Proceedings 2010. (2011), Vol 2, ISSN 1986-8154
www.sportkon.com
SPECIFIČNOSTI STRUKTURE TRENINGA
KOD SPORTISTA SA OŠTEĆENIM VIDOM
SPECIFICS OF TRAINING STRUCTURE
FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED ATHLETES
Marko Ćosić1 and Vladimir Koprivica2
AK “Crvena Zvezda”, Beograd, Srbija
AC “Crvena Zvezda”, Belgrade, Serbia
2
Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja, Beograd, Srbija
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Belgrade, Serbia
1
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
doi​: 10.5550/SP.2.2010.35
UDK: 796.015.1/617.7
STRUČNI ČLANAK
COBISS.BH-ID: 2260760
Summary
Sažetak
People with disabilities are increasingly taking part in sport
activities, and among them are a significant number of athletes with visual impairments. Inclusion of this group in the
sports activities often leads to several problems, some of
which are related to professional work and inadequate
education of professional staff.
The paper presents some specific characteristics of individual elements that make up the structure of training of
persons with visual impairments, as well as ways to solve
problems that are encountered in practice.
Aim and tasks: The aim of this paper is to point out the
specifics of certain elements in the training framework of
persons with visual impairments, as well as to stress the differences in relation to the training of persons without a disability.
For this purpose, we observed and analyzed the following
elements: (1) Analysis of reference material thet has been
presented in the literature; (2) Analysis of test results of
athletes with visual impairments; (3) Analysis of individual
training, microcycle, mezocycle, makrocycle; (4) Analysis of
choice of training methods, methods of loading and methods
of information; (5) Analysis of training funds; (6) Analysis of
work in practice.
Methods: Speculative-bibliographic method, empiric
method, Analysis and Synthesis.
Conclusion: Based on theoretical knowledge and analysis
of work in practice, can be concluded that specificity of
problems which occur in the training of individuals with
visual impairments are significantly different than problems
which occur in the training of individuals with novisual
impairments.
Specificity is so big, which is why it is necessary that specialists who work with this group of athletes be further educated.
Sport postaje sve razvijeniji i rasprostranjeniji. Sve vi{e i
osobe sa invaliditetom uzimaju uče{će u sportskim aktivnostima. Cela jedna grupacija osoba sa invaliditetom su i osobe
o{tećenog vida.
Veliki su problemi na svakom koraku, počev{i od uslova
rada, čestog nerazumevanja na najrazličitijim nivoima i sl,
pa do konkretnih problema koji se direktno tiču struke i
obrazovanja stručnog kadra koji se bavi treniranjem osoba
sa o{tećenim vidom.
U radu ce biti prikazane specifičnosti pojedinih elemenata
koji čine strukturu treninga osoba sa o{tećenim vidom, kao
i načini za re{avanje problema na koje se u praksi nailazi.
Cilj i zadaci rada: Cilj rada je da se prikažu specifičnosti
pojedinih elemenata koji čine strukturu treninga osoba sa
o{tećenim vidom, odnosno da se ukaže na razlike između
tih elemenata i istih elemenata koji čine trening kod osoba
bez invaliditeta.
Do cilja će se doći ispunjavajući zadatke koji su sledeći: (1)
Analiza dasada{njih teorijskih radova koji se bave ovom
problematikom; (2) Analiza rezultata testiranja osoba sa
o{tećenim vidom; (3) Analiza pojedninačanog treninga,
mikrociklusa, mezociklusa i makrociklusa; (4) Analiza izbora metoda obuke, metoda opterećenja i metoda informacija; (5) Analiza trenažnih sredstava; (6) Analiza rada u
praksi.
Metodologija: Spekulativno-bibliografski metod, empirijski
metod, analiza i sinteza.
Zaključci: Na osnovu teorijskih saznanja i analize trenaznog
rada u praksi, moze se zakljuciti da se struktura treninga i
tehnologija trenaznog procesa u radu sa osobama sa ostecenim vidom bitno razlikuje od treninga sportista bez invaliditeta. Specifičnost je izražena u tolikoj meri da su neophodni stručnjaci specijalisti za rad sa osobama o{tećenog
vida.
Key Words: visually impaired (blind) athletes, specifics,
training structure, athletics, stability.
Ključne riječi: sportisti ostećenog vida, specifičnost, struktura treninga, atletika, ravnoteža.
284
Zbornik radova 2010, 284-296
Introduction
Uvod
Sport is becoming more developed and widespread. More
and more persons with disabilities are taking a part in sports
activities. Paralympic Games were first held in 1960 in Rome,
and in Seoul in 1988 they were first held in the same place
immediately after the Olympic Games.
An entire group of people with disabilities are the visually
impaired persons. Different organizations in different ways
are collecting and classifying information relating to persons
with visual impairments, but it can be said that the percentage prevalence of visual impairment in developed countries
is about 2% of the total population, of which the blind is
between .10 and .15% (Jablan, 2007). There are numerous
associations for the visually impaired, and one of the largest
is the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) which was
established in 1981.
Sport postaje sve razvijeniji i rasprostranjeniji. Sve vi{e i
osobe sa invaliditetom učestvuju u sportskim aktivnostima.
Paraolimpijske igre su prvi put održane 1960. godine u Rimu,
a u Seulu 1988. se prvi put održavaju na istom mestu
neposredno posle Olimpijskih igara.
Cela jedna grupacija osoba sa invaliditetom su i osobe
o{tećenog vida. Različite organizacije na različite načine
prikupljaju i klasifikuju podatke vezane za broj osoba sa
o{tećenim vidom, ali se može reći da procentualna zastupljenost o{tećenja vida u razvijenim zemljama iznosi oko
2% od ukupnog stanovni{tva, od čega slepih ima između
0,10 i 0,15% (Jablan, 2007). Postoje mnogobrojna udruženja
za osobe o{tećenog vida, a jedna od najvećih je Internacionalna federacija sportova slepih (IBSA) koja je osnovana
1981.
Osobe o{tećenog vida se takmiče u velikom broju sportskih
grana1 i sportskih disciplina. Pored osnovnih podela, kao {to
su podele po broju učesnika, mestu održavanja, strukturi
kretanja, načinu ocenjivanja i vrednovanja sportskog rezultata, itd. za ovaj rad je važna osnovna podela sportskih
grana za osobe o{tećenim vidom, kao i podela sportskih
grana po nivou adaptacije. Sportske grane osoba o{tećenog
vida se mogu svrstati u 3 grupe: segregativni, integrativni i
inkluzivni sportovi, dok po nivou adaptacije oni mogu biti:
neadaptirani, delimično adaptirani, adaptirani i specijalni.
Sportske grane u kojima se takmiče samo slepi i slabovidi
izolovano od videćih nazivaju se segregativne. Integrativne
su one u kojima se slepi takmiče sa videćima bez ikakvih
adaptacija u odnosu na njihov vizuelni nedostatak, dok se
u inkluzivnim slepi takmiče sa videćima uz adaptacije koje
su im neophodne. Podela po nivou adaptacije u odnosu na
standardne2 sportske grane praktično proizilazi iz osnovne
podele sportskih grana slepih.
Veliki broj sportskih grana i disciplina je moguće modifikovati, vi{e ili manje, pravilima ili dodatnom opremom. Neke
od sportskih grana u kojima učestvuju osobe sa o{tećenim
vidom su: alpsko i nordijsko skijanje, atletika, bejzbol,
biciklizam (tandem), futsal (i modifikacije fudbala), dizanje
tegova (powerlifting), džudo, golbal, golf, jahanje konja,
jedrenje, kriket, kuglanje, kuglanje sa 10 čunjeva (bowling),
plivanje, showdown, streličarstvo, strelja{tvo, torbal, veslanje, skijanje na vodi, {ah...
U svakoj od sportskih grana i sportskih disciplina su sportisti
sa o{tećenim vidom podeljeni u 3 klase u zavisnosti od stepena o{tećenja. Neke federacije spajaju osobe o{tećenog vida
sa osobama sa nekim drugim invaliditetom, ali može se reći
da su standardne klase: B1 (11), bez percepcije svetla do
percepcije svetla, ali nemogućnosti da vide oblik {ake na bilo
kojoj udaljenosti, B2 (12) do vida 2/60 i (ili) polja vida manjim
od 5 stepeni i B3 (13) do vida 6/60 i (ili) polja vida manjim od
20 stepeni.
Visually impaired athletes are competing in many sports
branches1 and sports disciplines. In addition to the main categorizations, such as division by number of participants, venue,
structure of movement, way of assessment and evaluation of
sports results, etc., for this paper is important a primary division
of sports branches for visually impaired athletes, as well as division of sports branches by the level of adaptation. Sports
branches for visually impaired can be divided into three groups:
segregative, integrative and inclusive sports branches, while by
the level of adaptation they can be: unmodified, partially
modified, modified and special.
Sports branches in which only blind and low vision compete in
isolation from sighted are called segregative sports branches.
Integrative sports branches are those in which blind compete
with the sighted without any adaptation in relation to their visual deficiency, while in the inclusive sports branches blind
compete with sighted with the adaptations they need. Division
at the level of adaptation compared to the standard2 sports
branches are practically derived from the primary division of
sports branches for the blind.
