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Legenda o kafi
the legend of coffee
Coffe is a product of Mother Nature, and as such is ageless.
News of its existence reaches us from far away, very far away.
One of the numerous legends linked to the birth of the coffee
tells of the Archangel Gabriel who brought Mohammed the
dark elixir to overcome sleep during prayers and permit him
“to unseat forty men and satisfy forty women”. Another version tells of the Yemenite shepherd “Kaldi” who noticed that
the goats of his flock became particularly excited and sleepless after having nibbled the wild redand brown-coloured
berries, and decided to
inform the prior of the
local monastery. The
abbot decided that
those “magic berries”
were the work of the
devil and should be
burnt immediately,
but unexpectedly, the
flames emanated an
intense and pleasant
aroma. Curious, he
retrieved the brown
beans, dipped them
in water and obtained a concoction
that permitted him
and his brothers to
remain awake during
nights of prayer.
Kafa je dar prirode i kao takva postoji odvajkada. Priče o njoj
sežu u daleku prošlost. Jedna od mnogih priča povezanih sa
rođenjem kafe govori o tome kako arhanđeo Gavrilo doneo
Muhamedu taman napitak koji mu je pomogao da spreči
pospanost tokom molitve i koji mu je dao snage da zbaci
sa sedla četrdeset muškaraca i zadovolji četrdeset žena.
Druga priča pak govori o tome kako je čoban iz Jemena po
imenu Kaldi primetio da su koze iz njegovog stada živnule,
odnosno da su duže ostajale budne pošto bi jele divlje
crveno-smeđe bobice.
O tome je obavestio
starešinu
lokalne
tekije. Ubeđen da su
čarobne bobice delo
đavola,
starešina
tekije naručio je da
ih se odmah spali.
Pošto je bobice zahvatila vatra, počeo
je da se širi jak i
prijatan miris. Tada
je starešina tekije
radoznalo pokupio
smeđa zrna, stavio ih
u vodu i time dobio
oparak koji je njemu
i njegovoj sabraći
pomogao da tokom
noćnih molitva ostanu budni.
Kafa je dar prirode. / Coffee is a gift of nature.
2
Istorijat
History
900. Evidence that attests to the use of coffee as a
medicinal plant in Arabic medieval literature.
1200. Coffee cultivation begins in Yemen with plants
that arrive from Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia).
1450. Coffee reaches Mecca and from here is spread
throughout the Islamic world.
1554.The first “Qahweh Khaneh (coffee houses) are
opened in Constantinople.
1570. Coffee turns up in Venice where it immediately
meets with the inhabitants’ approval.
1616.The Dutch succeed in removing plants from
Yemen to send them to their colonies in Java and
Sumatra.
1645.Historians date the first “coffee shop” in San
Mark’s Square back to this period.
1650. Thanks to a merchant by the name of Jacob, the
first “Coffee House” is opened in England.
1683. In Vienna the Polish nobleman Kolschitzky changes coffee by percolating the aromatic drink,
sweetening it with honey and enriching it with
cream (Viennese coffee).
1688. Edward Lloyd opens the famous “Lloyd’s Coffee
House” in London from whose name the world’s
great insurance agency derives.
1720. In Venice the “Cafe in Venice Triumphant” is inaugurated and acquires fame as “Cafe Florian”.
1721. The French captain Gabriel de Clieu obtains a
coffee plant from the “Jardin des Plantes” of Paris
and he takes it to Martinique from when it spreads to Latin America and throughout the West
Indies.
1727.A Portuguese man visiting French Guyana receives a bouquet of flowers as a gift from the
governor’s wife as symbol of love. A small coffee
plant is hidden in the bouquet and gives life to the
world’s largest plantations, located in Brazil.
1730. The English start the cultivation of coffee in Jamaica
and later in India.
1734. Johann Sebastian Bach creates the “coffee cantata”.
1750. Thanks to the Spanish Jesuits, coffee arrives in
Cuba, Guatemala, Colombia and Mexico.
1900. Some 90% of the world coffee is produced in Brazil.
1903. Bezzera invents the espresso percolator.
1933. Bialetti successfully launches the Moka Espress coffeepot.
2000. Coffee is the main trade agrarian commodity in
the world.
900. Srednjovekovni arapski zapisi svedoče o korišćenju kafe u lekovite svrhe.
1200. U Jemenu počinje da se gaji kafa pošto su iz Abisinije (današnje Etiopije) stigle prve sadnice..
1450. Kafa stiže do Meke, odakle zahvata čitav islamski
svet.
1554.U Carigradu otvaraju prve kafane nazvane
»Qahweh Khaneh«.
1570. Kafa se pojavljuje u Mlecima čije je stanovništvo
dobro prihvata.
1616. Holanđani dovoze u svoje kolonije na Javi i Sumatri sadnice kafe iz Jemena.
1645.Prema svedočenjima istoričara, na Markovom
trgu u Mlecima otvorena je prva prodavnica kafe.
1650.Trgovac po imenu Džejkob otvara u Engleskoj
prvu kafanu, tzv. Coffee House.
1683. U Beču poljski plemić Kolšicki (Kolschitzky) proceđuje kafu, zaslađuje ju medom i dodaje joj pavlaku pretvarajući time tursku kafu u danas svima
poznatu bečku kafu.
1688. Edvard Lojd (Edward Lloyd) otvara u Londonu
poznatu kafanu »Lloyd’s Coffee House«, po kojoj je
nazvano najveće društvo za osiguranje na svetu.
1720. U Mlecima je otvorena kafana »Caffe alla Venezia
Trionfante« koja kasnije postaje poznata pod novim imenom »Caffe Florian«.
1721. Francuski kapetan Gabrijel d Kliu (Gabriel de Clieu) dovozi iz pariskog parka »Jardin des Plantes«
na ostrvo Martinik sadnice kafe odakle se kafa širi
Latinskom Amerikom i Karibima.
1727.Jedan Portugalac prilikom posete Francuskoj
Gvajani od guvernerove žene prima u znak ljubavi
na dar buket cveća u kome je sakrivena sadnica
kafe koju kasnije odnosi u Brazil gde su danas
najveće plantaže kafe na svetu.
1730. Englezi počinju da gaje kafu na Jamajci, a kasnije i u
Indiji.
1734. Johan Sebastijan Bah (Johann Sebastian Bach)
sastavlja Kantatu o kafi.
1750. Španski isusovci dovoze kafu na Kubu, a kasnije i
u Gvatemalu, Kolumbiju i Meksiko.
1900. Devedeset odsto svetske kafe proizvedeno je u Brazilu.
1903. Bezzera izrađuje prvi aparat za espreso.
1933. Bialetti uspešno lansira kafetijeru Moka Express.
2000. Kafa postaje glavna trgovačka poljoprivredna roba
na svetu.
3
Gajenje
Cultivation
Gajenje
The coffee plant is an evergreen
bush belonging to the Rubiacea
family of the Coffea species. The
most
commonly
cultivated
varieties are the Coffea arabica
and the Coffea canephora, also
known as arabica and robusta.
