H
HACETTEPE UNIVE
ERSITY
D
DEPARTM
MENT OF GEOLOGIC
G
CAL ENGIINEERING
G
“JEO 11
16 – Geologgy for Minin
ng Enggineerrs” Labora
L
atory N
Notes‐1 Feebruary 201
15 Referen
nces: 1. Natio
onal Geogra
aphic Web Site,
S
http://ed
ducation.nationalgeogrraphic.com//education/e
encyclopediia/map/?ar__a=1
2. QGIS
S Web Site,
http://ww
ww.qgis.org
g/en/docs/gentle_gis_in
ntroduction//coordinate_reference__systems.h
html
3. Utah Valley Univversity Web
b Site,
http://re
esearch.uvu.edu/bunds
s/GEOL3700
0/Handouts
s/rule_of_vs
s.pdf
4. Marli Bryant Miller Web Site
e, http://www
w.marlimille
erphoto.com
m/Vblocks.hhtml.
ettepe Unive
ersity, “JEO
O152 Fizikse
el Jeoloji de
ers notları”,
5. Hace
http://ww
ww.geneljeo
o.hacettepe
e.edu.tr/Lab
b_notlari_20
013.pdf
6. Hace
ettepe Unive
ersity, “JEO
O251-Genera
al Geology Laboratory notes”.
7. Jeolo
ojik Harita Alımına
A
Giriş
ş, Gürol Seyyitoğlu, Gaz
zi Kitabevi.
0 MAP
A map is a symbollic represen
ntation of seelected charracteristics of a place, usually draawn on a
flat surfface. Maps present infformation aabout the earth in a siimple, visuaal way. They teach
about thhe earth by showing sizes and shaapes of coun
ntries, locattions of feattures, and distances
d
betweenn places.
Some coommon feattures of map
ps include sscale, symbols, and grids.
Scale
All mapps are scale models of reality.
r
Am
map’s scale indicates
i
thee relationshhip between the
distancees on the maap and the actual
a
distannces on Earrth. This relaationship caan be expresssed by
a graphiic scale or a representaative fractionn.
The moost common type of graaphic scale llooks like a ruler. Also
o called a baar scale, it is simply
a horizoontal line marked
m
off in meters, kkilometers, or
o some oth
her unit of m
measuring distance.
d
The reppresentative fraction do
oes not havee specific un
nits. It is shown as a frraction or raatio—for
examplee, 1/1,000,0000 or 1:1,0
000,000. Thhis means th
hat any giveen unit of m
measure on the map
is equall to one milllion of that unit on Earrth. So, 1 ceentimeter on
n the map reepresents 1,,000,000
centimeeters on Eartth, or 10 killometers.
The sizee of the area covered helps
h
determ
mine the scaale of a map
p. A map thhat shows an
n area in
great deetail, such as a street map of a neighborho
ood, is called a large--scale map because
objects on the mapp are relativ
vely large. A map of a larger area, such ass a continen
nt or the
world, is called a small-scaale map bbecause objjects on th
he map are
re relatively
y small.
1 Symbols
A map usually has a legend, or key, that gives the scale of the map and explains what the
various symbols represent.
Some maps show relief or changes in elevation. A common way to show relief is contour
lines, also called topographic lines. These are lines that connect points that have equal
elevation. If a map shows a large enough area, contour lines form circles.
A group of contour line circles inside one another indicates a change in elevation. As
elevation increases, these contour line circles indicate a hill. As elevation decreases, contour
line circles indicate a depression in the earth, such as a basin.
Grids
Many maps include a grid pattern, or a series of crossing lines that create squares or
rectangles. The grid helps people locate places on the map. On small-scale maps, the grid is
often made up of latitude and longitude lines. Latitude lines run east-west around the globe,
parallel to the Equator, an imaginary line that circles the middle of the Earth. Longitude lines
run north-south, from pole to pole. Latitude and longitude lines are numbered. The
intersection of latitude and longitude lines, called coordinates; identify the exact location of a
place.
Map Projection
Map projections try to portray the surface of the earth or a portion of the earth on a flat piece
of paper or computer screen. A coordinate reference system (CRS) then defines, with the help
of coordinates, how the two-dimensional, projected map in your GIS is related to real places
on the earth. The decision as to which map projection and coordinate reference system to use,
depends on the regional extent of the area you want to work in, on the analysis you want to do
and often on the availability of data.
The process of creating map projections can be visualized by positioning a light source inside
a transparent globe on which opaque earth features are placed. Then project the feature
outlines onto a two-dimensional flat piece of paper. Different ways of projecting can be
produced by surrounding the globe in a cylindrical fashion, as a cone, or even as a flat
surface.
