog društva, ali bi
trebale sklopiti ugovor o braku. Hobbes i Locke taj paradoks prevazilaze konceptom
hipotetičkog voluntarizma ili prešutnog pristanka. «Sporazumi u koje se stupi iz
straha, pod uvjetima puke prirode, obavezujući su» (Hobbes, 2004:100). Locke navodi
kako su u prirodnom stanju očevi vladali s prešutnim pristankom sinova i žene, a
kako je obitelj rudiment prirodnih odnosa u građanskom društvu od žena se očekuje
prešutni pristanak. Rousseau smatra da žene prirodno nisu sposobne za pristanak, ali
on napada koncept hipotetičkog voluntarizma jer tvrdi da je riječ o podvali koja se
svodi na ugovor o ropstvu. On dijeli žene na dobre i raskalašene i bludnice te ističe
kako žene mogu ostati dobre samo pod okriljem kućanskog života. (Pateman,1998).
Rousseau ističe, na primjeru spolnih odnosa, da se ženin pristanak ne treba shvaćati
doslovno. «Osobito uvijek moraju govoriti «ne», čak i kada žele reći «da». I tu Rousseau
otkriva srž problema žena i pristanka. Prividno odbijanje pristanka nikada se u žena
ne može uzeti doslovno» (Pateman,1998:77). Žena je tako, od strane teoretičara
društvenog ugovora, uglavnom tretirana kao ne-osoba, biće koje nama vlasništvo
u svojoj osobi i samim time nije u mogućnosti dati pristanak. Zbog toga joj je nakon
potpisivanja društvenog ugovora namijenjena privatna, ne politička sfera, u kojoj
vladaju prirodni zakoni patrijarhata.
7
Dihotomija privatno-javno
Sklapanjem prvobitnog društvenog ugovora stvoreno je građansko društvo u kojemu
se život dijeli na dvije odvojene sfere: privatnu i javnu. Sfera privatnog je ona u kojoj
ljudi brinu za svoju svakidašnjicu i obiteljske odnose, dok je javna sfera namijenjena
političkom djelovanju. Te dvije sfere su odvojene i suprotstavljene. Pojedine
feministice kritiziraju samu podjelu građanskog društva na privatni i javni segment,
jer smatraju da se tom dihotomijom samo zamagljuju patrijarhalne i klasne strukture
koje ju tvore. One kritiziraju tumačenja da se odvajanje privatnog i javnog odnosi na
sve pojedince podjednako i da su obje sfere jednako vrijedne. «Ključni feministički
argument je da doktrina «odvojenog ali ravnopravnog» i tobožnji individualizam
i egalitarizam liberalne teorije prikrivaju patrijarhalnu zbilju društvene strukture
nejednakosti i dominacije muškaraca nad ženama» (Pateman,1998:114). Građansko
društvo, stvoreno na temelju društvenog ugovora, je prividno liberalno, jer ističe
egalitarnu, konvencionalističku doktrinu, no u njegovoj srži su patrijarhalne strukture.
Kako žene zbog svojih bioloških i moralnih osobina nisu mogle biti «pojedinci», te
potpisivanjem društvenog ugovora postati građanima, njima je namijenjena privatna,
nepolitička, sfera u kojoj vlada prirodno pravo muškarca nad ženom. Muški «pojedinci»,
međutim, u građanskome društvu imaju političku arenu za djelovanje i ostvarivanje
svojih građanskih prava koje su stekli potpisivanjem društvenog ugovora. Oni kao
«privatni» pojedinci mogu štiti svoje interese i povećati svoje vlasništvo. Njihova se
dominacija i proteže na privatnu sferu, jer je obitelj kao prirodna zajednica uređena
prema prirodnim, patrijarhalnim, zakonima. Takva konstrukcija liberalne građanske
države, koja uspostavlja konvencionalne i egalitarne odnose među muškarcima, dok
su žene subordinirane u privatnoj sferi, nagnala je Mary Astell, da na prijelazu iz 17. u
18. stoljeće, izjavi: «Ako su svi muškarci rođeni slobodni, kako to da su sve žene rođene
kao ropkinje?». (Pateman,1998).
Stajalište koje na temelju biološkog determinizma ženama oduzima građanski status i
daje im sekundarnu ulogu kritizirao je i J.S. Mill, koji ističe kako se svi oblici nepravde,
onima koji je provode, čine prirodnima. (Mill, 2000). On ističe kako se uz biološka
obilježja subordiniranost žena treba promatrati i kroz sferu odgoja. «Sve su žene
od prvoga dana odgajane u vjeri kako su njihove idealne osobine posve drugačije
od muških: ne jačanje volje i ovladavanje sobom, već podčinjavanje i prihvaćanje
kontrole. Sva moralna učenja govore im kako je ženska dužnost živjeti za druge a
isto im govori i suvremena sentimentalnost: da potpuno odustanu od sebe i žive
samo u osjećajima» (Mill,2000:26). Na taj način se, zasebnim odgojem i specifičnim,
patrijarhalnim, očekivanjima od žena konzervira njihova subordinirana pozicija i
obeshrabruje ih se za prodor u javnu političku sferu.
Tradicionalni patrijarhalisti, poput Sir Roberta Filmera, izjednačavali su vlast očeva i
kraljeva, obitelj i zajednicu te su smatrali da su sinovi prirodno podređeni očevima.
Nasuprot njima, zagovornici društvenog ugovora, odvojili su paternalnu i političku
vlast, obitelj i zajednicu te ustvrdili kako se sinovi rađaju slobodni i jednaki, a među
sobom stvaraju ugovorne odnose. Slobodni i jednaki «pojedinci» potpisivanjem
društvenog ugovora svoju prirodnu slobodu zamjenjuju građanskom. Iako je otac
izgubio svoju političku vlast nad sinovima, patrijarhat nije srušen, već je ugrađen u
strukture građanskog društva. Feministička kritičarka teorija društvenog ugovora,
Caroll Pateman, ističe kako su prvobitni očevi prije nego su ostvarili moć nad sinovima
sklopili «spolni ugovor» kojime ostvaruju vlast nad ženama. Tek su tada, ističe ona,
prvobitni očevi mogli realizirati svoju prokreativnu moć i ostvariti dominaciju nad
sinovima. «Moć muškarca kao oca nastupa nakon što je ostvario svoje patrijarhalno
pravo muškarca (muža) nad ženom (suprugom)» (Pateman,2000:19). Društvenim
ugovorom, ističe ona, sinovi zbacuju vlast očeva ne kako bi stekli slobodu, već pristup
ženama. Žene se, kao biološki inferiorne8, ne smatraju «pojedincima» i stoga nisu
u mogućnosti sklopiti društveni ugovor i dobiti građanska prava. Njihova biološka
i moralna obilježja, tvrdi Rousseau, nisu u skladu s građanskim konvencionalnim
društvenim odnosima. Zbog toga im je namijenjena zajednica koja ne počiva na
ugovornim odnosima, a to je obitelj9. Građansko društvo, koje je nastalo sklapanjem
prvobitnog društvenog ugovora, tako je podijeljeno na dvije sfere: javnu ili političku
i privatnu ili osobnu. Žene koje su prema Rousseau prijetnje političkom poretku
izostavljene su iz sklapanja prvobitnog društvenog ugovora i samim time ne mogu
postati konstitutivni dio javne sfere. Njima je prepuštena privatna sfera u kojoj vladaju
prirodni zakoni, a ne ugovorni odnosi. Prirodni zakoni privatne sfere temelje se na
patrijarhalnim odnosima i spolnoj dominaciji muškarca nad ženom. Patemanova
tako ističe da društvenim ugovorom nije suspendiran spolni ugovor i patrijarhalno
pravo koje muškarcima u privatnoj sferi omogućuje spolnu dominaciju. Novonastalo
građansko društvo tako počiva na arhaičnim patrijarhalnim strukturama te se umjesto
paternalnog (očinskog) patrijarhata uvodi fraternitalni (bratski). Društvenim su
ugovorom tako muškarci oslobođeni očinske vlasti, dok su žene ostale subordinirane
muškarcima kao bratstvu. Stoga se Mary Astell, na prijelazu iz 17. u 18. stoljeće, s
razlogom pita: «Ako su svi muškarci rođeni slobodni, kako to da su sve žene rođene
kao ropkinje?»
Zaključak
Teoretičari društvenog ugovora prije tri su stoljeće iznijeli revolucionarni teorijski
konstrukt nastanka moderne, građanske, države. Dotadašnja, patrijarhalna konstrukcija
države bazirala se na očinskoj vlasti koja potječe iz njegovog prokreativnog prava.
1 Ovdje ćemo se baviti najznačajnijima Hobbesom, Lockom i Rousseauom
2 »Tako u ljudskoj prirodi nalazimo tri načelna uroka sukoba: prvo je natjecanje, drugo nepovjerenje, a
treće slava« (Hobber, 2004:91)
3 Patemanova ističe kako se ovo odnosi samo na mušku djecu, jer žene nikada ne stječu razum i zbog toga
su uvijek u subordiniranom položaju
4 Adam je prema teoriji Sir Roberta Filmera prvi otac na koga su prenesene ovlasti božanskog podjeljivanja
kraljevskog prava
5 Jedinu iznimku predstavlja Hobbes
8
9
6 »Rijetki su teoretičari društva i politike, iz istaknutu iznimku Hobbesa, bili spremni prikazati obitelj kao
konvencionalnu zajednicu« (Pateman, 1998:27)
7 Pod terminom civilizacija podrazumijevamo građansko društvo
8 Iznimku predstavlja Hobbes
9 Hobbes je bio spreman obitelj prikazati i kao konvencionalnu zajednicu
Literatura
1. Hobbes, T. (2004), Levijatan ili građa, oblik i moć crkvene i građanske države, Zagreb, Naklada Jesenski
i Turk
2. Locke, J. (1978), Dve rasprave o vlasti, Beograd, Budućnost
3. Mill, J. S. (2000), Podređenost žena, Zagreb, Naklada Jesenski i Turk
4. Pateman, C. (1998), Ženski nered, Zagreb, Ženska infoteka
5. Pateman, C. (2000), Spolni ugovor, Zagreb, Ženska infoteka
6. Petrović, G. (1982), Engleska empiristička filozofija, Zagreb, Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske
7. Rousseau, J.J. (1978), Rasprava o porijeklu i osnovama nejednakosti među ljudima, Društveni ugovor,
Zagreb, Školska knjiga
2. Fokus of the Issue: The Living with the Other
Dark Continents between body and mind: femininity revisited
Ajda Šoštarić
Dark Continents between body and mind: femininity revisited Shuffling Freud’s
statements in a conveniently arbitrary manner for the purpose of opening the debate,
one can arguably deduce that »the change to femininity1« (Freud, 1933a, p. 118) is the
necessary condition to be fulfilled so that consequentially »she [a woman] comes
into being« (ibid., p. 116). Within this line of reasoning one could assume that the way
she is (feminine) preconditions what she is (a female). An undistinguished cluster of
concepts female/feminine crammed under one cloak, would in that case allude to an
essentialist understanding of woman in terms of her having a core, functioning as a
guarantor of her womanhood.
Essentialism in the specific context of feminism consists in the belief that a woman has
an essence, that woman can be specified by one or a number of inborn attributes that
define across cultures and throughout history her unchanging being and in the absence
of which she ceases to be categorized as a woman. In less abstract, more practical terms
an essentialist, in the context of feminism, is one who instead of carefully holding apart
the poles of sex and gender maps the feminine onto femaleness, one for whom the body,
the female body, that is, remains (…) the rock of feminism. (Schor, 1994, p. 59-60).