A large number of sports branches and disciplines can be
modified, more or less, by rules or additional equipment. Some
of the sports branches in which people with impaired vision
participate include: archery, athletics (track & field), baseball,
bowling, nine-pin bowling, chess, cricket, cycling (tandem),
futsal (and football modifications), goalball, golf, horse riding,
judo, powerlifting, rowing, sailing, showdown, shooting, Alpine
and Nordic skiing, swimming, torball, water skiing, etc...
In each of sports branches and disciplines visually impaired
athletes are divided into three classes depending on the
degree of impairment. Some federations merge visually
impaired people with other disabilities, but it can be said
that the standard class are: B1 (11), with no light perception
to light perception but inability to see the shape of the hand
at any distance, B2 (12) up to vision 2/60 and (or) field of
vision less than 5 degrees, and B3 (13) up to vision 6/60 and
(or) field of vision of less than 20 degrees.
For each sports branch and discipline rules are precisely
regulated, from the sports rules to the evaluation of visual
impairment. Each of sports branches modifies the rules in
so far as is necessary. In some, it is only a small deviation
from the standard rules, and in some it is total abolition of
events (hurdles, pole vault, hammer throw ...). Rules stipulate
assistance of the sighted person, to what extent and at which
moments that help can follow.
Sports branches in eastern literature are the same as sports in
western literature..
2
For athletes without disabilities.
1
Za svaku sportsku granu i sportsku disciplinu postoje tačno
regulisana pravila od samih sportskih pravila do toga kako se
procenjuje o{tećenje vida. Svaka od sportskih grana modifikuje pravila u onoj meri u kojoj je to potrebno. U nekima je to
samo malo odstupanje od standardnih pravila, a u nekima do
potpunog ukidanja pojedinih disciplina (prepone, skok motkom,
kladivo...). Pravilima je regulisano da li ima pomoći od strane
lica koje vidi, u kojoj meri i u kojim trenucima ta pomoć može
da usledi.
Sportska grana u ističnoj literturi je isto {to i sport u zapadnoj
literuri.
2
Za sportiste bez invaliditeta.
1
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Ćosić, M. i Koprivica, V.: SPECIFIČNOSTI STRUKTURE TRENINGA...
Ćosić, M., & Koprivica, V.: SPECIFICS OF TRAINING STRUCTURE FOR...
Proceedings 2010, 284-296
Bearing in mind that major problems arise at every step in Imajući u vidu da se javljaju veliki problemi u obavljanju
carrying out the training process, from working conditions and trenažnog procesa na svakom koraku, od uslova rada i opequipment, to the practical problems that directly related to reme, do konkretnih problema koji se direktno tiču struke i
the profession and education of professional staff who are obrazovanja stručnog kadra koji se bavi treniranjem osoba
engaged in training people with impaired vision, this paper sa o{tećenim vidom, u radu će biti prikazane specifičnosti
will show specificities of some elements that make up the pojedinih elemenata koji čine strukturu treninga kod osoba
structure of training for people with visual impairments, as well sa o{tećenim vidom, kao i načini za re{avanje problema na
as ways to solve problems that are encountered in practice. koje se u praksi nailazi. U analizi specifičnosti biće kori{ćena
In analyzing the specifics, the traditional theory of sports train- standardna teorija sportskog treninga, a specifičnosti i razlike
ing will be used (as standard), and certain specificities and će biti napominjane u odnosu na nju. Rad se prevashodno
differences will be mention in relation to it. This paper is odnosi na specifičnosti treninga sportista iz klase B1 (posebprimarily related to the specificities of training of athletes from no slepim osobama od rođenja), odnosno osobama koje
class B1 (especially blind from birth), in other words, to the
vide najvi{e samo svetlo. To praktično znači onim osobama
people who can see only the light. That basically means those
kojima intenzitet vida ni u kojoj meri ne može biti od kopersons in whom the intensity of vision can not be useful for
risti za datu sportsku granu. Rad se bavi tom problematikom
a given sports branch. The paper deals with this problem
prevashodno iz razloga {to je kod tih sportista najizraženija
primarily because the most prominent differences are in the
razlika u strukturi treninga i svih elemenata koje čine trening
structure of training and all the elements that make training
and training process. Of course, this also applies to visually i trenažni proces. Naravno, to se odnosi i na slabovide (B2
impaired (B2 and B3), but to a lesser extent. Reasons for i B3), ali u manjoj meri. Razloga za posebno obraćanje pažnje
special attention given to class B1 are a few. These athletes na klasu B1 je nekoliko. Ti sportisti ne vide i mnogo se razcan not see and they differ significantly in the understanding likuju u poimanju Sveta oko sebe.
Rezultati koje sportisti o{tećenog vida postižu na takmičenjima,
of the world around them.
The results that visually impaired athletes achieve in competi- najjasnije se mogu prikazati kroz dve ciklične, bazične,
tions can be most clearly shown through the analysis of two veoma rasprostranjene sportske grane, a gde se rezultati
cyclical, basic, widespread sports branches, where the results veoma lako mogu upoređivati. Od ukupno 62 svetska
can be compared easily. From a total number of 62 world rekorda u atletici i plivanju sportisti klase B1 su apsolutni
records in athletics and swimming, compared to the visually rekorderi (u odnosu na slabovide iz klase B2 i B3) u samo
impaired from the class B2 and B3 athletes from class B1 are dve discipline (3,2%), dok su pojedinačno ostvarili bolje
absolute recorders in only two events (3.2%), while apart they rezultate od klase B2 i B3 u 3 discipline (4,83%). Analizirajući
achieve better results than the classes B2 and B3 in 3 disciplines klase B2 i B3 zasebno, odnosno upoređujući dve klase
(4.83%). Analyzing separately and comparing the classes B2 slabovidih između sebe, dolazi se do podatka da su sporand B3 among themselves, it can be concluded that athletes tisti iz klase B2 postavili bolje rekorde od sportista iz klase
from the class B2 set a better record than athletes of class B3 B3 u 31 disciplini (51,7%). Klasa B2 drži 31 apsolutni rekord,
in 31 disciplines (51.7%). Class B2 holds 31 absolute records, {to je 50% ukupnih rekorda, dok klasa B3 drži 29 apsolutnih
which is 50% of the total number of records, while class B3 rekorda, {to je ukupno gledano 46,8%.
holds the 29 absolute records, which is 46.8% of total number
of records.
Slika 1: Svetski rekordi u atletici i plivanju za osobe sa o{tećenim vidom
Picture 1: World records in athletics and swimming for visually impaired and blind athletes
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
Class
Athletics
Swimming
Total
Men
Women
Men
Women
B1
1
1
0
0
2 (3.2%)
B2
6
5
12
8
31(50.0%)
B3
8
7
5
9
29 (46.8%)
Total
15
13
17
17
62
Legend/Legenda: Class - Klasa; Athletic - Atletika; Swimming - Plivanje; Men - Mu{akarci; Women
- Žene; Total - Ukupno; B1 - with no light perception to light perception but inability to
see the shape of the hand at any distance (bez percepcije svetla do percepcije svetla, ali
nemogućnosti da vide oblik {ake na bilo kojoj udaljenosti); B2 - up to vision 2/60 and (or)
field of vision less than 5 degrees (do vida 2/60 i (ili) polja vida manjim od 5 stepeni); B3 - p
to vision 6/60 and (or) field of vision of less than 20 degrees (o vida 6/60 i (ili) polja vida
manjim od 20 stepeni).
Already after the first facts, it is clear that athletes from the
Class B1, in regards the results achieved, are on the much
lower level compared to athletes from the other two classes.
If further compare the records of visually impaired athletes (all
three classes together) with the records of sighted athletes,
there would be clear differences that indicate that there are
big differences and that it is entirely justified that the visually
impaired athletes, especially the blind, have a large number
286
Već posle prvih činjenica jasno je da su sportisti iz klase B1,
{to se tiče ostvarenih rezultata, na dosta nižem nivou u
odnosu na sportiste iz druge dve klase. Kada bi dalje upoređivali
rekorde sportista o{tećenog vida (sve tri klase) sa rekordima
sportista koji vide, do{li bi do jasnih razlika koje upućuju da
postoje velike razlike i da je potpuno opravdano da sportisti o{tećenog vida, pogotovo slepi, imaju veliki broj
Zbornik radova 2010, 284-296
of characteristics that should be kept in mind when planning
and programming training.
specifičnosti koje treba imati u vidu kada se planira i programira trening.
Analysis of available
theoretical papers that
deal with this subject
Analiza dosada{njih
teorijskih radova koji
se bave ovom problematikom
Already with the first step of examining the papers dealing
with this subject we encounter problems. There are a number
of papers that explore individual problems related to the
topic of this paper, or for sports training and its structure, some
motor skills through which to highlight the differences between
blind and sighted athletes, the visually impaired of all ages,
etc., but the problem is that a very small number of papers
includes a number of areas, or combinations of these themes,
in particular the problems of training of blind athletes. In the
available reference literature, there is no theoretical work on
the structure of training of persons with impaired vision, so
this paper is practically a pioneer in this field in this region.