Coffee grows best in the areas
around the two tropics.
Coffee is grown from mountain
slopes to sea coasts, under a hot
sun or in the shade, protected by
thick tree leaves, in a semi-wooded state or in large intensive
plantations.
Plantaža kafe. / Coffee plantation.
Kafa je zimzelena grmolika biljka
koja spada u familiju Rubiacee iz
roda Coffea. Najrasprostranjenije
vrste su Coffea arabica i Coffea
canephora, poznatije kao arabika
i robusta.
Kafa najbolje raste u tropskom
pojasu. Kafa se gaji sve od planinskih podnožja pa do primorskih
nizija. Budući da joj odgovaraju
kako sunčana tako i senovita
mesta, dobro raste na šumovitom
i polušumovitim mestima, kao i na
velikim intenzivnim plantažama.
Betonski platoi za sušenje plodova kafe. / Concrete blocks for drying coffee.
4
Razvojni proces kafe
Life of a coffee plant
FAZA RASTA
GROWTH STAGE
LEJA
SEED-BED
Seme će početi da klija posle
The seed germinates after a few
nekoliko nedelja.
weeks.
NURSERY
RASADNIK
After 6-8 weeks the seedlings are
Posle 6–8 nedelja biljka se
transferred to the nursery.
prebacuje u rasadnik.
PRESAĐIVANJE NA OTVORENO
PLANTING OUT
After about one year the seedlings
Posle godinu dana biljka se
are planted out.
presađuje na otvoreno.
PRODUCTION STAGE
FAZA RODNOSTI
PLANT RIPENING
ZRELOST
3-5 years after the transplanting for
Biljka će prvi put da rodi 3–5 godina
the first harvest.
posle presađivanja.
CVETANJE
BLOSSOM
Once or twice a year, depending on
Cveta jednom do dvaput godišnje,
the rainy seasons.
zavisno od kišnih perioda.
SAZREVANJE PLODOVA
FRUCTIFICATION
The fruits ripen 7-9 months after
Plodovi sazrevaju 7–9 meseci posle
blossoming.
cvetanja.
FAZA STARENJA
DECLINE STAGE
End of the productive cycle after
Produktivni ciklus biljke završava
about 15-25 years.
posle 15–25 godina.
Average life of a plant 30-50 years.
Prosečan životni vek biljke iznosi
30–50 godina.
5
Biljka, cvet, plod
Plant, flower and fruit
Presek ploda kafe
Coffee cherry cross-section
Cvet
Flower
Cvet
Flowers
Prašnik
Stamen
Tučak
Pistil
Zeleni plod
Green cherry
Krunica
Corolla
Žuti plod
Yellow cherry
Crveni plod
Red cherry
Plodnik
Ovary
Tamnocrveni plod
Black cherry
(cvet se obično sastoji od pet
latica i prašnika)
(in reality there are five petals
and stamens)
Seme ili »zrno kafe« (endosperm)
Coffee bean (endosperm)
Čitava bobica kafe
Whole cherry
Meso ploda
(mezokarp)
Pulp
(mesocarp)
Spoljna ljuska
(epikarp)
Skin (exocarp)
Srebrna luskina
(perisperm)
Silver sheath
Spoljna ljuska i
meso ploda
Skin and pulp
Pergamentna ljuska
Parchment
Pergamentna ljuska
(endokarp)
Endocarp
(parchment)
Glavni koren
(koren je dug od 1 do
2,5 metra i ima jako
razgranato bočno
korenje)
Grm kafe može da naraste i do 12
metara. Biljke se radi lakše nege i
berbe gaje na visini 2–3 metra
Primary root
(from 1 to 2.5 metres
with scattered lateral
branches)
List
(list je izduženog
ovalnog oblika sa
centralnim
nervom i
9–12
parova
bočnih
nerava)
Leaf
(elongated oval
shape, midrib
with 9-12 pairs
of lateral veins)
Obdobja rasti
Growth stages
6
Coffee bushes can grow up to 12
metres. To facilitate their maintenance
and harvesting the plants are pruned
at a height of two to three metres.
Na istoj biljci istovremeno se mogu videti cvetovi, plodovi, koji su u fazi
sazrevanja i zreli plodovi. / At the same plant at the same time we can see the
flowers, the fruits, which are in the stage of maturation and mature fruits.
Cvetovi kafe. / Coffee flowers.
Zreli plodovi. / Mature fruits.
Sirova kafa. / Raw coffee.
7
Arabika in robusta
VRSTA
COFFEA ARABICA
COFFEA CANEPHORA
Poreklo
istočna AfrikA
zapadna AFRIKA
Prirodna sredina
viši položajiNIŽI položaji
Nadmorska visina
800–2.000 m. n. v.
0–900 m. n. v.
Optimalna temperatura
15–24 °C
24–30 °C
Geografsko područje
srednja i južna Amerika
zapadna Afrika, tropska azijska
istočna Afrika i delovi Indije
područja i Brazil
Razmnožavanje
autogamno (samooprašivanje)
alogamno (putem vetra i insekata)
Genetski kod
44 hromozoma22 hromozoma
Dužina semenke
8–12 mm
5–8 mm
Oblik semenke
ovalna, pljosnata i izdužena sa
okruglasta sa ravnim usecima
vijugavim usecima
Boja semenkeZELENA
smeđa
Najrasprostranjenije vrste TYPICA, BOURBON, MOKKA, MONDO
ROBUSTA, KOUILOU, NIAOULI, NANA
NOVO, CATURRA, CATUAí’,
MARAGOGYPE, BLUE MOUNTAIN
Otpornost biljke
osetljiva na bolesti, parazite i
otporna na visoku temperaturu,
previsoku temperaturu
bolesti i obilne padavine
Svetska proizvodnja70%
30%
Arabica and robusta
SPECIES
COFFEA ARABICA
COFFEA CANEPHORA
ORIGINAL HABITATS
EAST AFRICA
WEST AFRICA
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
HIGH ALTITUDES
PLAINS
ALTITUDE
800-2000 METRES
SEA LEVEL TO 900 METRES
IDEAL TEMPERATURE
15-24° C
24-30° C
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA,
WEST AFRICA, BRAZIL
EAST AFRICA, INDIAN ZONES
TROPICAL ASIAN ZONES
REPRODUCTION
AUTOGAMY (SELF-POLINATES)
ALLOGAMY (WIND AND INSECTS)
GENES
44 CHROMOSOMES
22 CHROMOSOMES
SEED LENGTHS
8-12 MILLIMETRES
5-8 MILLIMETRES
SEED SHAPES
OVAL, FLAT, ELONGATED
ROUNDISH WITH A FURROW
WITH SINUOUS FURROW
SEED COLOURSGREENISH
YELLOWISH
MOST COMMON VARIETIES
TYPICA, BOURBON, MOKKA, MONDO
ROBUSTA, KOUILOU, NIAOULI, NANA
NOVO, CATURRA, CATUAI’,
MARAGOGYPE, BLUE MOUNTAIN
PLANT RESISTANCE
MOST SENSITIVE TO DISEASE, RESISTS WELL TO HEAT, DISEASES
PARASITES AND HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ABUNDANT RAINS
WORLD PRODUCTION70%
30%
8
Zemlje proizvođači kafe
Kvalitet sirove kafe na svetskom tržištu zavisi od činilaca kao što su poreklo, vrsta i način tretiranja kafe. Na tržištu
kafe i dan-danas važe odredbe prvog međunarodnog sporazuma ICA (International Coffee Agreement) zaključenog