Further complications arise when the whole issue about the allegedly mandatory
qualities of an object is transferred within the explanatory framework of scientific
11
discourse. Attributes may turn into a necessary cluster of facts, which allows for a
scientific grasp of an object as a non-reducible basic particle to take place. One
might see this approach to analysis as quite puzzling to say the least, since it seems
determined to explain matters with the very matter that needs to be explained.
Contemporary essentialism claims that some properties of an object are essential to
it and that so long as it existed the object could not fail to have them. If essence is
inherent in things, then there are necessary truths about objects and their properties.
(…) Popper refers to essentialism as the view that the aim of science is to provide
explanations in terms of things and properties that are not themselves susceptible of
any further explanation. (The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy, p. 223; my
emphasis).
Psychoanalysis has been down this road already. The debates in the 1920s and 1930s,
which set out to question the central role that Freud had assigned the Castration
complex within the Oedipal framework and the inferior status of female sexuality,
have vaguely fallen under the general heading of the »Freud-Jones« controversy2,
with Jones’s position being merely »an amalgamated re-statement of the different
theories arrived at by Karen Horney and Melanie Klein.« (Mitchell, 2000, p. 121) Klein
had argued for a primordial and biologically grounded awareness of femininity in
the girl child: »Also I am led to conclude that not only an unconscious awareness of
the vagina, but also sensations in that organ and the rest of the genital apparatus,
are aroused as soon as the Oedipus impulses make their appearance« (Klein, 2000, p.
102), which theoretically left a woman trapped – just as Jones’s or Horney’s position
did – within the discourse of naturalized femininity. Horney understood the alleged
inferiority of women as a misconceived reflection of »masculine civilization«: »In other
words, how far has the evolution of women, as depicted to us today by analysis, been
measured by masculine standards and how far therefore does this picture fail to
present quite accurately the real nature of women.« (Horney, 2000, p. 37; my emphasis).
The latter assumption, namely the existence of innate disposition to femininity,
collapsed Horney’s endeavour into a biologism, far more deterministic than Freud’s
phallic sexuality. »Worthy as were Horney’s intentions, correct as were her assertions
that women are not actually inferior but subject to a masculine civilization, nothing
could have been more disastrous for the future of the psychoanalysis of women than
this call to a “true nature’.« (Mitchell, 2000, p. 128) Some forty years after the debate
on femininity reached its heights, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel would summarize
the early controversy in terms of »differences of opinion« which »interfere[d] with
… [their, the analysts’] progress towards knowledge« and in the light of which they
lost »sight of the truth« (Chasseguet-Smirgel, 2007, p. 105) - the truth being none
other than the innate knowledge of vagina in both sexes (which becomes blurred
due to splitting of the ego or repression). The author uses terms such as “instinctive
knowledge’ and “instinctive patrimony’, when claiming that even though Freud
was acquainted with their meaning in relation to »processes of sexual life and [the
constitution of] the nuclear centre of the unconscious … he refuses … to draw the
12
logical consequences which necessarily follow.« (ibid., p. 111) Bringing ChasseguetSmirgel’s »logical consequence« to a radical conclusion, one can only assume that
femininity is once again to be understood as a given, rather than something that
needs to be explained.
It is in my opinion to a large extent due to Freud’s commitment to self-scrutiny as
an honest man of science (hence consequent corrections and revisions although his
career), that his work can strike the reader as having a rather ambiguous and not
always consistent tone. I would like to argue however that it is precisely because of
the ambiguity and inconsistency, that one should perhaps be cautious in inferring
hasty judgements about chauvinism from excerpts of Freud’s writings. Limiting
oneself to the classical conundrum of feminists’ abhorrence - the famous, or better
yet, the infamous »penis envy« - might very well imply leaving the broader arena of
subjectivity in Freud’s work out of consideration: the very arena that – as I will try to
show later on – is perhaps capable of undermining the rigidness of gender division,
constructed on the anatomic fact of having or not having the penis. It is perhaps
thinking Freud beyond “Femininity’ that moves the index away from red zones on
the scales of biologism and, moreover, indicates the crucial value of psychoanalysis
for feminism. We will therefore try to present Freud’s account of subjectivity, which
highlights the disruptive potential that the concept of the unconscious holds in the
face of naďve belief in the possibility of direct access to reality (historical or immediate),
or in the coherence and unity of one’s own identity. Before we tackle this subject
however, we will focus on two separate, but nevertheless closely related thematic
areas: firstly, in the part immediately following, we will address some issues in regard
to gendering and its implications. Secondly, we will delineate the subject as arising
within the classical Oedipal framework.
Gender division in Freud’s theory is placed within the dynamic framework of the
Oedipus complex, which hallmarks the individual’s negotiation with the arena of
the social, cultural and historical. It is therefore the confrontation between claims,
demands and phantasies of the yearning body for possessing the desired object
on the one hand and denial of these by the culturally invested status of the father
on the other that determines the horizons of the individual’s sexed identity. The
Oedipus scenario is basically a narrative of loss insofar as the inevitable giving up
and the letting go of the first love-object is what is at stake. Freud informs us, that
the loss pertains to denial of »two possibilities of satisfaction, an active one and a
passive one«. The former would lead the boy to put himself »in his father’s place in a
masculine fashion and have intercourse with his mother«, and the latter »to take the
place of his mother and be loved by his father«. (Freud, 1924, p. 176) It is noteworthy
that the account above evades any claim of anatomical destiny, since object choice is
not governed by whether one is »male« or »female«, but »masculine« or »feminine«:
positions accessible to male and female alike. Moreover, the more radical aspects of
Freud’s theory constantly reflect the very complexity and fluidity of object choice,
undermining claims about the anatomical distribution of sexual identity. The bisexual
13
disposition of human beings as assumed in psychoanalysis presupposes, that »choice
of an object independently of its sex – freedom to range equally over male and female
objects – […] is the original basis from which, as a result of restriction in one direction
or the other, both the normal and inverted types develop« (Freud, 1905, p. 145-146).
Even more, there is no clear distinction between the object of desire and the object of
rivalry within the Oedipal constellation, since »closer study usually discloses the more
complete Oedipus complex, which is twofold, positive and negative, and is due to the
bisexuality originally present in children« (Freud, 1923a, p. 33). It might also be worth
mentioning in this context, that ever since the “Three Essays’, a number of deviational
turns had been acknowledged in regard to the sexual object and the sexual aim,
which Freud clearly did consider »susceptible of further explanation«. »Scientifically
sifted observation, then, shows that numerous deviations occur in respect of both of
these – the sexual object and the sexual aim. The relation between these deviations
and what is assumed to be normal requires thorough investigation.« (Freud, 1905, p.
136)
There is, however, another side to gendering and its implications that needs to be
taken into account in Freud’s theory - the side that does not question the normal,
but sets out to prescribe it. In the more narrow and specific consideration of Freud’s
texts - the ones mostly addressing the very subject of anatomical distinctions and
accompanying socially and culturally constructed attributes – some of Freud’s
commitment to the rigorously analytic stance seems to be lost. It is anatomy which
prescribes destiny here: fear of losing what one holds so precious, or envy for having
lost it already. The resolution of the Oedipus complex entails unavoidable loss (of the
cathected object) as an entrance ticket to be paid by the individual stepping into the
arena of social and cultural, but this very loss is an after-effect, arising after the child
is faced with the phantasy or reality of purely anatomical loss (castration). It is in the
light of this after-effect that Dana Birksted-Breen brings out a very important point,
namely that there is a difference to be noted between biology and anatomy in Freud’s
account of gendering. Whereas the former implies a natural quality of sexuality, the
latter implies a platform for subjective negotiation of what is naturally given.
Freud’s theory has been seen by some as describing an inescapable biological destiny to
man. In fact the bedrock Freud describes is more anatomical than biological. It is anatomy
which determines the cataclysm which initiates the psychological reorganization shaping
masculinity and femininity. Anatomy is a given, and each sex has to grapple with the
particular significance it has in their case. What is not given is what each individual makes
of his anatomy … For Freud there is no natural sexuality, it is always psychosexuality,
always a construction relatively independent of biology. If “anatomy is destiny’, it means
that sexual difference has inevitably to be reckoned with. (Birksted-Breen, 2007, p. 3)
the »phallic primacy« arena3, since the account of subjectivity as introduced by Freud
himself drastically undermines any identity constructs that may arise on this basis.
And this, I believe, is a position which allows for ambiguity due to the coexistence
of two different Freuds: the one not writing for the present day only, and the one
being a man of his time nevertheless. Before however we point to concepts in
Freud’s theory, which can be read as posing a possibility of undermining constructed
subjectivity, we must first delineate what kind of subjectivity we are talking about. Let
us therefore first demarcate the subject as arisen within the classical Oedipal position,
as had already been suggested above.
Here we are basically confronted with the straight line of three different understandings
of refusal: the father’s refusal of the child’s wish to have access to the mother’s body
is accepted in the light of the refusal to be dispossessed of the precious organ. And
consequently, what had been repressed (the desire for the mother/the feminine trends)
is assigned a place in the unconscious, designating a container of what society refuses.
Rolling down the main tracks of Western metaphysics, Oedipal narrative therefore
reveals its commitment to forgetting its origin/repressing the bodily relation to the
mother and it is within this forgetting that the Cartesian split between the sensible and
intelligible, between mind and body arises. One represses the obscure and usurping
desire for the mother/matter to step into the arena of predictable, self-transparent
and evolution-oriented subjectivity4. There had, so to speak, been a before, there had
been »the Minoan-Mycenaean civilization behind the civilization of Greece.« (Freud,
1931, p. 226). What had been repressed with such rigour by the knowing subject of
Enlightenment, is the unknown, enchanted world, which returns in a rather uncanny,
and therefore disturbingly intimate way to disrupt the belief in linearity of individual
and collective history. As for the collective history, Adorno & Horkheimer see the
Enlightenment project of demythologization and disenchantment as radicalization
of mythical fear: from the fear of the “animate« world, to even greater fear of what
lies beyond the borders of the “inanimate’ world, which scientific mode of thought
coded into universal, objective and predictable set of relationships with distinctive
line between subject/object positions.
Man imagines himself free from fear when there is no longer anything unknown. That
determines the course of demythologization, of enlightenment, which compounds the
animate with the inanimate just as myth compounds the inanimate with the animate.
Enlightenment is mythic fear turned radical. The pure immanence of positivism, its ultimate
product, is no more than so to speak universal taboo. (Adorno & Horkheimer, 1997, p. 16;
my emphasis)
To pursue this line of thought which emphasizes the importance of psychic reality
in relation to the body, it would seem constructive to continue our analysis beyond
And which subject, if not the Oedipal, knows its taboo and prohibition most? He can
sustain the illusion of cohesive self as long as he dwells amidst the meta-narrative
of a carefully controlled, regulated, ordered and categorized world. Going beyond
that would imply shattering that illusion of fixed relationship between the subject
14
15
and: object, science, history, or truth. It is worth remembering here that the subject
in question is a gendered one. How firm then would gender division prove to be in
the face of this grand disillusionment? Could one claim that a different account of
subjectivity which massively undermines the identity of the Oedipal subject usurps
the gender division on the basis of which this subject arises?
