11/2014
4 December
Serbia:
LAW
ON
WHISTLEBLOWERS
PROTECTION
OF
The Law on Protection of Whistleblowers (Zakon
o zaštiti uzbunjivača, Official Gazette of the
Republic of Serbia no. 128/2014, hereinafter the
“Law”) entered into force on 4 December 2014,
but the implementation of the Law has been
postponed for six months and will start from 5
June 2015.
Until the beginning of the implementation of the
Law, the protection of whistleblowers in the
Republic of Serbia remains sporadically
regulated under different regulations, and
afforded only to certain categories of persons, in
an arguably inadequate and insufficient manner.
Effective protection of whistleblowers is one of
the most important means of combating
corruption. Therefore legislation such as the Law
is pivotal in furthering this goal, i.e. in
encouraging people in possession of certain
information to “blow the whistle” on illegal and
corrupt acts and persons perpetrating such acts.
According to the Law, the act of “whistleblowing”
entails the disclosure of information regarding
breach of regulations, violation of human rights,
exercise of public authorizations contrary to the
purpose for which such authorizations were
entrusted, risk to life, public health, safety,
environment, as well as to prevent extensive
damage. The “whistleblower” is a natural person
who performs the whistleblowing in relation to
his/her work engagement, recruitment process,
usage of the services of government and other
state authorities, holders of public authorizations
or public services, business cooperation and
ownership over a company. The work
engagement entails engagement for the
employer which may be an agency of the
Republic of Serbia, territorial autonomy or local
self-government, holder of public authorizations
or public services, legal entity or entrepreneur.
The whistleblowing can be internal, external and
public whistleblowing, depending on the fact
whether it entails disclosure of information to the
employer, the authorized body, or the media.
The Law prescribes specific obligations for
employers with regards to the internal
whistleblowing, and employers who employ
more than ten employees are obliged to
prescribe
the
procedure
of
internal
whistleblowing.
The employer may not act or fail to act so as to
place the whistleblower in an unfavorable
position regarding the whistleblowing, especially
if the unfavorable position is related to the
employment, status of trainee or volunteer, work
outside employment, education, training or
professional
development,
promotion,
evaluation, acquisition or loss of a vocation,
discipline measures and penalties, working
conditions, termination of the employment,
salary and other remuneration deriving from the
employment, participation in the profits of the
employer, the payment of remuneration and
severance payment, placement or secondment
to another work position, failure to undertake
measures for the protection from harassment by
third persons, referral to the mandatory medical
examinations or referral to the examinations for
the assessment of work ability.
The Law does not prescribe the right to reward
of the whistleblowers, even if the whistleblowing
causes public revenues that would not have
arisen otherwise. Potential whistleblowers could
in practice also be demotivated by the provision
of the Law that provides for prohibition of abuse
Page | 1
of the whistleblowing.
In cases of damage suffered due to the
whistleblowing, the whistleblower is entitled to
the compensation of damage in accordance with
the Law on Contract and Torts.
The Law also applies to the persons who are
affiliated with the whistleblowers and towards
whom the damaging act was undertaken.
The whistleblower against whom a damaging act
was undertaken in relation to the whistleblowing
is entitled to protection before the court which
may be exercised by filing a lawsuit within six
months from the date of knowledge of such act,
i.e. within three years from the date on which the
damaging act was undertaken.
The Law also contains provisions governing
court proceedings regarding the whistleblowing,
and the provisions of the Civil Procedure Law
governing labor disputes apply mutatis
mutandis. The court proceedings regarding
whistleblowing are urgent, and the Review of the
final and enforceable second instance decision
is permitted as an extraordinary legal remedy.
Therefore the Law endeavors to provide full
protection to persons reporting the suspicion on
corruption and tends to remove all deficiencies
of inadequate and partial protection of certain
categories of whistleblowers that currently exist
in the national legislation. In order to fully
implement the Law, it will be necessary to
undertake educational measures, legislative
measures, and measures of strengthening the
positive perception of the operation of courts by
citizens, as well as adequate administrative and
technical measures.
For example, contrary to Serbia, the neighboring
Romania has had the Law on Protection of
Whistleblowers in place for five years now, with
a highly successful rate of implementation.
Srbija: ZAKON O ZAŠTITI UZBUNJIVAČA
Zakon o zaštiti uzbunjivača (Službeni glasnik
Republike Srbije br. 128/2014, u daljem tekstu
"Zakon") je stupio na snagu 4. decembra 2014.
godine, ali je početak primene Zakona odložen
za šest meseci i počinje od 5. juna 2015. godine.
Do početka primena Zakona, zaštita uzbunjivača
u Republici Srbiji ostaje regulisana različitim
propisima, a zaštita je pružena samo određenim
kategorijama lica, na način koji nije adekvatan
niti celishodan.
Efikasna zaštita uzbunjivača predstavlja jednu
od najznačajnijih mera u borbi protiv korupcije.
Stoga, propis kao što je Zakon ima ključni
značaj u daljem ostvarenju navedenog cilja,
odnosno u podsticanju lica koja poseduju
određene informacije da dignu uzbunu o
nezakonitim delima i delima korupcije i licima
koja izvršavaju takva e dela.