1962/63. godine između zemalja proizvođača i najvećih zemalja uvoznika kafe. Postoje četiri glavne grupe kafe: Colombian Washed (kolumbijska, kenijska i tanzanijska arabika proizvedena mokrim postupkom tretiranja), Central (arabika iz ostalih zemalja proizvedena mokrim postupkom tretiranja), Brazillian Natural (arabika proizvedena prirodnim
postupkom tretiranja) i robusta. Mnoge zemlje proizvođači su s vremenom razvile nove načine proizvodnje i zamenile
monokulture gajenjem mešanih vrsta. Tako npr. Brazil i Tanzanija danas osim arabike, koja se u Brazilu tretira suvim, a
u Tanzaniji mokrim postupkom, proizvode i robustu, a Indija proizvodi čak sve četiri vrste…
Dominikanska Republika
Portoriko
Haiti
Rakov povratnik
Kuba
Havaji
Venezuela
Salvador
Ekvador
Nikaragva
Panama
Kozorogov povratnik
Galapagos
Filipini
Malezija
Gvineja
Jemen
Sierra Leone
Honduras
Kostarika
Tajvan
Jamajka
Meksiko
Gvatemala
Ekvator
Kina
Indija
Gvadelup
Etiopija
Liberija
Papua Nova Gvineja
Centralnoafrička
Republika
Kolumbija
Širilanka /
Šri Lanka
Republika
Indonezija
Obala Slonovače
Uganda
Surinam
Gana
Gvajana
Togo
Peru
Benin
Brazil
Nigerija
Bolivija
Kamerun
Argentina
Gabon
Paragvaj
Republika Kongo
Tajland
Kenija
Kambodža
Kongo
Laos
Tanzanija
Vijetnam
Australija
Nova Kaledonija
Madagaskar
Mozambik
Zimbabve
Južnoafrička
Republika
Angola
Arabica
Zambija
Robusta
Producer countries
Arabica + robusta
Around world markets, green coffee is sub-divided on the basis of various characteristics, such as its origin, variety or
processing, to define the quality of the bean. The definitions established in 1962/63 during the first international accord
(ICA, International Coffee Agreement) between producer countries and the major consuming countries are still used today in the commerce of green coffee, where four principal groups are identified ColombianWashed (Arabica washed from
Colombia, Kenya and Tanzania), Central (Arabica washed from all the other countries), Brazilian natural (natural Arabica’s)
and Robusta. As time has passed, many producer countries have developed other crops, becoming diversified producers
rather than mono-crop agricultural economies. For example, up to recent times, Brazil, in addition to natural Arabica’s,
also produces Robusta, Tanzania produces not only Washed Arabica but also Robusta, India produces all four categories…
9
Branje plodova
Fruits harvesting
Zrele plodove treba odmah ubrati, što je jako teško s obzirom na to da plodovi ne sazrevaju u isto vreme.
When the fruits are fully ripened they must be harvested almost immediately; no easy task considering that the cherries
do not all ripen at the same time.
RUČNO BRANJE
PICKING
MAŠINSKO BRANJE
MECHANICAL
RUČNO SKIDANJE
STRIPPING
Plodovi se beru ručno i više puta.
Beru se samo zreli plodovi, dok
nezreli ostaju na biljci. Takav način
berbe primenjuje se samo kada se
plodovi tretiraju mokrim postupkom.
Plodovi se beru pomoću mašina sa
vertikalnim metlicama koje stalno vibriraju i otresaju plodove u sakupljač
iz kog će se kasnije izvaditi. I ručna
i mašinska berba mogu da se vrše
samo u nizijama.
Plodovi se ručno beru svi odjednom,
i to zajedno sa listovima i grančicama od unutrašnjeg prema spoljnom
delu grma, bez obzira na to da li je
plod zreo, zelen ili da li se već osušio.
Ponegde se takva berba vrši posle
prve selektivne berbe ili kada žele
da se uberu zrna lošijeg kvaliteta.
Harvesting is done by hand in several rounds to gather only the ripe
cherries, leaving the unripe fruit on
the branch. This method is especially used for those fruits which must
be processed with the wet method.
SLOŽEN METOD
HOMOGENI PLODOVI
SKUP METOD
LABORIOUS
HOMOGENEOUS HARVEST
COSTLY
Machinery is used which passes over
the coffee plants and utilises vibrating vertical brushes that cause
the fruit to fall to the base of the
machine, where they are gathered.
Similar to stripping, this can be utilised only in flat areas.
BRZ METOD
MANJE HOMOGENI PLODOVI
MANJI TROŠKOVI RADNE SNAGE
Consists of manual harvesting of the
cherries in a single passage, stripping
the cherries together with the leaves
and twigs, from the inside to the outside of the branches, whether they be
ripe, green or dry. In some countries
this is practiced at various intervals of
time, after a first selective picking or in
the case of lower-quality beans.
RAPID
LESS ACCURATE HARVEST
ELIMINATES LABOUR COSTS
BRZ METOD
NEHOMOGENI PLODOVI
JEFTINIJI METOD
FAST
NON-HOMOGENEOUS HARVEST
LESS COSTLY
10
Sušenje
Dry processing
1. Sušenje bobica kafe
Budući da vlagu u bobicama kafe treba smanjiti na
12 odsto, bobice se razastiru po posebnim platoima
u slojevima od po nekoliko centimetara i više dana
izlažu suncu kako bi se osušile.
2.Ljuštenje
Zrna se ljuštilicom odvajaju od mesa ploda i suve
spoljne ljuske.
Stripping
A stripping machine separates the beans from the
pulp and the dry skin.
Drying
To reduce the dampness in the cherry to around 12%,
the whole fruit is dried in the sun for a number of days,
spread out in specially-made sheets, in layers of several centimetres.
Suv plod
Dry fruit
Početak sušenja
Beginnig of dry process
Sveži plodovi
Fresh fruit
Ljuštilica
Stripping machine
Završetak sušenja
Final drying
Zeleno zrno kafe
Green coffee
Suv plod
Dry fruit
Spoljna ljuska i
pergamentna ljuska
Skins and
parchment
11
Mokri postupak tretiranja
Wet processing
1. Razdvajanje plodova u vodi
Separation in water
2.Ljuštenje
Pulping
Bobice kafe se uranjaju u bazene čiste vode gde će,
s obzirom na specifičnu masu pojedinačnih bobica,
zrele i nezrele bobice potonuti na dno, a suve i trule
isplivaće na površinu.
Plodovi dobijeni posle prve faze razdvajanja stavljaju
se u ljuštilicu radi vađenja zrna iz ljuske.