2 The thrree familiess of map pro
ojections. T
They can be represented
d by a) cylinndrical projeections,
b) con
nical projecttions or c) planar
p
projections.
EXAMPLES
1. A disstance is meeasured 125
50 m on the field and sh
hown 5 cm on the mapp. What is th
he scale
of the m
map?
5 cm
1250000 cm
1cm
X cm
m
X= 25000 cm
scalee: 1/ 25.000
2. A meeasured distance of 8 cm
m on 1/25.0000 scaled map
m is how many km oon the field??
1 cm
m
250000cm
8 cm
m
X
X=
= 200000 cm = 2 km
3. A meeasured disttance of 500
00 m on thee field is how
w many cm
m on 1/25.0000 scaled map?
1 cm
m
250000 cm
X cm
m
50000 cm
m
X= 20 cm
3 QUESTIONS
1. Gerçekte 900 km olan A-B kentleri arası, ölçeği bilinmeyen bir haritada 10 cm olarak
ölçülmüştür. Buna göre haritanın ölçeği nedir?
2. 1/1.200.000 ölçekli bir haritada 17 cm olarak ölçülen uzunluk gerçekte kaç km dir?
3. 1/500.000 ölçekli bir harita üzerinde, arazide 20 km olarak ölçülen bir mesafe kaç cm
ile gösterilir?
4. Gerçekte 900 km2 olan bir göl 1/300.000 ölçekli bir haritada kaç cm2 ile gösterilir?
5. 1/500.000 ölçekli bir haritada 10 cm olarak gösterilen iki merkez arasındaki uzaklık
başka bir haritada 20 cm olarak gösterilmiştir. Buna göre, ikinci haritanın ölçeği
nedir?
6. Van Gölü, aşağıda verilen ölçeklerden hangisiyle çizilecek haritada daha az yer
kaplar?
a) 1:50.000
1:1.000.000
b) 1:100.000
c) 1:200.000
d) 1:500.000
e)
7. Aşağıdaki haritaya göre;
K
0
150 m
Beytepe köyü
Yol
-
Haritanın kesir ölçeği nedir? ……………………
-
Yol ile bulunduğunuz yer arasındaki uzaklık gerçekte kaç m’dir? ………………… m
-
Köy ile bulunduğunuz yer arasındaki uzaklık gerçekte kaç m’dir? ………………… m
4 MAP SHEETS
Division of a 1/250000 scaled map to sheets:
1/250.000’lik paftalar
Kutup
1o 30’
o
1 30’
yl
bo
am
3o
1o
1/250.000
2o
o
1
enlem
0o
o
6
o
0
1o
o
o
2
3
o
4
5o
1/100.000’lik paftalar
30’
1/250.000
o
1 30’
30’
o
1
1/100.000
30’
30’
30’
30’
30’
1/100.000
1/50.000’lik paftalar
15’
o
1 30’
o
1
1/50.000
15’
1/50.000
1/25.000’lik paftalar
7,5’
o
1 30’
o
1
1/25.000
7,5’
1/25.000
5 Definition
n of 1/10000
0, 1/50000 and 1/2500
00 scaled map
m sheets iin Turkey:
Topograaphic map division
d
of Turkey
T
is ddone by usin
ng numbers from west tto east (15--53); and
by letterrs from nortth to south (D-R).
(
6 QUESTIONS
1. What is scale of the given map sheets?
İzmir L19
Ankara K29a4
Van L50c
Konya
……………………..
……………………..
……………………..
……………………..
2. Find the neighbours map sheets of the given map sheets.
Yozgat J35a4
Adana N34a1
Trabzon H43b
Eskişehir İ25d3
Denizli M23
East neighbor is
West neighbor is
North neighbor is
South neighbor is
West neighbor is
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
…………………………..
7 POINT D
DEFINITION SSYSTEMS 1‐ N
Network Sysstem a‐ Geograp
phic system b‐
U.T.M
M (Grid) Systtem 2‐ Military poin
nt definition system GEOGRA
APHIC SYSTEM This systtem is formeer by longitud
des starting from Greenw
wich and latitudes starti ng from the equator. Turkey iss placed in between 26°‐‐45° E longituudes and 36°°‐42°N latitudes. 8 GRID (UTTM) SYSTEM
M U: universal T: transvvers M: Merccator 4
79 shows international sta
andard divisiion 45
12 000
: place of a pointt, in a grid sq
quare of 1 km
m X 1 km 9 10 QUESTIO
ONS 1. Descriibe the locattions by UTM
M Grid system
m of given po
oints. Pointt A: Pointt B: Pointt C: Pointt D: Pointt E: Pointt F: 2. Locatee the given p
points. Point A: 19500N/332500E Point B: 19475N/342550E Point C: 19750N/340000E Point D: 19575N/332000E Point E: 19200N/34950E Point F: 19000N/33250E 11 TOPOGR
RAPHIC MAP
PS Topographic map is a map showing the morpphological structure of a part or the w
whole earth’’s surface hed scale by means of co
ontour lines. on a plaiin surface, att an establish
Contourr lines are: 11. Parallel tto one anoth
her and to hoorizontal plain, they neve
er intersect oone another,, 22. Vertical elevation diffference betw
ween contou
ur lines is alw
ways the sam
me, 33. Horizonttal distancess between ccontour liness can be different, whicch depends on slope inclinatio
on. If the slope inclinatioon is steep, they are veryy close to onee another. Iff not they set widely apart. 12 1 00
2 00
300
0
40
VADİ
İçeri doğru azalıyor.
