Kosovski Romi u Bosni i Hercegovini
Tokom 1998. i 1999. godine je došlo do masovnog priliva izbjeglica u Bosnu i Hercegovinu
(BiH) uslijed konflikta na Kosovu. U tom periodu je BiH prihvatila približno 50.000 ljudi, od
kojih su većina bili Albanci po nacionalnosti. Vlasti u BiH i UNHCR su međusobno sarađivali
u cilju osiguranja zaštite i staranja za ovu grupu ljudi. U to vrijeme su licima sa Kosova
(Rezolucija Vijeća sigurnosti UN-a 1244) vlasti odobravale privremeni prihvat.
Status privremenog prihvata je ovim ljudima omogućavao pravo na zaštitu od refoulementa
te ostala osnovna prava poput smještaja, jedinstva porodice, osnovnog obrazovanja i
zdravstvene zaštite. Međutim, oni nisu imali pravo na rad. U to vrijeme ni bh. vlasti ni
UNHCR nisu imali dovoljno kapaciteta da obave postupak utvrđivanja izbjegličkog statusa za
svaku osobu pojedinačno. Umjesto toga, svima koji su pristizali u BiH u okviru masovnog
priliva, uslijed sukoba na Kosovu, dodjeljivan je grupni status.
Oko 40.000 ljudi se dobrovoljno vratilo na Kosovo, bilo samostalno ili uz pomoć UNHCR-a,
nakon što su se u junu 1999. godine srpske trupe povukle sa Kosova. Tada je status
privremenog prihvata produžen za 6000 lica, koji su taj status ponovo registrovali 2002.
godine. Od njih je 3000 bilo sa Kosova. Mnogi od njih više nisu u BiH. Prema podacima
Ministarstva sigurnosti, samo 1500 osoba je produžilo status privremenog prihvata tokom
posljednjeg postupka produženja statusa u junu 2007. godine. Od toga je 580 zatražilo azil
nakon što je njihov status privremenog prihvata prestao u septembru 2007. godine.
Ministarstvo sigurnosti je obradilo sve zahtjeve. Nijednom tražitelju azila sa Kosova nije
odobren izbjeglički status zbog toga što su se na Kosovu okolnosti izmijenile nakon
okončanja sukoba. Međutim, petero osoba je odobren status supsidijarne zaštite. Četvero od
njih su bili maloljetni Romi bez roditeljskog staranja, a jedan je bio starac bošnjačke
nacionalnosti.
Nepotpune su informacije o tome gdje se nalazi približno 1000 ljudi koji su uživali status
privremenog prihvata, a nisu se ponovo registrovali. Nekima su UNHCR i/ili vlasti pomogli da
se vrate na Kosovo; drugi su regulisali njihov boravak u BiH; neki su preseljeni u treće
zemlje, u kojima su, u nekim slučajevima zatražili azil. Također se pretpostavlja da je mali
broj ostao u BiH i da nemaju regulisan status.
Do jula 2004. godine je UNHCR provodio postupak određivanja izbjegličkog statusa u BiH. U
julu 2004. godine su ovlasti za vršenje ove dužnosti prenesene sa UNHCR-a na Ministarstvo
sigurnosti. UNHCR je i u periodu dok je vršio tu dužnost kao i nakon toga, omogućio da 1163
izbjeglice u BiH, uključujući i one u statusu privremenog prihvata, budu preseljene u treće
zemlje.
Krajem 2012. godine, u BiH su boravila 42 tražitelja azila (od kojih tri sa Kosova) te 162
osobe kojima je priznat status izbjeglice, od kojih 137 sa Kosova, a od njih su 124 bili Romi
po nacionalnosti.
Izbjeglice uživaju ista prava kao i državljani BiH, osim prava glasa. Svi imaju zdravstveno
osiguranje. Oni koji žive izvan izbjegličkog centra dobijaju malu finansijsku pomoć. Izbjeglice
imaju pristup obrazovanju i zaposlenju. Međutim, uslijed visoke stope nezaposlenosti u zemlji
generalno, samo nekolicina ima redovan posao. Izbjeglice u BiH nemaju pravo naturalizacije.
Međutim, u postupku je zakon za koji se zalaže UNHCR, a na osnovu kojeg će se
izbjeglicama osigurati pravo na državljanstvo nakon određenog perioda boravka u BiH.