The fruit that comes out of the first selection passes
through a pulping machine to extract the beans with
their parchment covering.
The cherries are immersed in tanks of cool water,
where the ripe and unripe ones sink to the bottom
and dry, rotten ones remain floating, given their
weight differences.
3.Fermentacija
Fermentation
4.Ispiranje
Washing
Zrna kafe u ljusci se posle fermentacije ispiraju u cementnim kanalima gde se ponovo razvrstavaju prema
gustini.
Preostalo meso ploda i biljna sluz koji ostaju na zrnima u ljusci rastvaraju se u bazenima za fermentaciju.
The residual pulp, as well as the mucilage remained
on beans in parchment, is dissolved by soaking the
grains in fermentation tanks.
After the fermentation stage the coffee beans still in
parchment are washed in cement canals where a further
selection of beans takes place according to their density.
12
Tradicionalno prženje
Traditional roasting
Za pripremu dobrog espresa je najvažnija faza prženja.
Očišćena i izabrana sirova zrna kafe
iz dalekih zemalja, koja su tokom faza tretiranja prošla
kroz različite hemijske i fizičke promene, posle mlevenja
postaju idealna za pripremu espresa karakterističnog
ukusa koji svi tako vole. Mada zelena zrna kafe takođe
imaju karakterističan miris, njihov miris jednostavno ne
može da se poredi sa mirisom pržene kafe. Prilikom
postupka prženja veoma važnu ulogu ima i mešavina
kafe. Treba izabrati vrstu kafe (arabiku ili robustu),
zrna kafe tretirana mokrim ili suvim postupkom, poreklo (Južna Amerika, Afrika ili Azija) i kvalitet sirove kafe.
Sledi odluka o tome da li će se mešavina sastojati od
samo jedne vrste kafe (npr. brazilske Santos) ili više
vrsta i kojih vrsta kafe. U tom slučaju treba proučiti
svojstva pojedinačnih vrsta kafe i odrediti udeo pojedinačne vrste u mešavini. Baš kao što se melodija sastoji
od različitih nota, tako je i izvrstan espreso napravljen
od više vrsta kafe. Kafa je poljoprivredni proizvod čiji
se kvalitet iz godine u godine menja pa ga zato treba
stalno pratiti. U pržioniku sledi ravnomerno zagrevanje
čarobnog »zelenog zlata« na temperaturi od 200 do
230°C kako bi se obezbedio homogen proizvod. Masa
kafe se prilikom prženja smanjuje za 18–20 odsto,
zavisno od njenog porekla, a zapremina se povećava
za čak 60 odsto. Tokom tog postupka nastaje bezbroj
aroma kafe. Menja se i struktura zrna koje postaje krhko, a na površini se stvaraju specifična ulja. Boja zrna
kafe zavisi od temperature: što je stepen isprženosti
zrna veći (pri čemu postoji rizik od preprženosti), to je
zrno tamnije i gorče. Na severu Italije je omiljenija nešto
slađa slabije pržena i svetlija kafa, a na jugu gorča kafa
koja se duže prži pa je zato tamnija. Što se zrno kafe
brže ohladi, to će zadržati više aroma. Trajanje čitavog
postupka zavisi od vrste prženja (u Italiji traje prosečno
otprilike 15 minuta). Najiskusniji pržilac kafe će znati
kada je kafa odgovarajuće ispržena već po zvuku koji
zrna stvaraju tokom samog postupka.
The roasting stage is fundamental to obtain good espresso coffee.
This operation is necessary so that our unripened coffee, arriving from
far-off countries, after having been appropriately cleaned and selected,
and then undergone chemical and physical alterations, is finally transformed through grinding into our espresso, with that characteristic
scent that we all love. We know that green coffee has in fact a characteristic scent, but this is not comparable to the finished roasted product.
Before proceeding to this delicate operation, we should mention the
importance of the “blending” of various coffee types: first the raw material, whether Arabica or Robusta, whether natural or washed, South
American, African or Asian, and clearly the necessary quality level of the
green coffee. In addition, we must decide whether or not to use a single
variety (for example Brazilian Santos) or a blend of various coffees, and
then how to produce it. In the second case, we would then study the
characteristics of the single coffees and in what percentage they are to
be added to the blend. As with a melody, where it is necessary to use
different notes, so with our blend we add coffees to obtain a balanced
and harmonious espresso. The “bean” is an agricultural product, and
therefore is subject, year after year, to qualitative modifications, thus
rendering necessary the most constant attention. Inside the roaster
our magic “green gold” is heated at temperatures that run from 200°C
to 230°C; this operation must be done in a uniform way to guarantee
a homogeneous product. In the meantime our “friend” loses some
18-20% of its weight; this percentage depends on the origin of the
coffee and actually increases its volume some 60%. Then there is the
formation of the coffee aromas whose components number into the
hundreds.
The bean changes its structure from hard to crumbly and a series of
oils appears on its surface. The colour depends on the temperature
level reached: the longer the coffee is toasted (running the risk of
burning the bean) the more it assumes a brown colour and bitter taste.
Northern Italians prefer a sweeter coffee, that is to say less toasted and
having a lighter colour, whilst Southern Italians prefer the bitter taste,
more roasted and darker. The more quickly the bean is cooled, the
better the aromas are maintained. The duration of the entire process
varies, based on the type of roasting (on average about 15 minutes),
however an experienced roaster can also recognise he right moment
to end the cycle on the basis of the “music” that the beans produce.
13
Postupak prženja
The roasting process
Prikaz pržionice
Section of a roaster
1. sakupljač sirovih
zrna kafe
Green coffee
loading hopper
8. odstranjivač dima
Scrubber
9.gorionik
Burner
6.aspirator
Aspirator
2. bubanj za prženje kafe
Roasting drum
3. spiralne lopatice za mešanje
Helical mixing arms
7. odvajač ljuske
Film separator
10.odvod iz bubnja
Outlet drum
12.mešalica
Mixer
4.gorionik
Burner
14.ciklon rashladnog vazduha
Cool air cyclon
5. komora za
sagorevanje
Combustion
chamber
14
13.rashladni
aspirator
Cooling
aspirator
11.posuda za
hlađenje
Cooling
tank
15.otvor za sipanje
pržene kafe
Outlet roasted
coffee
Hemijski sastojci espressa
Sastojci šoljice espressa
Sadržaj kofeina u šolji kafe zavisi od: vrste kafe (arabika, robusta), korišćene količine, postupka pripreme i količine
kafe u šolji (20–30 cl espresa u poređenju sa 150–190 cl filter-kafe
The chemistry of an espresso
Composition of a cup of espresso
The caffeine content present in a cup of coffee changes according to: the type of variety used (Arabica, Robusta)
the degree of roasting, the quantity used, the preparation method of the drink and its volume in the cup (25-30cc of
espresso against 150-190 cc of filtered coffee).