4 00
300
200
100
İçe
çeri doğru artıyor.
SIRT
13 Repeateed Contour LLines 14 How a topographic cross section is drawn? YÖNTEM: Topografik kesit nasıl çizilir?
HARİTA GÖRÜNÜMÜ
K
100
200
300
400
B
A
Kesit yönleri
Kesit yönleri
Kesit profili
D
Düşey ölçek çizgisi
B
400
m
300
200
100
A
KESİT GÖRÜNÜMÜ
Yatay ölçek: 1/10000
Düşeyölçek: 1/10000
B
Kesit doğrultuları
Kesit doğrultuları
Ölçekler
SONUÇ: Bir kesitte olması gereken özellikler
D
B
400
m
300
200
100
A
Yatay ölçek: 1/10000
Düşeyölçek: 1/10000
B
15 16 APPLICATIONS 1. a) Aşağıdaki haritada A‐B ve C‐D noktaları arasındaki yamaçlardan hangisi daha az eğimlidir? Neden? b) A‐B ve C‐D noktaları arasındaki yamaçların eğim açılarını bulunuz. A, B, C ve D noktalarının yükseklikleri sırasıyla 810m, 70m, 820m ve 320m’dir. K
1000
C
900
800 700
600
D
500
A
400
300
200
0
100 m
100
B
D
0
300
400
100
500
600
200
300
400
500
A
C
700
600
800
700
200
400 m
B
K
2. Aşağıda verilen topoğrafik haritada, A‐B ve C‐D doğrultularında topoğrafik kesit çiziniz. Düşey ölçeği 1/10000 olarak alınız. 17 CONCE
EPT OF BE
ED (STRA
ATA), STRIIKE – DIP
Bed (Strrata): A sm
mallest rock unit whichh combined with the special structuure, top and
d bottom
surfacess are paralleel to each otther, it is naamed accord
ding to its position.
Strike: S
Strike is a compass
c
direction of a line formed
d by the inteersection off an inclined
d plane it
is measuured from north
n
(azimu
uth) in a horrizontal plan
ne.
* Threee measuremeents have to
o be made aat each locattion
 strikke
 dip
 geeneral dip ddirection
Dip: A vertical anngle measurred downw
ward from the
t horizonttal plane too an inclineed plane
(beddinng plane); iss measured within a veertical planee that is perp
pendicular tto both the bedding
and horiizontal planne.
A Direcction Of Dipp:
18 19 Descrip
ption of striike and dip
p and illustrration of th
hem on a map
m
1.
A
Azimuth Metthod
Strike
N
N
D
Dip
Strike angle
45 / 30
0 SE
45
o
Di
p
Strike anngle
Dip direction
e
ri k
St
Dip direection
Map symbol
2.
D
Dip Direction
n Method
N
N
Strike
Dip
o
45
135 / 30
1355
D
Dip angle
Angle is beetween dip direction
and N in clockwisee
3.
Measuured from N to dip direction
in clockwise
e
rik
St
ip
di
re
o
ct
i oo
nn
Map symbool
Q
Quadrant Method
N
N
Strike
D
Dip
Strike ang
gle
0 SE
N 45 E / 30
Strike anngle
45o
W
E
e
rik
St
Dip direction
S
D direction
Dip
Map symb
bol
N45E / 30SE =
45 / 30 SE
E
=
135 / 30
20 PRACTICES
1.
Draw the following strike/dip positions.
N65E / 26SE
EW / 35N
Horizontal plane
2.
N15W / 36SW
N70W / 85NE
NS / 6W
EW / 90
N45E / 6NW (Overturned)
Write the position of given map symbols.
32
.......................
68
.......................
44
.......................
3.
EW / 85S (Overturned)
.......................
8
.......................
.......................
Fill in the blanks.