It is in my opinion in two of Freud’s concepts to be presented shortly – deferred
action and repetition compulsion - that subjectivity can be fully grasped in terms
of what Jacqueline Rose sees as »failure« of identity, meaning that the unconscious
constantly disturbs, disrupts and reverses continuity of our being. And the very point
of this failure, Rose argues, is where psychoanalysis and feminism converge in mutual
»recognition that there is resistance to identity at the very heart of psychic life.« (Rose,
2005, p. 91).
It was in the period of predominant occupation with hysterical patients, that
Freud arrived at remarkable discoveries in relation to different modalities of time.
The following two discoveries (which are regarded as two sides of the same coin,
but we are separating them for the purpose of making two distinct points) meet
in the concept of deferred action and are of particular relevance for this paper: (1)
the seduction theory was abandoned in the light of the fact that truth and fiction
proved to be indistinguishable: what seems (traumatic) reality might turn out to be
(seduction) phantasy. It is this convergence between historical real and subjective real
that massively undermines claims about the transparency of the subject’s cumulative
history and re-conceptualizes the historical real as that, which is accessible only in
terms of the textual real: past as a recollected narrative of the present; (2) regardless of
the event being historically or subjectively real, it released the effect in its own dialectic
of “before’ and “after’. The event is therefore not a causal one within cumulatively
progressive time, but subjected »to a re-arrangement in accordance with fresh
circumstances – to a re-transcription.« (Freud, 1985, p. 207). This “before and “after’
therefore forms its own fluidity of time, which contests »linear determinism and thus
emphasizes the relevance of the present when reinterpreting the past«. (Perelberg,
2005, p. 222)
time dialectics of +/- 1 (similar to doing and undoing in obsessional neurosis), as
oppose to a cumulative causality of 1+1+1…; (b) in “Repression’ (1915a), the return
of the repressed comes to be viewed in the light of mechanisms of displacement
and condensation, which places time (if we can speak of time at all within these
terms) under the total sway of primary process, characteristic for the system Ucs.,
where »exemption from mutual contradiction…, timelessness, and replacement of
external by psychical reality« (Freud, 1915b, p. 187) apply; (2) in a situation where
painful experience without any attempt of mastering it is compulsively repeated, the
straight timeline could be seen as transformed into a series of as many meaningless
concentric circles as there are acts of repetition, and – more importantly – the
purpose-and-comfort-oriented, progressive and pragmatic subject is facing the
possibility of complete erasure in the face of him or her repeatedly sliding towards
death by bringing the state of excitation more and more towards the zero level. It is
here, Felman argues, that we encounter »radical displacement of the understanding
both of meaning and of temporality (or history)«, insofar as »what is beyond the wish
for pleasure – the compulsion to repeat – radically displaces the conception both of
history and of meaning, both of what history means and of how meaning comes to
be and is historicized.« (Felman, 1987, p. 139)
Another concept, which drastically undermines subjectivity as understood within
the traditional framework of Western metapshysics, was put forward as a key notion
of the 1920 paper “Beyond the Pleasure Principle’: compulsion to repeat. I basically
understand the subversive potential of this concept in two separate ways: (1) a link can
be made between compulsion to repeat and return of the repressed, insofar as the
repressed content (past) repeatedly insists on reappearing (present), thus presenting
a disruptive potential to linear causality in two different accounts: (a) in 1907 Freud
informs us that the mode of this reappearing follows the exact associative path
that repression undertook in the first place: »It is precisely what was chosen as the
instrument of repression … that becomes the vehicle for the return: in and behind
the repressing force, what is repressed proves itself victor in the end. (Freud, 1907, p.
35) The course of events can in that light be translated into a self-nullifying/abolishing
I have tried to show above that the conventional ordering of things through which
an individual is constituted as a subject imbued with meaning within the Western
metaphysical tradition (and this may apply to things as variable as the ordering of
psychosexual development, the ordering of our own or collective history, the ordering
of words into a formed sentence, etc.) is constantly bound to fail. The powerful
subversive potential of the unconscious constantly presents the subject as a stranger
to him or herself: stability of identity becomes massively undermined in this view,
which applies also to identity constructed on the anatomical distinctions between
the sexes. It is thinking subjectivity hand in hand not only with the unstable character
of sexuality as such, but also with the radical potential of the unconscious, that
overrides gender division inferred from anatomy. If we think of meaning (and gender
identity is, as we have seen, always a matter of retroactive ascribing of meaning) in
the contextual rather than cumulative manner, anatomical differences are presenting
a site for continuous re-construction and contextualization rather than them being
meaningful on their own. The presented account therefore provides much more
mobility in debates on issues of sex and gender than the ones initiated by the analysts
in the 1920s and 1930s. These analysts have - in the light of demanding the position for
women, which was presumed as rightfully theirs by default - failed to see (the asset of)
the otherness-to-oneself that Freud was putting forward. Jacqueline Rose interprets
the latter as potential of psychoanalysis for being »no longer best understood as an
account of how women are fitted into place… Instead psychoanalysis becomes one
of the few places in our culture where it is recognised as more than a fact of individual
pathology that most women do not painlessly slip into their roles as women, if indeed
they do at all.« (Rose, 2005, p. 91).
16
17
1 According to Freud, feminine attitude entails girl’s acknowledgment of her lacking a penis and therefore accepting that she is already castrated, which is a first step towards discovering “the truly feminine
vagina” (Freud, 1933a, p. 118). Under the sway of penis-envy, her clitoridal stimulation and accompanying
active sexual trends fall under a trend of repression only to assume passive attitude and to give way to
vaginal sexuality, all of which takes place parallel to the change in object-choice: from mother to father.
Felman, S (1987) Jacques Lacan and the Adventures of Insight: Psychoanalysis in Contemporary Culture.
Harvard, Harvard University Press.
Freud S (1985) The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess, 1887-1904. Translated and edited
by Jeffrey Mousaieff Masson. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, Harvard University Press.
Freud S (1905) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. SE 7, p. 123-243.
Therefore, “with the change to femininity the clitoris should wholly or in part hand over its sensitivity, and
at the same time its importance, to the vagina” (ibid., p. 118), which means that not only she “renounces
her masturbatory satisfaction from her clitoris, repudiates her love for her mother” (ibid., p. 126), but also
that “passivity [takes]… the upper hand, and the girl’s turning to her father is accomplished principally
with the help of passive instinctual impulses.” (ibid., p. 128) The girl turns to her father in the wish for him
to give her a child, which arises from the following symbolic equation: “Faeces – money – gift – baby
– penis are treated as though they meant the same thing, and they are represented too by the same
symbols.” (Freud, 1933b, p. 101).
2 Mitchell informs us that »the debate [on the nature of female sexuality] was to reach its peak when
in 1935, Ernest Jones, invited to Vienna to give some lectures to elucidate the fast growing differences
between British and Viennese psychoanalysts, chose as his first (and, as it turned out, only) topic, female
sexuality.« (Mitchell, 1982, p. 20)
3 By »phallic primacy«, we are referring to the exclusive importance of the phallus in both sexes during
the phallic phase. “This phase, which already deserves to be described as genital, presents a sexual object
and some degree of convergence of the sexual impulses upon that object; but it is differentiated from
the final organization of sexual maturity in one essential respect. For it knows only one kind of genital: the
male one.” (Freud, 1905 [1924], p. 199-200) In phallic phase therefore, “the little girl is a little man”. (Freud,
1933a, p. 118)
4 This mind/ego instincts Vs. body/ sexual instincts division can perhaps be considered in the context of
the account of the ego as depicted in ‘The Ego and the Id’, which follows the institutional lines of general
scientific atmosphere of the time, imbued with developmental positivism: reality oriented ego, guided by
supremacy of coherently organized and detached mind, is on the constant lookout in order to tame the
irrational, chaotic, unpredictable and pleasure-oriented id. However, in a rather common trait of fertile
contradiction that is to be depicted in Freud’s work, there is another account of ego which he introduces
in ‘On Narcissism’ and ‘Mourning and Melancholia’: an ego, trapped in the narcissistic interplay of identifications and reflections.
Freud S (1907) Delusions and Dreams in Jensen’s »Gradiva«. SE 9, p. 1-95.
Freud S (1915a) »Repression«. SE 14, p. 141-158.
Freud S (1915b) »The Unconscious«. SE 14, p. 159-215.
Freud S (1919) »The “Uncanny’ «. SE 17, p. 217-252.
Freud S (1920) Beyond the Pleasure Principle. SE 18, p. 1-64.
Freud S (1923a) The Ego and the Id. SE 19, p. 1-59.
Freud S (1923b) »The Infantile Genital Organization: An Interpolation into the Theory of Sexuality«. SE 19,
p. 139-145.
Freud S (1924) »The Dissolution of the Oedipus Complex«. SE 19, p. 171-179.
Freud S (1926) The Question of Lay Analysis: Conversations with an Impartial Person. SE 20, p. 177-250.
Freud S (1931) »Female Sexuality«. SE 21, p. 221-243.
Freud S (1933a) »Femininity« in New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. SE 22, 112-135.
Freud S (1933b) »Anxiety and Instinctual Life« in New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. SE 22, p.
81-111.
Horney K (2000) »The Flight from Womanhood: The Masculinity-Complex in Women, as viewed by Men
and by Women«. In Saguaro, S, editor. Psychoanalysis and Woman: A Reader, p. 35-47. London, Macmillan
Press Ltd.
Klein M (2000) »Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict«. In Saguaro, S, editor. Psychoanalysis and Woman: A
Reader, p. 97-107. London, Macmillan Press Ltd.
Mitchell J (1982) »Introduction«. In Mitchell J, Rose J, editors. Jacques Lacan & The École Freudienne:
Feminine Sexuality, p. 1-26. London, Macmillan Press Ltd.
Mitchell J (2000) Psychoanalysis and Feminism. London, Penguin.
Perelberg R J (2005) Freud: A Modern Reader. London & Philadelphia, Whurr Publishers Ltd.
Rose J (2005) Sexuality in the Field of Vision. London & New York, Verso.
References
Adorno W T & Horkheimer M (1997) The Dialectics of Enlightenment. Translated by Cumming J. London
and New York, Verso.
Birksted-Breen, D (2007) »General Introduction«. In Birksted-Breen D, editor. The Gender Conundrum:
Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Femininity and Masculinity, p. 1-39. London and New York,
Routledge.
Bunnin, N (2004) The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy. Oxford, Blackwell.
Chasseguet-Smirgel J (2007) »Freud and female sexuality: the consideration of some blind spots in the
exploration of the “dark continent’«. In Birksted-Breen D, editor. The Gender Conundrum: Contemporary
Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Femininity and Masculinity, p. 105-124. London and New York,
Routledge.
18
Antimilitarism1: the institution of war and historical sketch for
further analysis Gal Kirn
As someone speaking from the antimilitarist position - I was engaged especially in
the anti-NATO and anti war movement - my beginning remarks might sound rather
surprising. However, I firmly believe that, if we want to address a serious critique to
war, we have to see war as a social institution, as matrix of social relations that are
constitutive to repressive and ideological apparatus.
Moral discourse on war
What is very frequently circulated in contemporary debates on war is uttered by
almost all speakers (with a noble exception of hawkish politicians). It is not the position
19
of the enunciation that is under question here, one has to take a distance and discern
the phenomenon precisely on its very surface. The problem lies in the enunciation
itself. It is so self-evident that it has become a ruling (pacifist) ideology – who can
not be against the war? One can see this dominant form of enunciation everywhere:
from the final speech of every Miss World to Kofi Annan, from NGOs, activist groups,
presidents and Popes to academia - they all share one common message: an
unanimous rejection of war. How they try to realize2 this message is not what interests
me here. I am asking a simple question: on what grounds is this rejection of war made?