Pitanja vezana za apatridiju
Osim izbjegličkog mandata, UNHCR ima i mandat da radi na sprečavanju i smanjenju
apatridije. UNHCR u BiH blisko sarađuje sa vlastima kako bi osigurali sveopštu registraciju
rođenja i drugih građanskih statusa. Aktivnosti UNHCR-a uključuju rad na relevantnom
zakonodavstvu, izgradnju kapaciteta, te podršku aktivnostima na registraciji, naročito putem
našeg pravnog i provedbenog partnera, Udruženja Vaša prava BiH.
UNHCR se zalaže za izmjene i dopune Zakona o državljanstvu BiH kako bi se omogućila
olakšana naturalizacija za izbjeglice i apatride u BiH.
Ljiljana Kokotović, savjetnik za zaštitu
Predstavništvo UNHCR-a u BiH
01.02.2013.
Kosovo Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Due to the conflict in Kosovo, a mass influx of refugees to Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)
took place in the course of 1998 and 1999. During that time BiH accepted approximately
50,000 persons, the majority of whom were of Albanian ethnicity. The BiH authorities and
UNHCR cooperated to provide protection and care to this group. Persons from Kosovo (UN
Security Council Resolution 1244) were granted temporary admission by the BiH authorities
at that time.
Temporary Admission status afforded these individuals the right to protection from
refoulement and other basic rights such as accommodation, family unity, primary education
and health care. However, these persons were not entitled to work. At that time neither the
BiH authorities nor UNHCR had sufficient capacity to conduct individual refugee status
determination (RSD) interviews for each case. Rather, group status was granted to all those
arriving in BiH in the mass influx resulting from the conflicts in Kosovo.
About 40,000 persons voluntarily returned to Kosovo, either spontaneously or with UNHCR’s
assistance after the withdrawal of Serbian troops from Kosovo in June 1999. Temporary
Admission status in BiH was then extended for 6,000 persons who re-registered their status
in 2002. 3,000 of those who re-registered were Kosovars. Most of these persons are no
longer in BiH. According to data from the Ministry of Security on the last extension of
temporary admission status, which took place in June 2007, only about 1,500 persons
extended their status. Of this number, 580 applied for asylum after temporary admission
status ceased in September 2007. The Ministry of Security processed all requests. No
asylum-seeker from Kosovo was granted refugee status on the grounds that circumstances
in Kosovo had changed following the end of the conflicts. However, five persons were
granted subsidiary protection. Four were Roma minors without parental care and one was
an elderly man of Bosniak ethnicity.
Information on the whereabouts of the close to 1,000 Temporary Admission status holders
who did not re-register their status is incomplete, Some were assisted to return to Kosovo by
UNHCR and/or the government, others regulated their stay in Bosnia, still others moved to
third countries where they, in some cases, sought asylum. It is also assumed that a small
number may remain in Bosnia in an unregulated status.
Until July 2004, the RSD procedure in BiH was conducted by UNHCR. The authority for
RSD was handed over from UNHCR to the BiH Ministry of Security in July 2004. Both while
it was conducting RSD and since that time, UNHCR has facilitated the resettlement to third
countries of 1,163 refugees in BiH, including holders of temporary admission status.
At the end of 2012 there were 42 asylum-seekers in BiH (three of whom are from Kosovo)
and 162 persons with recognized refugee status, of whom 137 are from Kosovo and out of
these 124 are of Roma ethnicity.
Refugees enjoy same rights as BiH citizens except the right to vote. All have health
insurance. Those who live outside the refugee reception centre receive limited financial
assistance. Refugees have access to education and employment. However, due to the high
level of unemployment in the country generally very few are regularly employed. Refugees
in BiH do not have the right to naturalize. However, legislation advocated for by UNHCR is
pending that would provide the right to citizenship for refugees after a period of residency in
BiH.
Issues related to statelessness
In addition to its refugee mandate, UNHCR also has a mandate to prevent and reduce
statelessness. UNHCR BiH works closely with the government to ensure universal birth and
civil registration. UNHCR’s activites include the development of related legislation, capacity
building, and support of registration activies, in particular through our legal aid implementing
partner, Vasa Prava BiH.
UNHCR advocates for changes and amendments to the Law on BiH citizenship in order to
enable facilitated naturalization of refugees and stateless persons in BiH.
Ljiljana Kokotović, Assistant Protection Officer
UNHCR Representation in BiH
1 February 2013
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Kosovski Romi u Bosni i Hercegovini Tokom 1998. i 1999. godine je