alifatične kiseline 14%
aliphatic acids
minerali 6%
minerals
monosaharidi 4%
monosaccharides
saharoza 6%
sucrose
hlorogenske kiseline 10%
chlorogenic acids
trigonelin 3%
trigonelline
polimeri 50%
polymers
kofein 7%
caffeine
15
Hemijski sastav kafe
The chemistry of coffee
Osnovni hemijski sastojci kafe i njihov procenat u suvom zrnu kafe:
Principal chemical constituents of coffee - % quantity of the dry bean
ARABICA
Sirova / Green
Pržena / Roasted
Kofein / Caffeine0,9
1
Minerali / Minerals3–4,2 3,5–15
Proteini / Proteins11–13 13–15
Masti / Fats
12–1814,5–20
Oligosaharidi / Oligosaccharides6–8
Voda / Water
0–3,5
10–131–5
Osnovni hemijski sastojci kafe i njihov procenat u suvom zrnu kafe
Principal chemical constituents of coffee - % quantity of the dry bean
Robusta
Sirova / Green
Pržena / Roasted
Kofein / Caffeine1,6–2,4
2
Minerali / Minerals4–4,5 4,6–5
Proteini / Proteins11–13 13–15
Masti / Fats
9–1311–16
Oligosaharidi / Oligosaccharides5–7
Voda / Water
0–3,5
10–131–5
16
Omiljenost espressa
mešavina – prvo treba izabrati mešavinu koja se sastoji
od kvalitetnog izbora zrna kafe koja su pogodna za
espreso i pažljivo ispržena na srednjoj temperaturi.
Kafa je najomiljenije piće na svetu. Svake godine se za taj
ukusni napitak koji se konzumira na najrazličitije načine
potroši više od 100 miliona džakova zrna kafe. U svetu
poznajemo najrazličitije načine i obrede pijenja kafe: na
Bliskom Istoku, u Grčkoj i na Balkanu je najraširenija turska kafa, u skandinavskim zemljama priprema se na sličan
način kao i turska kafa, tj. prelivanjem vrelom vodom, ali
bez dizanja, u Severnoj Americi je najomiljenija filter-kafa,
u Japanu kafa iz limenke, u Severnoj Evropi kafa »melior«
(pripremljena u loncu sa filterom), a u Italiji su najraširenije
kafe moka i napoletana. Pravu posebnost predstavlja
espreso koje je zaslugom italijanske tehnologije pravi
koncentrat ukusa i aroma.
Nije slučajnost što italijanski espreso postaje sve omiljeniji širom sveta. Krem-pena, aroma, tekstura i ukus predstavljaju četiri neizostavna svojstva po kojima se razlikuje
od ostalih napitaka od kafe, pa se zato smatra pravom
italijanskom umetnošću. Ime espreso potiče iz načina
njegove trenutne »ekspresne« pripreme u trenutku kada
ga kupac naruči. Od pedeset zrna pržene i sitno mlevene
mešavine kafe prelivene toplom vodom pod pritiskom dobija se taj izuzetno omiljen tamni napitak sa hiljadu ukusa
koji ga čine jedinstvenim. Užitak koji pruža espreso ostaje
još dugo nakon ispijanja. Mešavina kafe, voda, profesionalna oprema (aparat za kafu, mlin za doziranje, grejač
vode) i majstorstvo specijaliste za pripremu espresa čine
osnovne uslove za pripremu izvrsne šolje kafe. Pravi italijanski espreso priprema se na poseban način:
mlevenje – zrna kafe treba usitniti, odnosno fino usitniti.
doziranje – 6,5–7 grama mešavine treba staviti u dršku
za kafu.
presovanje – dozu mešavine u dršci za kafu treba
presovati odgovarajućim pritiskivačem, i to snagom od
otprilike 20 kg.
voda – upotrebiti treba otprilike 30 cl demineralizovane
vode (tvrdoće od 9 francuskih stepeni).
pritisak – pritisak vode treba da iznosi 9 bara.
temperatura – idealna temperatura vode za espreso
iznosi otprilike 90 °C.
ekstrakcija – topla voda se propušta kroz filter u trajanju od otprilike 30 sekundi.
šolja – za serviranje espresa koristi se bela šolja od
porcelana koja treba da bude odgovarajuće zagrejana
i suva.
Espreso je spreman za serviranje!
17
Espressomania
Blend – First of all a blend composed of excellent varieties of selected coffee, carefully created for espresso and
knowingly roasted to a medium degree.
Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world. Each year
over 100 million bags of coffee beans are consumed, being
transformed into that special elixir and tasted in the most varied
fashions. All throughout the world different rites and methods
have been developed to taste coffee: in the Middle East, in Greece
and in the Balkan countries the “Turkish” method is widespread;
in Scandinavian countries it is consumed boiled; in the United
States, “filtered” coffee is the most common preparation; in Japan
it is drunk out of a tin; in northern Europe they use the “melior”
method (a brick with a plunger filter); in Italian homes we find the
moka and the “Neapolitan” style. In this panorama of preparation
methods, espresso is distinguished by being the method that best
produces a concentrate of aromas and flavours from the bean,
thanks to Italian technology. Not coincidentally, Italian espresso is
more and more appreciated around the world. Its cream, aroma,
body and flavour are the four unmistakeable characteristics that
make it different from other methods, an art that is truly “Made in
Italy”. It is called “espresso” to express the idea that the coffee is
prepared at the moment it is requested “expressly for the client”.
With about fifty beans of roasted coffee, finely ground, and water
passed through at high pressures, we obtain not only a black
beverage beloved in antiquity, but also a concentrate in which
1000 aromatic substances are squeezed into a single espresso.
In addition, the sensations that espresso offers do not end in the
moment of tasting, but persist for a long time.
In this process, the blend, water, professional equipment (coffee
machine, grinder-doser, water treatment systems) and the skill
of the operator who will prepare the extract, are the essential
factors to produce a special cup. Real Italian espresso is obtained
by following precise parameters.
Grind – The coffee must be ground finely so as to transform the beans into a mix of particles than go from
intangible to the fine.
Doza – Some 6.5 7 grams of grinds must be inserted in
the filter.
Pressing – The layer of grinds in the filter must be
pressed with a proper tool, with a force of 20 kg.
Water – some 30 cc of de-mineralised water is used
(brought to 9 French degrees).
Pressure – The water pressure should reach 9 atmospheres.
Temperature – The ideal water temperature for the
extraction of espresso is about 90°C
Extraction – The contact time in the coffee machine
between hot water and ground coffee is about 30 seconds.
Cup – Finally, a white porcelain demi-tasse cup should
be used, which must always be warm and dry.
Your espresso is served!
18
Italijanski espresso
Italian espresso
Krem
Posebnost dobrog espresa predstavlja gust krem
debljine od 3 do 4 mm koji zadržava isparivu tečnost.
Na osnovu konzistencije i boje pene može se vizuelno
oceniti koja vrsta
kafe preovlađuje u
espresu. Ukoliko je
krem boje lešnika
sa crvenim nijansama i smeđecrvenim
aroma
aroma
finim prugama, preovlađuje
arabika,
a ukoliko je krem
tamno smeđe boje
sa sivim debljim
prugama i većim
mehurićima,
preovlađuje robusta.