It is made on moral grounds: war is seen as something internally and eternally bad,
morally corrupt... This negative side of the argument is eloquently complemented
by the eternal symbol of peace, peace as the enactment of Good. And this idea of
Go(o)d will finally overcome, and if necessary with military means. This reminds me of
the old joke: »we have executed the last Stalinist yesterday…« Peace, consensus and
harmony are going to reign no matter what.
This is a dominant ideology and I have to add, a moral ideology that sees peace and
war just as the binary opposites in the moral logic of good and bad/evil. There is no
place for the »third« element, no »beyond«, just a never-ending cycling of good and
bad. The same line of moral argument can be found by defendants of social Darwinism
who portray international relations in the disguise of the clashes of civilisations, where
some would even say that war is something completely natural... From this moral
position, one cannot conceptualize the complexity of war.
My intention is to break with this moral ideology. Let us give some historical examples,
how to proof the logic of moral ideology wrong, already on its own territory. Even
peace - as such (as good) - can become a mere »imperialist peace«: what was once Pax
Romana did not really signify peace for the subordinated peoples in the Empire and
outside »barbarians«. It also did not mean a »peaceful« life for slave or even plebeians,
not to mention children or women. Let us not forget about a brilliant thesis proposed
by Tomaž Mastnak on the idea of Europe. This idea was born in the Middle Ages,
specifically in the times of Crusades. All social forces in Europe were reorganized:
feudal warlords joined their forces with ecclesial powers in their sacred mission for
eternal peace and the (re)conquest of the holy grave/grail. This mission that laid pillars
to Europe as such was only performed with the successful identification. It had to
wage war – constructing the enemy was not a difficult task. At first, it located the
internal enemy: the figure of the Jew was appropriate and the huge pogroms took
place, whereas the external enemy was the infidel - Muslim. Today, Pax Americana
shows yet again that peace as such is a very ambivalent category, not just in the
political-pragmatic field but also in a moral-ideological field. War and peace can serve
as effective mechanisms for social cohesion that is in other words, they help in the
process of successful pacification of class, race and gender conflicts/struggles.
20
War and revolution
Apart form this historical examples, I would like to propose to study war as a social
institution that is deeply embedded in political, economic and ideological logic. As
I do not have time to develop a more »scientific« thesis/approach, I would like to
shift your attention even further away, into a somehow Leninist realm, where – as
you may remember, he embraced war as an opportunity for revolution. In certain
social circumstances imperialist war is, and was re-translated, re-inscribed into a
revolutionary civil war. The example of the October Socialist revolution is definitely
correct in this respect. War, hunger, social struggles, tsarist rule and other objective
circumstances triggered a revolutionary situation, where the subjective force of
communism with the Soviets overtook the historical scene. But that was not the sole
case of »re-translation« of war to into revolution. The anarchist revolution in Spain that
happened before the Second World War, or Yugoslav social revolutions during the
Second World War were both typical historical events, where war was just a passage
to a revolutionary event.
The case of Yugoslavia is of my particular interest here. Before the Second WW old
Yugoslavia was a dictatorship, where Serbian hegemony was one of the cornerstones
of the statehood. The national question as such was not properly settled, social
conflicts became pretty severe, insofar as many demonstrations were brutally
suppressed. Gender relations were also not rosy. It was only with the antifascist
struggle and revolutionary transformation of society that the solution of national
question was formulated: multi-national federation of Yugoslavia was formed, and
all nations, peoples got their autonomy and recognition. The issue of nation was
linked to the issue of class. Without the proper social revolution (that was in Yugoslav
case led by Communists) there would be no real foundation for the future living of
Yugoslav nations. We will leave the issue of gender at the side here3.
Antimilitarist struggle as emancipatory politics?
However, we must not forget how the institution of Yugoslav national army became
a dominant, untouchable institution in the socialist Yugoslavia. Its role was never
questioned and in the end it played a tragic role in the break-up of Yugoslavia. Here,
a strong antimilitaristic position was one of the rare emancipatory positions that
were formulated in the 80s. It became a part of the heterogeneous social movement
struggle (ecological movement, gay-lesbian struggle, peace movement, human-rights
struggle...). It was only in 80s that the new social movements started questioning the
militarization of the Yugoslav society. At one moment peace movement in Slovenia
started to develop a concept and practice of demilitarised zones and so it gained
many advocates. Even in the beginning of 90s, the major official public poll showed
that about half of Slovenians wanted Slovenia without army. Let me just add that
in the 90s the former Yugoslav Army Barrack in Ljubljana, called Metelkova, was
squatted by remains of the movement (80s) and it still is a symbol and an important
infrastructure of political and cultural underground scene. The Peace Institute as one
21
of the representatives of the peace movement is also located there.
At the end, I would like to mention one recent struggle in Slovenia that has shaken
official political realm, that is, the movement against the entrance of Slovenia in NATO.
This movement started as a very low-profile, grassroots movement – connecting
some students groups and anarchist groups was soon spread throughout Slovenia...
Small and bigger form of protest were practices from 2001-2003. The movement
tried to address also different issues that touched governmental agenda: from social
welfare, immigrants’ issues. It was the time when the alternative scene flourished.
One month before the referendum it was still undecided,whether Slovenia is going
to enter the military alliance. The critique of NATO had very strong arguments (and no
fudning) and was able to articulate a broad variety of different demands... The whole
political-economic class supported by Church was united in the mission to enter the
civilised world – NATO. And then Slovenia reached the goal: home in Europe, safe in
NATO, as official slogan said. Indeed, everyone feels much safer now, though it is a bit
more expensive J. And the similar issue on the entrance of the NATO is in the front of
other ex-Yugoslav republics…
1 This text is a reconstructed version of the presentation held in Pliskovica autumn school.
2 Some of these groups are also a part of strong antiwar movement, thus one must not underestimate
»positive« effects of this moral discourse that is sometimes translated into political practice. The question
still remains: after the critique of the official military policies – what happens to the antiwar movement,
when the war is over? Blindness of the sheer antiwar strategy is bound to political failure if it does not
think the whole complexity of the social situation.
3 It is true that women got the right to vote, abortion and all other improtant rights in 1945, that is, in the
socialist times. But it is also true that in the private sphere – gender relations have not changed much.
Queer + Yugoslavia = Queer-o-slavia Majda Puača
Term queer is used as an inclusive, unifying sociopolitical umbrella term for
homosexual, bisexual, transgender and intersex community as well as heterosexual
people who see themselves as or live their lives outside of hetero-patriarchal norms.
It is also often used by asexual and autosexual people as well as people whose sexual
orientations or activities place them outside the heterosexual-defined mainstream
(e.g. BDSM1 practitioners, polyamorous2 persons and all persons that don’t accept the
binarity of genders and sexes).
This word also refers to activism, movement and theoretical trend.
rights etc. but not really questioning heterosexist capitalist society in itself) and radical
queers (or autonomist groups, who are questioning and rejecting different aspects of
society – capitalism, patriarchy, racism, borders and above all - gender binary system
that separates male and female as only two possible genders).
As a member of QueerBeograd collective – which positions itself as a radical queer
collective - I will try to introduce what this politics mean to us, without any attempt to
»monopolize« this term but rather with an intention to spread these ideas and politics
in the area of ex-Yugoslavia and beyond.
The collective was founded in 2004 as a reaction to violence and discrimination
against LGBTTIQ3 population. Because the first attempt of organizing Pride Parade
in Belgrade in 2001 was blocked by large group of violent homophobic hooligans.
Because second attempt to make LGBTTIQ community and politics visible on streets
of Belgrade in 2004 had to be canceled because organizers again couldn’t guarantee
safety for participants. The state and citizens are still ignorant toward problems of
LGBTTIQ population and all the others who are »Different«. It has been clear for us
that such situation is a result of politics of war, clericalism, nationalism, militarism and
machismo that has been mainstream politics in Serbia during last 15 years.
So, we have decided to organize queer festivals.
At first we needed to invent a new concept – we refused to spend time on worries
about violence that might happen and hiring private security or police. We wanted
to build exciting cooperation between people on an international and local level,
to have fun and to promote queer politics. There is no word in serbian that means
queer and by using it we were in a position to »fill« this word with meaning(s). For
us queer means radical, inclusive, connecting all kinds of politics (i.e. seeing the
interconnectedness of all forms of oppression) and being creative about how we live
in this world. At the same time we felt the necessity to explain - why do we connect
all kinds of politics together? Why do we refuse to stay in the »identity politics« box?
How does queer relate to the Balkans context – not just as some western import? And
what the hell is queer anyway???? This is how we began to open the way to building
a social space where actual change could occur.
Through our festivals we wanted to present a politicized vision of queer, to provide
a platform to explore and educate on important issues such as racism / capitalism /
gender / fascism / militarism and nationalism and to actively show how these things
connect.
Wow! Now that sounds serious and complicated, doesn’t it?
The fact is that queer has many meanings. In the context of activism it is used both by
mainstream assimilationist LGBT groups/individuals (asking for gay marriage, adoption
In building connections and working with many kinds of political groups we have
developed an inclusive network of mutual support which challenges us all to go further
than »single issue« politics. The discussions we organized brought together topics
which crossed political divides; it was the first time that these topics were discussed
in such a way in Beograd and the beginning of a new way of looking at things …
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23
The topics we have discussed so far are Radical queer – theory and action, Gender
and identities, Politics of control, Art and politics, Queer resistance to militarism, The
rise of clericalism, nationalism and homophobia, Sex work, Trans issues… We have
initiated and/or been part of many local, regional and international initiatives and
actions, from antifascism and animal rights, via benefit parties to Internationalist Pride
parade in Zagreb and Food not Bombs. We are part of No to NATO campaign, Other
scene (drugascena.net) and FAQ network (network of (anarcho) feminist and queer
festivals in the region of ex-Yugoslavia).
Now, few years, 2 books (3rd is on the way!) and 4 festivals later, we can see the
»fruits« of our work. Not only that in time our festival has become one of the most
important alternative-activist events in Belgrade but simultaneously radical queer
scene has slowly developed in the region and we are happy to be contributing.
Queer groups are emerging in all former Yugoslavian republics. QueerBeograd has
been also involved with the Autumn feminist school in Pliskovica, Slovenia. Hopefully
this means that even more people got »infected« with the »queer disease«. Part of the
»Pliskovica crew« came to 4th QueerBeograd festival, which took place only days after
the school has finished.
The obvious next step is – the making of Queer-o-slavia!
Note: This text is based on the existing texts/politics of QueerBeograd collective, which
can be found on the web-site www.queerbeograd.org and in the book – Preparing a
space: documentation of Party and Politics festival.
1 Bondage and discipline; Domination and submission; Sadism and masochism
2 (from poly=multiple + amor=love) the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving,
intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved.
3 Lesbians, gays, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, intersex and queer
Nasilje nad ženama u porodici Aneta Ilić
institucija za pitanje nasilja u porodici. U Kraljevu nije bilo ni medijske kampanje koja
bi na neki način približila stanovništvu pitanje nasilja u porodici ili dala informaciju da
postoje neke promene u zakonodavstvu.
Naša namera je bila da napravimo neke promene. Pre svega da pokrenemo priču
o nasilju u porodici, da prekinemo ćutanje o činjenici da svaka treća žena u Srbiji
doživljava neki oblik nasilja u toku svog života, kao i da je 95% tog nasilja počinjeno
u porodici.