Već na prvom koraku pri pregledu radova koji se bave ovom
problematikom nailazi se na probleme. Postoji određeni broj
radova koji istražuju pojedinačno probleme vezane temu
rada, odnosno za sportski trening i njegovu strukturu, pojedine motoričke sposobnosti preko kojih bi se ukazalo na
razlike između slepih i videćih sportista, osobe o{tećenog
vida različitih uzrasta, itd. ali problem je {to vrlo mali broj
radova obuhvata veći broj oblasti, odnosno kombinacije
pomenutih tema, konkretno probleme treniranja slepih
sportista. U dostupnoj literaturi nema teorijskih radova o
strukturi treninga osoba o{tećenog vida, tako da je ovaj rad
praktično pionirski u ovoj oblasti na ovim prostorima.
Analysis of results of testing
people with visual impairments
Analiza rezultata testiranja
osoba sa o{tećenim vidom
As with theoretical, the situation is similar and with research
papers, that is, there are no papers that integrate several
subjects. However, problems that have been established in
these studies allow better identification of reasons for the
specific training of blind people.
One of the abilities in which blind people are behind the
sighted people is a balance, so there will be a special emphasis on works that deal with this ability. In these papers it
was concluded that physical training improves the efficient
use of somatosensory, visual and vestibular information,
which improves the ability to maintain balance (Bringoux et
al., 2000), and also different types of sports in various ways
contribute to postural changes (Davlin, 2004). Specific features of the sports branch make progress in these specific
skills, but not in some skills of daily life (Asseman et al., 2004;
Hugel et al., 1999). Also, athletes (football players) who are
competing at a higher level are more successful in maintaining of balance (Paillard et al., 2006). The general conclusion,
as far as balance, and as confirmed by a large number of
research, would be that sporting has a positive effect on
static and dynamic balance (Davlin, 2004), and therefore
has a positive impact on sports performance.
In papers on the topic of study cognitive abilities of the blind,
in the age when they should start with sports training, delays
in development was noted (Jablan, 2007). Spatial cognition
research has shown that blind people gain knowledge about
the spatial surroundings with more difficulty and slower than
persons with vision (Jablan, 2007).
In regards to research of the motor space of people with visual impairments, we can say that in younger populations blind
are lagging behind in physical development and have less
developed all physical abilities. Because of hypokinesia, specific movements and postures, which are unique to this
population, many deformities are formed. They also have
delayed motor development. Motor development of children
in young school age is associated with a sports talent (Ćosić,
2003), which is an important condition for further sports development. Reviewing the norms of motor development, we
can state slowness in the development of mobility and locomotion of blind children compared with sighted children (Hill, &
Blasch, 1987). It was determined that the overall performance
Kao i sa teorijskim radovima, slična je situacija i sa istraživačkim
radovima, odnosno nema radova koji objedinjuju vi{e tema.
Međutim, problemi koji su ustanovljeni u ovim istraživanjima
ipak omogućavaju da se na bolji način ukaže na razloge
specifičnosti treninga slepih osoba.
Jedna od sposobnosti u kojima slepi zaostaju je ravnoteža,
pa će poseban osvrt biti na radove koji se bave tom sposobno{ću.
U tim radovima se zaključuje da sportski trening utiče na
efikasnije kori{ćenje somatosenzornih, vizuelnih i vestibulativnih informacija, {to pobolj{ava sposobnost održavanja
ravnoteže (Bringoux i saradnici, 2000) a takođe, različiti
vidovi bavljenje sportom na različite načine doprinose posturalnim promenama (Davlin, 2004). Specifičnosti određene
sportske grane donose napredak u tim specifičnim sposobnostima, ali ne i u nekim iz svakodnevnog života (Asseman
i saradnici, 2004; Hugel i saradnici, 1999). Takođe, sportisti (fudbaleri) koji se takmiče na vi{em nivou imaju veću
uspe{nost održavanja ravnoteže (Paillard i saradnici, 2006).
Generalni zaključak, {to se ravnoteže tiče, a {to i veliki broj
istraživanja i potvrđuje, bio bi da bavljenje sportom pozitivno utiče na statičku i dinamičku ravnotežu (Davlin, 2004),
a da samim tim ima i pozitivan uticaj na sportski rezultat.
U radovima sa temom proučavanja kognitivnih sposobnosti slepih, u uzrastu kada treba da se počne sa sportskim
treningom, evidentirano je zaostajanje u razvoju (Jablan,
2007). Istraživanja spacijalne kognicije pokazuju da slepe
osobe stiču znanja o prostoru teže i sporije u odnosu na
osobe sa vidom (Jablan, 2007).
[to se tiče istraživanja motoričkog prostora osoba sa o{tećenim
vidom možemo reći da kod mlađe populacije slepi zaostaju u telesnom razvoju i da imaju slabije razvijene sve fizičke
sposobnosti. Zbog hipokinezije i specifičnih pokreta, kretanja i stavova, koji su jedinstveni za ovu populaciju, nastaju i brojni telesni deformiteti. Oni takođe imaju i usporen
razvoj motorike. Motorički razvoj kod dece mlađeg {kolskog
uzrasta veoma je povezan sa sportskom obdareno{ću (Ćosić,
2003), koja je bitan uslov za dalji sportski razvoj. Pregledom
normi motoričkog razvoja možemo konstatovati usporenost u razvoju pokretljivosti i lokomocije slepe dece u
poređenju sa decom koja vide (Hill i Blasch, 1987). Utvrđeno
287
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Ćosić, M. i Koprivica, V.: SPECIFIČNOSTI STRUKTURE TRENINGA...
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
Ćosić, M., & Koprivica, V.: SPECIFICS OF TRAINING STRUCTURE FOR...
Proceedings 2010, 284-296
of visually impaired pupils is significantly decreased, but that
the dynamics of development of cardiovascular endurance
unfolds according to normal patterns of child development
but was consistently lower from 50% to 25% (Grbović, 2007).
In addition, flexibility and balance differ in terms of lower
development in low vision children (Grbović, 2006; Grbović,
2007). Literature also points out to the particular importance
of sports activities because of the positive development and
maintenance of physical and functional abilities and the formation of motor skills (Grbović, 2003). Important components of
physical education of pupils with low vision should be psychomotor re-education, visual training and corrective exercises (E{kirović et al., 2001), and professionally organized
physical education in schools could provide efficient use of
the locomotor apparatus, and thus independence and integration (Grbović, 2005). Literature also points to the importance
of perceptual development for overall development and learning, the importance of play activities in the field of development
of perception (visual, tactile-kinesthetic, spatial, smell and
taste), the selection, organization and customization of games
that can contribute to perceptual-motor development, and
the importance of adaptation of buildings, devices, equipment,
toys (Vučinić, 2003; Vučinić & Jablan, 1999).
Analysis of race (Daly et al., 2009) which was conducted in
Sydney in The Olympic and Paralympic (all 3 classes) Games
in the 100m freestyle at both competitions shows that all
swimmers with visual impairment use speed patterns similar
to Olympic swimmer and did not spend much time at the
start of the race or turning. Elite swimmers with visual impairment have achieved high levels of lactate after the race and
use arm coordination matching elite bodied swimmers.
Bearing in mind all mentioned in previous chapters, it can
be concluded that the visually impaired persons, although
they have their own specifics in the development of individual skills, and in their final level, with training can significantly improve their potential. Generally it can be concluded that blind people are lagging behind in some skills,
but that it is possible that the final level of those skills may
be close to a sighted persons. It is certain that a well designed
plan and training program helps in this regard.
je i da je op{ta izdržljivost slabovidih učenika značajno
snižena, a da dinamika razvoja kardiovaskularne izdržljivosti
teče prema normalnim zakonitostima dečijeg razvitka, ali je
konzistentno niža od 50% do 25% (Grbović, 2007). Takođe
se i gipkost i ravnoteža razlikuju u smislu slabije razvijenosti kod slabovide dece (Grbović, 2006; Grbović, 2007). U
radovima se ukazuje i na naročit značaj bavljenja fizičkom
aktivno{ću zbog pozitivnog razvoja i održavanja fizičkih i
funkcionalnih sposobnosti i formiranja motoričkih umenja
(Grbović, 2003). Bitne segmente fizičkog vaspitanja sa
slabovidim učenicima treba da čine psihomotorna reedukacija, vizuelni trening i korektivna gimnastika (E{kirović i
saradnici, 2001), a da stručno organizovana nastava fizičkog
vaspitanja omogućava efikasno kori{ćenje lokomotornog
aparata, a time i samostalnost i integraciju (Grbović, 2005).
Ukazuje se i na značaj perceptivnog razvoja za ukupan
razvoj i učenje, na značaj igrovnih aktivnosti u domenu
razvoja percepcije (vizuelne, taktilno-kinestetičke, auditivne
spacijalne kao i olfaktorne i gustativne), na odabir, organizaciju i prilagođavanje igara koje mogu dati doprinos
perceptivno-motornom razvoju, kao i važnost prilagođavanja
i adaptacije objekata, sprava, rekvizita, igračaka (Vučinić,
2003; Vučinić i Jablan, 1999).
Analiza trke (Daly i saradnici, 2009) koja je sprovedena u
Sidneju 2000. godine na Olimpijskim i Paralimpijskim (sve 3
klase) igrama na 100m slobodnim stilom u obe konkurencije
govori da su svi plivači sa o{tećenjem vida koristili brzinske
obrasce slične olimpijskim plivačima i da nisu tro{ili mnogo
vremena na početku trke ili pri okretima. Elitni plivači sa
o{tećenjem vida su postigli visoke nivoe laktata posle trke i
koriste koordinaciju ruku koja odgovara elitnim plivačima sa
jakim telima.