Aroma
Espreso ima izrazit
miris koji stvaraju
hiljade aromatskih
supstanci i koji može
da se poredi sa mirisom cveća, slatkog
korena, suvog voća
itd.
Cream
The first particularity is the foam that covers every good espresso.
The cream should be 3-4mm thick, a homogenous colour marked by
streaks, and permits the volatile substances to remain in the coffee
once prepared. Thanks to a visual analysis, we can evaluate the
dominant coffee variety
in the espresso, according to the consistency
of the cream and its
colour. The cream might
be nutcoloured, tending
toward a reddish tinge,
with dark stripes, a fine
net pattern; these features indicate an espresso
prepared with Arabica
krem
coffee. If the cream is a
cream
brown colour with grey
tones and with a thicker
net, but with larger
bubbles, it indicates an
espresso made with a
predominance of Robusta coffeea.
tekstura
body
Aroma
EThis is the intense
olfactory sensation that
espresso
expresses
with its scents, produced from the squeezing
of hundreds of aromatic
substances which by
analogy can be associated with flowers, liquorice, dried fruit, roasting,
etc…
Tekstura
Tekstura zavisi od
gustine koju čine
uljane emulzije i
nerastvorljive materije (koloidi) prisutne u ekstraktu
kafe. One daju kafi viskozitet, posebnu aromu i teksturu.
Body
The full-bodied nature of the coffee is determined by a sense of
density, due to the presence of oily emulsions and insoluble substances (called colloids) present in the extract. These substances
confer a notable viscosity on the drink, plus a superlative degree of
aroma and “body”.
Ukus
Budući da ukus espresa mora da bude uravnotežen i
harmoničan, nijedan ukus ne sme previše da odskače
(osim kada postoje posebne želje).
Flavour
We must achieve the proper harmonious balance with espresso, in
which not one single flavour prevails, unless so desired.
19
Ekstrakcija
Preslaba ekstrakcija
Extraction
Optimalna ekstrakcija
Prejaka ekstrakcija
Aroma
jedva osetna aroma
Aroma
uravnotežena i puna
Aroma
blaga sa zagorelim ukusom
Krem
svetlosmeđ redak krem sa
velikim mehurićima, kratka
postojanost <1 min
Krem
mm gust krem boje lešnika, sa
crvenkastim nijansama i smeđe
crvenim gustim prugama, postojanost krema iznosi 3–4 min
Krem
tamnosmeđ tanak krem, u
sredini crna rupa, srednja
postojanost 1–2 min
Tekstura
retka, vodnjikava
Ukus
blag i kratkotrajan
Tekstura
gusta, puna i ujednačena
Ukus
uravnotežen i dugotrajan
Tekstura
krhka, neujednačena
Ukus
jak, oštar i gorak
Under-extracted
Perfect
Overextracted
Aroma
Almost imperceptible
Aroma
Balanced and full
Aroma
Very little with hints of burnt
coffee
Cream
Beige foam, think with large
bubbles Short duration less
than 1 minute.
Cream
Nut colour with red tinges and
dark stripes
3-4mm and a thick net.
Lengthy persistence: 3-4 minutes
Body
Slight, watery
Body
Elevated, dense, round and full
Body
Weak, not very consistent
Flavour
Weak and brief on the palate
Flavour
Balanced and long-lasting on
the palate
Flavour
Strong and astringent, long-lasting bitter taste on the palate
20
Cream
Dark foam, brown colour, thin
with white
button or central black holes
Average duration: 1-2 minutes.
Mešavina kafe
Blend
Tokom duge istorije italijanskog espresa mešavina je posIn the long journey of Italian espresso the blend plays a fundamental
role in the production of an extraction with excellent characteristics.
tala važan činilac u dobijanju izvrsnog ekstrakta. Odličan
In a perfect espresso we must find all those special features that
espreso mora da ima sva svojstva po kojima se razlikuje
distinguish this beverage from other preparations: a rich aroma, a
od ostalih napitaka od kafe. Ta svojstva čine bogata aroma,
beautiful cream, a full body, a harmonious flavour and a long, pleaodgovarajući krem, puna tekstura, harmoničan i prijatan
sant persistence on the palate. The factors that coincide to determiukus koji treba da ostane u ustima dugo nakon ispijanja
ne the final quality of the coffee are both numerous and diverse. To
kafe. Budući da konačnom kvalitetu dobrog espresa dopreach this objective we must fully understand the raw material that
rinose
is to be used. For example, not all the varieties behave in the same
različiti činioci, treba dobro poznavati upotrebljenu sirofashion during roasting, grinding and extraction. Coffee is after all
vinu jer se različite vrste kafe tokom prženja, mlevenja i
an agricultural product, and
dobijanja
is therefore subject, year
ekstrakta kafe ponašaju
after year, to modifications
različito. Budući da je
in its qualities, thus rendekafa poljoprivredni proring necessary continuous
izvod čiji se kvalitet s
attention to the purchase
godinama menja, treba
of its lots, in order to mainbiti pažljiv prilikom kutain a constantly superior
povine kako bi kvalitet
blend. In addition, just as a
mešavine uvek bio isti.
melody requires different
Baš kao što se melodija
notes, so must a balanced
sastoji od različitih nota,
and harmonious blend use
tako je i izvrsna mešavidifferent origins of coffee. In
na pripremljena od zrna
this way the characteristics
kafe različitog porekla
of the single varieties are
koja međusobno izmešacombined, balancing each
na dodatno oplemenjuju
other and maximising their
i dopunjuju aromu kafe.
qualities. Robusta coffees
confer a strong and decisive
Robusta daje mešavini
character to the flavour of
jak karakter i ukus, dok su
the blend, whereas Arabica
za arabiku karakteristični
coffees produce sweeter,
nežniji, bogat i profinjen
scented blends exhibiting
ukus i aroma.
Ponuda espresso kafe Barcaffé / Barcaffé espresso coffee offer.
fine aromas and tastes.
Svaki pržilac kafe treba
In addition to the choice of varieties, each coffee roaster, in achieving
prilikom pripreme mešavine da osim vrste zrna kafe uzme
their own blend, chooses the special origin of the beans (African,
u obzir i njihovo poreklo (afričko, azijsko, srednjoameričAsian, Central or South American) and the type of processing (natuko i južnoameričko), način tretiranja (prirodni ili mokri
ral or washed coffees). Then the master roaster must evaluate the
postupak), udeo i broj vrsta kafe koje će upotrebiti za
percentage and number of varieties that will be added to the blend,
mešavinu, kao i sam kvalitet sirove kafe. Kako bi zadovoljio
as well as the quality level of the green coffee. To satisfy different
najrazličitije ukuse ljubitelja kafe, može odgovarajućim
consumer tastes the roaster will modify their blend, including the
stepenom prženja da prilagodi mešavinu. Recepti i tajne
degree of roasting.
pržilaca kafe (koje se često prenose iz generacije u geThe recipes and “secrets” of the coffee roaster (often handed down
neraciju) omogućavaju održavanje izvrsnog i uvek istog
from generation to generation) permit the maintenance of a blend
ukusa i arome mešavine kafe ističući time razlike između
which is constant in its flavour and aroma, and emphasize the differazličitih proizvođača.
rentiation between various producers.