Prema
Zakonu,
uzbunjivanje
predstavlja
otkrivanje informacije o kršenju propisa, kršenju
ljudskih prava, vršenju javnog ovlašćenja
protivno svrsi zbog koje je povereno, opasnosti
po život, javno zdravlje, bezbednost, životnu
sredinu, kao i radi sprečavanja štete velikih
razmera. Uzbunjivač je fizičko lice koje izvrši
uzbunjivanje u vezi sa svojim radnim
angažovanjem,
postupkom
zapošljavanja,
korišćenjem usluga državnih i drugih organa,
nosilaca javnih ovlašćenja ili javnih službi,
poslovnom saradnjom i pravom vlasništva na
privrednom društvu. Pod radnim angažovanjem
se podrazumeva rad za poslodavca koji može
biti organ Republike Srbije, teritorijalne
autonomije ili jedinice lokalne samouprave,
nosilac javnih ovlašćenja ili javna služba, pravno
lice ili preduzetnik.
Uzbunjivanje može biti unutrašnje, spoljašnje i
uzbunjivanje javnosti, u zavisnosti od toga da li
se radi o otkrivanju informacije poslodavcu,
ovlašćenom organu ili sredstvima javnog
informisanja. Zakonom se propisuju posebne.
Page | 2
Disclaimer: The text above is purely informational and by no means constitutes legal advice on any subject matter. © Copyright Bojović & Partners
Advokati / Attorneys at Law.
obaveze
poslodavca
kod
unutrašnjeg
uzbunjivanja, a poslodavac koji ima više od
deset zaposlenih je dužan i da opštim aktom
uredi postupak unutrašnjeg uzbunjivanja.
Poslodavac ne sme činjenjem ili nečinjenjem da
stavi uzbunjivača u nepovoljniji položaj u vezi sa
uzbunjivanjem, a naročito ako se nepovoljniji
položaj odnosi na zapošljavanje, sticanje
svojstva pripravnika ili volontera, rad van radnog
odnosa, obrazovanje, osposobljavanje ili stručno
usavršavanje,
napredovanje
na
poslu,
ocenjivanje, sticanje ili gubitak zvanja,
disciplinske mere i kazne, uslove rada,
prestanak radnog odnosa, zaradu i druge
naknade iz radnog odnosa, učešće u dobiti
poslodavca, isplatu nagrade i otpremnine,
raspoređivanje ili premeštaj na drugo radno
mesto, nepreduzimanje mera radi zaštite zbog
uznemiravanja od strane drugih lica, upućivanje
na obavezne zdravstvene preglede ili upućivanje
na preglede radi ocene radne sposobnosti.
Zakon sadrži odredbe kojim uređuje sudski
postupak u vezi sa uzbunjivanjem, a shodno se
primenjuju odredbe Zakona o parničnom
postupku koje uređuju postupak u radnim
sporovima, ako ovim Zakonom nije drugačije
određeno. Postupak za sudsku zaštitu u vezi sa
uzbunjivanjem je hitan, a dozvoljena je revizija
kao vanredno pravno sredstvo.
Dakle, Zakon nastoji da pruži pun obim zaštite
licima koja prijavljuju sumnju na korupciju i time
teži da otkloni nedostatke neadekvatne i
parcijalne zaštite pojedinim kategorijama
uzbunjivača
kakva
trenutno
postoji
u
unutrašnjem zakonodavstvu. U cilju sprovođenja
Zakona biće potrebno da se preduzmu mere
edukacije, zakonodavne mere, mere jačanja
pozitivne percepcije građana o radu sudova kao
i adekvatne administrativno-tehničke mere.
Primera radi, za razliku od Srbije, susedna
Rumunija, već pet godina ima zakon o zaštiti
uzbunjivača koji se vrlo uspešno primenjuje.
Zakon ne propisuje pravo uzbunjivača na
nagradu, čak ni ukoliko uzbunjivanje dovede do
pribavljanja javnih prihoda koji bi u suprotnom
izostali.
Potencijalne
uzbunjivače
može
demotivisati i odredba koja propisuje zabranu
zloupotrebe uzbunjivanja.
U
slučajevima
nanošenja
štete
zbog
uzbunjivanja, uzbunjivač ima pravo na naknadu
štete u skladu sa Zakonom o obligacionim
odnosima.
Zakon se primenjuje i na lica koja su povezana
sa uzbunjivačima, prema kojima je preduzeta
štetna radnja.
Uzbunjivač prema kome je preduzeta štetna
radnja u vezi sa uzbunjivanjem ima pravo na
sudsku zaštitu koja se ostvaruje podnošenjem
tužbe sudu, u roku od šest meseci od dana
saznanja za preduzetu štetnu radnju, odnosno
tri godine od dana kada je štetna radnja
preduzeta.
Page | 3
Disclaimer: The text above is purely informational and by no means constitutes legal advice on any subject matter. © Copyright Bojović & Partners
Advokati / Attorneys at Law.
Download

Page 1 Page | 1 11/2014 4 December Serbia: LAW ON