Imajući u vidu sve navedeno u prethodnim poglavljima, može
se zaključiti da osobe o{tećenog vida, iako imaju svoje
specifičnosti, kako u razvoju pojedinih sposobnosti, tako i u
njihovom krajnjem nivou, mogu treningom da značajno unaprede svoje potencijale. Generalno se može zaključiti da slepe
osobe zaostaju u razvoju u pojedinim sposobnostima, ali da
je moguće da krajnji nivo tih sposobnosti može biti približan
sposobnostima osoba koje vide. Sigurno je da dobro osmi{ljen
plan i program treninga pomaže u tom smislu.
Training structure
Struktura treninga
Before we analyze the elements of training structure and their
interdependence, it should be noted that a major problem for
people with visual impairments, which are beginning to practice, is the general level of preparedness. The situation is
further complicated by the fact that sensitive periods in their
development were not largely followed up in the best way.
Usually these are people who very much lag behind in certain
physical abilities, so that certain principles of sports training
must be very carefully included in programming the training
process. Sports career of any athlete goes through three
stages, each of which has several phases:
I stage of basic preparation: initial preparation (initiation),
primary preparation and training specialization;
II stage of maximum realization of sports results: phase of
pre-cumulation and phase of the highest achievements;
III stage of a prolonged sports career: phase of conservation
of achievements and postcareer phase.
In training the visually impaired athlete in the first stage
virtually every phase should be extended especially phases
of initial and primary preparation. All the skills should be
developed, not just those that are relevant to a specific sports
Pre analize elemenata strukture treninga i njihove međusobne
povezanosti, treba napomenuti da veliki problem osobama
sa o{tećenim vidom, koje počinju da treniraju, predstavlja
op{ti nivo treniranosti. Situaciju dodatno komplikuje i to {to
senzitivni periodi u njihovom razvoju uglavnom nisu bili
ispraćeni na najpovoljniji način. Obično su to osobe koje u
velikoj meri zaostaju u pojedinim fizičkim sposobnostima,
tako da određene zakonitosti sportskog treninga moraju
veoma pažljivo da budu uključene u programiranje trenažnog
procesa. Sportska karijera bilo kog sportiste se odvija kroz 3
stadijuma, od kojih svaki ima nekoliko etapa:
I stadijum bazične pripreme: početna priprema, osnovna
priprema i specijalizacija;
II stadijum maksimalne realizacije sportskih rezultata: predkumulaciona etapa i etapa najvi{ih dostignuća;
III stadijum duge sportske karijere: etapa očuvanja dostignuća
i postkarijerna etapa.
U treningu osobe o{tećenog vida potrebno je u okviru prvog
stadijuma produžiti praktično svaku etapu, pogotovo etape
početne i osnovne pripreme. Treba razvijati sve sposobnosti, a ne samo one koje su bitne za konkretnu sportsku
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Zbornik radova 2010, 284-296
branches and disciplines, because in training it is much better and easier to progress if enriches (even with seemingly
useless) repertoire of notions, knowledge, skills and abilities.
In the practice, the first stage starts much later than in
sighted children so there is a large problem in the selection,
which here is practically nonexistent, because the sport for
people with visual impairment is amateurish, voluntary and
not solely driven by sports results. Certain data on athletes
can be obtained with tests, but they are often unavailable
and do not give a true picture. Examinee is unable to properly complete it, so there are plenty of “stain” factors, and
often data obtained with testing is not valid.
granu i disciplinu, jer će u treningu mnogo bolje i lak{e
napredovati ako obogati (pa naizgled i beskorisnim) svoj
repertoar predstava, znanja, ve{tina i sposobnosti. Prvi stadijum u praksi počinje znatno kasnije nego kod dece koja
vide, pa se i tu javljaju problemi selekcije, koje ovde praktično
i nema, jer je sport osoba o{tećenog vida amaterski, na
dobrovoljnoj bazi i nije isključivo podstaknut sportskim rezultatom. Određeni podaci o stanju sportiste se mogu
dobiti testiranjima, ali su često testiranja nedostupna, a i ne
daju pravu sliku. Početnik nije u stanju da valjano uradi test,
tako da ima dosta “prljajućih“ faktora, odnosno često na
osnovu testiranja se ne dobijaju valjani podaci.
Analysis of single training session,
microcycles, mesocycles and macrocycles
Analiza pojedinačnog treninga,
mikrociklusa, mezociklusa i makrociklusa
Before a single training session, each exercise should be particularly (separately) analyzed as well as sets of exercises, but
for this there is no need in this context because they are virtually indistinguishable in any regard. Thus the smallest element
in the structure of training will be analysis of single training
session.
Pre pojedinačnog treninga bi trebalo analizirati i pojedinačnu
vežbu, kao i setove vežbi, ali za time u ovom kontekstu nema
potrebe iz razloga {to se praktično ne razlikuju ni po čemu.
Tako će kao najmanji element strukture treninga biti analiziran
pojedinačni trening.
Single training session
Pojedinačni trening
Bearing in mind that blind athletes are amateurs, it is very difficult to implement more training sessions in a single day, or
additional training as an option is not frequently applied in
practice. If athletes are in training camp, it is possible to practice
two training sessions per day, and then it is usually an extensive
training divided into two shorter sessions. In most cases main
training is applied, as the only and primary training during the
day.
One of the main differences between the single training session
of blind and sighted athletes is in its duration. The possibility is
reduced that a blind athlete practices a new technique or movement and performs tasks with the desired success. Practice has
shown that the optimal duration of single training session is
between 60 and 90 minutes. Blind people are not able to perform longer even some basic actions and they lose a lot of energy, both mental and physical, and they do not use it in for
specific training tasks.
The opening part (introduction, before worm-up) of the training
is extended for reasons of creating better notion of the goal of
training, which methods and means will be used, and therefore
its success of the practice will be greater. In the opening part
known and clear terms will be used, and as much as possible
accurate notion is created of what awaits athlete during training.
In certain situations the theoretical story is told about the development or history of a movement, use of equipment, etc. In
doing so it is ensured that only a limited amount of information
is optimal. All of the above is done in the opening part of training so that later (after warm-up, in the main part of training
session) time is not wasted on things that sighted athletes do not
need explaining. Thus blind athlete has time to think during the
preparatory for training (worm-up), create a mental image, ask
questions, and be clarified unclear things.
Preparatory part (warm-up) consists of a general and specific
phase (components), provided that in the second phase (specific warm-up phase) athletes repeat techniques from previous
trainings and that phase, while athletes is rested, is used to
improve the well-approved techniques. If the technique is not
perfected to such an extent that it can be trained at this moment
(repeating the same faults), it is left for the main part of training,
and in specific phase of warm-up somewhat less complex things
are done.
Imajući u vidu da su slepi sportisti amateri, veoma je te{ko
da se primeni vi{e treninga u toku dana, odnosno dopunski
trening kao opcija nije često primenjivan u praksi. Ukoliko
je sportista na pripremama, moguće je praktikovati i dva
treninga, i to je onda obično jedan obiman trening rastavljen
na dva manja. U najvećem broju slučajeva primenjuje se
osnovni trening, kao jedini i glavni trening u toku dana.
Jedna od osnovnih razlika između treninga slepih i onih koji
vide je u njegovom trajanju. Mogućnost da slepa osoba sa
željenim uspehom vežba neku novu tehniku ili izvodi kretne
zadatke je smanjena. U praksi se pokazalo da je optimalna
dužina treninga između 60 i 90 minuta. Slepe osobe i neke
osnovne radnje nisu u stanju da izvr{avaju duže vremena i
gube mnogo energije, kako mentalne tako i fizičke, i ne
koriste je u smislu konkretnih trenažnih zadataka.
Uvodni deo treninga je produžen iz razloga stvaranja {to
bolje predstave o tome {ta je cilj treninga, koja će sredstva
i metode biti kori{ćeni, te će zbog toga i njegova uspe{nost
biti veća. U uvodnom delu se koriste poznati i jasni pojmovi i koliko je god moguće stvara se ispravna predstava
onoga {ta čeka sportistu tokom treninga. U određenim
situacijama i teorijski se iznosi hronologija razvoja nekog
pokreta, kretanja, upotrebe rekvizita i sl. Pri tome se vodi
računa da je samo određeni broj informacija optimalan. Sve
navedeno se radi u uvodnom delu da se kasnije, kada je
sportista već zagrejan, ne gubi vreme na stvari koje sportisti koji vidi nije ni potrebno obja{njavati. Tako slepi sportista tokom pripremnog dela (zagrevanja) ima vremena da
razmisli, stvori predstavu, pita i da mu se pojasni nejasno.
Pripremni deo se sastoji od op{teg i specifičnog dela, s tim
{to se u drugom delu ponavljaju tehnike sa prethodnih
treninga i taj period, dok je sportista odmoran, koristi se da
usavr{i već dobro usvojene tehnike. Ukoliko tehnika nije do
te mere usavr{ena da se može tada raditi (ponavljanje istih
gre{aka), to se ostavlja za glavni deo treninga, a u pripremnom
se radi ne{to manje složeno.