Quadrant
Azimuth
Dip direction
N40W / 70 SW
89 / 85 NW
284 / 12
NS / 60 W
120 / 36 SW
180 / 46
21 THE RULE OF V’S (The Intersection of Planes with Topography)
The outcrop patterns of sedimentary beds on the surface of the Earth are the result of the
intersection of bedding planes, often dipping, with an irregular, curved land surface.
Understanding and visualizing the intersection patterns that result is fundamental to many
geologic tasks.
The simplest situation is the outcrop of a planar bed and a flat, planar land surface. The
intersection of two planes is a straight line. For example, if you partially submerge a book in a
bucket of water, the water will contact the front cover of the book along a straight line. That
straight line is the intersection of two planes - the book and the water surface. However, if you
submerge a curved, gently folded, sheet of paper, the line of contact will be a curve, not a
straight line. Similarly, the intersection of a plane such as a sedimentary bed with a non-planar
land surface will be a curve, not a straight line. Of course, the surface of the Earth contains
hills and valleys and in many places is non-planar. The Rule of V's helps us predict and
understand the intersection between planar geologic surfaces (e.g., sedimentary beds and
faults) and the land surfaces.
The Rule of V's:
1. When a bed crosses a valley, the outcrop pattern of the bed will 'V' or curve in the direction
that the bed is dipping in map view.
2.Conversely, when a sedimentary bed crosses a ridge, it will 'V' in the direction opposite to
its dip.
There are, of course, details:
3. A vertical bed will never 'V' - it will just go straight across the topography.
4. A horizontal bed will parallel topographic contours on a map.
5. A bed whose dip angle is less than the slope of the valley bottom (creek) may V in
direction opposite to its dip.
Below is a series of pairs of illustrations to help you visualize the Rule of V's. (a) in each pair
is a map (topographic map) view of the outcrop pattern of a bed crossing a valley, and (b) is a
side view of the bed and topography.
22 a
b
Contourr lines “V” in an upstreeam dirctionn where riveers or stream
m are presennt in the lan
ndscape
(topograaphy).
23 The rulle of V’s in some wood
den blocks
Each bllock model has a dark--colored layyer, shown dipping
d
gen
ntly to the leeft in the to
op block,
steeply to the left in the midd
dle block, aand verticall in the botttom block. Note that the map
pattern of the layerr shows it making
m
a "V
V" in the direection of dip where thee block is cu
ut by the
notch. N
Note also thhat the steep
per the dip of the layeer, the less pronouncedd the "V" becomes;
b
where thhe layer is vertical,
v
there is no "V"" at all.
Note allso, that it does not matter
m
whichh direction the gradient of the nnotch runs---the "V"
points inn the directiion of the dip
d of the beed.
24 TICES
PRACT
1. Accorrding to the geological
g
map;
m
a) Shhow the inclinnation of thee valley bottoom lines (IVB
BL) on the map.
m
Fiind the dip diirections of the
t beds by w
writing the ap
ppropriate V-rules.
V
.................................................................... .......................................................................
.................................................................... .......................................................................
.................................................................... .......................................................................
b) Drraw the map symbols of the
t all beds oon the map.
c) Wrrite the posittion of beds.
d) Puut all the bedss in vertical order,
o
from yyoungest to oldest.
o
(
values of
o the beds arre 40° for A--B
e) Drraw the geoloogical cross-section A-B,, C-D, G-H (Dip
directionn). Vertical scale
s
is: 1/ 10000
f) Finnd the appareent dip valuees of the bedss for C-D and
d G-H directtions.
25 2. According to the geological map;
a) Show the inclination of the valley bottom lines (IVBL) on the map.
Find the dip directions of the beds by writing the appropriate V-rules.
........................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................
b) Draw the map symbols of the all beds on the map.
c) Write the position of beds.
d) Put all the beds and dykes in vertical order, from youngest to oldest.
Aplit
Dolerit
e) Draw the geological cross-section A-B. (Vertical scale is: 1/ 10000)
A
K
Lejand
1000
900 800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
Ölçek:1/10000
B
26 HOMEW
WORK (10 Points)
Accordinng to the geoological map;
a) Shhow the inclinnation of thee valley bottoom lines (IVB
BL) on the map.
m
Fiind the dip diirections of the
t beds by w
writing the ap
ppropriate V-rules.
V
.................................................................... .......................................................................
.................................................................... .......................................................................
.................................................................... .......................................................................
b) Drraw the map symbols of the
t all beds oon the map.
c) Wrrite the posittion of beds.
d) Puut all the bedss in vertical order,
o
from yyoungest to oldest.
o
e) Drraw the geoloogical cross-section A-B,, C-D, E-F
(Dip values of thee beds are 40
0° for A-B, 00° for C-D, 25° for E-F diirections).
Veertical scale is:
i 1/ 10000
27 
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