21
Savršen espresso
The perfect espresso
Srednji stepen prženja
Average roast
Fino mlevenje
Fine ground
Doza
Dose
Ekstrakcija 30''
Extraction 30”
Šoljica pri 40 ˚C
Cup at 40°C
Pritiskanje
Pressing
20 kg
30''
Temperatura
Temperature
Pritisak
Pressure
9 atm
Demineralizovana voda pri 9 ˚fH
De-mineralised water (9°Fr)
30cl
22
Mlin za doziranje
Grinder-doser
Mlin za doziranje je sprava za mlevenje prženih zrna koja
na taj način dolaze bolje u dodir sa vodom i omogućavaju bolju ekstrakciju rastvorljivih sastojaka koji napitku od
kafe daju karakterističan ukus. Mlin se sastoji od sabirne
posude, mlinskih točkića i dozatora.
sabirna posuda
Bell hopper
Postupak mlevenja
Sabirna posuda (u obliku zvona) skuplja i gura zrna
prema sredini posude u pravcu mlinskih točkića. Točkići
(zupčasti prstenovi od kaljenog čelika) koji mogu da
budu pljosnatog ili konusnog oblika brzo se okreću i pri
tome melju zrna. Svaki put kada drška zapne, u dozator
padne određena doza mlevene kafe.
drška za zatvaranje
sabirne posude
Bell closure
prsten za
regulaciju mlevenja
Grind adjustment
ring
Konični točkići mlina
Conical grinders
pljosnati
mlinski
točkići
Flat
grinders
Pljosnati točkići mlina
Flat grinders
motorna
osovina
Motor
shaft
The grinder-doser is a device that permits the transformation of the roasted beans into dust at the moment
requested, grinding them to increase surface contact
with the hot water, allowing for a greater extraction of
the soluble substances. It is made up of the following
components: hopper, grinder, feeder.
motor
motor
dozator
Doser
group
Grinding process
The bell hopper collects the coffee and conveys it in
bean form to the centre of the container towards the
grinder couple. The grinders are jagged rings of tempered steel in a flat or conical shape that rotate at high
speed, crushing the beans. The feeder gathers the ground coffee, and with each pull of its lever, releases the
quantity desired.
drška za doziranje
Doser lever
23
Mlevenje
Grinding
The threaded ring located under the hopper, when
adjusted properly, varies the space between the pair of
grinders, so as to produce the desired degree of ground,
either coarse or fine.
The proper grind permits extraction of espresso coffee
in a time between 25 and 30 seconds. If the coffee grounds are too coarse, the water flows down quickly and
the espresso will be under-extracted; if too fine, the
water will have difficulty flowing through the opening
and the espresso will be over-extracted. When preparing
espresso the grind must be adjusted according to the
fibre of the beans and the humidity in the environment
so as to permit the best extraction of the substances in
the coffee. The grind must be coarser when the climate
is damp, and finer if the climate is dry.
Slabo mlevena kafa (slab ekstrakt kafe)
too coarse grind (underextracted)
Prsten sa urezima koji je smešten ispod sabirne posude
treba da bude podešen na način da reguliše razdaljinu
između para noževa u mlinu omogućavajući time više
ili manje fino mlevenje. Odgovarajuća granulacija kafe
omogućava ekstrakciju espresa u roku od 25 do 30 sekundi. Ukoliko je kafa prekrupno mlevena, voda će prebrzo proći kroz dršku za kafu zbog čega će ekstrakt biti
preslab. Ukoliko je pak kafa presitno mlevena, voda će
presporo proći kroz mešavinu usled čega će ekstrakt biti
prejak. Za pripremu izvrsnog espresa treba prilagoditi
mlevenje tipu vlakana zrna i vlazi u prostoriji kako bi se
iz njega izvukle sve supstance. U vlažnoj atmosferi treba
koristiti krupno mlevenu, a u suvoj sitno mlevenu kafu.
Previše mlevena kafa (suviše jak ekstrakt kafe)
too fine coarse (overextracted)
24
Aparat za kafu
Espresso machine
Postupak pripreme espresso kafe
Odgovarajuće samlevena i dozirana pržena kafa stavlja
se stisnuta u ručicu za kafu u aparat za kafu gde se vrši
obrada parom i ekstrakcija. Posle pritiska na dugme za
dovod električna pumpa povećava pritisak vode koja iz
vodovodne mreže teče kroz izmenjivač toplote u grejaču
do razvodnika. Topla voda ravnomerno prolazi kroz ručicu za kafu, a iz oparka nastaje izvrstan espreso.
Espresso coffee extraction process
The roasted coffee, after having been perfectly ground, measured
and pressed in the filter holder is attached to the pouring unit, where
the pre-infusion and extraction stages of the beverage take place. By
pressing the pouring button, the electric pump has the task of raising
the pressure of the water drawn directly from the water system and
sending it through the heat exchange unit inside the boiler, to arrive at
the pouring unit. Once the hot water has reached its destination, the
spout of the pouring unit guarantees its homogeneous discharge over
the layer of ground coffee and is transformed into espresso.
grejač za vodu
Boiler
površina za
grejanje šolja
Hot cup platform
komandna
dugmad
Command
buttons
izmenjivač toplote
Heat exchanger
slavina za toplu vodu
Hot water faucet
naprava za
regulisanje nivoa
vode
Water level
probe
ručica za kafu
Filter holder
dovodni
otvor
razvodnika
Pouring unit
izvor toplote
Heat source
površina za
šolje
Cup platform
manometer
grejača za vodu
Manometer
pressure boiler
dovod vode za
razvodnik
Water
circuit
dovod vode
u grejač
Steam
spout
ispuštač pare
Pump pressure
gagea
manometar
pupme
Boiler pressure
gage
vodovodna mreža
Water main
omekšivač
Softener
pumpa
Pump
25
Sistem za čišćenje
Purification systems
Čiščenje smolnih filtrov čistilne naprave
Filteri prečistača koji sadrže smolu obično će se zapušiti
u podjednakim vremenskim razmacima, pa ih treba čistiti običnom grubom kuhinjskom solju (natrijum-hlorid)
kako bi se obnovila efikasnost katjonske smole.
Regeneration of the resins of the softener
At regular intervals the resins of the softener become
super-saturated, and must therefore be regenerated in
order to bring the performance of the cation resisn with
common kitchen salt (sodium chloride).
1. Radna faza
gruba kuhinjska so
kitchen salt
Učestalost pranja smole
zavisi od tvrdoće korišćene vode i njene potrošnje
u kubnim metrima.