Na osnovu istraživanja o nasilju u porodici koje su aktivistkinje Fenomene sprovele u
junu 2006. godine u gradskim i prigradskim naseljima u Kraljevu, ustanovile smo da
je problem nasilja u porodici nad ženama u našem gradu, kao i u drugim krajevima
naše zemlje, izuzetno veliki. Zabrinjavajuće je to što se skoro svaka treća žena, prema
podacima našeg istraživanja, izjašnjava da je u nekom periodu svog života trpela
neki vid nasilja u porodici. 12,73% od ukupnog broja ispitanica izjavile su da trenutno
trpe nasilje. U brojkama je to oko 7.500 žena. Trebalo bi imati u vidu da znatan broj
žena nerado govori o ovom problemu, neke su čak i odbile da odgovore na anketu,
a po procenama naših anketarki, neke žene nisu bile iskrene. Imajući u vidu koliko je
problematično dobiti precizne podatke, zbog toga što je ova tema i dalje veliki tabu u
našem društvu, postavile smo kontrolno pitanje – Da li je neko vama blisko lice žrtva
nasilja u porodici?, jer smo smatrale da žene lakše govore o tuđim problemima nego
o sopstvenim, i 42,5% ispitanica je odgovorilo potvrdno.
Problem nasilja u porodici je društveni fenomen, a ne lični problem osoba kojima se
to dešava, odnosno lično jeste političko. Nasilje u porodici nije privatna stvar!
A Vision on Feminism Marit van Kooij.
»So…that’s a week hanging around with some feminists? Well, fun.« My friend is
surprised when I tell her about the subject of the autumn school. She thought I had
no connection with feminism whatsoever.
Nasilje u porodici je jedan od najvećih tabua u našem društvu. Samo zahvaljujući
angažmanu ženskih aktivističkih grupa taj tabu je polako počeo biti dekonstruisan.
Bilo je potrebno mnogo godina da bi bio dostignut samo jedan od ciljeva: bolji zakon.
Međutim, sam zakon nikako nije dovoljan da bi se broj žrtava smanjio. Neophodna
je permanentna primena tog zakona i obrazovanje radnika/ca u institucijama koje
su nadležne da rešavaju slučajeve nasilja u porodici. Takođe, dok situacija nasilja
nije rešena, osobi koja živi u nasilju je neophodna psihološka, pravna i drugi vidovi
podrške.
U Kraljevu godinama nije postojao SOS telefon za žene sa traumom nasilja (niti
bilo koja druga vrsta SOS telefona). Takođe, nije organizovana edukacija nadležnih
institucija, koja bi, između ostalog, poslužila i za senzibilisanje radnika i radnica ovih
Actually, I don’t. She’s right. To say it very blunt: I like wearing skirts, for example. But
the subject was not feminism on itself but equality of genders. And that’s something
I can connect to. In the Netherlands the feminist activists of the 1960’s fought for this
equality and along the week I start to appreciate their actions more and more. When
I learned about this era in Dutch history on high school, I thought the women were
acting silly, showing their bellies like that while claiming their right for birth prevent,
education and job opportunities. But as the week in Slovenia processes, I start to
realize that as far as I’m not a feminist, that’s only because it’s of no use to me. In silence
I thank the activists of the 60’s. It strucks me that being born in the Netherlands was a
lucky event, not only because of the economic benefits but also because equality of
gender is an idea that’s imbedded in our society. It’s not in everyone’s head yet, but
the idea is there and written down in the constitution.
I doubt a lot of people would agree with me if I say that emancipation in the
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25
Netherlands enters one of its final phases. Sure, women still get paid less while
working on the same level as men and yes, top functions are still unequal divided
among genders. But I feel like I can shape my own future and that it depends on how
much I work and what decisions I take instead of on my gender. Maybe I have to try
slightly harder than my male competitor, but it’s definitely not impossible. I don’t have
to be a feminist to make it work; I just have to work hard. To me, emancipation has a
lot to do with freedom of choice and not being forced in doing things that are not on
the top of your list. That’s why I’m not a feminist in every definition of the word. I think
it’s ok if a woman chooses to stay home and take care for the kids if that’s what she
wants. I don’t believe the theories claiming that Dutch women are still suppressed
and brainwashed on their role in society. Of course there are still groups in the Dutch
society that denies these ideas of gender equality, but there is a big group present,
both male and female, that supports it. In this group, emancipation is almost done
and can be of inspiration to others. The most important thing is a legal base on which
women can rely from top down. I think that emancipation starts with that.
To my opinion, feminism as a concept is much more important if you take it to an
international level. That brings me to my idea of feminism. To me, feminism is to
acknowledge the fact that globally speaking, women and men have different roles
in different societies. People can not understand this division of roles out of a onecountry perspective and its ideas about genders. A man’s role might be a woman’s
job in another society. For example, African woman do the agricultural work that
is comparable to a typical “men’s job’ in the Netherlands in the 19th century. With
the present focus on global democratisation, development and emancipation, it’s
necessary to realise this. If it’s ignored, cooperation and development programs will
sure last a short while and policies might not be of any effect at all. In this way, I can
call myself a feminist.
A couple of weeks after Slovenia, I sit in the bus. I’m tired and happy that I found a
place to sit. It takes a while before I realise that the bus is getting pretty full. Two old
men stand across of me. The bus driver structurally ignores the speed limit and the
two get shaken and rocked on the bumpy roads of Amsterdam. I stand up and nod
in their direction, but one of them makes a tempering gesture with his hands. They
speak Spanish and due to the bit of Spanish I learned so far, I hear his reason why he
prefers to stand.
»I’d rather stand than take a woman’s seat.« I frown. Is this offending? For that moment
though, I realise how nice my chair is. If they don’t want to sit because I’m a woman, I
won’t be ruining their principles by acting like a feminist.
26
3. Workshops: On different Forms of Women’s Artistic Expression
Theater
Alien Sladjana Radulović
Team work in art workshop which gathered members from all four countries (Slovenia
and Netherlands are members of EU and Serbia and Croatia are out of that frame) that
participated in autumn school, resulted in a performance which we for the first time
performed in Pliskovica (Slovenia), and than the next day in Ljubljana in the famous
place called Metelkova.
Issues that the performance included were variations of the subject implied in feministic
school’s title:« Equal opportunities of genders in the area of former Yugoslavia.«
Equality of genders was not intended to be the main subject and that is why it was
placed within the context of scrutiny of specific social and economic situation in
former Yugoslavia, but also can be applied to a wider field because the performance
also treated estrangement of an individual, an idea which is always inspiring for any
theater play. Therefore, our roles were divided into pairs, each consisting of two
different characters and treating one part of the problem: nationalism, estrangement,
love, hunger and hysteria - which was presented only by one participant because
the idea was that she would begin and end the performance by rejecting to be an
object of scrutiny. However, issues overlapped because all scenes, although lighted in
different time, could not stay separated from each other and the very estrangement
and incomprehension from the Other was shown through gradation from the
uttermost rejection, as in case of the hysterical woman, disregard by a dissatisfied
depressive person who has everything she needs, but does not have a contact with
herself or the Other, through eternal dilemma regarding equality and/or differences
between sexes in the scene of chess playing and change of inborn roles, and than
through love and seeing the Other as an emotional being, to understanding the Other
when there is a need for understanding although the two people speak different
languages.
Since I participated in a part of the performance which was intended to present
the problem of estrangement from oneself and the Other, I thought about this very
important role although it was shown in the performance only for short. In that
segment I had to present someone who has everything she needs, but anyway cannot
decide what to do with everything she has and watches the world around her with
indifferent disgust. Having no emotions or feeling only indifference, if there can be
any emotion at all in indifference toward the world, is the most important pivot point
of this character. Having no way out of dissatisfaction leading to depression, without
clearly differentiated feelings of joy or sadness, like a lost foreigner in an invisible
world, I had to show how boring that world is in its self-sufficiency. Image of wealth
and dissatisfaction, which I had to present, was completed with the following scene
where the participant is looking for food in a thrown garbage bag. However, those
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28
two scenes complementary in one image are intensified with insensibility which I had
to express, and on the other side a range of different emotions followed in the next
scene, which showed the looking for a garbage bag and finding food as the only goal
of a person from the social margins. A feeling of helplessness, that image of hunger
brings, shows how hard it is to avoid this question and treat any other issue even if it
is equality of genders, nationality or love.
My role in the performance and image I carry from Pliskovica and Ljubljana is a tragic
remembering of people out of the society- men and women for whom the issues
we occupy us with do not mean much because they are- all together rejected and
named as equal in that rejection, left to themselves while they rummage through our
garbage.
Creative writing
This are open artistic formulations made under the mentorship of Sanja Petkovska in
the creative writing workshop…
Utopija
crna mačka u zelenom raju
limun i smrt u zgarljaju
danas su olovka i papir
nežno otišli u ništavilo
samo to sam htela da kažem
Majda Puača
Hard weaken
nakon sjetve dolazi žetva, they say
but what does that mean for the revolucionarno pile?
Eno krat na mjesecu
pjevati, napisati
dodiruju se na plaži
-pisanje in smeškanje vodi
boljem raspoloženju
Ingrid Jooren
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No aristocracy
zapravo je nebitno
ethic brez ljubezi pomeni
mankanje spokojnosti lovi žalost
smislostvo
konec zejodovike
začudnost?
Od tamo se vjerojatno
crpi energija
onog strašnog čina
do njega dolazi
ukoliko ljubav promašuje svoj cilj
-to je najvjerniji opis nasilja
II
David
Dilema organizovanja
kako god okreneš
opisuješ sebe kao
skup koherentnih faza
nikad u ptpuosti
pa tako dobro
putuješ muškarcima
opet
novo i potencijano
tek arbitirarno
opisuje odnos
događaja i prmene
S padom večeri
nestaje i naša čvrstina
ionako je riječ
o uzaludnoj,
bezazlenoj ustrajnosti
Između nas nema ničeganije nam dovoljno stalo
čak ni za srdžbu
drugi su to oblili da učne
S odmakom dana
omekšava
i naše kamenje spoticanja
-postaju smjerokazi
na uleknutom ravnatom putu
do šume
Sanja Petkovska
Barbara Pleić
I
Mjesto koje spaja i razdvaja
uprkos svemu
nikamo ne vodi
iako mi se čini
kako svaki novi zaokret
djeluje sve potrošenijeslaganje prtljage,
geometrija razdvajanja
na važno i nevažno
svjesni odlazak u pupak svjeta,
tu smješnu sintagmu,
tu jezičnu zavrzlamu
za lomljenje jezika
in the black forest around the small fire
a strange collective gathered
so try to guess
what can happen
if you just leave
your task unfinished
and if you enjoy
eternal discussion
just “like that’
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So try to imagine
what can happen
under the big black sky
we are definitely
a strange collective
all eyes and ears
opened to tales
which Red Riding hood tells
in the wolf’s belly.
Zatim joj je ispričao da je
celibat najdruštveniji i
najgluplji od svih ljudskih patnji
kompromitovan izrazom: Normalnost.
Majda i Aneta
Poor pregnant wolf
about to have a daughter
who is about to be a feminist
with the red hood,
full of red stars
she grew up
to become an anarcho-feminist
gathering a strange collective
playing the rape of the next poor wolf
Aneta, Sanja, Majda, Barbara, Ajde, Gal, Anja, Samo
Hedonistička apologija masturbacije i homoseksualnosti
Andrea de Nerciat finim riječima
opsuje svog tjelesnog čuvara iz Glasgowa
sumnjivog smisla za humor
Pričao joj je da je Onan
ispustio
sjeme na zemlju i pomislio
kako je svijet pun žena.