Osnovna razlika u glavnom delu treninga je u njegovoj
kompleksnosti. Poželjno je izbegavati razvoj vi{e od dve
289
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
Ćosić, M. i Koprivica, V.: SPECIFIČNOSTI STRUKTURE TRENINGA...
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
Ćosić, M., & Koprivica, V.: SPECIFICS OF TRAINING STRUCTURE FOR...
Proceedings 2010, 284-296
Basic difference in the main part of the training is in its complexity. It is desirable to avoid the development of more than two
skills simultaneously. The complexity of the training should be
as small as possible and the structure of training should be
single-oriented or with minimal complexity. To persons with
impaired vision it is too much effort to successfully receive so
much information and hold attention long enough at a high
level. It is optimal to work in the first phase of the main part of
training e.g.: the technique, teamwork with a partner (whether
team-mate or partner who helps him in athletics, swimming,
skiing), and in the second phase to develop physical abilities
that can be trained after the first phase of the main part of training.
The closing part (cool down) of the training is not significantly
different from the standard closing part, although at the end of
it whole training session should be analyzed (verbally) and the
shortcomings and the ways in which they can be rectified should
be pointed out. Throughout the training session, the mode of
communication, social and pedagogical aspects are taken into
account.
As for the form of implementing the training session, it is very
hard to work in a group. This requires a greater number of
guides, and if not available, it is practically impossible to work
with more blind people in the same place. Even when they have
guides when it comes to the group, they should perform the
exercise one at a time. Individually work is the most accepted
and gives the best results. In team sports branches situation is
somewhat different, but even there, certain things have to be
done individually. Practically only teamwork is done in the
group, and work on the physical and technical elements have
individually character.
sposobnosti istovremeno. Kompleksnost treninga treba da
bude {to manja i da trening bude izborno-usmeren ili
minimalno kompleksan. Osobama sa o{tećenim vidom je
prevelik napor da toliko informacija sa uspehom primaju i
održe pažnju dovoljno dugo na visokom nivou. Optimalno
je raditi u jednom delu npr. na tehnici, uigravanje sa partnerom (bilo saigračem ili partnerom koji mu pomaže u atletici, plivanju, skijanju), a u drugom delu razvijati fizičke
sposobnosti koje posle prvog dela glavnog dela treninga
mogu da se treniraju.
Zavr{ni deo treninga se bitno ne razlikuje od standardnog
zavr{nog dela, s tim {to treba analizirati (verbalno) ceo trening
i ukazati na nedostatke i načine na koji oni mogu biti otklonjeni. Tokom čitavog treninga se vodi računa o načinu
komunikacije, sociolo{kim i pedago{kim aspektima.
Što se tiče forme izvođenja treninga, veoma je te{ko raditi
grupno. To zahteva veći broj pomagača, a ukoliko ih nema,
praktično je nemoguće raditi u uslovima sa vi{e slepih osoba na istom mestu. I kada imaju pomagače i kada se radi u
grupi, treba da jedan po jedan izvode vežbu. Individualni
trening je najprihvaćeniji i daje najbolje rezultate. U ekipnim
sportskim granama je ne{to drugačija situacija, ali se i tu
određene stvari moraju raditi individualno. Praktično samo
uigravanje ekipe je u grupi, a rad na fizičkim i tehničkim
elementima je individualnog karaktera.
Microcycle
Mikrociklus
Microcycle, as a cycle that incorporates few training sessions
in a complete, logical form, differs only to a certain extent
from the standard microcycles of traditional periodization,
while the other elements are very similar. Unlike the sighted
people, the blind make greater mental effort on the training
no matter how carefully was training designed and how brief
it is. Unlike the standard periodization, microcycle in the
training of blind has more relief (reduce load) training sessions than would have sighted athletes for the same physical
demands. It may be that even though rested or the optimally strained, “something is wrong”. This happens precisely because of specifics that blind people have in themselves.
Of course, similar things happen with sighted athletes, but
in this case it is much more often.
Mikrociklus, kao ciklus koji objedinjuje nekoliko treninga u
zaokruženu, logičnu celinu, samo se u određenoj meri razlikuje od mikrociklusa standardne periodizacije, dok su u
ostalim elementima veoma slični. Za razliku od osoba koje
vide, slepi imaju veći mentalni napor na samom treningu
koliko god trening bio pažljivo osmi{ljen i kratak. Za razliku
od standardne periodizacije, mikrociklus u treningu slepih
u sebi ima vi{e rasterećujućih treninga nego {to bi za iste
fizičke napore bilo rasterećujućih treninga u ciklusu sportiste
koji vidi. Može se desiti da iako se odmorio ili je optimalno
toniziran, „ne{to nije u redu“. To se de{ava upravo iz razloga specifičnosti koje slepe osobe nose u sebi. Naravno,
slične stvari se de{avaju i sa sportistima koji vide, ali je u
ovom slučaju to mnogo če{će.
Mesocycle
Mezociklus
Mesocycle, a cycle which includes a number of related microcycles is not their bare set and a fictional creation, but a very
important element in the structure of training. Of the many
factors that support the necessity of mesocycle perhaps most
important is: managing the cumulative effects of training. This
is necessary for at least two reasons: it provides the desired
flow of preparedness of athletes and prevents the distortion of
adaptability processes in conditions of fatigue. It can be said
that the existence of mesocycle (within macrocycle) is one of
the prerequisites for achieving sports form3, because only in
this way we can regulate the cumulative effects of training. That
Mezociklus, kao ciklus koji objedinjuje vi{e povezanih mikrociklusa nije njihov puki skup i neka izmi{ljena tvorevina,
već veoma važan element u strukturi treninga. Od mnogobrojnih faktora koji idu u prilog neophodnosti postojanja
mezociklusa možda najvažniji je: upravljanje kumulativnim
trenažnim efektima. To je neophodno iz najmanje dva razloga: obezbeđuje se željeni tok treniranosti sportiste i
sprečava se naru{avanje adaptacionih procesa u uslovima
zamora. Može se reći da je postojanje mezociklusa (u okviru makrociklusa) jedan od preduslova ulaska u sportsku
formu3, jer samo njime možemo regulisati kumulativni
trenažni efekat. U tome je i osnovna specifičnost mezo-
Sports form is concept from eastern literature and means: the
state of optimal preparedness for sports achievements which athlete attain with adequate preparation on each new level of sport
perfection (Koprivica, 1997). In western literature similar concepts
3
290
Sportska forma je koncept iz istočne literature i znači: stanje optimalne pripremljenosti za sportske uspehe koje sportista postigne
uz adekvatnu pripremu na svakom novom nivou sportskog savr{enstva
3
Zbornik radova 2010, 284-296
is the main mesocycle specificity in work with blind athletes.
Since during the single training sessions and microcycles blind
athletes have greater mental and physical strain, it requires
more and more frequent reliefs during microcycles. By solving
one problem, another occurs, and that is that there are practically no cumulative effects of the trainings, or there are but to
a much lesser extent than is the in case with sighted athletes.
This is reflected in the sports form, its level and duration.
ciklusa kod slepih sportista. Po{to su tokom pojedinačnih
treninga i mikrociklusa slepi sportisti vi{e opterećeni i mentalno i fizički, samim tim potrebno je vi{e i če{će rasterećivati
ih tokom mikrociklusa. Re{avanjem jednog problema, javlja se drugi, a to je da praktično nema kumulativnih trenažnih
efekata, odnosno ima ih, ali u znatno manjoj meri nego {to
je to slučaj sa sportistima koji vide. To se odražava i na
sportsku formu, njen nivo i trajanje.
Macrocycle
Makrociklus
Macrocycle, as the largest cycle in the annual plan of training,
practically has no special peculiarities. Those are distinguished
in that the whole time of duration it primarily solves one problem, and that is a sport-specific technique. Everything is subjected to the sport-specific technique. Although through the
smaller training cycles, microcycles and mesocycles, the other
various problems are solved (physical preparation, tactics,
teamwork, load management, sports form, etc…), with blind
athletes during macrocycle, continuously the care is taken of
the proper execution of technique and its improvement. The
sport-specific technique is also taken care of with sighted athletes,
but here it is much more emphasized. Practically, if the athlete
has a bad mental image, and therefore poor sport-specific
technique and teamwork with a partner (team-mate or guide),
he is not helped by better condition or higher level of any
other skill, even by the sports form.
In regards the periods within macrocycle (preparatory, competitive and transition), they are very similar to the standard
periodization. The higher level of knowledge and skills athlete
has, participate in a larger or smaller number of competitions,
or even more sports branches (often the case with blind athletes),
these periods have a different duration. Generally, work with
blind athletes is slightly higher in the transition period, because
then more work can be done related to technique. Under the
technique we also mean the actual sports technique of the sports
branch or sports discipline (sport-specific technique), and technique of other exercises (non-sport-specific exercises and sportspecific exercises). In addition, during the transition period,
when the physical load is reduced, more time can be given to
the theoretical development and trying out of some other sports
branches and disciplines. All this enables work with greater ease
in preparatory and competitive period. Practically, the attempt
is being made to compensate for the disadvantage which athlete
had even before he began training.