Processing stage
The frequency of the cleaning stage of the resins is
determined by the degree
of hardness of the water
utilised and its consumption in cubic metres.
navojni čep
screw top
2.Smanjenje pritiska i
stavljanje soli
cev za
smanjenje
pritiska
depression
tube
dovodni ventil
charge valve
Depression
and salt loading
After having placed
under the depression
tube a container capable of holding about
2 litres, the inlet and
discharge levers are
rotated 180°C from left
to right. At this point
we can open the cover
and insert the salt.
dovodna cev za vodu
water inlet
posuda za vodu
u smoli
water and resin
container
3. Početak prečišćavanja
4. Završetak prečišćavanja
Posle završetka prečišćavanja okrenite slavinu
za odvod ulevo kako bi
mašina ponovno počela
normalno da radi.
Pošto ste zatvorili poklopac i okrenuli slavinu za
dovod ulevo, ostavite da
slana voda teče iz cevi
za čišćenje u posudu dok
voda ne omekša.
Regeneration
initialisation
Having closed the cover
and closed the inlet lever
from right to left, the salt
water is discharged from
the regeneration tube
until the water becomes
“sweet”.
Pošto ste ispod cevi za
smanjenje pritiska stavili
posudu od dva litra, okrenite slavine za dovod i odvod
za 180 stepeni udesno.
Sada možete da otvorite
poklopac i stavite so.
End of the regeneration
stage
Having finished the regeneration stage the outlet
faucet is turned from right
to left back to the initial
processing stage.
cev za čišćenje
Regeneration tube
odvodni ventil
discharge valve
odvod za vodu
water outlet
26
Zlatna pravila za svakog baristu
Posao bariste traži određeno iskustvo, tehničko umeće,
poznavanje postupaka pripreme kafe, kontrolu i održavanje proizvoda i uređaja za pripremu izvrsnog italijanskog espresa.
- idealna zapremina šolje za kafu iznosi 60 ml za 20–30
ml espresa
- briga o urednom radnom okruženju
Posluživanje:
- brzina, urednost, ljubaznost, osmeh i profesionalnost
Priprema kafe
Mešavina:
- izbor kvalitetne mešavine kafe, briga o odgovarajućem čuvanju i provera kvaliteta kafe
Mlevenje:
- doziranje na osnovu klimatskih uslova
- mlevenje s obzirom na dnevne potrebe
Doziranje:
- izbor odgovarajuće doze (6,5–7 g)
Stiskanje:
- odgovarajuće stiskanje mešavine u ručici za kafu
(15–20 kg)
Voda:
- izbor najpogodnijeg načina tretmana vode s obzirom
na potrebe.
Ekstrakcija:
- održavanje odgovarajućeg umeća pripreme kafe
(blagovremeno primicanje i odmicanje ispuštača
pare, čišćenje ručice za kafu pre ponovne upotrebe,
čišćenje taložnika, održavanje ručice za kafu toplom i
u pravilnom položaju...
Šolje i pribor:
-izbor odgovarajućih šolja koje su funkcionalno
postavljene po grejnoj površini
Kontrola
Aparat za kafu:
- praćenje vrednosti pritiska u grejaču za vodu (oko 1
bar)
- praćenje vrednosti pritiska vode dok teče iz aparata
za kafu (8–10 bara)
- praćenje temperature vode dok teče iz aparata za kafu
(88–94 °C)
- praćenje stanja pojedinačnih delova aparata za kafu
(zaptivki, mlaznica, ručica za kafu, filtera i ispuštača
pare)
- praćenje vremena ekstrakcije koje mora da iznosi
od 20 do 30 sekundi, i količine tečnosti koja mora da
iznosi 20–30 cl
Mlin za doziranje:
- praćenje stepena mlevenja
- provera pohabanosti noževa u mlinu
- provera doze i određivanje odgovarajuće količine
mlevene kafe koja se stavlja u ručicu za kafu
Šolje:
- provera temperature šolja
Voda:
- provera tvrdoće vode i sadržaja hlora
Održavanje
Aparat za kafu:
- čišćenje zaptivki, mlaznica, ručica za kafu, filtera i
ispuštača pare
-čišćenje površine za odlaganje šolja, taložnika,
ispuštača pare
- naručivanje redovnih pregleda aparata za kafu svakih
šest meseci
Mlin za doziranje:
- čišćenje skupljača, mlinskih noževa i dozatora
- stupanje u kontakt sa serviserom ukoliko treba zameniti dotrajale mlinske noževe
Šolje:
- zamena oštećenih ili dotrajalih šolja
Voda:
- zamena vode u grejaču za vodu
Prečistač:
- čišćenje filtera sa smolom
- zamena filtera sa smolom u skladu sa uputstvom proizvođača
Ako je pritiskanje preslabo, ekstrakt će biti preslab, a ako je pritiskanje
prejako, ekstrakt će biti prejak.
If the pressing is too low, the extract will be weak, and if the pressing is
too strong, the extract will be too strong.
27
The golden rules of the barman
Often the figure of the barista is represented by an
improvised operator with adequate professional skills or
passion, unconscious of the fact that the barista profession requires experience, technical ability, management
knowledge, attention on inspections, and maintenance
of the product and equipment necessary to produce a
perfect Italian espresso.
Cups and accessories:
- Choose adequate cups and position them on the cup
warmer in a functional manner.
- Organise the work area
Service:
- Speed, cleanliness, courtesy, smile and well-groomed
appearance.
Management
Blend:
- Choose the variety, manage storage and continuously
verify quality levels.
Grind:
- Record the dose on the basis of climatic conditions
- Grind only the quantity of coffee necessary for that day
Dose measurement:
- Set the correct weight (6.5-7 grams)
Pressing:
- Perform the correct pressing of the grinds into the
filter (15-20kg).
Water:
- Evaluate the best system of water treatment for the
needs of the bar.
Extraction:
- Maintain a proper management of the preparation
(flows, pouring units and steam dischargers at the
right moment; clean the filter before attachment,
empty the used grounds, keep the filter holder warm
and attached to the unit…)
Inspection
Coffee machine:
- Check the pressure level in the boiler (around 1 Bar)
- Check the water pressure level during output (8-10 Bar)
- Check the water temperature at output (88-92°C)
- Check the condition of the machinery (gaskets, faucets, filter holder, filter and spout).
- Check that extraction time is between 25 and 30
seconds with a volume of 25-30 cc.
Grinder-doser:
- Check the grind degree
- Verify machine wear
- Check the dose and right quantity of grounds in the
doser
Cups:
- Check the temperature of the cups
Water:
- Check the hardness of the water and its chlorine content.
Maintenance
Coffee machine:
- Clean: gaskets, faucets, filter holder, filter and spouts.
- Clean: cup holder, discharge tray and steam spouts.
- Clean the pouring unit with an empty filter
- Call: the technician for a general inspection every 6
months.
Grinder-doser:
- Clean: bell hopper, the grinder and the doser
- Call: the technician to change worn machinery
Cups:
- Substitute cracked or worn cups.
Water:
- Change: boiler water
Softener:
- Perform periodic regeneration of the resins
- Change: the resins according to the installer’s
recommendations.
Idealna je mera šoljice kafe 60 ml za 20 – 30 ml espresso kave.
An ideal measure of a cup of coffee 60 ml of 20 - 30 ml espresso coffee.
28
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