Zatim joj je ispričao da je
masturbacija najsamostalniji i
najfilozofskiji od svih ljudskih užitaka
kompromitovana izrazom: Perverzije
Asketka negacija celibata i heteroseksualnosti
Andrea de Nerciat ružnim rečima
opisuje svoh duhovnog čuvara iz Londona
prijemčivog smisla za humor.
Pričao joj je da je Isus »zarđao« i
pomislio kako na svetu nema žena.
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To se nije odnosilo na bilo šta tako precizno definisano
Osoba zahvaljujući kojoj sam se ovde našla, nije se pojavila. Ima to svojih čari, isplanirati
put uz light-motive viđanja sa nekim, ko se na poseletku uopšte ni ne pojavi, uz
susretanje mnoštva drugih interesantnih ljudi.
Tako se prenemažem kada kažem, ali svejedno jeste da se neobično osećam na selu.
Nenaviknuta sam na prirodu, i ne ide mi baš nostalgičnost za tim mitskim sećanjem
kako su čovek i priroda nekada bili skladni. Ubeđena sam da su u najgoroj svađi od
kada je sveta i Sunca. Mislim li sada o tome kao žena, ili o tome mislim svim silama
nastojeći da se ne uklapam u sliku onoga što neko misli da ja jesam, ili da bilo koja
žena-koja-nije-žena jeste ili pokušava da ne bude, ne mogu da odredim. “Oni’ to su
“drugi’, ali ne kao drugi, već kao figure pomalo uopštene, o kojima mi izostaju ideje u
glavi, pa onda izmišljam načine da ih sebi predstavim. Volim prirodu, deluje mi da u
tom okruženju podosta svežije mislim, tek tada ovako počinjem misliti. Mada, možda
pričam gluposti... Volim i grupe nepoznatih ljudi koji se znaju iz priča i mitova koji
kruže, da ne kažem tračeva, koji postepeno otkrivaju jedni druge u ovom pejzažu
naivnog slikarstva iz kojeg odlaze nežno se pozdravljajući.
Deo ove piše pričam na Glavnoj Postajni u Ljubljani, dana 27. Septembra oko 13
časova, dok prekuputa mene sedi nekoliko beskućnika u čekaoni. Deo popravljam
dok kucam. Ili kvarim, zavisi od ugla posmatranja. Par rečenica sam sinoć spontano
dopisala a nisam ni čitala šta je prethodno bilo zapisano.
Glava me užasno boli jer sam previše pila tokom žurke koju smo sinoć spontano
napravili. Meštani tog sela Pliskovice u Sloveniji, blizu granice sa Italijom, idu na
spavanje na vreme i ne vole buku i nered. Ne umem da mislim u takvim kategorijama
kao što je “na vreme’. Simuliram da govorim slovenački, ali zapravo izmišljam reči,
menjam akcenat ne onako kako jeste, nego kako ja u trenutku mislim da bi moglo biti.
Deluje mi da jezičke barijere ne ometju konverzacije. Svi nosrimo majice sa zastavom
Socijalističke Federativne Republike Jugoslavije. Dugo nisam to ime ni izgovorila. Tu je
po desetak ljudi iz Slovenije, Srbije, Hrvatske i Holandije. Kada ljudi počnu da govore
na slovenačkom, sva se zbunim i sigurno imam onaj smešni izraz lica. Onda se bečim i
počinjem da govorim gestikulirajući jako živo, kao i uvek kada zbunjenost ne želim da
krijem nego kada je to razlog da tražim dodatnu pažnju.
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Tako mi se ne da da spavam sama, ali kao da pitam nekoga samo da leži kraj mene
i samo me grli me noću? Ne, u to se ne upuštam... Dvadeset ljudi spava u jednoj
prostoriji i samo dva je tuša, ali niko ne čeka na tuširanje. Da li se ljudi ne tuširaju ili
su toliko vešti i koordinisani igrom slučaja, kao da je važno. Bilo je momenata kada
sam se u trenutku našla totalno sjebana kako razmišljam o prošlosti i svim nekim
bespotrebnim stvarima. Priču sam trebala da pišem na radionici kada su je pisali drugi
participanti, ali sam napravila tako da mogu da radim šta hoću, budući da sam ja bila
moderatorka.
Juče sam tako bila u stanu želje da ludujem i onda sam povratila posred sale gde
smo u toku dana imali predavanja. Svega se sećam. Onda su neki ljudi koji su me
okruživali rekli “Sanja!’, i jedan od onih malih slatkih plastičnih holanđana poveo me
je da povratim u WC, gde bi i trebalo. Posle sam legla nasred prostorije na leđa, pa
zatim sam se spustila na sto. Sve to iz one moje dobro znane potrebe da budem
patetična kada ne znam bolji metod da zavodim i impresioniram, nekada nekoga ko
mi se jako sviđa, nekada tek tako. Međutim, jedan od razloga blesavljenu bio je taj što
tako osiguravam neki materijal za pisanje, sebi sam zacrtala da ću početi da pišem
pesme po povratku, ukoliko se ne zaljubim malko.
ti-dam, ti-dam, ti-dam
a train runs around
in my head
too much dropshot/the other day
I don’t move, I spent
to wasted end
Hrvoje and Ingrid
Glupost piše zeleno
Life is kao cookies that make your mouth dry out
ili pest koja razbije harmoniju sreće nikada više zalepljeno.
You are like disappearing foxevery end is new begging...
Barbara Drole
Kiša nas je sve naterala unutra zadnja dva dana, a pred odlazak sam govorila pred
kamerom. Najbolje smo druženje imale nas par žena iz Hrvatske i Srbije poslednje
veče u spavaoni uz vino, prepričavanje nekih ljubavnih tragedija i čitanje literuature
koju smo same tu imale ili napisale. Znam da je jedan od mojih ključnih problema
to što ne umem da pravim razlike. Sve mi je stalno pomešano u glavi, ispreklapano.
Pamtim jednu sliku, ja kako ležim na klupi uz obleske sunca čitajući knjigu, dok me
okružuju zeleni pejzaži, jednog od tih prvih sunčanih dana.
Znam kako sebe umem još gore da povredim pokušavajući da prevaziđem stvari.
Ali, nije to moje otkriće. Stvari nekada moraju jednostavno da stanu i nestanu. I uvek
pomaže da iz svog života odeš malo na neki događaj kao što je bio ovaj.
Sanja Petkovska
Energy efficient animals
don’t plan travels in the truck
nomadic living
is like destroying sleeping arrangements
for eternity
community living consist
of unique steams of water.
Ponovo ću uoptrebiti jezik
kako bih konstruisala
identitet nestabilne kemikalije
čiji omjer može prevagnuti
bilo na stranu
čovlečnosti
bilo na stranu
očaja, ovisno o tome kako je promućkana
dok mi naočale ironično blistaju
zaključujem
kako je ljubav pitanje ravnoteže,
ne šlag na vrhu kolača,
te kako je svakako fleksibilnija od smrti.
Barbara Pleić
Drop by drop
i drink dropshot
Sjedila sam u ruci držeći bocu
poput nekakve bajkovite junakinje
kada se odjednom ispod
mojih kapaka počeo prikazivati film
film sa druge strane stakla
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35
Stencil
učinio je da odjekuju
sve moje namere
those purposes are not many in amount
cynicism killed once a lot
stopnjuj oči se ironija življenja
se začenje drugo dejanje
ne sledim več menjavaju prizorov
upinje umira na pogorščev namerov
Barbara, Aneta, Sanja, Ingrid, Samo
Kada treba odlučiti
Poslušna devojčica slama stare navike
sedenje kraj telefona i pripremanje
za ono što sledi
Ona doslovno nikada ne upoznaje narav tog stanja
kao što je biti sama u neonskom gradu
U trenutku milosne topline
ne smeta joj da bude fina
iako zna vrlo definisano
da to nije poboljšanje
sedeći nad šoljom kave
Smišlja perverzije u vrelini momenta
Ne stidi se više
da sledi zvezdani put
lucidnih zamisli
Smeška se.
Smišlja pakosti.
Oči joj sve više nalikuju
na oči lenje mace koja se izležava
na kauču.
Iz ove perspektivetako su šarene.
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38
39
Design
40
41
42
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Video
Film kao mesto promene pogleda Sladjana Radulović
Na filmskim radionicama u okviru jesenje feministicke škole u Pliskovici razmatrali smo
upravo fenomen gledanja i promene koje su nastale u posleratnoj Jugoslaviji kao i
nove rediteljske postupke koji menjaju poziciju žene na filmu. Ovde ću dati kratak
osvrt na teorije koje su nam bile važne u iznalaženju novih puteva za promišljanje
vizuelne reprezentacije žena i to ne samo kada je u pitanju filmska produkcija već
i naše umetničke radionice na kojima smo imali priliku da izrazimo svoje viđenje
idealne žene budućnosti. Vratimo se sada korak po korak u prošlost da bismo sagledali
kojim smo putevima stigli dotle i šta bismo mogli dalje raditi kada je u pitanju analiza
reprezentacije roda.
Teoretičar Miško Šuvaković ističe važnost »feminističke teorije pogleda (pogled i želja,
pogled drugog, žena kao gledana, žena kao ona koja gleda)1.« To je zato što se čulom
vida prepoznaju polne razlike2 ali i samo gledanje značajno doprinosi da se ono što je
viđeno odrazi na nesvesno subjekata koji gleda. Teoriju pogleda razvila je feministička
teoretičarka Lora Malvi na primeru holivudskog filma, kada je objasnila gde je locirana
žena na filmu i koje su posledice takvog prikazivanja žene.
Usko vezan za dobro poznatu teoriju filma, pogled je teoretski koncept koji je korišćen
u mnogim i različitim pokušajima kako bi se odredio odnos koji postoji između načina
gledanja i načina postojanja. Neki od problema kojima se bave teorije pogleda tiču se
gledanja i odgovaraju na pitanja: kako mi gledamo, i koji odnos postoji između načina
gledanja i reprodukovanja rodnog identiteta?
U prikazu pogleda, Lora Malvi3 ističe psihoanalitičku ideju skopofilije, egoidentifikaciju, i fetišizam da bi analizirala odnos između polne razlike i proizvodnje i
potrošnje holivudskog filma. Ukratko, Lora Malvi dokazuje da klasični holivudski film
primarno nastaje kao pokušaj da bi se udovoljilo nesvesnoj želji muškog posmatrača.
Pozivajući se na teoriju psihoanalize, Lora Malvi u prvi plan postavlja žensko nesvesno
i bavi se problemom žene kao proizvoda patrijarhata. Govoreći o zadovoljstvu u filmu
ona ističe da je žena postavljena u poziciju u kojoj ne može biti aktivan posmatrač
(posmatračica). Lora Malvi ovo definiše na sledeći način: „Određujući muški pogled
projektuje svoju fantaziju na žensku figuru koja je stilizovana u skladu s njim»4.
Na tragu ove analize koristeći kinematografsku kameru ističe se izloženost žene
pogledu kamere, zatim pogledu publike i pogledima u okviru ekranske iluzije5.
Uspeh ove teorije ogleda se u argumentima koje autorka navodi a oni se prvenstveno
odnose na kritičku analizu »pogleda kamere« sa kojim je poistovećen posmatrač –
muškarac. Osim toga ova teorija pruža uvid u produkciju holivudskih filmova i preko
analize tih filmova pokazuje da su rađeni u skladu sa patrijarhatom a to onda znači
da je čitava produkcija holivudskog filma u službi muškarca-posmatrača. Mesto žene
je prema ovoj teoriji mesto objekta ili žrtve. To je jedan od nedostataka ove teorije i
razlog njenog kritikovanja. Međutim, ova teorija najveći uspeh je postigla baš zbog
argumenata zbog kojih je najviše i kritikovana od strane feminističkih teoretičarki.