Makrociklus, kao najveći ciklus u treningu praktično i nema
posebne specifičnosti. One su izražene u tome da se sve
vreme njegovog trajanja prvenstveno re{ava jedan problem,
a to je tehnika. Sve je podređeno tehnici. Iako su kroz
manje cikluse treninga, mikrocikluse i mezocikluse, re{avani
i drugi različiti problemi (fizička priprema, taktika, uigravanje, upravljanje opterećenjem, forma, itd.), kod slepih
sportista tokom makrociklusa se sve vreme vodi računa o
pravilnom izvođenju tehnike i njenom usavr{avanju. O
tehnici se vodi računa i kod sportista koji vide, ali ovde je
to mnogo vi{e nagla{eno. Praktično, ukoliko sportista ima
lo{u predstavu, a samim tim i lo{u tehniku i uigranost sa
partnerom, nije mu od pomoći ni bolja kondicija, ni vi{i nivo
bilo koje druge pripremljenosti, čak ni sportska forma.
[to se tiče perioda unutar makrociklusa (pripremni, takmičarski
i prelazni), oni su veoma sliči standardnoj periodizaciji. Što
je sportista na vi{em nivou znanja i ve{tina, učestvuje na
većem ili manjem broju takmičenja, ili čak u vi{e sportskih
grana (čest slučaj kod slepih sportista) ti periodi različito
traju. Generalno, kod slepih sportista je ne{to veći rad u
prelaznom periodu, jer se tada može vi{e raditi na problemima vezanim za tehniku. Pod tehnikom podrazumevamo
i konkretnu tehniku sportske grane ili sportske discipline, ali
i tehniku izvođenja drugih vežbi. Pored toga, u prelaznom
periodu, kada je smanjeno fizičko opterećenje, može se vi{e
vremena posvetiti teorijskom usavr{avanju i isprobavanju
nekih drugih sportskih grana i disciplina. Sve to omogućava
da se sa većom lakoćom radi u pripremnom i takmičarskom
periodu. Praktično, poku{ava se nadomestiti nedostatak koji
je sportista imao i pre nego {to je i počeo da trenira.
Training methods
Metode treninga
There probably is no greater diversity in the classification
than the classification of methods of training. One of possible classifications is that methods are classified by the
training objectives (Koprivica, 1997), therefore we can say
that there are: informative methods4 (goal is to inform athletes), teaching methods (goal is to adopt and improve their
knowledge, skills and habits of movement) and loading
methods (goal is to develop and maintain the ability of
athletes). Training methods have their mutual relations and
connections, so when they are analyzed those connections
should be considered, or to note that training is a complex
process and that one does not exclude the other and that
throughout the process they intertwine.
Verovatno da ne postoji veća {arenolikost u klasifikacijama
nego {to je to u klasifikacijama metoda treninga. Jedna od
mogućih klasifikacija je da metode klasifikujemo prema
ciljevima treninga (Koprivica, 1997), stoga možemo reći da
postoji: metode informacija4 (cilje je informi{e sportistu),
metode obuke (cilj je da usvoje i unaprede svoja znanja,
ve{tine i navike kretanja) i metode opterećenja (cilj je da se
razviju i održe sposobnosti sportiste). Metode treninga
imaju i svoje međusobne odnose i veze, tako kada se analiziraju treba imati u vidu i tu povezanost, odnosno imati na
umu da je trening kompleksan proces i da jedna ne isključuje
drugu i da se tokom celog procesa prepliću.
are: excellence in a selected sport, ideal performance state, peak
experience, peak shape, shape, etc.
4
Methods of information would be a direct translation from local
language.
(Koprivica, 1997). U zapadnoj literturi slični koncepti su: izvrsnost
u izabranom sportu, idealne performance izvođenja, vrhunac iskistva...
4
Metof informacije je doslovan prevod sa srpskog jezika.
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Analysis of choice of informative methods
Analiza izbora metoda informacija
Information is necessary and integral part of every workout,
regardless of its task. Specific structure of the training of blind
is perhaps the most expressed in the methods of information.
All informative methods in standard sports training can be
divided into primary and auxiliary. Primary are: verbal,
demonstration and observation.
In working with blind athletes, of primary information methods the most often used is verbal method. Observation is
excluded as a possibility, while demonstration is an option,
but it boils down to tactile information. The problem occurs
because a demonstration mainly takes place in slow motion
and it makes difficult to inform blind athletes and leads to a
much larger repertoire and exhaustion by the end of all kinds
of verbal instructions, and they are: an explanation (of movement, tactics, methods, means, rules ...), exposure (education,
analysis of competition and training), command (organization,
movement...), narration (the sports event, the development
of technique, sports branches...) and conversation.
It is very important that the coach has accurate notion of the
level of knowledge and notions of the blind athlete who
trains. It should be kept in mind that some notions that blind
athlete have from the past, perhaps are not well understood
and maybe not most accurate. Imagination of coach in this
area comes up to the fore. The coach sometimes uses completely non-standard descriptions which would never be in
use in workout with sighted people.
The auxiliary informative methods are: sound, traces after
movement, orientational points (or landmarks), technical means
(audio, visual and tactile), gestures and facial expressions.
As with the primary informative methods, some methods
practically can not be used. It can be said that traces after
movement help only the coach, and rarely to athletes (in the
long jump footstep in the sand, the position of arrows in the
target or javelin in a grass, etc…), and that gestures and facial
expressions practically can not be useful. Most commonly
used are sound and it is used as an orientation points.
Practically all comes down to sound information about the
direction of movement, the rhythm, certain elements in space,
etc., or the sound source and its direction are becoming a
very important source of information. Sound signals (beepers,
clapping, voices, knocking) can be used as orientation points
for direction and (or) the rhythm of movement, and to notify the movement of the ball, opponents, teammates.
Landmarks are used to complement the mental image. As a
landmark well known forms of sporting venues are used (ring
for shot putt or disk throwing), goalpost and crossbar in goalball or specific landmarks in archery (which can be classified
as technical means), the various structures on the surface on
which they move, etc.
Technical means are represented in many sports branches and
make much easier orientation for blind athletes.
It should be mentioned that a large number of minor or major
modifications is being done. Significant number of them is
related to changes in game rules, and especially in relation to
adaptation of sport-specific equipment, sound emitters (generators) and adaptation of equipment of athletes and sport
fields (beepers on basketball rim, on goals, on targets, and the
tactile adaptation of ground surface). All this makes clear that
there is no marked boundary between different informative
methods, or that blind athletes and coaches modify certain
classes of methods and make their own by combination of
standard ones, and all this in order to better inform and create
a better mental image of the world around them.
Informacije su neophodni i sastavni deo svakog treninga,
bez obzira na njegov zadatak. Specifičnosti strukture
treninga slepih se možda i najvi{e izražavaju u metodama
informacija. Sve metode informisanja u standardnom sportskom treningu se mogu podeliti na osnovne i pomoćne.
Osnovne su: živa reč, demonstracija i posmatranje.
U radu sa slepim sportistima od osnovnih informacija najče{će
se koristi živa reč. Posmatranje je isključeno kao mogućnost,
dok demonstracija postoji kao opcija, ali se svodi na taktilne
informacije. Problem se javlja iz razloga {to se demonstracija
uglavnom izvodi usporeno i to u mnogome otežava „informisanje“ slepih sportista i navodi na mnogo veći repertoar i
iscrpljivanje do kraja svih vrsta žive reči, a to su: obja{njenje
(kretanja, taktike, metode, sredstva, pravila...), izlaganje
(obrazovanje, vaspitanje, analiza takmičenja i treninga),
komande (organizacija, kretanje...), pripovedanje (o sportskom događaju, razvoju tehnike, sportske grane...) i razgovor.
Veoma je važno da trener ima tačnu predstavu o nivou
znanja i predstava slepog sportiste koga obučava i trenira.
Treba da ima na umu da neke predstave koje slepi sportista
ima od ranije, možda i nisu najbolje shvaćene i nisu najtačnije.
Ma{tovitost trenera u ovom segmentu dolazi navi{e do
izražaja. Ponekad se koriste i neka potpuno nestandarna
opisivanja koja u radu sa osobama koje vide nikada ne bi
bila u upotrebi.
Pomoćne metode informacije su: zvuk, tragovi posle kretanja, orijentiri, tehnička sredstva (zvučna, vizuelna i taktilna),
gestovi i mimika.
Kao i kod osnovnih metoda informacije, neke metode
praktično se ne mogu koristiti. Može se reći da tragovi pomažu
samo treneru, dok sportisti veoma retko (kod skoka udalj
tragovi u pesku, položaj strele u meti ili koplja u travi, itd.),
a da gestovi i mimika praktično ne mogu biti od koristi.
Najče{će se koristi zvuk i to kao orijentir.
Praktično sve se svodi na zvučne informacije o pravcu kretanja, ritmu, određenim elementima u prostoru itd. odnosno na izvor zvuka i njegov pravac postaju veoma važan izvor
informacija. Zvučni signali (pejseri, pljeskanje, glas, lupkanje) se mogu koristiti kao orijentiri za pravac i (ili) ritam
kretanja, kao i za obave{tavanje o kretanju lopte, protivnika,
saigrača.
Fizički orijentiri se koriste da bi se upotpunila predstava. Kao
orijentir se koriste poznati oblik sportskog borili{ta (krugprsten za bacanje kugle ili diska), golovi u golbalu ili specifični
orijentiri u streličarstvu (koji se mogu svrstati i u tehnička
sredstva), različite strukture podloga po kojima se kreću, itd.
Tehnička sredstva su zastupljena u mnogim sportskim
granama i dosta olak{avaju snalaženje slepih sportista.
Treba napomenuti da se vr{i veliki broj većih ili manjih
modifikacija. Dobrim delom one se odnose na izmenu
pravila igre, a naročito na adaptaciju sportskih rekvizita,
ozvučivanje i adaptaciju opreme sportista i sportskih terena
(ozvučavanje ko{a, gola, mete, kao i za taktilnu adaptaciju
podloge terena). Iz svega izloženog jasno je da nema izražene
granice između različitih metoda informacije, odnosno da
slepi sportisti i treneri modifikuju pojedine klase metoda i
prave sopstvene kombinacijom standardnih sve u cilju bolje
informisanosti i stvaranja boljih predstava o svetu oko njih.
292
Zbornik radova 2010, 284-296
Analysis of choice of teaching methods
Analiza izbora metoda obuke
It is perfectly clear that visually impaired persons have certain
problems with some teaching methods. Learning of movements
is done through three phases: development of rough coordination, development of fine coordination, and development of
super-fine coordination. In the first phase visual information is
very important, which in case with visually impaired persons
we do not have, so that phase is most specific in training of
those persons
Teaching methods we can categorize in two basic groups:
standard and situational. Standard methods are: synthetic,
analytic and complex.
Synthetic method is often not the most appropriate for application in the first phase of training (learning) visually impaired
athletes, although it is used in situations when motion and
movement are adopted, and they need to be perfected (second
and especially third phase of learning). Having this in mind,
during training of visually impaired persons analytical method
is more often used. It is very important as a step towards to the
synthetic method and practicing motion and movement as a
whole. From this it follows that the complex method, in addition
to analytic, is the most common in various stages of training.
Besides standard group of methods, there are also situational
methods: idea-motor (forming of notion), interactive (connecting), and iterative (repeating) (Malacko & Radjo, 2004).
Potpuno je jasno da slepe osobe imaju određene probleme
u pojedinim metodama obuke. Učenje pokreta se vr{i kroz
tri faze: razvijanje grube koordinacije, razvijanje fine koordinacije i razvijanje superfine koordinacije. U prvoj fazi je
veoma važna vizuelna informacija, koju u slučaju sa slepim
sportistima nemamo, tako da je ta faza i najspecifičnija u
obuci slepih sportista.
Metode obuke možemo svrstati u dve osnovne grupe: standardne i situacione. Standardne su: Sintetička, Analitička i
Kompleksna.
Sintetička metoda često nije najprikladnija za primenjivanje u prvoj fazi obuke slepih sportista, s tim da se koristi u
situacijama kada su pokret ili kretnja usvojeni, pa ih treba
usavr{avati (druga i posebno treća faza učenja). Imajući to
u vidu, prilikom obuke slepih če{će se koristi analitički metod.
On je veoma važan kao „stepenica“ ka sintetičkom metodu
i uvežbavanju pokreta i kretanje u celini. Iz ovoga sledi da
je kompleksni metod, pored analitičkog najzastupljeniji u
različitim fazama obučavanja.
Pored osnovnih, postoje i situacione metode: ideomotorna
(formiranje predstave), interakcijska (povezivanje) i iterativna (ponavljanje) (Malacko i Rađo, 2004).
Imajući na umu činjenicu da su slepi sportisti limitirani u
konstantnoj korekciji kretanja (vizuelno, odnosno demonstracijom i posmatranjem) veoma je važno da predstava
kretanja bude pravilno formirana, odnosno da je predstava
jasna i tačna. Tek se u tom slučaju može koristiti ideomotorna metoda. Ostale dve metode se koriste u slučajevima
kada se koriste i kod sportista koji imaju normalan vid, ali
sa svojim specifičnostima.
Analysis of choice of loading
methods and load in sports training
Analiza izbora metoda opterećenja
i opterećenje u sportskom treningu
As for the loading methods, they are very similar to standard
sports training, but have certain modifications. If athletes
have not available guide or the treadmill, continuous methods (either equable or variable) are very difficult to enforce.
Interval methods are much more applicable for several
reasons (safety of athletes, practical considerations, monitoring and control training...).
Analyzing the loads in sports training it can be said that there
are certain specifics. It should be noted that blind athlete
has a larger load during workout and effort that he puts for
the same work is not equal of the effort that is put by
sighted athlete. In addition, one should bear in mind the
specifics of disability, or the reasons why athlete has impaired
vision. It is possible that high loads (weights, pressure, etc...)
can worsen vision or prevent and disable the possibility of
the correction. These problems are known and they also
occur with sighted athletes but have some problems with
vision, but here are these problems are far more pronounced.
[to se tiče metoda opterećenja one su veoma slične kao i u
standardnom sportskom treningu, s tim da ima izvesnih
modifikacija. Ukoliko sportista nema na raspolaganju pomagača
ili pokretnu traku, kontinuirane metode (bilo ravnomerna
ili promenljiiva) se veoma te{ko mogu primeniti. Intervalna
metoda je znatno primenljivija iz nekoliko razloga (sigurnost
sportiste, praktični razlozi, nadgledanje i kontrola treninga...).
Analizirajući opterećenja u sportskom treningu može se reći
da i tu ima određenih specifičnosti. Treba imati u vidu da
slepi sportista ima veće opterećenje kada trenira i da napor
koji on doživljava za isti rad nije kao i napor koji trpi sportista koji vidi. Pored toga, treba imati u vidu i specifičnosti
oštećenja, odnosno razloge zbog kojih sportista ima o{tećen
vid. Moguće je da se velikim opterećenjima (tegovi, pritisak,
itd.) pogor{a o{tećenje ili spreči i onemogući korekcija. Ti
problemi su poznati i javljaju se i kod sportista koji vide, a
imaju određene probleme sa vidom, ali su ovde ti problemi
daleko izraženiji.
Analysis of training means
Analiza trenažnih sredstava
Choice of training means in the work with blind athletes also has
its own modifications. As in training of sighted athletes, also in the
training of the blind athletes there are: competitive, specific and
general preparatory exercises.
Izbor trenažnih sredstva u treningu slepih sportista takođe
ima svoje modifikacije. I u treningu slepih postoje: takmičarske,
specifično i op{te pripremne vežbe.
Zajednička karakteristika za sve tri vrste vežbi je da se neke
vežbe, sprave i rekviziti ne mogu koristiti. To se javlja u
Have in mind the fact that blind athletes are limited in
constant movement correction (visually, or by demonstration
and observation) it is very important that the notion of movement is developed properly, or that notion is clear and accurate. Only in such a case can idea-motor method can be
used. Remaining two methods are used in same cases in
which they are used with athletes with regular sight, but with
its specificities.
Common feature for all three types of exercises is that some
exercises and equipment can not be used. It is manifested in
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different forms of movement, even the most basic such as running, jumping and throwing. It can be said that stairs, hurdles,
balls without the sound adaptation, some equipment that is not
adapted to blind people or their use is very complicated, is not
fully available to blind athletes. The big problem also represent
very simple modifications of the exercises, which the coach can
use in training at some point, and that in working with blind
athletes require spending extra time on training of these exercises.
It should be emphasized that it is very important to have
adaptive facilities and equipment, not only for better training, but also for protecting and preserving the health of the
blind and visually impaired athletes, as well as creating
conditions that make maximum use of their potential.
različitim oblicima kretanja, pa čak i u najosnovnijim kao
{to su trčanja, skokovi i bacanja. Može se reći da tribine,
prepone, lopte bez zvučne adaptacije, neki rekviziti koji nisu
prilagođeni slepim osobama ili je njihovo kori{ćenje veoma
komplikovano, nisu u potpunosti na raspolaganju slepim
sportistima. Veliki problem predstavljaju i veoma proste
modifikacije osnovnih vežbi kojima se trener može služiti u
treningu u nekom momentu, a za koje u radu sa slepim
sportistima treba posebno tro{iti vreme na obučavanje.
Treba posebno istaći da je veoma važno imati prilagođene
uslove, sprave i rekvizite, ne samo radi boljeg treninga, već i
zbog za{tite i očuvanja zdravlja slepih i slabovidih sportista,
kao i zbog stvaranja uslova da maksimalno koriste svoje potencijale.
Anaysis of work in practice
Analiza rada u praksi
Blind and visually impaired athletes face formidable problems.
In the first place there is the lack of staff dealing with this
specific profession. Perhaps the best example of what happens in practice is in athletics, which is a basic sports branch
with the largely cyclic type disciplines. Practically it is easiest
to explain through the athletics training the way that the
blind athlete (runner, sprinter) is introduced to the workout.
Basically he has no guides, and this role is taken by one of
athletes already training in the group.
Usually, in the preparatory period blind athlete is connected to the group of sighted athletes where one of them
(experienced) takes care of him. Blind athlete is generally at
a higher level than younger runners, and at a lower level
then runners of his age, and therefore in the preparatory
period, when training (running) loads are less intensive, the
blind athlete can train with some of the better athletes of
his age, but then he trains with more intensity than would
be optimal. Total load can be regulated (by coach) through
other components of the load, but it is not an easy process.