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Kao odgovor za objašnjenje ženskog zadovoljstva u gledanju 1981. godine Lora
Malvi je objavila još jedan tekst pod naslovom »Naknadna razmišljanja na “Vizuelno
zadovoljstvo i narativni film’’«6.
U tom razmatranju ona dokazuje da dok ženski posmatrač može da se identifikuje sa
(muškim) subjektom na filmu, ovo se postiže sa izvesnom teškoćom pomoću onoga
što ona zove »vizuelni transvestizam«, koja je za ženskog posmatrača privremena
»maskulinizacija« u sećanju na njenu tzv. aktivnu fazu. (Međutim kasnija razmatranja
teorije Lore Malvi neće biti relevantna za ovaj rad).
Prema teoriji Lore Malvi postoje tri vrste pogleda. Prvi je pogled kamere koja snima
filmske učesnike i događaje. Autorka želi da dokaže kako je pogled filmske kamere
izjednačen sa voajerističkim pogledom koji je uvek muški pogled. Drugi je pogled
glumaca, pogled kojim glumci gledaju glumice u filmu. Autorka sugeriše da su glumci
u aktivnim pozicijama onih koji gledaju i da su u filmu glumice najčešće samo gledane.
Treći pogled potiče od strane gledaoca ili gledateljke, i prema ovoj teoriji pogleda on
ne može biti samostalan nego je produkt prethodna dva pogleda. Očima posmatrača
prepušteno je samo ono što mu prikazuje filmska kamera. Lora Malvi stoga zaključuje
da se posmatrač ili posmatračica identifikuje sa „muškim pogledom». Ova autorka
zapaža i na koji je način reprezentovana žena na filmu i smatra da je glamur žena u
filmu povezan sa strahom od kastracije kod muškog posmatrača.
Teorijske postavke Lore Malvi preuzele su i razradile teoretičarke koje se bave
feminističkom teorijom primenivši ih na druge oblasti kao što su književnost i
vizuelne umetnosti. Lora Malvi ističe da je najvažnije to što »slika konstituiše matricu
imaginarnog, prepoznavanja/pogrešnog prepoznavanja i identifikacije, a time i prve
artikulacije "Ja" subjektiviteta«7.
Ovde se postavlja pitanje konstrukcije identiteta. Primer koji Lora Malvi daje jeste
majčino lice. Posmatranje slike drugoga (što u svojoj teoriji razrađuje Žak Lakan), npr.
slike majke dovodi do veze između onoga ko posmatra i predmeta posmatranja tako
da se javlja mogućnost identifikacije sa predmetom posmatranja, u ovom slučaju sa
majkom. Pitanje je kako će se dalje razvijati odnos između viđene slike (majke) i slike
žene koja posmatra. Tako se njena teorija oslanja na Lakanovu psihoanalizu i njegovo
tumačenje (zrcala).
Na tragu ove teorije feministička istoričarka umetnosti Tamar Garb8 uvodi i definiše
skopofiliju9 na sledeći način: »Sama fraza zadovoljstvo u gledanju u psihoanalitičkoj
teoriji, ima svoje ime, "skopofilija", pa je u klasičnoj frojdovskoj teoriji označena kao jedna
od "komponenti instinkta" iz kojih se razvija seksualni nagon odraslog čoveka«10.
Glavni pojmovi Tamar Garb jesu: »zadovoljstvo« i »gledanje«. Ona ih spaja u sintagmu
»zadovoljstvo gledanja« i ističe da takvo zadovoljstvo samo po sebi ne postoji kao
neutralno iskustvo. Autorka ističe da zadovoljstvo gledanja bez nekog cilja ili interesa
ne postoji kao puko gledanje nego kao gledanje u odnosu gledatelj/gledana.
Preko analize umetničkih dela autorka upućuje na promišljanje odnosa moći koji
se uspostavlja gledanjem zato što gledanje nikad nije bezinteresno niti (politički)
neutralno.
45
Tamar Garb razmatra Renoarovu sliku Loža11 i aktualizuje je u svetlu feminističke kritike
istorije umetnosti koja ima u osnovi dihotomiju muško/žensko. Autorka zapaža da je u
odnosu na to zadovoljstvo gledanja postavljen odnos moći. Postoji jedan dominantan
pogled, koji je pogled belog muškarca srednje klase koji zauzima slobodnu poziciju u
građanskom društvu i ima pravo da gleda sve ostale i podređuje ih time što ih gleda
a oni njemu ne uzvraćaju pogled. Ostali pogledi pozicionirani su onako kako ih je
klasno društvo postavilo. Analizirajući sliku Loža Tamar Garb usredsređuje pažnju na
lik žene i položaj njenih očiju. Takođe analizira i muškarca koji je naslikan tako da ne
zauzima centralno mesto na slici. Na prvi pogled moglo bi se zaključiti da je muškarac
u pozadini a žena u prvom planu da bi se istakla njena vidljivost. To i jeste poruka slike,
žena treba da istakne svoju lepotu ali skrivena je jos jedna poruka da žena isticanjem
svoje spoljašnosti treba da prikrije svoj identitet. Ona je prikazana za drugog i zbog
drugog da potvrdi patrijarhat a ne da potvrdi svoje samostalno, autentično postojanje.
Mora biti verna modelu koji je oblikovao muškarac umetnik preko koga je posredovana
poruka buržoaskog društva o poželjnom ženskom modelu.
Posredstvom analize pogleda koji u okviru slike uspostavlja hijerarhiju može se lako
uočiti ko gde gleda i kome je dozvoljeno da gleda u kom pravcu. Fokusiran pogled je
pogled moći koji može da gleda bez bojazni da će ga neko sprečiti u gledanju svega
što je u njegovom vidokrugu. Nefokusiran pogled nema pretenzija za osvajanjem
prostora koji može da vidi već unapred upisuje date mogućnosti gledanja koje su
ograničene samo na vidljivi prostor scene a skretanje prema susednim ložama
bilo bi neumesno. Žena koju je naslikao Renoar zauzima veći deo slike, ali ona nije
predstavljena kao subjekt koji posmatra već kao objekt posmatračevog (slikarevog,
gledaočevog) pogleda. Ona svojom lepotom i toaletom samo potvrđuje društveni
status njenog pratioca. Njen pogled nije fokusiran jer se ne može tačno proceniti gde
žena gleda. Muškarac, njen pratilac, gleda ka ljudima u susednoj loži i njegov pogled
je usmeren ali/i ima mogućnost da slobodno luta okolo i da se zadržava tamo gde
hoće. Dvogled koji žena drži u suprotnosti je sa njegovom pravom funkcijom jer ona
zapravo ne koristi mogućnost da pažljivo gleda. Tamar Garb se poziva na Loru Malvi
kad razmatra moguće uloge koje žena može preuzeti kad se ima u vidu ova slika.
Prva mogućnost je da zauzme položaj muškarca koji gleda, druga da bude objekt
posmatranja. U drugom slučaju nije posmatračica. Govoreći o muškarcu na slici Tamar
Garb govori o dominantnom pogledu i zabranjenom egzibicionizmu koji muškarac
projektuje na ženu.
Sledeći sličnu argumentaciju u eseju »Modernost i prostori ženskosti« ("Modernity
and the spaces of femininity"12) Grizelda Polok ističe da žene dugo nisu mogle da
uživaju slobodu inkognita u gomili, kao što je to mogao Bodlerov (Baudelairean)
ravnodušni šetač – flaner (flaneur), jer javno područje nikada nije shvatano kao njihov
prirodni prostor. One nisu imale pravo da gledaju, zure, ispituju, posmatraju. Za njih
je bila predviđena uloga objekta flanerovog pogleda, kao i privatni prostor doma.
Žena je bila definisana tim drugim, ne-društvenim prostorom, prostorom osećanja i
dužnosti iz kojeg su proterani novac i moć. Po njenim rečima, muškarci su se, međutim,
»slobodno kretali između različitih sfera dok se od žene očekivalo da bude vezana
samo uz prostor doma«13. Stoga su umetnici bili značajni za reprezentaciju žene i u tom
smislu ona je bila prividno vidljiva ali i dalje nevidljiva u smislu samorepreprezentacije
ili odgovarajuće reprezentacije u sistemu vrednosti gde umetnice još uvek nisu imale
svoj prostor.
Marginalnost naslikane žene i odsustvo umetnice koja stvara (slika) umetničko delo
može se tumačiti preko ideološkog koncepta ženskosti. To upućuje na privilegovanje
vizuelnog u odnosu na ne-vizuelno. Zato smatram da je važno razmotriti reprezentaciju
žene u odnosu na vizuelni način komunikacije koji je privilegovan i utvrditi postoje
li alternative u odnosu na takav dominantni vizuelni model koji je na mestu moći.
Smatram da su francuske feminističke teoretičarke najbolje uočile koliko su žene
istorijski podređene i izložene muškom pogledu. Zaključila bih da postoji povezanost
između feminističke teorije pogleda i ženskog pisma koje su ustanovile pre svih Elen
Siksu i Lis Irigaraj što će biti jedna od tema za neku narednu radionicu.
46
47
1 Miško Šuvaković, Pojmovnik moderne i postmoderne likovne umetnosti i teorije posle 1950. godine,
SANU Beograd, i Prometej, Novi Sad, 1999. str. 245.
2 O vidljivosti polnih razlika govori Lis Irigaraj a Merlo-Ponti se donekle slaže sa njenom teorijom i
razrađuje koncept u radu „Vidljivo i nevidljivo“. Lis Irigaraj smatra da on daje privilegiju vidu u smislu
metafora fluidnosti i apsorpcije.
3 Esej Laure Mulvey (1975) ‘’Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’’, koji je započeo raspravu o pogledu što
se može videti iz velike produkcije tekstova teoretičarki i teoretičara vizuelnih umetnosti koje/i se u svojim
radovima pozivaju na ovaj tekst bilo da se slažu sa osnovnim postavkama ili da ih kritikuju.
4 Lora Malvi, „Vizuelno zadovoljstvo i narativni film“, Ženske studije br. 8/9 , Centar za ženske studije, 1995,
str. 44-57.
5 Napomena: Džoan Koupdžen smatra da „teorija filma previđa da je semiotika a ne optika, nauka koja za
nas osvetljava strukturu vizuelnog domena“ navodi Branka Arsic u „Prilog istoriji feminističke estetike“,
Ženske studije br. 8/9 , Centar za ženske studije, 1995, str., 39. U ovom radu ne razmatram pravilnost teorije
Lore Malvi već njen uticaj na teoretičarke vizuelnih umetnosti i moguće načine primene ovakve teorije
izvan (feminističke) teorije filma.
6 Prevod ovog teksta objavljen je u časopisu Ženske studije br. 8/9 , Centar za ženske studije, 1995, str.
57-66.
7 Lora Malvi »Vizuelno zadovoljstvo i narativni film« u Uvod u feminističke teorije slike, prevela... priredila
Branislava Anđelković, Centar za savremenu umetnost, Beograd 2002. str 192.
8 Sledbenica Lore Malvi koja preuzima njenu teoriju filma i primenjuje je na analizu slika.
9 Pojam koji potiče iz Frojdove psihoanalize.
10 Tamar Garb, videti u uvodu “Rod i prikazivanje” priredila Dubravka Đurić, u Ženske studije br. 7, urednica
Jasmina Lukić, Ženske studije i komunikacija, Beograd, 1997., Ženske studije br, 7, str. 126.