When the season moves away and the group starts with more
specific and intense work, a blind athlete needs more attention
in addition to individually work (which becomes the main form
of training) and a separate term, athlete can be connected to
a group of young sighted athletes. Similar to the preparatory
period where he worked with athletes of a higher level, he
now trains with athletes of a lower level, but only in the weight
room (weight training), or to implement some non-sportspecific, relieving and recovering training, etc…
If, for example, the training focus is sprint (block) starts (he was
already trained in standing start and three point start, and in
starting acceleration), in the introductory part of training coach
explains the place of start in the structure of the race, the elements preceding and following the start. It is associated with
known facts and possible differences are pointed out. The
starting block is gives in his hands to touch and to visualize
(forming a mental image). While he explores the block, the
coach observes and gives additional information to enhance
the mental image.
It is shown how to set (the hand of blind by the hand of
coach), explained the technical characteristics (setting angles
of front and rear blocks, their spacing, length of line, etc...)
and rules (commands). Blind athlete is in direct contact and
constant communication with the coach. Then the coach
(or assistant) on command coming from behind the block
(preparation for the start), on following command (on you
marks) enters into the starting block (blind athlete palpated
him all the time), and on the command “Set” rises in the
proper position.
Slepi i slabovidi sportisti nailaze na ogromne probleme. Na
prvom mestu je nedostatak kadra koji se bavi ovim specifičnim
poslom. Možda i najbolji primer {ta se događa u praksi je iz
atletike, koja je je bazična sportska grana sa disciplinama
koje su većinom cikličnog karaktrera. Praktično je najlak{e
kroz atletski trening objasniti način na koji se slepi sportista
(atletičar, trkač) uključuje u rad. Uglavnom on nema pomagača
i tu ulogu preuzima neko od atletičara koji već trenira u
grupi.
Obično je u pripremnom periodu slepi sportista priključen
(jedan) grupi sportista koji vide, gde jedan (iskusan) od njih
vodi računa o njemu. Slepi sportista je uglavnom na vi{em
nivou od mlađih trkača, a na nižem od trkača svojih godina,
i iz tog razloga u pripremnom periodu, kada se manje intenzivno trenira, slepi sportista može trenirati sa nekim od
kvalitetnijih sportista svojih godina, ali tada on trenira većim
intenzitetom nego {to bi bilo poželjno. Trener ukupno
opterećenje može regulisati preko ostalih komponenti
opterećenja, ali to uop{te nije lak proces.
Kada sezona odmakne i grupa pređe na specifičniji i intenzivniji rad, slepom atletičaru je potrebno vi{e pažnje i pored
individualnog rada (koji postaje glavni oblik treniranja) i u
posebnom terminu, sportista može biti priključen grupi
mlađih sportista koji vide. Slično kao i u pripremnom periodu gde je radio sa sportistima vi{eg nivoa, sada trenira sa
sportistima nižeg nivoa, ali sa njima trenira isključivo u
teretani, ili sprovodi neke nespecifične, rasterećujuće i
oporavljajuće treninge, itd.
Ukoliko se na treningu obučava npr. niski start (pre toga je
već obučen visokom i poluvisokom startu, kao i startnom
ubrzanju), u uvodnom delu se obja{njava mesto starta u
strukturi trke, elementi koji prethode i koji slede posle samog
starta. To se povezuje sa poznatim činjenicama i ukazuje se
na razlike ako ih ima. Daje mu se u ruke startni blok da ga
opipa i da dobije predstavu o njemu. Dok on istražuje blok,
trener posmatra i dodatnim informacijama obogaćuje predstavu.
Pokazuje se kako se pode{ava (ruka slepog je uz ruku trenera), obja{njavaju se tehnička svojstva (pode{avanje bloka,
uglovi papučica i njihov razmak, daljina od linije, itd.) i
pravila (komande). Slepi sportista je u neposrednom dodiru
i konstantnoj komunikaciji sa trenerom. Zatim se trener (ili
pomagač) na komandu priprema za start (dolazi iza bloka);
na sledeću komandu ulazi u startni blok (slepi sportista ga
sve vreme opipava), i na komandu „pozor“, podiže se u
pravilnu poziciju. Slepi sportista ga dodiruje i pravi predstavu
o pokretu podizanja na komandu „pozor“. Imajući u vidu
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Zbornik radova 2010, 284-296
Blind athlete touches him and makes a mental image of the
move of rising on the command “Set”. Bearing in mind that he
already knows three point start, the rest is all (almost) the same
because after the shot knows what to do. Blind athlete tries a
few times (1 to 3) and if he understood what the point was, he
starts with warm-up. During the warm-up a standard didactic
principles are used: from easier to more difficult, from simpler
to more complex, from known to unknown.
In the main part of the training, start from the starting block is
trained. By this time the blind athlete has created a certain
mental image of the starting block and time is relatively not
wasted on further explaining. The mental fatigue is taken into
account, and at first signs of deterioration of attention, the switch
is done onto another part of the main part of the training, where
other problems are solved in accordance with already mentioned
general and specific (related to the blind) principles. Time after
training or time of returning home can be used to talk with a
blind athlete, for a variety of analysis and negotiation.
da već od ranije zna poluvisoki start, dalje je sve (skoro) isto,
jer posle pucnja zna {ta treba da radi. Slepi sportista proba
nekoliko puta (1 do 3) i ukoliko je shvatio o čemu se radi,
kreće se na zagrevanje. Tokom zagrevanja se koriste standardni didaktički principi: od lak{eg ka težem, od jednostavnijeg ka složenijem, od poznatog ka nepoznatom. U glavnom
delu treninga se vr{i obuka starta iz startnog bloka.
Do ovog trenutka slepi sportista je već stvorio određenu
predstavu o startnom bloku i relativno se ne gubi vreme na
dodatna obja{njavanja. Vodi se računa o mentalnom
zamoru, a na prve znake popu{tanja pažnje, prelazi se na
drugi deo glavnog dela treninga, gde se re{avaju neki drugi
problemi u skladu sa navedenim op{tim i specifičnim (vezano za slepe) pravilima. Vreme posle treninga ili u povratku kući može se može koristiti za razgovor sa slepim sportistom, za razne analize i dogovore.
Conclusions
Zaključci
Based on previous research and theoretical papers dealing with
this problem, on the analysis of training process in practice, as
well as the facts set forth in the paper and related to any area
of predication (a single training session, microcycle, mesocycle,
macrocycle) and methodology of work (choice of methods and
training means), it can be concluded that the structure of training and technology of training process in working with individuals with visual impairments is significantly different from the
training of athletes without this disability. This is particularly true
in case with blind athletes. The distinction is large that expert
specialists of working with visually impaired people are necessary.
This is necessary because of all these facts, but also because of
other objective differences in coaching the population with
impaired vision (especially blind), such as modifications of sports
branches and disciplines with its rules, classifications, knowledge
of the problem of impairment, different pedagogical, social,
voluntary and every other approach. The lack of conditions,
from the material (for travel, training camps), through the equipment (basic and special for the competition and training), to the
expert specialists (usually working enthusiasts who lack knowledge of the whole problem), makes this area of sports training
very hard, but very challenging.
Na osnovu dasada{njih istraživanja, kao i teorijskih radova,
koji se bave ovom problematikom, zatim analize trenažnog
rada u praksi, kao i iznetih činjenica u radu, vezanih bilo za
oblast periodizacije (pojedinačni trening, mikrociklus, mezociklus, makrociklus) i metodologije rada (izbor metoda i
trenažnih sredstava), može se zaključiti da se struktura
treninga i tehnologija trenažnog procesa u radu sa osobama
sa o{tećenim vidom bitno razlikuje od treninga sportista bez
ovog invaliditeta. Pogotovo je to slučaj sa slepim sportistima.
Specifičnost je izražena u tolikoj meri da su neophodni
stručnjaci specijalisti za rad sa osobama o{tećenog vida.
To je potrebno zbog svih navedenih činjenica, ali i zbog
ostalih objektivnih razlika u treniranju populacije sa o{tećenim
(posebno slepi) vidom, kao {to su modifikacije sportskih
grana i disciplina sa svojim pravilima, klasifikacije, poznavanje same problematike o{tećenja, drugačijeg pedagoškog,
socijalnog, voljnog i svakog drugog pristupa. Nedostatak
uslova, od materijalnih (putovanja, pripreme), preko opreme
(osnovne i specijalne za takmičenje i trening), pa do stručnog
kadra (rade entuzijasti koji nedovoljno poznaju celokupnu
problematiku), čine ovu oblast sportskog treninga veoma
te{kom, ali i veoma izazovnom.
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PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
Ćosić, M. i Koprivica, V.: SPECIFIČNOSTI STRUKTURE TRENINGA...
Ćosić, M., & Koprivica, V.: SPECIFICS OF TRAINING STRUCTURE FOR...
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Received: September, 30th 2010
Correspodence to:
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
STRUČNI ČLANAK
Marko Ćosić, MSc
AC “Crvena Zvezda”
Kneza od Semberije 7
11000 Beograd
Serbia
Phone: +381 63 84 48 745
E-mail: marko.cosicªbeotel.rs
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Primljeno: 30. septembra 2010. godine
Korespodencija:
mr Marko Ćosić
Atletski klub “Crvena Zvezda”
Kneza od Semberije 7
11000 Beograd
Srbija
Telefon: +381 63 84 48 745
E-mail: marko.cosicªbeotel.rs
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