11 Ibid. O analizi Renoarove slike Loža Tamar Garb str. 124 – 136.
12 Ibid., 50-91.
13 Ibid., 68.
Podoba ženske v filmu Das Fräulein Hrvoje Ratkajec
Film Das Fräulein, režiserke Andreje Štake, se je nekako po naključju znašel na
letošnji Jesenski feministični šoli. Namreč, film neposredno ne zadeva niti vprašanja
enakopravnosti spolov niti področja bivše Jugoslavije. A vendar sem se s pomočjo
tega film poskušal dotakniti obeh navedenih vprašanj.
Sinopsis filma je sledeči: že na samem začetku spoznamo Ružo, gospo srednjih let, ki v
delavskem predelu Züricha vodi kantino. Njeno življenje teče po ustaljeni rutini delo in
počitek, edino zadovoljstvo pa ima v zbiranju denarja, ki ga zasluži. Ružina dolgoletna
sodelavka, Mila, živi v podobni rutini kot Ruža, a za razliko od nje sanja o vrnitvi na
Hrvaško, kjer želi preživeti ostanek svojega življenja. Film skozi poudarjanje sive barve
ustvarja vtis hladnega, mrtvega, glede na okoliške zgradbe tudi socialističnega,
okolja. V to nespremenljivo in utečeno sfero vstopi tujka, Ana, o kateri na začetku
izvemo le to, da prihaja iz Sarajeva. Z njenim prihodom se pospeši ritem filma, kajti
ona s svojo sproščenostjo in veseljaškim značajem vnese pozitiven nemir v obstoječe
stanje. A njen prihod ima tudi globlje posledice za Ružo in Milo, kajti spodbudi ju
k preizpraševanju tako trenutne situacije kot tudi preteklosti. Namreč, vse tri glavne
protagonistke so, vsaka na svoj način, povezane z bivšo Jugoslavijo. Ruža je v mladosti
zapustila Srbijo, v njej tudi svojo ljubezen, ter se odpravila v Švico, kjer pa je vsled
pomanjkanja kakršnekoli podpore morala preživeti in uspeti sama. Zato je tudi potisnila
na stranski tir svojo življenje v Srbiji in se obnaša, kot da ji njena preteklost nič več ne
pomeni. Nasprotno, Mila aktivno dela na tem, da se skupaj s svojim možem vrne na
Hrvaško. Ampak to željo zavira prav moževo, verjetno tudi namerno, zavlačevanje z
izgradnjo nove hiše. Poziciji Ruže in Mile nista isti. Medtem ko je Mila pristala da igra
vlogo »dobre« žene in je odvisna od moževe volje, je Ruža postala samostojna, a tudi
samozadostna in emocionalno zaprta. Po drugi strani ima Ana podoben odnos do
svoje bivše domovine kot Ruža. Ker je preživela vojno v Sarajevu in dobila levkemijo,
teži k temu, da v novem okolju zaživi drugačno življenje. Lahko rečem, da v svojem
mladostniškem nastopu zrcali Ružo iz tistega časa, ko je ta prišla sama v tujo državo in
se morala postaviti na svoje noge.
Na ravni vizualne predstavitve glavnih protagonistk imamo opraviti z določeno
podobo ženske v filmski konstrukciji. Namreč, klasična pozicija ženske, ki jo le-ta
zavzema v filmu in katera je predmet feministične kritike že od sedemdesetih let dalje,
je pozicija »tistega, ki je gledan« oz. pozicija objekta želje. Nosilec doganja v filmu oz.
filmski subjekt, ki upravlja s pogledom, je po tej strukturi moški. To pomeni, da je tisti
lik v filmu, ki gleda oz. ima pogled, aktivni protagonist in usmerja filmsko naracijo.
Očitna posebnost tega filma je, da v njem kot filmski subjekti oz. imetniki pogleda
nastopajo ženske, ki niso tu samo za moško uživanje, za moški pogled, ampak so tiste,
ki gledajo in vodijo naracijo. Pogled filmskega subjekta v Das Fräulein imata tako Ruža
kot Ana. Vendar je, po drugi strani, prizorov v katerih bi bila jasno pokazana usmeritev
njunega pogleda na drugi filmski objekt, zelo malo. To pa zato, ker je pristop kamere
takšen, da pogosto ne uporablja velikega plana oz. close-upa. Rajši ohranja srednji
plan, saj na ta način nakazuje na posebnosti razmerja med Ružo in Ano. Skratka,
48
tradicionalna delitev vlog v filmu glede na imetje pogleda oz. subjekt ali objekt, je v
tem filmu nadomeščena s specifičnim vzdušjem, ki ga ustvarjata Ruža in Ana. Slednja
je tista, ki prebuja Ružo iz utečene rutine, a po drugi strani skriva pred njo svojo
bolezen. Ruža pa, ko spozna Anino skrivnost, nesebično da večino svojega zaslužka za
zdravljenje njene bolezni. Takšen razvoj filmske naracije je samo dramatuški okvir za
celotno vsebino njunega razmerja. V filmu bi rad izpostavil dva prizora, ki konstruirata
značaj razmerja. Prvi prizor je nepričakovana zabava za Ružin rojstni dan. Medtem
ko na začetku scene kamera v srednjem planu prikazuje razposajeni ples Ane, je v
drugem delu Ruža tista, ki pleše. S takšnim zaporedjem film nakaže, kakšen vpliv ima
Ana samo s svojim delovanjem na Ružo. Drugi prizor je njun skupni izlet v gore, kjer
se pogovarjata in kepata. Prav v zimski igri, ki je prikazana v srednjem planu, se Ruža
in Ana s telesnim stikom zaupata ena drugi. Posebnost tega razmerja med dvema
ženskama je, da se ne razvija samo skozi dramaturško linijo, ampak tudi skozi telesno
delovanje. Uporaba srednjega plana je v tem primeru ključna za prikaz žensk v celoti,
saj je z uporabo velikega plana ženska pogosto reducirana samo na objekt poželenja.
Tako se v filmu poskuša prikazati razmerje med dvema ženskama, ki se skozi telo
medsebojno prepoznavata in povezujeta.
Posebnost omenjenega filma je, da pripoveduje zgodbo o usodah žensk, ne moških,
v tujini. Na ta način načenja arhetipsko videnje »gastarbajterja« kot moškega, ki se je
kot fizični delavec podal v tujino za zaslužkom. Ruža je namreč uspela tako v temu,
da si je priborila višji družbeni status kot tudi v temu, da ji je uspelo, kljub temu da
je ženska. Vendar če lahko potegnem določene vzporednice med njo in tipičnim
»gastarbajterjem«, saj sta se oba podala v tujino zaradi ekonomskih razlogov, je pri
Ani spet drugače. Ona ni prišla uspeti, temveč pobegniti in pozabiti. A vendar sta
zgodbi Ruže in Ane podobni. Obe sta ženski, ki se morata truditi, da ju prepoznajo in
upoštevajo. Vsaj če ne želita končati kot Mira. Ravno zaradi tega se je med njima lahko
razvilo razmerje, v katerem obe nastopata svobodneje in pristneje. Kljub temu, da na
koncu filma Ana odide, ostane gledalcu občutek, da ju je njuno medsebojno druženje
na poseben način potrdilo kot celovitega ženskega subjekta.
49
Concluding Words
Dark Continents between body and mind: femininity revisited Ajda Šoštarič
Z-lot
Seven exhausting and yet rewarding days of intriguing lectures, interchanging ideas
in discussions and unleashing imagination through creative workshops left us with
an incredible collection of accumulated information, almost borderlessly ranging
from topics on gender issues, the role of Woman through various aspects, all the
way to elusive concept of nationality and the challenges one’s own identity faces
when treading along those lines.
Each time we had the opportunity to witness spontaneous emerging of the Other,
suddenly cropping up without a warning, revealing its immense potential by bursting
into flames of fiery discussion instead of igniting separate individual sparks. The Other,
as it was continuously reiterated, is not merely a concept or a naively structured
discourse. It is here, among us, as real as the very air we breathe - though the similarity
somewhat ironically does not end there. Just like the air itself it engulfs our lives to
such an extent that we instantaneously internalise it without giving it a second
thought, overlook it and let it fade in our memories, forgetting that it’s always there,
present at our each breath. It is what resonates through this journal and has hopefully
touched the reader as well.
There were of course other forms of expression with international participants through
which facing with the Other was creatively put forth that couldn’t be sufficiently
incorporated into this journal but should not in any case be overlooked: the theatrical
performance which tested the audience’s perception of reality, the bold and daring
stencil creations, forthright messages on billboards and drawings and also awfully
inspiring short films.
Despite the fact that we cannot provide the reader with a repetition or an adequate
description of these unique events, allow us to ambitiously express once again
what was stated at the beginning - that this journal has provoked enough critical
thoughts in rethinking what is constituted by the Other - yourself.
Summaries
Feministička kritika teorija društvenog ugovora - C. Pateman
Shuffling Freud’s statements in a conveniently arbitrary manner for the purpose of
opening the debate, one can arguably deduce that “the change to femininity” is the
necessary condition to be fulfilled so that consequentially “she [a woman] comes into
being”. Within this line of reasoning one could assume that the way she is (feminine)
preconditions what she is (a female).
Violence against women in the family
Family violence is one of the biggest taboo in our society. Only due to the engagement
of women’s activists groups this taboo is slowly being deconstruated. It took many
years to reach only one of the goals: better law. But in no way the law itself is enough
to reduce the number of the victims.
Antimilitarism: the institution of war and historical sketch for further analysis
Queer + Yugoslavia = Queer-o-slavia
Majda Puača
Term queer is used as an inclusive, unifying sociopolitical umbrella term for
homosexual, bisexual, transgender and intersex community as well as heterosexual
people who see themselves as or live their lives outside of hetero-patriarchal norms.
It is also often used by asexual and autosexual people, as well as people whose sexual
orientations or activities place them outside the heterosexual-defined mainstream
(e.g. BDSM practitioners, polyamorous persons and all persons that don’t accept the
binarity of genders and sexes).
Marit van Kooij
»So…that’s a week hanging around with some feminists? Well, fun.« My friend is
surprised when I tell her about the subject of the autumn school. She thought I had
no connection with feminism whatsoever.
Three centuries ago theoreticians of social contract have introduced a revolutionary
theoretical construct of origin of the modern, citizens, state. Patriarchal construction
of the state, which had existed till then, had been based on the ownership of the
father assigned from his procreative law. With the signing of the social contract, free
and equal ‘individuals’ substituted the natural freedom for citizens freedom.
50
Gal Kirn
As someone speaking from the antimilitarist position - I was engaged especially in
the anti-NATO and antiwar movement - my beginning remarks might sound rather
surprising. However, I firmly believe that, if we want to address a serious critique to
war, we have to see war as a social institution, as matrix of social relations that are
constitutive to repressive and ideological apparatus.
A Vision on Feminism
Marko Rupčić
Aneta Ilić
51
worried about violence
washing the dishes
gazing, speaking, pondering
design workshop
sladjana
hrvoje strikes the pose
the dutch party girls
barbara pleić sipping coffee in the shadow
class on antimilitarism by gal
interested in hysteria
majda, kris and aneta
philosophical debates
theater workshop led by lucija
goran & darko
Z-lot contemplating
lucija and sladjana discussing the performance
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